PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board

MVJCE

ABSTRACT
Wireless systems are gaining popularity rapidly, as people attempt to do away with complicate and confusing wiring operations. Using existing radio wave frequencies, battery operated control panels allow for easier operation and maintenance of the display system.

Wireless Notice Board Wireless notice board is an enhanced technology used in order to same time and convey the message with no delay. It provides a wireless data transfer capability between the PC and the notice board without the need of wiring on through a radio frequency link. This is a microcontroller based Embedded System which achieves wireless interface between a PC and a Notice board. Here a 16x2 alphanumeric display can be used as the notice board .The user can type the messages to be displayed in the remote LCD using the hyper terminal of the PC and can be sent to the notice board using the RF link. The z8 microcontroller (F6423) based embedded system connected to the serial port of the PC receives the data send from the PC at the set baud rate and modulates it (ASK Modulation) and sends it to the display system through the wireless link. At the display side another z8 microcontroller (F6423) based embedded system receives the data through the RF receiver, demodulates it and sends to the display side. Need for wireless Notice Board • Time saving: We can deliver the message instantly to any remote destination and as it is displayed in general the time is saved. • Convenient: since the message is displayed in common its becomes economical and the delay in the message delivery is avoided. • Multiple message and notice boards controlled from a single location

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PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board

MVJCE

Technologies involved • • • Radio Frequency Communication Embedded Controller Architecture and Programming Communication Protocols

Project Cycle • • • • • • • • • • • • Determining the requirements of the embedded system Designing the system architecture Selecting the Operating system Choosing the processor and the associated peripherals Choosing the development platform Coding the application and optimizing the code Verification of the software on the host system Circuit Designing. PCB Layout. Device Test. Verification of the software on the target system Documentation

TeleCommunication

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PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board

MVJCE

CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………....5 2. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF WNB………………………………...............7 2.1 Block diagram of WNB…….………………………….….8 2.2 Block diagram Description......……………………………9 2.2.1 PIC………………………………………………..9 2.2.2 Driver……………………………………………..9 2.2.3 Transceiver……………………………..................9 2.2.4 I2C Expander…………………………………….10 2.2.5 Alphanumeric Display (LCD)…………………..10

3. PIC16F877 MICROCONTROLLER DETAILS…………………….11 3.1 Introduction to PIC MCU………………………………...12 3.1.1 What is MC? ........................................................12 3.1.2 Why 16F877? …………………………………..12 3.1.3 Features …………………………………………13 3.2 PIC16F877 Architecture …………………………...........14 3.2.1 ALU …………………………………………….15 3.2.2 Register………………………………………….15 3.2.3 Control Unit……………………………………..15 3.2.4 Memory …………………………………………16 3.2.5 I/O Ports…………………………………………17 3.2.6 Status Register…………………………………..18 3.2.7 Timers/Counters…………………………………19 3.2.8 Interrupt Control (INTCON)……………………19

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5 PIN Description………………………………………….... SOFTWARE SECTION………………………………………………56 9...1 RF TXD and RXD………………………………………………44 6.43 6..4 Applications of RF Transmitter and Receiver………………….33 5..37 5.49 8.PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE 4..3 Construction and nomenclature of LCD…………………31 4..2 Types of dot matrix LCD’s………………………………29 4.1 Features…………………………………………………...2 Encoding ………………………………………………46 6.3 Characteristics of I2C bus……………………………….2 RF Transmitter……………………………………….1.48 7.…………47 6.2 Block Diagram………………………………………….45 6.1 Software description……………………………………………57 TeleCommunication 4 .1 Introduction………………………………………………29 4.4 Interfacing the LCD module…………………………….32 4.. ALPHANUMERIC LCD………………………………………………28 4..1 Alphanumeric LCD…………………………….1. MAX 232……………………………………………………………….. I2C EXPANDER…………………………………………………. RF TRANSMITTER & RF RECEIVER…………………………….1 ASK Modulation………………………………….2..39 5.48 6..29 4...38 5.36 5....3 RF Receiver……………………………………………………. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF TXD & RXD…………………………….41 6..4 Addressing the I2C expander……………………………...52 9.

APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………. ENHANCEMENTS………………………………………………….PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE 10.. CONCLUSION……………………………………………………….63 12.60 11.67 BIBLOGRAPHY…………………………………………………………68 TeleCommunication 5 ..

PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TeleCommunication 6 .

This project finds application in Educational Institutions and Offices.PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE 1. time consumption is less and its user friendly. The PIC microcontroller based Embedded System connected to the serial port of the PC receives the data sent from the PC at the baud rate set and modulates it (ASK Modulation) and sends it to the display system through the wireless link.The user can type the messages to be displayed on the remote display board using the hyper terminal of the PC and can be sent to the notice board using the RF link. avoids the use of printer. demodulates it and sends to the display side. Here any display can be used as the notice board . Provides many advantages over the already existing display boards. INTRODUCTION The project aims at providing wireless (point to multi-point) data transfer capability between the PC and the notice board without the need of wiring. Using existing radio wave frequencies. TeleCommunication 7 . as it avoids avoids the need of wiring. battery operated control panels allow for easier operation and maintenance of the display system. This is a microcontroller based Embedded System which achieves wireless interface between a PC and a Notice board. as and when needed information can be displayed. Display boards for advertisement. At the display side another PIC microcontroller based Embedded System receives the data through the RF receiver. In Railway stations and Airports to intimate the passengers.

PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE CHAPTER 2 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF WNB TeleCommunication 8 .

PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE 2.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF WIRELESS NOTICE BOARD (WNB) Wireless Link PC Z8 µC Based Embed ded System RS 232 Communication RF Txr RF Receiver 16 x 2 Alphanumeric Display I2C Protocol PIC µC Based Embedded System TeleCommunication 9 .

In this project the features of PIC we make use of are.2.2.2. it demodulates the received data stream and passes it to the microcontroller.It is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 inputs to +5V TTL/CMOS levels. Then it transmits the modulated data stream at a frequency of 433.3 Tran-receiver (TLP 434A): It is a transreceiver IC which sends data at a rate of 8kbps at an RF frequency of 433.92MHz. In this project the IC is an interface between the PC and the microcontroller.It has 3KB of data memory. • • UART I2C 2. At the transmitter side.2 Driver: The IC used to serve this purpose is MAX 232.1 Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC): Microcontroller 16F877 is the heart of the project. It receives +12V digitized serial data stream from the PC and thus converts the same to TTL/CMOS levels as required to be sent to microcontroller 16F877.2 Block Diagram Description:2. At the receiver side. 2KB of EEPROM. 2. it receives the data stream from the microcontroller and performs ASK modulation.92 MHz.PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE 2. 8KB of flash memory. TeleCommunication 10 . It is an 8-bit microcontroller .

The segment driving method displays characters and pictures with cells defined by patterned electrodes. It is a silicon CMOS circuit that provides general purpose remote IO expansion for microcontroller via the two line bi-directional bus. 2.2.5 Alphanumeric Display (LCD): LCD stands for Liquid Crystal Displays.Liquid crystals when stimulated by an external electrical charge will change the properties of light passing through the crystals. The matrix driving method displays characters and pictures in sets of dots. In our project we are using it to communicate between microcontroller and the alphanumeric display (LCD) using the I2C bus. "Liquid crystal" is neither solid nor liquid (an example is soapy water). In our project we are using 16x2 line matrix driven method display to display our messages.4 I2C Expander: PCF8574 is an I2C parallel port expander. two way two line communication. There are two ways to produce a liquid-crystal image with such cells: the segment driving method and the matrix driving method.2.PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE 2. TeleCommunication 11 .

PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE CHAPTER 3 PIC16F877 MICROCONTROLLER DETAILS TeleCommunication 12 .

it becomes possible to fabricate the whole CPU of a digital computer on a single chip using LSI and VLSI technology. the LSI technology refers packing as many as 1000-10000 transistors on a single chip where as the VLSI refers to packing density of more than 10000 transistors on a single chip. In the project we make use of two microcontrollers PIC 16F877(one in transmitter and one in the receiver) manufactured by Microchip Technology. or Peripheral Interface Controller. which makes programming very easy. With the rapid advancements in the semiconductor technology.1 What Is A Microcontroller? A microprocessor with RAM. Also this microcontroller has a large amount of TeleCommunication 13 . 3.1. Only big industries and institute were able to purchase large computers .PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE 3. large computers were designed to solve complex.1.A digital computer having microprocessor has the CPU along with memory and IO devices is called MICROCOMPUTER. scientific and industrial problems and handles records of large corporations and government organizations. it consists of only 35 instructions. In the early years of powerful computers. A CPU build into a single LSI to VLSI chip is called MICROPROCESSOR. This situation gave birth to MICROCOMPUTERS.2 Why 16F877? PIC 16F877 is a RISC machine.A trend started in middle of 60’s to design smaller computers for smaller organizations and institutions. 3. The term PIC.1 Introduction To PIC MCU: The microcontroller is making great impact on every activity of mankind and is playing and expected to play a very important role in the daily functioning of the developed and developing societies. ROM and other peripherals chips together on a single chip is called a microcontroller. has been coined by Microchip Technology to identify its single-chip microcontrollers.

high speed CMOS FLASH/EEPROM technology • Fully static design • In-Circuit Serial Programming (ICSP) via two pins • Single 5V In-Circuit Serial Programming capability • In-Circuit Debugging via two pins • Processor read/write access to program memory • Wide operating voltage range: 2.0. PIC16F877 also has an inbuilt I2C module.20 µA 3V. 32 kHz .6 mA typical @ 3V.200 ns instruction cycle • Up to 8K x 14 words of FLASH Program Memory.5V • High Sink/Source Current: 25 mA • Commercial. indirect and relative addressing modes • Power-up Timer (PWRT) and Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) • Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC oscillator for reliable operation • Programmable code protection • Power saving SLEEP mode • Selectable oscillator options • Low power. 4 MHz . Industrial and Extended temperature ranges • Low-power consumption: .PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE memory which will suffice our program requirements. Up to 368 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM) Up to 256 x 8 bytes of EEPROM Data Memory • Pin out compatible to the PIC16C73B/74B/76/77 • Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources) • Eight level deep hardware stack • Direct.1 µA typical standby current TeleCommunication 14 .1.0V to 5. 3.3 Features: • High performance RISC CPU • Only 35 single word instructions to learn • All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two cycle • Operating speed: DC .20 MHz clock input DC .

PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE 3.2 PIC 167877 Architecture: Fig 2: Architecture TeleCommunication 15 .

2. The MC uses the program counter as a memory pointer to fetch an instruction. FSR’s are 8-bit registers that are used in indirect addressing.1 Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): The ALU includes electronic circuits (such as adder. comparator and flags) that are designed to perform logical & arithmetic operations such as addition. In this microcontroller this is called the working register (W Reg) and it is 8-bits wide. This unit oversees the binary information flow between the MP memory and IO. The register that is used to perform these functions is generally called the ACCUMULATOR. TeleCommunication 16 . OR.2. The program counter (PC) is a 13-bit register that holds that program memory address of the instruction that is to be read next. subtraction. EXOR. A few important registers are status register. 3.2.PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE It consists of three segments: • • • ALU Registers Control Unit 3. logical AND.2 Registers: The register segment of the microcontroller includes various types of registers that are used to hold memory addresses.3 Control Unit: Control Unit is designed to provide timing and control signals to various read and write operations. 3. file select register (FSR) and program counter.

The Program Memory and Data Memory have separate buses so that concurrent Access can occur. TeleCommunication 17 . Fig 3: Program memory and stack The PIC16F87X devices have a 13-bit program counter capable of addressing an 8K x 14 program memory space. Accessing a location above the physically implemented address will cause a wraparound.4 MEMORY: Program Memory Organization There are three memory blocks in each of the PIC16F87X MCUs.PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE 3. The RESET vector is at 0000h and the interrupt vector is at 0004h. The PIC16F877 devices have 8K x 14 words of FLASH program memory.2.

. TeleCommunication 18 .PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE Data Memory Organization: The data memory is partitioned into multiple banks which contain the General Purpose Registers and the Special Function Registers. and E). each pin will be configured as input/output by writing the SFR TRIS. All the ports are bi-directional i. D is 8-bit wide and PORTE is 3-bit wide.5 I/O Ports: The 16F877 has 5 I/O ports identified by alphabetic letters such as PORT (A. 3. D. PORTA is 6-bit wide. B.2. PORT B. Bits RP1 (STATUS<6>) and RP0 (STATUS<5>) are the bank select bits. C. C.e.

the RESET status and the bank select bits for data memory.2. The STATUS register can be the destination for any instruction. SUBWF I) 1 = A carry-out from the 4th low order bit of the result occurred TeleCommunication 19 .6 Status Register: The STATUS register contains the arithmetic status of the ALU. as with any other register. Bit 7 RP: Register Bank Select bit (used for indirect addressing) 1 = Bank 2.FFh) Bit 6-5 RP1:RP0: Register Bank Select bits (used for direct addressing) 11 = Bank 3 (180h . DC or C bits.FFh) 00 = Bank 0 (00h .1FFh) 0 = Bank 0.7Fh) Each bank is 128 bytes Bit 4 TO: Time-out bit 1 = after power-up.PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE 3. These bits are set or cleared according to the device logic. CLRWDT instruction. ADDLW.17Fh) 01 = Bank 1 (80h . and then the write to these three bits is disabled. SUBLW. 3 (100h . If the STATUS Register is the destination for an instruction that affects the Z.1FFh) 10 = Bank 2 (100h . 1 (00h . or SLEEP instruction 0 = A WDT time-out occurred Bit 3 PD: Power-down bit 1 = after power-up or by the CLRWDT instruction 0 = by execution of the SLEEP instruction Bit 2 Z: Zero bit 1 = the result of an arithmetic or logic operation is zero 0 = the result of an arithmetic or logic operation is not zero Bit 1 DC: Digit carry/borrow bit (ADDWF.

prescaler and postscaler. can be incremented during SLEEP via external crystal/clock Timer2: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit period register. SUBLW.7 Timers/Counters: Timer0: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit prescaler. ADDLW. Timer1: 16-bit timer/counter with prescaler.8 INTERRUPT CONTROL (INTCON): Bit 7 GIE: Global Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables all unmasked interrupts 0 = Disables all interrupts Bit 6 PEIE: Peripheral Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables all unmasked peripheral interrupts 0 = Disables all peripheral interrupts Bit 5 T0IE: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the TMR0 interrupt 0 = Disables the TMR0 interrupt Bit 4 INTE: RB0/INT External Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the RB0/INT external interrupt 0 = Disables the RB0/INT external interrupt Bit 3 RBIE: RB Port Change Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the RB port change interrupt 0 = Disables the RB port change interrupt Bit 2 T0IF: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit TeleCommunication 20 .PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE 0 = No carry-out from the 4th low order bit of the result Bit 0 C: Carry/borrow bit (ADDWF.2.2. SUBWF) 1 = A carry-out from the Most Significant bit of the result occurred 0 = No carry-out from the Most Significant bit of the result occurred 3. 3.

PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE 1 = TMR0 register has overflowed (must be cleared in software) 0 = TMR0 register did not overflow Bit 1 INTF: RB0/INT External Interrupt Flag bit 1 = The RB0/INT external interrupt occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = The RB0/INT external interrupt did not occur Bit 0 RBIF: RB Port Change Interrupt Flag bit 1 = At least one of the RB7:RB4 pins changed state. Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition and allow the bit to be cleared (Must be cleared in software). a mismatch condition will continue to set the bit. 0 = none of the RB7:RB4 pins have changed state PIE1 Register Bit 7 PSPIE(1): Parallel Slave Port Read/Write Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the PSP read/write interrupt 0 = Disables the PSP read/write interrupt Bit 6 ADIE: A/D Converter Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the A/D converter interrupt 0 = Disables the A/D converter interrupt Bit 5 RCIE: USART Receive Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the USART receive interrupt 0 = Disables the USART receive interrupt Bit 4 TXIE: USART Transmit Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the USART transmit interrupt 0 = Disables the USART transmit interrupt Bit 3 SSPIE: Synchronous Serial Port Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the SSP interrupt 0 = Disables the SSP interrupt Bit 2 CCP1IE: CCP1 Interrupt Enable bit TeleCommunication 21 .

A transmission/reception has taken place. and must be cleared in software before returning From the Interrupt Service Routine. The conditions that will set this bit are: • SPI . • I2C Slave TeleCommunication 22 .PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE 1 = Enables the CCP1 interrupt 0 = Disables the CCP1 interrupt Bit 1 TMR2IE: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the TMR2 to PR2 match interrupt 0 = Disables the TMR2 to PR2 match interrupt Bit 0 TMR1IE: TMR1 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit 1 = Enables the TMR1 overflow interrupt 0 = Disables the TMR1 overflow interrupt PIR1 REGISTER: Bit 7 PSPIF(1): Parallel Slave Port Read/Write Interrupt Flag bit 1 = A read or a write operation has taken place 0 = No read or write has occurred Bit 6 ADIF: A/D Converter Interrupt Flag bit 1 = An A/D conversion completed 0 = The A/D conversion is not complete Bit 5 RCIF: USART Receive Interrupt Flag bit 1 = The USART receive buffer is full 0 = The USART receive buffer is empty Bit 4 TXIF: USART Transmit Interrupt Flag bit 1 = The USART transmit buffer is empty 0 = The USART transmit buffer is full Bit 3 SSPIF: Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) Interrupt Flag 1 = The SSP interrupt condition has occurred.

.A STOP condition occurred while the SSP module was idle. • I2C Master . .A START condition occurred while the SSP module was idle.A transmission/reception has taken place.The initiated START condition was completed by the SSP module. .PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE - A transmission/reception has taken place. . . 0 = No SSP interrupt condition has occurred Bit 2 CCP1IF: CCP1 Interrupt Flag bit Capture mode: 1 = A TMR1 register capture occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = No TMR1 register capture occurred Compare mode: 1 = A TMR1 register compare match occurred 0 = No TMR1 register compare match occurred PWM mode: Unused in this mode Bit 1 TMR2IF: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Flag bit 1 = TMR2 to PR2 match occurred (must be cleared in software) 0 = No TMR2 to PR2 match occurred Bit 0 TMR1IF: TMR1 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit 1 = TMR1 register overflowed (must be cleared in software) 0 = TMR1 register did not overflow SSPSTAT Register Bit 7 SMP: Sample bit SPI Master Mode: TeleCommunication 23 .The initiated Restart condition was completed by the SSP module.The initiated Acknowledge condition was completed by SSP module.The initiated STOP condition was completed by the SSP module. .

PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE 1 = Input data sampled at end of data output time 0 = Input data sampled at middle of data output time SPI Slave mode: SMP must be cleared when SPI is used in slave mode In I2 C Master or Slave mode: 1 = Slew rate control disabled for standard speed mode 0 = Slew rate control enabled for high speed mode Bit 6 CKE: SPI Clock Edge Select SPI mode: For CKP = 0 1 = Data transmitted on rising edge of SCK 0 = Data transmitted on falling edge of SCK For CKP = 1 1 = Data transmitted on falling edge of SCK 0 = Data transmitted on rising edge of SCK In I2 C Master or Slave mode: 1 = Input levels conform to SMBus spec 0 = Input levels conform to I2C specs Bit 5 D/A: Data/Address bit (I2C mode only) 1 = Indicates that the last byte received or transmitted was data 0 = Indicates that the last byte received or transmitted was address Bit 4 P: STOP bit (I2C mode only. SSPEN is cleared.) 1 = Indicates that a STOP bit has been detected last (this bit is ’0’ on RESET) 0 = STOP bit was not detected last Bit 3 S: START bit (I2C mode only. This bit is cleared when the MSSP module is disabled. SSPEN is cleared. This bit is cleared when the MSSP module is disabled.) 1 = Indicates that a START bit has been detected last (this bit is ’0’ on RESET) 0 = START bit was not detected last TeleCommunication 24 .

RSEN. TXSTA REGISTER: Bit 7 CSRC: Clock Source Select bit Asynchronous mode: TeleCommunication 25 . Bit 1 UA: Update Address (10-bit I2C mode only) 1 = Indicates that the user needs to update the address in the SSPADD register 0 = Address does not need to be updated Bit 0 BF: Buffer Full Status bit Receive (SPI and I2 C modes): 1 = Receive complete. SSPBUF is empty. SSPBUF is empty Transmit (I2 C mode only): 1 = Data transmit in progress (does not include the ACK and STOP bits). In I2 C Slave mode: 1 = Read 0 = Write In I2 C Master Mode: 1 = Transmit is in progress 0 = Transmit is not in progress Logical OR of this bit with SEN. STOP bit or not ACK bit. or ACKEN will indicate if the MSSP is in IDLE mode. SSPBUF is full 0 = Data transmit complete (does not include the ACK and STOP bits). PEN.PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE Bit 2 R/W: Read/Write bit Information (I2C mode only) This bit holds the R/W bit information following the last address match. RCEN. SSPBUF is full 0 = Receive not complete. This bit is only valid from the address match to the next START bit.

can be parity bit RCSTA Bit 7 SPEN: Serial Port Enable bit 1 = Serial port enabled (configures RC7/RX/DT and RC6/TX/CK pins as serial port pins) TeleCommunication 26 .PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE Don’t care Synchronous mode: 1 = Master mode (clock generated internally from BRG) 0 = Slave mode (clock from external source) Bit 6 TX9: 9-bit Transmit Enable bit 1 = Selects 9-bit transmission 0 = Selects 8-bit transmission Bit 5 TXEN: Transmit Enable bit 1 = Transmit enabled 0 = Transmit disabled Note: SREN/CREN overrides TXEN in SYNC mode. Bit 4 SYNC: USART Mode Select bit 1 = Synchronous mode 0 = Asynchronous mode Bit 3 Bit 2 Unimplemented: Read as '0' BRGH: High Baud Rate Select bit Asynchronous mode: 1 = High speed 0 = Low speed Synchronous mode: Unused in this mode Bit 1 TRMT: Transmit Shift Register Status bit 1 = TSR empty 0 = TSR full Bit 0 TX9D: 9th bit of Transmit Data.

all bytes are received. enables interrupt and load of the receive buffer when RSR<8> is set 0 = Disables address detection. and ninth bit can be used as parity bit Bit 2 FERR: Framing Error bit 1 = Framing error (can be updated by reading RCREG register and receive next valid byte) 0 = No framing error TeleCommunication 27 .master: 1 = Enables single receive 0 = Disables single receive This bit is cleared after reception is complete. Synchronous mode .slave: Don’t care Bit 4 CREN: Continuous Receive Enable bit Asynchronous mode: 1 = Enables continuous receive 0 = Disables continuous receive Synchronous mode: 1 = Enables continuous receive until enable bit CREN is cleared (CREN overrides SREN) 0 = Disables continuous receive Bit 3 ADDEN: Address Detect Enable bit Asynchronous mode 9-bit (RX9 = 1): 1 = Enables address detection.PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE 0 = Serial port disabled Bit 6 RX9: 9-bit Receive Enable bit 1 = Selects 9-bit reception 0 = Selects 8-bit reception Bit 5 SREN: Single Receive Enable bit Asynchronous mode: Don’t care Synchronous mode .

PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE Bit 1 OERR: Overrun Error bit 1 = Overrun error (can be cleared by clearing bit CREN) 0 = No overrun error Bit 0 RX9D: 9th bit of Received Data (can be parity bit. but must be calculated by user firmware) TeleCommunication 28 .

PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE CHAPTER 4 ALPHANUMERIC LCD TeleCommunication 29 .

scientists showed that liquid crystals when stimulated by an external electrical charge could change the properties of light passing through the crystals.PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE 4. a switching device and a storage capacitor are integrated at the each cross point of the electrodes. more or less of the light is able to pass through a polarizing layer on the face of the display. Passive matrix is the less expensive of the two technologies. The effective voltage applied to the LC must average the signal voltage pulses over several frame times. The segment driving method displays characters and pictures with cells defined by patterned electrodes. In the mid-1960s. 4. "Liquid crystal" is neither solid nor liquid (an example is soapy water). formed by liquid-crystal (LC) cells that change the polarization direction of light passing through them in response to an electrical voltage. The most common liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) in use today rely on picture elements. and each pixel is addressed for more than one frame time. Passive-matrix and active-matrix driving of LCD Monitors. on the other hand. Change the voltage.2 Types of dot-matrix LCD’s: There are two types of dot-matrix LCDs. The passive matrix LCD has a grid of conductors with pixels located at each intersection in the grid. The matrix driving method displays characters and pictures in sets of dots. or pixels.1 Introduction To LCD: LCD stands for Liquid Crystal Displays.. The active addressing removes the multiplexing limitations by incorporating an TeleCommunication 30 . As the polarization direction changes. Liquid crystal was discovered by the Austrian botanist Fredreich Rheinizer in 1888. The addressing of a PMLCD also produces a kind of crosstalk that produces blurred images because non-selected pixels are driven through a secondary signal-voltage path. In passive-matrix LCDs (PMLCDs) there are no switching devices. which results in a slow response time of greater than 150 msec and a reduction of the maximum contrast ratio. There are two ways to produce a liquidcrystal image with such cells: the segment driving method and the matrix driving method. In active-matrix LCDs (AMLCDs). and the amount of light is changed.

The current in an active matrix display can be switched on and off more frequently. Nearly all TFT LCDs are made from a-Si because of the technology's economy and maturity. The category of display modules that have built-in controllers can be split again into character LCD modules and graphic LCD modules. and they present fewer cross-talk issues. Character modules can display only text and perhaps some special symbols. Some examples of graphic LCD controller chips are the Toshiba T6963. which is likely to be an attractive choice for small. For their integrated switching devices most use transistors made of deposited thin films. while graphic modules can display lines. Most color and large (greater than 320x240) monochrome displays are of this type. LCD modules can be split into two groups: those that have built-in controller and driver chips. An alternative TFT technology.or polysilicon or p-Si-is costly to produce and especially difficult to fabricate when manufacturing large-area displays. LCD displays that do not have controllers are typically used with powerful hardware. and those that have only driver chips. AMLCDs have no inherent limitation in the number of scan lines. and patterns in addition to text. and Hitachi HD61202. high definition displays such as view finders and projection displays. circles. A-Si TFTs are amenable to large-area fabrication using glass substrates in a low-temperature (300° to 400° process. C C) polycrystalline silicon . where a video controller is available to generate the complex drive signals necessary to run the display. such as a laptop computer. squares. The most common semi conducting layer is made of amorphous silicon (a-Si). This makes the p-Si TFT a good candidate for TFT array containing integrated drivers. In contrast to passive-matrix LCDs. but the electron mobility of a p-Si TFT is one or two orders of magnitude greater than that of an a-Si TFT. improving the screen refresh time. TeleCommunication 31 . Seiko-Epson SED1330. There are many kinds of AMLCDs.PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE active switching element. which are therefore called thin-film transistors (TFTs).

1 Alphanumeric LCD’s: Nearly every pixel-based alphanumeric LCD module made today uses the Hitachi HD44780 LCD controller chip. 20x1. or a derivative such as the Seiko-Epson SED1278.This apparent standardization in character LCDs has become extremely beneficial to design engineers and hobbyists. Other common sizes are 16x1.2.3 LCD Construction And Nomenclature: The figure below describes the nomenclature and the construction parts of an LCD TeleCommunication 32 . and 40x2 (characters x lines). The smallest of these displays is only one line of 8 characters. Dozens of manufacturers produce literally hundreds of models of LCD modules using this controller chip. 16x2. 20x4.PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE 4. 4. 20x2. 40x1. the largest is four lines of 40 characters each.

PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE 1) F substrate (glass) 2) Terminal 3) Segment electrode 4) Common electrode 5) B substrate (glass) 6) Upper polarizing plate 7) Orientation layer 8) Sealant 9) LC (liquid crystal) 10) Conducting material 11) Sealant 12) Inlet 13) Viewing area 14) Lower polarizing plate. Greater contrast comes with lower voltage and one should never apply a VLCD higher than VCC. Most character LCDs can achieve good display contrast with a voltage between 5V and 0V on pin 3. By adjusting the voltage or duty cycle of pin 3. The first three pins provide power to the LCD module. or lower polarizing plate and reflecting plate 4. TeleCommunication 33 . The ASCII code to be displayed is eight bits long and is sent to the LCD either four or eight bits at a time. the contrast of the display can be adjusted. If four bit mode is used.4 Interfacing the LCD module: The microcontroller/microprocessor interface to HD44780 LCD modules is 14 pins. two "nibbles" of data (Sent high four bits and then low four bits with an "E" Clock pulse with each nibble) are sent to make up a full eight bit transfer. Pin 1 is GND and should be grounded to the power supply. Pin 2 is VCC and should be connected to +5V power. Pin 3 is the LCD Display bias. Table below shows the basic pin out. The "E" Clock is used to initiate the data transfer within the LCD.

then the byte at the current LCD "Cursor" Position can be read or written. If the Bit is set.PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE 4. either an instruction is being sent to the LCD or the execution status of the last instruction is read back. TeleCommunication 34 .5 Pin Description: The "R/S" bit is used to select whether data or an instruction is being transferred between the microcontroller and the LCD. When the Bit is reset.

PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE Instructions: The different instructions available for use with the 44780 are shown below: TeleCommunication 35 .

the "S/C" bit is set (equal to "1") along with the "R/L" bit in the "Move Cursor/Shift Display" command for characters to be written from left to right (as with a "Teletype" video display).PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE Before sending commands or data to the LCD module. Each character to display is written like the control bytes. For eight bit mode. the cursor built into the LCD will increment to the next position (either right or left). the LCD can be written to with data or instructions as required. Normally. 2. Set the Operating Characteristics of the LCD o o o o o o Write "Set Interface Length" Write 0x010 to turn off the Display Write 0x001 to Clear the Display Write "Set Cursor Move Direction" Setting Cursor Behavior Bits Write "Enable Display/Cursor" & enable Display and Optional Cursor Once the initialization is complete. this is done using the following series of operations: 1. by setting the "S/C" bit during the "Move Cursor/Shift Display" command. Wait more than 15 msecs after power is applied. Write 0x030 to LCD and wait 5 msecs for the instruction to complete 3. the Module must be initialized. Write 0x030 to LCD and wait 160 µsecs for instruction to complete 4. TeleCommunication 36 . Write 0x030 AGAIN to LCD and wait 160 µsecs or Poll the Busy Flag 5. During initialization. after each character is sent to the LCD. except that the "R/S" line is set.

PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE CHAPTER 5 I2C EXPANDER (PCF8574) TeleCommunication 37 .

It also possesses an interrupt line (INT) which can be connected to the interrupt logic of the microcontroller. The PCF8574 has a low current consumption and includes latched outputs with high current drive capability for directly driving LEDs. 5.PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE The PCF8574 is a silicon CMOS circuit.The device consists of an 8-bit quasi-bidirectional port and an I2C-bus interface. This means that the PCF8574 can remain a simple slave device.5 to 6 V · Low standby current consumption of 10 mA maximum · I2C-bus to parallel port expander · Open-drain interrupts output · 8-bit remote I/O port for the I2C-bus · Compatible with most microcontrollers · Latched outputs with high current drive capability for directly driving LEDs · Address by 3 hardware address pins for use of up to 8 devices (up to 16 with PCF8574A) TeleCommunication 38 .1 Features: · Operating supply voltage 2. the remote I/O can inform the microcontroller if there is incoming data on its ports without having to communicate via the I2C-bus. By sending an interrupt signal on this line. It provides general purpose remote I/O expansion for most microcontroller families via the two-line bidirectional bus (I2C-bus).

PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE 5.2 Block Diagram: Fig:.Block diagram of i2c TeleCommunication 39 .

The data on the SDA line must remain stable during the HIGH period of the clock pulse as changes in the data line at this time will be interpreted as control signals.PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE 5. TeleCommunication 40 . Data transfer may be initiated only when the bus is not busy. Both lines must be connected to a positive supply via a pull-up resistor when connected to the output stages of a device. while the clock is HIGH is defined as the start condition (S). The two lines are a serial data line (SDA) and a serial clock line (SCL). 2-line communication between different ICs or modules.3 Characteristics Of The I2C Bus: The I2C-bus is for 2-way. A LOW-to-HIGH transition of the data line while the clock is HIGH is defined as the stop condition (P). Start and stop conditions Both data and clock lines remain HIGH when the bus is not busy. A HIGH-to-LOW transition of the data line. Bit transfer One data bit is transferred during each clock pulse.

A slave receiver which is addressed must generate an acknowledge after the reception of each byte.8). Also a master must generate an acknowledge after the reception of each byte that has been clocked out of the slave transmitter. a device receiving is the ‘receiver’.PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE System configuration A device generating a message is a ‘transmitter’. set-up and hold times must be taken into account. Each byte of eight bits is followed by one acknowledge bit (see Fig. The acknowledge bit is a HIGH level put on the bus by the transmitter whereas the master generates an extra acknowledge related clock pulse . so that the SDA line is stable LOW during the HIGH period of the acknowledge related clock pulse. Acknowledge The number of data bytes transferred between the start and the stop conditions from transmitter to receiver is not limited. In this event the transmitter must leave the data line HIGH to enable the master to generate a stop condition. TeleCommunication 41 . The device that controls the message is the ‘master’ and the devices which are controlled by the master are the ‘slaves’. A master receiver must signal an end of data to the transmitter by not generating an acknowledge on the last byte that has been clocked out of the slave. The device that acknowledges has to pull down the SDA line during the acknowledge clock pulse.

PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE F ig. Input data is transferred from the port to the microcontroller by the READ mode .Write Mode (Output) TeleCommunication 42 .4 ADDRESSING I2C EXPANDER: Each of the PCF8574’s eight I/Os can be independently used as an input or output.8 Acknowledgment on the I2C-bus. 5. Output data is transmitted to the port by the WRITE mode. Fig: .

PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE Fig: Read Mode (Output) TeleCommunication 43 .

PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE CHAPTER 6 RF TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER TeleCommunication 44 .

O) combination which works as super heterodyne.PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE 6. So obtained TeleCommunication 45 . It plays a vital role for all wireless devices and application. which is linear and sensitive to atmosphere and also they are inexpensive.1 RF Transmitter and Receiver RF transmitter and receiver are one of the important components used in our project to give a wider touch.Basic block diagram showing RF Transmitter and Receiver. so generated analog signal is feed to LPF block. Both of them employ ASK (amplitude shift keying) modulation. We are going for RF ASK Low Cost Hybrid Modules TPL434 and RLP434 for transmitter and receiver application. An input digital signal is given to DAC stage which converts the digital input signal to analog signal. where these RF transmitter and receiver are used to obtain a wireless application for our project. Fig 6: . The output from LPF is given to down convertor and Local oscillator (L. Above block diagram represents the basic of RF Transmitter and receiver where a single antenna is working for both transmission and receiving propose. Here the analog signal is converted to a particular frequency range at which the transmitter is supposed to operate.

In the modulated signal.1 ASK Modulation Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) is a form of modulation that represents digital data as variations in the amplitude of a carrier wave.e. The ASK technique is also commonly used to transmit digital data over optical fiber. This is how a general RF Transmitter and Receiver works as explained 6.1. Here on receiving signals from the medium Antenna gives it to LNA from where it is given to super heterodyne receiver i. Here the signal is driven back into its original range. keeping frequency and phase constant. thus giving OFF/ON keying operation and hence the name given. propagation conditions on different routes in PSTN. While the Receiver part operates exactly vice versa. while a higheramplitude light wave represents binary 1. The level of amplitude can be used to represent binary logic 0s and 1s.PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE signal is passed through low noise amplifier (LNA) and given to Duplexer from where it is transmitted on the medium using antenna. Laser transmitters normally have a fixed "bias" current that causes the device to emit a low light level. The amplitude of an analog carrier signal varies in accordance with the bit stream (modulating signal). a combination of local oscillator and down convertor. Both ASK modulation and demodulation processes are relatively inexpensive. TeleCommunication 46 . And the ADC converts it back to its original digital form. This low level represents binary 0. logic 0 is represented by the absence of a carrier. etc. distortions. binary 1 is represented by a short pulse of light and binary 0 by the absence of light. ASK is linear and sensitive to atmospheric noise. For LED transmitters. We can think of a carrier signal as an ON or OFF switch.

PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE Fig 1.2 Encoding: The simplest and most common form of ASK operates as a switch. These forms of amplitude-shift keying require a high signal-to-noise ratio for their recovery.(a) Modulated signal and (b) ASK Signal. TeleCommunication 47 . an eightlevel scheme can represent three bits. 6. This type of modulation is called on-off keying. a four-level encoding scheme can represent two bits with each shift in amplitude. For instance.1. and is used at radio frequencies to transmit Morse code (referred to as continuous wave operation).1: . and so on. using the presence of a carrier wave to indicate a binary one and its absence to indicate a binary zero. More sophisticated encoding schemes have been developed which represent data in groups using additional amplitude levels.

2 Radio Frequency Transmitter: SPECIFICATIONS: • • • • • • • • Frequency : 433.92 MHZ Modulation: ASK Circuit Shape: SAW Date Rate: 8K bps Supply Voltage: +5V Power Supply range for I/O pins: 0 to 5 V Non-Operating Case Temperature: -20 to +85 C Soldering Temperature ( 10 Seconds ) : 230 C TeleCommunication 48 .PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE 6.

4 Application of RF Transmitter and Receiver: • • • • • • • • Wireless security system Car alarms Remote gate control controls Remote sensing Data communication Remote water/ Electric switch Pager system PDA data communication TeleCommunication 49 .PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE 6.3 RADIO FREQUENCY RECEIVER: SPECIFICATIONS: • • • • • • • • • • • Frequency : 433.92 MHZ Modulation: ASK Circuit Shape: LC Date Rate: 4800 bps Sensitivity: -106 dBm Supply Voltage: +5V Power Supply range for I/O pins: 0 to 5 V Non-Operating Case Temperature: -20 to +85 C Soldering Temperature ( 10 Seconds ) : 230 C High sensitivity passive design Simple to apply with low current 6.

PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE CHAPTER 7 MAX 232 TeleCommunication 50 .

Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into TIA/EIA-232-F levels. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1. and can accept ±30-V inputs.5 V.. Each receiver converts TIA/EIA-232-F inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels.3 V. a typical hysteresis of 0.PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply TIA/EIA-232-Fvoltage levels from a single 5-V supply. Fig: Max 232 TeleCommunication 51 .

.. . . .3 V to VCC + 0. . . . . T2OUT . . . . . . . .. . . .3 V to VS+ + . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . −0. −0. . . . . . . . . .3 V Receiver . . . . . . . .. . . .VS− − 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R2OUT .3 V to VCC + 0. Unlimited TeleCommunication 52 . . . . . . . . . . . . .3V R1OUT. ±30 V Output voltage range.Typical Operating Circuit Input voltage range. . . . . . . . .3 V Short-circuit duration: T1OUT. . .PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE Fig :. . . . . VI: Driver . . . . . . . . . ……. . . . T2OUT . . VO: T1OUT. . . .

PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE CHAPTER 8 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF TRANSMITTER & RECEIVER TeleCommunication 53 .

PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board

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Fig: Microcontroller Interface Circuit Diagram-TXD

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PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board

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Fig: Power Supply-TXD

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PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board

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Fig: Microcontroller interface circuit diagram-RXD

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PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE Fig: Power Supply-RXD TeleCommunication 57 .

PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE CHAPTER 9 SOFTWARE SECTION TeleCommunication 58 .

PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE 9. START INTIALISE MICRO CONTROLLE RECEIVE THE DATA SERIALLY STORE IN MICRO CONTROLLE TRANSMIT THROUGH SERIAL PORT TO TRANSMITT END Fig: Flowchart of Transmitter TeleCommunication 59 . The flowchart for transmitter and receiver is as shown below. This can be explained by dividing the program into transmitter and receiver.1 Software description: In our project the software section consists of assembly language program meeting the requirements of our project.

PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE START INITIALISE MICROCONTROLLER RECEIVE THE DATA THROUGH RECEIVE PIN OF MC IS RECEIVED DATA VALID? TRANSMIT DATA TO LCD USING I2C END Fig: Flowchart of Receiver TeleCommunication 60 .

PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE CHAPTER 10 APPLICATIONS TeleCommunication 61 .

By using this technology we can make proper utilization of resources. road sides as well as at the theaters. timely and proper management of people without any hassles. • Uses for Traffic Control It’s known to all of us that traffic are the good servants of the people and also the major invention to help people but only if it is managed well other wise we all know Bangalore’s traffic how ridiculous and irritating it can be. hotels. There are different types of labs and the devices for diagnosis of the different kinds of disease. As in the hospitals we have to keep track of so many things like management of the resources and the scheduling of everyone and everything. motels.PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE APPLICATIONS • Uses in hospitals. restaurants etc… about their products and features. To keep a proper track of such huge mass of people and their transactions this technology helps with certain degree of effectiveness. • Uses for advertisement We can make use of this technology to display the different advertisement on display panels to reach the larger number of people at a time and in the populated places like shopping malls. So with the use of this technology we can maintain the flow of traffic according to the needs of the people and also considering the availability of roads. • Uses in Banks There is a huge mass of population which depends upon the banks for all their monetary transactions. • Uses in Educational sector Currently in India we are relying on the old style of displaying news by hanging bare time consuming papers on the notice board which can be TeleCommunication 62 . discos.

reports. With the help of this technology we can make it far easier and reliable. And also their schedules work. • Stock Exchange The stock exchange is the hot topic nowadays. inclusive of various information which adds to the advanced and busy life on daily basis. There are millions of sales of shares every hours and it is very necessary to maintain the real time services with the certain measures of reliability because it deals with the money large number of the small or bigger investors. • Information purpose It would be wiser to make a use of this technology for information purpose like news and its updates. also at the time of examination scheduling and result publishing etc.PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE replaced by remote controlled notice boards at the colleges and universities. real time reporting. • Organizations Every organization has large number of employees who are assigned to accomplish the various tasks and each and everything should be documented for the future reference purpose. live telecasting. TeleCommunication 63 . presentation as well as distribution of salary etc…. leaves.

PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE CHAPTER 11 ENHANCEMENTS TeleCommunication 64 .

Which adds to one of the essential further enhancement. which gives a wider view and application. mean while it also aids to the time utilization as time is the most important factor in daily lives. TeleCommunication 65 . Such as:• It can be used to cover a wider range by the use of Effective RF Transmitter and Receiver. • As the RF Transmitters and Receivers are temperature sensitive we can make a proper use of them to overcome its sensitivity. This adds to one of the major Further Enhancement. • Even if we see in wider application we can use it for the display of symbols. remote controlling and monitoring. • Even we can increase the size of LCD so that it will be more practical and advanced with its various features like wireless communication. Let’s take an example of combination of microcontrollers and mobile technology. • Even it has a scope of sending and receiving e-mails on this device. which have wider application to the present world. signs and figures which can be easily understood and followed by normal non technical and general people. • On the other hand we have got the freedom to make it as two way communication medium.PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE ENHANCEMENTS This technology can be used for broader application with the help of Further Enhancements. where we can deploy the feature of SMS to the mobile along with LCD display. as communication and information interchange has become one of the essential tools for the researches and innovations? • As mobile has become the major device to give the access to the information and to get connected with desired people and communication world which directly relates to almost all of the people and it seems like impossible to keep track of everything without the help of mobile we should be able to do further enhancement in mobile and communication.

PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE As we see from the above discussion it has the wide and extensive further enhancements which add to the wider application. which can change the face of present communication system providing better services in the communication field to the people and organization. deployment of information technology. TeleCommunication 66 .

PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE Conclusion: Form this article we conclude implementing Wireless Notice Board that:- It eliminates the use of a printer. Messages lasts until the power in switched off.. Finally the cost of module comes to Rs. Messages can be sent anytime & corrected instantaneously. It is user friendly i. any layman can operate it.4000/- TeleCommunication 67 .e.

PEATMAN 2. ANALOG AND DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONSIMON HAYKINS 3.PIC Microcontroller based Wireless Notice Board MVJCE BIBLOGRAPHY 1.B.com www. EMBEDDED SYSTEM DESIGN FRANK VAHID &TONY GIVARGIS WEBSITES www.howstuffworks. DESIGN WITH PIC MICROCONTROLLERSJOHN.u2.google.philips.kartoo.semiconductors.com www.com TeleCommunication 68 .com www.com/i2c/facts/ www.microchip.com www.com www.wikipedia.laipac.