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August 19, 1999

**Supersedes all previous versions
**

Please go to next page for hypertext table of contents

(Not all cross-links are active in the draft version)

**Prepared by the 22nd ITTC Symbols and Terminology Group
**

Prof. Bruce Johnson (Chairman), U.S. Naval Academy (USA) Dr. David Clarke (Secretary), University of Newcastle upon Tyne (GB) Prof. Carlo Podenzana-Bonvino, University of Genova (I) Prof. Kazuhiko Hasegawa, Osaka University, (J)

Draft Version 1999 Edited and Produced by Bruce Johnson U.S. Naval Academy Annapolis, MD 21402-5042, USA Phone +1 410-293-6457, Fax +1-410-293-2219 johnson@nadn.navy.mil Based on the SaT List Version 1993 Edited and Produced by Michael Schmiechen Versuchsanstalt für Wasserbau und Schiffbau, Berlin: VWS, Mitteilungen, Heft 57 (1993) Mueller-Breslau-Strasse (Schleuseninsel) D-10623 Berlin, Germany

Please send or fax comments, suggestions, needed additions and clarifications to Professor Johnson

**ITTC Symbols and Terminology List, Draft Version 1999
**

Table of Contents: Green colored fonts indicate hypertext link to symbols pages

1 Table of Contents Preface to Version 1999, 22nd ITTC Symbols and Terminology List Ships in General 1.1 Basic Quantities 1.2 Geometry and Hydrostatics 1.2.1 Hull Geometry 1.2.2 Propulsor Geometry 1.2.3 Appendage Geometry 1.2.4 Hydrostatics and Stability 1.3 Resistance and Propulsion 1.3.1 Hull Resistance 1.3.2 Ship Performance 1.3.3 Propulsor Performance 1.3.4 Unsteady Propeller Forces 1.3.5 Waterjets 1.4 Manoeuvring and Seakeeping 1.4.1 Manoeuvring 1.4.2 Seakeeping Special Craft 2.1 Planing and Semi-Displacement Vessels 2.2 Multi-Hull Vessels 2.3 Hydrofoil Boats 2.4 ACV and SES 2.5 Ice Going Vessels 2.6 Sailing Vessels Mechanics 3.1 Fundamental Concepts 3.1.1 Coordinates and Space Related Concepts 3.1.2 Time and Frequency Domain Concepts 3.1.3 Random Quantities and Stochastic Processes 3.1.4 Balances and System Related Concepts 3.2 Solid Body Mechanics 3.2.1 Inertial and Hydrodynamic Properties 3.2.2 Loads, External and Sectional 3.2.3 Rigid Body Motions 3.3 Fluid Mechanics 3.3.1 Flow Parameters 3.3.2 Flow Fields 3.3.3 Lifting Surfaces 3.3.4 Boundary Layers 3.3.5 Cavitation 3.4 Environmental Mechanics 3.4.1 Waves 3.4.2 Wind 3.4.3 Ice Mechanics Background and References 4.1 Symbols and Terminology Group 4.2 List of Symbols 4.3 Principles of Notation 4.4 Details of Notation 4.5 References Appendices (Sketches to be added to Final Version) 2 3 4 4 7 7 13 17 20 26 26 30 34 39 41 43 43 51 53 53 59 62 67 70 72 75 75 75 80 85 89 92 92 94 96 99 99 101 104 107 109 111 111 116 117 118 118 132 134 137 139 141

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ITTC Symbols Version 1999

Preface 3

Preface

The 1999 Version of the ITTC Symbols and Terminology List was prepared by the 22nd ITTC Symbols and Terminology(SaT) Group whose membership is as follows: Prof. Bruce Johnson (Chairman), U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis (USA) Dr. David Clarke (Secretary), University of Newcastle upon Tyne (GB) Prof. Carlo Podenzana-Bonvino, University of Genova (I) Prof. Kazuhiko Hasegawa, Osaka University, (J) With the assistance of Consulting Members:: Prof. Michael Schmiechen, VWS (retired), Technical University Berlin (D) Prof. Michio Nakato, Hiroshima University (retired) — Fukuyama Polytechnic College (J) Prof. S. S. Yuan, Shanghai (retired) (C) Dr. Kostadin Yossifov, B.S.H.C., Varna (BG) An informal meeting of the SaT Group was held in Trondheim in September, immediately after the nomination at the 21st ITTC. Three additional meetings have been held: Brussels, Belgium 13 -17 May, 1998, Washington, D. C. 9-14 August , 1998, Genova, Italy, 9-12 March, 1999, The 1999 Version of the ITTC Symbols and Terminology List is recommended to the 22nd ITTC Conference in September 1999 in Korea/China to be adopted as a reference document. The ITTC SaT List needs continuous updating, revision, and extensions and the Hypertext Version should be updated and re-issued at least on an annual basis. Consequently Technical Committees, Specialist Groups, Member Organizations and other parties interested are encouraged to contact the SaT Group with suggestions for necessary additions to and improvements of the SaT List because its quality strongly depends upon user inputs. For that purpose the SaT Group needs to continue to implement methods for wide dissemination of the ITTC Symbols and Terminology List in various media to the Member Organizations and other interested parties such as naval and commercial shipbuilders, universities, and organizations e. g. ISO, ISSC. A future task will be the proposed conversion of the ITTC Symbols and Terminology List to a better web-centered format during the next 3 years. A goal of the SaT Group is to produce a document that can replace the ISO Standard 7463 first edited on September 15, 1990 based on the obsolete 1975 Version of the SaT List. The Symbols and Terminology Group will continue to monitor the international efforts in the field of neutral data formats, e. g. STEP developments, and to coordinate the development of neutral formats for the exchange of information between ITTC member organizations and their clients.

3 dv / dt m/s2 m2 m Force normal to lift and drag (forces) Force opposing translatory velocity. IN L. LE FF(3) M. F1 MO FR. AR. strength of the earth gravity field 1/T m J Hz N m/s2 h H I L L.1 Ships in General Basic Quantities Definition or Explanation 4 SIUnit see Remarks .ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 1 1. a1 A B C.1 a. generally for a completely immersed body N N d. A1 A.2. FF3 m M. MA. EN FR F. F0 g D. MASS M1. F0 G. . DI E. BR FF(2) FF(1) Linear or translatory acceleration Area in general Breadth Cross force Drag (force) Name 1 1. GR Diameter Energy Frequency Force Acceleration of gravity Weight force / mass. N P DE H. FF1 Computer Symbol Ships in General Basic Quantities AC. AREA B. HT I. D E f F. FF2 D. F1 M n. .1. N P. PO Depth Height Moment of inertia Length Lift (force) Mass Moment of forces Momentum Frequency or rate of revolution Power Alias RPS (RPM in some propulsor applications) First order moment of a force distribution Force perpendicular to translatory velocity Second order moment of a mass distribution m m kg m2 m N kg Nm Ns Hz W .

ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol r. sometimes called specific gravity Efficiency Mass density Tangential stress Scale ratio Ship dimension divided by corresponding model dimension 2πf 2πn Mass density of a substance divided by mass density of distilled water at 4bC Ratio of powers. TAU SC kg/m3 Pa 1 σ ω ω. V1 V w W γ U. gravity force acting on a body Relative mass or weight. RE.2 Volume Weight density. OMN Normal stress Circular frequency Rotational velocity Pa 1/s rad/s . RHO ST. UN V. V1 VO WD WT MR Undisturbed velocity of a fluid Linear or translatory velocity ds / dt of a body see Remark . FF1 s t t T Computer Symbol RD Name 1 1. formerly specific weight Weight (force).3 dm / dV dW / dV = ρg m/s m/s m3 N/m3 N 1 η ρ τ λ EF. see Remark . R R. OMF V0. ETA DN.1 Ships in General Basic Quantities Definition or Explanation 5 SIUnit m Force opposing translatory velocity N m s K Duration of a cycle of a repeating or periodic. V0 SN. FF(1) Resistance (force) SP TI TE TC Distance along path Time Temperature Period U v. not necessarily harmonic process s Radius R. SIGS FC.

1 Computer Symbol Name 1 1.3 Efficiencies The concept of efficiency or factor of merit is that of a ratio of powers. or similar would be much more reasonable than the traditional symbols listed. The SaT Group feels that at the present stage it may be time for a radical change. instead of ETA. Another example is the traditional symbol ω for circular frequency and rotational velocity. The advantages need not to be elaborated upon. .3 Rigid Body Motions. 2. Forces In the following sections more general concepts are proposed. 3. e. ηXY = PX / PY . which permit an even more rational approach. the complete motion with six degrees of freedom.2. again with I = 1. namely the identifiers of the two powers put into proportion.2 Velocities.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 1. see the section on 3. As a matter of fact this type of notation is used more and more in various applications. preferably powers proper. Concerning the hydrodynamic forces acting on a body due to translatory motion only the rational computer symbols are given. The computer symbol should of course be EF.1. . This notation together with the computer notation EFXY would of course greatly improve the data handling as it is truly operational.1 Coordinates and Space Related Quantities and the section on 3. This state of affairs is more than unsatisfactory. in precisely that order! In terms of the generalized velocity v. 3 and 'resulting' in the computer symbols V0(I) = V(3+I). Clearly the computer symbols FC and V0. 2. The most appropriate notation for efficiencies would therefore be the following with two indices. the components of the rotational velocity are then uniquely denoted by v0i = v3+i with i = 1. respectively.1.1 Ships in General Basic Quantities Definition or Explanation 6 SIUnit Remarks . i. but sometimes virtual powers are considered as well. Appropriate symbols for the linear and the rotational velocity would be v1 and v0 . respectively.1 Greek Symbols For traditional reasons the computer symbols of the concepts denoted by Greek ITTC Symbols do in general not refer to the concepts. An example is the efficiency. . the universally accepted symbol being the Greek η. but rather to the Greek symbol.

1 1. Remark .2 Geometry and Hydrostatics 1.1 Hull Geometry Definition or Explanation 7 SIUnit Geometry and Hydrostatics Hull Geometry Basic Quantities ABL Area of bulbous bow in longitudinal plane The area of the ram projected on the middle line plane forward of the fore perpendicular.2 1. moulded.1 The cross sectional area at the fore perpendicular.2. Where the water lines are rounded so as to terminate on the forward perpendicular ABT is measured by continuing the area curve forward to the perpendicular.1 Midway between fore and aft perpendiculars Cross-sectional area of transom stern below the load waterline Area of portion of ship above waterline projected normally to the direction of relative wind m2 ABT ABT Area of transverse crosssection of a bulbous bow (full area port and starboard) m2 AM AT AM ATR Area of midship section Area of transom (full area port and starboard) Area exposed to wind m2 m2 AV AV m2 AW AWA AWF AX B BM AW AWA AWF AX B BM Area of water-plane Area of water-plane aft of midship Area of water-plane forward of midship Area of maximum transverse section Beam or breadth.1 ABL Computer Symbol Name 1 Ships in General 1.2. Remark . s. moulded of midship section at design water line m2 m2 m2 m2 m m . of ships hull Breadth.2.1. ignoring the final rounding.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 1. s.

half rad iR ANRU Angle of run. moulded of transom at design water line Maximum moulded breadth at design water line Breadth.T dKL D f T KDROP DEP FREB m m m m iE ANEN Angle of entrance. overall submerged Length of parallel middle body Length between perpendiculars Length of constant transverse section m m m m . or maximum section d. moulded. moulded of maximum section area at design water line Draft. overall Length.1 Hull Geometry Definition or Explanation 8 SIUnit m m m Breadth.2 Geometry and Hydrostatics 1. neglecting local shape of stern frame Reference length of ship (generally length between the perpendiculars) From the forward perpendicular to the forward end of parallel middle body. half rad L L Length of ship m LE LEN Length of entrance m LOA LOS LP LPP LOA LOS LP LPP Length.2. according to official rules Angle of waterline at the bow with reference to centerplane. of a ship hull Freeboard From the freeboard markings to the freeboard deck. moulded. neglecting local shape at stem Angle of waterline at the stern with reference to the center-plane. of ship hull Design drop of the keel line TAD .ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol BT BWL BX Computer Symbol BTR BWL BX Name 1 Ships in General 1.TFD alias “keel drag” Depth.

ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol LR Computer Symbol LRU Name 1 Ships in General 1. moulded. of ship hull Draft at aft perpendicular m m m m m Maximum draft of the hull without keel or skeg (TA + TF) / 2 for rigid bodies with straight keel (TAD + TFD) / 2 for rigid bodies Vertical depth of trailing edge of boat at keel below water surface level ∆ / (ρ g) = iBH + iAP ∆BH / (ρ g) ∆AP / (ρ g) m m m m TAD. V iBH iAP DISPVOL DISPVBH DISPVAP Displacement volume Displacement volume of bare hull Displacement volume of appendages m3 m3 m3 . TFP TFD. d TA. dF TFD TH TM. TAP Draft. TFPD THUL TM. TAPD Design draft at aft perpendicular TF. AWS TT Length of waterline Frame spacing Station spacing Area of wetted surface Taylor tangent of the area curve The intercept of the tangent to the sectional area curve at the bow on the midship ordinate m m m m2 1 T.2. dA TAD TF. dM TMD TT T TA. TMSD Design draft at midship TTR Immersion of transom i.1 Hull Geometry Definition or Explanation From section of maximum area or after end of parallel middle body to waterline termination or other designated point of the stern used for structures 9 SIUnit m Length of run LWL LFS LSS S t LWL LFS LSS S.2 Geometry and Hydrostatics 1. TMS Draft at forward perpendicular Design draft at forward perpendicular Draft of the hull Draft at midship TMD.

AWA / (B L / 2) aft Water plane area coefficient. entrance Prismatic coefficient forebody Prismatic coefficient. afterbody Prismatic coefficient. transverse Midship section coefficient (midway between forward and aft perpendiculars) Longitudinal prismatic coefficient Prismatic coefficient.2 Geometry and Hydrostatics 1. AWF /(B L / 2) forward .2 Wetted surface coefficient CP CPA CPE CPF CPR CS CVP CWA CWF CPL CPA CPE CPF CPR CS CVP CWA CWF i / (AX L) or i / (AM L) iA / (AX L / 2) or iA / (AM L / 2) iE / (AX LE) or iE / (AM LE) iF / (AX L / 2) or iF / (AM L / 2) iR / (AX LR) or iR / (AM LR) S / (i L)1/2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Prismatic coefficient vertical i / (AW T) Water plane area coefficient.1 Hull Geometry Definition or Explanation gρi g ρ iBH g ρ iAP λ = LS / LM = BS / BM = TS / TM 10 SIUnit N N N 1 Displacement force (buoyancy) Displacement force (buoyancy) of bare hull Displacement force (buoyancy) of appendages Linear scale of ship model B / i1/3 i / (L B T) 12 IL / ( B L3) 12 IT / (B3 L) AM / (B T) 1 1 1 1 1 Coefficient of inertia of waterplane.1.2 BC CB CIL CIT CM Computer Symbol DISPF DISPFBH DISPFAP SC Derived Quantities CIRCB CB CWIL CWIT CMS R.2.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol ∆ ∆BH ∆AP λ 1.E. Remark . Froude's breadth coefficient Block coefficient Name 1 Ships in General 1. run s.2. longitudinal Coefficient of inertia of waterplane.

ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol CWP CX Computer Symbol CW CX Name 1 Ships in General 1. or lengthdisplacement ratio L / i1/3 Ci fBL fBT ft.2.E. Froude's length coefficient.3 A CIRCS CIRCB R. CVOL CABL CABL ATR CIRCB 1 1 1 1 1 MC SC TC 1. Froude's wetted surface S / i2/3 area coefficient R. Froude's draft coefficient T / i1/3 1 1 Symbols for Attributes and Subscripts AB AP LPP After body After perpendicular Appendages Bare hull Design waterline Entry Fore body Fore perpendicular Frame spacing Hull Reference Line Based on LPP Based on LWL B E F BH DW EN FB FP FS H HE LR LP LW .where B and T coefficient are measured at the position of maximum area Volumetric coefficient i / L3 Area coefficient for bulbous ABL / (L T) bow Taylor sectional area ABT / AX coefficient for bulbous bow Sectional area coefficient for AT / AX transom stern R.2 Geometry and Hydrostatics 1.1.E.1.E.1 Hull Geometry Definition or Explanation AW /(L B) 11 SIUnit 1 1 Water-plane area coefficient Maximum transverse section AX / (B T).

but this length should be clearly indicated and stated.2 Reference Quantities The prismatic coefficient should generally be based upon maximum section area rather than on midsection area. Whatever ship length considered appropriate may be used for this end and another coefficient.2. In such instances this area should be calculated using as datum the aftermost vertical tangent to the contour instead of the fore perpendicular. as in the 1960 Committee Report.2.1 Hull Geometry Definition or Explanation 12 SIUnit Midships Parallel body Run Station spacing Water plane Wetted surface .4 Computer Symbol MS PB RU SS WP WS Remarks Name 1 Ships in General 1. . .1 Bulbous Bows Below the load water line the stem contour sometimes recedes aft of the fore perpendicular before projecting forward to define the outline of the ram or the fore end of the bulb.1. but it should be clearly stated which area has been used.2 Geometry and Hydrostatics 1.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol M R W S 1.

Positive when middle chord is at the trailing side regarding the blade reference line 2 rh m cS CS Skew displacement m dh D f GZ DH DP FBP GAP Boss or hub diameter Propeller diameter Camber of blade profile Gap between the propeller blades m m m 2 π r sin (φ) / z m .2.2 1.2.2 Geometry and Hydrostatics 1.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 1.2.1 AD Computer Symbol Name 1 Ships in General 1.2.2 Propulsor Geometry Definition or Explanation 13 SIUnit Propulsor Geometry Screw Propellers AD Developed blade area Developed blade area of a screw propeller outside the boss or hub Expanded blade area of a screw propeller outside the boss or hub π D2 / 4 Projected blade area of a screw propeller outside the boss or hub AD / A0 AD / A0 AD / A0 m2 AE AE Expanded blade area m2 AO Ap AO AP Disc Area Projected blade area m2 m2 aD aE aP c cm ADR ADE ADP LCH CHME Developed blade area ratio Expanded blade area ratio Projected blade area ratio Chord length Mean chord length 1 1 1 m The expanded or developed area of a propeller blade divided by the span from the hub to the tip The displacement between middle of chord and the blade reference line.

2 Propulsor Geometry Definition or Explanation The depth of submergence of the propeller measured vertically from the propeller center to the free surface Distance between the propeller sweep circle and the hull The displacement from the propeller plane to the generator line in the direction of the shaft axis.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol hO Computer Symbol HO Name 1 Ships in General 1. Aft displacement is positive rake. P/D 14 SIUnit m Immersion HTC HTC Hull tip clearance m iG RAKG Rake m iS RAKS Axial displacement.2 Geometry and Hydrostatics 1. total m NPR p Ρ r rh R t tO NPR PDR PITCH LR RH RDP TM TO Number of propellers Pitch ratio Propeller pitch in general Blade section radius Hub radius Propeller radius Blade section thickness Thickness on axis of propeller blade Boss to diameter ratio Longitudinal propeller position Thickness of propeller blade as extended down to propeller axis dh / D Distance of propeller center forward of the after perpendicular 1 1 m m m m m m xB xp XBDR XP m . Aft displacement is positive rake The axial displacement of the blade reference line from the propeller plane iG + iS = cS sinφ Positive direction is aft. The axial displacement of a blade section which occurs when the propeller is skewed.2. skewinduced m iT RAKT Axial displacement.

It is positive when opposite to the direction of ahead rotation The difference between maximum and minimum local skew angle arctg (P / (2 π R)) 15 SIUnit m Lateral propeller position Z.2.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol yp Computer Symbol YP Name 1 Ships in General 1. ψbP NPB ZP PSIBP Number of propeller blades Vertical propeller position Propeller axis angle measured to body fixed coordinates Skew angle 1 m rad θs TETS rad θ θEXT RAKA TEMX Angle of rake Skew angle extent rad rad φ φF PHIP PHIF Pitch angle of screw propeller Pitch angle of screw propeller measured to the face line Propeller axis angle measured to space fixed coordinates Blade thickness ratio 1 1 ψaP PSIAP Angle between horizontal plane and propeller shaft axis t0 / D rad τb 1 .2 Propulsor Geometry Definition or Explanation Transverse distance of wing propeller center from middle line Height of propeller center above base line Angle between reference line and propeller shaft axis The angular displacement about the shaft axis of the reference point of any blade section relative to the generator line measured in the plane of rotation.2 Geometry and Hydrostatics 1. z zp ε.

2.3 Waterjets (see also section 1.3 Operators and subscripts aabsolute (space) reference bbody axis reference Ppropeller shaft axis D Duct m² m m m 1 .ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 1.2 Geometry and Hydrostatics 1.5) AJ Cross sectional area at Aj Station j b1 B1 Maximum width of cross sectional area at Station 1 h1 H1 Maximum height of cross sectional area at Station 1 hJ HJ Height of jet centerline above undisturbed water surface α ALFA Angle between centerline of jet and horizontal plane 1.2.2.2.2.2.2.2 ADEN ADEX dD fD LD LDEN Computer Symbol Ducts ADEN ADEX CLEARD FD LD LDEN Duct entry area Duct exit area Propeller tip clearance Name 1 Ships in General 1.3.2 Propulsor Geometry Definition or Explanation 16 SIUnit m2 m2 Clearance between propeller tip and inner surface of duct m m m Axial distance between leading edge of duct and propeller plane Axial distance between leading edge of duct and propeller plane m Camber of duct profile Duct length Duct entry part length LDEX LDEX Duct exit length m tD αD TD AD Thickness of duct profile Duct profile-shaft axis angle Angle between nose-tail line of duct profile and propeller shaft Diffuser angle of duct Angle between inner duct tail line and propeller shaft m rad βD BD rad 1.

3.1Basic Quantities AC AFB AFR ARF AR ARX ARP ART AFS ASK AWBK c cm cr ct f LF t δFB δFS AC AFB AFR AF ARU ARX ARP ART AFS ASK AWBK CH CHME CHRT CHTP FM LF TMX ANFB ANFS Area under cut-up Area of bow fin Frontal area Flap area Rudder area Area of the fixed part of rudder Area of rudder in the propeller race Total rudder area Area of stern fin Skeg area Wetted surface area of bilge keels Chord length of an aerofoil or a hydrofoil Mean chord length Chord length at the root Chord length at the tip Camber of an aerofoil or a hydrofoil Length of flap or wedge Maximum thickness of an aerofoil or a hydrofoil Bow fin angle Stern fin angle Maximum separation of median and nose-tail line Measured in direction parallel to keel Measured normal to mean line s. Remark .2 Geometry and Hydrostatics 1.2. including flap Projected frontal area of an appendage m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m m m m m m m rad rad .2.3 Appendage Geometry Related information may be found in Section 3.1 s. 1.3 Appendage Geometry Definition or Explanation 17 SIUnit 1.3 on Lifting Surfaces.3. Remark .1 ART / S ARX + ARF Area of the rudder.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 1 Ships in General 1.2.

1 s.1 ct / cr δR δRF λR λFR ΛR ΛFR ANRU ANRF TARU TAFR ASRU ASRF rad rad 1 1 1 1 1. Remark .2.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol δF Computer Symbol DELFS Name 1 Ships in General 1.3.2 Geometry and Hydrostatics 1.3 Appendage Geometry Definition or Explanation Angle between the planing surface of a flap and the bottom before the leading edge Angle between the planing surface of a wedge and the bottom before the leading edge s.2.2 Identifiers for Appendages BK BS FB FR FS KL RU RF SA SH SK ST TH Bilge keel Bossing Bow foil Flanking rudder Stern foil Keel Rudder Rudder flap Stabilizer Shafting Skeg Strut Thruster .1 18 SIUnit rad Flap angle (general) δW DELWG Wedge angle rad δFR δFRin ANFR ANFRIN Flanking rudder angle rad rad Assembly angle of flanking Initial angle set up during the rudders assembly as zero angle of flanking rudders Rudder angle Rudder-flap angle Rudder taper Flanking rudder taper Rudder aspect ratio Flanking rudder aspect ratio S2 / ART s. Remark . Remark .

ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol WG 1.3 Appendage Geometry Definition or Explanation 19 SIUnit Wedge Positive angles are defined as clockwise when viewed from the center of axes along the appropriate body axis. nose-up fin angles and port rudder angles are positive. i.1 Coordinates and Space Related Quantities. e. See also Section 3.1 Sign Convention Name 1 Ships in General 1.2 Geometry and Hydrostatics 1. .2.3.3Remarks .1.2.

4 Hydrostatics and Stability 1.2. XCB . g. B Longitudinal distance from reference point to the center of flotation.1 A Points and Centers (Still under construction) Assumed center of gravity above keel used for cross curves of stability Center of flotation of added buoyant layer or center of lost buoyancy of the flooded volume Center of buoyancy Center of flotation of the waterplane Center of gravity of an added or removed weight (mass) Center of gravity of a vessel Keel reference Metacenter of a vessel XACB Longitudinal center of floatation of added buoyant layer Longitudinal center of buoyancy (LCB) Longitudinal center of flotation (LCF) Longitudinal center of gravity of added weight (mass) Longitudinal center of gravity (LCG) Lateral displacement of center of gravity (YCG) See subscripts for qualification Longitudinal distance from reference point to the center of the added buoyant layer. G m b B F g G K M xcb. b Longitudinal distance from reference point to the center of buoyancy.4 Hydrostatics and Stability Definition or Explanation 20 SIUnit 1. LCG XCG m yCG YCG m . LCB XCB m XCF . G Lateral distance from a reference point to the center of gravity.2. LCF XCB m xcg XACG m XCG .ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 1 Ships in General 1. of an added or removed weight (mass) Longitudinal distance from a reference point to the center of gravity.2 Geometry and Hydrostatics 1.2.4. F Longitudinal distance from reference to the center of gravity.

2 AB Static Stability levers XAB Longitudinal center of buoyancy from aft perpendicular Distance of center of flotation from after perpendicular Longitudinal center of gravity from aft perpendicular Transverse distance from assumed center of gravity A.2 Geometry and Hydrostatics 1.4 Hydrostatics and Stability Definition or Explanation 21 SIUnit Intersection of righting arm with line of action of the center of buoyancy 1. to Z Transverse metacenter above Distance from the center of center of buoyancy buoyancy B to the transverse metacenter M. LCH.2.2.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Z Computer Symbol ZRA Name 1 Ships in General 1. BM IT/i KMKB Longitudinal metacenter above center of buoyancy KM L > KB m Distance of center of gravity from aft perpendicular Distance of center of buoyancy from aft perpendicular m AF XAF m AG L XAG m AG T YAG m AG V ZAG m AZ YAZ m BM ZBM m BM FB L ZBML XFB Longitudinal center of Distance of center of buoyancy. to actual centre of gravity G Vertical distance from assumed center of gravity A. to actual center of gravity G Righting arm based on Generally tabulated in cross horizontal distance from curves of stability assumed center of gravity A. from forward flotation from forward perpendicular perpendicular FF XFF m . LCH. from forward buoyancy from forward perpendicular perpendicular Longitudinal center of Distance of center of floatation.4.

2.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol FG Computer Symbol XFG Name 1 Ships in General 1.2 Geometry and Hydrostatics 1. GGV GG1.4 Hydrostatics and Stability Definition or Explanation Distance of center of gravity from forward perpendicular 22 SIUnit m Longitudinal center of gravity from forward perpendicular Horizontal stability lever caused by a weight shift or weight addition Longitudinal stability lever caused by a weight shift or weight addition Vertical stability lever caused by a weight shift or weight addition Transverse metacentric height Effective transverse metacentric height Longitudinal center of metacentric height GGH GGH m GGL GGL m GG1. GGV KG1KG0GG1 Distance of center of gravity to the metacenter KM > KG GM corrected for free surface and/or free communication effects Distance from the center of gravity G to the longitudinal metacenter ML KM L > KG = AZ – AGV sinφ – AGT cos φ m GM GM m GM Eff GMEFF GM L GML m GZ GZ Righting arm or lever m GZ MAX GZMAX ZKA Maximum righting arm or lever Assumed center of gravity Distance from the assumed above moulded base or keel center of gravity A to the moulded base or keel K Center of buoyancy above moulded base or keel Center of gravity above moulded base or keel Distance from the center of buoyancy B to the moulded base or keel K Distance from center of gravity G to the moulded base or keel K m KA KB ZKB m KG ZKG m .

IAS MS ASI MS Attained subdivision index Moment of ship stability in general 1 Nm m MTC MTM Rsi ts.4.4 Hydrostatics and Stability Definition or Explanation 23 SIUnit m Vertical center of gravity of Distance from center of added or removed weight gravity.2. according to official rules (to be clarified) Other moments such as those of capsizing.2.3 CMTL Intact and Damage (Flooded) Stability CMTL Longitudinal trimming coefficient trimming moment divided by change in trim which approximately equals BM L/ L From the freeboard markings to the freeboard deck.2 Geometry and Hydrostatics 1. to the moulded above moulded base or keel base or keel K Transverse metacenter above Distance from the transverse moulded base or keel metacenter M to the moulded base or keel K Longitudinal metacenter Longitudinal ML above moulded base or keel Longitudinal trimming arm Equivalent transverse heeling arm xcb > xCB Heeling moment /∆ KM ZKM m KM l t L ZKML XTA YHA m m m 1.dKL mg Caused by loading Caused by loading Nm/m 1 m N m m . will be represented by MS with additional subscripts as appropriate W/g 1 f FREB Freeboard m ASI. etc. heeling.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Kg Computer Symbol ZKAG Name 1 Ships in General 1. tKL W zSF zSA SHIPMA MTC MTM RSI TRIM SHIPWT ZSF ZSA Ship mass Moment to change trim one centimeter Moment to trim one meter Required subdivision index Static trim Ship weight Static sinkage at FP Static sinkage at AP kg Nm/cm ∆CMTL TA > TF . g.

4 Hydrostatics and Stability Definition or Explanation (zSF + zSA) / 2 Prefix to other symbol 24 SIUnit m m Mean static sinkage Finite increment in. sqt Sinkage.2 Geometry and Hydrostatics 1.4. eff effective f false KL keel line L longitudinal MAX maximum MTL longitudinal trimming moment R.. req required (to be clarified) s Static S.4 HEELANG Heel angle rad rad rad HEELANGF Heel angle at flooding HEELANGV Heel angle for vanishing stability Symbols for Attributes and Subscripts (under construction) a apparent A.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol zS δ δtKL ∆ i ifw θS µ Computer Symbol ZS D DTR DISPF DISPVOL Name 1 Ships in General 1. Change in static trim Displacement (buoyant) force Displacement volume gρi ∆ / (ρg) ∆ / (ρg) tan-1((zSF .2.zSA) / L) The ratio of the volume of flooding water in a compartment to the total volume of the compartment N m3 m3 rad 1 DISVOLFW Displacement volume of flooded water TRIMS PMVO Static trim angle Volumetric permeability φ φF φVS 1.. dyn dynamic e. att attained d. squat TC Trim in cm TM Trim in m T transverse V vertical 0 Initial φ at heel angle φ θ at trim angle θ .2.

G.1 Other Notation Alternatively.2 Geometry and Hydrostatics 1.2. metacenter M and center of floatation F could also be treated in the same way. .ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 1.g. XB.4.5 Computer Symbol Remarks Name 1 Ships in General 1. ZB the position of other items such as the center of gravity.2. YB.4 Hydrostatics and Stability Definition or Explanation 25 SIUnit . the position of the center of buoyancy B may be expressed in terms of the coordinate axes with the appropriate suffix e.

3.4.3 Resistance and Propulsion 1.3.1 on Waves) 1.1 Hull Resistance Definition or Explanation 26 SIUnit Resistance and Propulsion Hull Resistance (see also Section 3.1.1 Basic Quantities m BLCK Blockage parameter Maximum transverse area of model ship divided by tank cross section area Incremental resistance to be added to the smooth ship resistance to complete the model-ship prediction 1 RA RA Model-ship correlation allowance N RAA RAP RAR RC RAA RAP RAR RC Air or wind resistance Appendage resistance Roughness resistance Resistance corrected for difference in temperature between resistance and self-propulsion tests Frictional resistance of a body Frictional resistance of a flat plate Pressure resistance Viscous pressure resistance Residuary resistance Residuary resistance of the bare hull Spray resistance Total resistance Total resistance of bare hull Total viscous resistance Wavemaking resistance RF + RVP Due to formation of surface waves Due to generation of spray Total towed resistance Due to the normal stresses over the surface of a body Due to normal stress related to viscosity and turbulence RT > RF or RT > RFO RTM((1 + k) (CFMC) + CR) / ((1 + k) (CFM) + CR)) where CFMC is the frictional coefficient at the temperature of the self-propulsion test Due to fluid friction on the surface of the body N N N N RF RFO RP RVP RR RRH RS RT RTBH RV RW RF RFO RP RVP RR RRBH RS RT RTBH RV RW N N N N N N N N N N N .3.1 Computer Symbol Name 1 Ships in General 1.3 1.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 1.

4 m m 1 N/ m2 LSF.1 Hull Resistance Definition or Explanation Associated with the break down of the bow wave SBH + SAP SBH0 + SAP0 27 SIUnit N N m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 Wavebreaking resistance Wave pattern resistance Wetted surface area.3. see CA) 1 m/s m/s m m (zVF + zVA) / 2 see 3.4. underway Bare Hull wetted surface area. at rest Roughness allowance Speed of the model or the ship Speed in knots Wind velocity.zVA) / L) see 3. relative Running sinkage at FP Running sinkage at AP Mean running sinkage Wave Elevation Running (dynamic) trim angle (obsolete.1 tan-1((zVF . θD τW Computer Symbol RWB RWP S S0 SAP SAP0 SBH SBH0 DELCF V VKN VR ZVF ZVA ZVM EW TRIMV Name 1 Ships in General 1. underway Appendage wetted surface area. underway Wetted surface area. at rest Appendage wetted surface area. TAUW Local skin friction .ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol RWB RWP S S0 SAP SAP0 SBH SBH0 ∆CF V VKN VR zVF zVA zVM η θV . at rest Bare Hull wetted surface area.3 Resistance and Propulsion 1.3.

by wave analysis R.1 Hull Resistance Definition or Explanation 28 SIUnit 1.2 Derived Quantities CA CA Incremental resistance coefficient for model ship correlation Air or wind resistance coefficient Drag coefficient Frictional resistance coefficient of a body Frictional resistance coefficient of a corresponding plate Local pressure coefficient Pressure resistance coefficient.E. Froude's resistance coefficient 1000 R / (∆(KC)2) RP / (S q) RA / (S q) 1 CAA CD CF CFO CAA CD CF CFO RAA / (AV qR) D / (S q) RF / (S q) RFO / (S q) 1 1 1 1 Cp CPR CP CPR 1 1 CPV CR CS CT CTL CTQ CTÉ CV CW CWP CC CPV CR CSR CT CTLT CTQ CTVOL CV CW CWP CIRCC RPV / (S q) RR / (S q) RS / (S q) RT / (S q) CTi / (ηH ηR) RT / (i2/3 q) RV / (S q) RW / (S q) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Telfer's resistance coefficient g R L / (∆V2) .ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 1 Ships in General 1.3.3 Resistance and Propulsion 1.3. including wave effect Viscous pressure resistance coefficient Residuary resistance coefficient Spray resistance coefficient Total resistance coefficient Qualified resistance coefficient Resistance displacement Total viscous resistance coefficient Wavemaking resistance coefficient Wave pattern resistance coefficient.1.

density of ρ V2 / 2 kinetic flow energy.2 Dynamic pressure based on apparent wind R.3 Symbols for Attributes and Subscripts FW MF MR OW SF SR SW Fresh water Faired model data Raw model data Open water Faired full scale data Raw full scale data Salt water . Froude's frictional resistance coefficient Friction coefficient k k(θ) KC KR q qR SC ε εR K WDC CIRCK KR PD.E.E. E.1.3 Resistance and Propulsion 1. EKWR CIRCS EPSG EPSR Three dimensional form factor on flat plate friction Wind direction coefficient R.1 Hull Resistance Definition or Explanation 1000RF / (∆(KC)2) Ratio of tangential force to normal force between two sliding bodies (CV > CFO) / CFO CAA/ CAA0 (4 π)1/2 Fni or (4π/g)1/2VK/i1/6 R / (ρ D4 n2) 29 SIUnit 1 1 R. Froude's speed displacement coefficient Resistance coefficient corresponding to KQ. KT 1 1 1 Pa Pa 1 1 1 Dynamic pressure.3. EK PDWR.3.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol FC f Computer Symbol CIRCF FC Name 1 Ships in General 1. see 3. Froude’s wetted surface coefficient Resistance-displacement ratio in general Residuary resistancedisplacement ratio ρ VWR2/ 2 see 3.4.2 S / i2/3 R/∆ RR / ∆ 1.3.

3.3. commonly rate of revolution Brake power Delivered power. PR PI PS PT Q tV V VA FP FPO N PB PD.3 Resistance and Propulsion 1. PR PI PS PTH Q TV V VA Force pulling or towing a ship Pull during bollard test Frequency. PP PE . resistance power Indicated power Shaft power Thrust power Torque Running trim Ship speed Propeller advance speed Equivalent propeller open water speed based on thrust or torque identity Power delivered by prime mover Qω RV Determined from pressure measured by indicator Power measured on the shaft T VA PD / ω N N Hz W W W W W W Nm m/s m/s zV ω ZV V0.2 1.2.OMN Running sinkage of model or ship Rotational shaft velocity 2πn m rad/s . PP PE.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 1.2 Ship Performance Definition or Explanation 30 SIUnit Skin friction correction in self propulsion test Skin friction correction in a self propulsion test carried out at the ship selfpropulsion point N FP FPO n PB PD .1 FD Computer Symbol Ship Performance Basic Quantities SFC Name 1 Ships in General 1. propeller power Effective power.3.

dynamic 1 1 t w wF wQ THDF WFT WFF WFTQ Thrust deduction fraction Taylor wake fraction in general Froude wake fraction 1 1 1 1 Taylor torque wake fraction Propeller speed VA determined from torque identity .2 a CADM CDi CN Computer Symbol Derived Quantities RAUG CADM CDVOL CN Name 1 Ships in General 1.3 Resistance and Propulsion 1. fore and aft.2 Ship Performance Definition or Explanation 31 SIUnit Resistance augment fraction (T + Fp) / RT > 1 Admiralty coefficient Power-displacement coefficient ∆2/3 V3 / PS PD / (ρ V3 i2/3 / 2) 1 1 1 1 Trial correction for propeller nT / nS rate of revolution at speed identity Trial correction for propeller PDT / PDS rate of revolution at power identity Trial correction for delivered power Ship model correlation factor for propulsive efficiency Ship model correlation factor for propeller rate revolution Appendage correction factor ηDS / ηDM CNP CNP 1 CP K1 CDP C1 1 1 K2 C2 ns / n M 1 KAP KAP Scale effect correction factor for model appendage drag applied at the towing force in a self-propulsion test Change of draft.3. dynamic Trim.3.2. divided by length Change of the trim due to dynamic condition. divided by length 1 > (RT > FP) / T (V > VA) / V (V > VA) / VA 1 sV tV SINKV TRIMV Sinkage.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 1.

EFRT ETAM.M . determined from thrust identity wT.2. VA.s method formula of ITTC 1978 method Load fraction in power prediction Appendage scale effect factor 1 1 x β XLO APSF ηD PD / PE > 1 Ship appendage resistance divided by model appendage resistance 1 1 1.wT.2 Ship Performance Definition or Explanation Propeller speed.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol wT Computer Symbol WFTT Name 1 Ships in General 1. EFRP ETAG. RTBH / RT PT / PD = T VA / (Q ω) 1 1 1 1 P E / P T = PR / P T = (1 > t) / (1 > w) PS / P1 or PB / P1 1 1 1 ηB / ηO PD / P S = PP / P S 1 1 Propulsive efficiency or P E / P D = PR / P P quasi-propulsive coefficient Gearing efficiency Hull efficiency Mechanical efficiency Propeller open water efficiency Relative rotative efficiency Shafting efficiency .3 ηAP ηB ηD ηG ηH ηM ηO ηR ηS Efficiencies etc ETAAP ETAB. EFSI ETAO ETAR.3. EFTP ETAD.S 32 SIUnit 1 Taylor thrust wake fraction ∆w ∆wC DELW DELWC Ship-model correlation factor for wake fraction Ship-model correlation factor with respect to wT. EFPS Appendage efficiency Propeller efficiency behind ship PEwoAP / PEwAP.3 Resistance and Propulsion 1. EFRO ETAS. EFGP ETAH.3.

It does e.3.3 Resistance and Propulsion 1. not allow for the separation of displacement and energy wakes. In many cases. g. as in the case of full scale ships under service conditions. fundamental for the analysis of hull-propeller interaction. respectively. as e. in the case of wake adapted propellers. or where they are not meaningful. . Very clearly these are not the only possible interpretations.3. namely in terms of hull towing and propeller open water tests.1 Basic Quantities Traditionally the basic concepts resistance and propeller advance speed are implicitely understood to have certain traditional operational.2.2 Ship Performance Definition or Explanation 33 SIUnit . where the traditional interpretations are not possible.4 Computer Symbol Remarks Name 1 Ships in General 1.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 1. e. The traditional set of basic concepts for the ship performance analysis is incomplete. i. experimental interpretations. more adequate conventional interpretations have to be agreed upon. g.

1 ρ VS2 / 2 About spindle axis of controllable pitch propeller QS=QSC+ QSH positive if it increases pitch Pa Pa Nm QSC QSH T TD TDP TDT TxP TyP TzP VA VP QSPC QSPH TH THDU THDP THDT TXP TYP TZP VA VP Centrifugal spindle torque Hydrodynamic spindle torque Propeller thrust Duct thrust Ducted propeller thrust Total thrust of a ducted propeller unit Propeller Thrust along shaft axis Propeller normal force in y direction in propeller axis Propeller normal force in z direction in propeller axis Advance speed of propeller Mean axial velocity at propeller plane of ducted propeller Nm Nm N N N N N N m/s m/s .3 Propulsor Performance Definition or Explanation 34 SIUnit Propulsor Performance 1.3.3.1 Basic Quantities AO D n KS AO DP FR KS QA QS QSP Propeller disc area Propeller diameter Propeller frequency of revolution Roughness height of propeller blade surface Dynamic pressure based on advance speed Dynamic pressure based on section advance speed Spindle torque π D2 / 4 m2 m Hz m qA qS QS ρ VA2 / 2 s. Remark .3.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 1.3 Resistance and Propulsion 1.3.3 Computer Symbol Name 1 Ships in General 1.

5 based on thrust horsepower with n is revs/min.3. JPQ 1 KP KL KP KL KSC 1 1 1 KSC .3.7 R ω)2)1/2 s. JH JP JT.2 m/s kg/m3 1/s Propeller rotational velocity 2 π n 1.3. and VA in knots (obsolete) Power loading coefficient Torque index Thrust loading coefficient.7 R Propeller mass density (VA2+ (0. JPT 1 1 1 1 1 1 JQ .5 based on delivered horse with n is revs/min. power PD in horsepower. and VA in knots (obsolete) Taylor's propeller coefficient n PT½ / VA2. JA. JPT CPD CQS CTH CTHS JEI. JPQ JQ.2 Derived Quantities BP BP Taylor's propeller coefficient n PD½ / VA2.3 Resistance and Propulsion 1. Remark .3 Propulsor Performance Definition or Explanation 35 SIUnit VS ρP ω VS DNP V0P Section advance speed at 0. JH JP JT . PT in horsepower.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 1 Ships in General 1. energy loading coefficient Thrust index Propeller advance ratio Apparent or hull advance ratio Propeller advance ratio for ducted propeller Advance ratio of propeller determined from thrust identity Advance ratio of propeller determined from torque identity Delivered power coefficient PD / (ρ n3 D5) = 2 π KL Torque coefficient Centrifugal spindle torque coefficient Q / (ρ n2 D5) QSC / (ρP n2 D5) PD / (AP qA VA) Q / (AP qS) T / (AP qA) = (TP / AP) / qA T / (AP qS) VA / (D n) V / (D n) = VH / (D n) VP / (D n) 1 1 BU BU 1 CP CQ* CTh CT* J JA .

3 Resistance and Propulsion 1. VA in knots (obsolete) Propeller pump or hydraulic PJ / PD = PJ / PP efficiency Propeller pump efficiency at T / (ρ π / 2)1/3 / (PD D)2/3 zero advance speed.3 Propulsor Performance Definition or Explanation 36 SIUnit KSH KT KTD KTP KTT KQO KSH KT KTD KTP KTT KQO Hydrodynamic spindle torque coefficient Thrust coefficient Duct thrust coefficient Ducted propeller thrust coefficient Total thrust coefficient for a ducted propeller unit Torque coefficient of propeller converted from behind to open water condition Torque coefficient of propeller determined from thrust coefficient identity Propeller jet power Apparent slip ratio Real slip ratio QSH / (ρ n2 D5) T / (ρ n2 D4) TD / (ρ n2 D4) TP / (ρ n2 D4) KTP+ KTD KQ.3. D in feet. EFJPO EFID EFTJ ETAO. EFTPO ADR 1 1 ηI ηTJ ηO .ηR 1 1 1 1 1 1 KQT KQ 1 PJ SA SR δ PJ SRA SRR ADCT ηTJ T VA 1 > V / (n P) 1 > VA / (n P) 1 1 1 Taylor's advance coefficient n D / VA with n in revs/min.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 1 Ships in General 1. ηTPO 1 1 1 Propeller efficiency in open PT / PD = T VA / (Q ω) all water quantities measured in open water tests Advance ratio of a propeller VA / (n D) / π = J / π λ 1 . alias static thrust coefficient Ideal propeller efficiency Propeller jet efficiency Efficiency in non-viscous fluid 2 / (1 + (1 + CTh)1/2) ηJP ηJP0 EFJP ZETO.

7 R ω)) m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s UT β β1 β* UT BETB BET1 BETS m/s rad rad rad .3.3 Resistance and Propulsion 1.3.3 Propulsor Performance Definition or Explanation 37 SIUnit τ TMR Ratio between propeller thrust and total thrust of ducted propeller TP / TT 1 1.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 1 Ships in General 1.3.3 Induced Velocities etc UA UAD URP URD UAP UR UTD UTP UA UADU URP URDU UAP UR UTDU UTP Axial velocity induced by propeller Axial velocity induced by duct of ducted propeller Radial velocity induced by propeller of ducted propeller Radial velocity induced by duct of ducted propeller Axial velocity induced by propeller of ducted propeller Radial velocity induced by propeller Tangential velocity induced by duct of ducted propeller Tangential velocity induced by propeller of ducted propeller Tangential velocity induced by propeller Advance angle of a propeller arctg (VA / ® ω)) blade section Hydrodynamic flow angle of Flow angle taking into a propeller blade section account induced velocity Effective advance angle arctg (VA/ (0.

.3 Propulsor Performance Definition or Explanation 38 SIUnit 1.3. hiding the very simple meaning of the concept.1 Dynamic Pressure It has become bad practice to write q = ρ/2 V2 instead of q = ρ V2/2 for the dynamic pressure.4 Remarks .3.7 π n D)2)1/2 . This is confusing and should be avoided.3 Resistance and Propulsion 1.3.2 Section Advance Speed In the earlier versions of this list the notation for the concept of section advance speed deteriorated to the completely meaningless form VS = (VA2+ (0. .ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 1 Ships in General 1.

2.. Remark . the transverse y-axis.V) FG(I) Generalized stiffness Generalized damping Generalized vibratory force Vibratory force Generalized vibratory force coefficients Vibratory force coefficients Vibratory moment coefficients Pressure coefficient Vibratory moment Generalized mass Pressure Generalized vibratory bearing reaction Velocity field of the wake Cartesian coordinates u = 1. positive forward. 2. 3 s.. 6: moment i = 1. 3 Origin O coinciding with the centre of the propeller. 3 According to definitions of KFi and KMi Fi / (ρ n2 D4) Mi / (ρ n2 D5) p / (ρ n2 D ) i = 1.4.V) DA(U.3.1 Cuv Duv Fu Computer Symbol Name 1 1. positive to port. The longitudinal x-axis coincides with the shaft axis.. 6: moment i = 1. 2.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 1.4 Ships in General Resistance and Propulsion Unsteady Propeller Forces Definition or Explanation 39 SIUnit Unsteady Propeller Forces Basic Quantities SI(U.4 1.1 u = 1.3.3 1. 2. the third.V) PR R(U) Vi x y z V(I) X Y Z ..1 Pa N N Nm m/s m m m 2 N N Nm N 1 1 1 1 Nm Fi KFu KFi KMi Kp Mi Muv p Ru F(I) KF(U) KF(I) KM(I) KPR M(I) MA(U. positive upward s. 6 u = 1. 5. 5.. 6 u = 1.. 2. 3: force u = 4.1 s. 3: force u = 4. Remark . z-axis.3. Remark .

.2 Equation of motion In terms of the notation introduced the linear equation of motions may be rendered in the concise form ¨ M Muv δ v +Duv δ v + Cuv δ v = Fu . .3 1. 6 u = 1.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol x a r Computer Symbol X ATT R Name 1 1. 6: angular u = 1. 5. 2. 3: linear u = 4.3..4 Ships in General Resistance and Propulsion Unsteady Propeller Forces Definition or Explanation Cylindrical system with origin O and longitudinal xaxis as defined before. 5. 6: angular 40 SIUnit m 1 m Cylindrical coordinates δu DP(U) Generalized vibratory displacement Generalized vibratory velocity Generalized vibratory acceleration m m rad m/s m/s rad/s m/s2 m/s2 rad/s2 M δu DPVL(U) ¨ δu DPAC(U) 1.2 Remarks . In spectral terms it is just as simple (Muv (iω)2 +Duv iω + Cuv) δ Sv = FSu . positive clockwise looking forward. 2.... 6 u = 1. ..4..1 General Quantities The generalized Quantities have been introduced in Section 3. 3: linear u = 4.. zero at 12 o'clock position. 5.. General Mechanics.3. angular a-(attitude)coordinate . 3: linear u = 4. 6: angular u = 1. r distance measured from the x-axis u = 1. 2. 6 u = 1.

2.3 and Figure A1.5 Station j Pump installation efficiency Pump efficiency Effective jet system efficiency Inlet and diffusor loss coefficient Station 1-3. Volume 1 Proceedings of 21st ITTC Local pressure coefficient Energy flux at Station j Local total head at Station 1 Mean increase of total head across pump and stator or several pump stages Intake velocity ratio Jet velocity ratio Momentum flux at Station 1 Momentum flux at Station 7 (p-p0)/(ρ V²/2) Ej = (ρ/2)fVEj2dQj QJ 1 W m m 1 1 N N N N/m² N/m² W W m³/s m³/s m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s 1 1 1 1 ETAIN ETAP ETAWJ ZETA13 Change of momentum flux Local static pressure at Station j Ambient pressure in undisturbed flow Effective jet system power Effective pump power Volume flow rate inside boundary layer Volume flow rate of jet Local total velocity at Station j Local axial velocity at Station j Local tangential velocity at Station 7 Mean velocity at Station j Local energy velocity at {uj2 + (2/ρ)(pj. Definition of Station Numbers and Nomalized Energy Flux.p0)}0.3.5 Waterjets Cp Ej H1 H35 IVR JVR M1 M7 ∆M pj p0 PJSE PPE Qbl QJ uj ujx u7φ Vj VEj ηinst ηP ηWJ ζ13 CP EJ HT1 H35 IVR JVR MF1 MF7 DMF PRJ PR0 PJSE PPE QJ UJ UJX UJFI VJ VEJ (See also Section 1.2.3 Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 1 Ships in General Resistance and Propulsion 1.ITTC Symbols 1.5 Waterjets Definition or Explanation 41 SIUnit 1. based on E0 V2/V V7/V M1 = ρfV1dQj QJ M7 = ρfu7xdQj + f(p7.3.p0)dA7 .

ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol ζ57 Computer Symbol ZETA57 Name 1 Ships in General 1.5Waterjets Definition or Explanation 42 SIUnit 1 Duct and nozzle loss coefficient Station 5-7.3 Resistance and Propulsion 1. based on E7 .3.

2 Motions and Attitudes p q r p M OX.4. Remark . rotational velocity about body z-axis Roll acceleration.1 Geometrical Quantities AFB AFS AHL AFBO AFST AHLT see also Section 1.3 m2 m2 The area of the profile of the underwater hull of a ship when projected normally upon the longitudinal centre plane m2 Area of bow fins Area of stern fins Lateral area of the hull ALV AR ARmov ARN bR bRM CAL h hM xR λR AHLV ARU ARMV ARNO SPRU SPRUME CAHL DE DEME XRU ASRU Lateral area of hull above water Total lateral area of rudder Movable area of rudder Nominal area of rudder Rudder span Mean span of rudder Coefficient of lateral area of AHL / (L T) ship Water depth Mean water depth Longitudinal position of rudder axis Aspect ratio of rudder bR2 / AR (AR + ARmov) / 2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m m 1 m m m 1 1.4 1.2. rotational velocity about body y-axis Yaw velocity. P OY. PR Roll velocity.2.1.4. R OXRT. Q OZ.1 Manoeuvring Definition or Explanation s.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 1.4. angular acceleration about body xaxis dp / dt 1/s 1/s 1/s 1/s2 .4.1. rotational velocity about body x-axis Pitch velocity.1 Computer Symbol Name 1 Ships in General 1.1 and Section 1.4 Manoeuvring and Seakeeping 1.1 43 SIUnit Manoeuvring and Seakeeping Manoeuvring 1.

RR dr / dt 1/s2 u v w u M VX.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol q M Computer Symbol OYRT. linear acceleration along body yaxis Heave acceleration. W VXRT. WR dw / dt m/s2 V VA.VO Vu M Vu VF VWR VWT ψ dt ψ ψ0 θ V VA. UR m/s m/s m/s du / dt m/s2 v M VYRT. angular acceleration about body yaxis Yaw acceleration.4. V VZ. linear velocity along body x-axis Sway velocity. QR Name 1 Ships in General 1. linear acceleration along body xaxis Sway acceleration.1 Manoeuvring Definition or Explanation dq / dt 44 SIUnit 1/s2 Pitch acceleration. VO V(U) V(U) VF VWREL VWABS YA YART YAOR PI m/s m/s m/s m/s2 m/s m/s m/s rad dψ / dt rad/s rad rad . U VY. linear acceleration along body zaxis Linear velocity of origin in body axes Approach speed Generalized velocity Generalized acceleration Flow or current velocity Relative wind velocity True wind velocity Yaw or course angle Rate of change of course Original course Pitch angle r M OZRT. VR dv / dt m/s2 w M VZRT.4 Manoeuvring and Seakeeping 1. linear velocity along body z-axis Surge acceleration. angular acceleration about body zaxis Surge velocity. linear velocity along body y-axis Heave velocity.

4.1 Manoeuvring Definition or Explanation 45 SIUnit rad Roll angle 1.2. Wind 1 rad 1 rad rad 1 1 1 rad rad .3 Flow Angles etc α β AAPI AADR Pitch angle Drift angle Angle of attack in pitch on the hull Angle of attack in yaw on the hull rad rad βWR δeff δ0 δB δS δR δR0 ψC ψWA ψWR ANWIRL ANRUEF ANRU0 ANFB ANFS ANRU ANRUOR COCU COWIAB COWIRL Angle of attack of relative wind Effective rudder inflow angle Neutral rudder angle Bow fin angle Stern fin angle Rudder angle Rudder angle.4.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol φ Computer Symbol RO Name 1 Ships in General 1. ordered Course of current velocity Absolute wind direction Relative wind direction see also section 3.4 Manoeuvring and Seakeeping 1.1.4.

moment about body z-axis Derivative of yaw moment jN / jr with respect to yaw velocity Derivative of yaw moment with respect to yaw acceleration jN / jM r Nm Nm Nm Nms Nms2 Nv Nv M NV NVRT Derivative of yaw moment jN / jv with respect to sway velocity Derivative of yaw moment with respect to sway acceleration jN / jM v Ns Nms2 Nδ QFB QR QFS X XR Xu ND QFB QRU QFS FX XRU XU Derivative of yaw moment jN / jδ with respect to rudder angle Torque of bow fin Torque about rudder stock Torque of stern fin Surge force on body. moment about body x-axis Pitch moment on body. force along body y-axis Derivative of sway force jY / jr with respect to yaw velocity Transverse rudder force jX / ju Nm Nm Nm Nm N N Ns/m Xu M XURT jX / jM u Ns2/m Y Yr YR FY YR YRU N Ns N .4. Remark .1.4.4 Forces and Derivatives K M N Nr NM r MX MY MZ NR NRRT Roll moment on body.2 1 Ships in General 1. force along body x-axis Longitudinal rudder force Derivative of surge force with respect to surge velocity Derivative of surge force with respect to surge acceleration Sway force on body.4 Manoeuvring and Seakeeping 1.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name s. moment about body y-axis Yaw moment on body.1 Manoeuvring Definition or Explanation 46 SIUnit 1.

4 Manoeuvring and Seakeeping 1.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol YM r Computer Symbol YRRT Name 1 Ships in General 1.1.1 Manoeuvring Definition or Explanation jY / jM r 47 SIUnit Ns2 Derivative of sway force with respect to yaw acceleration Yv Yv M YV YVRT Derivative of sway force jY / jv with respect to sway velocity Derivative of sway force with respect to sway acceleration Derivative of sway force with respect to rudder angle Heave force on body.5 Linear Models Cr Lb .4. lb ? Ld .4. force along body z-axis jY / jM v Ns/m Ns2/m Yδ YD jY / jδ N Z FZ N 1. ld ? T T1 T2 T3 K Pn CRDS LSB LSR TIC TIC1 TIC2 TIC3 KS PN Directional stability criterion Yv (Nr > muxG) > > Nv (Yr > mu) Static stability lever Damping stability lever Time constant of the 1st order manoeuvring equation First time constant of manoeuvring equation Second time constant of manoeuvring equation Third time constant of manoeuvring equation Gain factor in linear manoeuvring equation P-number. heading change per unit rudder angle in one ship length Nv / Yv (Nr > muxG) / (Yr > mu) N2s2 m m s s s s 1/s 1 .

tactical diameter Maximum transfer Drift angle at steady turning rC LPP / UC or 2 LPP / DC D0 / LPP DC / LPP m 1 m 1 1/s 1 1/s m m s s m/s m m m m m m rad .6 Turning Circles DC DCk D0 D0k lr lδ rC rCk RC t90 t180 UC x090 x0180 x0max y090 y0180 y0max βC DC DCNO DC0 DC0N LHRD LWRD OZCI OZCINO RC TI90 TI180 UC X090 X0180 XMX Y090 Y0180 Y0MX DRCI Steady turning diameter Non-dimensional steady turning diameter Inherent steady turning diameter δR = δ0 Non-dimensional inherent steady turning diameter Loop height of r-δ curve for unstable ship Loop width of r-δ curve for unstable ship Steady turning rate Non-dimensional steady turning rate Steady turning radius Time to reach 90 degree change of heading Time to reach 180 degree change of heading Speed in steady turn Advance at 90b change of heading Advance at 180b change of heading Maximum advance Transfer at 90b change of heading Transfer at 180b change of heading.4 Manoeuvring and Seakeeping 1.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 1 Ships in General 1.1.4.1 Manoeuvring Definition or Explanation 48 SIUnit 1.4.

4.8 Stopping Manoeuvres sF x0F y0F tF SPF X0F Y0F TIF Distance along track.1 Manoeuvring Definition or Explanation 49 SIUnit 1.1.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 1 Ships in General 1.4.4.4 Manoeuvring and Seakeeping 1.1. track reach Head reach Lateral deviation Stopping time m m m s .7 Zig-Zag Manoeuvres ta tc1 tc2 thc tr y0max δmax ψS ψ01 ψ02 TIA TIC1 TIC2 TCHC TIR Y0MX ANRUMX PSIS PSI01 PSI02 Initial turning time First time to check yaw (starboard) Second time to check yaw (port) Period of changes in heading Reach time Maximum transverse deviation Maximum value of rudder angle Switching value of course angle First overshoot angle Second overshoot angle s s s s s m rad rad rad rad 1.

ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 1 Ships in General 1. Members of the Manoeuvring Committee are strongly urged to suggest further improvements in this section.4.4 on Manoeuvring and Seakeeping relies heavily on the Section 3 on General Mechanics.2 on Solid Body Mechanics in particular. .4 Manoeuvring and Seakeeping 1.1.2 Derivatives The traditional notation for the "stability" derivatives is not very efficient and not in accordance with the notation outlined in Section 3 on General Mechanics. respectively.1 Solid Body Motions The whole Chapter 1. the traditional symbols indicate some measuring procedures for the components. Instead of completely denoting the concepts of generalized hydrodynamic damping and inertia. by adequate symbols. Chapter 3.4.1 Manoeuvring Definition or Explanation 50 SIUnit 1.9 Remarks . .

1.4. Remark . Euler angles of roll. 1. and yaw.2 Seakeeping Definition or Explanation 51 SIUnit Seakeeping Related information is to be found in Chapter 3 on General Mechanics in Sections 3.1 on Inertial Properties. FS(6) MB(2). Remark . e. 3.4.1. Sηη(f). FS(5) MT(1). respectively 1/T 1 / Te 1 / Tz 1 / Tθ 1 / Tφ Alias horizontal! s.2 Computer Symbol Name 1 Ships in General 1. and 3.3 on Stochastic Processes.1 on Waves. Sη(ω).3 on Rigid Body Motions. EWSF.2.4.2. Remark .1 Alias vertical! s.4 Manoeuvring and Seakeeping 1. pitch. Sηη(ω) EWSC . Waves density Alias vertical! s. g.4.2. 3.2 on Loads.1 Sη(f).2 on Time and Frequency Domain Quantities. 3.1.1 Basic Quantities ai AT(I) Attitudes of the floating system Frequency Frequency of wave encounter Natural frequency of heave Natural frequency of pitch Natural frequency of roll FS(2) FS(3) MB(3). 2.4.1 Wave excited normal bending moment Wave excited torsional moment Mean increase of rate of revolution in waves Mean power increase in waves Mean torque increase in waves Mean resistance increase in waves Wave elevation auto spectral see also section 3. FS(4) NAW PAW QAW RAW Wave excited lateral shear force Wave excited normal shear force i = 1.1 rad f fe fz fθ fφ FL FN ML MN MT nAW PAW QAW RAW FR FE Hz Hz Hz Hz Hz N N Nm Nm Nm 1/s W Nm N m2s Wave excited lateral bending Alias horizontal! moment s. 3. 3..2.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 1. Remark .

referring to space fixed coordinates.1 Sectional Loads Sectional loads are meaningful only referred to body fixed coordinates. Azζ(ω) Yθζ(ω). The traditional terminology speaking of horizontal and vertical forces and moments. ship at the reference point and heave respectively Generalized displacement of u = 1. Aθζ(ω) µ Computer Symbol X(I) X(U) TAW TC TE TNHE TNPI TNRO Name 1 Ships in General 1. sway. . pitch. 3 :surge..4 Manoeuvring and Seakeeping 1. heave.2 Seakeeping Definition or Explanation 52 SIUnit m m rad N s s s s s Absolute displacement of the i = 1.. 2. is adequate only for very special conditions of little interest for the sectional loads and should consequently be avoided as obsolete. a ship at the reference point roll. yaw Mean thrust increase in waves Wave period Wave encounter period Natural period of heave Natural period of pitch Natural period of roll Amplitude of frequency response function for translatory motions za(ω) / ζa(ω) or za(ω) / ηa(ω) 1 Amplitude of frequency Θa(ω) / ζa(ω) or response function for rotary Θa(ω) / (ω2/ (gζa(ω))) motions Wave encounter angle Angle between ship positive x axis and positive direction of waves (long crested) or dominant wave direction (short crested) 1 rad Remarks .ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol xi xu TAW T Te Tz Tθ Tφ Yz(ω).6 surge.4. sway.

2 Propulsor Geometry Horizontally projected planing bottom area (at rest).2.1 Geometry and Hydrostatics 53 Definition or Explanation SIUnit Special Craft Planing and Semi-Displacement Vessels Geometry and Hydrostatics APB See also Section 1.1 Planing and Semi-Displacement Vessels 2. excluding external spray strips m2 Planing bottom area BLCG BLCG Beam at longitudinal position of the centre of gravity Beam over chines Mean breadth over chines Transom breadth m BPC BPA BPT BPC BPA BPT m m m BPX BPX Maximum breadth over chines Total length of shafts and bossings Projected chine length Deadrise angle of planing bottom m LSB LPR β LSB LPRC BETD m Length of chine projected in a plane parallel to keel Angle between a straight line approximating body section and the intersection of the basis plane with the section plane m 1 βM βT εSH BETM BETT EPSSH Deadrise angle at midship section Deadrise angle at transom Shaft Angle Angle between shaft line and reference line (positive.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 2 2.2. excluding area of external spray strips Breadth over spray strips measured at transverse section containing centre of gravity Beam over chines.1.1 2. shaft inclined downwards) 1 1 . Hull Geometry and Section 1.1.1 AP Computer Symbol Name 2 Special Craft 2. excluding external spray strips Maximum breadth over chines. excluding external spray strips AP / LP Breadth over chines at transom.1.

underway Total wetted surface of hull underway.2 Geometry and Levers. underway Lever of resultant of pressure forces.2. Underway 2.1 Planing and Semi-Displacement Vessels 2. SS SWS Area wetted by spray m2 αB ALFSL Angle of stagnation line rad . underway Wetted height of strut palms Wetted height of rudders Wetted chine length. including spray area and wetted side area. underway Wetted keel length.1. underway Wetted area underway of planing hull Wetted bottom area.2 Computer Symbol Name 2 Special Craft 2. chines or water surface underway and transom Distance between center of pressure and aft end of planing surface Vertical depth of trailing edge of boat at keel below water surface level m hP hR LC lCP HSP HRU LC LCP m m m m LK LM SWHP LK LM SWHP m m m2 SWB SWB m2 SWHE SWHE Wetted hull area. chines and spray root line Area bounded by stagnation line. underway (LK + LC) / 2 Principal wetted area bounded by trailing edge. w/o wetted transom area Area of wetted sides Wetted area of the hull side above the chine or the design water line Wetted area between design line or stagnation line and spray edge Angle between projected keel and stagnation line a in plane normal to centerplane and parallel to reference line m2 SWHS SWSH m2 SWS. Underway dTR DTRA Immersion of transom.1 Geometry.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 2. Underway 54 Definition or Explanation SIUnit Geometry and Levers. underway Mean wetted length.1.1.

2 Levers.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol αBAR εWL εWS θDWL Computer Symbol ALFBAR EPSWL EPSWS TRIMDWL Name 2 Special Craft 2.2 Geometry and Levers.1. Underway (This section is under construction and needs further clarification) eA ENAPP Lever of appendage lift force Distance between NA and NA center of gravity (measured normally to NA) Lever of bottom normal force NB Distance between NB and center of gravity (measured normally to NB) m eB ENBOT m .zVA) / L) LM / (BLCG) Angle between the reference line and the design waterline Angle between the reference line and the running waterline Angle between stagnation line and keel (measured in plane of bottom) Effective increase in friction area length-beam ratio due to spray contribution to drag θS. Underway 55 Definition or Explanation Angle between barrel axis and assumed flow lines LM / LWL S / S0 SIUnit rad 1 1 rad Barrel flow angle Wetted length factor Wetted surface area factor Running trim angle based on Angle between design design waterline waterline and running waterline (positive bow up) Static trim angle Angle between ship design waterline and actual water line at rest (positive bow up) tan-1((zSF . θ0 TRIMS rad θV . θD TRIMV Running (dynamic) trim angle rad λW τDWL τR LAMS TAUDWL TAUR Mean wetted length-beam ratio Reference line angle Angle of attack relative to the reference line Spray angle 1 1 1 φSP PHISP 1 δλ DLAM Dimensionless increase in total friction area 1 2.2.zSA) / L) Angle between actual water line at rest and running water line (positive bow up) tan-1((zVF .1.1 Planing and Semi-Displacement Vessels 2.

Underway 56 Definition or Explanation Distance between propeller centerline and center of gravity (measured along shaft line) Distance between NPP and center of gravity (measured normally to NPP) Distance between NPS and center of gravity (measured normal to NPS) SIUnit m Lever of propeller normal force NPN ePP ENPP Lever of resultant of propeller pressure forces NPP Lever of resultant propeller suction forces NPS m ePS ENPS m eRP ENRP Lever of resultant of rudder Distance between NRP and pressure forces NRP center of gravity (measured normal to NRP) Lever of wind force RAA Distance between RAA and center of gravity (measured normal to RAA) Distance between RAP and center of gravity (measured normal to RAP) m fAA FRAA m fAP FRAP Lever of appendage drag RAP m fF FRF Lever of frictional resistance Distance between RF and RF center of gravity (measured normal to RF) Lever of skeg or keel resistance RK Lever of augmented rudder drag ∆RRP Lever of axial propeller thrust Distance between RK and center of gravity (measured normal to RK) Distance between ∆RRP and center of gravity (measured normal to ∆RRP) Distance between axial thrust and center of gravity (measured normal to shaft line) Distance between RT and center of gravity (measured normal to RT) m fK FRK m fR FDRR m fS FSL m fT FRT Lever of total resistance RT m .1.1 Planing and Semi-Displacement Vessels 2.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol ePN Computer Symbol ENPN Name 2 Special Craft 2.2 Geometry and Levers.

ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 2.3 Resistance and Propulsion 57 Definition or Explanation See also Sections 1. assumed to act parallel to the reference line Viscous component of bottom drag forces assumed acting parallel to the reference line Drag forces arising from keel or skeg. assumed to act normally to reference line Resultant of pressure and buoyant forces assumed acting normally to the reference line Resultant of propeller pressure forces acting normally to the reference line N NA NAPP N NB NBOT Bottom normal force (normal to reference line) N NPP NPP Propeller pressure force (normal to reference line) N .1 Planing and Semi-Displacement Vessels 2.1.1 on Hull Resistance ∆ / (BCG2 q) ∆ / (BCG2 q) V / (BCG g)1/2 ∆ / (BCG3 ρ g ) 1 1 1 1 N Due to buoyancy Drag forces arising from appendages inclined to flow. assumed to act parallel to the reference line N N SIUnit Resistance and Propulsion CL0D CLBET CSP CDL LVD LVS FTAPP Lift coefficient for zero deadrise Lift coefficient for deadrise surface Froude number based on breadth Load coefficient Vertical component of hydrodynamic lift Hydrostatic lift Appendage drag force (parallel to reference line) FTB FTBOT Bottom frictional force (parallel to reference line) N FTK FTKL Keel or skeg drag force (parallel to reference line) N FTRP FTRP Additional rudder drag force Drag forces arising from (parallel to reference line) influence of propeller wake on the rudder assumed to act parallel to the reference line Appendage lift force (normal to reference line) Lift forces arising from appendages inclined to flow.3.3 C Lo CLβ CV C∆ LVHD LVS FTA Computer Symbol Name 2 Special Craft 2.1.

1 Force orientations As a rule.1. The SaT Group prefers the use of FT for the tangential forces. .2 Reference line The reference line must be defined for each application.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol NPS Computer Symbol NPS Name 2 Special Craft 2. the symbol R (resistance ) is used when forces are directed horizontally. parallel and opposite to boat velocity and V when forces are directed vertically.3. It is usually the keel line or mean buttock line. normal to the boat velocity. RKEEL RPI RPAR RSP RT RSV VBM VSP Remarks . FN (normal) and FT or DF (tangential) are used for forces acting normally and tangentially to the reference line (keel or mean buttock line).3 Resistance and Propulsion 58 Definition or Explanation Resultant of propeller suction forces acting normally to the reference line Resultant of rudder pressure forces acting normally to the reference line N g ρ i tg τ Drag due to inlet and outlet openings N N N Total towed resistance CF SWS qS Mean velocity over bottom of the hull Relative velocity between hull and spray in direction of the spray N N m/s m/s SIUnit N Propeller suction force (normal to reference line) NRP NRP Rudder pressure force (normal to reference line) Keel drag Induced drag Parasitic drag Pressure component of spray drag Total resistance Viscous component of spray drag Mean bottom velocity Spray velocity RK Rπ RPAR RPS RT RVS VBM VSP 2. but the standard references (Savitsky and Hadler) use the second set of symbols. Further. symbols NF.1. .1 Planing and Semi-Displacement Vessels 2.

1 Geometry and Hydrostatics Definition or Explanation 59 SIUnit Multi-Hull Vessels (Add trimaran symbols) Geometry and Hydrostatics AIA BB BS BTUN DHUL DX HCLDK Box beam Hull spacing Tunnel width Hull diameter Hull diameter at the longitudinal position "X" Deck clearance Minimum clearance of wet deck from water surface at rest Depth of strut from still water line to strut-hull intersection Angle of inner water line with reference to centre line of demihull Angle of outer water line with reference to centre line of demihull Length of prismatic part of hull Length of prismatic part of strut Length of main deck Length of nose section of hull with variable diameter Length of nose section of strut with variable thickness Length of strut from leading to trailing edge See also Section 1.1. Hull Geometry m2 Beam of main deck Distance between hull center lines Minimal distance of the demihulls at the waterline Diameter of axis symmetric submerged hulls m m m m m m Strut-hull intersection area HSS HSS Strut submerged depth m iEI ANENIN Half angle of entrance at tunnel (inner) side Half angle of entrance at outer side Length of center section of hull Length of center section of strut Box length Length of nose section of hull Length of nose section of strut Strut length rad iEO ANENOU rad LCH LCS LH LNH LNS LS LCH LCS LH LNH LNS LS m m m m m m .2.2 2.1 AI BB BS BTV DH DX HDK Computer Symbol Name 2 Special Craft 2.2 Multi-Hull Vessels 2.2.2.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 2.

ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol LSH ts Computer Symbol LSH TSTR Name 2 Special Craft 2.2 Multi-Hull Vessels 2.1 Geometry and Hydrostatics Definition or Explanation 60 SIUnit m m Length of submerged hull Maximum thickness of strut .2.

ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 2.2.2 Computer Symbol Name

2 Special Craft 2.2 Multi-Hull Vessels 2.2.2 Resistance and Propulsion Definition or Explanation

61 SIUnit

Resistance and Propulsion See also Section 1.3.1 on Hull Resistance N RFMH > 2 RF RTMH > RFMH RRMH > 2 RR N N N N N

2.2.2.1 Resistance Components RFMH RFINT RRMH RRI RTMH RTI RFMH RFINT RRMH RRINT RTMH RTINT

Frictional resistance of multi-hull vessel Frictional resistance interference correction Residuary resistance correction of multi-hull Residuary resistance interference correction Total resistance of multi-hull vessel Total resistance interference RTMH > 2 RT correction

2.2.2.2 Remarks .1 Single hull quantities In general, no specific symbols are introduced for quantities referred to single hulls because the use of symbols listed in Chapter 1 (Ships in General) is suggested without adding “ad hoc” subscripts or superscripts. For planing catamarans, several quantities can be found in section 2.1, Planing and Semi-displacement vessels. .2 Resistance Only the main resistance components are listed. If necessary, other symbols may be created for other resistance components, in particular for different interference effects.

ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 2.3 2.3.1 AF AFT BFOA bS bST cC cF cM cS cSF cT WF αc θDH iF Computer Symbol Hydrofoil Boats Geometry and Hydrostatics AFO AFT BFOA BST BSTT CHC CFL CHM CSTR CHSF CHTI WTF ALFTW DIHED DISVF Foil area (general) Total foil plan area Name

2 Special Craft 2.3 Hydrofoil Boats 2.3.1 Geometry and Hydrostatics Definition or Explanation

62 SIUnit

See Sections 1.2.1 and Sections 1.2.4 Foil area in horizontal plane m2 m2 m m m m m m m m m N 1 1 m3

Maximum vessel breadth including foils Span of struts Transverse horizontal distance of struts Chord length at center plane Chord length of flap Mean chord length Chord length of a strut Chord length of strut at intersection with foil Chord length at foil tips Weight of foil Geometric angle of twist Dihedral angle Foil displacement volume

ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name

2 Special Craft 2.3 Hydrofoil Boats 2.3.1 Geometry and Hydrostatics Definition or Explanation

63 SIUnit

2.3.1.1 Geometry, Underway AFE AFF AFR AFS AFST ASS bw cPF AFE ASFF ASFR AFS AFSTO ASS BSPW CPFL Emerged area of foil Submerged area of front foil Submerged area of rear foil Submerged foil area Submerged foil plan area at take-off speed Submerged strut area Foil span wetted Distance of center of pressure on a foil or flap from leading edge Froude number based on foil V / (g LFR)1/2 distance Froude number based on chord length Height of center of gravity foilborne Flight height V / (g cM)1/2 Distance of center of gravity above mean water surface Height of foil chord at foilborne mode above position at rest Distance between keel and mean water surface foilborne m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m m

FnL Fnc hCG hF

FNFD FNC HVCG HFL

1 1 m m

hK lF

HKE LEFF

Keel clearance Horizontal distance of center of pressure of front foil to center of gravity

m m

lFR

LEFR

Horizontal distance between lF + lR centers of pressure of front and rear foils Horizontal distance of center of pressure of rear foil to center of gravity Foil immersion Depth of submergence of apex of a dihedral foil Distance between foil chord and mean water surface Distance between foil apex and mean water surface

m

lR

LERF

m

TF TFD

TFO TFD

m m

3.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol TFM αIND αM Computer Symbol TFOM ALFIND ALFM Name 2 Special Craft 2.1 Geometry and Hydrostatics Definition or Explanation 64 SIUnit m 1 1 Mean depth of foil submergence Downwash or induced angle Angle of attack of mean lift coefficient for foils with twist Angle of attack for which flow separation (stall) occurs Incidence angle at take-off speed αs αTO AFS ATO 1 1 .3 Hydrofoil Boats 2.

3.3.2.3 Hydrofoil Boats 2. the component of lift in the direction of motion Due to mutual interaction of the boundary layers of intersecting foil Streamline drag Due to spray generation Due to propagation of surface waves Due to reduced pressure at the rear side of the strut base CL AFT q CL AFF q CL AFR q N N N N DINT DRINT Interference drag N DP0 DS DST DW DV LF LFF LFR L0 LT0 M DRF0 DRSP DRST DRWA DRVNT LF LFF LFR LF0 LT0 MSP Profile drag for angle of attack equal to zero lift Spray drag Strut drag Wave drag Ventilation drag Lift force on foil Lift force on front foil Lift force on rear foil N N N N N N N N N N Nm Profile lift force for angle of CL0 AFT q attack of zero Lift force at take off Vessel pitching moment CLTO AFT q .2 Computer Symbol Name 2 Special Craft 2.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 2.3.1 Basic Quantities DF DFR DFF DI DRF DFA DFF DRIND Foil drag Drag force on rear foil Drag force on front foil Induced drag Force in the direction of motion of an immersed foil CDF AFR q CDF AFF q For finite span foil.1 Hull Resistance 65 SIUnit Resistance and Propulsion 2.2 Resistance and Propulsion Definition or Explanation See also Section 1.3.

2 Derived Quantities CDF CDI CDINT CDO CDS CDVENT CDW CLF CLO CLTO CLX CM MF MR εF CDF CDI CDINT CDO CDSP CDVENT CDW CLF CLO CLTO CLA CM MLF MLR EPSLDF Drag coefficient of foil Induced drag coefficient DF / (AFS q) DI / (AFS q) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Interference drag coefficient DINT / (AFS q) Section drag coefficient for DP / (AFS q) angle of attack equal to zero Spray drag coefficient DS / (AFS q) Ventilation drag coefficient DV / (AFS q) Wave drag coefficient Foil lift coefficient DW / (AFS q) LF / (AFS q) Profile lift coefficient for L0 / (AFS q) angle of attack equal to zero Lift coefficient at take-off condition Slope of lift curve Load factor of front foil Load factor of rear foil Lift/ Drag ratio of foil LTO / (AFS q) dCL / dα LFF / ∆ LFR / ∆ L/D Pitching moment coefficient M / ((AFF + AFR) (lF > lR) q) .3.3.3 Hydrofoil Boats 2.2.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 2 Special Craft 2.2 Resistance and Propulsion Definition or Explanation 66 SIUnit 2.

1 Projected area of ACV or SES cushion on water surface SES cushion beam measured between the side walls At the water line m2 BC BWLT HCG BCU BWLT HVCG Cushion beam Total waterline breadth of SES Height of center of gravity above mean water plane beneath craft Bow seal height Skirt depth Stern seal height Deformed bag contact length Cushion length Effective length of cushion Wetted area of side hulls at rest off cushion Wetted area of side hulls under way on cushion Wetted area of side hulls under way off cushion m m m hBS HSK hSS LB LC LE SH0 SSHC SSH XH. LS XS.4 ACV and SES 2. LH HBS HSK HSS LB LAC LACE SSH0 SSHC SSH XH.4 2.4.2. LS m .1 Geometry and Hydrostatics Definition or Explanation 67 SIUnit See also Section 1.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 2.1 AC Computer Symbol ACV and SES Geometry and Hydrostatics CUA Cushion area Name 2 Special Craft 2. LH Distance from side wall keel to lower edge of bow seal Distance from side wall keel to lower edge of stern seal m m m m m AC / BC Total wetted area of side walls under way on cushion Total wetted area of side walls under way on cushion Total wetted area of side walls under way off cushion m m2 m2 m2 m Horizontal spacing between needs clarification inner and outer side skirt hinges or attachment points to structure Distance of leading skirt contact point out-board or outer hinge of attachment point to structure needs clarification XS.4.

ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol ZH. HH Name 2 Special Craft 2.1 Geometry and Hydrostatics Definition or Explanation 68 SIUnit m Vertical spacing between needs clarification inner and outer side skirt hinges or attachment points to structure Increase in cushion beam due to water contact Wetted surface factor Bag contact deformation angle Finger outer face angle Slope of mean water plane for surface level beneath cushion periphery Height of cushion generated wave above mean water plane at leading edge side of the skirt SSHC / SSH0 δBc εWS θB θF θW DBCV EPSWS TETB TETF TETW m 1 1 1 1 ζC ZETAC m .4.4 ACV and SES 2. HH Computer Symbol ZH.

1 on Hull Resistance 69 SIUnit Computer Symbol Resistance and Propulsion CLOAD CPR CWC PBM PBS PCE PCU PFT PLR PSS PSS PFCU PFSK QBS QCU QSS QT RAT RH RM RMCU RASK RWET TC0 Cushion loading coefficient ∆ / (g ρA AC3/2) Aerodynamic profile drag Cushion wavemaking coefficient Mean bag pressure Bow seal pressure Mean effective skirt pressure Cushion pressure Fan total pressure Cushion pressure to length ratio Skirt pressure in general Stern seal pressure Power of lift fan Power of skirt fan Bow seal air flow rate Cushion air flow rate Stern seal air flow rate Total air volume flow Total aerodynamic resistance RM + R0 Hydrodynamic resistance RW + RWET Intake momentum resistance ρA QT VA in general Intake momentum resistance ρA QTCU VA of cushion Intake momentum resistance ρA QTS VA of skirt Resistance due to wetting Cushion thrust Air flow rate to the bow seal Air flow rate to cushion Air flow rate to the stern seal Pressure in the stern seal bag PCU / LC Mean pressure in the cushion Pressure in the bow seal bag R0 / (ρA VR2 AC / 2) 1 1 1 Pa Pa Pa Pa Pa Pa/m Pa Pa kW kW m3/s m3/s m3/s m3/s N N N N N N N RWET TC .4.2 C∆ CPR CWC pB pBS pCE pCU pFT pLR pSK pSS PFCU PFSK QBS QCU QSS QT RAT RH RM RMCU RASK 2 Special Craft 2.2 Resistance and Propulsion Name Definition or Explanation See also Section 1.4.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 2.4 ACV and SES 2.3.

5.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 2.1 CI CIW Computer Symbol Ice Going Vessels Name 2 Special Craft 2.8. p 225 and Figure 3.5 Ice going Vessels 2. p 231 of Volume 1 of the Proceedings of the 21st ITTC) CI CIW Coefficient of net ice resistance Coefficient of water resistance in the presence of ice Normal ice force on a body RI / (ρI g h2 B) RIW / (S qIW) 1 1 FIN FNIC Projection of hull-ice interaction force on the external normal Projection of the hull ice interaction force on the direction of motion N FIT FTIC Tangential ice force on a body N FnI FXI FYI FZI fID FNIC FXIC FYIC FZIC CFRD Froude number based on ice V / (g hI)1/2 thickness Components of the local ice force Coefficient of friction Ratio of tangential force to between surface of body and normal force between two ice (dynamic) bodies (dynamic condition) Coefficient of friction The same as above (static between surface of body and condition) ice (static) Thickness of ice Thickness of snow cover Average coefficient of torque in ice QIA / (ρW nIA2 D5) 1 N N N 1 fIS CFRS 1 hI hSN KQIA KTIA nIA PDI HTIC HTSN KQICMS KTICMS FRICMS PDI m m 1 1 Hz W Average coefficient of thrust TIA / (ρW nIA2 D4) in ice Average rate of propeller revolution in ice Delivered power at propeller 2 π QIA nIA in ice .1 Resistance and Propulsion Definition or Explanation 70 SIUnit Resistance and Propulsion (See Figure 3.4.5 2.5.

5.1 Resistance and Propulsion Definition or Explanation 71 SIUnit Nm Average torque in ice Net ice resistance Total resistance in ice Hydrodynamic resistance in presence of ice Average total thrust in ice Relative propulsive efficiency in ice Propulsive efficiency in ice ηID / ηD RIT V / (2 π nIA QIA) RIT > RIW Ship towing resistance in ice Total water resistance of ship in ice N N N N 1 1 .ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol QIA RI RIT RIW TIA ηICE ηID Computer Symbol QIMS RI RIT RIW TIMS ERIC EFDIC Name 2 Special Craft 2.5 Ice going Vessels 2.

6 Sailing Vessels 2.1 Geometry and Hydrostatics Definition or Explanation 72 SIUnit See also Section 1.6. SA BOA E I J P LE SC SK SR Tc TE ZCE Computer Symbol Sailing Vessels Geometry and Hydrostatics ASJ ALK ALT ASM ASN ASSP AS BOA EM I J P LEFF SC SK SR TCAN TEFF ZCE Name 2 Special Craft 2.5 m m m iC iK iR ∆C DVCAN DVK DVR DFCAN m3 m3 m3 N .ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 2.6 2. overall Mainsail base Fore triangle height Fore triangle base Mainsail height Effective length for Reynolds Number Wetted surface area of canoe body Wetted surface area of keel Wetted surface area of rudder Draft of canoe body Effective draft Height of centre of effort of sails above waterline in vertical centerplane Displaced volume of canoe body Displaced volume of keel Displaced volume of rudder Displacement force (weight) of canoe body FH / (ρπVB2R).6.1 Aj ALK ALT Am AN Asp AS.2.1 on Hull Geometry m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 m2 (P E + I J) / 2 m2 m m m m m m m2 m2 Area of jib or genoa Lateral area of keel Total lateral area of yacht Area of mainsail Normalized sail area Area of spinnaker Sail area in general Beam.

2 Resistance and Propulsion Definition or Explanation 73 SIUnit N N Displacement force (weight) of keel Displacement force (weight) of rudder Resistance and Propulsion CFU CRU CTU CWU CTPHI Frictional resistance coefficient (upright) Residuary resistance coefficient (upright) Total resistance coefficient (upright) Wave resistance coefficient (upright) Total resistance coefficient with heel and leeway Induced resistance coefficient Force coefficients Heeling force of sails Driving force of sails Vertical force of sails Side force Hydrodynamic lift force Added Resistance in waves Friction resistance (upright) Residuary resistance (upright) Resistance increase due to side (induced resistance) Total resistance (upright) Total resistance when heeled RTU + Rφ Resistance increase due to heel (with zero side force) RTφ / (S q) RFU / (S q) RRU / (S q) RTU / (S q) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N N N N N N N N N N N N .6. Cy.6. RH RTU RTUH RTUHA Computer Symbol DFK DFR Name 2 Special Craft 2.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol ∆K ∆R 2. Cz FH FR FV H LHY Raw RFU RRU RI RTU RTφ Rφ .6 Sailing Vessels 2.2 CFU CRU CTU CWU CTφ CI Cx.

Z U Uaw Vtw Vmc Vmg V VWREL VWABS VMC VMG Computer Symbol Name 2 Special Craft 2.6.6.Y. 1993 .ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol X.2 Resistance and Propulsion Definition or Explanation 74 SIUnit N m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s Components of resultant force along designated axis Boat velocity Apparent wind velocity True wind velocity Velocity made good on course Velocity made good to windward (contrary to wind direction) leaway angle apparent wind angle (relative to boat course) true wind angle (relative to boat course) βL βaw βtw 2. For a more complete list of sailing yacht symbols and how they are used. “Predicting the Speed of Sailing Yachts” Proceedings of Annual Meeting of SNAME. see Peter van Oossanen.3 BETAL BETWA BETWT Remarks rad rad rad This is only a partical list of symbols used in this specialized area.6 Sailing Vessels 2.

ocean platforms. March 1983. The coordinate system orientation should not be inferred from the symbols and/or names of the concepts or from national or professional traditions. if any: Axes. For ready reference the recommendation of the 17th ITTC Information Committee is quoted in the following.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 3 3. the y-axis positive to port. orientation and origin in any particular case should be chosen for convenience.1 Fundamental Concepts 3. to generate discussion. All sign conventions of related Quantities should be consistent with the orientation chosen. For the definition of hull forms and ocean wave properties and the analysis of structural deflections it is customary to take the x-axis positive forward and parallel to the reference or base line used to describe the body's shape. and the z-axis positive upwards.1.1 Coordinates and Space related Quantities Definition or Explanation 75 SIUnit Mechanics in General Fundamental Concepts Coordinates and Space Related Quantities 3. i. . The response was quite diverse.1 Coordinate systems Orientation of coordinates A problem of general interest. has been treated extensively in the Report of the 17th ITTC Information Committee. the orientation of the axes of coordinate systems. "In order to adapt ITTC nomenclature to common practice a proposal for a standard coordinate system was published in the newsletter No 7.1 3.1. backwards. On the other hand the attention of the Information Committee was drawn to the fact that in ship flow calculations neither of the two systems proposed is customary.y. The origin of the co-ordinates in this case is usually in the undisturbed free surface half way between fore and aft perpendicular.e. the y-axis is taken positive to starboard and the z-axis is positive upwards. Body axes (x.z) Coordinate systems fixed in bodies. orthogonal right handed systems of Cartesian co-ordinates should be used.or downward as proposed only one system should be selected. in particular the one with the positive z-axis upwards. coordinates Preferably. In view of this state of affairs the Information Committee (now SaT Group) may offer the following recommendation. Normally the x-axis is directed in the main flow direction.1.1 Computer Symbol Name 3 Mechanics in General 3.1. On the one hand it was suggested that instead of the two orthogonal right handed systems with the positive x-axis forward and the positive z-axis either up. The present SaT Group recommends that the orientations of the coordinate systems chosen for convenience should be stated explicitly in any case. or ships.

" . So any geometrically defined point may be more adequate for the purposes at hand. as all the hydrodynamic properties entering the problems are related rather to the geometries of the bodies under investigation. and the z-axis positive downwards.1 Fundamental Concepts 3.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 3 Mechanics in General 3.6: Terms and symbols for flight dynamics.. This is in most cases not necessarily advantageous. Fixed or space axes (x0. the origin customarily at the centre of mass of the vehicle or at a geometrically defined position. and the z-axis positive upwards.1..z0) Coordinate systems fixed in relation to the earth or the water. the origin customarily at the intersection of the plane of the undisturbed free-surface. The Information Committee is aware that there may be other coordinate systems in use and sees no possibility for the adoption of a single system for all purposes. and the midship section. the centre plane. . provided that orientations and origins are completely and correctly documented for any particular case. For ship flow calculations usually the x-axis positive in the main flow direction. i.1 Coordinates and Space related Quantities Definition or Explanation 76 SIUnit For seakeeping and manoeuvring problems usually the x-axis as before the y-axis positive to starboard. Any problem requires an adequate coordinate system and transformations between systems are simple. the y-axis positive to starboard.2 Origins of coordinates In seakeeping and manoeuvring problems customarily the centre of mass of the vehicle is chosen as the origin of the coordinates.y0. For further references see ISO Standard 1151/1 .e. backwards.

ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 3 Mechanics in General 3.1. formerly static moments of a scalar distribution Second moment of a scalar fεklixlεjkm xmds quantity.J) U(I). j = S1ij S3+i.J) SM1(I. maybe singularly. 3+j = S2ij S2ij SM2(I.2 Basic Quantities s S S0ij S1ij SM0(I. formerly moments of inertia of a scalar distribution Generalized moment of a scalar quantity distributed in space s. in space Zeroth order moment of a scalar quantity fds 77 SIUnit 3.1 Coordinates and Space related Quantities Definition or Explanation see Remarks .J) fδijds =δijS First order moment of a fεikjxkds scalar quantity.1.V) Tij T(I. V(I) UVPS UVPD(I.J) TTR(I.2 Any scalar quantity distributed. vi ui vi ui vj u×v TAS(I.1. 3+j = S1ijT S3+i.J) TSY(I.J) Tensor in space referred to an orthogonal system of Cartesian coordinates fixed in the body Anti-symmetric part of a tensor Symmetric part of a tensor Transposed tensor Tensor product Any vector quantities Scalar product Diadic product Vector product Tijs + Tija TijA TijS TijT Tij vj ui.J) UVPV(I) ( Tij > Tji ) / 2 ( Tij + Tji ) / 2 Tji P Tij vj uivi uivj εijkujvk .J) Suv S(U.3 Sij = S0ij Si. Remark .1and .1 Fundamental Concepts 3.

x01 y0. x1 y. X(1) Y. referred to an orthogonal system of Cartesian coordinates fixed in the body First order moments of a vector distribution Generalized vector fεijkxjdvk V1i V1(I) Vu V(U) Vi = V0i V3+i = V1i x. X0(2) Z0. XF(2) ZF.1. X(2) Z. Remark . s. X(3) X0. x02 z0.J. xF3 εijk X. x2 z. 22. s. x03 xF.J) Delta operator . 231. 312 > 1 : ijk = 321. 213. xF1 yF.1 Fundamental Concepts 3.2 Right-hand orthogonal system of coordinates fixed in relation to the space.Vi Computer Symbol V0(I).V(I) Name 3 Mechanics in General 3. x3 x0. X0(3) XF. Remark . XF(1) YF.1 Coordinates and Space related Quantities Definition or Explanation 78 SIUnit Zeroth order moments of a fdvi vector quantity distributed in space.2 +1 : ijk = 123. Remark .K) Body axes and corresponding Cartesian coordinates Space axes and corresponding Cartesian coordinates Flow axes and corresponding Cartesian coordinates Epsilon operator Right-hand orthogonal system of coordinates fixed in the body.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol V0i . xF2 zF. XF(3) EPS(I. 132 0 : if otherwise +1 : ij = 11. X0(1) Y0.2 Right-hand orthogonal system of coordinates fixed in relation to the flow. s. 33 0 : if otherwise m m m δij DEL(I.

e. u. The range of the operational indices i.1.1. 1962) and used for the efficient solution of complex problems. i.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 3 Mechanics in General 3. motions. k is from 1 to 3. etc.1 Fundamental Concepts 3. w range from 1 to 6. T. loads. i. S. the notation for which was so far in a quite unacceptable state. As ordinary vectors and tensors their generalized counterparts obey certain transformation rules related to changes in the orientations and the origins of the coordinate systems. von Mises' motors. The basic idea is to combine the two vectorial balances for the translational momentum and the rotational momentum. e. including the motions of robots in flows (Schmiechen. Historically a symbolic 'motor' notation has been proposed and successfully used by Richard von Mises (1924). The introduction of this notation at this very early stage is of course in line with the object oriented approach adopted and permitting an extremely efficient notation not only for the motions of bodies in general but the seakeeping and manouvring of ships. e. v. j. Much later the operational notation ready for computer applications adopted here has been independently developed (Schmiechen.1 Notation The symbols s. . inertia.2 Generalized vector or 6-D notation Most mechanical problems related to bodies moving in three dimensional space are six dimensional due to the six degrees of freedom involved.3 Remarks .1 Coordinates and Space related Quantities Definition or Explanation 79 SIUnit 3. i. 1989) . and the generalized tensors are simple matrices of vectors and tensors. The generalized vectors. and consequently to deal with generalized forces. V denote variables to be replaced by the symbols of the specific quantities under consideration in any particular application. .1. e. i. into only one 6-D balance of the generalized momentum. generalized masses. while for the generalized concepts the operational indices u. generalized velocities. respectively. v. respectively. Consequently it is extremely convenient to have an appropriate notation available.

2 Computer Symbol Name 3 Mechanics in General 3.2 Time and Frequency Domain Quantities 80 Definition or Explanation SIUnit Time and Frequency Domain Quantities 3.+Q exp(s TS) Laurent transform a + 2πif Laplace transform >Q ...1. repeating processes Duration between samples x(t) x(tj) = fx(t)δ(t > tj)dt s 1/s s 1 / TS period in repeating spectra sqrt(>1) sr. in Laplace variable 1/s Hz Hz Hz 1 i 1 TS x X xj z TS x X(J) Z Period of sampling Values of real quantities Real "valued" function Variables for samples values of real quantities Complex variable s ..1.1 Basic Quantities a f fC fS i I j R s t tj TC ADMP FR FC FS I IM J R S TI TI(J) TC Damping Frequency Basic frequency in repeating 1 / TC functions Frequency of sampling Imaginary unit Imaginary variable Integer values Complex variable Complex variable Time Sample time instances Period of cycle >Q ..ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 3. +Q j TS 1 / fC duration of cycles in periodic.1.1 Fundamental Concepts 3.2.

1 Fundamental Concepts 3.2.e.1. TC XF = PxFjδ(f > j/TC) inverse form: X(t) = PxFjexp(>i2πfjTC) XH(t) = 1/π fX(τ)/(t > τ)dτ XHF(f) = XF(f)(>i sgn f) (1/t)F = >i sgn f XL(s) = fX(t)exp(>st)dt if X(t<0) = 0 then = (X(t)exp(>at))F XR(r) = Pxjr>j=XDL XS(f) = XF(f)(1 + sgn f) = XAF i.1. periodically repeating = X(0)/2 + fSPXF(f + jfS) sample theorem: aliasing! xDL xF XDL XFT Laurent transform Sampled function Fourier transform XDL(s) = Pxjexp(>sjTS) XF(f) = fX(t)exp(>i2πft)dt inverse form: = fXF(f)exp(>i2πft)dt if X(t) = 0 and a = 0 then XF(f)=XL(f) 1/TCfX(t)exp(>i2πjt/TC)dt t = 0 .2 Complex Transforms xA xDF XA XDF Analytic function Fourier transform of sampled function XA(t) = X(t) + iXH(t) XDF(f) = Pxjexp(>i2πfjTS) i. = 0 for f < 0 XFj(1 + sgn j) line spectra xFj XFT(J) Fourier transform of periodic function xH xHF xL XHT XHF XLT Hilbert transform Fourier transform of Hilbert transform Laplace transform xR xS XRT XS Laurent transform Single-sided complex spectra Single-sided complex Fourier series xSj XS(J) .ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 3 Mechanics in General 3. .2 Time and Frequency Domain Quantities 81 Definition or Explanation SIUnit 3.e.

. The uniform use of the "natural" frequency instead of artificial circular frequency has the advantage that no factors are occurring in the Fourier transform pair. XH(t)H = >X(t).2 Time and Frequency Domain Quantities 82 Definition or Explanation SIUnit 3. . and tensors of matrices as e. these notes giving some useful background information in the most concise form. encountered in 6-D parameter identification.1. X(>t)F = XF(>f).2 Group properties The Fourier and Hilbert transforms are the unit elements of cyclic groups with the following properties: X(t)F = XF(f).4 Remarks .1.2. >X(t)H = >XH(t).ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 3 Mechanics in General 3. matrices. XF(f)F = X(>t). e. The complex "values" may be quantities of any "complexity".2.3 Complex Quantities za zc zi zj zl zp zr zs ZAM ZRE ZIM ZCJ ZLG ZPH ZRE ZIM Amplitude Real or cosine component Imaginary or sine component Conjugate (Phase) Lag Phase Real or cosine component Imaginary or sine component mod(z) = sqrt(zr2+zi2) zc = real(z) = zacos(zp) imag(z) = zasin(zp) = zs zr > izi > zp arc(z) = arctg(zi / zr) real(z) = zacos(zp) = zc zs = imag(z) = zasin(zp) 3.g.1. >XH(t)H = X(t) .1 Fundamental Concepts 3. XF(>f)F = X(t) X(t)H = XH(t).g.3 Fourier series Due to the fact that in most cases only real functions and single-sided spectra are used the usual format of the Fourier series is X(t) = real(PxSj exp(i2πjt/TC) = P xScj cos(2πjt/TC) + P xSsj sin(2πjt/TC) . Consequently among others the following fundamental relations hold: F4 = H4 = 1. tensors.1 Fourier transforms and spectra The notation proposed has proved to be adequate for "real" problems at hand.

XFr = +XFiH. the derivations sometimes obscured by irrelevant or misleading arguments.2 Time and Frequency Domain Quantities 83 Definition or Explanation SIUnit The reason for this step is that the spectra are in fact Fourier transforms not of the real function being studied but of the corresponding analytic function. . These relationships are known under various names and guises. XFiF(t) = >XFrF(t)(>i sgn t) and. XFrF(t) = +XFiF(t)(>i sgn t). are conveniently expressed as X(t) = Xe(t)(1 + sgn t) with the even function Xe(t) = (X(t) + X(>T))/2. i.. .4 Causal functions Causal functions. For ready reference the following formulae are given xS j = xFj (1 + sgn j) xFc = 1/TC fX(t) cos(2πjt/TC)dt xFs = 1/TC fX(t) sin(2πjt/TC)dt where the integration has to be extended over the cycle TC . the worst being hydrodynamic. taking advantage of the group properties.e.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 3 Mechanics in General 3. i. Noting the property XeF = XFr the Fourier transform XF = XeF > iXeFH leads to the relations XFi = >XFrH. defined by X(t<0) = 0.1 Fundamental Concepts 3.e.1.

ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name

3 Mechanics in General 3.1 Fundamental Concepts 3.1.2 Time and Frequency Domain Quantities 84 Definition or Explanation SIUnit

.5 Minimal phase functions From the format XF = XFaexp(iXFp) the logarithm ln(XF) = ln(XFa) + iXFp is derived and it can be proved that the relations XFp = > (ln(XFa))H, i.e. XFpF(t) = > (ln(XFa))F(t)(>i sgn t) and ln(XFa) = +XFpH, i.e. (ln(XFa))F(t) = +XFpF(t)(>i sgn t) hold for phase minimal functions; s.e.g. Papoulis, A.: The Fourier Integral and Its Applications. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964. .6 Spectral estimates While for periodic functions the estimation of Fourier transforms, spectra, etc. can be efficiently performed by fast Fourier algorithms (FFA) the same is not true in general. Due to necessary truncation FFT will in general produce results with systematic errors. These are a consequence of the implied periodic repetition, which in most cases is simply inadequate. In these cases only autoregressive model techniques lead to unbiased estimates of the transforms. The reason is that these models provide proper harmonic descriptions of the truncated record; s.e.g. Childers, D.G.: Modern spectrum analysis. New York: IEEE Press, 1978. In any case the algorithm used has to be clearly identified, possibly by reference to a full description or, ideally and unambiguously, a subroutine. At this stage it appears premature to try and introduce standard symbols for various standard procedures. So far standard procedures not been agreed upon by the ITTC community, but in the near future it will be necessary to do so in order to arrive at comparable results. Agreement should not be reached by "vote", as has been tried by Ocean Engineering Committee. The standard adopted by the hydrographic institutes for the estimation of power spectra is in general quite disputable as well.

ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 3.1.3 Computer Symbol Name

3 Mechanics in General 3.1 Fundamental Concepts 3.1.3 Stochastic Processes Definition or Explanation see Remark .1 and .2

85 SIUnit

Random Quantities and Stochastic Processes

3.1.3.1 Random Quantities gE, gM, gMR x, y xi, yi xmE xD, xDR, σx xDS, sx GMR X, Y X(I), Y(I) XmMR XDR XDS Expected value of a function E(g) = fg(x)fx(x)dx of a random quantity x = >Q ... Q Random quantities Samples of random quantities m-th moment of a random quantity Standard deviation of a random quantity Sample deviation of a random quantity Auto-correlation of a random quantity Cross-correlation of two random quantities Expectation or population mean of a random quantity x(ζ), y(ζ) i = 1... n n : sample size xmE xVR ½ xVS 1/2, unbiased random estimate of the standard deviation x xE x yE E(x)

xxR, xxMR, Rxx XXMR xyR, xyMR, Rxy XYMR xE, xM , xMR, µx XMR xA, xMS, mx XMS

Average or sample mean of 1/n P xi , i = 1...n a random quantity unbiased random estimate of the expectation with xAE = xE xVSE = xV / n Probability density of a random quantity Joint probability density of two random quantities Probability function (distribution) of a random quantity Joint probability function (distribution) function of two random quantities d Fx / dx j2 Fxy / (jx jy) 1

xPD, fx xyPD, fxy xPF, Fx

XPD XYPD XPF

xyPF, Fxy

XYPF

1

ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol xV, xVR, xxVR xVS, xxVS Computer Symbol Name

3 Mechanics in General 3.1 Fundamental Concepts 3.1.3 Stochastic Processes Definition or Explanation x2 E > xE 2

86 SIUnit

XVR, XXVR Variance of a random quantity XVS, XXVS

Sample variance of a random 1/ (n > 1) P (xi > xA)2 quantity i = 1...n unbiased random estimate of the variance xVSE = xV Variance of two random quantities Outcome of a random "experiment" x yE > xE yE

xyV, xyVR ζ

XYVR

3.1.3.2 Stochastic Processes gMR GMR Mean of a function of a random quantity M(g(t)) = lim(1/T fg(t)dt) t =>T/2 ... +T/2 T =>Q ... +Q

gMS

GMS

Average or sample mean of a A(g(t)) = 1/T fg(t)dt function of a random t =0 ... +T quantity Stationary stochastic process x(ζ,t), y(ζ,t) Auto-covariance of a (x(t) > xE)(x(t + τ) > xE)E stationary stochastic process Cross-covariance of two stationary stochastic processes (x(t) > xE)(y(t + τ) > yE)E

x, y

X, Y

xxC, xxCR, Cxx XXCR xyC, xyCR, Cxy XYCR

xxR, xxRR, Rxx XXRR

Auto-correlation of a x(t)x(t + τ)E = Rxx(τ) stationary stochastic process Rxx(τ) = Rxx(>τ) if x is ergodic: = x(t)x(t + τ)MR Rxx(τ)

Rxx(τ) = f Sxx(ω)cos(ωτ)dτ τ = 0 ... Q xyR, Rxy XYRR Cross-correlation of two stationary stochastic processes x(t)y(t + τ)E = Rxy(τ) Ryx(τ) = Rxy(>τ) if x, y are ergodic: Rxy(τ) = x(t)y(t + τ)MR

3 Probability Operators A. CR CS D. Sxy XYSR xyRRSR τ ζ TICV 3.1.1. population mean Probability density Probability function (Power) Spectrum Sample spectrum Population correlation Sample correlation Population variance Sample variance .1 Fundamental Concepts 3. VR VS MS CR CS DR DS MR PD PF SR SS RR RS VR VS Average. M. Sxx Computer Symbol XXSR Name 3 Mechanics in General 3. MS C.3. sample mean Population covariance Sample covariance Population deviation Sample deviation Expectation. MR PD PF S SS R.3 Stochastic Processes Definition or Explanation xxRRSR 87 SIUnit Power spectrum or autospectral power density of a stochastic process Cross-power spectrum of two stationary stochastic processes Covariance or correlation time Outcome of a random "experiment" xyS.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol xxS. RR RS V. DR DS E.

The foregoing symbols and terminology are proposed in an attempt to provide tools for the tasks at hand in systems identification and in quality assurance. In any case these estimates are at best free of bias.g. So care is necessary if unbiased estimates for small samples are being determined.2 Estimates Apart of the fundamental theory of probability with its concepts outlined here. and Stochastic Processes" is provided by A.4 Remarks . As the most important quantities of this type the sample mean and the sample variance have been introduced. In some text books and some software packages the definition of the sample variance is different from the one proposed here.1.3.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 3 Mechanics in General 3. Random Variables (Quantities!).1 Quantities An adequate introduction into the conceptual world of "Probability. . In the solution of real problems it is absolutely mandatory to account for this distinction. . expected values.1 Fundamental Concepts 3.3 Stochastic Processes Definition or Explanation 88 SIUnit 3. It is important to note that as a matter of fact the terminology is still not standardized. providing for the estimation of probabilities and or their parameters. . Papoulis in his book with that same title.3 Sample Variance It should be noted that in contrast to the practice elsewhere the sample variance is not defined as average of the squared sample deviations from the sample average. This provides for an unbiased estimate of the variance and the standard deviation right away. in practice the theory of statistics is necessary. but they are random variables themselves and as such clearly distinct from the quantities for which they are estimates. e.1.

and QP are variables for values of the storage.4 Balances and System Related Concepts Definition or Explanation 89 SIUnit Balances and System Related Concepts see Remark . . QF. e. and energy.1 Fundamental Concepts 3.1 Balances Traditionally balances of various extensive or so-called "conservative" qualities or properties are described by ad hoc symbols. flux. g. The symbol Q is the variable for the symbol of the particular extensive quality under investigation. momentum.1.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 3. respectively.1 Remarks . mass.4 q Computer Symbol Name 3 Mechanics in General 3. rate of change of the quantity stored Turbulent diffusion Inward positive! QU Q QC QD QF QU/s QU/s QU/s QU/s QM QP QS QDM QPN QRT QU/s QU/s QU/s QT QDT QU/s 3.1 QQ Quantity of the quality under consideration stored in a control volume Quality under consideration QCF QDF QFL Convective flux Diffusive flux Total flux across the surface of the control volume Molecular diffusion Production of sources in the control volume Storage in the control dq / dt volume.4.1. For any quality Q enclosed in a control volume the balance may be written in the format QS = QF + QP . that the net storage of the quality in a given boundary equals the net flux of the quality across the boundary into the control volume and the net production of sources within the boundary. disguising the similarities and essentials. QS.1. and production. implying.

1 Fundamental Concepts 3. fluxes and the productions may be denoted by symbols with a dot as well. Traditionally the time rate of change is denoted by a dot. in the absence of the other. e. g. by R. that they have the same dimension as time rates of change. from the concept of rate of change of the quantity they cause to change. i. e. the convective and the diffusive fluxes. e. dq / dt = q M According to some standards.1.4 Balances and System Related Concepts Definition or Explanation 90 SIUnit The net storage is nothing else but the net rate of change of the quantity q of the quality Q stored in the control volume: QS = dq / dt . as will be done in this version of the symbols. look like qR = SQ = CQ + TQ + MQ + PQ . QF = QC + QD . be equal in value and balancing the rate of change. If instead of the object oriented notation the function oriented notation is being used the balance would e.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 3 Mechanics in General 3. Concerning the flux there are two types to be clearly distinguished according to their mechanisms. the German DIN. Much more reasonable is to denote rate of change by an operator symbol as well. q is the variable for values of the quantity of the quality Q stored in the control volume. the molecular diffusion and the turbulent diffusion. e. . g. g. although they may each. The diffusive flux itself may be due to two types of diffusion. e. The concepts of flux and source are fundamental concepts and essentially different. apparently due to the fact. QD = QT + QM . due to the totally different nature of the mechanisms. and write any balance in the format qR = QS = QC + QT + QM + QP . i. i. This usage is misleading and confusing and therefore totally unacceptable. clearly indicating the four totally different physical mechanisms taking part in the change of any quantities of extensive qualities.

1. QU is the variable for the SI unit of the quality Q under consideration.1 Fundamental Concepts 3. and "quality" are rarely clearly distinguished as they ought to be. M and MO are variables for vectors of numerical values of the quantity measured in Ns.4 Balances and System Related Concepts Definition or Explanation 91 SIUnit This is not very practical if the quality under consideration is of tensorial character or of even more complex matrix nature. E. t and TI are variables for values of the quantity of the quality time measured in s . g. The concepts "variable". "quantity".: momentum is a quality and a body may have stored a certain quantity of it at a given time. It will become evident from this very elementary exposition that precisely the most fundamental concepts are mostly used extremely carelessly. .ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 3 Mechanics in General 3.

Iyy .6) IXY. I23 Izx . m233 . MA(6. kzz RDGZ (Izz/m)1/2 m .5) IZ. kyy Computer Symbol Name 3 Mechanics in General 3. M2(2.2 3.1) RDGX Added mass coefficient in ith mode due to jth motion Damping coefficient in ith mode due to jth motion Restoring force coefficient in ith mode due to jth motion Generalized hydrodynamic damping Generalized hydrodynamic force Generalized hydrodynamic inertia M jFhu / j V v m4 m4 kg m2 jFhu / jVv see Remarks Longitudinal second moment About transverse axis of water-plane area through center of floatation Transverse second moment of water-plane area Pitch moment of inertia around the principal axis y About longitudinal axis through center of floatation Yaw moment of inertia around the principal axis z Real products of inertia in case of non-principal axes Roll radius of gyration around the principal axis x Pitch radius of gyration around the principal axis y Yaw radius of gyration around the principal axis z (Ixx/m)1/2 kg m2 kg m2 m RDGY (Iyy/m)1/2 m kz. m66 Ixy . m55 Iz . IZZ.2). I2(2. I31 kx.2.2) IYZ. I12 Iyz .V) FH(U) IH(U.V) IL IT IY.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 3.3). Izz .1 Inertial and Hydro Properties Definition or Explanation 92 SIUnit Solid Body Mechanics Inertial and Hydrodynamic Properties Basic Quantities AM(I. kxx k ky. I2(3. MA(5.1 3.1 Aij Bij Cij Dhuv Fhu Ihuv IL IT Iy .J) DA(I. m222 .2 Solid Body Mechanics 3. M2(3.J) RF(I.2.2. I2(1.J) DH(U.1.3) IZX. IYY.

IN(I. where this condition holds at least approximately. in general unnecessary operation of transformation to the principal axes of the inertia tensor.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol m m0ij . i.J) M1(I. 3+j = M2ij kg m m2ij . 3+j = M1Tij M3+i. Iij Muv M2(I. While this aspect may be of interest in cases. Quite to the contrary it requires the extra. j = M1ij M3+i . the first order moments as well as the real moments of inertia are vanishing.J) MA(U.J).V) kg m2 3.2 Reference Points In any particular case the orientation and the origin of the coordinate system have to be specified and indicated.e. i. it is not at all important for computational purposes. as in the case of gravitational forces acting alone on a solid body. . generalized inertia tensor of a (rigid) body referred to a body fixed coordinate system Alias static moments of mass Alias mass moments of inertia Mij = M0ij Mi.2 Remarks . k range from 1 to 3.1 Inertial and Hydro Properties Definition or Explanation 93 SIUnit kg kg mass Zeroth moments of mass. i. j.1 Notation The operational indices i.e.J) Name 3 Mechanics in General 3. v . mij = m δij inertia distribution.1. Refer to 3. the indices u. where the translational and rotational motions may be considered as uncoupled. inertia distribution Second moments of mass. mass tensor First moments of mass. mij m1ij Computer Symbol MA M0(I. . MA(I.2.1 Coordinates and Space Related Quantities for definition of generalized concepts. i.1.e.2.w of the generalized tensors from 1 to 6. Due to the hydrodynamic forces the translational and the rotational motions can in general not be considered decoupled from each other in the ordinary way just by construction of a special reference point.J). if necessary.2 Solid Body Mechanics 3. inertia distribution Generalized mass. or for qualitative considerations. If the coordinate system coincides with the principal axes system the generalized tensor has only components in the main diagonal. e.

2. load. F(1) Y. in body coordinates Gravity field strength. F0(3). Mz . F1 Y. M(3). F(4) M.2. in body coordinates Gravity field strength. Fx .2. F03 . FX. F4 M. F01 . F(3) G(U) m/s2 Nm Moment around body axis y Moment around body axis z Force in direction of body axis x Force in direction of body axis y Force in direction of body axis z Gravity or weight force. F(6) X.1 External Loads Fu F(U) gu G(U) m/s2 gi K.2 Force. F11 . F(2) Z. M(1). F2 Z. F12 . F(5) N. F6 X. F02 . F13 . Remark .2 Computer Symbol Loads Name 3 Mechanics in General 3.2. generalized. FY. in body coordinates! Moment around body axis x MFu = MMu Fi = F0i F3+i = F1i gi = g1i g3+i = 0 n 3. F0(2). Remark . in body coordinates! Gravity or weight force in body coordinates! Gravity or weight moment in body coordinates! Load per unit length Weight per unit length dW / dx1 Gu = muv gv Nm Nm Nm Nm Nm G0i . My .2 Loads Definition or Explanation 94 SIUnit s. F1(1). generalized. Mx . F1(3).1 s. M(2). FZ.2 Solid Body Mechanics 3. generalized.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 3. F1(2). Fy . Gi G1i q w G0(I) G1(I) UNQ WPUL Gi = G0i = m0ij gj = mgi G3+i = G1i = εikj xk G0j = m1ij gj N Nm N/m N/m . Fz . F5 N. F0(1). F3 Gu G1(I) K.

3 3 Mechanics in General 3.2. generalized. stresses.1 Operational Indices The operational vector and tensor indices i.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name s. . . MB(1) N N Nm Nm 3.1. Sectional loads are only meaningful relative to the coordinates of the section. If the components are referred to body coordinates as usual. in the case of solid bodies by molecular diffusion only.1 on Coordinates and Space Related Quantities.2. and the momentum sources in the volumes of the bodies. the so-called surface forces. For definition of the generalized concepts see Section 3.3 Sectional Loads Sectional loads are surface loads. v. . The former terminology referring to horizontal and vertical shear forces and bending moments is to be considered obsolete even in this context.2 Solid Body Mechanics 3. e.4 on Balances. namely the momentum flux across the boundaries. Lateral and normal are the appropriate names in the context of body coordinates. FS(1) MB(I) MT. k range from 1 to 3.2 Sectional Loads FSu FS(U) Force or load acting at a FSi = FS0i given planar cross-section of FS3+i = FS1i = MBi the body. distributed over the surface or concentrated. moments of stresses due to molecular momentum fluxes across the section.2. on which they act. j. FS13 FS11 N Nm FSi FT MBi MT FS(I) FT.2 Momentum Balance For the fundamental balance of quantities of extensive qualities see Section 3. while all other forces acting on a body. in section coordinates! Shearing force Tensioning or normal force Bending moment Twisting or torsional moment FS02 . this implies sections normal to the longitudinal axis. Remark .1. w for their generalized counterparts range from 1 to 6. the corresponding indices u. In the usual applications the weight is the only momentum source. the so-called volume forces. i.2 Loads Definition or Explanation 95 SIUnit 3.3 Remarks . e.2. According to the fundamental balance of extensive quantities applied to momentum two different types of 'external' forces have to be distinguished.2. FS03 FS01 FS12 . may be considered as surface forces. i.

V(2) W.3 Computer Symbol Name 3 Mechanics in General 3. vz . v5 r . v3 vu P. V(6) U. V1(2). V0(1). ωx . V(1) V. V1(3). v6 u . V(5) R.3 rad/s rad/s rad/s m/s m/s m/s m/s rad/s p M q M r M u M v M w M α PR QR RR UR VR WR AA rad/s2 s. OMZ. v11 . v01 . VZ. V0(2).2 Rates of change of components of rotational velocity relative to body axes Rates of change of components of linear velocity relative to body axes Angular acceleration s.2. Remark . V1(1). v03 . V0(3). v1 v .1 Motions p .3. v4 q .3 Rigid Body Motions Definition or Explanation 96 SIUnit Rigid Body Motions 3. Remark .2. vy . v12 . OMY. Remark . v13 . ωy . VX. VY. v02 . vx . v2 w .2. V(3) V(U) Rotational velocity around body axis x Rotational velocity around body axis y Rotational velocity around body axis z Translatory velocity in the direction of body axis x Translatory velocity in the direction of body axis y Translatory velocity in the direction of body axis z Components of generalized vi = v1i velocity or motion relative to v3+i = v0i body axes s.3 m/s2 dω/dt rad/s2 . OMX. V(4) Q.2 Solid Body Mechanics 3.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 3. ωz .

TETP X(6). TR. RO.3 Rigid Body Motions Definition or Explanation 97 SIUnit 3.2 Solid Body Mechanics 3.4 Angle of attack The angle of the longitudinal body axis from the projection into the principal plane of symmetry of the velocity of the origin of the body axes relative to the fluid. positive in the positive sense of rotation about the z-axis The angular displacement about the xo axis of the principal plane of symmetry from the vertical. heel or list Angle of pitch or trim Angle of yaw.3. heading or course rad rad rad .2 Attitudes α AT ALFA s. YA. positive in the positive sense of rotation about the xo axis Positive in the positive sense of rotation about the x-axis Positive in the positive sense of rotation about the y-axis Positive in the positive sense of rotation about the z-axis rad β DR BET Angle of drift or side-slip rad γ RO GAMR Projected angle of roll or heel rad φ θ ψ X(4). Remark . PSIY Angle of roll. PHIR X(5).2.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 3 Mechanics in General 3.2. positive in the positive sense of rotation about the yaxis The angle to the principal plane of symmetry from the velocity vector of the origin of the body axes relative to the fluid.

g. v . both being very unsatisfactory. pitch. while the linear velocity changes with the change of reference point.2 Solid Body Mechanics 3.3 Time Rates of Change The computer symbols for the time derivatives have been either DXDT or XDOT. as the corresponding matrix of the directions cosines can become singular.1. the corresponding indices u.1 Operational Indices The operational vector and tensor indices i.2.2.3. j. w for their generalized counterparts range from 1 to 6. The notation proposed is XRT etc for "x rate". in numerical simulations.3 Rigid Body Motions Definition or Explanation 98 SIUnit 3. k range from 1 to 3.3 Remarks . if extreme motions are to be considered the Euler angles may be not adequate for computational purposes. It has of course to noted that contrary to the translatory motion the rotational motion can not directly integrated to obtain the attitudes in question. Further. . .2 Rotational Velocities The operational ("exponential") notation for the linear and rotational velocities reflects the fact that the rotational velocity of a rigid body is independent of the reference point. The Euler angles roll. e. This problem can be avoided if Euler parameters (quatenions) are employed. .4 Angles The proposed computer symbols for the various angles are an attempt to get away from the old cryptic notation.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 3 Mechanics in General 3.4 on Balances. and yaw are evidently to be considered as the natural extension of the position vector to the generalized position vector. See 3. in full "x time rate of change". .

3. Remark .1. RHO CA Velocity of sound Modulus of elasticity Weight Density Kinematic capillarity Viscosity Kinematic viscosity Density Capillarity s.3.1 Mechanics in General Fluid Mechanics Flow Parameters Definition or Explanation 99 SIUnit 3.1.1 Computer Symbol Fluid Mechanics Flow Parameters Name 3 3.3 3.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 3.1 Fluid Properties c E w κ µ ν ρ σ CS EL WD CK VI VK DN.1.1) σ/ρ m3/s2 kg/ms m2/s kg/m3 kg/s2 (E / ρ)1/2 m/s Pa 3.3 3.3.2 Flow parameters Bn Cn Fn Fnh FnÉ Mn Rn Sn Tn Wn BN CN FN FH FV MN RN SN TN WN Froude displacement number V / (g É1/3)1/2 .3.1 Boussinesq number Cauchy number Froude number Froude depth number Mach number Reynolds number Strouhal number Thoma number Weber number V2 L / κ V / (g RH)1/2 V / (E / ρ)1/2 V / (g L)1/2 V / (g h)1/2 V/c VL/ν fL/V 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Surface tension per unit length µ/ρ ρg (See 1.

1 Mechanics in General Fluid Mechanics Flow Parameters Definition or Explanation 100 SIUnit 3. .1.1 Flow parameters The ITTC notation for the flow parameters is not in accordance with that of Physics in general and somewhat redundant.1. ships' surfaces in particular. The flow parameters are the normalized fluid properties. A scale factor in absolute physical terms would be the normalized length Ln = (Rn / Fn)2/3 = L g1/3 / ν2/3 .4 Remarks . The search for "characteristic" reference quantities is a matter of physical argument or the evaluation of experiments.3 Boundary conditions k ks HK SK Roughness height or magnitude Sand roughness Roughness height. The modulus of elasticity entering is not that of the fluid but that of an elastic structure in the flow. usually in terms of some average Mean diameter of the equivalent sand grains covering a surface. . Remark . is a matter either of previous knowledge or a cura posterior. Dimensional analysis does not provide any apriory arguments! The usage of scale factor in model testing relates full scale and model scale. For other problems other reference quantities may be more appropriate. i.3. U and L for steady motion problems.3.2 Sand roughness Although still widely used to characterize the roughness of a surface it is now well understood that sand roughness and the resulting roughness resistance are not typical for technical surfaces. E.3.3 3. although mostly not written in that way. e.2 Area of section divided by wetted perimeter m m RH RH Hydraulic radius 3. The Cauchy number is not identical with the Mach number. but the SaT Group feels that the usage is so established now that there is no chance for a change. with the reference quantities ρ. s.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 3 3. g. the inverse of the Reynolds number is the normalized viscosity µn = µ / (ρ U L ) = 1 / Rn . So far no sound correlation between the surface description and the additional resistance has been established.

density of static flow energy Ambient pressure in undisturbed flow Dynamic pressure. vx .J) ST(I.2. usually only gravity field gi ∆z0 . y.1 e fi h H p p0 q Q SH sRij sij ED FS(I) HS HT PR. Remark .v2 w. z axes Velocity Velocity Velocity of undisturbed flow Wall shear stress µ (jU / jy)y=0 V = vivi1/2 Pa m/s m/s m/s m/s Pa . V3 V(I) VA V0 TAUW Viscous stress Velocity component in direction of x.J) VX. V1 VY.v1 v. density of ρ V2 / 2 kinetic flow energy.2 Computer Symbol Flow Fields Name 3 Mechanics in General 3. z0-axis positive vertical up! e / w = h +p/w +q/w Pa m/s2 m m Pa Pa Pa m3/s m Pa Pa sVij u. Rate of flow Total head loss Turbulent or Reynolds stress ρ vivjCR Total stress tensor Density of total diffusive momentum flux due to molecular and turbulent exchange Volume passing across a control surface in time unit ρ V2 / 2 + p + ρ g h Strength of force fields.2 Flow Fields Definition or Explanation 101 SIUnit 3.vz . EK QF. V2 VZ.3 Fluid Mechanics 3.v3 vi V V0 τw SV(I.3.vy . ES P0 PD.1 Velocities etc. s.3.J) Density of total flow energy Mass specific force Static pressure head Total head Pressure.3.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 3. QFLOW THL SR(I.

3. jt = j / jt . the equation of continuity is taken into account.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 3 Mechanics in General 3. 2. 3 .3 Fluid Mechanics 3.3 Remarks .3. dt ρ = (jt + vj jj) ρ = jt ρ + vj jj ρ = > ρ jj vj The notation used for differentiation is evidently dt = d / dt . the Cauchy equation.1 Equation of Motion The universal equation of motion for any continuum in space is the balance of mass specific momentum vi . ji = j / jxi . Further Einstein's summing convention is conveniently implied: xi yi = di xi yi . ρ dt vi =ρ (jt +vj jj) vi =ρ (jt vi +vj jj vi) = jj sji + ρ fi .3. which can be derived if the balance of mass density ρ .2. i = 1. in Cartesian coordinates. .2 Flow Fields Definition or Explanation 102 SIUnit 3.2 Circulation etc Γn I CN ID Nomalized circulation Induction factor Γ / (π D V) π is frequently omitted Ratio between velocities induced by helicoidal and by straight line vortices Strength per length or per area of vortex distribution ¨ V ds along a closed line ψ = const is the equation of a stream surface 1 1 γ Γ φ ψ VD CC PO SF Vortex density Circulation Potential function Stream function m/s m2/s m2/s m3/s 3.2.

2 Constitutive Laws Only at this stage the individual properties of fluids have to be introduced through constitutive laws. the last term the turbulent diffusion. Apart of the equation of continuity the closure of the problem requires further "constitutive" equations for the turbulent Reynolds stresses. with two balances for the density of the turbulent energy k and its dissipation ε . the stress proper. In addition the balance of moments requires that the stress tensor is symmetric sji = sij . (Boltzmann's axiom). A very popular turbulence model is the k-ε model.2 Flow Fields Definition or Explanation 103 SIUnit In hydrodynamics incompressibility is a further adequate idealization and consequently the universal equations reduce to the two equations ρ dt vi = ρ (jt vi + vj jj vi) = jj sji + ρ fi . There are fundamental investigations under way to construct more advanced models in accordance with the rational theory of constitutive laws. respectively. I. I. . the so-called turbulence models and. even worse.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 3 Mechanics in General 3. the laws for the stress tensor s. Newtonian fluids. boundary conditions including details of the surface structure. roughness. incompressible linear viscous fluids.3. The stress consists of three constituents: the pressure term. e. e. . and the Reynolds stress: sji = > p δji +sVij +ρ vjviCR . jj vj = 0 . I. e. Introducing the stress terms with the constitutive law into the universal Cauchy's equation results in the "Reynolds averaged" Navier-Stokes equation (RANSE) in its kinematic form dt vi = jtvi + vj jj vi = > jI p/ρ + ν jj jj vi + jj vjviCR + gi .3 Fluid Mechanics 3. are defined by the law sVij = µ jI vjS = µ (jI vj + jj vi) / 2 . The first two terms represent the molecular diffusion of momentum.

3 Fluid Mechanics 3.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 3.3.3.3.1 Geometry A b bF cm ct cr fL fU δf δs δ δB δF δFL δL δS δSTH δU γ λ Λ AP SP BSPF CHME CHTP CHRT FML FMU ANFL ANSL DELTT DELTB DELTF DLTFL DELTL DELTS DELTT DELTU ANSW TA AS Planform area Wing or foil span Flap span Mean chord length Tip chord length Root chord length Camber of lower side (general) Camber of upper side Flap deflection angle Slat deflection angle Thickness ratio of section (general) Thickness ratio of trailing edge of struts Camber ratio of mean line (general) Angle of flap deflection Camber ratio of lower side of foil Thickness ratio of strut fL / C tS / CS t/C tB / C S f/C A/b b cm m2 m m m m m m m rad rad 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 rad ct / cr b2 / A 1 1 Theoretical thickness ratio of tS / CSTH section Camber ratio of upper side Sweep angle Taper ratio Aspect ratio fu / C .3.3 Lifting Surfaces Definition or Explanation 104 SIUnit 3.3 Computer Symbol Lifting Surfaces Name 3 Mechanics in General 3.

3 Lifting Surfaces Definition or Explanation 105 SIUnit 3. This condition is usually referred to as "shockfree" entry or "smooth" Angle of attack or incidence at zero lift m/s m/s rad αE rad αG AAGE. angle of attack for which the streamlines are tangent to the mean line at the leading edge.3. ALFA AAEF.3. ALFI AAID.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 3 Mechanics in General 3. ALFS Hydrodynamic angle of attack Ideal angle of attack rad rad α0 AAZL ALF0 Angle of zero lift rad .3. ALFE Induced velocity Resultant velocity of Taking vortex induced flow approaching a hydrofoil velocities into account Angle of attack or incidence Angle between the direction of undisturbed relative flow and the chord line Effective angle of attack or incidence The angle of attack relative to the chord line including the effect of induced velocities The angle of attack relative to the chord line neglecting the effect of induced velocities In relation to the position at zero lift For thin airfoil or hydrofoil.3 Fluid Mechanics 3. ALFG Geometric angle of attack or incidence rad αH αI AAHY.2 Flow angles etc VI VT α VI VT AA.

3.3 Lifting Surfaces Definition or Explanation 106 SIUnit 3.3 Forces DF DI DRF DRIND Foil drag Induced drag Force in the direction of motion of an immersed foil For finite span foil.3.3.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 3 Mechanics in General 3.3. the component of lift in the direction of motion Due to mutual interaction of the boundary layers of intersecting foil Streamline drag CL AFT q N N DINT DRINT Interference drag N DP LF L0 DRSE LF LF0 Section or profile drag at zero lift Lift force on foil N N N Lift force for angle of attack CL0 AFT q of zero 3.3 Fluid Mechanics 3.4 Sectional coefficients CD CDI CL CM ε CDSE CDSI CLSE CMSE EPSLD Section drag coefficient Section induced drag coefficient Section lift coefficient Section moment coefficient Lift-Drag ratio L/D 1 1 1 1 1 .3.

3 Fluid Mechanics 3.1 Two-dimensional Boundary Layers Cf F H HE p P Q CFL CQF HBL HQF PR PT QF Skin friction coefficient Entrainment factor Boundary layer shape parameter Static pressure Total pressure Entrainment b fU dy a UQ δ* / ν or Ue δ* / ν UQ Θ / ν or Ue Θ / ν τ / (ρ Ue2 / 2) 1 / (Ue dQ / dx) δ* / Θ 1 1 1 1 Pa Pa m2/s Entrainment shape parameter (δ > δ*) / Θ Rδ* Rθ u us u+ uτ Um Ui UQ Ue ∆U y+ β RDELS RTHETA UFL UFLS UPLUS UTAU UMR UIN UFS UE UDEF YPLUS BETE Reynolds number based on displacement thickness Reynolds number based on momentum thickness Velocity fluctuations in boundary layer Root mean square value of velocity fluctuations 1 1 m/s m/s U / uτ Shear (friction) velocity Time mean of velocity in boundary layer Instantaneous velocity Free-stream velocity far from the surface Velocity at the edge of the boundary layer at y=δ995 Velocity defect in boundary (Ue> U) / uτ layer Non-dimensional distance from the wall Equilibrium parameter y uτ / ν δ* / (τw dp / dx) (τ / ρ)1/2 1 m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s 1 1 1 .4 Computer Symbol Boundary Layers Name s.4. Remark .3.3.1 3 Mechanics in General 3.4 Boundary Layers Definition or Explanation 107 SIUnit 3.3.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 3.

ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol δ995 δ*, δ1 K Λ θ*, δ** Θ τw Computer Symbol DEL DELS K PRGR ENTH THETA TAUW Name

3 Mechanics in General 3.3 Fluid Mechanics 3.3.4 Boundary Layers Definition or Explanation

108 SIUnit m

Thickness of a boundary layer at U=0.995Ue Displacement thickness of boundary layer von Karman constant Energy thickness Momentum thickness Local skin friction f(Ue> U) / Ue dy 0.41 f(U / Ue) (1 > U2 / Ue2)dy f(U / Ue) (1 > U / Ue)dy µ (jU / jy)y=0

m 1 1 m m Pa

Pressure gradient parameter δ995 / (ν dUe / dx)

3.3.4.2 Remarks .1 Future work In future the section should have an additional subsection on three dimensional boundary layers. And both subsections should be structured as follows: Basic Quantities, Differential Formulation, Integral Formulation. The Resistance and Flow Committee is strongly urged to provide a complete revision of the whole chapter along this line and accordance with the general concepts put forward.

ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 3.3.5 Computer Symbol Cavitation Name

3 Mechanics in General 3.3 Fluid Mechanics 3.3.5 Cavitation Definition or Explanation

109 SIUnit

3.3.5.1 Flow parameters as α αS GR GC GS Gas content ratio Gas content Gas content of saturated liquid Cavitation number Vapor cavitation number α / αS Actual amount of solved and undissolved gas in a liquid Maximum amount of gas solved in a liquid at a given temperature (pA - pC) / q (pA - pV) / q 1 ppm ppm

σ σV

CNPC CNPV

1 1

3.3.5.2 Flow fields DC lC DC LC Cavity drag Cavity length Streamwise dimension of a fully-developed cavitating region Absolute ambient pressure at which cavities collapse Absolute ambient pressure at which cavitation inception takes place Pressure within a steady or quasi-steady cavity Pressure, maybe negative, i. e. tensile strength, necessary to create a cavity At a given temperature! Free stream velocity at which cavitation inception takes place N m

pA pAC pAI

PA PACO PAIC

Ambient pressure Collapse pressure Critical pressure

Pa Pa Pa

pC pCI

PC PCIN

Cavity pressure Initial cavity pressure

Pa Pa

pV UI

PV UNIN

Vapor pressure of water Critical velocity

Pa m/s

ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol VL WL Computer Symbol VOLS WTLS Name

3 Mechanics in General 3.3 Fluid Mechanics 3.3.5 Cavitation Definition or Explanation WL / w Weight of material eroded from a specimen during a specified time Maximum height of a fullydeveloped cavity, normal to the surface and the streamwise direction of the cavity

110 SIUnit m3 N/s

Volume loss Weight loss

δC

HC

Cavity height or thickness

m

3.3.5.3 Pumps HN HU Tn HTNT HTUS TN Net useful head of turboengines Total head upstream of turbo-engines Thoma number (HU > pV / w) / HN m m 1

4.1 Periodic waves cW cWi VP VP(I) cG fW fWi VG FW FW(I) m/s Hz Hz HW k.3 ηFSa 1 / TW i fW LW / TW const = cW for periodic waves m/s m/s 3.2 Wave phase velocity or celerity Wave phase velocity of harmonic components of a periodic wave Wave group velocity or celerity Basic wave frequency Frequencies of harmonic components of a periodic wave Wave height Wave number Wave length Basic wave period Wave direction Instantaneous wave elevation at a given location Amplitudes of harmonic components of a periodic wave Phases of harmonic components of a periodic wave Wave crest elevation Wave trough depression Negative values! z-axis positive vertical up.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 3. s.1.1 Waves Definition or Explanation 111 SIUnit Environmental Mechanics Waves see Remark .2 Time and Frequency Domain Quantities and 3. λW TW α η HW WN LW TW WD EW ηC > ηT 2 π / LW = ω2/g Measured in the direction of wave propagation 1 / fW m 1/m m s rad m ηai EWAM(I) m ηpi . κ LW . Remark .1.1.4.1 This section is related to Sections 3. zero at mean water level.3 Random Quantities and Stochastic Processes.4. see Remark .4 3. εi EWPH(I) ηFSp rad ηC ηT EC ET m m .4 Environmental Mechanics 3.1 Computer Symbol Name 3 Mechanics in General 3.

1 Waves Definition or Explanation Measured in the direction of wave propagation z-axis positive vertical down. zero at mean water level 2 π fW = 2 π / TW see Remark .ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol λW .4.4.2 Irregular waves Hd Hu Td Tu ηC ηT λd λu HD HU TD TU EC ET LD LU m m s s m m m m . σ FC rad/s 3.3 Wave height by zero downcrossing Wave height by zero upcrossing Wave periods by zero downcrossing Wave periods by zero upcrossing Maximum of elevations of wave crests in a record Elevations of wave troughs in a record Wave length by zero downcrossing Wave length by zero upcrossing Negative values! 112 SIUnit m m Wave length Instantaneous wave depression Circular wave frequency ωW.1. LW ζ Computer Symbol LW DW Name 3 Mechanics in General 3.4 Environmental Mechanics 3.

4 Environmental Mechanics 3.1 Waves Definition or Explanation 113 SIUnit 3.4.1. time between two successive samples s s Average of the highest one third zero downcrossing wave heights Average of the highest one third zero upcrossing wave heights m m H1/3u H13U m Hσ HWDS m Trt TRT TR TS TR TS Duration of record Sample interval TV TV Wave period estimated from visual observation s 3.4.4 Frequency Domain Analysis b B Bandwidth of spectral resolution Average reflection coefficient Reflection coefficient amplitude function Spectral peak in frequency Frequency resolution Sample frequency Frequency at which the spectrum has its maximum 1 / TR 1 / TS Sampling frequency divided by the number of transform points Hz Cr Cr(f) fP fR fS CRA CRF FRPK FRRC FRSA 1 1 Hz Hz Hz .ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 3 Mechanics in General 3.1.3 Time Domain Analysis HV H1/3d HV H13D Wave height estimated from visual observation Zero downcrossing significant wave height Zero upcrossing significant wave height Estimate of significant wave height from sample deviation of wave elevation record Return period The average interval in years between times that a given design wave is exceeded 1 / fR 1 / fS .4.

µ) Sθ (ω.θ)dθ=1 0 2πω rad Hz 1 m2/Hz/ rad rad rad MWD Mean or dominant wave THETAMOX direction .4.5 Directional Waves See Remarks 3. DX(ω. σθ f Sζ (ω. Sη(ω) TP T01 T02 MN EISF. EISC ERSF. ERSC EWSF.6.1.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Hmo Computer Symbol HMO Name 3 Mechanics in General 3. ? θm DIRSF SIGMAOX FR S2ZET S2TET etc.θ) Sζ(ω.4.µ) etc.1 Waves Definition or Explanation 114 SIUnit m Significant wave height 4 (m0)1/2 based on zeroth moment for narrow banded spectrum Estimate of significant wave height from sample deviation of wave elevation record n-th moment of wave power spectral density Incident wave power spectral density Reflected wave power spectral density Wave power spectral density Period with maximum energy 2πfP ffn S(f)df Hσ HWDS m mn Si(f). Si(ω) Sr(f).4 Environmental Mechanics 3. µ.θ).6 DX(f.µ) θ.µ).θ)=S(f)DX(f. STHETA CWD Frequency Two dimensional spectral density Directional spectral density Component wave direction Directional spreading function S(f. EWSC TP T1 T2 m2/ sn m2/Hz m2/Hz m2/Hz Average period from zeroth m0/m1 and first moment s s Average period from zeroth (m0/m2)1/2 and second moment 3. Sρ(f.1.θ) where 2π fDX(f. Sr(ω) Sη(f).4.

1 Waves Definition or Explanation 115 SIUnit 3. thus permitting to replace population means by appropriate time means.1.4 Environmental Mechanics 3. San Francisco. In future ergodicity may be required to be checked at least for research and quality assurance purposes. And as long as in most cases no agreement has been reached on the optimum estimators to be used the symbols and terminology should even indicate the special estimators used in order to avoid confusion.6 Research and Multidirectional Wave Parameters Currently discussed research parameters may be found in the IAHR/PIANC List of Sea State Parameters.1 General This section is of course in many ways related to the Sections 3. the wave elevation at a given location. the population mean and variance of the crest height. in the case of the wave crest only the random sample mean ηCA (ECMS) may be determined. . namely ηi or EW(I).3. . has to be introduced and the operations defined earlier along with the corresponding notation may be applied without modification and repetition.6 Remarks . This should be reflected in the symbols and terminology.1. August 1997.3 Irregular waves In the section on non-periodic waves only random quantities have been introduced as e.1. not necessarily harmonic waves. In practice only samples of such processes will be available and consequently only random sample estimates of the parameters can be obtained. Supplement to Bulletin No 52.. . to which all the probability concepts and parameters can be applied as defined earlier in Section 3. January 1986 and in the update for Multidirectional Waves published in the Proceedings of the 27th IAHR Congress.4. respectively.2 Time and Frequency Domain Quantities and 3. which is usually assumed to be ergodic.4. Even periodic waves may be considered as samples of stochastic processes.4 Finite records In practice only records of finite duration are available of the hypothetical stochastic processes for the estimation of the population parameters. If waves are not periodic any individual infinite record may be considered as a random sample of stationary stochastic process. g.1. .ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol Computer Symbol Name 3 Mechanics in General 3. denoted by η and EW. g. but only finite sets of sampled values. . the crest height. g. .5 Sampled values Usually not even finite records are available for the estimation of spectra etc. In this case the wave parameters are random quantities with given joint probability functions.3 Random Quantities and Stochastic Processes.2 Periodic waves The basic concepts on waves are derived from the model of periodic. but which may be considered as composed of harmonic components. In terms of the object oriented paradigms only the time function. e. e. Seminar on Multidirectioal Waves and their Interaction with Structures.

6 UzA UZA (Uz + uzi)A UzA = (z/10)1/7 U10 or UzA = U10 + UA ln(z/10) see section 1.4 Environmental Mechanics 3.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 3. uzi UA.1 see section 1.6 see section 2.4.2 Wind Computer Symbol Name 3 Mechanics in General 3.2 Wind Definition or Explanation 116 SIUnit 3.1 gF/U192 m/s VWR VWT XF z βaw βtw θW VWREL VWABS FDIM ZSURF BETWA BETWT TETWI m/s m/s m rad rad rad .065U10)10-3 Distance over water the wind blows m sec uz .23 U10 = (10/z)1/7 UzA m/s m/s (.1 Basic Quantities C10 F td Trt C10M FETCH DURATN TRT Surface drag coefficient Fetch length Wind duration Return period The average interval in years between times that a given wind speed is exceeded m/s C101/2 U10 or 0.2.08 + .4.71U101.4.4. u* U10 UFLUCT USHEAR U10M Turbulent wind fluctuations Wind shear velocity Reference mean wind speed at elevation 10 meters above sea surface Average wind speed at elevation z above the sea surface Apparent wind velocity True wind velocity Dimensionless Fetch Height above the sea surface in meters Apparent wind angle (relative to vessel course) True wind angle (relative to vessel course) Wind direction see section 2.4.

4.3 Computer Symbol Ice Mechanics Name 3 Mechanics in General 3.3.4.4 Environmental Mechanics 3.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 ITTC Symbol 3.3 Ice Mechanics Definition or Explanation 117 SIUnit 3.1 Basic Quantities E SI SW tbA tbI tbW δI εI ε M I MEI SAIC SAWA TEAI TEIC TEWA ELIC STIC STRTIC POIIC POAI POBR POIC DNIC DNSN DNWA DNWI SCIC SFIC SNIC STIC Modulus of elasticity of ice Salinity of ice Salinity of water Temperature of air Local temperature of ice Temperature of water Deflection of ice sheet Ice strain Ice strain rate Poisson's ratio of ice Relative volume of air Relative volume of brine Total porosity of ice Mass density of ice Mass density of snow Mass density of water Density difference Compressive strength of ice Flexural strength of ice Tensile strength of ice Shear strength of ice ρ∆ = ρW > ρI Volume of gas pores per unit volume of ice Volume of liquid phase per unit volume of ice νO = νA + νB Mass of ice per unit volume Mass of snow per unit volume Vertical elevation of ice surface Elongation per unit length jε / jτ Weight of salt per unit weight of ice Weight of dissolved salt per unit weight of saline water n/m2 1 1 bC bC bC m 1 1/s 1 1 1 1 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 Pa Pa Pa Pa µI νA νB νO ρI ρSN ρW ρ∆ σCI σFI σTI τSI .4.

of the Information Committee of the 17th ITTC. The Information Committee should restructure the ITTC Standard Symbols according to the outline Proposal in Appendix 6 and include new symbols agreed by the Technical Committees. related to Symbols: Recommendations to the Conference: 1. 3. The Information Committee should continue to revise the Dictionary of Ship Hydrodynamics as required. The Conference should adopt the new symbols for hydrostatics included in Appendix 4 and the Information Committee should then include these in the ITTC Standard Symbols. . The Conference should decide to delay the review and update of the ITTC Dictionary of Ship Hydrodynamics and the official translations of this into principal languages until the final Symbols and Terminology List is published in 1990.1 4. The 18th ITTC at Kobe adopted the following Recommendations to the Conference and for the future work of the SaT Group.1. which were: 1. respectively. The Information Committee should continue cooperation with other organizations to achieve a common agreement on symbols and terminology. related to the ITTC Standard Symbols. The Conference should adopt the structure of the ITTC standard Symbols and Terminology List outlined by the Symbols and Terminology Group and used as the basis for the 1987 Draft List distributed at the 18th ITTC in Kobe. 3. The task of the SaT Group for the 18th ITTC was to carry out Recommendations 1 through 5. 2. 4.1 Background and References Symbols and Terminology Group 118 In May 1985 the Executive Committee of the 18th International Towing Tank Conference (ITTC) reorganized the former Information Committee (earlier Presentation Committee) to form a Symbols and Terminology (SaT) Group in the newly established ITTC Secretariat.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 4 4. 2. 5.1 Background and References Symbols and Terminology Group Terms of Reference 4 4. The Conference should urge the Technical Committees and individuals to contribute to the completion of the List of Standard Symbols and should encourage the use of the symbols and their further development in cooperation with the Symbols and Terminology Group. The Information Committee should continue to monitor and co-ordinate the development of new symbols by the Technical Committees.

Formats. wave cut analysis and other suggestions from the Technical Committees. The 20th ITTC at San Francisco adopted the following recommendations related to the SaT Group Recommendation to the Conference The Conference should approve.1 Background and References Symbols and Terminology Group 119 Recommendations for the future work of the Group: 1. The Symbols and Terminology Group should continue cooperation with other organizations to achieve a common agreement on symbols and terminology. The Symbols and Terminology Group should continue to monitor and coordinate the development of new symbols and terminology by the Technical Committees of the ITTC. 2. This will enable users to prepare subsets of the ITTC Symbols and Terminology List more readily. The Symbols and Terminology Group to continue will monitor the international efforts in this field and to coordinate the development of neutral formats for the exchange of information between ITTC member organizations and their clients. . Recommendations for the future work of the Group: The SaT Group to put the computer compatible symbols on a more rational basis in order to make them useful for data exchange purposes. The Symbols and Terminology Group will make appropriate corrections and additions to the 1993 Version of the ITTC Symbols and Terminology List and additions to the document which may include specialized topics and illustrative sketches as well as sections on measurement uncertainty. 3. The Symbols and Terminology Group should complete the ITTC Standard Symbols and Terminology List based on the 1987 Draft distributed at the 18th ITTC and distribute the final version with Volume 1 at the Proceedings of the 19th ITTC.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 4 4. as a reference document. Recommendations for Future Work of the SaT Group Symbols. the 1993 Version of the ITTC Symbols and Terminology List. The Symbols and Terminology Group will pursue the conversion of the 1993 Version of the ITTC Symbols and Terminology List from a word-processor format to an object-oriented database format. The 19th ITTC at Madrid adopted the following recommendations related to symbols: Recommendations to the Conferences: The 1990 version of the List of Standard symbols should be used as a working document without the formal approval of the Conference.

Work on various chapters has been continued by the 18th ITTC SaT Group and the results have been distributed to the Technical Committees at the Kobe Conference together with the printed Draft 1987. to put the computer symbols on a more rational basis.1 The main concern after this still rather traditional approach was to achieve the goal set out in the Recommendations for the future work of the SaT Group. in order to permit automatic handling of symbols in data bases. Two problems had to be solved: to maintain the traditional. the Draft 1987 published at the 18th ITTC in October 1987 at Kobe by the Society of Naval Architects of Japan. and coming up with the plan to produce the present draft of a restructured and enlarged list of the ITTC Standard Symbols 1987. And it soon became evident that the accomplishment of this task could only be achieved by rigorously following the object oriented paradigms applied earlier in restructuring the List of Symbols. During this work. The SaT Group of the 19th ITTC continued work on the Standard Symbols during meetings at Genova in March 1988. at Newcastle in May 1992 and at Genova in January 1993. The SaT Group of the 20th ITTC met at Madrid in September 1990.1 Background and References Symbols and Terminology Group 120 The SaT Group took up its work immediately after it was established having its first meeting at Wageningen in October 1985.1. The List of Symbols as printed is now available on floppy disks using the format of a WordPerfect 6. at Berlin in June 1991. Some of these . From the document itself it is evident that was less than a draft. which were available much too late for updating and were printed without even having been proof read! Consequently. the 1990 version being completed at Genova in March 1990. After the previous transcription into the WordPerfect files using the tabulator function the solution was achieved by transformation to the table format. Duplication of computer symbols had to be carefully traced and avoided. The first raw draft was discussed at Berkeley in July 1986. having been finalized at Trondheim in June 1987. With the appropriate tools being available after all the next task tackled was to correct all the misprints and to implement all the improvements suggested by colleagues of member organizations and members of the SaT Group. in many ways inconsistent "Standard" Symbols as an accepted interim and suggest new consistent symbols as alternatives. new and more rigorous requirements resulting from the proposed use of the symbols in validation work and in data bases caused a reconsideration of the fundamental aspects. the goal of finalizing the symbols list before the 19th ITTC at Madrid could not be reached.2 Activities of the SaT Group 4 4. at the Hague and Berlin in September 1988 and in August 1989 at Trondheim. In order to facilitate the handling of the List of Symbols the earlier version was retyped as a series of WordPerfect files. The primary task after many years of frustrations with the computerized list of symbols was to finally establish a computer implementation permitting direct expert corrections on a PC.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 4.

which has only been started with the new object oriented structure of the Symbols List. as did the word processors up to now. which are not existent. the much more interesting problem of deriving consistent submodels from the general models of the complete list needs still much more development work. While the problem of producing customized lists of symbols can be solved rather easily.1 Background and References Symbols and Terminology Group 121 are already used in computer work and SaT Group feels that due to their efficiency they will sooner or later completely replace the traditional symbols as has the system of SI-Units the traditional systems. It is only on the basis of their work that the task of the SaT Group could have been undertaken and can be carried on. the transformation from the present table format into one of the rapidly developing terminological database formats awaits further software developments. As documented in the Group Report to the 20th ITTC the development and application of terminological databases is dramatically increasing and has lead to a number of specialized workshops and symposia. it is appropriate to acknowledge with thanks the tremendous work done by the former Presentation and Information Committees and the Technical Committees in their respective fields. In order to meet the forthcoming requirements the ITTC Symbols will have to be further rigorously rationalized.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 4 4. absorbing too much of the energy of the SaT Group which should have been devoted to the symbols proper. which need to be taken into account in the further development of the ITTC Symbols. the Technical Committees in particular are invited to contribute to the continuing task of updating and further improvement. . 4. At this stage. Last but not least a word of thanks is due to the great number of typists who have at all stages contributed to the actual production of the document. Compared to this formidable task. During the work to rationalize the computer compatible symbols for use in databases etc the SaT Group became aware of a number of related efforts on an even more general level. s. In view of the increasing demands concerning quality assurance systems the SaT Group felt that the ITTC Symbols should no longer be called Standard Symbols as this name implies legal obligations. which are developing at a breath taking pace. The International Standard Organization and corresponding national organizations may at a later stage take measures to adopt the ITTC Symbols as a Standard as was already intended with the earlier version. All the ITTC Community. The software systems presently available do still not meet very basic requirements. In the broadest sense terminological databases are basic for computer aided knowledge and science engineering.5.3.

it Prof.ac.uk Prof. United Kingdom Phone +44 191 222 6721 Fax +44 191 261 1182 E-mail David.jp Phone +81 6 879 7588 Fax +81 6 878 5364 . Naval Academy Annapolis. Bruce Johnson (Chairman.1 Yamada-oka Suita Osaka 565. NE1 7RU.navy. David Clarke (Secretary.1.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 4. re-appointed by the 19th ITTC Executive Committee in October 1987. by the 20th ITTC Executive Committee in September 1993 and by the 21st ITTC Executive Committee in September 1996 is as follows: Prof. MD 21402.eng.unige.1 Background and References Symbols and Terminology Group 122 The membership of the SaT Group as appointed by the 18th ITTC Executive Committee in May 1985.osaka-u. Ocean and Marine Engineering Department 590 Holloway Road.ac. 1985-1999) Naval Architecture. Italy Phone +39 10 353 2426/2430 Fax +39 10 353 2127 E-mail: podenzana@dinav. Universita di Genova Via Montallegro 1 16145 Genova. USA Phone +1 410 293 6457 Fax +1 410 293 2219 E-mail: johnson@nadn.Clarke@ncl. 1996-1999) Department of Marine Technology University of Newcastle upon Tyne Newcastle upon Tyne.mil Dr. Carlo Podenzana-Bonvino (Secretary. U.3 Membership 4 4. 1985-1993) Dipartimento di Ingegneria Navale e Tecnologie Marine (DINAV). Japan E-mail hase@naoe. Kazuhiko Hasegawa Department of Naval Architecture & Ocean Engineering Osaka University 2 .S.

schm@t-online. 1993-1996) Bartningallee 16 D-10557 Berlin (Tiergarten) Germany Phone +49-(0)30-392 71 64 E-mail m. Consulting member 1993-) Bulgarian Ship Hydrodynamics Centre 9003 Varna. 1985-1996. Lane 115. Michael Schmiechen (Member. Consulting Member 1996-) 6-3-5 Hachihanmatsu-Minami Higashi-Hiroshima 739-01 Japan Phone +81 824 28 8865 Fax +81 824 28 8867 Dr. Michio Nakato (Member.1 Background and References Symbols and Terminology Group 123 Prof. Kostadin Yossifov (Member 1990-1993. 1990-1996.de Prof. Tai-An Road Shanghai 20052 China . Secretary.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 The Current Consulting Members (1999) are: 4 4. Bulgaria Phone +359 52 776390 / 600293 Fax +359 52 600294 Professor Stanley Sui-Shan Yuan 4.

These were Messrs. A list of symbols was accepted and the definition of propeller geometry and thrust and torque coefficients. G. Hamburg.9 of that first Conference was concerned with the question of a standard presentation of resistance data and the use of standard symbols. The “Committee of Four” were some of the most eminent men of their day. and Drs. The “Committee of Four” did not have any specific name or title for symbols and terminology at that time but can be regarded as the founders of the Group. . E. Baker and Barillon. Ing. Paris. The significant developments in the subject of symbols and terminology will be referred to under each conference below. 9. Dr. who can safely be regarded as the founding members of what we now call the Symbols and Terminology Group. G. who were actually refered to as the “Committee of Four”. Barrillon. Teddington. In doing so they traced back to the original inaugural International Conference of Tank Superintendents at The Hague in 1933. Dr. S. they were Mr. whose names are still well known to all. It is interesting to realise that the community at that time thought that this topic was important enough to warrant the direct attention of the leading men of their day in this area of hydrodynamic research. 1933 The Hague (1st) As was referred to in the introduction.1 Background and References Symbols and Terminology Group 124 4. 1935 Paris (3rd) At this Conference there was some agreement on the use of symbols concerned with resistance and propulsion tests and the use of Froude’s method of skin friction correction. 1934 London (2nd) There was no specific mention of the subject of symbols and terminology at this conference. So they decided to look back through all the earlier Conference Proceedings to clear the matter up. However the Conference were quite prepared to leave the subject for any further consideration by the very senior Superintendents of that era.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 4 4. Troost. the Conference Decision No.1. L. They were astonished to find that Recommendation No. At this time the concern was mainly the presentation of resistance and propulsion data.4 History of the ITTC Symbols and Terminology Group Membership The current members of the Symbols and Terminology Group were discussing how many different names the Group had been known by within the ITTC Organisation and how many different Members had served on the Committee. Kempf and Troost. G. Kempf. M. Baker. Symbols and Terminology. Wageningen. The also discussed methods being used on full-scale ship trials. stated that ‘It is left to the “Committee of Four” to settle the terminology for the defining of certain coefficients and symbols’.

C. C. M. L. L. F. The list of delegates showed that three of the original “Committee of Four” were present. Ferguson Dr. The first Technical Committees were elected at this Conference. J. and a session was held on Subject 7. J. Although there was no specific discussion of symbols there is an appendix giving a list of symbols to be used for the co-operative propeller testing programme which was commenced at this conference. This list is considered to be the precursor of the current ITTC Symbols and Terminology List. M. F. there was no specific mention of the subject of symbols and terminology at this conference. H. H. Capt. Acevedo Mr. the following are referred to as the Interim Committee. 1954 Scandinavia (7th) The same Committee are present at this Conference. Propeller and Skin Friction. J. Conn .ITTC Symbols Version 1999 1937 Berlin (4th) 4 4. F. Saunders (Chairman) Capt. The above named are later referred to as the Committee on Presentation of Resistance and Propulsion Data. Nordstrom Dr. namely Capt. J. as revised in May 1952. Presentation of Resistance and Propulsion Data. Ferguson Dr. which were Cavitation. Saunders (Chairman) Capt. on page 12 of the 1951 Conference Proceedings. 1951 Washington (6th) Although no Committee was elected at the 1948 London Conference. and is published on page 13 of the Conference Proceedings. Conn However. it is not clear from the Proceedings as to how and when prior to the 6th Conference this Interim Committee was appointed. There was also a Conference decision to adopt a tentative list of symbols for use in all published work. appointed by the 6th International Conference. M. only Mr Baker was not there. Acevedo Mr. H. 1939 Rome This proposed conference never took place 1948 London (5th) This was the Fifth International Conference of Tank Superintendents.1 Background and References Symbols and Terminology Group 125 Again. F. H. This was based upon Project H-2 of the Hydrodynamics Committee of SNAME. E. E. M. Nordstrom Dr.

Nordstrom 1963 London (10th) Prior to this Conference the Chairmanship of the Presentation of Resistance and Propulsion Data Committee passed to Dr. L. Silovic Dr H. M. Castagneto Mr. E. following the death of Capt H. 1957 Madrid (8th) The Committee is still in existence at this Conference as the Presentation of Resistance and Propulsion Data Committee Capt. Dr. Saunders (Chairman) Dr. F. Saunders (Chairman) Capt. under Subject No. “7th International Conference on Ship Hydrodynamics”. F. T. Todd. H. J. Ferguson Mr. Acevedo Dr. H. F. A. M. E. H. Lackenby (Secretary) Mr. Sadly Mr. Lackenby (Secretary) Mr. H. Castagneto Mr. Ferguson Dr. Silovic Dr. This name was used throughout the Conference and on all the documentation. H. but the name remains as the Presentation of Resistance and Propulsion Data Committee Capt. Ferguson died November 1962. but was not replaced on the Committee. H. it is stated that this subject should be omitted at the next Conference. M. Ing. Mathews Prof. S. rejected this name and adopted instead the current name of “International Towing Tank Conference”. S. S. The Conference. J.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 4 4. however.1 Background and References Symbols and Terminology Group 126 However in the list of Committees appointed by the Conference. Dr. H. E. Amtsberg Dr. Walderhaug . H. Nordstrom 1960 Paris (9th) At this Conference there is a change of membership as well as an increase in number from five to seven. E. F. J. 7 “Presentation of Resistance and Propulsion Data”. J. T. However the most significant occurrence at this Conference was the adoption by the Standing Committee of a new name. H. Todd (Chairman) Prof. Conn Mr. E. Saunders in November 1961. F. C. M. Mathews Prof. S.

Luise Prof. Lackenby (Chairman) Prof. Silovic Dr H. S. Amtsberg Dr.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 1966 Tokyo (11th) 4 4. Lackenby Mr. H. Walderhaug 1972 Hamburg-Berlin (13th) The Presentation Committee retained the same Membership. Lewis Prof. Ing. H. A. H. Dr. Okada . M. E. In 1971 the first ITTC List of Standard Symbols was published as BSRA TM 400. Dr. E. Nakamura Prof. G. Mr. Todd (Chairman) Prof. Lackenby (Chairman) Prof. H. Walderhaug 1969 Rome (12th) The Chairmanship of the Presentation Committee passed to Mr. E. L de Mazarredo (Secretary) Prof.1 Background and References Symbols and Terminology Group 127 The name was now shortened more simply to Presentation Committee Dr. Castagneto Prof. Dr H. Dr. H. L de Mazarredo (Secretary) Dr. Dr. Silovic Dr H. A. Walderhaug 1975 Ottawa (14th) Several changes occurred to the Membership of the Presentation Committee. L de Mazarredo (Secretary) Prof. F. S. Castagneto Mr. S. H. H. Nakamura Prof. E. A. Lackenby (Chairman) Prof. V. Dr. Fancev Prof. Collatz Dr. Amtsberg Dr. Lackenby (Secretary) Prof. E. Dr. V. Lewis Prof. S. E. V. Silovic Dr H. Lewis Prof. H. E. Ing. Amtsberg Dr. Ing. S. S. Castagneto Prof.

Oosterveld (Chairman) Mr. M. but Dr. P. W. Oosterveld (Chairman) Prof. An enlarged edition of the ITTC List of Standard Symbols was published in 1976 as BSRA TM 500. G. but the name remained as the Presentation and Information Committee Dr. Ing. Knight Prof. C. M. Dr. Lackenby Mr. T. H. Nikolaev Dr. L de Mazarredo. Norrbin Prof. Perez-Sobrino Prof. Dr. H. D. M. B. H. Nikolaev Dr. Johnson Mr. Johnson Dr H. C. Schmiechen 1981 Leningrad (16th) Chairmanship passed to Dr. N. A. Ing. B. P. Dr. Okada Prof. L de Mazarredo (Chairman) Dr. Knight (Secretary) Prof. Johnson Mr. Koyama Dr. Walderhaug 1978 The Hague (15th) 4 4. Fancev Prof. Norrbin Mr. Dr. G. K. M.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 Dr H. Marsich Dr. Miles (Secretary) Prof. W. Nikolaev Prof. Ing. Prof. Schmiechen Mr. M. Miles (Secretary) Dr. M. S. Koyama Prof. S. K. E. Schmiechen . E. The ITTC Dictionary of Ship Hydrodynamics was published as RINA Maritime Technology Monograph No6 in 1978. Oosterveld. M. C.1 Background and References Symbols and Terminology Group 128 The name was now changed to Presentation and Information Committee. Dr. N. Sierra 1984 Gothenburg (17th) At this Conference the Presentation and Information Committee was disbanded Dr. D. W. M. Lackenby remained a Member of the Committee. E. B. P. M. The Chairmanship passed to Prof. M. T. H.

Matsumoto Prof. Podenzana-Bonvino (Secretary) Dr. Podenzana-Bonvino (Secretary) Dr. M. Dr. Johnson (Chairman) Prof. Prof. Ing. M. D.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 4 4. Johnson (Chairman) Prof. D. Ing. Clarke Dr. C. K. Clarke Dr. which was elected by the Executive Committee rather than the Conference as a whole. Nakato Prof. C. Clarke Dr. D. Johnson (Chairman) Prof. C. and were as shown below. Matsumoto Prof. Podenzana-Bonvino Dr. B. C. D. B. Schmiechen 1993 San Francisco (20th) Two new members joined the Symbols and Terminology Group. Dr. Yossifov 1996 Bergen-Trondheim (21st) Symbols and Terminology Group were now as shown below. Schmiechen (Secretary) .1 Background and References Symbols and Terminology Group 129 Two of the members remained to form the nucleus of the new Symbols and Terminology Group. Ing. Clarke Dr. M. Ing. B. Podenzana-Bonvino Dr. M. Prof. M. B. 1987 Kobe (18th) The Symbols and Terminology Group were formed following a meeting of the Executive Committee in May 1985. Johnson (Chairman) Prof. A draft list of Symbols was distributed at the Conference. Dr. Dr. Schmiechen Dr. Schmiechen 1990 Madrid (19th) The membership of the Symbols and Terminology Group remained the same Prof. Prior to the Conference the Symbols and Terminology List had been made available on the Internet Prof. M. M. M. Nakato (Secretary) Prof.

Wageningen. Amtsberg Dr. H. Barrillon. T. Clarke (S) Dr. Mr.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 1999 Seoul-Shanghai (22nd) Symbols and Terminology Group Prof. M.1972 . L de Mazarredo (S) Prof. Lewis Prof. G. Lackenby (C) Dr H. H. (S) Secretary. S. C. D. E. B.1972 1984 . L de Mazarredo (C) Mr.1957 1972 . Hasegawa 4 4. Dr.1975 1951 .1999 1978 – 1981 1981 . Knight (S) Prof. K.1984 1957 . Mathews Dr. Johnson (C) Mr.1990 1966 .1981 1966 . Castagneto Dr.1978 1975 . Acevedo Prof. Teddington. D. Nakamura Spain Germany Italy UK UK Germany UK Yugoslavia UK Japan USA USA UK UK Japan UK UK UK UK Italy Italy Canada Japan Spain Spain Canada Japan 1951 – 1957 1960 – 1972 1957 . (C) Chairman Capt.1984 1957 – 1966 1966 – 1975 1975 .1975 1975 . G. K. Lackenby Prof.1978 1951 – 1961 1996 – 1998 1975 . L. Koyama Mr.1996 1996 . T. Luise Prof. Miles (S) Prof. Ing. V. Dr.1999 1972 . B.1 Background and References Symbols and Terminology Group 130 Alphabetical List of Members The original “Committee of Four” 1933-1930. Alphabetical List of Members 1951-1999. Paris. H. D. Johnson (Chairman) Prof. C. Clarke Dr. Knight Mr.1975 1981 . E. G. L. Ferguson Dr. G. Podenzana-Bonvino Dr. K. J. Dr.1984 1985 . M. D. Collatz Dr. F. Conn Dr.1963 1984 .1984 1978 . Troost. E. Kempf. S. K. Fancev Mr. M. S. M. Hamburg. J. Marsich Mr. M. Baker. S. B. E. Ing. Dr. Lackenby (S) Mr. G. G. Clarke (Secretary) Dr. Dr. Matsumoto Prof.1978 1966 – 1975 1972 . Johnson Prof. Hasegawa Prof. M.

H. M.1 Background and References Symbols and Terminology Group 131 1990 – 1996 1975 . C.1984 1984 .ITTC Symbols Version 1999 Dr. C. A. Nordstrom Dr. Todd (C) Dr H. H.1984 1981 . M. Schmiechen Prof.1978 1978 . M.1993 . F. Perez-Sobrino Prof. H.1993 1993 .1996 1978 . Podenzana-Bonvino (S) Prof. Oosterveld (C) Mr. Norrbin Prof. Ing. Yossifov Japan Russia Sweden Sweden Japan Netherlands Spain Italy Italy USA Germany Germany Spain Yugoslavia USA Norway Bulgaria 4 4. Schmiechen (S) Mr.1998 1951 – 1961 1975 – 1993 1993 . Dr. Walderhaug Dr. M. S.1966 1960 – 1975 1990 . Nakato Dr. Nikolaev Dr. Dr. H. E. Podenzana-Bonvino Capt. M.1960 1978 – 1984 1972 .1981 1957 . Saunders (C) Prof. C. Ing. P.1972 1961 . F. Sierra Prof. S. H. K. E. Silovic Dr.1984 1951 . W. N. Okada Dr.

hull geometry. that is by coherent. A consequence of this situation is that the symbols proposed are not always as coherent as is necessary for advanced and systematic work. propulsion performance.2 Background and References List of Symbols 132 The prime concern in setting up a revised and enlarged list of ITTC Standard Symbols was to design an adequate system for the classification of concepts. 4. In order to avoid the dilemma indicated. ideally an axiomatic system or any equivalent. This is particularly important in view of the development trends in marine technology.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 4. produce a coherent document. The essential features are the subject areas of rather limited scope. Ideally each subject area represents a complete and coherent model of that area under consideration. The problem under discussion is of course the same in national and international standards. the ITTC Symbols should not only perpetuate past practice and jargon but try to take the lead and step forward. minimize departures from the well established and widely accepted previous list of symbols After a series of attempts to meet these requirements the structure as listed in the table of contents evolved very much in line with the past development of the symbols.1 List of Symbols Classification 4 4.2. without the need of restructuring and repetition or too many explicit cross-references 3. The problem is that traditionally in lists of symbols as in dictionaries these explicit models are missing for various reasons. establish an open ended matrix structure that can be easily expanded as requirements arise. Their meaning can in principle only be concluded from the context of the model. to be derived from an explicit statement of the model. for example rigid body motion.1.2. In a rapidly changing world adequate tools are prerequisite for efficient problem solving.56) had to be reconsidered in view of the problems encountered. for instance by the High Speed Craft Committee and others. meeting the present and possibly the future requirements of the ITTC community in general and particular user groups 2.2 Structure The concepts related to a given subject area or model are designated by the ITTC Symbol and called by their Name.2 4. where the explicit models and adequate notations area are a prerequisite. so called 'implicit' definitions. . As soon as the work started it became clear that the outline proposed by the Information Committee of the 17th ITTC (Proc. 17th ITTC (1984) Vol. organized in an hierarchical order. Subsequently the following design requirements and goals have been established: 1. One reason is that many subject areas under discussion are far from being developed and understood to the extent necessary. for example a drawing. p.

and sketches take for their preparation. The training of scientists working in the terminology field is being offered by the standards organizations.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 4 4. such as standardization of names. in view of new drafts to be incorporated. Some of these activities have been monitored but are felt to be lacking in clear-cut rules which may be readily understood and applied in practice.2 Background and References List of Symbols 133 As expert system and knowledge engineering technologies evolve the importance of adequate symbols and terminology is more widely acknowledged. 4. Now such an undertaking is felt to be still premature at the present stage.2. . permitting efficient production of real updates including in future additional explanations and sketches or drawings related to particular sections where necessary. The idea was to establish a loose leaf organization as the most appropriate. In order to avoid any extra problems the symbols are arranged in alphabetical order in each subject area as in previous lists. But the Group feels that the complexity of the subject and the sensible use of the symbols require such explanations. further amendments and additions. explanations. the more so as the fundamentals of the theory of science and terminology are not taught to students of naval architecture and marine engineering. It has been noted by the SaT Group that some users dislike the disruption of the list of symbols by lengthy explanations. But in view of the tremendous effort which explicit mathematical models. as it requires the resolution of a number of additional problems. The original idea to add indices of symbols and names to the document had to be delayed as long as adequate tools were missing. Continuous page numbering was discarded in earlier versions. the present SaT Group has only started to consider guidelines for these additions and has added only few examples of explanations to the present list.3 Organization As has been emphasized the development of symbols is a continuing process and as the subject develops. and as found in national and international standards. as approved by the Conference. The Technical Committees and other interested parties are urged to provide further material for review by the SaT Group and future inclusion into the list. will be included in future editions of the list. In view of the extremely powerful modern word processing systems the whole idea was discarded and advantage was taken of the indexing capabilities etc.

need not and cannot be introduced individually. This helps to limit the number of symbols as it requires only one symbol for the particular set of components in question.3. At the same time it should be understood that it is worthwhile to create such a notation. t) . i. The example of the standard notation used in chemistry may serve as a guideline. e. g. The question is of course how far one wants to depart from current practice in order to cope with this situation. s.3. as waste of effort due to confusion of concepts may be reduced drastically. e. respectively. For example the various. Consequently the symbols for the signals should be the primary symbol and components and transforms should be denoted by sub. of inertia.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 4. c. the typical objects or "elements" referred to are the values of quantities in time or "signals". it is felt that it is appropriate to introduce a simple tensor notation at least for orthogonal coordinates. In the present context. It should be evident. i. s. .2. quantities of qualities. in space s. say at least two times thirty six "stability derivatives". g. and time t of which the values q of quantities of certain physical qualities Q are of interest. and should be denoted accordingly. q = Q (b. o.1 Principles of Notation Objects: Quantities 4 4.3 4. or energy. quite often various aspects of the same quantity are of interest. e. ship S or model M. e.3. that the requirements concerning an adequate. 4. 4. o. operational notation are quite demanding. referred to coordinates c with origin o. If vector or tensor components. q is a variable for numerical values of quantities. g. the above situation thus becomes in more general terms qij = Qij (b. time averages.3. s.2 Components: Subscripts In view of vector and tensor components. in general matrix components are conveniently denoted by subscripts. generalized mass and damping.3 Background and References Principles of Notation 134 Standard notations have to be adequate for the problems to be dealt with and preferably have to be operational. c. for example their spectra or aspects of those.and superscripts. e. momentum. t). 4. Further.3. s. all of them to be carefully distinguished. In general there is a body b. In many cases the quantities in question are components of vectorial or tensorial quantities. while Q is a variable for functions constants. in simpler cases just their expectation or estimates of these.

ITTC Symbols Version 1999 4 4. g. identifiers of the object being tested.3. e. In order to have the most compact notation agreement should be reached concerning a one character notation. ship S or model M. They concern: 1. Due to the fact that it has not been possible to define symbols for concepts.e. its position with respect to others and the object it operates upon. which can handle matrices. A whole hierarchy of such operators and qualifiers is necessary. 2. identifiers of coordinate systems and of the reference points. but needs special care not to confuse concepts. object oriented languages in particular. qualifiers. i. As an example the real part of the heave spectrum may be denoted as follows: standard XSR3 computer data base XSR(3) or X_SR(3) or XxSpRe(3) XSR3 or X_SR3 or XxSpRe3 The main problem in any case is to define symbols for operations and not for the results of the operations. Consequently the earlier proposed prefixes in the computer symbols have been changed to suffixes. usually called one-. operators etc uniformly in terms of two characters the above example show the presently used techniques to introduce separators. . or three-dimensional arrays.3 Operators: Superscripts Superscripts are traditionally used for exponentiation but can be generally used to denote operators. or the various bodies in a multi-body problem. The advantage of this notation is that no brackets are required and operators are listed exactly in the sequence in which they are applied to the signal. As has been done with the matrix notation earlier this notation may in future be readily rendered operational in advanced software environments. for well defined operations. two-. 4. to be replaced by symbols proper in any particular application. Separate identifiers have to be introduced in order to avoid confusion. X and Xx denote symbol variables. methods for determination or measurement of values. For convenience the computer symbols and symbols used in data bases should exactly reflect this notation in order to avoid any extra problems of translation. i. and a corresponding two character notation for the computer symbols. This generic use of symbols is of course very efficient. Some 'operator' symbols are proposed in the following chapter on fundamental concepts. It is most important to note that in any case definitions of concepts or operations should not be confused with operational definitions. If necessary the meaning of a operator symbol may depend on the context. not only forward and aft perpendicular.e. the most satisfactory approach being the inverse Polish notation.3 Background and References Principles of Notation 135 Numerical subscripts are truly operational in most algorithmic languages.

the various aspects of complex quantities. or by autoregressive model techniques. the various aspects of spectra and 5. So far no particular identifiers have been introduced for various estimators. the various aspects of random quantities and stochastic processes. as agreed upon by the oceanographic institutes world wide. and propeller open water tests or from the results of propulsion tests alone. hull resistance. . 4. Another example is the interpretation of the conceptual frame-work of hull-propeller interaction based on propulsion. e. bias errors inherent in the first technique. avoiding systematic i.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 4 4.3 Background and References Principles of Notation 136 3. As an example the power spectra of stationary random processes may be estimated using Fourier techniques.

5. In a number of instances alternative symbols are given. if necessary in abbreviated form or with changed spelling. preferably two characters.4 4. To ensure that the symbols can be used in a wide range of programming languages they currently have been kept to less than six characters long.2 Computer Symbols Wherever possible the symbols in the second column of the tables have been chosen so that their meaning is readily apparent. This practice is considered obsolete. 4. 2.: Telex messages. 3. 6.1 Details of Notation Standard Symbols 4 4. respectively. Only upper case letter A . 3. and superscripts should be written as shown. restricted character set. their subscripts. This goal has not been completely achieved for the whole list. They have been constructed from the CCITT International Telegraph Alphabet.Z and digits 0 .and superscripts denote variables to be replaced by symbols for any object. are currently suffixed to the main symbol line. g. letters. 4. should have their type explicitly declared before use. their sub. Formerly Greek letters have been spelled out. They are therefore suitable for use in a wide range of situations e. computer printouts etc.4 Background and References Details of Notation 137 The symbols in the first column of the tables are primarily intended for use in technical writing and mathematical expressions. these departures should be clearly indicated and stated. Where for one reason or another departures from the standard symbols are made. Ad hoc solutions have been attempted but discarded as unsatisfactory. The following rules were applied in the derivation of the symbols: 1. . All symbols. The Froude 'circular' symbols are defined by the prefix CIRC. 4. without spacing.4. All symbols start with a letter.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 4. The following notes are relevant: 1.4. component and qualifier or operator. in accordance with modern programming practice.9 have been used. and. The symbols should be used as defined. No one computer compatible symbol should be used for different concepts in a given context. In many cases the symbols. 2. Qualifiers and operators.

Only a few examples having been discussed may be mentioned. while the fourth column usually contains a definition. is found to be not very useful in formal systems. Any of these definitions has its particular advantages. Thus it is necessary to distinguish rigorously between them. but has to be clearly distinguished from the others.3 Names. which sometimes are given names. the traditional units degree and knot are still widely used and clearly this situation will not change in the near future. the above rules will probably be further developed in the near future. The last column gives the SI-Units for the concepts. SI-Units The third column in the tables contains the names of the concepts denoted by the symbols in the first and the second columns. but this practice. e. A final remark on the Computer Symbols: in the computer. As a matter of fact there are contradictory conventions being widely used. rev.4.4 Background and References Details of Notation 138 7. the letter O and figure 0 (zero) have fundamentally different meanings. usual in natural languages. A number of concepts and their symbols are customarily defined and/or standardized differently in different fields of application.g.or single-sided as functions of frequency or circular frequency. The SaT Group cannot resolve all of these discrepancies. rad. A major step towards an unambiguous definition of the phase angle has been taken by explicitly distinguishing phase lead and lag of complex quantities. The dimensions of dimensionless quantities as well as their units are 1. 4. Despite the fact that both have opposite signs they are confused even in mathematically oriented standard textbooks! . but urges that in such cases the definitions and the units used are stated. Since the computer compatible symbols have been proposed as the basis of attribute names for data exchanges. but owing to their resemblance they can be easily confused. While the SI-Units of angle and velocity are rad and meter/second.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 4 4. or a short explanation where necessary. respectively. Definitions. In the spectral description of real deterministic or stochastic processes spectra and power spectra. They are measured in counts or "absolute units". respectively may be defined as double.

5 4. Vol. Japanese. 1984. Rep. Proceedings 14th ITTC.28. Vol. Report of Presentation Committee. Russian. French Translation of ITTC Standard Symbols 1971.101. August 1971. 6.M. International Towing Tank Conference.5 Background and References References 139 1. SPPA Maritime Research and Consulting. BSRA T. Standard Symbols 1971. For obvious reasons these translations are no longer up-to-date as the present accepted list in English. 1976. Italian. 1984. ITTC Dictionary of Ship Hydrodynamics. 2. No. . No. Prep. Russian Translation of ITTC Standard Symbols 1971. No. Appendix II. by 17th ITTC High-Speed Marine Vehicle Committee.1 References ITTC Documents 4 4. 4.400. International Towing Tank Conference. Association Francaise de Normalisation (AFNOR). Simbolos Internacionales en Arquitectura Naval. Ottawa 1975.5. 4. April 1974. 1984. Standard Symbols 1976.500.5. 4. 5. Vol. 3. German. Brodarski Institute Publication No. Italian Translation of ITTC Standard Symbols 1971. Bibliography and Proposed Symbols on Hydrodynamic Technology as Related Model Tests of High Speed Marine Vehicles. Translation of Overall Index of Titles of Dictionary of Ship Hydrodynamics. 2: University of Tokyo. G. Luise E. Schiff und Hafen 27 (1975) No.538. Zagreb 1974. Spanish and Chinese. 1: CETENA. Transactions of the Society of Naval Architects of Japan. BSRA Technical Memorandum No.6. 4.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 4. 1. 3.2 Translations A number of translations of the List of ITTC Standard Symbols into languages other than English has been made including French. RINA Maritime Technology Monograph No. 2. International vereinbarte Buchstabensymbole und Bezeichnungen auf dem Gebiet der Schiffshydrodynamik. 5. Japanese Translation of ITTC Standard Symbols.10. Collatz. 1978. Genova.

Where possible.3 Other References Apart form the organizations represented on the ITTC these symbols have been recommended for use in technical writing on naval architecture by a number of organizations concerned with marine matters including The Royal Institution of Naval Architects. The symbols are based on the list approved by the ITTC in Ottawa 1975 and a related list produced by the ISSC in 1974. Proc. January 1986. British.ITTC Symbols Version 1999 4 4. China Ship Scientific Research Centre. In 1985 the Draft International Standard ISO/DIS 7463 Shipbuilding . . the American Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers and the American. 7. Madrid.has been published.4. Chinese Translation of ITTC Standard Symbols. and Italian Navies. Subsequently processing of ISO/DIS 7463 has not been postponed. Waves are consistent with the IAHR/PIANC List of Sea State Parameters.1. the symbols for Section 3. Report of Information Committee. but the standard has been published as ISO 7463 in 1990. 17th ITTC.5 Background and References References 140 Asociacion de Investigacion de la Construccion Naval.5. inconsistencies having been removed. Publication 7/75. The ISO/TC8/SC15 has been notified that major changes of the ITTC Symbols are under discussion.Symbols for Computer Applications . Juli 1975. Wuxi. Canadian. Göteborg 1984. 8. 4. Supplement to Bulletin No 52. Australian.

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