Inplant Training Project Submitted by: Shrikant .R. Pupal
T.Y.B.Sc.Biotechnology, Shiv Chhatrapati College, Aurangabad, Maharashtra

SAB Miller India Pvt. Ltd. M-99, MIDC Area, Waluj, Aurangabad, Maharashtra

Guided by:
Mr. Pradeep Digule Manager) Mr. Mahadev Shinde Mr. Yogesh Sonawane Mr. Viresh Rajannavar Mr. Sudip Ankush Mr. Prashant Bhalerao (QA

Batch: May-June 2009 Date:


I would like to thank Mr. Yogesh Tapkire, HR Executive of SAB Miller India Pvt Ltd. for permitting me an Inplant training in such a reputed company. I thank Mr. Pradeep Dighule, QA Manager for giving me knowledge with regard to Quality Assurance process and for providing me such a good topic as a project. I extent my sincere gratitude towards my project guide Mr. Mahadev Shinde for his excellent guidance and co-operation during the inplant training and project preparation. I also thank my College Biotechnology Dept. HOD, Mrs. Yogeshwari Jagat for giving me permission to do Inplant training and project. And last but not the least I sincerely thank to each department Manager. Without the generous helpful co-operation of these people my project wouldn¶t have been a success.


SAB Miller India Pvt. Ltd is a company engaged in the manufacturing of Beer. Foster its is one of the branch of SAB Miller India, India¶s second largest beer manufacturer. The company was established in India in September 1995 and started production activities from 1998. The Foster India Brewery at Aurangabad was
Sr. No. Content Page No.

officially opened by Foster¶s Brewing Group President and CEO MR. E.T. (TED) KUNKEL on 10th September 1998. The company is mainly engaged in production of Beer like Foster¶s Lager Beer; Foster¶s export premium Lager Beer; Amberro Strong Beer and Amberro Lager Beer, Hayward 5000 strong beer, and from this year started Knock out brand. Foster Brewery has been designed to exacting international technological, quality and environment standards. SAB Miller India Limited has been selling their products in around 19 states all over the country, and it commands over 6 percent share in the Indian beer market. SAB Miller is having 11 sister plants in allover India. One of it is Pals also situated in Aurangabad. It is an IMS Certified Company (Includes ISO 9001:2000, ISO 14001, OHSAS 1 8001). Now, in April 2009 the brewery¶s annual capacity goes up by 20,00,000 cases to 84,00,000 cases (i.e. from 170,000 to 700,000 cases per month) taking it to the big league of country¶s largest breweries. Like this the increasing capacity helps the company to meet the demand in and around the country. The company is sponsoring Cricket all over the world. Beer produced by the company is rated amongst top ten in the world breweries, Foster plant at waluj, Aurangabad constitutes various processes for the manufacturing beer. The company maintains a very high standard of house keeping and hygiene. The system adapted for material handling as well as process ensure safe and quality production. Safety is given topmost priority in every section of the comp any. Regular training and checks of the safety system are conducted. The employees are instructed to work with proper safety gears and follow the various norms and safety procedures.


1. 2. 3.

History of brewing Types of beer Beer a good source of energy Introduction to brewing  Raw material for brewing. 1. Barley 2. Water 3. Adjuncts Brew house  Milling  Mashing  Lautering  Adjunct kettle  Wort kettle  Weak wort kettle  Whirlpool  Wort cooling  Aeration Yeast  Yeast Reproduction  Stages of Yeast Growth  Yeast handling 1. Yeast pitching 2. Yeast cropping 3. Yeast Storage 4. Yeast Propogation Fermentation 1. Collection and processing 2. Attemperation 3. Rousing 4. Monitoring 5. Cooling Fermenter Maturation Filteration  Filtration Process  Filtration to bright beer tank Bright beer tank CLEANING IN PLACE (CIP)

6 7-8 8














Quality  Quality Assurance Quality Assurance in brewery  Raw material Inspection  Analytical QA  Microbiology QA  Packaging QA Tasting Utility       Water treatment plant Cooling tower Refrigeration CO2 recovery plant Air storage plant Boiler house







Packaging  Bottle washer  Filler cum crowner  Pasteurizer  Labeling  Case packer ETP (Effluent Treatment Plant)




15. 16.

Suggestions References



Beer is one of the world's oldest beverages, possibly dating back to the early Neolithic or 9000 BC, and is recorded in the written history of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. The earliest Sumerian writings contain references to a type of beer. A

prayer to the goddess Ninkasi, known as "The Hymn to Ninkasi", serves as both a prayer as well as a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few literate people. As almost any substance containing carbohydrates, mainly sugar or starch, can naturally undergo fermentation, it is likely that beer-like beverages were independently invented among various cultures throughout the world. The invention of bread and beer has been argued to be responsible for humanity's ability to develop technology and build civilization. The earliest known chemical evidence of beer dates to circa 3500±3100 BC from the site of Godin Tepe in the Zagros Mountains of western Iran. Beer was spread through Europe by Germanic and Celtic tribes as far back as 3000 BC, though it was mainly brewed on a domestic scale. The product that the early Europeans drank might not be recognised as beer by most people today. The early European beers might contain alongside the basic starch source: fruits, honey, numerous types of plants, spices and other substances such as narcotic drugs. What they did not contain was hops, as that was a later addition²first mentioned in Europe around 822 by a Carolingian Abbot and again in 1067 by Abbess Hildegard of Bingen. Beer produced before the Industrial Revolution continued to be made and sold on a domestic scale, although by the 7th century AD, beer was also being produced and sold by European monasteries. During the Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, and domestic manufacture ceased to be significant by the end of the 19th century. The development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process and greater knowledge of the results. Today, the brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries. More than 133 billion liters (35 billion gallons) are sold per year (the equivalent of a cube 510 metres on a side), producing total global revenues of $294.5 billion (£147.7 billion) in 2006.

The basics of brewing beer are shared across national and cultural boundaries and are commonly categorized into two main types ² the globally popular pale lagers, and the regionally distinct ales, which are further categorised into other varieties such as pale ale, stout and brown ale. The strength of beer is usually around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume (abv) though may range from less than 1% abv to over 20% abv in rare cases.

1. Pale lager:

Pale lager is a very pale to golden-coloured beer with a well attenuated body and noble hop bitterness. The resulting pale coloured, lean and stable beers were very successful and gradually spread around the globe to become the most common form of beer consumed in the world today, and includes the American beer Budweiser, the world's highest volume selling beer. The main elements of the lagering method still used today, and depend on a slow acting yeast that ferments at a low temperature while being stored. Indeed, the German term 'Lager' means 'storage'.

2. Ale:
Ale is a type of beer brewed from malted barley using a top-fermenting brewers' yeast. This yeast ferments the beer quickly, giving it a sweet, full bodied and fruity taste. Most ales contain hops, which impart a bitter herbal flavour that helps to balance the sweetness of the malt and preserve the beer. The other major style of beer -- lager -- is bottom-fermented. Ales typically take 3 to 4 weeks to make, although some varieties can take as long as 4 months. Lagers take significantly longer to brew than ales and tend to be less sweet.

a. Pale ale:
Pale ale is a term used to describe a variety of beers which use ale yeast and predominantly pale malts. It is widely considered to be one of the major beer style groups. All of the major ale-producing countries have a version of Pale Ale: England has Bitter, Scotland Heavy and IPA, America has American pale ale, France has Bière de Garde, Germany has Altbier, etc. Pale ales generally over 6% ABV tend to be grouped as Strong Pale Ales under such names as Scotch Ale, Saison, or American Pale Ale.

b. Stout:
Stout and porter are dark beers, and more specifically ales, made using roasted malt or barley, hops, water, and ale (top fermenting) yeast. Stouts were traditionally the generic term for the strongest or stoutest beers, typically 7% or 8%, produced by a brewery. There are a number of variations including Baltic porter, dry stout, and Imperial stout. The name Porter was first used in 1721 to describe a dark beer popular with street and river porters of London that had been made with roasted malts. This same beer later also became known as stout, though the word stout had been used as early as 1677. The history and development of stout and porter are intertwined.

c. Brown ale:
Brown ale is a style of beer with a dark amber or brown colour. The term brown beer was first used by London brewers in the late 1600s to describe their products, such as mild ale. Though the term had a rather different meaning than it does today. 18th-century Brown Ales were lightly-hopped and brewed from 100% brown malt.

Beer cannot be considered as a source of empty calories. In a serving of beer 2/3rd of the total calories comes from alcohol and 1/3rd comes from carbohydrates in the beer. One liter of beer contributes:

Energy 1. Proteins 2. Vitamins 3. Soluble fibre

360 calories 10% of daily requirement. 20-40% of daily requirement. 10-20% of daily requirement.

Beer consumed in moderate quantities is a better source of energy and other nutrients as compared beverages that have large amount of sugars i.e. empty calories.

Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of starches, mainly derived from cereal grains²the most common of which is malted barley, although now adjunts are widely used. Most beer is flavoured with hops, which add bitterness and act as a natural preservative, though other flavourings such as herbs or fruit may occasionally be included. Beer is an alcoholic beverage produced with the help of yeast by the fermentation of sugar derived from a cereal starch source. Most of the sugar in brewing comes from barley, which has to be malted to release the sugars before fermentation c an occur. Raw Materials for the brewing: The raw materials used for the beer production are:

1. Barley. 2. Water. 3. Adjuncts.

1. BARLEY Barley is the principal source of carbohydrate used in brewing. The energy in barley is stored as starch in the endosperm. Before it can be used in brewing it is necessary to activate the natural plant enzymes, to break down the cell structure of the endosperm and to release the enzymes necessary to convert starch to sugar. Within the cell walls, there are starch granules embedded in a protein matrix. This breakdown is achieved through the malting process.

Fig: Longitudinal section through a barley corn to show cell structure

Malted Barley

Malting Process:

The malting process aims to control the natural phenomenon. Malting process includes three basic steps.

Barley processing and storage: Incoming barley will be sieved to remove large debris and then screened to remove small and split corns and dust. Stones of the same size as the corn are removed by blowing so that the much denser stones and corns are separated. Then it is dried to 12% moisture and must keep the grain below 43oC to maintain germinating capacity. A spell of one to weeks after drying will help break the dormancy so barley can be malted quickly after harvest. Storage around 10oC will keep insect damage in check. Storage takes place in silos or in huge heaps in sheds. a. Steeping Steeping involves soaking of clean barley until they contain enough water for the embryo to grow during germination.

b. Germination Embryo begins to grow and from rootlets and a small shootlets, which grow under the husk forming the outer covering of barley corn. Food reserves for embryo are stored in endosperm cells and have starch, proteins, fats and inorganic ions. These cells have walls made up of carbohydrates, pentosans and -glucan.

c. Kilning Plants are killed and roots and shoots are then removed by rubbing on the screen. Green malt is dried (to stop enzyme modifying endosperm) to produce kilned malt that is dry (enough to store for months/years). Compounds contributing to beer flavour, foam and colour are formed. Malt provides yeast nutrients and is responsible for flavour, foam and colour of beer. When malt has been mashed with water, the liquor (wort) that is fermented (to produce beer) must be separated from insoluble residue (spent grain). Kilning process also develop colour and flavour compounds. The aims of kilning are:(a) (b) (c) To provide a dry and stable product that can be stored for considerable periods. To develop characteristic aroma, flavours and colour in the malt. To facilitate removal of rootlets formed during the germination stage.

(d) (e)

To fix the chemical biological changes those have occurred during germination. To provide a friable product that is easy to mill.

1. WATER Water comprises over 94% of the content of a regular beer. Water composition effects beer flavour and determined various different beer styles developed. Water used to make beer is called liquor.

To be suitable for brewing, water must be: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Clear & Colourless. Tasteless & Odourless. Not acidic or alkaline (pH 7 or slight acid). Correct salt composition (varies by beer type). Free from residues (heavy metals, nitrates, organic residues). Microbiologically pure (coliform bacteria absent).

2. ADUJUNCT Neverthless malted barley or malted wheat is usually the main, but not the only, source of the starch or sugar used to make beer. Typically 20-40% of the malt is replaced by these substances which are known collectively as adjuncts. These includes sugar syrups and other sources of starch such as unmalted barley, wheat, maize (also known as corn) or rice. When using adjuncts, because up to 40% of the malted enzymes may be missing, added enzymes may be needed to help convert the starch to sugar and/or to supp lements other enzymes in the malt which act on other substances such as proteins.

Purpose of use of Adjuncts:

‡ To change character of the beer: Colour and flavour.

‡ Improve quality of the beer: Beer head stability, fermentability and Haze. ‡ Increase capacity of the brew house: Adding liquid adjuncts to the kettle. ‡ Reduced costs: Energy (liquid forms of adjuncts).

Types of Adjuncts: 1. Solid adjuncts: Starch which has to be converted to fermentable sugars in the brew house during mashing. 2. Liquid adjuncts: In the form of fermentable sugars, where the conversion from starch has already been undertaken. Generally added directly to the kettle.

Types of Solid Adjuncts: Pre-Gelatinised Cereals:

‡ Torrefied Cereals: Pre heat to 260°C: Wheat and Barley. ‡ Micronized Cereals: Infrared heat to 140°C to stew: Wheat and Barley. ‡ Flake Cereals: Soften endosperm with Steam and then rolled flat and dried: Barley,
Maize and Rice.

‡ Cereal Flour: By product of wheat processing: Wheat flour. ‡ Cereal Extrusion: Starch compressed in a screw at 120 -160°C.
Advantages of Using Solid Adjuncts:

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Cost and Availability. Colour and Flavour Contribution. Process Benefits and Development. Increase brewing capacity through shorter brewing cycles. More uniform wort quality. Shorter maturation times.

Types of Liquid Adjuncts:

‡ Raw Sugars: Cane or Beet. Cane sugar is the principle component.
±Invert sugar a mixture of glucose (dextrose) and fructose syrup (liquid or solid block form).

‡ Coloured Products: black extracts and caramel. ‡ Hot
water extracts from roasted and coloured malts. Semi refined brewing sugars. Caramel produced by controlled heating of food grade sugars.

Advantages of Using Liquid Adjuncts:

‡ High Gravity Brewing, Brew house extracts with high gravity brewing. Lower lauter tun
loadings. Shorter brewing cycles. Space saving in vessels and storage.

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Before brewing the malt has to be milled which involves splitting the husk and grinding the endosperm into small grits. It is necessary to keep the husk as whole as possible since it will be used to form the filter bed during run off. The endosperm must be broken down to allow the enzymes to attack the starch. Malt mill used is 6 roller malt mill.

Purpose of Brew house Operation: ‡ The brew house receives the malt and uses the natural enzymes produced in the malt to convert the starch to sugar. ‡ The sugar solution (wort) is separated from the solids, boiled to increase its stability along with hops which add bitterness and flavour to the beer. ‡ The boiled wort is clarified and cooled, from where it goes on to act as the nutrient for yeast to fuel the fermentation.

Brew house operations: In the brew house the basic brewing materials ± water and ground malt are mixed together to produce a mash. The starch from the malt is allowed to convert to sugars and is separated from the solids. The clarified sugar solution is boiled with hops, the solids removed and then cooled ready for fermentation.

Need of brew house: Brew house is the primary section in the beer industry, where the raw materials used in the brewing is stored. The need is to fullfill the requirements in brewing process. Generally brew house contains raw materials such as Sugar, Maize flakes, Terma amyl, Gypsum, Ceramix, Promalt, O-phosphoric acid, Bio-glucan, Cacl2, Nacl, Whirl floc, Hop pellets, Hop extract, ZnSo4, Caramel, Ferm aid B etc. The amount of the definite substances described above with water is referred as Brew. A single brew is generally of 220-225 hl (hecto liter) (1 hl= 100 ltrs).

1. MILLING Purpose: To expose the starch for its conversion to sugars. The purpose of milling is to prepare the malt for mashing and starch conversion by making the centre of the malt corn accessible. Where a wort separation system like a mash tun or lauter tun is used, milling must crush the starch into fine particles while preserving the husk so that it can be utilised as an effective filter during separation. Where a mash filter is used, the preservation of the husk fraction is less important and a mill that crushes the whole corn into fine particles can be used. Malt is received from the malt sters and stored (usually in silos on site). Before brewing the malt has to be milled which involves splitting the husk and grinding the endosperm into small grits. It is necessary to keep the husk as whole as possible since it will be used to form the filter bed during run off. The endosperm must be broken down to allow the enzymes to attack the starch.

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Malt store is used to store the incoming malt, which is formed by processing from Barley.


Bucket elevator I which is nothing but the small buckets attached to the belt is used to carry the malt from the godown into the Silo.


Silo is being used for the storage purpose so that controlled conditions are maintained before mill mailing.


Enmass conveyor I and II is a belt which carry malt just by pushing it in-between the chain, and Bucket elevator II gives malt to the Screener which screen it.


Then it goes to the Magnetic Separator, where if any ions are present are separated. Then it gives to the Destoner which separates if any stones are there and then to the Batch Tipper which measure the malt in Tips (1 tip: 50 kg malt).


Bucket elevator III and Screw conveyor give malt to the Malt Mill, were the malt is milled and then goes to the Grist case, below which there is the digital weighing balance which measures the Malt and put it finally into the Mash tun.

Type of Mill: 6 Roll Dry Mill with Screens:

These mills give more effective separation and a more narrow particle size distribution.

y y y y

Suitable for less well modified malts. The screens oscillate at around 400 strokes/minute. 1st sieve directs large particles to second rollers, grits to third and fines direct to grist. There may be differences in roller speeds between top and bottom with the top rollers revolving up to twice as fast.


Roller gaps are critical: Generally 1.2 mm top and 0.9 mm bottom.


To mix the crushed grain evenly with the correct amount of water at the correct temperature.

y y

To allow other additions such as brewing salts and enzymes to be evenly mixed in. To allow the enzymic conversion of protein to amino acids and starch into simpler sugars in the correct amounts to give consistent fermentation and the right %ABV and Original Gravity.


To extract colour and flavour from any coloured malts and adjuncts used. Process: Mashing is the process where the crushed malt or grist is mixed with water under specified conditions so that enzymic action can take place to convert the starch into fermentable sugar and also break down proteins into more soluble forms.

y y

At a later stage the fermentable sugars will be separated from the malt husks. Conversion is the term used to describe a complex biochemical reaction and the diagrams below illustrate how the enzymes in the malt attack the long chains of sugar units that make up the starch molecule and convert them into fermentable wort.


The range of sugars produced during conversion determines the fermentability of the wort. If the enzyme attack is complete, the wort will be very fermentable. If the enzyme attack is incomplete, the wort will be only partially fermentable. Mostly this process is carried out for nearly 3 hrs.

Chemical/Enzymes/compounds and its use: 1. Malt with Hot water: For the proper mashing. 2. Maize flakes: 3. Terma amyl: Modify enzymes for heat stability. 4. Gypsum: Provides buffering action, degrades proteins and removes floccules, improve stability and shelf life. 5. Ceramix: Provides additional enzymes. 6. Promalt: For malty flvour, and do consist enzymes. 7. O-phosphoric acid: As an source of acid. 8. Bio-glucan: It is used to reduce turbidity.

s Enzymes involved in mashing and their functions:

The factors which control the enzyme activity are:
y y y

Time. Temperature. Acidity ± pH.

Mashing profile:

There are two amylases, the term means starch breaking enzyme. They convert the starch to a range of sugars. Some are fermentable and others contribute the final gravity, sweetness and mouth feel of the beer. Proteases will break proteins into amino acids, peptides and larger molecules. Amino acids allow the yeast to reproduce but provide nutrient for infecting organisms as well. Larger molecules contribute to beer foam but also beer haze. Glucanases break down the cell wall. Residual glucans can effect the filterability of beer as they as gummy, often an addition of beta glucan is made to the mash. Enzymes are sensitive

to the conditions that they work in, they are affected by how much water is present, temperature and pH or mash acidity. They take time to work, so the length of time that is allowed for mash conversion will affect the degree of conversion.

Each enzyme is a very specific protein and its performance can be predicted according to some simple principles: ‡ ‡ ‡ There will be an optimum pH and its activity will fall off either side. There will be an optimum temperature and its activity will fall off either side. Starting with limited substrate the rate of reaction will increase with increased substrate until the enzyme level is fully occupied and then the rate of conversion will level off. ‡ With unlimited substrate the rate of reaction will increase in direct proportion to the amount of enzyme available.

Starch Breakdown: ‡ ‡ Amylose is a straight chain, amylopectin is branched.
E amylase breaks anywhere but not close to a branch -optimum temperature around

62oC. ‡
F amylase nibbles from one end but not right up to a branch- optimum temperature

around 66oC. ‡ Produces mainly maltose: but some glucose and maltotriose, which are fermentable. ‡ Longer strings of glucose and branch residues are not fermentable.

‡ ‡

The starch in mashing is broken down by a number of natural malt enzymes into simple sugars. Check for presence of starch after mash stand period with iodine (Iodine Test): Take sample on a clean grease free slide and add 2-3 drops of iodine if colour changes to Blue/Black test is positive or if no colour changes then the test is negative.

Protein Breakdown: As well as carbohydrate (sugars & starch) malt contains proteins and these are also broken down by its own natural enzyme system, principally during mashing. Much of the larger protein remains insoluble and is lost with the spent grains. However some protein is dissolved in the wort and goes on to produce: ‡ ‡ ‡ Amino acids for yeast growth Foam proteins. Haze proteins.

Mash tun

Incoming dry grist will be mixed with hot water by passing down over an inverted cone. This forms a falling curtain of grist and allows the hot water to spray into it and mix in quickly and evenly. The mash vessel has a steam jacket to allow step temperature rises and a final increase to lower wort viscosity at the end of the cycle. There is a stirrer to transfer heat rapidly and ensure homogeneity of the mash. The mash needs to be transferred to a lauter tun or mash filter to separate the wort. The brewer can select a temperature profile to utilise the different enzyme systems ± with low temperatures around 50oC favour cell wall destruction (protein and beta-glucan reduction) ± temperatures around 62oC favouring beta amylase activity and around 68oC alpha amylase activity. By the time the temperature has reached 78oC most of the enzyme activity will have ceased.


Purpose: Once all the starch has been converted to sugar and dissolved in water (wort) it has to be separated from the solid material ± husk and acrospire etc.


The objective is to produce clear bright worts free from solids, it is also important not to extract compounds such as polyphenols and lipids from the husk.

y Effective Wort separation Means: y High extract recovery (around 98% to 100%) y Bright worts - free from suspended solids. y Worts free of starch.

Process: The mash is transferred to the lauter where it is recirculated until the wort is bright. The strong wort is first run off followed by sparging water and weaker wort. In Lauter Tun instead of mash floating, it will tend to settle down in a stratified form above the false bottom, which holds back the solid mash and allows the liquid to strain through. In a mash or lauter tun it is usually a set of slotted plates. In a mash press it is the filter cloth itself that forms the screen or sieve. A slight increase in wort viscosity can have a dramatic effect on run off performance. Most lauter tuns are fully automated and as well as controlling the wort run off rate, they also measure and control the differential pressure above and below the lauter plates. When this pressure falls below a set pressure it has reached a "set bed´

condition. Another measurement often used to control run off is haze which measures the wort turbidity. The contents of the lauter tun are re-circulated to ensure that only wort runs to the kettle. To save extract it is tempted to keep collecting last runnings to save that last drop of sugar. There are penalties downstream as last runnings are high in polyphenols which need to be removed later at a cost to improve haze performance. There are also lipids which can lead to flavour problems. These compounds are extracted as the pH rises. Limit to 1004o or 1oP even if we are recycling the weak worts for the next mash, the unwanted compounds may still present. There is Racking arm which is being used to press the husk bed depending upon the need of the more filterate and/if there is improper filteration, Swiper is also attached to the main Racking arm its use is to swipe off the husk/spent grain form the lauter tun from the sieve in the discharge hole which discharge into the spent grain collector/holder mounted below the lauter tun. This process is carried out for nearly 3 hrs. Which is then forced to the spent grain silo and then it is being taken for the cattle as fed or might be for the making of the various biscuits. This process is being done automatically by using the main frame computer. The sugar solution (wort) has to be removed from the spent grains. It is filtered through a bed made up of the the husk from the malt. Wort must be clear and produced with minimum effluent. Oxygen should be excluded. The solids left behind are called spent grains and are fed to cattle.

4. ADJUNCT KETTLE In this kettle sugar are added in specific amount of wort, which is being taken from the Lauter tun and then transferred this to the Wort kettle. The reason behind this, is to

enhance the percentage of alcohol. Hence, the ratio of sugar addition is depend on the mild or strong beer. i.e. Strong beer = more sugar and vice versa.


Purpose : To stabilise the wort and to extract and isomerise the bitter compounds from hops. After wort separation the clarified wort is boiled: ‡ ‡ ‡ The clarified wort is boiled for about an hour in a kettle or ³copper´ Hops are added for bitterness and aroma. Boiling also improves the physical (haze) stability and kills micro-organisms which could infect the beer and cause flavor problems. DMS

S- methyl methionine

(Boiling) .

Reasons for wort boiling: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ To sterilize the wort and inactivate enzymes. To extract hop components and isomerise -acids. To remove undesirable flavaour compounds from the malt or hops. To produce desired amounts of DMS (dimethyl sulphide) from SMM (its precursor). To improve the haze stability of beer. To concentrate the wort. Mineral salts or acid: To adjust wort acidity pH.

‡ ‡ ‡

For protein coagulation and removal of the undesirable proteins. To clear/kill the micro-organisms. To produce a better mixing.

Process: After wort separation the clarified wort is boiled.One of the modern generation of boilers where the wort is heated externally through a shell and tube heater and circulation can be achieved by pumping. Hops and sugar adjunct (if required) are added at this stage. A successful boil is being done vigorously. Usually 60 -90 minutes at 100 oC.

Chemical/Enzymes/compounds and its use: ‡ ‡ CaCl2: Act as the buffer source. NaCl: For the salty flvour, to maintain ionic condition so that the protein coagulation is effective. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Whirl floc: Form dense Trub for clear the wort. Hop pellets: For bitterness taste. Hop extract: For bitterness taste. ZnSo4: Act as one of the source of the yeast food. Caramel: For proper coloration. Mineral salts or acid: To adjust wort acidity pH.


Benefits of using Hop products:

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Hops provide the bitter taste in beer (with alpha acid the principal precursor). The Hops also provide aroma. Hops contribute to beer texture (mouthfeel). Hops have bacteriostatic properties which protects beer against some biological spoilage organisms. Hops reduce over foaming during wort boiling. Hops aid in protein coagulation during the boil. Hops are a foam active agent in beer. Hops contributes to the flavour and appearance of beer. They provides beer with its characteristic bitterness and aroma. The alpha acids from hops improve foam stability and provide beer with protection against some spoilage organisms.

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Traditional product, free of solvents. More standard bittering. Lower moisture content & standard aroma and bittering product. Significant reduction in volume & improved storage qualities.

Disadvantages: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Bulkier than extracts. Losses in wort compared to extract. Low utilisation (30 - 40%). Increased production/processing costs. Possible adverse effects on beer quality and taste.

Hop storage: During storage compressed intact hop cones deteriorate, mainly by oxidation but also as a result of other reaction. Even when stored dry, tightly compressed in bales to prevent access of air and at low temperatures (i.e. 0 to 4oC) both the -acid content and the essential oil content decrease fairly rapidly. When stored at about 20oC the losses can be about 50% within a year. In very hot climates the losses are even faster. Hop pellets: Hop pellets are produced from pure varieties or specified mixtures by hammer milling hop cones which have been dried to about 6% moisture to make them more brittle. The powdered hops are then pressed into pellets by forcing the powder through a plate

containing holes (an extrusion die) and cutting the cylindrical rods of compressed hop powder into pellets about 10 mm long. Hop extracts: Hop extracts can be classified into hop oil emulsions, kettle extracts and isomerised hop extracts. Because hop oils are volatile in steam and to a large extent removed in wort boiling, hop oil emulsion are made by steam distilling hops- preferably at reduced pressure and so at a low temperature. These extracts which are now produced using CO2 as a solvent have replaced these emulsions. Control of DMS flavour: DMS has a sweet corn flavour and is a component of finished lagers. Excess quantities are undesirable. DMS is formed from the breakdown of DMS precursor (S-methyl methionine) from malt due to heating. DMS is highly volatile and is rapidly lost during boiling. It build up during the hot wort stand and this should be kept to a minimum if DMS control is required.

WORT CLARIFICATION Purpose ± To separate the coagulated protein (trub) and hop debris from the hot wort. The principal changes during hot wort clarification: ‡ ‡ ‡ Coagulation of protein/polyphenol complexes. Precipitation and separation of hot break. Temperature dependent chemical reactions started in the boil continue during the hot stand in the wort clarification stage, e.g. colour formation & oxidation. ‡ Temperature dependent reactions which produce flavour active volatiles (e.g. DMS) can build up as they can not be removed in a vigorous boil.

Benifits of wort clarification: ‡ Malt contains some protein material. Most of this protein material is not wanted as it causes a haze. We must remove as much as possible of it at each stage. Boiling tends

to make the protein clump together or coagulate in the same way that the white of an egg curdles when it is heated. Because the protein is no longer dissolved we can remove it. ‡ ‡ The more vigorous the boil the better the coagulation. This coagulation can be seen by taking a sample of wort (Hot Break Sample) and allowing it to cool below 80ºC. The flocs can be seen forming and settling out. ‡ We can speed up this process by adding Copper Finings. Copper Finings are made from seaweed and the type of compound in them (called Carageenan) attracts the protein flocs, thus making them bigger so they settle faster.

6. WEAK WORT KETTLE This kettle is being used for the storage purpose of the wort from the lauter tun, when there is process being going on in the wort kettle.


Vent Spray balls for CIP and trub removal

Three levels of wort outlet

Tangential Inlet

Trub Cone

Purpose: To remove the unwanted protein particles by coagulation.

Process: ‡ The wort from the kettle is transferred to the whirlpool at a tangent, for the whole contents of the tank spin. ‡ The solids are spun to the centre and settle into a ³trub cone´ whilst the clarified wort can be drawn off from a number of wort outlets for cooling. ‡ Whirlpools have come to represent the most usual method of wort clarification. The wort is injected at a tangent to the vessel and spins so that the solids (proteins and hop debris or hot breaks) collect in the centre and continue to aggregate. This increases their mass as they settle to the bottom of the tank. The clarified wort is drawn off from the side of the vessel, and this process be carried out for nearly ½ hr.

Chemical/Enzymes/compounds and its use: ‡ Forma aid B: Act as one of the yeast food and also speedup the process of fermentation.

8. WORT COOLING Purpose: To cool the clarified wort after boiling prior to fermentation.

Cooling Process: After clarifying the boiled wort it is necessary to cool and aerate it in preparation for yeast pitching and fermentation. Originally wort was cooled in shallow open vessels but now the plate heat exchanger (PHE) is used exclusively for wort cooling. For cooling process the chilled water is mostly being used, from the chilled water tank having temperature 5-8oC. The hot wort is cooled in a counter current direction against the brewing liquor. In general 100 hl of hot wort at around 98 oC will be cooled to say 16oC by around 110 hl of incoming brewing water at 10oC which in turn will be heated to around 85oC. This makes wort cooling a very efficient process recovering most of the sensible heat from wort boiling which can be used for brewing. In ale breweries with relatively high pitching temperatures of above 15°C, cold well or town's supply water is used as the coolant. The hot water generated being used for brewing purposes. For lager brewing at lower pitching

temperatures, of typically 8-12°C, an additional cooling stage is usually added. The coolant in this stage is a refrigerant such as brine, ethanol solution, glycol etc. The plates of the heat exchanger are as thin stainless steel as possible (0.5 mm) to maximise heat transfer. Surface area and turbulence are also increased by embossing or rippling the plates. It is vital that wort cooling temperature is accurately controlled as this will affect how the beer ferments, how long it stays in FV and the final flavour of the beer. As the wort cools even more protein material tends to come out of solution This material is called 'cold break' and should form good flocs that settle quickly leaving bright wort. Altering copper fining rates and types can alter cold breaks. It is important to measure and check cold break performance on each brew. The sample should be taken from the cold side of the wort cooler.

Functions of wort clarification: ‡ ‡ ‡ The clarified wort has to be cooled to the fermentation temperature. Wort cooling is carried out using a heat exchanger. The cooling medium is brewing water which is recovered (as warm water) for the following brew. ‡ The hot sugar solution (wort) after boiling is cooled to the required temperature for fermentation. ‡ The chilled liquor and hot wort move through the recessed areas of the plates that are adjacent to each other. The heat moves through the plates from the hot wort to the chilled liquor. In this way, the wort is cooled down and the water is heated up. ‡ ‡ For low temperature cooling involves a glycol or cooled water stage. Wort is oxygenated on the cold side.

AERATION This is likely to depend on what level of dissolved oxygen is required in the wort. The general rule is that sale gravity beers, particularly cask ales, need no more than air saturation i.e. 9 ppm dissolved oxygen. High gravity beers need oxygenation, the higher the gravity, the more oxygen needed. Typically, lagers of 1055° or more need 20-30 ppm, ales of similar gravity 15-20 ppm. It should be noted that different yeasts need different levels of oxygen for adequate yeast growth. Since yeast growth has a direct effect on the level of higher alcohols and esters produced during fermentation, then it follows that different beers will need different levels of dissolved oxygen to provide the correct amount of esters and alcohols. In practice, levels of dissolved oxygen are finely tuned by each brewery for each quality to give fermentations that ferment on profile, give an acceptable flavour match and minimise excessive yeast growth and losses. All gases are generally injected in-line to wort as it flows to FV. Brewers using air will often add it to the hot side of the wort cooler thus ensuring sterility. Those adding it to the cold side must ensure the air is adequately sterile-filtered, usually by a membrane of the cartridge type which can be steamed. Aeration on the hot side of the wort cooler may cause some colour pick up due to oxidative browning reactions with wort. Aeration on the cold side will carry a risk that incomplete solution may occur since the wort cooler plates aid gas solution by increasing surface area and turbulence. Air solution can be increased by pressure at injection and the flow rate of air. In addition bubble size can be reduced by the use of small jets or sintered stainless steel candles to increase the surface area available. Control of oxygenation is more critical to fermentation control in high

gravity beers. It therefore needs to be as precise and repeatable as possible. For this reason systems to ensure control have become more sophisticated.

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Cooling is usually done on the cold side, to avoid colour pick up. Hot side if aerating will sterilise the air. Aeration will add around 8ppm O2. Oxygen must be used for higher gravity worts. More gas dissolves in colder and lower density liquids. Gas must be sterile and dissolve before reaching the fermenter.

Three main tank used are: Hot water tank: Temperature 77oC (cap. 470 hl). Cold water tank: Temperature 33oC (cap. 470 hl). Chilled water tank: Temperature 5-8oC (cap. 530 hl). Where ever needed Hot water, Cold water, Chilled water are being taken form the this above stated tanks.

Yeast is a single celled fungus and is (or should be) the only living organism that comes into contact with the beer until it is drunk by the consumer. Yeast acts as a catalyst in converting sugar to alcohol, but does form not part of the end product (beer), except in naturally conditioned beers. Yeasts are found everywhere, in the atmosphere and particularly on the surface of dead and decaying animals and plants. There are a large number of yeast species which are adapted to a variety of environments. The particular strain which is mainly used in fermentation is called Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Yeast can be described as a facultative anaerobe, i.e. it can live either with oxygen when it respires normally producing carbon dioxide and water. Under aerobic conditions its metabolic pathway produces ethanol and carbon dioxide. This is known as fermentation. Bud cells are clearly visible on this electron micrograph Yeast is a single celled micro-organism (fungus). It exists wild in nature

and under oxygen free (anaerobic conditions) it is capable of turning sugars into alcohol & CO2. Under aerobic conditions yeast is able to respire normally and produces CO2 & water. Yeast needs some oxygen for cell wall production. It reproduces by budding. Yeast can be seen easily under the microscope.

Morphological features: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Size: 5-8 µm. Shape slightly ovule. Single cell organism. Some appear in chains. Cell wall with a bud scar. The cell wall regulates the flow of biochemicals in and out of the cell.

One of the principal character of brewing yeast is flocculation which is its ability to settle at the end of a fermentation. Flocculent yeasts are easier to handle in a brewery, but may settle out before the fermentation is completed.

Selecting the yeast for the fermentation: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ To produce alcohol & desirable flavours. To complete the fermentation. To produce a consistent product. To perform process within a set time. To retain viability & genetic stability. To be convenient to harvest ± flocculation. To retain viability & vitality during storage. To reproduce adequately. To be able to utilise raw materials which are used. To withstand acid washing (if required).

Yeast Reproduction: Yeast cells multiply by budding, producing daughter cells. Up to 30 daughter cells during the cell life time have been described. In a normal fermentation yeast will reproduce itself between 4 and 6 times. If oxygen is limited it cannot produce sufficient cell

wall material for effective budding. Insufficient yeast growth will produce a defective fermentation.

Stages of Yeast Growth: There are several phases in fermentation. Firstly the lag phase where the pitched cells which have been in their stationary or storage phase ³ wake up ³ and start to mobilise resources. At this stage there may be 7-12 million cells per ml. Division starts and there is a long growth phase as the sugars are used up. Cell multiplication produces four or five times the cell mass which was pitched. Peak yeast count could be up to 70 million cells. With all nutrients depleted the cell enters a stationary phase. The cells should be cropped at this stage to avoid autolysis. Cells will die and spill biochemicals into the beer. These com pounds provide growth nutrients for micro-organisms and can produce sulphitic flavours in the beer. It is good practice to crop yeast as soon as a crop is formed and not wait until you are ready to pump the beer to maturation.

Yeast handling: Yeast is the only living organism which should be found in beer. At the start of the fermentation it has to be added and mixed with the wort. At the end of fermentation it has to be separated from wort. Every given number of generations the yeast has to be replaced with a fresh culture. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Addition to wort ± yeast pitching. Separation from wort ± yeast cropping. Holding between brews ± yeast storage. Introducing replacement yeast strains ± yeast propagation. Getting rid of surplus yeast ± waste yeast.

1. Yeast pitching: ‡ Yeast is added to the cool wort along with a small amount of air or oxygen to promote vigorous growth at the start of fermentation. ‡ ‡ ‡ Quantity of yeast addition depends upon the consistency and viability of yeast. Yeast is pitched directly in to cool wort. Yeast from storage or propagation is pitched, in line into the cool wort, or directly into the FV. ‡ This pitched yeast is having ³0´ cycle/generation, and when this yeast is again used for the pitching purpose in the other UT will be known as ³first´ cycle/generation and so can be used only for ³seven´ generations. Because if we use it for more than that it will not produce product as efficiently than when we use in between the given standard life cycle only.

2. Yeast cropping: ‡ ‡ ‡ Yeast is pitched directly in to cool wort. At the end of fermentation the FV is cooled to around 5oC- 8oC and the yeast settles out. The first crop of yeast contains trub & dead yeast cells and should go to waste.

‡ ‡

The rest of the crop can be stored for up to 5 days for pitching or sent for reprocessing. 1 crop will pitch 2 to 3 new brews.

3. Yeast Storage: The yeast for re-pitching should be checked: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Free from microbial contamination. Yeast density ± (number of cells per ml). Yeast viability ± (% live cells). Temperature of storage.

4. Yeast Propogation: Wort collection for propagation: 12 lit of fitered wort is collected before it goes to the UTs.

Yeast culture on Slant and 10 ml sterile saline solution, mixed well.

1ml from slant is inoculated into 15ml wort with yeast food & incubated at 150rpm for 24 hrs at 250C.

2ml from 15 ml stage inoculated into 200 ml wort with yeast food & incubated at 150rpm for 24 hrs at 200C.

The whole culture is transferred into 10 lit wort with yeast food in CV (2 in nos) Incubated at 200C water bath for 24 hrs Note: Yeast cell count to ensure proper growth and multiplication; Plating to monitor contamination or variations are done. All these steps are done in replications. Stages Yeast count expected (million/ml) 250 50 155 20 180 30

Slant 15 ml 200 ml

CV Note: Yeast Food Preparation Stage 15ml 200ml CV Mass of yeast food (g) 0.02 0.04 0.2

105 30

Volume of water to be used (ml) 20 40 100

20 lit culture from 2CVs is inoculated into 2 HL wort in YPV and maintained at 160C for 48 hrs

Top up with wort to make 20 HL in YPV and maintained at 160C for 48 hrs.

Top up 20 HL into 200HL in FV and maintain at 140C.

Top up to make up volume to 400 HL Monitor normal fermentation.

Crop the yeast after the gravity has reached min possible and this yeast is called ³ZERO´ generation yeast

It is essential to use a supply of good healthy yeast. Yeast is usually collected at the end of a brew for subsequent re-use in the following brew. In most modern breweries (like Foster) a fresh batch of yeast is grown every 5 to 6 generations to maintain the yeast quality. Yeast propagation is carried out in several stages starting with a laboratory culture usually 10mls. The plant is steam sterilised prior to addition of wort. The wort is re-boiled in the plant to ensure sterility. After cooling sterile air or oxygen is injected. The plant is then inoculated with a pure yeast culture, the yeast grows over 1-2 days when it is transferred to the next stage. Following this stage the yeast culture is pitched into wort in a FV. Propagation is carried out at around 20oC. The yeast mass requires vigorous oxygenation to increase the mass, the formation of alcohol is much lower than it an anaerobic fermentation. Wort used must have sufficient nutrients to build the required cell mass. Yeast which is being used must be fully viable and should give a yeast count at pitching as normal. Lower cell

levels will lead to slower fermentations and perhaps the need to blend off the beer. Each stage is carried out under sterile conditions thus ensuring contaminant free yeast. Because a single colony of the undesirable micro-organism may lead to the total spoilage the Beer formation and it would be a critical factor to control when it is being added in the UTs.

Yeast Pitching Tank (YPT): YPT1: Capacity 6 HL YPT2: Capacity 9 HL YPT1: Capacity 6 HL There are three YPT and yeast is always stored in these tanks for the pitching purpose. Stored for 74 hr only because after that they may lack of food to live for them then they might die.

Yeast Holding Tank (YHT): Capacity 12 HL This tank is used then yeast is present in all the pitching tanks then it is kept in the holding tank.

Fermentation is the process by which yeast converts the glucose in the wort to ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide gas -- giving the beer both its alcohol content and its carbonation. To begin the fermentation process, the cooled wort is transferred into a fermentation vessel to which the yeast has been added. If the beer being made is an ale, the wort will be maintained at a constant temperature of 68 F (20oC) for about two weeks. If the beer is a lager, the temperature will be maintained at 48 F (9oC) for about six weeks. Since fermentation produces a substantial amount of heat, the tanks must be cooled constantly to maintain the proper temperature. How Yeast Makes Alcohol and Carbon Dioxide When the yeast first hits the wort, concentrations of glucose (C6 H12O6) are very high, so through diffusion, glucose enters the yeast (in fact, it keeps entering the yeast as long as there is glucose in the solution). As each glucose molecule enters the yeast, it is broken down in a 10-step process called glycolysis. The product of glycolysis is two three-carbon sugars, called pyruvates, and some ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which supplies energy to

the yeast and allows it to multiply. The two pyruvates are then converted by the yeast into carbon dioxide (CO2) and ethanol (CH3CH2 OH, which is the alcohol in beer). These cell gain energy from the break down of the sugar. The by-product, CO2, bubbles through the liquid and dissipates into the air. The other by-product alcohol, remains in the liquid which is great for us but not for the yeast, as the yeast dies when the alcohol exceeds its tolerance level. The overall reaction is:

C6H12O6 => 2(CH3CH2OH) + 2(CO2)

Fermentation mainly involves following operations: 1. Collection and processing. 2. Attemperation 3. Rousing 4. Monitoring 5. Cooling

1. Wort Collection:

Wort collection and processing: ‡ ‡ It is being ensured that FV is cleaned. For FV cleaning so that wort collecting is done CIP (Cleaning In Place) is must which is done by flushing soft water from top of the fermentation tank for 15 min. And then 2% Caustic flushing for 60-80 min, temperature should not exceed 32-34oC.

Then the remaining Caustic is nil by water wash and finally 0.3% Divosin acitive is used of 30 min so that any remaining Caustic present will be removed. ‡ ‡ ‡ Wort to be collected is monitored by knowing the temperature. Yeast pitching temperature is monitored so that it should be the same as wort. Then wort is collected at a temperature 9oC-9.5oC to which yeast is pitched at same temperature after 5-10 min. ‡ After 24 or 48 hr cold trub is being removed which might present in the wort as if there are some chances of trub to occur from brew house and after 48 or 96 hr microbial check is performed to analyse the presence of the trub. ‡ At start the concentration of sugar present is more in UTs. Suppose gravity is 10.5-11 so it is maintained at constant temperature ×12oC upto gravity drops 50% and then slightly incease in temperature ×14oC upto gravity reaches LE. This process may vary depending upon the product to be produced Mild or Strong one. ‡ Now, all the parameters are maintained of 4-6 days till proper amount of alcohol if formed and Co2 is maintained as per the standard. ‡ After fermentation completes YRT (Yeast Removal Time) is being set and yeast is completely removed. ‡ ‡ Then Diacetyl rest is given for nearly 2 day so that the off flavour is removed. Finally, given chill back upto 4oC for ×120 hrs.

The wort collection process is carried out in order to: ‡ ‡ ‡ Make space in the whirlpool for the preparation of new brews. For cooling the wort. Prepare the wort for the fermentation process in the FV.

Wort Collection Requirements: In order to successfully carry out the wort collection process certain requirements must be met these include: ‡ The wort must be cooled down sufficiently so that it will not damage the yeast that is added to it. ‡ The correct amount of oxygen must be added to the wort to promote the fermentation process. ‡ ‡ The correct amount of yeast must be added to the wort at the required pitching rate. The wort must be transferred to an empty and clean fermentation vessel.


Fermentation vessel (FV) must be clean enough by Caustic CIP, so that the wort is being collected.

2. Attemperation: Objective: ‡ To ensure that the fermentation temperature is maintained at the set level which prevents formation of unwanted flavours. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ To ensure yeast viability. To reduce fobbing. Control cooling carefully to avoid stopping the fermentation. If cooling applied early the yeast will be unable to grow and the fermentation will stick. If cooling is not put on as the yeast is actively fermenting the fermentation temperature will rise to an unacceptable level causing damage to the yeast. Crash cooling during the active stage of yeast growth tends to stop the fermentation. Attemperation should be carried out gently using feedback control. The process today is normally controlled automatically by setting the required temperature measuring the beer temperature with a probe in the vessel and allowing this to control the flow of coolant to the vessel. But due to the improper working of the probes present (due to the old age) it is being operated manually, opening a valve depending on a thermometer reading. Conical vessels which are used have a jacket through which the coolant circulates..

3. Rousing: ‡ ‡ ‡ Some yeasts have tendency to flocculate early and settle. Circulation currents in deep vessels keep yeast in contact with the wort. The addition of air during rousing can restart a sluggish fermentation.

Some strains of yeast have a tendency to form clumps of cells (a process referred to as flocculation) at an early stage of fermentation. In order to keep these yeasts in contact with the wort it is necessary to rouse the contents of the vessel. This is done by pumping the fermenting wort from the bottom of the FV and returning to the top of the vessel. The yeast in conical fermenters is kept in suspension by the convection currents set up within the vessel due to the cooling jackets and yeast growth. Due to this and the pressure in the vessel which keeps the head down, yeasts which normally come out of suspension can be used in conical

fermenters. Conical FVs should not be roused as excessive fobbing will occur causing large losses. Rousing should not be carried out towards the end of fermentation as off-flavours (aldehydes) will be formed due to oxidation. Rousing is carried out intermittently usually for 10 minutes every hour to reduce fobbing.

4. Monitoring ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ To ensure that the yeast is producing alcohol as required. To detect any deviations from standard. To indicate when the fermentation can be stopped. The gravity of the fermenting wort is measured in every 12 hours. This gravity is measured using a saccharometer or densitometer. This gravity reading is being compared with standard and so the monitoring is done.

5. Cooling (Chill back) When the fermentation has reached the racking gravity and VDK level is low enough not to adversely affect flavour it is necessary to stop yeast activity by increasing the rate of cooling. So to settle the yeast for cropping next coming brew. Coolant is applied to the vessel at such a rate as to reduce the temperature by 1rC per hour. This brings the temperature down to 4rC (for conditioning) in vessels cooled by a refrigerant or 12rC using well water. Cooling is usually complete between 12-24 hours. And thus the maturation temperature is achived. During this time the amount of yeast remaining in suspension is reduced to give 1-2 million cells per ml of beer. Conditioning: ‡ It is done by adding biofine: As biofine speed up the yeast sedimentation or settling by forming aggregates with negatively charged yeast cells and also decreases the haze. Biofine is extracted from collagen, isolated from swine bladder. ‡ ‡ Profix: It degrades protein particles present as it consist proteases which acts on proteins. L10 Leucolite solution: It is also one of the source of yeast settlement.

The requirements which must be met before fermentation can take place are: ‡ ‡ Quantity and quality of yeast. Wort composition.

‡ ‡ ‡

Temperature. Shape and size of fermenter. O2 present.


Stainless steel, cylindroconical vessels.

They are fitted with or connected to: ‡ ‡ Cooling jackets in which refrigerant is circulated. Which is being operated only when there is any deviation in the temperature. CO2 pressure control systems. By which only the required amount of the CO2 is being purged and the remaining is transferred to the CO2 storage tank. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ In- and outlet valves and pipes for the beer. Yeast cropping/outlet. Probes for control purposes e.g. temperature control probes. Sampling panels.

Flavour compounds in beer:

Compound Higher Alcohols

Flavour Warming, Solvent like.

Esters Aldehydes Organic Acids ( lactic,acetic)

Fruity Fragrant. Apple like. Acidic, Astringent.

Fatty Acids Goaty (caproic,caprylic)

Soapy, Fatty, Cheesy.

Diacetyl (VDK) Hydrogen sulphide

Butterscotch. Rotten Eggs.

Safety: ‡ ‡ ‡ During fermentation CO2 gas is given off. The gas is heavier than air and can accumulate in a fermenting room. It kills by asphyxiation. On no account enter a fermenting vessel unless it has been vented and checked. CO2 rapidly dissolves in caustic CIP. This could cause a vessel to implode. The vessel must be purged before CIP. An anti-vacuum device is not sufficient. ‡ A permit to work must be issued for all maintenance & vessel entry, CIP & plant under remote control. ‡ We should return to safe working with gases in the Utilities module.

Maturation: Objectives of maturation and conditioning: ‡ To clarify beer, prior to filtration, by removal of insoluble suspended material and maximise filter run length. ‡ To produce beer with good colloidal stability, by the removal of haze forming materials. ‡ To provide flavour stable beer, and ensure that no undesirable off flavours develop during and after packaging. ‡ To make adjustments to critical beer parameters, so that the product is within specification.

Maturation Process ‡ Beer is stored cold at -1oC or -2oC for 2 to 3 days. ‡ CO2 is adjusted for the (i.e. addition) post filtration.

Carbonation ‡ The amount of dissolved carbon dioxide in the beer is a function of pressure (beer depth)and temperature. ‡ ‡ At the end of a normal fermentation lager CO2 could be 3.5 to 4 g/hl ( 1.8 to 2.0 vol) Additional CO2 is introduced through secondary fermentation or direct addition of CO2 to the beer after filtration if there is need to do so.

Principle flavour changes during fermentation At the end of fermentation three principal flavour faults can remain: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Aldehydes - ³fresh bruised apple skins´. Diacetyl - ³butterscotch´. Sulphur compounds. Largely result because of poor yeast growth due to poor oxidation, yeast viability or vitality, temperature, nutrient status etc.

Main functions of cold conditioning: ‡ ‡ Beer clarification. Non-biological (colloidal) haze stabilisation.

Blending: Blending is traditional in many breweries but it makes trace ability difficult in the rare instance of product recall. If consistent processing has been followed, blending is only necessary in problem instances where beer may be reject for colour or bitterness or be the first fermentation with a yeast culture where the cell count was inadequate and the fermentation slow and atypical. Routine blending should not be necessary with consistent raw materials, consistent brew house, yeast and fermentation control. Effective beer stabilisation with minimal levels of oxygen.

Settlment and Clarification:

At the end of fermentation the yeast count will be around ten million cells per millilitre. This must be reduced as far as possible before filtration and certainly below one million. Filter runs will be reduced with increased loading of solids as more filter powder has to be added so that the filter void space fills up more rapidly. Beer is settled using a combination of time and low temperature to reduce agitation by convection currents. The distance to fall and the size of particle are critical.

Purpose: To remove solid particles from the beer stream to produce a bright stable beer free of yeast & (most) bacteria.Primary filtration can remove particles in 1 micron range.Fine or sterile filtration removes particles above 0.45 micron.

Types of filter being used: ‡ Plate & Frame, Sterile filters - sheet or cartridge filters.

Filtration is governed by Darcy¶s Law: ‡ The flow is directly proportional to the porosity of the bed, its area and the pressure difference across the filter bed. ‡ It is inversely proportional to the viscosity of the liquid being filtered and the depth of the bed. ‡ For effective filtration you need a good porous bed but not too thick with a driving pressure and as big an area as possible.

Filtration Process: Firstly the young beer is collected from the UTs by using the pump at speed 80 hl/hr and temperature is reduced to about-0.12oc by passing it though PHE. Then it is being transferred to the Buffer tank 1 by CO2 purging depending on the need called primary
2 purging. Buffer tank 1 is used for maintaining pressure or flow speed (1 kg/cm ) in between

the inflow and the outflow to the BBT. It is then transferred to the dosing tank in which there is addition of kieselguhr powder, which consist of Super cell (fine) 2-3 µm and High flow (course) ×10 µm. 15 kg each are mixed in dosing tank and allow to flow with young beer

with constant speed of inlet and outlet. And by passing 47 sheet the beer is being filtered. Sheet bed porosity is maintained by the continual dosing of a filter aid like kieselguhr or perlite. The bed has to be build up carefully to ensure adequate porosity. The first precoat will be a coarse powder followed by a second precoat usually the same powder as the bottom feed. As soon as filtration commences powder is dosed into the beer flow to continue to build the bed up and keep it porous. The pressure will rise as the filter blinds so it need to increase the dosing rate if the pressures starts to rise more than normal. Similarly if the pressure build more slowly, more powder is being used than necessary and the filter run will be shorter than expected. The filter will need washing off once the void area is full of powder. Yeast and haze particles will be trapped but most bacteria will pass through. Filter runs can be prolonged by ensuring the beer is bright to the eye. Beer filtration requires a filter aid such as kieselguhr to help trap the solids and give depth to the filter bed. Then it is transferred to

Buffer tank 2 having same pressure maintained as that of the Buffer tank1 and if need CO2 is punched at this stage called secondary purging and then finally goes through PHE to BBT in the form of bright beer. ‡ ‡ ‡ 1st Precoat ± coarse. 2nd Precoat ± Fine. Powder filtration will remove yeast but not bacteria.

Plate and frame filter This is a diagram of a plate and frame filter. There are a series of plates and frames supported on a framework. The plates and frames are separated to facilitate cleaning.

This is a diagram of a plate and frame filter. There are number of plates and frames via which the unfiltered matter is being passed and the finished filtrate comes out.

Beer and powder are dosed into the frame chambers. The precoat has been built up on a thick paper support pad. This pad may be covered by a disposable paper slip often known as a nappy liner. This paper makes removal of the cake easier later. The beer is filtered through the bed and into the support pad. Channels behind the pad in the plate surface direct the bright beer to the outlet manifold. Since caustic detergents are difficult to rinse out of the cellulose support pads, the filter must be cleaned with hot water and only deterged when the pads are about to be changed Powder builds up on cellulose support pads usually covered with a nappy liner¶ to aid manual wash off. Pads should last for 150000BL. Dosing is controlled in response to pressure build up - 50g/ BL is typical. At 7 bar differential the chamber bridges and a 3 hour manual wash off ensues. Filter run time depends on filter surface area.

Keiselghur powder ‡ Diatomaceous earth or kieselguhr ( DE ) is the skeletal remains of marine or fresh water diatoms. It builds up a complex three dimensional structure to maintain permeability and hold the solids. But is a hazardous material to handle. Beware of taints and iron content. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Beer filtration requires a filter aid such as kieselguhr to help trap the solids and give depth to the filter bed. So precoating is done 1st Precoat - coarse 2nd Precoat - Fine Body feed- coarse+fine


The dust being classified as dangerous as asbestos. Properly aspirated handling equipment is essential. Filter powders are prone to pick up taints during their transportation and storage. All new deliveries should be checked suspending powder in water, the water is tasted for metallic taints and sniffed for other entrained volatiles. One brewer traced an unwanted orange aroma to a load of powder which travelled from the US with a hold full of oranges.DE is the skeletal remains of marine or fresh water diatoms. It builds up a complex three dimensional structure to maintain permeability and hold the solids.

Filtration to bright beer tank: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Filter at as low a temperature is possible. -1 to -2oC. Trim chiller is used: which provided the fine filteration of the BBT, and do consist of 6 cartridge filters (10 µm). Always care has been taken so that no chill haze already captured in the filter is redissolved. ‡ Beer is being filtered at the maturation tank temperature which ensures a maximum formation of chill haze. It is important to filter out any particles which ha not ve settled. ‡ A trim chiller ensure this low temperature especially if there is risk for gaining temperature if the maturation tanks are some way from the filter. ‡ If the temperature into the filter rises, captured chill haze particles will redissolve and give potential haze problems later. ‡ ‡ Similarly if beer is cooler in BBT than at filtration, more haze will form in the tank and will settle out leading to reject beer at packaging. Oxygen is rigorously excluded at the filter and downstream.

Bright beer tank ‡ ‡ Once beer comes, BBT inlet valve are opened and drain valve are closed. Once the BBT is filled with 35-40 hl of beer, carbonation is being started by opening the valve near the carbonator. At this stage the rate of carbonation is slowed down. ‡ ‡ CO2 supply is on from Co2 plant is being checked regularly. The carbonation is kept on throughout the filter run tell there is a gradually increase in the rate of carbonation as the BBT comes to filled.

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

CO2 level inside the BBT beer is being checked using Zham-Nigel apparatus as per the company rule basis and maintained in limit. DO is maintained at <50 ppb if it exceeds the limit then it is blended. The filter outlet beer haze is being checked on company rule basis. The pre filter and post filter PHE outlet beer temp. is being maintained at -1.0 to 1.5oC.


Throughout the filter run the outlet beer clarity is being maintained at <0.7 EBC-90 deg & <0.4 -25 deg at zero deg.C.

‡ ‡

The filter aid dosing rate is also being adjusted to achieve the target of 140 gm per hl. The dosing vessel is always kept under CO2 cover so that during filtration there is no oxygen pickup.







Tanks used is being clean and steriled. It is being checked for smooth internal surfaces. Any rousers ave supplementary spray balls to clean shadow areas. Tanks is being counter pressured with inert CO2 or nitrogen. Beer flow to the tanks maintained at the correct flow rate without having any sharp bends which can promote fobbing. Inlet rate made smooth to avoid gas break out in the bottom of the tank. High CO2 and DO levels are corrected by purging with oxygen free nitrogen through a sinter at the base of the vessel. Degassing to correct dissolved gas levels cause some fobbing in the tank. Fob remain on the vessel walls

during emptying and might dry and cause a haze in the next filling if vessel rinsing is ineffective. Sometimes dried bits of collapsed fob fall back into the parent beer and cause similar rejects.

Tanks is lagged or cooled using jackets. Usually insulation is sufficient but temperature will rise so a maximum residence period of 2 -3 days will be stipulated. Beer warming up will tend to lose dissolved CO2 and N2, becomes more prone to micro infection and packaging warm beer leads to fobbing which may allow oxygen pick up and difficulties attaining the required fill levels. It is essential to recheck haze and dissolved gases, CO2, N2 and O2 every shift if the tank is still waiting to be packaged.

Blending Beer presented for packaging must be in specification for all analysed parameters. Any blending at bright beer stage must ensure that the mix is consistent over the entire batch. Need as complex plant as beer dilution with no pressure surging or ingress of air. Probably better to blend ex maturation tank if there is a risk of inadequate mixing to packaging. It is possible that some packages will be out of specification and require expensive decanting. Beer must be 100% right in bright beer tank during committing to expensive packaging and expensive packaging materials.

Safety: ‡ Nose masks: During the addition of Kiesulghur due to its amorphous nature it forms mist and as it is carcinogenic, during addition is it must to wear nose mask. ‡ ‡ Safety shooes / Gum boots: At the filtration is in the filter room, it is must to wear safety shoos / Gum boots. Pressure relief valves: During the filtration, filter pressure increase to avoid the increase of overpressure, safety valves required. ‡ Emergency lamp: As the filter unit is in the filter room during the power failure emergency lamp is required.

Cold section: Cold Water Tank: Capacity 37 hl Sanitiser Tank (Divosin active): Capacity 18 hl

Cold Caustic Tank: Capacity 18 hl Hot Water Tank: 18 hl Sanitiser Tank (Divosin active): 18 hl Hot Caustic Tank: 18 hl These are the tanks used for the CIP process.

CIP is a cleaning procedure in which the equipment and surface coming in contact with raw material and product are cleaned and sanitized by using the tank placed in the cold section. CIP of all the vessel and line conveying various materials (Unitank, mash kettle, wort kettle, yeast pitching tank inter connecting lines etc.) Is carried out when they are empty and before processing the next brew. Of BBT is done after every 10 fillings. CIP is done using two methods:
y y

Cold caustic CIP. Hot caustic CIP.

Generally cold CIP is preferred. In CIP procedure the tanks and the lines are first flushed with soft water for 15 min. to remove the particles adhering to the walls. It is then followed by 2% Caustic flushing for 60-80 min. Then the remaining Caustic is nil by water wash and finally 0.3% Divosin acitive is used of 30 min so that any remaining Caustic present will be removed.

The concept of quality relates to a contract, specifying the supply of a product by one party (the supplier) to a second party (the customer). Quality management system: Total Quality control is made up of 5Q¶s that are 1. Quality planning (QP) 2. Quality lab process (QLP) 3. Quality control (QC) 4. Quality assessment (QA) 5. Quality improvement (QI)

Total Quality control is a technique is used to detect and correct errors before they result in a defective product or service. Difference between Quality control and Quality assurance: Quality control: It means meeting the customers requirements for a product or service. The general goal is to meet on time with no error and defects.

As a consequence, the practice of ³quality assurance´ evolved from 1950 onwards. Quality Assurance In general, Quality Assurance is nothing but the identification of problems through quality (QI) and elimination of problems through QP and QC, to detect the problems early enough to prevent their consequences. And the new process is to implement through QLP. It mainly focuses on: ‡ Problem prevention rather than problem recording. ‡ ‡ ‡ Process capability control rather than monitoring/managing of output. Involves the company¶s whole operation (from design to delivery), and places greater reliance on technological innovations for quality improvements.

In brief, Quality Control involves the identification of process problems and defective products. Whereas Quality Assurance involves PROBLEM SOLVING in addition to Quality Control.

Quality Assurance in brewery: Quality Assurance involves as follows: ‡ Raw material Inspection ‡ ‡ ‡ Analytical QA Microbiology QA Packaging QA

Raw material Insepection: 1. Bottle inspection: Bottle colour, Shape, Diameter, Height all as per the standard.

2. Crown inspection: Crown colour, Shape, Seal shell, Linear, Linear contamination, Linear adhesion, Text, Damage or Scratches, Mix Description, Weight, Body diameter all as per the standard. 3. Label inspection: Label colour, Shape, Text, Types such as the front label, back label, neck label, Size all as per the standard. 4. Carton inspection: On delivery, following inspections are done: Each carton to be clearly marked with the manufacturing factory identification, Date of manufacture, Batch no. They are not excepted if: ‡ It is not legibly marked as above. ‡ ‡ ‡ The manufacturer's seal is not intact. The lot is damaged. The lot is soiled (for example, water or oil stained), or has an appearance which suggests contamination. ‡ ‡ The lot has a foreign odour. If it consists of different batch numbers.

The preliminary acceptance test which are followed during acceptance of the cartons. The lot is deemed to be accepted if: a. The moisture content of the carton should not exceed as per standard. b. Dimension The dimension of the carton as specified in the standards all conformed to the internal dimensions as +3mm. c. Visual Inspection of carton - The carton are conform to the shade card which is being attached to the specification sheet and compared. d. Bursting Strength The cartons are being checked for the bursting strength and to ensure it conforms to the specification prior to acceptance. e. Text and logo as per the standard.

5. Malt inspection: Taste: Should be free from any abnormal taste Odour: Should be free from any abnormal odour. Appearance: Foreign materials should be present.

Moisture: 5 gm malt is weighed and inspection is done by using the moisture analyzer should be in standard 0-11. 6. Rice flakes inspection: Taste: Should be free from any abnormal taste. Odour: Should be free from any abnormal odour. Appearance: Foreign materials should be present. Moisture: 5 gm rice flakes is weighed and inspection is done by using the moisture analyzer should be in standard 0-11. 7. Sugar inspection: Taste: Should be free from any abnormal taste. Odour: Should be free from any abnormal odour. Appearance: Should be free from Foreign materials Colour: <0.30 EBC. Purity: > 99.9% Analytical QA: There are various test performed in this Quality section. Of the various test performed here are some of the test which are being performed. 1. DETERMINATION OF COLOUR BY SPECRTOPHOTOMETER ‡ Beer colour intensity on a sample free of turbidity and having the spectral characteristics of an average beer, is 10 times the absorbance of the beer measured in a half inch cell with monochromatic light of wavelength 430 nm. ‡ Turbidity exhibits equal spectral characteristics on the absorbance of monochromatic light with a wavelength 430 nm and the maximum absorbance is best established at wavelength 700 nm 2. DETERMINATION OF HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION (pH) ‡ pH is the measurement of all stages of acidity or alkalinity of a sample using the following scale:
9 @C5 8 F 6 67 8 F A



pH is measured because different biological reactions require different pH ranges for optimum activities in the brewing process.

986C5 C5

76 5


C5 B @9 8 A




0 c



Biological reactions include: i) Enzyme activity. ii) Yeast growth. iii) Microbial spoilage. The above principles can be summarised as follows: i) Hydrogen ion concentration is defined as: pH = -log10 [H+] or [H+] = 10-pH. ii) The [H] is the concentration of the hydrogen ions in moles per litre. iii) Due to the minus sign (see the definition), a low concentration of [H+] ions gives a high pH in the range 7 - 14, i.e. alkaline. A high [H+] ion concentration gives a low pH in the range 0 - 7, i.e. acidic. ‡ When solutions contain hydrogen ions [H+], a voltage develops which is directly proportional to the [H+] concentration and thus, the pH can be measured electrometrically. ‡ In the pH meter the voltage across the electrode bridge is balanced with standard buffer solution or solutions (in a two-buffer calibration) of known pH (voltage) at 20°C. 3. DETERMINATION OF BITTERNESS UNITS - RAPID INTERNATIONAL METHOD ‡ The bitterness in beer arises from a group of compounds which are extracted from hops during wort boiling. These compounds are isomerised under the wort pH and boiling conditions. The term ³Bitterness Units´ is used to describe the concentration of these compounds. ‡ The method depends upon suppressing the ionisation of these compounds by the addition of strong hydrochloric acid in order to ensure their total extraction into isooctane during shaking. centrifugation. The aqueous and solvent fractions are separated by

The concentration of bittering compounds in the iso-octane is

determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the absorbance of ultra violet (UV) light at a wavelength of 275 nm. 4. DETERMINATION OF ALPHA-GLUCAN ‡ Alpha-glucan is the measure of starch and starch residues spectrophotometrically following a colour reaction with iodine.

‡ ‡

Alpha-glucan can negatively influence wort and beer filtration. Furthermore, it can adversely influence clarity and clarity stability. Iodine forms a coloured complex with these compounds which have an absorbance peak between 530 and 570 nm. This enables them to be quantified and be expressed as Delta E¶ (( E) units.


Applicable to wort and packaged beer.

5. DETERMINATION OF LIMIT OF EXTRACT ‡ The limit to which a sample is fermented by brewer¶s yeast under ideal conditions, that is, at an elevated temperature and with agitation, is termed the limit of attenuation or the limit to which it can be fermented. ‡ The relative density (RD) of the extract is determined and from this RD value the LE percent Plato (%P) is determined from the Plato tables. 6. DETERMINATION OF RELATIVE DENSITY (RD) BY DENSITOMETER ‡ Relative density is a measure of a substance¶s (liquid or solid) density relative to that of an equal volume of pure water at a specified temperature (20°C).

RD= Mass of liquid (sample) at 20°C Mass of pure water at 20°C Note: Where the mass of both is determined in the same volumetric container. ‡ Relative density is thus a measure of concentration due to the presence of solutes in the liquid. ‡ Relative density is used to measure and control extract. Yield is determined by the amount of extract obtained from the malt and adjuncts used. ‡ Relative density determination using a densitometer is based on the principle of an oscillating U-tube. The oscillating frequency of two standards (pure water and air) is required for the calibration of the densitometer. The oscillating frequency of the Utube is altered by the density of sample (in the U-tube). This sample frequency is internally micro computed and displayed as its relative density.

Note: Densitometer RD¶s are only valid on homogenous solutions free from entrained particles and gas bubbles.

7. DETERMINATION OF CHILL HAZE BY HAFFMAN VOS 4000 HAZE METER ‡ Particles in suspension exhibit specific optical properties, namely, if a light beam is projected onto the particle it would reflect the beam away from it. Thus the light beam is scattered away from the particle and its natural direction. Particle size dictates the angle of scattering. Small particles (< 0,06 micron) scatter the light approximately to a 90r angle, whereas large particles (> 0,7 micron) will only partially reflect the beam off its forward course. The forward scatter angle is between 13r and 30r and is specific to a turbidity meter. Photo detectors placed at forward and right angles will detect both small and large particles. ‡ Temperature has a significant impact on haze as it impacts on the solubility and stability of haze forming components. It is therefore necessary to standardise on the temperature at which measurements are made, namely 0rC, and the haze is therefore referred to as the CHILL HAZE. 8. DO- ORBISHERE ‡ DO - measure of the amount of oxygen which is either dissolved in a liquid or trapped in a gas, such as the purified carbon dioxide used for carbonation. ‡ Oxygen is measured by passing liquids or gases over the sensor head, which consists of a polarographic cell covered with a gas-permeable tefzel membrane separating the cell electrodes and electrolyte from the liquid. By virtue of partial pressure in the sample, oxygen diffuses through the membrane and reacts at the sensor cathode, generating a current proportional to the partial pressure - and hence the concentration of the oxygen in the sample. This current is amplified and converted by the indicating instrument to give a digital LCD display oxygen concentration O2 in parts per million (ppm) and parts per billion (ppb)

Microbiological QA: Yeast Handling Yeast cell count (Using Heamocytometer).

Yeast viability as per the standard. Yeast consistency as per the standard. Yeast propogation. Microbiological QA includes the following main functions: ‡ ‡ Microbiological quality assurance of the beer making process. Microbiological QA of packaging: This is done for checking any contamination in the beer. Three samples are taken from BBT, Exfiller, Packed beer an plated and after incubation microbial contamination is examined. There should be ³zero´ growth in the plate of the packed beer then an only then it is said that the pasteurizer is working well. ‡ ‡ Yeast management. Environmental survey: By plate exposure in air and if microbes are more in number after incubation on particular media then certain measures are used to clean the air. Packaging QA 1. Bottle Washer ‡ Caustic zone 1strenght- (1.25-3.2%) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Caustic zone 2strenght- (1.25-3.2%) Caustic zone 1 temp- (>800C) Caustic zone 2 temp- (>800C) Label carryover: Number of bottle carried with labels are counted. Methylene blue: Put few drops of methylene blue in the washed bottle, if blue colour appears then mould or fungi may be present and if no colour appears then test is negative. ‡ Caustic carry over: Put few drops of 1% Phenolphthalein indicator in the washed bottle, if colour appears means caustic is carried over or if no colour appears test is negative and caustic carry over is nil.

2. Bottle Filler & Crimping (Checked every shift) ‡ ‡ ‡ Fobbing water temperature (800C - 900C). Crimping: GO ± NOGO is checked. Fill volume.

‡ ‡

TPO (<200 ppb).

Total Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide In Package (TPA) using Orbisphere Oxygen Analyser ‡ This method details the procedures used for measuring total oxygen (headspace and dissolved) and the carbon dioxide content in packaged product by means of the Orbisphere Analyser ‡ Once the package has been pierced, the system goes through the headspace and Liquid measurement and computes the final data. Principle: O2 sensor - It has Silver Anode and Gold cathode dipped in electrolytic solution. The electric current proportional to O2 gas which is proportional to the partial pressure of gas in beer and out side atmosphere. CO2 sensor ± Thermal conductivity of a gas is the amount of heat transferred by the 1g of gas present between 2 plates of 1cm2 area and 1 cm apart and 1oC difference between plates. Each gas has different thermal conductivity. Orbhishere has a specific TC chip which is covered by membrane for protection. When gaseous CO2 enters and comes in contact with chip the thermal conductivity changes and corresponding voltage change is measured.

The method is suitable for use with both bottles and cans, with particular application to ex filler samples

Sampling Tube insertion device and handles. 2. Sampling tube adjustable lower stop. 3. Analyser manifold. 4. Two step device (left side) to analyse cans, with release spacer. 5. Piercing Knife, metal or plastic type. 6. Package positioning system (cans, glass, PET bottles) 7. Piercer lever, to lower or raise the piercing knife. 8. Adjustable pressure regulator set at 2 bar (Festo) for purge / forcing gas (behind panel) 9. Flow meter to regulate product flow past the sensors. 10. Pressure gauge for TC sensor purge gas regulated pressure. Locking lever for the package positioning system height adjustment

3. Pasteurizer ‡ Total PU (15 ± 30)

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Prod max Spray max (<65) Transit time BOT i.e. Bottle Out Temperature (< 40) Pasteurizer pH (checked in all 8 zones) as per the standard.

4. Labeling ‡ Body Label Height. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Back Lab1el Height. Missing Label. Up side Down Label. Foil /Neck label Height. Foil / Neck Label Center. Glue Streak on Bottle. Loose label.

5. Carton ‡ Label Damage. ‡ ‡ ‡ Carton damage. Missing / broken bottles Carton seal / tape.

6. Label Ice Proof Test By placing the bottle in ice so that to check the stickiness of the labels in the chilling condition. Safety: ‡ Safety must be given the first order preference. ‡ QA staff must be thoroughly knowledged about the personal health and safety precautions to be taken in Lab and shop floor. ‡ The responsibility of teaching and monitoring the safety practices in all other sections of brewery lies with QA. ‡ ‡ Fire Exit paths must be marked very clearly. Safety showers and eye washes must be in place and in proper working condition


Extra caution must be taken while handling caustic, hazardous chemicals and infectious Microbes

Taste is an important sensory parameter of any food which is perceived by tongue. Where as flavour is an important sensory parameter which is perceived Ortho Nasally when a food is consumed through mouth. Beer is said to have more than 40 distinguishable flavours. The most important requirement of beer is it should have a desirable taste and flavour profile which is admirable by the consumer. Ultimate success of beer is when a consumer drinks it, it should look great, taste great. To achieve this we must have a clear knowledge of desirable as well as off flavours those could present in the beer. The assessment of these sensory parameters is done by trained tasters through tasting. 1. Beer Flavour Profile: Each brand of beer should have a known level of taste like sweetness, bitterness, sourness and flavours (colour is also assessed), which is described in the brand profile. Which is assessed and a rating is given. 2. Types of tasting done: ‡ ‡ Basic tasting: To educate in Identifying the basic off flavours in beer by doping each at a time in beer. TVS tasting: To validate the tasters by assessing their ability to identify the off flavors doped. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ SV tasting: TO identify the off flavours in SV beer before it is being filtered. BBT tasting: Before releasing for filling. Packed product tasting: To identify the off flavours in packed product. Brand identification tasting: To make the panel familiar with the desired brand profile. ‡ ‡ Shelf life tasting: To assess the quality of beer after storing it for 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Taint netting: To identify the taint if present in water, raw material, kieselghur, BBT beer, Air and CO2 ‡ Trade tasting or Trade Quality Assessment (TQA): To assess the product at outlets. To Provide an Ongoing Divisional Measure of the Fitness for Sale of our Product as Delivered to our Customers and Consumers´ Taste score (Hub Tasting): ‡ It is done monthly to assess the taste and a score is given.

‡ ‡ ‡

Only Advanced Tasters are involved. The scores of samples coming from different breweries are compared. The best scored samples are sent to South Africa for global tasting.

GTS (Global Tasting System): ‡ The purpose is to get accurate calculated taste score which can be globally accepted. It is carried out in South Africa. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Three essential things required are; Brand Profile Algorithm Advanced tasters

3. Flavour wheel

-- 0 11 0 Alcoholi c

Solve nt -like

14 . M F et ou al u th lic co l -at 13 in l 10 g 13 . A lk n -alin e Mouthfeel e12 0 s 0 B s it t e r -12 11 00 .B Salt y it t e - 1 1 . Salt r y TASTE 10 0 0 Sw eet -10. Swe




-- 0 14




1. Aromatic, Fragrant, Fruity Floral

s ou sin Re 0 21 -- 0 ty Nut 2. -- 0 2 2 0 Resinous, y Grass Nutty, Green,-- 0 2 3 0
01 -70




0 Y eas t y-Cook ed V e g --

0 7 2 0 Sulphidic --




ODOUR 4. C ur -- 0 3 3 -- 9 . So ara 0 W or cetic m 10 A ty 09 Roa elised-5. -8. 041 6. st e dic ci 0 C d 0 A Soapy, Phe aram Oxidised, -- 0 no 09 0 el yFatty, 42 Stale, licld u 0B -0 -Diacetyl, urn Mo Musty 50 ry 7. t 40 Rancid, -pe 0 -08 06 Ph Pa Sulphury ry Oily 0 en e 10 3 h ol at 08 Fa ic Le tt y 0 2 A ci 08 d
-0 -Ca t ty

09 2 0 Sour --


St a l




0 7 30

0 F rui ty 01 Ac 60 et ald Fl eh or yd al e
-62 yl et ac Di 0 cid an 0 R

ing -W arm 13 70 -t ion ona arb -0 C ery 13 6 wd tPo en 50 ng t ri As

14 1 0 Body --

-- 0 1 2 0

-- 0 13 0

Este ry




y pp Ho

-- 0 31 0 Grainy

3. -- 0 32 0 M alt y Cereal

63 -- 0

64 0 -- 0

0 -- 0 7 0

-- 0 71 0 Sulphit ic


ury Sulph

Purpose: Raw water (From MIDC) is treated to produce Soft water, Demineralised (DM) water which is the one only used for the all the process which are carried out in the company. Process: ‡ This process began when in coming raw water coming is taken in the raw water storage tank (cap:1000 m3). ‡ It is then passed to the Fire storage tank (cap: 200 m3) so called because used in the water treatment process (WTP) as well as used during fire is catched anywhere. ‡ ‡ Then is being transferred to the another raw water storage tank (cap: 700 m3). Then via pumps, it is transferred to the Multi Grade Filters (MGF) where stones in varying size are placed and by which the water is being passed though in which the big particles are entrapped. If improper filtration is occurring it is given back wash with water and again the process is carried out . ‡ It then comes in Activated Carbon Filters (ACF-1) were coal is present in this filter through which water is filtered out and chlorine is removed. This one is also given back wash when inproper filteration occurs. ‡ ‡ For this it may be transferred to make the Soft water or DM water. Soft water is made by passing the ACF-1 to the softner. So, that it will make the water softer by using salt resins and made upto 30 ppm. ‡ For DM water, it is transferred to the cation exchanger through the ACF. Where the cation resins are present which remove cations, if the quantity needed in not given out then it is washed with water and acidified by using HCL upto 2 pH. ‡ Then it is transferred though Degassor where water is blowed from bottom of the tank and all the gases are removed out form the water by releasing from the upside. ‡ Anion exchanger is used to remove anion present in the water. And if the flow of the water is not up to the limit then it is basified by adding NaOH (upto 200 gm per 1000 lt). ‡ Finally, water goes through the ACF-2 by which if any particulates are present is being removed out. And this DM water is given to the process in which minerals are removed and pH is maintained.

2. COOLING TOWER: Purpose: This cooing tower is being mounted for the process of water cooling program. Process: This is done so as follows:

‡ ‡

The cooling tower consist of water inlet on top side via which the water comes to the tower and a big sieve is mounted on top of the tower. Through which the water flows on to the cooling fan and by this fan the water is cool down to the temperature rather than then the present temperature less the 5oC.


And, for the bottom side the cooled water goes to the Air compressor, Ammonia compressor, and CO2 compressor.


This cycle continues and the water is being cooled down.

3. REFRIGERATION: Purpose: Refrigeration is the process of making chilled brine. Brine is nothing but the mixture of propylene glycol and water. It is being one of the most useful one for the temperature control during fermentation. Process: ‡ High molecular weigh compound of ammonia is compressed and is being passed to the condenser due to which there is increase in the pressure and temperature. ‡ Water form the cooling tower comes to the condenser at 24oC and act on the 80oC which is present in the shell and tube type condenser. Shell consists of ammonia and tube water. ‡ In condenser ammonia vapours are converted to the liquid due to the use of the chilled water from the cooling tower acting on the hot ammonia and goes to the receiver. ‡ Then it goes to the chiller were the brine is chilled during this the liquid ammonia is converted to the vapour form. And in this way the process continues for the chilling of brine. ‡ Then this brine is stored in to the storage tank having internal partition consisting Cold well (cap: 16 m3) and Hot well (cap: 16 m3). In this cold well the brine is stored at -6oC. ‡ And this brine is ready to control the temperature during the fermentation by decreasing when it exceeds the limit.

4. CO2 RECOVERY PLANT: Purpose: Carbon dioxide is one of the product which is released by the yeast during the fermentation. when alcohol is formed CO2 is also formed and as there is very less need of CO2 during the process excess of Co2 is being stored in this plant.

Process of CO2 recovery: ‡ Excess CO2 released from the fermentation is passed thought the foam separator situated in the filtration department. And the is again allowed to pass though another foam separator if any foam is present to remove it. ‡ Then passed though the water scrubber to remove the microbes, KMnO4 and then again from another water scrubber to the CO2 balloon (cap: 10 m3) in which there is low pressure. ‡ ‡ To increase pressure CO2 compressors is used (Inlet pr. 200 mm wc, Inlet temp. 3035oC and Outlet pr. 15-16 kg/cm2,Outlet temp. 75-85oC). Then via after cooler it is cooled (Outlet temp. 30oC). And, goes to the ACF-1 and ACF-2 were if any microbes are killed and the pressure is regenerated (3-5 kg/cm2). ‡ By the 3 way valve goes to the Dryer A and Dryer B, were moisture is removed and temperature is regenerated at 160oC. ‡ Then goes to the chiller with inlet temperature 30oC, in chiller Freon 22 is used to chill CO2 at this stage the Freon 22 state changes from liquid to gas and CO2 from gas to liquid due to the temperature and pressure variation. ‡ Note: Due to the temperature pressure variation property the state changes as if the temperature decreases if pressure is constant state changes form gas to liquid and if both the temperature, pressure decreases then state changes from liquid to gas. ‡ Then it goes to Heat exchanger, chiller compressor, condenser and again from Heat exchanger to chiller or directly to the CO2 storage tank (at temp.-26oC, pr. 20 kg/cm2). ‡ ‡ And when need it is vaporized by glycol and water in and glycol and water out. It is given to the filtration department when ever need and also to the filler.

5. AIR STORAGE PLANT: Purpose: Air is also the foremost important during the manufacturing process. Process of Air storage: ‡ ‡ ‡ Atmospheric air is being taken and compressed though the compressor. It is then stored in the receiver. And, whenever need is given to the brew house for the aeration purpose and in the packaging section.


Purpose: To provide steam for the various process. Process: ‡ There are two boiler of IAEC having cap. 8 ton/hr and other is of SHELL MAX THRUMX having cap. 6 ton/hr. ‡ Furnace oil is being used of boiling purpose because it is the cheaper one as well as it catches fire well and for long time period. ‡ Furnace oil is firstly stored in storage tank (cap: 36 kl) and the transferred to day tank (cap: 2300 ltr.) and via the pipe it is taken in the ignition box. ‡ Ignition point is 100-110oC and the heating surface area is of 195 cm2/inch and it is carried out by electrical heators. ‡ Boiler consist of an inlet for the water to come and also the outlet from which the steam goes. And water level is maintained at the given set point.

It consist of three zones or passes: ‡ ‡ First is the Furnace tube pass consist of 1 big tube in which only oil is heat out. Second and the Third pass known as the Smoke pass were the 71 and 59 tubes are present and as in the first pass oil heats out and due to this heat water is boiled and smoke is released via chimney and the water vapours or steam is being passed through the outlet. ‡ This steam is being given to the Brew house for boiling and to make hot water for autoclaving and so, also given to the Packaging section were it is needed for the bottle washer, pasteurizer.

Purpose: This is the section or department were the beer formed by the collaborative work done by the above discussed departments is packed, to be marketed with to in a collaborative manner.

1. Bottle washer: Purpose: To wash bottles, so that a proper sterilized bottles are marketed.

Process: ‡ A particular machine of KHS and model name is INNDCLEAN DMT-27/95-S11N232-4.5 and have a capacity of 18000 BPH (Bottles Per Hour), a single end machine. ‡ It consist of 27 pockets (row) and 385 columns are mounted on the chain and the process continues as the chain rotates and the washed bottles are dispatched on back side and again the chain comes and the new bottles are add, that means 10,395 bottles are washed at a time with a speed of 250 bottle per min. There are seven zone in the machine: i. ii. Pre-rinse: 2 spray at top with pressure limit 1.2 bar, time. Caustic soak1: 2 spray at top and 2 at bottom with pump pressure 1.5 bar limit, and the caustic strength minimum 2%, temperature range 80-90oC with time 5.1 min. iii. Caustic soak2: 2 spray at top and 2 at bottom with pump pressure 1.3 bar limit, and the caustic strength minimum 2%, temperature range 80-90oC with time 9.9 min. iv. v. vi. vii. Hydrozone: 1 spray at top with pressure limit 1.2 bar. Pre-final rinse: 2 spray at top with pressure limit 1.2 bar. Final rinse: 3 spray at top with pressure limit 1.2. Soft water rinse: 3 spray at top with 2 rotating and a is stabilized one and pressure limit 1.2 bar. The soft water used maintained at 2.7 pressure. ‡ All the above process is completed on 45 min, and the main zones are of caustic for which need 15 min and the remaining for the other zones. ‡ Steam is used of this process, and this is the best machine being used because in this there is low water loss as the water is taken in from the soft water rinse zone to the pre-rinse zone and then drain out. ‡ Caustic strength is checked by quality assurance department and if there is a decrease in strength from that of standard then caustic bags are added in the dosing tank and pumped to the caustic zones. ‡ ‡ Brite washer is in use for the bottle shining process so that it look good. In this process old bottle as well as the new bottles are being washed and also the labels are removed off. ‡ There are few test being performed by the quality assurance department: 1. Caustic strength check. 2. Caustic carryover 3. Methylene blue test 4.Label carryover. \ ‡ Always the speed of this is maintained +10 than that of the packer cum crowner.

2. Filler cum crowner: Purpose: To fill and crown the bottle in proper and appropriate manner. Process: ‡ A machine is used for this purpose of KRONES, model VK2V 40/KK 10-94 LM with 10,700 rpm. ‡ It consist of 10 infeed start wheel, 40 beer filling wheel, 20 bowl out or discharge start wheel after filling and so the crowner crimping head wheel, 10 machine outlet wheel. The process of filling is as follows: i. ii. Bottles from the bottle washer comes via the converyor belt. Pre-activation: Vacuum is created and the air is removed for the bottles which are coming from the washer. iii. CO2 flushing: Remaining air is being removed by flushing CO2 at2.1 kg/cm2 pressure. iv. v. vi. Secondary activation: Remaining CO2 and air is removed. Pressurization: Bowl CO2 and the bottle CO2 is equalized. Start of filling: Filling starts now. The beer for the BBT line comes in the filler bowl (cap: 1 hl) and as so the bottle is being filled. vii. viii. ‡ End of filling: As the limit exceed the filling stop called end of filling. Snifting: Excess CO2 in the bottle is flushed off.

Hot water 80oC (pressure 3 kg/cm2)is used for spraying process so that no air comes in contact with the beer as if it will spoil off.

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The beer out temperature after filling is 4oC. Crown crimping is done for this the crown are added in the tank of the crowner form which via the belt which is mounted on the magnetic support takes the crowns and the it is by the gear turned around as per the position of the crimping and by pressure upto 4.2 kg/cm2 crimping is done, and the crowner head rotates upto 12,000 rpm.


And so after filling an crown crimping it goes to the pasteurizer.

3. Pasteurizer: Purpose: For the sterilization of the packed beer and increase the shelf life. Process:

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It was impossible to prevent microorganisms getting into beer before the pasteurization process was invented by a Frenchman called Pasteur in 1870. Pasteurization is the process of the heating the beer at the particular temperature for particular time because if the time exceed at 63oC it may cause change in the flavor and also lead to increase in haze and slight change in colour.


So, now a day flash pasteurization is used and beer is heated in a heat exchanger then held at the distinct temperatures for a particular time period.

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Pasteurizer used is of ELGI, model is Tunnel type, and capacity 14000 BPH. As at 63oC microbes are killed so it is maintained at for 1 min by passing it through the conveyor by transaction (pipe heat exchanger) and increasing the temperature slowly from 35 oC, 45 oC, 55 oC, 63 oC, 55 oC, 45 oC, 35 oC, and finally at 20oC for 1hr.

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The pasteurizer in use for 12000 bottles at a time and steam is taken for the boiler house. 1.3% Divergard B400 gel is use as oxidization solution and 2% Divergard 810 is use for to resist rusting and crossing side inhibitor and water consumption during the balance condition is 2.5 m3/hr.


And after Pasteurization bottle via conveyor goes to the labeler.

4. Labeling: Purpose: To label the bottle at particular position and sight. Process: ‡ ‡ The model machine in use is of KOSME, model STAR 16T S2 E2 +FOIL and capacity 14000 BPH. Amca adhesive is in use for the labeling purpose and via the pump by using ball it is pumped during the labeling program. ‡ Front label magazine and nick label magazines are placed on the sight of the labeling, for both process is same. The label stick to the holder which is being glued by the scrapper and holder blade and then it is placed on another holder by gripper. And it is placed in the position of the labeling to the bottle and finally stick to the bottle and by the sponge it is completely fixed to the bottle.

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The angle and the rotation of the first roller and the collector should be the same and if there is any slight change occurs may lead to improper labeling. The bottle comes in by the conveyor and then to the main camp were the labels are sticks to the bottle.


By the use of the Sensor machine in which the Batch number, Date are preloaded in the memory and when the bottle comes, as the back label appears in front of the printer by sensors it print.


And, then finally via the conveyor the bottles goes to the case packer.

Sighter inspection sight: This sight inspection is done for:
y y

To remove the half filled bottles. If any foreign matter or material presence appears into the bottle then it is removed.

y y y

Empty bottles are removed. Bottles without crown are removed. Bottle with improper labels are removed.

5. Case packer: Purpose: To pack the bottles in the case box. Process: ‡ ‡ The machine used is of FIBRE KING QUALITY, case packer, model COP/HM PACKER AND SEALER, Sr. no. 972811, capacity 960 CPH (Case Per Hour). Bottles by the conveyor comes to the packer, 3 lines are formed by the conveyor and after 4 rows i.e. a matrix is formed. ‡ After the formation of the matrix a pusher cylinder is opened and it holds 12 bottles in matrix, then the bottle push cylinder operator puts manually the cartons by stopping the box push cylinder as by placing hand in front of the sensor. ‡ As the cartons are placed the box push cylinder pushes box till it rest and then it comes back. Then box is discharged to the dispenser unit were the top and bottom tapping is being done and so the bottles are now fully packed.

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Batch number, manufacturing data are printed on the case box by the sensor machine as that done during labeling. Finally, bottles are collected and placed on to the pellet, on which 76 boxes are placed at a time by the operators.


And now stored in the BSR (Bottle Store Room), and then dispatched in the market under the presence of the Government of India, Excise officer.

ETP (Effluent Treatment Plant)
Purpose: To treat effluent and clarify it. Process: ‡ ‡ The effluent from the company comes to the ETP. Then Screening is performed by bar and due to which the big size particles are entrapped in it and then the effluent goes to the holding tank (cap: 30 m3) were the effluent is hold so that the settable particles settles down. ‡ Primary clarification (cap: 40 m3) is then performed in which the some big particles are cleared. Then, it moves to the Buffer tank (cap: 40 m3) were it is neutralized by adding acid or base depending on the ph present. ‡ Then it comes to the Anaerobic rectors, there are two anaerobic reactors of (cap500 m3 and 170 m3) in which anaerobic microbes are added so that it will clear out the effluent by acting on it and methane, Co2 are produced and COD comes to the limit range. ‡ From this anaerobic reactors it goes to the Aerobic tank (cap: 400 m3) were activated sludge is present on which the solids settle down. ‡ And then it comes to the surface aeration tank, due to continuous aeration and addition of the aerobic bacteria degrades the matter and clarify effluent. ‡ Then it goes to the secondary clarifier (cap: 50 m3) were the organic matter separated and then it goes to the carbon filter in which various size stones are present, sand, charcoal were the organic matter separates out and then it goes to the Storage tank were it is stored and if it is useable then it is provided to the plants which is being detected by the performing various test and if it is very much polluted then it is placed on the sludge bed and then after few day it dumped in non-usable space.


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Put a meter at a point of addition of oxygen, so that we can know the amount of the oxygen and or is provided. Also put a meter at a point of addition of CO2 , so that we can know the amount of the CO2 and or is provided.


Remove the yeast separately in a big tank and dry it so that can be used as feed or use as it in active state and try to put in market as it would a commercial benefit and also reduces the effluent load.

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Allow the BBT to stand for at least 4 hrs after filtration and carbonation for better stabilization of beer. Do conditioning at proper time and at proper amount. Focus on maintaining the correct concentration of caustic during CIP. Reduce the raw material and beer loss. During yeast drain there should be meter fitted on the drain point. So that we will be able to know the amount of yeast is drained and a pre initialization of the point (i.e. How much yeast is to be drained) by microbial analysis to be done, as this would a measure implement and would decrease the beer loss.


In the water treatment plant there should be a provision of Mixed bed exchanger as there is presence of the anion and cation exchanger there might be formation of the mix ion so if mixed bed exchanger is present may produce the DM water as per standard.

This project report is mostly produce on the knowledge and the information given by all the company Executive, Operators. Some of the books and website used for making this project are as follows:,,

Principal of Fermentation technology by P. F. STANBURY, A. WHITAKKER and S.J.HALL, Bioprocess engineering: basic concept by Michael L. Shuler., Industrial microbiology by Casida.,Bioprocess engineering by Bally and Ollies,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, processes,,,,

I wish to express my grateful thanks to each and individual who have given me the knowledge during the inplant training period from QA department Mr. Mahadev Shinde, Mr. Yogesh Sonawane, Mr. Viresh Rajannavar, Mr. Sudip Ankush, Mr. Prashant Bhalerao, from Brew house Miss. Shweta Jethani. Mr. Prakash Desi, from Fermentation section Mr. Pushpraj Patekar, from Filteration section Mr. Sushil Gumte, from Boiler house and Water treatment plant Mr. Kachru Karbhar, from Refrigeration, Air and Co2 plant Mr. Om Hazare and Mr. Aftab Shaikh, from Bottle washer Mr. Ganesh Lale, from Production department Mr. from Effluent Treatment Plant Mr. Zahid Pathan. Once again thank to each for supporting me and giving such a needful knowledge and boasting my moral.

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