# Example: An aqueous potassium nitrate (KNO3) solution containing 60wt% KNO3 at 80oC is fed to a crystalliser where the temperature

is reduced to 40oC Wh t % of t t i d dt C. What f the KNO3 in the feed forms crystals ? Data: solubility of KNO3 in H2O at 40oC = 63 kg KNO3 /100kg H2O. Draw a diagram:

Now to balances:steady-state, no generation, consumption or accumulation. IN = OUT

KNO3 : 0.60 × 100 = Cr + P H 2O : 0.40 × 100 = W other relations : solubility 63 P = 100 W

(kg) (kg)
3 equations and 3 unknowns

Solving equations: W = 40 kg Feed BASIS: 100 kg feed crystals Crystalliser Sat’d solution From 3: P = 63x40/100 = 25.2 kg From 1: Cr = 60-25.2 = 34.8 kg % of entering KNO3 in the crystals = KNO3 in crystals/KNO3 entering x 100% (34.8 ÷ 60) x 100 = 58%

Example: Strawberries contain about 15 wt% solids and 85 wt% water. To make jam, strawberries and sugar are mixed in the ratio 45:55 by mass, and the mixture is heated to evaporate water until the residue (jam) contains 1/3 of water by mass. What amount of strawberries produces 1 kg of jam? Draw a diagram:

Solution: i) Define our components - we have 3 materials: Strawberry solids Water Sugar ii) Draw a flowchart: Sugar 1 Strawberries 2 Crusher 3 Water 4 Jam 5 Evaporator (St) (W) ( ) (Su)

Define a BASIS:

1

Following 5. consumed or accumulate in any unit operation: (kg) (kg) (kg) Steady-state non-reactive process ∴ Generation = accumulation = consumption = 0 Mass Balance: IN = OUT other relations : strawberries 45 St = = sugar 55 Su 4 equations and 4 unknowns: solvable!!! Solve the equations: From 4: Su = 55St/45 Sub into 1: St + 55St/45 = W +1 Rearrange: W = 2. the pellets are reweighed and found to have a mass of 3.40 kg.15 × St = xsolids × 1 iv) Write your equations with simplifying assumptions: Assumptions: No components are generated.0 hours of operation.222St – 1 + 1/3 Solve for St = 0.54 kg.0 mole % water vapor is passed through a column of calcium chloride pellets. There is no need to solve for the other amounts as we have answered the question!! Calculate the molar flow rate of the feed gas and the mole fraction of water vapor in the product gas. The pellets absorb 97. equations about system: JAM PROCESS TOTAL : Su + St = W + 1 1 H 2O : 0.∴ Input = output (steady-state) Now.e. I.0% of the water and none of the other constituents of air.222St – 1 Sub into 2: 0.85St = 2.85 × St = W + × 1 3 Solids : 0. Efficient solving for only what is required !! 2 .4859 kg Another Example Wet air containing 4. The column packing was initially dry and had a mass of 3.

02 ⇒ n BDA..OUT Labeling stream variables: nBDA..1 ⇒ 0.78 + nw. 2 Water accumulates i hi hi within this system (mole) ….1 = (1 .i = number of moles of water in stream ‘i’ H2O: nacc = nw.Eq.04 8.40 ) = 7.. there is accumulation over time in the dryer (call this nacc) : ACCUMULATION = IN .24 mol From equation 3 8.78 0.5 + 8.02 = 40. Eq.2 (mole)….12% 0.97 = 8.54 ..02 mol subbing into 4 : 3 .5 nw. iii) Mole balances over the system: For the bone dry air: IN = OUT Dryer Dry Air: nBDA.1 = 7.04) × 8..1 For the water.1 + nBDA. 3 .5 mol ∴ Molar feed rate of gas per hour is g p 192.Solution: i) Our components in this case are water (w) and bone dry air (BDA).1 nw.1 = 192.5 nacc = 0. ii) Draw a diagram: Wet Air: stream 1 Dried Air: stream 2 Note: in this problem we will take a BASIS: 5 hours of operation.97 nw.1 = 0.02 + nBDA.nw.2 So far 5 unknowns and only 2 equations: need 3 more Other relations: From equation 2 8.04 (mole) 1000 18 .24 + 192... 1 = nBDA.02 = 0.78 mol ∴ From a basis of 5 hours Now to the solution (5 equations and 5 unknowns) nw.3.Eq..02 = 7. 4 (mole) .04 n BDA.0. 1.5 mol n BDA.2 ⇒ nw.i = no of moles of bone dry air in stream ‘i’ nw.2 = 0.1 nacc = (3.2 = 192.24 = × 100 = 0.Eq. Eq.1 mol/hr 5 Water composition of outlet stream 0..

Two unknown variables (x. y. z. z) only two i bl ( ) l independent equations (equation 3 = 2 + 1 ) Must have independent equations Solving gives: z = 2. hundreds. However. 2 ) 1 specified variable (z). y. 2 ). y = 1. Solving gives: x = 2. Three Th variables (x. y. z) ________ 1 ________ 2 z +3x+y= 9 2z + 4x – y = 11 3z + 7x = 20 ________ 1 ________ 2 ________ 3 2 independent equations ( 1 . This is the only solution to the equations. z were specified. Enough information is provided to solve problems.y = 11 z = 2 3 variables (x. x. then we could solve: ∴ DOF = 1 4 . y.DEGREES OF FREEDOM How is it possible to know whether all the information is there to solve our material balances? Degrees of Freedom (DOF) Simple maths In all these problems we had to have the same number of independent equations as unknowns 2x + y = 5 To date Material balances performed on one or two unit operations with only a few components. y.y) with two independent equations ( 1 . ______ 1 ______ 2 x . y = 1 DOF = 0. or if one of x. z are unique . q ∴We cannot obtain an explicit unique solution for x. if 1 extra independent equation were available. even thousands of unit operations and different components. x = 2.y =1 - In l i d t i I real industries and the environment d th i t Tens. We say DOF = 0 [same number of equations as unknowns] Another example: Another example: z + 3x + y = 9 2z + 4x . .

1 = 0.w = moles of bone dry in stream ' i' = moles of water in stream ' i' = moles of water that accumulate in bed Total number of independent equations = 5 Total number of variables = 5 (nBDA.04 ____ 3 nw. 2 _____ 1 nw. Need either: x not specified or One less equation DOF = -1 If DOF > 0 We need to find either: extra equations or extra variables Look at last example: Absorption of water in a dryer i) Components: Water (w) and bone dry air (BDA).1. iii) Mole balance equations: nBDA.1 n acc = 0. nw.2.5 = 0 5 . i n acc.14 (kg) ____ 4 ____ 5 n BDA.97 n w.2 _____ 2 ii) Flow chart Water accumulates 1 Wet Air Dryer iii) Variables: 2 Dryer Air iv) Other equations: nw. nacc) Therefore: DOF = 5 . x = 1 ⇒ y = 3 2 . nw. nBDA.1 n acc = 0.1 + nBDA.y =1 x=1 ______ 1 ______ 2 DOF = Nv – Ne Nv = Number of unknown variables Ne = Number of independent equations From 1 .x=1⇒ y=0 Not possible – this problem is over specified.1. 1 = nBDA.Another Example: In summary: 2x + y = 5 x . 1 = nacc + nw.2. i n w.

5.0205 nTot. 3 . what is the minimum molar flow rate of the dilution air? If the % of propane in the propane/air mix is greater than 2. 3 = 0. 6 = 5 DoF = 5-5 = 0 Problem can be solved !!! ____ 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 + nair. Flow Diagram Will perform material balances using equations 1 and 3. 1 = nC3H8 .05 mole % C3H8 A mixture of propane in air containing 4. 3 nC3H8 .05% then the mixture can be ignited.05% propane than the mixture cannot be ignited.03% C3H8 nC3H8 . components = no. If propane flows at a rate of 150 mol C3H8/s in the fuel gas. 3 Only 2 are independent equations No. a stream of pure air(dilution air) is added to the fuel mixture to make sure that ignition is not possible. 2 = nair. 1 + nair.0403 nTot. 3 nair.Another Example: If the percentage of fuel in a fuel/air mixture falls below the lower flammability limit (LFL) then the mixture cannot ignite. For example. the LFL for propane (C3H8) example is 2. 2 = nTot. 1 = 0. independent equations 6 . 3 nTot. 1 Note : ∴ Number of variables is 2(stream 1) + 1(stream 2) + 2(stream 3) = 5 = Nv Number of independent equations p q Ne = Eq’ns 1 . g ted. 1 = 150 mol / s ____ 4 ____ 5 ____ 6 Material Balance Equations (mole): nC3H8 . If there is a problem in the furnace.05% C3H8 2 Dilution Air 3 Other relations: Fuel Gas 1 4. 4 . 1 nC3H8 . Diluted gas Mixer 2.03% C3H8 (fuel gas) is in the feed to a combustion furnace. If the % is less than 2.

02 T Tower 2 What are the variables: Stream 1 Stream 2 Stream 3 Stream 4 Stream 5 Total flow1 xB. X 3 0.1 Total flow2 xB. The overhead product from the second column contains 94% ‘B’ and the balance ‘T’.2 Total flow3 xB.3 Total flow4 xB.0205 from 3 n Tot.3 xx.1 xx. = 3600 mol/s dilution air Flow Diagram 4 0.1 xT. 2 = 7317 . The b tt Th bottoms product contains 98. T 97% of ‘B’ entering the second column is recovered in the overhead of the second column.30 B 0.5 B.5 xx.4 xx.94 B 0.4 Total flow5 xB.9 = 11 7 .2 xx. 3 = 150 mol/s from 4 150 = 3720 mol/s n Tot. The overhead product is fed to a second column. 25. Perform the DOF analysis to see whether this problem can be solved ?? 150 + 0 = n C3H8 .0 mole % toluene (T) and the balance xylene (X) is fed to a distillation column.98 X 0. 3 n C3H8 .2 xT. X 5 20 variables in the table But we know some of these already: 9 are known Unknown variables = 20 . 96.0403 from 5 150 = 7320 mol/s 0.Solution from 1 Degrees of Freedom – Another example A liquid mixture containing 30. T.0 mole% d t t i 98 0 l % ‘X’ and no ‘B’.25 T 0.4 xT.3 xT.0% of the ‘X’ in the feed is recovered in this the bottoms product.0 mole % benzene (B). 1 = 0.45 X 1 Tower 1 2 0. T.3722 nT 3 = Tot.5 xT.06 T B.

96 x Total flow1 x Xx.0% of the ‘X’ in the feed is recovered in this the bottoms product]. 0. Equations = 6+2+2 = 10 no Total no.97 x Total flow3 x XB.5 = 1 i =1 3 [97% of ‘B’ entering the second column is recovered in the overhead of the second column] 0.3 = Total flow4 x XB. unknown Variables = 11 DoF = 1 ∴ we must specify one more variable BASIS = 100 mole feed [now solvable!!] 8 .3 = 1 i =1 3 ∑ xi .2 Sum of the mole fractions in the unknown streams= 1 ∑ xi .What are the equations ?? : Unit Tower 1 Tower 2 Mass balance Equations 3 equations 3 equations A few more relations we haven’t used yet: [96.1 = Total flow2 x Xx.4 ∴ 2 more equations ∴ 2 more equations Total no.