P. 1


|Views: 104|Likes:
Published by aijaz71

More info:

Published by: aijaz71 on Mar 10, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less






SUBMITTED TO – Dr. Juhi Upmanyu SUBMITTED BYAIJAZ ANEES Enrollment no. :A1802009077 SEC E MBA-IB


Don't talk too long without pausing for a reaction. Conversation analysis is a branch of sociology which studies the structure and organization of human interaction. The art of converstion :  The ability to talk well can be cultivated. suspicious. 3. especially the coordination of work. with a more specific focus on conversational interaction The Art of Conversation in Brief 1.A conversation is communication between two or more people. on the other hand. those engaging in conversation must find a topic on which they both can relate to in some sense.  To chatter is easy. Conversation is indispensable for the successful accomplishment of almost all activities between people. the partners must achieve a workable balance of contributions. It's an implied insult. For this to happen.  Interest can lie primarily in the subject or the person.  Interest you must have if your conversation is to be successful. Those engaging in conversation naturally tend to relate the other speaker's statements to themselves. the formation of friendship and for learning. . and claim them for yourself. For a successful conversation. Never contradict or flatly disagree with the other person. Conversations are the ideal form of communication in some respects. More than a minute is usually too long. 2. Give the other person intellectual freedom and cooperation. is an oral presentation by one person directed at a group. Forty seconds is ideal. since they allow people with different views on a topic to learn from each other. indifferent or even friendly is an art. to relate to the other person's opinions or points of conversation. To talk resultfully with the hostile. A speech. Don't be too forceful or emphatic in stating your opinions until you learn the other person's attitude. 4. A successful conversation includes mutually interesting connections between the speakers or things that the speakers know. They may insert aspects of their lives into their replies. the latter being by far the surer ingredient for success.

a choice between alternatives. and as much as possible of an acknowledgment of the other party's merits. To really become a good conversationalist over the long term it is necessary to acquire the habit of conscientiously stocking your mind with facts and information and then forming opinions on the basis of that knowledge. Whatever systems or procedures you have in place. only when requested. a decision to take a particular course of action. gain commitment. resolve problems. Your ability to hold productive conversations will determine how well you: • • • • communicate objectives. You may even be holding a conversation to decide whether you need a result! It’s in your conversations that you define what those results are. and review progress.  Silence plays an important part in effective conversation just as it does in music. at the heart of your managerial role is conversation. usually.  A monologue is not a conversation. help your team to attain them and give feedback on their performance. and then. The result may be a clearer view of a problem.  The secret of giving advice successfully is to mix it up with something that implies a real consciousness of the adviser's own defects. .  Masters of the art of conversation rarely give advice. All managerial conversations seek a result. It is given tentatively and without seeming to impose their wishes. To plant a suggestion is a real test of conversational Types of conversation Management is getting results through other people.  skill. And the principle means by which you achieve that is conversation.

It is an exploration. possibility. A conversation for relationship: key questions Who are we? How do we relate to the matter in hand? What links us? How do we see things? What do you see that I can't see? What do I see that you don't see? In what ways do we see things similarly. and action. we construct a new. In this model. for: • • • • relationship. Giving your conversations a clear structure One way to develop your conversations as a manager is to give them a clear structure. we think of a managerial conversation as being made up of four conversations. ‘meaning through’). they may also take place separately. or differently? How can we understand each other? Where do we stand? Can we stand together? . the first place to start is with improving your managerial conversations. larger conversation. This four-stage model builds on the natural structures of all conversation to create a powerful framework within which you can manage more effectively. In dialogue. If you want to be better at managing people. at different stages of a process or project. This idea is well encapsulated in the increasingly fashionable word dialogue. opportunity .It’s not too much of an exaggeration to say that management is a conversation. This is what all conversations should aim for: a shared understanding that comes into being as a result of holding the conversation. A conversation is a means of creating shared understanding. These four conversations may form part of a single. shared meaning through the conversation (the word is from the Greek. A conversation for relationship We hold a conversation for relationship to create or develop the relationship we need to achieve our objective.

or feel like? Conversations for possibility are potentially a source of creativity: brainstorming is a good example. It seeks to find new ways of looking at the problem. But they can also be uncomfortable: exploring different points of view may A conversation for possibility: key create conflict. We are defining our relationship to each other. A conversation for possibility A conversation for possibility continues the exploration: it develops first-stage thinking. Isolate one part of the problem and look at it in detail. It asks what we might be looking at. or what to do. A managerial conversation for relationship should move beyond the “What do you do? Where do you live?” questions. Ask what the problem is like. What does it look like.Conversations for relationship are tentative and sometimes awkward. We often rush them because they can be embarrassing. Ask how other people might see it. Try to distinguish what you’re looking at from what you think about it. There are a number of ways of doing this. Break the problem into parts. Think of those tricky conversations we hold with strangers at parties: they are good examples of conversations for relationship. • • • • • • • • Look at it from a new angle. questions What’s the problem? What are we trying to do? What’s the real problem? What are we really trying to do? Is this a problem? How could we look at this from a different angle? Can we interpret this differently? How could we do this? What does it look like from another person’s point of view? What makes this different from last time? Have we ever done anything like this before? . Connect the problem into a wider network of ideas. A conversation for possibility is not about whether to do something. Ask for different interpretations of what’s happening. and to the matter in hand.

What does such a future look like and feel like? What is happening in this future? How can you plan your way towards it? Usually we plan by starting from where we are and extrapolate current actions towards a desired objective. This conversation is more focused than a conversation for possibility: in choosing from among a number of possibilities. A conversation for opportunity is designed to construct such a path. . obstacles. milestones.Manage this conversation with care. This is fundamentally a conversation about planning. Do challenge or probe what the other person says. Many of our good ideas never become reality because we don’t map out paths of opportunity. manage the emotional content of this conversation with care. we can find new opportunities for action. Take care not to judge or criticise. This is where we begin to set targets. Make it clear that this is not decision time. By 'backward planning' from an imagined future. How will we be able to judge when we have achieved an objective? Recall your original objective. and assure them that you won’t hold them to account for them. We assess what we would need to make action possible: resources. Acknowledge people’s feelings and look for the evidence that supports them. A conversation for opportunity: key questions Where can we act? What could we do? Which possibilities do we build on? Which possibilities are feasible? What target do we set ourselves? Where are the potential obstacles? The bridge from possibility to opportunity is measurement. support and skills. measures of success. Encourage the other person to give you ideas. We are choosing what to do. Has it changed? Conversations for opportunity can become more exciting by placing yourselves in a future where you have achieved your objective. In particular. A conversation for opportunity A conversation for opportunity takes us into second-stage thinking. we are finding a sense of common purpose.

(“I can’t do that. “how people seem never to do what they’ve agreed to do?” Following up on agreed actions can become a major time-waster.” This four-stage model of conversation will serve you well in the wide range of conversations you will hold as a manager. but I can do…”) • The conversation results in a promise. • The other person has four possible answers to this request. Make it clear that this is a request. Translating opportunity into action needs more than agreement.They can decline. not an order.A conversation for action (‘part’) This is where you agree what to do. but they rarely generate commitment. . Orders may get immediate results. .They may commit to accepting or declining at a later date.” one senior director said to me recently. some will concentrate on one more than another. . • You ask the other person to do something by a certain time. .They can accept. It takes a specific form.They can make a counter-offer. A conversation for action: key stages A conversation for action is a dynamic between asking and promising. It’s vital that the promise resulting from a conversation for action is recorded. Some of your conversations will include all four stages. “I will do x for you by time y. A conversation for action is the first step in pre-empting the problem. Managers often remark that getting action is one of the hardest aspects of managing people. you need to generate a promise. a commitment to act. who will do it and when it will happen. “Have you noticed. (“I’ll let you know by…”) .

which may serve to consolidate a widelyheld view. which may rely on humour or in-jokes at the expense of those taking part. can become conflicts of possibility. hidden agendas or ‘personality clashes’.A final warning These conversations will only be truly effective if you hold them in order. people engaging in such a conversation are often signaling that they are comfortable enough in each others' company to be able to say such things without . for instance. Conversations about objective facts. Possibilities left unexplored become lost opportunities. Unresolved aspects of a conversation for relationship. it will continue underneath the next in code. Classification of conversation Subject The majority of conversations can be divided into four categories according to their major subject content: • • • • Conversations about subjective ideas. competitive. Banter is non-serious conversation. which often serve to extend understanding and awareness. or supportive. usually between friends. Function Each type of conversation has its own cluster of purposes and expectations attached. The success of each conversation depends on the success of the conversation before it. which may be either critical. Conversations about oneself. The purpose of banter may at first appear to be an offensive affront to the other person's face. In the real world. This includes gossip. • • • Functional conversation is designed to convey information in order to help achieve an individual or group goal. Conversations about other people (usually absent). which sometimes indicate attention-seeking behaviour. Small talk is a type of conversation where the topic is less important than the social purpose of achieving bonding between people or managing personal distance. Nevertheless. few conversations fall exclusively into one category. If you fail to resolve a conversation. And promises to act that have no real commitment behind them will create problems later. the proportional distribution of any given conversation between the categories can offer useful psychological insights into the mind set of the participants. However.

In such situations strangers are likely to share intimate personal information they would not ordinarily share with strangers. the topics of conversation are often prescripted. which result in strangers sharing what ordinarily be a intimate social space such as sitting together on a bus or airplane. Joseph Grenny. Al Switzler. ISBN 0-19-829688-6. or religious ends. is a . The book deals with conversation both for its own sake. Violated Expectations. Banter is particularly difficult for those on the autism spectrum and those with semantic pragmatic disorder. The second book. a comprehensive treatment of the subject. Kerry Patterson. 2000. Crucial Conversations: Tools for Talking When Stakes are High. The first one. In entertainment talk shows. the responses are a spontaneous reaction to what has previously been said. Literature on Conversation Authors who have written extensively on conversation and attempted to analyze its nature include: • • • Milton Wright wrote The Art of Conversation. 2005. in contrast to negotiation. however. Spontaneity In most conversations. as the preferred means of resolving conflict. McGraw-Hill. and for political. teaches important skills for dealing with accountability issues. Crucial Confrontations: Tools for Resolving Broken Promises. Buckley's Firing Line or the Dick Cavett Show can be considered as exercises in conversation. Conversation between strangers There are certain situations. and Ron McMillan have written two New York Times bestselling books on conversation.causing offense. there is little difference in the number of words used by men and women in conversation.[1] The study showed that on average each of the sexes uses about 16. His From Pluralist to Patriotic Politics: Putting Practice First. sales. and Bad Behavior. Men and women A study completed in July 2007 by Matthias Mehl of the University of Arizona shows that contrary to popular belief. A special case emerges when one of the travelers is a mental health professional and the other party shares details of their personal life in the apparent hope of receiving help or advice. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. typically encountered while traveling. teaches skills for handling disagreement and high-stakes issues at work and at home. Charles Blattberg has written two books defending an approach to politics that emphasizes conversation. Talk shows such as William F. Milton portrays conversation as an art or creation that people can play with and give life to. 2002.000 words per day. in 1936. McGraw-Hill.

Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press. etc.A Good Talk: The Story and Skill of Conversation (published 2010) Stephen Miller . a study of how conversation changes in social and workplace situations. .Talk at Work.Amusing Ourselves to Death (Conversation is not the book's specific focus. o Gender and Discourse o I Only Say This Because I Love You o Talking from 9 to 5: Women and Men at Work o That's Not What I Meant! o You Just Don't Understand: Women and Men in Conversation Daniel Menaker . Paul Drew & John Heritage . to coffeehouses around the world.Conversation: A History of a Declining Art: provides an extensive history of conversation which dates back to the ancient Greeks with Socrates. talk shows. ISBN 07735-2596-3.• • • • • work of political philosophy. and his Shall We Dance? A Patriotic Politics for Canada. Neil Postman . 2003. but discourse in general gets good treatment here) Deborah Tannen o The Argument Culture: Stopping America's War of Words o Conversational Style: Analyzing Talk Among Friends. applies that philosophy to the Canadian case. as well as the modern forces of the electronic age. and moving forward.

The reason: Managers always work in teams. the optimist expects the wind to change but a leader adjusts his sails". will definitely encounter brain drain besides which our nation will take the pride of creating professionals required by the top class companies". Examiners lay great emphasis on this parameter because it is essential for managers to be team players. Logic & Clarity of Thought: Your Logic plays an important role while expressing your opinions or ideas in a Group Discussion. Lacking this skill will definitely hamper your chances of getting through the GD. The following are the situations that can arise in a Group Discussion: • A Group Discussion where participants are unable to establish a proper rapport and do not speak much.DYANMICS OF GROUP DISCUSSION In order to put up a decent performance in a Group Discussion. 1. create good infrastructure and upgrade technology". an opinion like "Increase in the number of IIMs will help more students to get quality pedagogy" can be better stated by demonstrating your logical ability by saying: "Increase in the number of IIMs. by providing quality education to more students. is the ability to direct individual accomplishments towards organizational objectives. Teamwork & Team Player: Teamwork is the ability to work together towards a common vision. For example. Leadership: "The pessimist complains about the wind. knowledge about the personality traits that the examiner looks for is desirable. Let me be more clear on this. You can also counter statements like quality of education will deteriorate by saying "The hike in the fees will definitely meet the costs to attract good faculty. a manager works as a team member and later as a team leader. • A Group Discussion where participants get emotionally charged and the Group Discussion gets chaotic. 3. At the beginning of his career. 2. . It is the fuel that allows common people to attain uncommon results. So the following points should be kept in mind before the D-day.

Think Outside The Box: Thinking outside the box means to think creatively. goes the way. asking for what you want. A leader is one who knows the way. honesty. and doubt to offer a solution everybody can understand. Aggressiveness is all about enforcing your point without paying attention to the opinion of the other person. • An aggressive person doesn't listen to your views/needs. a leader is one who strikes a balance in this quality. As an assertive person. So we should remember to put forth your point to the group in a very emphatic. directness. Here are the qualities of a great leader: • A leader. stating your views . An aggressive person can also demonstrate negative body language. respect for others is the definition that is relevant to you and your circumstances in the Group Discussion. but also try to steer the conversation towards a goal. no matter how hard-fought the issue.with integrity. • An unassertive person doesn't express his views. who can cut through argument. and shows the way. never gets personal.Here a leader is the one who acts correctly and makes the Discussion where participants discuss the topic assertively by touching on all its nuances and try to reach the objective. Assertiveness: There are many definitions and ideas on what assertiveness means. He is very well aware of the fact that he can't lead without knowing what he is talking about. • A leader uses his abilities and power to persuade. • Great leaders are almost always great simplifiers. • A passive-aggressive person avoids any real dialogue. whereas an assertive person displays positive body language. A person's leadership skills are often gauged by his Assertiveness. which may hamper your team's targets and goals. 5. Enjoying your rights. not to intimidate. positive and confident manner. so you need to engage them in the discussion. so you need to make them listen. we must be able to handle the following situations in a Group Discussion. Hence merely doing the moderator job doesn't mean you possess leadership qualities. He never says or executes anything that may come back to haunt him on another issue. unimpeded by orthodox or conventional constraints. so you need to encourage them to express their views. expressing your feelings. . Possessing either a low or a high assertiveness is considered to be a negative personality trait. • A leader does his homework. As we can see in the adjacent image. 4. The basic difference between being assertive and being aggressive is how our words and behavior affect the rights and well being of others. debate. Participants often mistake assertiveness for aggressiveness." So we should not only to contribute to the Group Discussion with the ideas and opinions.

Absence of this quality makes you a friend to no person in the Group Discussion. Flexibility: "Who says golf can't be played with Apples?" If this is our attitude then we are the one for the game. you must be proficient in the topic of the Group Discussion. • Openness to do different things and to do things differently. then we are in serious trouble. • Listening to others. Besides emphasizing on your idea you must be open to all the other possible ideas as well. especially when our team is absolutely conscious of what we are saying. If you are able to come up with an innovative idea and put it across convincingly. by saying 'Yes. • Striving to create value in new ways. 'No. The act of "Initiation" creates the first impression of our abilities. In brief you should consider all the possible dimensions of the issue. If we initialize a Group Discussion and fails to survive on our own idea at regular intervals. he should not'. There's no point in fumbling or giving up on our initialized idea as quickly as someone makes a statement contradicting our opinion. But if our mind can visualize the outcome of our idea then we can start the action called "Initiation". 'Should Dravid retire from Cricket?' Some participants tend to get emotionally attached to the topic and take a stand either in favour or against the topic. you have already given your decision without discussing the topic at hand or listening to the views of your team members. In a Group Discussion an idea or a perspective which provides a scope for entirely new dimensional discussion is always highly appreciated. . • Focusing on the value of finding new ideas and acting on them. One should always avoid this because by taking a stance. As the saying goes. Initiative: I am very much aware of the fact that there is nothing more difficult to carry out.Thinking outside the box requires different attributes that include: • Willingness to take new perspectives. This is a high-risk high-return strategy. you can take it for granted that you have done quite a decent job in that discussion. They also know that having an idea is good but acting on it is more important. nor more doubtful of success. he should'. nor more dangerous to handle. or. than to initiate a Group Discussion. 7. "CONTENT IS KING". Bear in mind that we have to initiate a group discussion only if we are well versed with the topic of the Group Discussion. Never we should ever start our Group Discussion with a stance or a conclusion. 6. • Supporting and respecting others when they come up with new ideas. such that it is discussed for quite sometime by the group. Say the topic of a Group Discussion is. Out-of-the box thinkers know that new ideas need nurturing and support. Out-of-the box thinking requires an openness to new ways of seeing the world and a willingness to explore.

10. Persuasiveness: We should act like a shepherd who always tries to persuade the sheep that their interests and his own are the same. The act of conceptualization is the act of thinking quickly about the ideas exchanged and seeing beyond existing ideas and applying them to summarize the group discussion. the way that you analyze. We must possess the ability to analyze and persuade others to see the problem not only from your point of view but also should be able to persuade them to analyze it from multiple perspectives. Communication Ability: This is the key skill in order to exhibit all the qualities that we discussed till now. fools. Good communication does not mean that you have to speak in perfectly formed sentences and paragraphs. So find out what you are before the facilitator finds it out for you…. which has a lot to do with listening. Communication skills doesn't mean public speaking. You have to understand that the key factor here is listening. Try to use simple and lucid language to explain your ideas and I am sure you will be accepted by everyone in the group. Conceptualization: Conceptualization is the use of particulars that has come into the discussion to bring to light within the mind a generalizable idea. Remember that what you're doing is putting into professional play the way that you relate to other team members. 9.8. to say something. In a group discussions it is greed to do all the talking but not want to listen at all. Wise men talk because they have something to say. In fact seldom it happens that a bad listener is good at communication skills. one must realize that we are all different in the way we perceive the world and use this understanding as a guide to our communication with others. which according to me is an art of diluting two-minute idea with two-hour vocabulary. . The best way to persuade others is with your ears by listening to them. of course negative points. As Plato said. with humility and a sense of yourself. Sometimes. It is obvious that when we have nothing interesting or important to say you are not meant to persuade your team members. In order to communicate effectively. of course without contradicting straight away their ideas and opinions. the way that you would convince your team members to do what you want. So you need not worry about them as they are already accumulating points. in a Group Discussion we may come across some participants who use their Holy Vocabulary Skills in order to show-off their knowledge (not in the topic but in the language) forgetting the fact that everyone in the Group Discussion has already done a decent job regarding this aspect in the written exam.

but you must have the ability to do this when the situation demands.At the end of the discussion. . you could probably summarize in a few sentences that presents the overall perspective. You may not be able to do it in every group discussion.

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->