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'K"UN- _ ',' G".

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Water) keep each ether in eheek and are d,ependent upon ene another. . The 8p:irit olr the Heart and the essence of tbeKidneys, cooperate' in tabli -I,.'::_g 'I . . t -ln On' " • -an. - - - -elouaness " e:s ' UI:l.Ull_, and• mamIS[._I-., g' b' um- .' cons .... "...... :l!I.wc ... ., Ji.

n.,.""The Heart (Upper Burner, Fire) and the Kidney" {Lower Burner,


The' author(s) and publisher of this matenal are not responsible In Ia.ny manner whatsoever injury which ma.y occur ,through reading or following the tnstrucnons in this, material. :I'Or ny a

The activities" phys,ic,al or otherwise, deserlbed in this, material may be too strenuous or dangerous

for somepeople, and the reader(s) ,should consult a physj,clan, before 'eng'lging ,in them ..

Pu.U,.,II.'r"- Cat

'Oel ... ID, Pu.llcatia.,

(PNpared fly Quality BOD," Inc.)

Yang; JWiD:g-Ming, 1946...

The root of Chinese Chi Kung: 'the secrets of Ch,i KUD'g: training I 'Yang Jwing-Mmg.

Inchrdes tndex.
ISBN 0-940871~0'7~6

p, em.

I,. Ch't kung. 2,. Marti,al arts :3,.Health. I. Title.

613,. 7t14~8 QBI'94-8.5
•• A. BTl AI' AR)IJ'!S' .& QiQO'C.'IA,TlON", © VA 'UI.!" "~G' IS"_' ll:IHAIUIL '-..1; -~~ U\II '.


NM_t'U'\.J,' 19'9"5&A'\ <-

,First Printing 1'989

All ri:ghts reserved

LI,braryof Congress 'No: 8&.0.51.'189

Printed in the USA



Yang's Mardal ,Arts Association (YMAA) 38 Hyde Park Avenue '.' Jamaica Plain,~Massachusetts

r any

To My B~other Dr~'Tim Chun,·Chieh Yang


. ' .' .-" . . ". . .. '. .'




.... ,










__ "_











Thanks to A Reza Farman .. armaian 'for the, pbotogra.phy, Da'vid F Ripianzi" D,avi,d Sollars, Jo:bn Hughes, Jr. and J'ames 'OI~Leary, ,Jr. for pr'oQlfing' them,anUBcript and for cont,l'ibuting many valuable s,oggelstions, and discussicns, to Wen-Ching' Wu, for drawings and general hel'p"and bJI S,ierra for drawings and, the eever deSign. S,pecial thanks, to Alan Dougall and .Eric Hoffman :for their' editing .



ABO····U'··T····· IT··H·EA··'U-'T·H'-·'O·······RI
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J. U~"'ft wa.sorn 'b• 1m· R" ' ac ,. r,,, v.,g ,-wlng .... !,'I'.u.Us, ID.dllwan,-e'p'u 'b-Ii" 0f C- hi rna, In ~ ,. 1 94,6. He started bis Wusbu (Kung Fu) training at the age offtfteen under the Sbaoun Wbit'e Cr,ane' (PaiHno) M,aster Che'ng' Gin,.. sao. G In, thirte.en ye:ar:s o,fstud!y (1961 ..1'974) undler Mas,ter C,he'ng:, Dr, 'Yang iJe,c,a.mean 18xpert, Ln. White Crane defense and attack, wIDlch include's, both thause of' barehands and ,of various we·apons sueh as saber, sta'if" spear,; trident, and two sbort ,~ods". With tbe same master 'he also s,b.uiilsd White Crane Chin Na; massage, and herbal treatment. At the age or sixte·en .Dr. Yang began the study of T,si Chi Chuan (Yang Style) under Mas,ter .Kao Ta.DI.Aitm·f' l'earning from M'sster !{ao, DT~ Yan,g' eentinued his sltud.y and research of TBi Cbi Chuan with severa.l masters ·,i.n ~aiipe.i. In Taipei. he became qualifi'ed to teach Tai Chi. Hehas mastered tbe I'£ai Chi barehand sequence, pushing' hands" the ' fightill;g' sequence, Tal Chi sword, T;ai ,Chi :saber, andintemalpower de:v,elopme:D.t. When :Dr., 'Y:an.g W,8S 'eightee'n ye"ars old he e"nt'ered IT,amkang College in Taipei Hsien to study Pbysies. In college he be:gan ,the, s,t.udy of traditional Sha.oUn .Long Fis,t r(Ch,ang Chuan) withM,8lster Li M·.ao Ching at the Tamkal1;1 CoUeg'e Kuosbu Clu'b (1 9 64-1.968)"and .. leventually beeame an assistant ,mstructor under Master Li. In 19'71 be com.p'letled bis, M.S .. degree in Phy:sic.s at the National 'Eaiw:an Unive'rsity, and. then served in the ebin'Bse Air Fo,ree from 1'971 to 1'972. In. the service", Dr, Yang taughtP'h,ysics, a'l, tbe du.niorA,c,ad.emy of'tbe, Cbine/se Air, Forc,e while ,a1:so tea,lchin,g Wushu. .After being hono.l"ably discharged in 1'9 7.2" he ITamkang C,oUege ·to
1 1

teach Ph,,;sics andresume

we,apo.n,s ..

Masr'ter Li, Dr~Yang leamedN'o~rthern style Wushu, which includes bOlth barehand (especially 'kicking) techniques and numerous

study under M,&,ster.LiiM,ao-Cbing., From

of the 'Purdue University Chinese KUDgFuH,es,earich Club in the sl,p,ring of 19 7'5. Whille at Purdue, D.r,. Yang' also taught eellegeIcredited eeurses in Tai Cbi Chuan. In M,ay of 1978, 'he was awarded a Ph., .Meeha;nical Engineerinlg b,. Purdue, Currently, Dr. Yang and his .family reside in Msssachus,etts. 1 January of' 1'9·84, he g,llV'S UPI 'hilS, engineering career to dev'otemt time to 'research" wri.tin,g·J and tea'.ching at. Yang's .Mlartial AI As:soclatioD (YMAA) in Boston.

In 1 .974.,Dr. Yang came 'to the United States ·to study Mecbanicftl . Enginee-ring ,at Purd.ue U·'nive.rsity. At the' ~equeis't D,f 2. ferw students D't~. ang began tOI teach Kunrg Fu, which. resulted in the £oundation Y

In summary, Dr. Yang has been involv,sdin Chinese Wus,hu lor more than tw'enty ..five years. During this t.ime:~ he has spent thirteen ye,8rs, learning: Sbaolin White C:rane" Sh.aolin LODI' Fi,sl, and Tai. Chi -Ohuan. Dr, Yang has twenty year,s of in:structilon,al experienee: ,seV',SD yeIB're,in Taiwan, five' years at Pur1d-ue Univ,e'fsity, tWOI yea,r's, in Heuston, T,e'xa!, and six ye:sr,Sl in, Bastion,

Dr, Yan,g has published ten ether volumes, on the martial arts and ChlKun,g':
I., ShonUn, Chin Na,U nique Publieanons, Ine., 1'980'. !jj, Shaolin Long ,Fi'st,Kung Fu" Unique Publieations, Inc. t 1198,1. 3., Yang Style' Tai Chi Ch,uan, Unique Publications; Ine., 1981. 4., In tn:xl u.ction ito' Ancient Cki'ntl'sf! Weapons, Unl'quePubUcatioos:.

1985. "V"· U l'-h d II • l A.~ ,B. Chi- nang ..,n:,ea,t, an,· J.rdJr,tZfJ N-"S'; 'v,' .' M~' ',_' ru:-ltti,Ai;soaatlon ,:lang's ,,-~artiaJ .tiIii~_ AI.~ • •
(YMAA)"11985. 1985.


6. Northe'rn ShaO'I,in Sword, Yang',s !drama! Arts ,AB~'Oeiati.Dn (YMAAl,

'I,. Advanced ¥alW S.tyle Tai IChi Churn, .. Vol.1;1' :ChiC1LiTheory' and Tai L• -TO 'I ........... .A .....,i.,... A ,·aI • C'II ulng, V; rangs J.YJ,111J~11 ru-I~ ft1!ISOCIB tion ('V1IU' A. A.' 198-'6 __ 1.1.,Ll"I.ftl,< >.
C -

Y~II's, M,srtial Arts Association (YM.AA), 198,8. II. Analys,is of ,Sh(Jolin Chin Na'J Yang's M,artial Arts ,Association

8,. AdvtlR'cie,d Yang Style Tai Chi Chuan, Vol.2, Martial Applicat'.i,ons" (YMAAJ, 1'98,7. lO.The Eig:ht Pieces' of Brocade, Ya-nr's, M,artia] ArtSI Association (YMAA), 1988,.

I. Yoltg Style 7bi Chi Chuan and Its ,App'licatioRs"Yang's ,M,artial Arts As~sociatffion (YMAA)'1 11984. 2:"ShtJol'inLong Fist Kung Ru - Lie:n BtU;C:h,uan gnd' Its, ,Applications, 'Yang's Martial.Arts Association (YMAA)" 1985. 3~Shaolin Lo,ng Fist Ku,rt/J Fu - Gu.RrYLi Chu(l.n and Its: AppUctJ'iORS, Yang',s Martial Arts Association (YMAA)" 1'98'6. 4., Skao.lin C:hin Na, Yang,ls Marti,al ,Arts AsS'Oc1.a..tion (YMAA), 19,8'7. B. Wid Dan Chi KUIl6, l-bl. 1 -- The E,ight Pieces of Brocade" 'Yangle M,artial Aris, Associa,ti.JtD (YMAA), 1988.

• f ... 't'· l th e ~"O Chl- 'U. _. nUll, 18 the sei '~e seienee o. C'WItllv,a ,Ing' .~_' b d B m', erna '1-' -__Y inte ,energy~ which is, called Chi in Chinese. The Chinese have been researehing Chi fOr the last four thousand years" and have found! Chi Kung to be an effective way "to im.p'rov'ehe'alth and to cure m,a.ny illnesses .. MOI,t. , im'portant of 8.11, bow,ever:, th.ey have found that it can help them to achieve both menta] and. spiritual peace. Unnl r,ecently;, Chi Kung training was U8U,aJJy kept secret, especially 'within martial arts- s,yetems or ~eligions, such as Buddhism and Taoisrn, Only acupunetur-e an,d some health-related Chi Kung exe'l"cis·eswere available to the general publie, During the last twenty yearsthes!e tU~UJl"et.s have become avaflable to the geueral jrublie through publications, and. ope.n teachil"g~Medica1 peoplJe have .finally been able to leg,t Chi ..Kung more wid1ely and s,cieniificallYt and. they have' found ·tbat it can helpl or cure a number ,of diseases which Western medicine has difii,culty treating, including' some forms of' eaneen 'Many army students and re,lld,e:ts~eporl that afte'r pr,acticing Chi. Kung, they have Changed 'from being weak to stt,ong', .from depressed to bap1PY~and from. :sick to heal.thy~ S,in.ce Chi Kung can bring' se many benefit8~ I :feel that it is my responsibility to Icollect the ,available published deeumenta and ,compile tbem.~filter them., understand tbem, and introduce them tothosei who cannot read them in their IOri,ginal Chines,e. It is, hoWeV8'r,. .impossible rO'r ODe ·perSOID.. alone to, lex'peri.ence and understan,d the fruit of four t'hous'and ye,ftl's ,of Chi Kun,g research.. I bo':pe that other Chi Kung' experts, will sbare this respolnsibil'ity and publish the inFormation that th~y have beentaught, 8JJ well as, w:hat they have Ieamedthrcugh research and lexperim,enta.tion .. Even though Chi K:UD:I" has been researched in. China 'for' four' thousand yea'ps, there are 8,tUl many queatiens which ean on.l,. be answlered tbmughrecourse to todayls, te.cM.olqgy and interdi.sciplinary knowledge. 'Contempor',sry; enth.usiastic 'mind,s win have plenty of'



opportunity ,to researeh and promote the art, ThiEl is n.ot a job which ean be done ·thr,Qu:g,hone in,iliVi,d.usl"s ·effort. It requires oif lexlU!rts including Western-styl,e d.'Q'ctors" Chi KUD,g experts,., ,acupuncturis'ts, and equipm,en"t design speci,alists to sit down and ·work.


togetber' and exchange their research results. A formal org,ani:zation with adequate financial support will be neededL If thiSI research is 'prope'rly conducted" it ,shaub!,succeed not only in providing valt~dation IDf C.hi Kung' for 'the Weste~rn 'mind, but it. m,By also eome up with,the most efficient methods of 'practice. 'I fsel eertam that Chi Kung will become very Ilopuhlr' in. a short time" and bring many peo~pl!e a healthier' and happier life. This is a new field for Western science, and it will need a.'lot of suppon ,to catch up to the research which bas ahealdy been Idone in China. I hope! slinceJjely that, Chi Kung science will Boon become' one of th.emajor research fields in eolleges und
. 'ti" . !IIWS, t UDlverSI,',es in ~1l...!. oounl~ry.,

Dr. Yang Jwingl·,MiDg, Ph.D




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Associa·te :Professo,p' of' .Psychia.try

Dr. Tho.DlBs G. Gu.theil, .M.D.

Harv,ard Medi.caI Sch.oo.l

When. Nixon opened China to the West in the 197 Qts, great interest was kindled Into the possibfltties of Ame·ricans learningmany previously-hidden secrets of the "inscrutable" 'Orient. One of the realms of' exploration most eage,rly awaited" particularly by western pbysicians':t wasthe science of' Oriental healing:' exotic pr,Bctices, ,8UC'h as aeupuneture, shiatsu massage, Tai Chi Chuan, and the Curi'D'BB and puzzling notion of Obi" or vital,ene'l"gy. Popular :magazines at the time fea:t·ured arresting photographs of men and women. lying calmly on operating tables,.nea,rly disemboweled d,uri:ng :major surgery~ yet apparen.tly requiring 'no more anesthesia than a few ,gl,eaming needles thrust into the skin of their forebeads, 8,ince these earliest dra'matic harbingers, serious iuves,ti,g,ation of phenomena based on Chinese' 'CQ'Doopt.ualizB,tioDs, have both w'ued and 'waned,. Interest in Tai, Chi,for' example "'& ,s farm of ,exercise" health mamtenanee, and combat -- has rise'D steadily, ,es.pecially in the' w,estte!m United, States, stimulated in part, by the faet that a large part of the Chinese c.itiz:enry practice this exercise d,aily to ,apparently good efJect, and in part by the fact that Tai Chi masters, who r1egoJarly win. mix,ed martial arts- tournaments, seem 'to be·come 'better with age, rather than alcwer and w€ulk,er' as do aging pf"8ctition.ers of' other martial 'fonns such. as Kung h. In eontrast, after a spate of studies and, articles attempting to de:nne the: phys,io],ogi,c bases for the eBner'ally unchallenged effi1cacy 'DC acupuncture, inter,e,st, in this area has waned markedly. Most early
1 -

and effective anesthetic; Of' else that, some kn.O'WD neural mechanism .·-h· here t 1 t··' ·f was bei - lemple d :. sue, as u ga t·· n were H·-l.mUJ8 lon 0 soma 8lDg Qyemg, D,erv'es with, acupuncture needles funetionally blocked impulses (preH.umably pain impWlses,) in ethers, At th,e present time' in the public mind, a mixed feeling, an ambivalence, seems to hold sway~;betweenforees of acceptance and of resistance toward these ori'Blltal,concep,ts., 1b p'lace the 'value 101 the
J .

investigatorstended towardthe beliefs either tha,t some form of' s,uggiestlbility was involved, like that of hypnosis" another time-honored.


present 'book, bit some perspective, therefor,e" it will beuseful to under .., Istandtbese IOPposinl fottes. 'The ,current; forces teDdiln,g towaf1d ,Booepianceof' C.,hines!, healing ,theory and pra.ctice dra.w from mulriple lorigin,s,. 'The ors,t Isthe upsur,ge of interest in physical 'fitness. A few f,e,ar,B, ,ago the Uhigh eDer1lY~ high effortl1 fitness waw' BWlept,oV'lr the country; thous,ands, of formerly sedenta,ry individuals ran, jlogged" danced, pumpeldl B'nd, stl"etehed, in, ,I,e:arch of ,gr,eater health and istrength or, at Ieast, an
t cc .' illJ -

po. 'for

Ro left!


prove, cl,ge.. ~lm8Dy' wo~-ld-'be- ,S . "·CU::, nursed ;n;ure- ·d:-I _'U,L_ -'_:'_ ,-:cthl' "'''''''8-' .. -vI· m'·· .' d" silh 0 -tte-'<':' Tb",.e "n aa -or over :strained muscles, bones and ,jioints, interest in '!l'llow~imp,Bet" le'xercis8 ,surfaced. Ironically, Chi Kung p,ractice,s were ,already provid-, ing tbis, valuable type of clo'nditiioning centuries, a,go. Thu.I" the Westems,Iamiliu' 'wi'tb low,..impact ,aerobics, can 'readily 'undersi'tand the value oflChi Kung femus.



A second force tending tow,ar,d acceptance is the average ps'rson.·s, aWaNnel! of the' link be:twee:D, mind and body; the: concept of'psycbo .. som.ti,e iUnelss, -- mental conditi,ons, c'B-u8,ing physical illnesses ,familial" from the 'popular' p~eBs, from the rev,elations of celebrit,iesl and &om eVel)"olne's personal experience of tensionheadaehes, :str:e:sl uleers and the Uke., In a Icomp,arable fashion" some recent invres,tiga-






.. x..

tiona 'by Herbert Bensen, M.D. ,an,d otbers, on 'the beneficial pbysi,c'al effects of mental calmness, (as in the "relaxation response") have given JBoUdSUp,port tOI the pOWIBr of mental B,ta,te's to heal 01" harm~ Thus the emp,b,asisl In Chi Kung plractice: on,mental eonditiening B!S a prerequi,site and ,companion to, physical improv,ement is not 80 foreilgD B Do,tion ,at all On the other side IDftbe ledger. ,certaiD,iactors tend to elicit, remsUmCl' to theBe Eastern 'teachings and disbelief in both their' 'relevance to mod.em pemoDS aDd th,eir scientifi.c vlilidity~ One aueh factor is the radical intf¥r-weaving in C:bi Kung of what, purports to be an e,8se'Dti,ally phyl,iDlogi~ .,:"',_... •..'1. 'l....::1, .1... d WKru.l,J" 'WI.14I. pnuOSOp:uy ,8111" ,even re li · 01"'cosm.o''-Logy.. 'Or ,glOD nesterners use· d to, A*I!i1~:_'" Ic:_eD' L".:1 h d·"' t I...... 1..:1 pCiU. LG.AII.U(i of tb· PLWOSOp' y an~ ,menee B._ ,sepUB,w 'tau es m~ b auen,_e ali ..... .:1 • n-wui, .. -b"' ti' ..m -.' n..~ pnnClp' 1 8S,. .' ... llwu bc," .lb' elr L-_l.. oom.:_ ma,~~on Chi- - • v.. A s6CO nd facto'r is the absence B,t the present tim,s of a "hard.. ciencet s physiology fOl' Chi, its v 8ssels and its, actions. SOlme provocative prelim'ins'ry findiDglSha.v,e e:mer,ged eerrelating alterations, in eleetrie Impedanee in the skin at those points thought to be significant as acupuncture 'meridiaDiB SOld pOlmts; ylet" alas, careful and replicable _,_ .... 1 reAea.n...., .",111.." Impecca bl e' ad.0I ogy 1..._iII uWU4J., . .~ '. i:laSlUllS -1 -ben '1:... 1t...:,_ m tbi· I, Y .. wc.u.ig '" .-'_. area, Instead, dubiously ,convincing" larglely anecdotal material dominates, the, written works on the ,subject. Another factor' C8nsmgresilBtance' ils, the tendeney of writer,s in this field, 'following vlery BDcirenttraditions and p,hilosophical themes" to use the DJamea of familiar body organs 'to describe conditions olthe body relatedto Chi for which no, othe'r terminology' exists. The we'B,tem reader becomes lost ,in. th.e: question of whether such phrases as, u'weakn6S,1 of the liv,eJ'~·are meant to bememphori,c (that iSI" meaniDg',mo11'e lite'nll7~ "a lcertain condition of bodily enel'EY" ,otherwise indescribable" whi,ch affects 'those body ,Bites whiCh historical traditi,oD has, identified with the liver");, Dr whether th.e reader should, indeed" look. to the can ... , mtio,D 0,' the actual liver to find Jso,me form of patholQgy" (or' which DO elear picture, comes 'to m,jndt BmJ;~e: the: liver performs so mBDY ,different fun,mons that °weakness" conveys nothing meaningful .
i I I.,

Finally, many We'sterners appear to be: put off by theiinhe'rently poetic and metaphoric tenninology ICD'mm,OD In Chinese nomenelature lor" ,s,a~.types, o,f: Chi and phys,ieal exereiseteehni'ques. 'To p,ick. one exam'pI'e,. a particular stance in Shaolim s,tyle ,KWl\g :ru is called "'Golden Booster S,tands, on, 'One Legn; such 'flo,wezy language can hs'v'e ajaning effect on the Westerner who is more aceuatorned to such. 'more: mundane the We;stemel" who can brid,uethe gap betw'een western and. o,rie'Dtal conceptualizations, this, book (and"ind@sd, the planned seri'es) offers an ezceptio.naDyvaluable resource in lummarizmg in a clear and stTaightfiolW.udway the bistorical,development o,r this, ancient field, of learning. 'Through his lemausti.v,e ~frorts,to briAg' together ancient. and mere recent Chinese text:s in 'this, book" Dr, Yang has 'p'erfo'rmed, essential eervices in t'W,Q' w,ay,B~ F'irst" by traeing the biSiorY' and eVQ,lution ,of these concepts, the' reader can. gain ,a. sense ()if the, de:v,e:lopment of idea~, whose roots reach back over the ,celnturies ....'ideas which, are Idesperate'.ly Inneed o,f just such cro,s.cultural illumination as, this 'book p!rovid,es. :8econd, Dr. Yang is mSlli'o,g a ,challe~ge to olthers to, bring the! fuens of careful research to this, araa to provide: a durab~e emp,irical basis for both tbeory and p,rattice of these seienees and. arts. ,For both of't.hes'e important s,mps, clearly" the time has 'come.

,desCriptilO,DS, ,as '!sid,e deltoid fj,tretch .." '

" ,,' ,I ~


..._ .I.I~:"


Tb~~' ,,' ,om.. .,- G::-" G-'" -t'b-- ~ -1- M" D , -. '_~U ,~el'" '




Chl Ii

Kunl e'xper trai:

lifetil 'with eigb.

the, ~

me to believe tha't my in,trooduc-torybook- has opened the door to Chi Kun,g for 'many people, and has, brought health benefits to more than a few~- This reBponse has eneouragad ms to. 'continue my research and publis,hing in this, ,suibject. H,ow'ever1 most of my Cbi Kung ,experience and knowledge was obtained through my Tai Chi and Sbaolin 'practice" and was therefore limited to a few Taoist and ·S,ud,dhist Chi Ku'og exercises, as well as some o'f the, ,common Chi Kuug eXieroci.seswhich are' popular' in China. Because of ,tbi8 Iimttntion in my Chi ,Kung' hav - ~ s pent 10- t- 0' ,f'" timer.' an' iillY-'-'zT:l'On"g, r·e se a, ll"-chiJng·~, -, .k- D'IO'W'. l-,e'~ ,a,'~,I I " d-II:iIi ~ . " -_ pondering" and experiDl,onting with many other Chi K~g style,. about
I;ii'. ~., _'
B', I,
", ',_
I ,___ _

·, ,' ,,- nung' b ' -k urn..:: K' - - 'H~c ...,lth",BDu 'M'"'..... ,:: 1 ,--8 ' ,00' ~JlJlnng ,..ew~, ',aJ,-'.,jJIl_ Art· S_mee my fir' rst Chi' 'TT: appear-ed, I have :receivled-'many mm:pUme,n.ts and tbank .. ou'ls" as well y as numerous questions ,and many valuable 8ugges,tioDS: from, doctors, readers with medical problems, and the general pubUc,. This has lied
-..!II II



Ai 1.. TJ


111M K1
3. Cl
4. C 16. C'





'_ liiJ"


research 'has ,greaUy increased my kno,wiedg@. In ADgWllt 'of 1988 I had a, chance to ID -bRick to Taiwan to vi$it 'my ra_mily~ This visit also gave, me the opportunity to ,see what Chi Kung' doeuments had 'been, 'published sin,ce I left Taiwan 'in 197,4:", To my surprise, there are a ,grea.t many newpublie8.tions available. I was so h,appy ,to learn that ma·ny documents had been published which

which I have read in mY'collection of Chi Kung documents.



71T8. T:

described tr,ainin,g techniques

her'etofore klept secret, ·With .my

and financial support" I was able to purchase all of the eX,pensiv'e documents which I found wOl'thwhile. Once I returned to, the 'United, S~ta'te9,I started to read and study them, and to experiment 'with S-OiDJe the methods, These: documents made me of t'e·aliz'e bow limited my knowledg'B was, and opened UPI a whol,e n.ew field of O,m Kung ,study (or me'. In myex:ci.tem,ent and enthusiasm I decided to ,compile them" fiIter lout the parts which seemed queatienable, and intmduee th,e results to

brother\s, encouragament

'suc~ bes

readers. ,An unfortunate problem arose in that most. olft'he documents, WHAT ,to do, but do Dot exp],g,in WHY, and some wiD I'ven just ten tb@ pr~Oce·S.S witho'ut explaining ho'w to do it. D'es:piie the ebstaelas, I de,cided to "t,ry my be,stJ through research and, loontempla:tion, to determine the' seerats of 'the techniques. ,After two Y1ears, of research and ,experimentation" I feel that it wiD tak,e at least fiv,e ,rear,s and ,eigh.t volumes of' ,introductory books to initiate the: reader into the broad field of 'Chines'e ,Chi Kung, Althou,gb these ,eight volumes, will be baled on the deeuments available tOI me" 'they "Will not be direct translo;ti'DDs, of tbe:se deeumants, except for ,the ancient 'poetry or B,ongs which. are the root of the training, This approach is necessary :simply because: these ,d'ocume.nts,ldo not have any systematic intvoductlon ,or way of tyin,g everything together~ Whatl can ,dais read 'tb'em aDd study them- carefully.- The'n I can compile and

Chi Kung knowledge, and experien,ee. This approach will allowme to cautiously bring long-eoneealed Chi Kung knowledge to the reader," T'he only thing Iaeking is the experience. M,any of the 'methods require more than twe,n:ty yean; of training to complete" and I would have to spend more than three Iifetimes studying the various, methods before I could discuss them with authority.. I realize that it is impo'Ssible for me alone to introduce

organize the.information,

and discuss it carefully in 'the light of my own

the re,sults of fOur thousand yea'r,B of Chi Kung research with these eight books, but I would, still lik,e to share the knowledge 'which I have gained from these d,oeuments, ,an,dtbe, conelUBions which. I have drawn [rom my training'. Please take tbe'se 'books in, the tentative spirit in which th.ey are written " and not as a final authority or bible, I sin'cerely hope that many 'o,ther Chi Kung experts win ste.p forward and share the traditional teachings which were passed down to them" as well, as the fruits of their experience, At present, the following books are plan_ned: L THE ROOT O¥ CHINESE' CHI KUNG -.. The Secrets of Chi Kung

Trainin,g 2. MUSCLE 'TENDON CHANGING AND' MARROW WASHING CHI KUNG ..... Secret of Yonth (Ii Gin Ching an,d :ShU Soa Ching) The 8.,CHI KUNG MASSAGE ....Chi Kunig Tu.ei N,aand Cavity Press for Healing (Cbi Kung' Ann Mo and Chi Kung Dien Shiuh) 4. CHI KUNG AND HEALTH ,~ For Healing and M,aintaining Health .. 6•.CHI KUNG AND MARTIAL ARTS -- The ltey to Adv8ru;ed Martial ,Arts Skin (Sbaolin" WuudBng, Ermeiji and others)
7., TAOIST CHI KUNG (Dan DiiQg'Tao Kung) 8..TIBBTAN CHI KUNG (Mih Tzong Shen Kung)

8,,,B'UDDHlST' CHI KUNG ....,Cham, 'The R-oot of Zen

In this Brait volume we will the root's of Chinese Chi Kung by dividing it into four parts. The first part will introduce the history of ,Chi Kung" the basic eencepts and terminology commonly used in Chi Kung 8!ociety and documents" the different Chi Kung categories, and will dis;cuss Chi and the: human body! and fundament-al Chi Kung' training·tb,eory and 'prin.ciples. This, firs,t, part will give you a general concept 0'£ what Chi KUng is" and, tbevarious, subJects tha,t .it includes. The seeond p,art will discuss, the general keys te C.hi Kung training, and give you 'the found,ation ofknowledge whicb is necessary for 8ucces,sfW practice. This part s,erves as ,8 map of tbe 'What and the
How of' Chi 'Kung training,. so that you can choose your goal and the best way to, get there. The third, part will revie,w the Chi circulatory 9¥stem in your body" which includes the twelve primary Chi channels and the eight extr,8ordinary Chi vessels. TroiS part will give you a better und'erstanding of' how Chi cin:u1ates in your body. Fin,aUy, the fourth part of the book will list some of the many questicns ,about e'bi Kung which still remain unanswer-ed. The second volume 'm this, series will cover Vi Gin and 8hii Soei Chi Kung, which are translated as, IllMusclelThndon Changing and M,arfOW Wa:sbin~g Chi Kun,g,,," Marrow Was,bing is, deep, a,nd difficult to understand, It has been found in documents detailing both Buddhist and Taoist Chi Kung land meditation training~ and it bas been known in China since the Liang dynas,ty, more than fourteen hundred years ago. Because, however, the training usually involv,os,stimulation ,of tbe sexu:al organs" it, has traditio,naUy been passed dOIWft only to a few

trusted students.


In addition. 'to the eight in.. ep,ih books" YMAA is also intmdnein,g:a d ,seli,8s, of ios,iruct.ional becks and vid!eota:pes OD! B,p,e,cific Chi Kun.g exereise sets, This, series is d.8si.gned ror people who want to learn • 1.... 'b · . . udnr ,exerclSes biat t_.·ey can dI}I on thei own to Improve Oil' maintain J:.1Ii.... .~ ·ell" health, These books, and tapes willl be' e'as,y to understand both in theory and in praetiee. 'The' first book and tape are on. liThe Eight
Pieces lo,r Brocade,," one' ofChina"s most popular Chi Kung sets.




1 ,8

Cbapte~'l. ,3, 1-1'11 Prelude, ".ta;Ti" _,\jill! 16 1~2,., Gen!er,al Definition oiCbi and Chi Kung~."' n'."".""."h"'."". 10 1..3 ... bout, 'T'hisl A Chapter!. Bistor,r of Chi Kua.g ,., '.. '.' ., ~ , '.., . 13 13 2-1. Befo~e the Han Dynasty (Betore' 206 B,.C.) , ,2-,2.From the' Han ,Dynasty to the Begin,mng of the Liang
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Dynas~' (206 B.C.'"'502A,D.. ) , .' , .,.., ~., .. , ,,~ .., .., ~., .. 2~3. From 'the Liang Dynasty to the End of Cbing Dynasty (5'02-

3..1. The' Tlwee Treasures, ..Jieng, Chi, and Shen ·.·2 Yi. -_}~ 3_... -_'-. and S" 0°0_ :~1'_'


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5-1. Chi Kung and, Religion~ 57 5~2..C,arego'ries lof Chi Kung, 59 1. Scholar' Chi KUng -for Maintainin,g' Health., "".. 160 2. Medical Chi ~ung ..for Healing" 62 3. Martial Chi KUng for Fighting.,., ' '..,., , "..". 64 ,4. Religious Chi Kll;Dg -for Enllghtenme,nt or Buddhahood,.. 66, C,hspter 8. C,hi Kung Tb.eoq.".,. , ' "., "'...... ... .,~., , ' ". 7,3 . 73', 16...1. ~tMduetioD'i! .!p!I. ,,,;II! _!!."'- •• ,• .,. 74 6-2. 1 E'!'l''':-') ... 75 6 ..:3- Nr-a)· Dan (In'te·'m- B.J' "'!liI.' ..
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8.4. Rootin,g" Centering, ,andB,alancing .. n ••••", •n""' .,.'•.••".,••••' • Chapter 'B. Regu1a~JDlthe B,reath (Tyau Shyi,) , ., " . 9L. ,1,. B"re'atbing an,d ,Health ..,., .' ", . , '"..~ .'
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9l",\S~ Different Methods, of Chi KungB,reathing' ...., ,..,..,..,.., ,.,.,.11' The 9..4,. General Key,s to ,Regulating NonnalB,matbi_n,g., .., ,..,.., 181 9-,5. Six lStages of Regulating the Bre,ath. ..,....,...",.' ....,..'.' ,....,. '.,.",..133: ..., ' - ,.i-B~tlD,1 L. '1:;1, ti- ,,...,'1 "''JuD- , ..."au Bs- - ~m ..,.~~IS' 7-"") C-h .-.pter' 10- 'Re' ..... ·lo,,'~ tnB aDlO,OAia "'::'-d i'I".:" '-'_ .. J;
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, ,.,. 165 . lS-,l!i Introduction. ~ '"i!! 1",." ''''iii 11.11", 1165 13",,2,. e,gWating'tbe Spirit, (1)80 Sben) .... ,.~.,.... ,.u.''' ••,••• ,•.,.••'''.,••• n ••'•••,.,. 1166 R . Chapter 1.4. Important, P:oiuts: in, Cbi&Uog Praetiee ..., .'.'." ,... 169' . ..... .

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C,haplteor 1,5. Ge.aeralICoDcepts, , .,••~., , .".,.~ . • ' '•.,.,....195 Cihap1te:r 16. Tbe' Tw'e, Primary Chi CbBDDe18., .•••.,...,.., ..., ~ 2'100 ....,., ',-.111.Introdulct.i,OD,. 1.6 2 00 16,·,2,.Tbte 'T\vel ve PrimaE)' Channelsr~... ..., .,.."" '., , .' ,.. ...... .,. "":2,01 . . ~ '''".". 1,6,-\3,. Important Pointa~ ,..~ .., ....'..,.' ..,.,.~~...'.., , '..'@."'.~'" .."••••• ,•• " 225 ... ...,.~. .., ..., .







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In their seven thousand ye,a\J'slof' bisto~~ 'the CbiD.ese peopl'e bav;@: experienced all possible: human. g,uffering and, pain. Cbines,s cultul"1e is like ,B very old who has seen and Elxperileneed all ofthe painfUl a,ide of human life.Y'ettbrough hi:s experience, he has a18 0

1.. . Prelude 1

a grea,t store of knowledge., Chinle:se culture, as reO:e,cted in, itsl Uter,ature and ,pa,in,ting, r'a:nksl amongthe gre.Btes,t achievements of the human spirit, It reflroct.s mankind's joy and grief, pleas,urls and sufferin:g, peaee and ,striee; vitality, :siekne:ss, and



Within. this eemplex cultural and historic"lll background, the Chinese people have lo'ns s'on:g;ht w,ays, olf living hea,lthy and hap.p, Iives, H.owever, as they loolked .folr wa,y'sto 'betterthemselve:s and seek spiritual uplift-ment, they have also tend,ed. to helievle tha,t everything 'that happens is, due to de:stiny" and that it is prearranged hyhe,Bven. Despite this fatalistic belief'l they ba'vestill looked fOl' ways th.e app,areD't inevitability of siekness and death, The Chinese h.av'e, de:voted :aI8~gep,att of'their' into,Uectualleifort tOI self .. study and :s'elf~cultivti,tioD l thre bope of understan,ding the meaning ef their Hvea, This Inward-feeling and looking, this, a,piritu,a} s,earcbing, has become one of tbe major roo'is O'.f Chinese 1,: '. "",I: 1" · ... '.h numan re,uglon an d .meQ):ca., SCIence. 'C·n, te enre.'rgy Wit 'h· t,- e '1.. n .'hi b~ In body~was studi,ed v'ery Ica.r'efuUy~ AlB people perce:ived the Hn.k between the Chi in the human, body and ,the Chi. in n,.ture:, they began to bra,ple that, t.his Chi W8:S tbe means w.ber:eby man 'could escape from ,the trap of siclmess and. ds,lI,th .. Overthe ,years" 'many different :sectolrs of'Chineaesom,ety have :s'tuclied and, researched C'hi., 'Of all the researehers, the scbrolars, and the doctors have had the larnge,.sthi;sttU'YJ' and threy have brougbt the unders.ta'Dcling of Chi tOI ,8 vel)" ,d,ee,p level. It 'W',RS they who learned the methods of maintaining healtb and turing siekness, Chi,nl!se medilcal seienee bas develo,ped out of'tbe Chi reaeareh lo,fthe prhy:sicians .. 'When Indian Bnddhis:m W'8S i.mportedirnto China ,I itprofou.nrdly


,influe'need Chinese culture,. Nat'ur,ally, Chinese Chi Kung was ,also, affected by the Buddhist mleditativepractices., Th.e T:ao,ist r-eligion was


created out IOf a mixture of traditional scholarly Ta,oism and BU.d,dhl,sm., ,Sin,cethat tim.e, Buddhist and 'Taoist Chi Kun,g have been cODsidered
Taoism and, B,udd.hism have n.ot only brought ,tbe Chinese people, a peaceful, ,spiritual mind which 'may untie the mys,tery of human life' and destiny! they have also created a hope that the d,e.v,e:mop,m.s'nt 'of ,Chi Kung 'ms;y give' people a bealthy and bappy liIe whi),e 'tbey are alive~ and an eternal 5,piritualllife· after death, When viewed from this historical background, i.t is, not hard to imderstand why a m,ajoJ' part of Chinese culture in the last tW'D thousand years, o,th.e'r than war.fare and possibly medical scienee, were based on the religions of'Taoism and 'Buddhism" and spiritualisci,en.oe., 'The emphasis ,on the spirimallife" rather than the mate:rial,is, one of theml\ior differences 'between, E,Bstem and the Weste,I'D,cultures,., An example of this, is in tbe maintenance ,of health, where the WeBt emphasizes the phy,sical body more, while the Eut tends to slso tr'sat, the: person IS, spiritual and mental healtb. ,Mo,st Wes,terners believe that if y,ou ,strengtben your physilc'sl body" ,you also improve your' health.. They' emp'hB8ize the exercising'_ ~ .. (e-, th· ,. -, "o=-,y" ~U' h ~ ,. f ,and.'tr BlDIlDg 0, ',_,e pih Y81Cw, 'b d b t t'.'.~ey Ignore th b aIaneln,g 0_ .. -e',the body s internal energy (Chi), whi'cb is, also related to the emo-

amon,g the gJ:eatest, aehle'vemenis of Chinese culture,

'Taoi,sts eall this "Tsorng Wlli. Jia,on Kung" (buildin,g the st:rength externally) 'Or' 'y D (d" t t .,- I exte·rna'J .I.eU8nH"· J 'w.. K' ~;SlD, '..81 ~un,g:unn_,on,g' ~Iy I.: IBRD: mm d'a e e'xen:ises" meaning ~"external exercises witho'u.t, mental conC1e'otration or IItte:ntion").

tions and the' eultivatien of spiritual calmn.8sB.,

People who exercise a lot and whose badiesare e'xtemally 'sbolng ,are not necessarily healthier Dr happier' than the average per,SOD., In. order tal have true good health ,you mua,t have a belllthybociy, a 'healthy mj'nd, ..,J ,_11... tho d uw8nce~,d Chi-~Clrt:wBOD., ~co'riUn,g 'w:_ C~ hin .A._ ......::1: ..... ~ ". ese anu lUtfO 8m,DO' . an·. 1.._.'1 ..•.. '._-,_, ti" medicine, man,Y illnesses ,are caused by imbalances, in yiOurmmd,. For example, worry andnarvousness can upset y'our stomach or' harm your 9,p,'ee:n (*1)., Fear or fiigh.t can hinder' the normal f\mctionin,1 of your kidneys and bladder, ThiSlS, because your internal energy I(Chi circula'" ] _... ted W' your 'mIll·· ~ I D, o~e:l" 'W' be 'w:-wY IMI, - - y" you 1 ,. II . -..I 40ft "'_,.1 . -'th ti .. '0'0). close.JY reiate ~ ...... 18,must have both a healthy ph~ieaJ body and a calm ,BDd healthy mind. True good 'health is both extienud and internal. "Vben someons I'etsl involved in. body buildinl~ he 'will ,e,mpbasize: bunding str,ong muscles. Aeco.pdJng' to acupuncture and Chi, Kung theory" he will. alae energize his body~stimul!ate his, mind, and inerease the le'v;elof the Chi I~culation,. 'If he trains properly, he will naturally '. . ._:11 .i.,;ltb ,I' ow,ever, : h' 'e~eremestoo mugJ,,- h eww over-, _L _-=:11 galB p.h'YISICwhew ' ,'. , H-' _·~e' . d • d' k '. enerpze hi18 iL_...1,'Il'r an·· over:.gCl:·'le L..,!smm·. d~an· ChI-:. Thi will' mLdI! hi' iii! . PuyJ! •.. w _L-,,-S p,hy:sicaJ!body too Yan,g (posi:tive')'. According to CbJneae philOBOphy;too 'much of' something'is ex,cesllive Yang and too little ie, excel,sive, 'Ym, and neither extreme is desir,llble., When your body is too, Yang or too, riD, 10'Ul" i.nternal or-gaDS,will tend! to weaken and to degene,ra.te sooner 'they 'ordinarily w,u,uld. A pe:rSO'D who, I,eemsto be ternally ,stroD;g and, h.ealthy maybe w,eak internally.
if' .. I~ I••

(-I). When Chine. medicine refe, to ,BID orpD,. such. as the apleen, kidney"01' ib1adder, th.ey are not DSCe. urily :relerr:iq to the pbJllica1 arpa, but rather ta ,II ~,"'m of ,fimctiOIiB whieh 8ft :relabed to the ,orpn.


In. addition, when a body builder' gets older, his over-streeaed muscle tibers, may Iose tbei:r ,olasticity and degenerate faster than these Qf tbe average ·.pe:TSOD. 'This causes the Chi to stagnate in the Chi channels. This. phenomenon fs w'en known among older practitioners Qif external ma·rtbll arts" where it is called "Sann Kung, meaning !tener,IY dispersion. The proper amount 'of exercise will generate olDly enoiugb Chi to stimulate the organs ,and belp them. function normally and healtbily~ Ov,erdoing exe1"chu~ is like g,ettin.g t-oomuch sunshine, which we now know will cause your skin cells to degenerate faster than the lack of SUD.. Chi Kung pr,acti.tionBl"s believe that in erder to gain real ,health you mus,t not only dOl extemal exercises, but must also ~'Tsomg Nei ,Jwu Ji" (bwldthe found,ation internally), 'or do 11Smang' Hsin ,Jy Nei Kung Yunn. Dong" (liter.lI,Y "t-oward the mind's 'internal esereise," meaning internal exer,ciae with mental c:oncentT,stion). Strengthening yourself internally and externally at the same timei,s called " Ming Shiou,," Shing means natural charactertsties, 'personality, temperament, Q,F',dispO'sition. It is shown inb~:mally M,ing is life, and .. .f,efers to 'the tife or death ,ofthe .pbysi'c,al body. Shuang Shinn me ans double, eultivation, 'The expression therefore means, that if' you desire to gain real healtb, you must cultivate your' character in.ternally and strengthen your body both .internally and e'XternaUy. The inter.nal
It It

energy cultivation has :1,18,0 been common in the: Western world, usually within the eontext of ~eligioD. Many people bave been able to find their i.nternal fbundsftion and st:re'ngtb me.dibltion er p,rayin;g' in their chmcb~temple" o·rmos,que., Tbrough their devotions and the pra'cti,c'e of prayer" they are' able to. build up their'

side is, approached througb medita.tion and Chi Kung exercises, Ma'ny people believe bhat Chi .Kung·is a product only of China, India, or other 'Oriental countriea. As ,8 matter' of fact" internal

eonfidenee, and will)) ail 'of which are prel"equiusites, t'D mternal strengtb. The pra,ctice of such disciplines allows, tbe energy in the body to become balanced, bringing health and s·tr·ength to some, and even, in some eases, ,seemin;gly superna tural powera. Jes'U!sis credited with many miracles, but he told his disJciples HH,e that believeth on me, the -'works that lido" shall he Idol also" and. greater works than these s.hall he do" (Jolhn 14:1'2)", AU of the: major' Western. religi.'oBshave had branches 01" sects which used p.~acticeB similsrto the' Oriental Chl KUng disciplines, ..

. ow«ve't, there have also beenpeople with.out any particular H reUgio,us, belief' who have meditated by tbe.mseIve:s and, tbrou,gb th,e
buildup and circulation of Chi" developed p's.ychi,c or' healing abilities.

Unfortuna.tely,in earlier 'time:s sueb people were o'ften killed ,as witcbe,s, or beretics,so people 'who found they had 'such powers tend,ed. to view' tbems'elv s's a,s freaks or' worse; and hid their pow·ers,. These negative fil'ttitudes on1:y keplt people .from researehing :and. understanding' sueh abilities. Man:, people, in. China and India bavedevBloped amazing powers througb their meditation training. Fortunately, these powlers, were understood as being a result of Chi .Kung, and so people, wer'e encouraged to train ;lInd rese·a~cb the :Elubject. Although Chi Kung is bec:o,ming a. mere acceptable lubje,et in the West~ the: Chinese and Indians .are still way ahead in this inte'rnaI mental andphys.ical B·cience. Since: 1'97'3'1' acupuncture :has been widely ,&cce:pltedby the .Ame'rican people" and even by many in the medical establi'shment. Mor,e and


morepeople are becoming familiar with the eoneept of Chi " Chi .. related arts sueh as Tail Chi Chuan, and Chi Kung' exercises are getting much more attention than ever before. Many:p,eop,)e are Iearning that tbe s,tudy of Chi. can be' ve'ry beneficial, and I feel certainthat in "the next tWlenty ye:ar,SJC,hi 'Kung will become one of the hottoEit "fields of research, 1.. " 'Ge'Der,a) 'Defiaiti!on of' Chi ,1I'D!d ,Chi KUB,K 1 Bela,re 'we de'f'ine Chi and Chi Kung, you ,should underatand that so :£ar" there, i,s no one seientifie definitien of Chi whieh is, accepted generally by Chi Kun,g practitioners and Chinese medical societ,':" The way people define Chi 'varies, de1pendilng upon 'their' individu,al b'8ckgrou,nd, and experience. ISQilDe people think Chi is an elecirlc energy, ethers beUe'va that it is a m,agnetic e'nergy, and many ,oth,ers, believe that, Chi is, heat or some other type of ene:~gy~, However, anyone, who has carefully researehed the historical backgr'oUD,d of"Chi would, not d,enne it by IBny one of these narrow definitiDn,s.

It is, the same with Chi Kung'. Chi Kung' is often narrowlliy thought 'ofas only exercises air DltuiitatiDns which can be used to impFove ens's he,a1th te cure ,s]tc.knesB"" In fact, however" th,e r,ange of Chi Kung and "the scope of its, research is, much wider, You should understand thispomt so' you will be able to view Chi and Chi Kung in an aceurate and open way. d'" t'h generi:u d eUni, on 0__ ,r' an dC_ -1 _,'1 .e,_,Jti· f C"hi' S we I ;lleues 'e _ 'b" I,'n thi-' - '........ ,Sfh;;'Llon Wl"1-]Kung.,- S'pecific terms eoncerning -Chi and. Chi Kung w'hicb are directly related to the' human body will be' diseussed later in 8 sepa;ra'te section.


G·' eaer~al n'· ·fi·-~d,·tl"'D'-Bo'f- C'L:r. ···e, .-1:__' " '. 'BJ,;~

times, the Chin,ss8 believed that itw,a:8 'Heaven Chi which controlled theweathe~, climate"and natural dis,asters,. In China,t the weather is, still referred, to as Tian Chi {Heaven Chili Ev'ery ,energy :fi,eld, strives to ;sta,y in balance, iSO whene'vler the Heaven Chi 108,es itsl balance, it tries to rebalance itse]i~ Then the wind must b~ow"r:ain must fall, even tornados or hurricanes must happen in order 'for the HeaVIn Chi tOI reach n,@"wenergy balance, Undee Heaven ehi" which is, the most important ef the three" is Earth C,hi~ It is inftu@iDced and contrelled by Heaven Ch:i.. F,or uam:pls!" too much, rain will force B. rive:r'to flood ,or' ehange i,tEl, path. Without rain, the plauts will die, The Chinese believe Earth Chi

C.hi isthe lene:rgy or natural force which fills the univer,se. Heaven (the s'ky Io.r universe) has Heaven Chi (Tian Chi), which iSJ made up of the forees 'wbich. the heavenly bodie,s rexert 00, 'the' eartb"suc'h 8.B, sunshine, moonlight, and thiemoon',s affect on, the tides, In ancient


magnetic field and theheat conce,Bled underground. Th,ese energies, must also balance, otherwis,e d:isasters, such BS earthquakes will oeeun Whe,D the Chi ofthe earth is, balanGed,p,lants will ,grow and, . 1·11...· ammaia ~nve. Fin any, within the Earth Chi, eaeh individual person" animal, and pla'nt, 'has its own Chi 'u,eld, which. always. seeks, to be balanced, When any individual thing Ieaes its, 'Chi balance, it will sicken, die, and, deeempese. AIl 'Illa,tu~al things" ineludlngman, ,grow within and are inlluenced. by the natural 'cycl,es of Heaven Ch.i and Earlb Chi.. Human C:bi is u,Bu,ally eonsidsred a sep.arate type ,of Chi, different
from the C.hi of the: e,arth,an!d of plants and animals, The reason fol'"

is, made up of Iines and patterns of ,energy~, as w,sH las 'the' earth's


this is, simply tbat because 'we are human, we are particwa,rly'

eoneerned with Hurman Chi:. and have devoted ,8,:grBst deslo,f s,tudy to


Chi, can be generally ,defined, as ;s~y type :of en,ergy wbi'ch, is ;able to demenatrate power and strength, 'This en,ergy can be electricity, magne'tis,mJJheat~ or light. Ia China, electric powe'r is caned "Diaan Cbi~"('e.lectri,c, Chi)., Bud heatta caUed IlReb Chi'" (b,e.B,t Chi). When:a • _,'11.' 11 .naD .•.']1 .uman' C' ')'.' m perSOD. u;, anve, his b -dY s ene,rgy u; ca'e:. d 11'1:'1_, C'b'" (h ~~18, uO, '-, Chi is also comrnonly useldto expresa the energy :state: of something, espeeiatly livin,g thing,s. A:sme.n.t,i,o:ne,dbefo'r'e" the weather is called *~'Tian Chi." (heaven 'Chi) because it indicates the energy state of tbe heaVieRs. 'When a thingi.s, alive it bas 'IHwD Chill (Viae. C" i)", ana w.· en. I. 18 d e8.~I~aS, "8 ital ".... . d h h "t' • .• . d "t 'h' "'.yy Chi" \- ea~,_': '1 or "G'" .". ld d C'h "). ~oe ·Chf~(gbo,st Chi).. WbeD. 1& person is righteous and has the :spiritual s,trength to dOl [RDo,d, he is :said. to have 'I~Jen,g'Cbf (Nor,mal Chi Of' 'Righteous Chi). The: :spiri.tulll state 'Or" morale of an armY'lus caUed ( tt . .;-,1 _c..:}J h" 'ene.rgy s_aJe ,) ' bi S'b' 'You can see that the word Chi. has, swider ,and. more genera] de£mition than mlo'it people tbink. It does, 'Dot refer' only to the e·nergy eirculat:in,g'in the human body. Furthermore, the word, "Chi" lean represent the ene~gy itse:lf, aD!d it can also 'be used to ' the manner or 1St ate: of' 'the lenergy. It Is,ortan.tto understand t.his wbe:n you p,rac,tice ehiKung, '80 tbat :yo'Urmind is, Dot, channeled intol a narrcwuaderstandiag of Chi" which would limit your future: understanding' and development ..
'I ."



Geue:r,aI Defiuition

uKlln,g" irs often used ins,tea,d 'of '·Knng' Fu," which means ,energy and ' An·tu d '''.. . " .. '. ue ,0~ f ~ to' tIme~ _.' -C'y :8'; ·.y or t.rS1DIUg· Whi h requires ,a.1 t o· lenergy anid .·t.meJ to learn 01' to 8.ocolmp.lish is called ,Ku_ng' Fu. The term can be, ,applied to any' special :8kiU or s,tudy as, lone: as it re,qui.res time, ene:rgy, aDd ·p,atience., Therefore, THE C'ORRECT DE.FINIT,ION OF' rCBI KUN'O 1'8 ANY TRAINING oa 8'TUDY DEALIN'G· WITH CHI WBlC,B TAKES A L'ONG TIME AND' A, L,Q,T ,OF EFF'ORT .. , T:he Chinese have studied IChi for tbo,usaods of years. Some of the information on the patterns, and ~ycle's,of nature bas been ~eeo!'ded in books." one IDf 'Which ill the "J Chin;gl! (Boolk of Changes; 11'2'2B.C.J. When the ), Cbin,g 'W,8S, in trod,tu~ed to the 'Chines,e people., t.bey believed tbat· natural power inclulded Tian (Heaven), D.ih-(Earth)1 and 'Hen (Man). These are caBed I~SaD'flair!! (The Tbree Natur,sl P"Dwers) and are manifested 'b1 the three Chile:: 'Heaven Chi, Earth Chi" and Human (Figure 1.. 1). Tbe's,e three lac,ets 0,1 nature: have their defi.nite rules and cycles. The rules never change, and the c,yele:s, repeat peri'odically~ -The Chinese 'people used an under'standing' ,of these natural principles and tbe 'I Ching' tOI e8.1culate~ ehangss of the natura] Chi. This ealeu] .. ati'on is caned "Ba Ku,a,'" (The. Ei,lht 'Trigrams). 'r-om the E,ight Tripame are de'rived. the 64 bexagr,ams~ 'Therefore,theI, Cbing' 'W,BS probabl.y tbefirs,t. book whi,ch ta'ught the, Chinese, people abo'ut Chi and its v,ariatio'Ds in nature and man. The ~elations,hip of ,the Three Natural Pewers and the:b" Cbi vari,atiolns, were Iater discuBs'e.dextensivel,Y rn tbe bOlok f'Chi HU,BD Lusnn"
('Theory of 'Chfs, Variation).. Understandin,1 Heaven C.hi is 'v'e'ry difticult" 'however" ,and it W'&'S les,pecially &0, in times, w'b,en tbe seienea w,ss, just developing',

,KuDg: We have explained, th,&'t Chi ils ene'r,gy, and that it is found in, 'the: . I' -,Ie .'b d. d nu,g . - ·1..!-·'h h eav'ens, In t-b earth, an:, lD. lav,ary Ii '. t_hi' '8,g. 'In. IC"Ill.ldl, t, e WOf'"

0" Chi

..'7'~ ...

Heaven, Chi (TiaD Chil,

EarCh Chi. (.OJ.Chi)

..Hea:Uh __d Lon,levit:y: . a .•• Wai DI_o

.2. Nel Dan
3., ED,lil;ht:l!n-ment or BllIdldhahood

I. Acupunctillre

2. Herbal
J.• Musage


'Martial Arts.: I.. bun S:hirl

1. Iron Sand .,: ~m

.3. Canity Press

4. Acup"essure·

But ainee na.:t.ure is alway:s repeating it sel f, the exparfence accumulated ov,e.rthe y,eusha.s made it possible to trace the natural p.atte·rn:s.. Understan.ding the rules and cycle~s .0.£ nTian S,hyr" (he,B¥enl:ytimin,g') will help :you to understand natural ehanges 0'£ the seasons, climate., weatber~ rain, :sno,w~ dJ'lought., and aU other' natural eeeurrences. If you observe car,efully, you 'will be able to see m·sny ,of these routine pattern,s and cycles caused by' tber,ebalancing ,of tbe Chi fields. Among the natural cycles are ·those 0.1 th.e day, the month, and the year, aswell as ~yclle8of'twelve y,ea~sand sixty y'ears,. Earth Chi is ,8 part of Heaven Chi. It you. lean understand the' rules and 'the structure of the earth, you. will be able to understand bow

what part of the country is, best for someene, where to build I.. bouse "t h _:~ r_ t-·h t "t .,. ,-:ceii1Ll'-· 11 lth " .... uve, ana.:3 W h" h- dir·..,.4.· ien . .eenon 1 8:. 0 ul d_ raee ISO.. '-::a. .1;' .. 8 a h .... y praee te Ii·'· and many 'other things related to the earth, In 'China. today there' are'

and rivers are: formed" how plants grow" how·riv,ers move,

I •

(wind water teachers), who make their living t'bis,w,ay~ The term .Feng Shoel! is eommonly used becausethe location and character of 'the' wind and water in ,I! landscape are the m09.t impo·rtant faeters in evaluating a Ioeatlon. These experta use the accumulated bgd(y of
geomantie knowledge· and the I Ching to help people Blake important decisions such as where! and bow' to build. I., house, where to bury their' dead" and how torearrange g,r redecorate homes and offices s'o that, they are better places to live and work in. Many peopl'B even believe thatsettmg ups store lor business according to the guidance of ,F,eDI' Shoei ean make it more prosperous, Amon,g the three Cbl~s., Human Cbi is probably the one studied most thoroughly. The study of' Human Cbi eeversaIarge number of different ,subjects.. The Chinese, people believe that Human. Chi is affected and controlled by Heaven C,hi andE,orth Chi,. and that they in fact determine YD'ur de:stiny. Therefore" if you understand the relationship between natare BD"d people, in addition to understanding

peeple, called "Dih Lii IS,bil' (geom;ancy teachers) or "Feng IS,hoei Shy"

des,tiny of' a country, or a persen's desires, and temperament and ,ev,en his future .. The people who. praetiee this pr-ofess,io'D are called "Suann. Ming Shy" (ealeulate life teachers). Howev,er, thegreatest achievement in the s,t.udy .of Human Chi is in, regard to be'alth and long,evity~ Since: 'Chi is tbe souree o.f life, if you understand 'how Chi functions. and know how to regulate it CQIT6CUy, you should. be able to. live a long and healthy life. Remember that you arepart of nature, and you are ehanneled into the cycles of nature, If . ·k··" you .go agamst ·tb IS na tura,.1-eye 1e~ Y'DU, may' b eco,mle SlC~, ISO l.t 18 In .__. .~ your best intemsts ibD follow the way lo,rnature. This, is the meamng of *'T,ao,:' which can be translated as ~ITheN,B,tural Way .." M,.any different aspects of Human Chi have been. researched,
c ",

human relations (R-en Sh:yhJ, you

win be

able to predict wars, the·

including aeupuneture, acupressure, herbal treatment, me:ditatilon, and ChiKq exercises. The use of acupuncture" acupressure, and

herbal treatment 'to adjust Human Chi flow' bas become the' root of Chine'se medical science. Meditation and m,oving Cbiltung 'exercises are used widely by the Chinese people to improve their'health 01- even to eure certain illnesses. Meditation and Chi Kung exercises serve an

,s,dditional role in that Taoists and Buddhists, use them in their spiritual pursuit of enlightenment, You can. see that the ,study of lany 'of the aspects lOll e,m including

Heaven Chi, Earth Chi." and Human Chi should be called Chi Kung. However~ since the term is usually used. today ,oD'ly in ',reference to the cultivation of Human Chi. throughmleditatio.n and exercises" we will only use it in thi:s narrower sense to ,avoid eonfusion, Befere wa finish this, section, 'W,'! would like to discuss one more thing. 'Th,e wor,d Nei 'Kung is, often used, espeeially in Chinese martial s,ociety. "Nei" means "intern al' and "Kung" means "Kung Fu~,IINei 'Kung means "intamal Kung FU,II as opposed toWai .Kung' which means "external Kun,g Fu." N,ei ,Kung is, martial artsl tr,aining which. specialiees in Internal Kung Fu, which builds up the' Chi internally first and then coordinates the C;hi with martial techniques, Typ,:wal Chinese Nei Kung mJsrtial style,s ,are Tai Chi Chuan, Liu 80 Ba Fa, Ba. Kua" and Hsing Yi. In c'ontras,t to Nei Kungi lemph,ssizes developing the muscles, with some build up of 'C,hi in the Bmbs, Typical 'WallKungmartiaJ a:~les are; Praying Mantis., Tiger" EagJe,; White Crane,Dr'agon" and :80 on, Many of the erxtemal styles originated :in the Shaolm Temple'.

-9.. ,

1 ..1,!! ho'ut This, Book A 11 _ .... .... Wul! ~ __ WUI, ~ ' sore' _CilUl oun, ~ ~ L' I__-cope ~L! b 00 k __=111 1By . d own . a t'h" '..ti .... d a ti.on w_:h'_U!h' m~r.h ested Chi Kung practitiD'Ders can use in their tr,gimD_g,. BopeiuJIy this, book ean exp,lllin to you the HO,'W, Why, and What of Chi Kung, and. help, you to avoid be~g ,confus'ed and misled. It is extremely difficult, to write ,. 'book 'which co,v'er"B more than 'FOUl" thousand "ears, ,of I,tudy and r'l!se,u-eh;, ,especially since a, luge, portion of the knowledge was k.ept secret until the last, twenty years. Even, though. ,the study ef Chi Kung has, reacbedve17 'bi,gh, 'there Br,e stDl many ques~ 'tiollB 'which BlUst be answered ,through nmourse to 'today~'e'technology and interdisciplin.ary knowl'8 dg,e. Contemp,Qirary, eathu:smaetic minds will have' plsn,ty 'of op,portuni,ty to research. and :p,romotet.he' art. ODe of the m~ol' purposes, of this, book is to stimulate Western sehol .. ars and 'medic,al s,ocie·ty to ,get involved with and ,study this, n.ewly .. reveaJ!ecl science'. Hopefully other Chl Kung experts 'will be encouraged. to share, th,eir'lmowl.edlge with, the public", I believe tbiB't, in a short tilDe Chi Kung will reaehnew and excitin,g hei,ghts in the' Western w,orld. This w,ould be' one of the gJ",eatest cross-eultural achievemen.ts since E,8St and Ws,st ,opened their Idoo~s'to each othe,r. Most ,available documents BIle' not sy,stema.tically organized and. do DOt explain th.e subject very well, As, I compile them and try te · ''' .... d . w..c: . .' eX))Iam' them m It 1O,pcw."ilil an·· BCIen:"iuC W,&:y, I' mus t 'use my own JU dge... -· .,' :ment, and. I must explain them based on mypersonaI Chi Kung bac'k,gr~und and DlJ' under,standiM\g" of' the ,docum,ents.. It is, impo8sible for one ,pB'rSO'D alone tal do justice to this enormoWJ field. You are eneeuraged to question '8V1erything stated in this text, and tOI alW'BY,S rmnem ..


bel" that m~

conclusions come from DlIY own judgement. The main plurpoee of this, book. is to Is'ad you to the path of study' .... it is, DOlt m,eant to, be the: final authority., ' Ull'L..... ,.:"boo' . ,. dl n IJ.UDy.ou rea d '.~~:,- 'Ii, 1 . lB tmpOi'Lan~ th.a you '1_' ........ '1_ "t '. " . _... .. ··t· . ,~ep your IDln~_

OileD" and, ~

let go ,o,ryOlD" habitual ways or thinking. When, we find eurselvle,s in a new environm,snt or ,start ,Btuclyingll,omethiD,g Dew,. it is human nature to,vmew the new' from tbe ;stan,dpoint of what

make U5 conservative and ·narrowminded. This is comm,o,nly seen. in tourists 'who visit another' ICQIWltry" but j~D. local customs and behavior acconiin,g to the their' ,own coun,try's standards, This usually I,eads to a lot of ,confusion

,already ie'amed .. 'Unfortunately,

this ten.dsto

,and misnndemtan1ding. If", howevel'~ Y'ou try to understan.d other peo'pl.e according to their own 'culture and, .historicsl background., you 'will have II much better ehanoe of UDd~stand\ing their' behavi'ol. pmeas8 do this when you start st,u.dymg 'this scislI,ce o.f 'Chi. Kung. I( you keep your mind open and try to, unde.r,stand, i.t aC:cQl'diDg to its, historieal back .., gMlund, you will find, it a fucinating and challengmg ,Bubj,eet. It'.~w tru- e ~.'..._uD·t'. lOt I'S --1;10 .. . th _,very, ha'll'ld ,,- b-_,'I- ~ 'AlL. W • & ~D& lru:m trw'·'"ti· 'DB. In m- . o·Id' '~ ,~_ .n _..' any,:,." " cultur-es, tradition :must, be, obe,yed abBO,lutely~ If aDyane is against 'the traditw.D, be ie, eonsidered 8 traitor to the culture. How,ev,er; tbe correct approach 'to reae'arCh and g,tud_y 'involve,s,~,estio'nin,g tradition aDd p'rovin_gits inaccuracies through the 'U8e~ modem thought and of ,technology. This is e8:peeially necessary in regar-d 'to ancieD't ,sciences which wer,e!developed, before this century. ,N~w stuay' will allow us to prove and establish 'their' ,accuracy. 'You,should understand that this is, Dot a form. of betrayal., It is, our responsibility 'to, p.rQve 'the truth and brmg taets 'to ligbt.

,I ~


Many 0" the theories which bavebeen p,ueed downwlere based upon many ,yean, O'f experience. Re,gudless of'how you modify a iheo,ry~,the fact is" it is :stiU theroet of the entire' scieoC8, 'Thenfore,tbe correct ,approach to ,study ,lind roeaearch involves, l'Ie,spect and stud_y 01 the past. :From this r-elspect and, ,stll,dy" you 'will be able 'to find 'tbe root or the ~_., ~l t l...t ,1..., nBS we,ngroWIDg ..' ~' ,eDlIJU:'e &me'Dce~'If you ~: ,.... 'W:uij roo-, 'willen 1.... 11:..,_ __ Jorlt:::101.....,':... ror tb ' -'oU," sands or,years, you 8N~ studying only the branches and :Dower,B. 'You should judge this inner science o:fChi, Kun,g in ,8 logical and seientifie manner~ Of'course, the wlorM, "mo,gi,c"ad, !'scitmtificu arenot absolute terms., They are rel.Btift to the science and, understanding which we possess,. Remembe~, though, that ,Blthuugb seiaD'C! has been developing for thousands of years,., it 'W,ss,D,nly 'in the last hWldnd ,yeus or so 'that it ' BuddenJly began to swell in the width and, depth ,ofita undel'standiq., We can be 8~e, thereihN" that our undel1standing' toda;y :is Btl)] 'in its, i'nf6DCY~ 'There, are many fact's ,BDd 'phenomena which caBD,ot be explained by today"s science. There,folls. wh.en you read this new inner science, be lOgical and scientific:, yet don't reject lexplanations, which lie outside o,f what you presently accept as true'., What ie, accepted as, true in ,B. fB'W years maY' be quite different from wha.t 'we now accept, An seiences w,e~e developed from d~g ,Bssumptio.DI, which were thanproven b,Y car,elol experimentation. 'Th.e r-esults wbi,cb. 'we get frn.m 00:1" le'xperiments aUolw us tomod:ify our assumptions, and to ereate new,mtperiments whieh explore our new' h'ypotbesea~ This precess enables UB, to cleve'lop a ,eo'mp'Iete. theory, and determine what next needs to be :eiudied. It is the same with Chi. Kung practic.s'. If ytl,u 'took and study eareful .. ly, you win see that" ,although many o,fthe Cbi-relamd 'theories were proven aeeurate ,BDd,have been widely 'Used in. ChlnB~ there ,are ,still man_y'quas,tiona which still need to he answered. DuriI\g the lcourse of study you must be patient ,andperssVlering. StmQg th- ~L__· fC will·, ,patience, an d- persevera_nce are '.1 e'u~e mam oomponeD~ 0" 'success,. This, is Ispecl1.allytrue' in, Chi, Kung training. Yow:'will and wisdom, must be ,able to dominate and conquer' your em'Dtiomtl.laziness,. I believe that D. per .. SOD,'SBUcceSS, Idepends an biB atti'tu,de toward life and his moral Character" r,Btbel'thim 'bis wisdom, andintelligenee, 'We'~ve ,allkDown people' whol we'N wise, but yet ended up losers,. They may be smart, and they pick things up 'm'Dre~ lquickly than other people, but ,tbey 800n Ioseintemst. If they don't " 'h'· pe:r,8eve:re",they stop .Ie ,. an d. powmg" BD"d th8, never ac -hi''ew t_=ea ~armng '__ goals,. ~Y' never realize that Sll00eIB dema.Dds mM'al virtues" and Dot just wisdom. A :pemoD who is truly wise knows, that-he must dewlop the other
c .


'requiremen'Y fOr


In additio'D .•a person who is truly wise' wlll lmow when 'to' start and wben to, sto,p. Many opportunities to succeed are lost by people' who are, too :proud of their intelligence.. Tbere 'is D, Chinese story about a group of peo,ple who Ico'mpeted in a snake .. ra,'WiIlg con,tes,t., 'One man completd ad his dra~g of ,8 snake fa:ster than ,anybody else, He WBS, v'ery PfiDUd
of' himself, and he, thought 1~rm,80 £as,t I could ,even Idraw (D,ur le,gs on the ISDne and .,till 'win!:" ISo he d:re:w the 'Jegl 0(11, b,utw:ben the Judge chose the winner, it W,fJ,'=, somebody emse.. The man W,De, very upset, and asked lhe judge 'why he di,dn't 'Win; after all, 'he' had finished he'fore ieveryone else. The joop :I!aid::IJ'You w,e:re Bu'pposed to draw asnake, Sinc,e snakes 'donl't, have legs, wbat you.dre,w was not a snake." So.~as

smart as the 'man was" be didn"t have tbe sense to knowwhso to stop.,

1-'1"- _-

A perso-n who is really wise understands tbat real success depends nQlt only his wisdom but also on his, moral eharaeter, Therefore" he 'Nill also cultivate his moral character aDd develolp biB g'ood. personality. smart beeeme sa'tisfied with their acco:mpliah'me,ntls an,d lose their bnmiUty. They feel that they know 'enough, and so they stop learning and gr-o"Wing~ In the, long run they will only lose. Remember'tbe story of tbe tortoise and th,e hare, If'the rabbit had not beenso proud ,and

Confucius said:: '·A,man who is reany vrise lmow8w.hat 'be knows, and also knows, what he does no't, know:."'(*2:) 'Too often ,peop~e 'who are:

satisfied, be would not have' lost tbe,I",Qce", Once: you understand what has been, p,Bssed do,wn to Y'DU, you :should .J.~ .'" . dit" ..'atur ,'.I. L1..,::_ .·er b e creswve. 'N t al'l Y"Wll8 ereativr "ty mUlI,teb un d- one COD_:_" lion: that you must understand the old way ,clearly and tDQ,rougbly.. Oruy aft,m·ryou und,elnstand the old. ',knowledge ta, ,8. deep level win YOW"mind be lqualified to think ~"w'hatif.,.." Then 'yOU will be ab~e 'to CDme up with .. good ideas, fo:r'further study and FElseareh., If aD C.hi Kungpracti.tioners only practice the old 'ways and nevel' search fbr new ones] thel science of' Chi KUng will stagnate at its current leva:}. In that ease"we wiIlhave

lo:stthe real meaning oland attitude towardleaming. Thll,B book is the most fundaments'} 'of the 'YMAA C'hi Kun,g' book sB:n,es,. It offers, you the ,foUB,datiion of knowledge and training pr,a,ctices which is required to understand ,subsequent. YMAA Chi Kung books,. TIns, book consists offolU' m.ajor parts. 'The' ,met p,art will 'briefly summarize 'C.,hl Kung history, explaiD the necessary Chi Kung tem1i'nolo-me- and _""u1tB L1Ii..,_ mai Chi" K'""IiI"lJa' lII'I<ate-'tr,....t·.lei.- Th-e BBCuD·d PCU~'b'w_ .' -_ ...... il~1 ,1!3!.d, ,1;lu.JI dis IWlC .,~,Clr~_. L.,1!oU.le,...·'~ 0""":" ,.:, disrcuss the theory and maj,orkeys, to Chi Kung training. This will enable' t.he Chi Kung' begmner to enter the deer to, the Chi KU'Dg garden, and will offer the experienced pr,actitioner ,& directo,ry to the v,anOUB, type:s olfChi .Kung·. The third p,an will review the Chi chann,els and vessels to 'he~p you understand the Chi circWatory system in the human body. Finally, the fourth part will conclude! tb,e disc.ussioD in this boo'k, and.lis;t some of the many questions. I have about Chi ,Kung.,
ilIl ""',1IliCl1 -I'\;


History of Chi Kung
'The his,toiry of Chinese Chi Kung can be roughly divided into four period,s. 'We know little ,about 'the first period" which i:s considered to dynasty (2,06 B.C.) when Buddhism and ~ts, meditation methods were imported from India. 'This, infusi,on 'brought Chi Kun,g' practice and

have started when the "I Chin,gl~ (Book of Changes) was introduced sometime before It22B",'C." and to have extended u.ntil the 'Han ChiKimg era, This,

meditation into the second, pS'riod" the mligious

the beginning of the third period" that of ma,rtial Chi Kung. ManY' ,differ-ent,martial Chi, Kung styles, were created 'based on tbetheories and prineiples of Buddhist and Taoist Chi Kun,g. This period, lasted until the overthrow of the Ching dynasty in 1911,.when the new era
st8'rt-ed in which Chinese IChi Kung t,r,aining is, beingmixed with. Ohi !{un"g pl'iac Ices fro tht" ..' ,m Indi B,'J apan, ,BDIf. many 0, el" eoun,tri" e's. ....
.. ,"_,--:--.:".-.: -', -'I,' _" --,,-. ,.'_ ',,-',"'.-,"',"" '_ , .:--

period lasted until the Liang' ,dynas:ty (502:..557 A,,,D..),, hen it W,BIB w discovered that Chi Kung could be 'Used for' martial. ,purposes. 'This 'was


2·1. Before the .Ran,Dyoasty· (Refo,re 206B"C,.) The: i'l Ching"~ (Book of Changes; 1122 B.C.) was probably ,the first Chinese book related to Chi. It introduced the concept, of' the three natural energi,s,s or powel'1S (San Tsair),: In,an (Heaven), Dih (Earth)i and Ren (Man). Studying the relationship, of these threariatural power:s was the first a,tap in 'the dev,elopment. of Chi KUIl;g. In 1766 ..1154 B.C. (the Shang dyna.sty)" 'the Chinese capital 'was in today·,s.An Yang in Henan provinee. An areheclegiea] di_gthere at a late Shang d,ynaJsty burial ground called Yin S,hiu discovered more than 160,000 pieces of turtle ;sbell and animal bone which were co,vered with written characters, This writing, called IIJea Guu We~n·~Oracle-Bene ( SCripture), 'was tbe earliest evidence of the IChinese use of the writt,en word. Most of' the information recorded was of ,a,religious nD.,tur,e. Tbere W8.S DO 'mention of acupuncture or other medical know ledge, eventhough it was ~ecorded in the .Nei IChingthat during the r.eign, of the Yellow emperor (2690.. 590 B.,e.) Bian Shyr (stone probes) were 2 ,_11_ d yemg use dLtD a~ ust peop '113~ Ch·1 circulation, Th e aren eo1- . 'b · . d~ . 'h· ~gUlts, arrea _' 8 .' .. ,. _,,.1· I did,however, dis,oover stones ,at the dig whi,ch they beHev,ed were Bian Shyr' (Figure 2~1).,

:F~g1.1N' 2.. ~Aeupunciur,e 1

st-one probes (Bian ,Sbyr)

During :the J'OQdyna8~y (1122-9,84 B,.C~)., Lao Tzyy (Li Erh) m,entioD,ed certain breathing 'technique,s in his, elaasic I'T,tlo' Te ChiDI"~ (Classic on "the Vutue oftha 'Eao,). He stressed that the way to ,obtain health W,BS to ~'COD,centTate DO C.hi and, aehieve BuftDess,!! (,Juan Chi Jyh "0_ -) 'L ....... °SL, _ o',"'. (·m· ISto D_ _rd~)· S - --"d;- A' DUll. ,1l~-,-u1Y_-Jl .' _ 'new 1 ..:wOO-',m . [ e I,pnng: ,anillI'~ tumD and Warring States Periods (770 ... 22,1.B.C.' also ldescribed. more eom~ ' th0d-lS or b rea thtrai '" _ '. ' .~ .4..1.._, SOc'O'" B the p!le'w 'w,,. iutuU,t ,: .'.,.' C"••.. "SJ.aulS t-L!l ..... 'PJ:tllUSDphsr' Juan&, 'T',zYJdes'eribed the relationship be~tween health and, the breath in hils book IINanHwa Cbi nc;., It states: liThe men of 'D,ld breathed clear down to tb.eir heels ..,.'I~ 'Thi:S was n,ot a ,figure :speeeh,. and oonfirms that a bre'athing' method for 'C,hi circulstllon, was being used by some Taoists at that tim's. 'During'the Chin and Han dynasties (221 B,~C.,"',220 A,.D,.)"tIl,ere ,aTB several 'medical r,eferences to Chi KUng in tbe, literature" such aB, the "Nan C,hiQg'l~ (Clusie on Diso,[ldersi) by the famous, Idoctor Bi,BD Chiueb~ w,bich d,sscribes, the l1Ie 0'£breathiQg to increase Chi cir.culation. "Gin Gue'y Vao Liueh!! (~ef!leri:ptions from the (.olden, C:hamber) by Chang . .l!_ . .. ' ... 1-.:_. d· .. ,,_ . _."_. ,J' ,T"· '_ong"'itllmg' tWiCU8ses ~-e use 0 f'b - ··NHlIClUig aD,,_ acupun "u.,n;;t 'WI ma 1!l·,·tain ,good Chi flow., !'Jon I Tam 10mI' Chili" (A Co,mpar,ative S'tudy ' or the ,J01J (dynasty) Book of Chan,ges) by Wey Bo,r";Yan_gxplains the relation .. e , ship Df human 'beiup to nature'·s faroes and Chi. It ean be seen from t'me list that up to this time, almost all orth.e! Chi Kung' publications, war,. 'written by :sebolars, such as Lao Tzyy and, Jnang TZiYYtt olr medical Idoctors such Jas Bian Chiueh and, Way Bol"-Yang •
J! ....


11'1'\..,.... •





.. 4-, 1

Let us eenelude this, pe'riod:

with a :Few·mpQrtan't points about the Chi KUng in i

tlainin,g~ 2..Therle were two major types of Chi Kung training,. One type W,IlS, used by the Confucian and Taoist seholars, who used it 'pdxnarily to maintain their' health. The other type of Chi Kung 'was, for medical purposes, using' needles or exerlcil'e,s to ,adjust the Chi or to curs' illness,
3., There
W~lS almost

I.. Historirc,aJ deeuments for this period are searee today, and it is, difficult to obtain detailed inforlnat.ion" especlalIy' about IChi Kon,g

no religio,u:s color to

4..All of the trainin;g feeused 'Oln following the natural way and implr'o,ving and maintaining health, Actively countering the ,effects of natur,e was eonsidered impossible. 2... From the Han, Dynasty to' the Begin-Din' of the LiBDI' 2., D,ynas,t, (lOB B.C,... 02, AD .. 5 ) Because many Han emperors were inteIlig,ent and me-a, the Han dynas't,y W,BS, a glorious and peaceful period, It was during the Eastern Han dynasty (c, 58 A.D.) th,at Buddhis,m was imported to China from India" The Hartl emperor' became a sincere Buddhist, and Buddhism soon spread and 'became very popular, Many Buddhist meditation and, Chi Kimg praetiees which had been practiced in India fhr thousands of years" were absorbed into the Chinese culture. The Buddhist temples 'taugbtman.y Chi :Ku:ng p,r,Bct.ic,es" espeeially th.e stiH meditation of Cham. (Z,en)I which marked a new era of Chinese Chi Kung. Much of the deeper Chi .Kung theory and practices which had been developed in India were brought to China., Unfortunately,. since

the training.

the training

practices, and theory werereeorded in. the Buddhist bibles and kept secret, For hundreds, of y,e,ar9 t'he, reHgiou6 Chi Kung tr,aining w,a,s never taught to. laymen. Ont)" in this eentury bas it been ,8v',ailabJe to the general populace. Not long after Buddhism was Imported mte China. a Taoist bytne name' of Chang Tao~Ling combined the traditional Taoist prineiplsa with Buddhism and created 8. reli gion called Tao Jiaw. 'Many of' the meditatton methods, wetie a combination of the principles and 'training methods of botb sources. Since: Tibet hard its own branch of Bu,ddhis,m with. its IO'wn training s,:ystem and methods of ,attaining Buddhahaed, Tibe'taD Buddhists
-- -

directed at attaining Buddhahood, the training

we:re also invited.



also absorbed. It was, in this period th,st the tr,aditi,on.a] Chinese Chi Kung practitioners finany bad. a chance to compare' their arts with ,the religious Chi KUD£ practices imported mainly from 'India. While the scholarly and m.edical Chi Kun_g had bee!D eoneemed with maintaining and impI'Qlvinghealth" the newly imported religieus Chi Kung was eeneerned wit.h far mere, Contem:porary documents and Chi Kung 8tylel show clearly that the religious, praetitionere trained their Chi to a much deeperIevel, wor-king' with ·many internal £UDrctiOD:S of the body,. and stroveto have control oftheir bodies; minds, and ,spiri.ts 'with the: 10__ of escaping from the cycle oC reincarnation. 1 While the Chi KWlg -praetieee and, meditations w,ere being' 'passed down. se'cretly 'within the monasteries, traditio, scholars and physiJcis.n,s continued their Chi K'ung research, During' the Gin

China to preach.

In time, t,heir practices


- ---


dynasty in. the ,3rd clenturyA.D'~, a famous phys,ici.a.n nam.ed Hwa Tor used acupuncture for anesthesia in surgery. The Taoist Jiun Chiam used the 'movements of animals to ICllea.'te the Wuu Chyn ,S,hih (Five Animal Sports), whiC:'h taughtpeopW,e hOlw to Inerease their Chi eireula'tien through speeifie movements. Also, in this period a physician named Ger Homg 'mentioned, using the mind to lead sold increase Chi in his book. Baw Poh Tzyy. Sumetimes in the period, of 420 to ,5,81A.D. Taur Homg-Iiing' compiled the uYeang She.nnYan Ming Luh" (Recor,ds of Nourishing the Body and, Extending Life), which sbowed many Chi Kung techniques". Cbarslcte·ris,tics of Chi Kung" durln,g this, period were: 1" 'T'bere were three schoo]s of religious Chi .Kung' 'which Influenced and dominated the Chi Kung, practice in this period, These! are Indian Buddhism" Tibetan Buddhism, and. Taoism .. , 2. ,Almost all of the religious, Chi Kung practices were. kept secret within the menasteries. 3!!Religious Chi. Kung training worked to escape from the cycb:;} of' ,4..Relatively spe,aking" religious Chi Kung theory is, deeper than the theory of the non-religioue Chi Kun,g" and th.e. training is hardier. ,5.,Chi circulation theory was better' understood by this, time, so the Chi Kung sets created in this, period seem to be more efficient than the older' ,set!!. 1... From the LiB'DC D,ynas,ty tOIthe End 'of lehiDr Dynast,. 8. ,(802",1811 A.D.) During the Liang dynas,ty (502-557 ,A~D the emperor invited ,a, .. ) Buddhist monk. named Da Mo, who was onee an Indian prinea, to, preach Buddhism In China. When the emperor decided he did not Iike DaMlo':9, Buddhist jheory; the monk withdrew to the Shaolin 'Eemple. When Da MOl arrived" he saw that the priests, were weak and si,ckly, 180 he ;shut him,self away to ponder the problem .. 'When he' emerged after nine years of seclusion, he wrote two clasaies: "Yi Gin Ching" (Muscle/Tendon Changtng Classie) and "Shii Soei C,king'~ (M,al't"oW' Wa.shing Classic), The M usel e/Te'n don Changing Classic taught the priests how to gain health and change their physical bodies &o,m weak to ,st['long,. The Marl'low' Was,hing Clos,silc taught the priests, bow to use Chi to clean the bone marrow and strengthen the 'blood and immune system, as well as how to energize the brain and, .attain enlightenment, Because the MarrowWa.shin,g Classic W8,S harder tOI understand and practice, the tr'aining methods were passed down secretly to only avery few disciples i.n each generation, After the priests practiced the MusclelTen.don 'Changing exercises, they found that not only did they improve 'their' health" but they also ,gr,ea:tly mereased their str,ength,,, When this tr'ainmng was in.tegra:te.d into the 'martial arts forms, it increased, the effeetiveness of their techniques. In addition to this ma.:rtial Chi Kung trarning; the Shaelin priests also created five animal styles of Kung' Fu which imitated, thew,3,Y Idifferent, animals fight, The animals imitatedwere the tiger" leopard, dragon, snake, anderene, Outside of the monas terry, 'the dev,e]opmen't of Chi Kung' continued during the Sw·ei and Tllrng d,yn.8Bties (S81-907 A.D ..). Chaur Yuan .. Fang compiled the ""Ju Bing Yuan Bou Luenn" (Thes,is. on the Origins and Sympto'ms of V:a.rious Diseases), which is a veritable, encyclopedia of Chi Kung methods listing 260 Idiffer'ent w,ays, of



Chan.g San .. eng is believed to have created, Tai Chi Chuan. Tai Chi F followed ,8 different ap,p'roach i:n its use of C.hi Kung than did
8haulin. While: Shaohn emphasized Wa.i.D,an, (External Elixir) Chi Kon,g exercises, Tal Chi emphasized Nei Dian (Internal EUxi.r) Chi

increasing the Chi flow, The "Chian Gin Fang'!' I(Thousand Gold Preseriptiens) by Bu,en Sy-Meau described th.e method of leading C,hi, and also described the use ef the Six. Sounds, The use ofthe Six Sounds to regulate Cbi in the internal org,ans bad alrealdy been used by the Buddhists and, Tao,ists, fer B,ome: 'tim,e,,, Suen Sy~Meau. alse Introduced a massage system tallied Lao Tzyy"s ,49 M,assa;ge Thehnique:s. f'Wai Tai Mih Ya.,({ (The E·xtra Important Secr',et) by Wan,g Tour discussed the use of' breathing and her'bBlther,a'pi!e'l for disorders of Chi circulation . . uring the Song, Gin" and Yuan dynasties (960-1,368 A.'D.'), 'I'Yeang D Sheng Jyue'1 (Life Nou:rishing Seereta) by rCh,an,gAn-Tao discussed several Chi Kung 'p:ractio!s., "Bu Me:D Shyh Sh:yh (The 'C-omucian Point of View) by Chang Tzyy-Her describes, the use of 'Chi Kung tal cure external injuriles such as cuts, and spratns, "Lan Shyh .Mib. Tsarng'" (Secret Libr,ary of'the Orchid Room) by Li Guoo describe's, us,ing Chi Kung and herbal remedies for internal disorders, "Ger Jyh Yu Luenn" (A Further Th'Bsis of Cemplete S.tudy) by Ju Dan-Shi provided a theoretical explanation for the US,! of Chi Kung in curing ,disease'" During the So,ng Idynss,ty (960-127'9 A.,DI.), not Ieng after the Shaoli.n Temp.Ie started using Chi Kung in their' martial fraining,


(Wai'Dan and Nei Dan are described in, Chapter 6).


the 1.2 Ch.i channels, clarified many of 'tbe points 'of cnnfusion and,

In 1026 A.D. the' famous bra,se man of acupuncture was, des;i_gn,ed W'81-'1y-;-. Be. t' "ti' alth ~ an d buil e b D 1;'1]' nu '. cyr.,.ang' .... ., eerore t ,-,_B,nme, W,' ough. th ere were m,Dny publie.ationsi which discussed acupuncture tbeo,ry,pl"ineip]es, and treatment teehniques, there were m,any disagTeements among them" J8'nd many points, which were unclear, When D1"'"Wang built ~ his brass man, he also wrote a book. called ·'Tomg Ren Yn Shiuh J,en Jeo,u Tw'u"! (1IluS),tratirO.n of the Brass Man. Acupuncture and Moxib,ustion). He explained therelationship of the 12 ergans and

prin:ciples. In 10134 A.D'. Dr. Wang used acupuncture to cure the emperor ,Ren Tzong. With the support 'ofthe: emperor" acupuncture flourished, In ID~dertOI encourage acupuncturemedieal research, the emperor built a temple to Dian Chiueh, who wrote the Nan Ching, Mid-worshiped bim as the aneeetcr of aeupuneture, Acupuncture technology developed semuchthat even th.e IGin ra.ce in the North requested the

fair the rrrst time, 8,ystem,ati'caUy organised acupuncture theory and

Ye.uh Fei was credited

Chi KUD,g exercises and martial arts, It is said that he: ereated the :Eight Pieces of Brocade to improve his soldiers! health, He is also known as, the ,creator of the internal marlial,style Hsing Yi. In addition to 'that; Ea\gle style 'martial artists also claim "that ',¥euh F:ei W,IS the cr,eatOrr of their st,yle.

brass, man and other aeupuneture teehnology a,li a condition. for peace. Between 1102 ,to 1106 A.D.,Dr~ Wang dissected the, bodies of priseners and add,ed more iniorm:atilon to the Nan Chin,g. His work contributed greatly to tbe advaneement of Chi Kung and Chineee medicine by giviu,g EI, elear and systematic idea of'the circulation of Chi in the humanbody Later, in the: Southern Song dynasty (1127 ..12,79 A.D.), Marshal
with crlsa, several internal

From then until the en.d of the Ching ,dynasty (1911 A~,D'.)J many ether Chi Kung 9tyh~,13wer,e founded. The w,el1known ones, include FWD Buh Kung (Tig,e'l" Step Kung), Shyr'Er ,Juang (Twelv,8' Postures) and Jiaw Huah Kung (Beggar Kung), Also in this, period, :many ,doctm1"e~ntsrelated to Chi Kun,g were publlished. such as, IIB,a.o Sh,e'Jiln Mih, Yao" (The Se~c'ret Important Document Qif Body Proteetion) by Ts,Qu:rYnan-B,air', which described 'mo,'vin,g and stationary Chi 'Kung praetiees; and "Yeang Sheng Fu. '~eul' (Brief Introduction ttl N eurishing the Body) lby Chen Jih-Ru; about the three treasures: ,Jieng (essence), Chi (internal energy), and Shen (spirit). ,Also, -"YiFang Jyi Jie.hii (The Total Introduction tOI M'edilca] Preseripeions) b'yU,an,gFBlnn~An.revie'we,d and summarize,d the previou,sly publtshed materrals; and IIN'ei Kung Twu Shwo" (Hluatrated Explanatilo:n, of N,ei Kung) by Wan,g 'I'auu- Yuan presented 'the 'lcwelve PieCrB.S of Brocade and explained the idea Olf combining both moving and, stationary ChiKu~g. style, Huoe Long Kung' (Fire Dragon Kung) was created by the' Tai 'Y:ang''martia] s'tyli,sts. The 'wen known internal martial art styh:~Ba Kua- Chang (Eight Trigrams Palm) is believed to have' been created by Doong Hae-Chuan Iate in the Ching' dynasty (164·4-1'911 A~D'.),. This style is now ,gaining' in populari~y throughout, the world. During the Chin.g dynasty~ 'I'ibetan medi+aticn and techniques became widespread in Chin.a for the first time. This was due to the encouragement and interestof the Ma.nchurian Empero:rs in the royal palace, ,as, well as ethers of high rank in soeiety. Characteristic,s ,ofCh:il Kung during' this ,period,w',s:re,:

In the late Ming Idynasty (around 1,640A.DJ, a martial Chi :Kung,

1..Chi Kung WB,B, ,81dapted into the martial arta, and martial Chi Knng ,styles were created. 2..Chi circulation theury and acupuncture, reached ,8, peak, More' documents were blished about medical Chi KUD,I "than. the other categeries of Chi KUB,K exercises. 3~,Religious Chi Kung pr,aicti·ce remained secret, 4. Chi Kung ,exercises had bec,[nne more popular in Chinesesocie"ty ..


2·,4..From the :End 01 'Ch:ing Dyaasity to th.,e Prese'D't Before 1911 A.D., Chinese society 'was still ve'ry conservative and old fashioned. EVIB:nthough China had, been expandingits eontaet with the' cutside world fOlr the p,revious, hundred, years, the outside world had, little influence beyond. the coastal regiens. With the overthrow of the' Ching dynasty in. 19,11 and the founding oftbe

Chinese Republic, the nation started changing' as never before. SincI' this 'time ChllKung practice has, entered a new era .. Because of the ease ,0'£ eommunieation in the modern world, We·s,tJern culture
ts ha,ving ,8 greatin:OUEi'D'Ce on the Orient.

Ma'ny Chinese have opened their minds, and changed their traditional i,deas" especially in Taiwan and Hong Kong. Various Chi Kung styles are now being' ta'ught lopenly, and many :tormerly seleret documents have been published. Modern, methods ofeernmunication have, opened up Chi Kung'to at mueh 'wid!sr audienee 'than eV'le:r 'before" ,and p,eople now havethe chance to 'study and, undarstand man ,diffe'l'en,t s:tymes. In addition to tha,t" people are now able to eompUle Chinese Chi KUD,g to similar arts from other countries sueh as India, ,Japan, ,Korea, and the :Midd,lt~East.,

I beUevle that in the: near future Chi Kung 'will be eonsidered the most ,e'xeiting' and challen.ging field 011 research, It Isan ancient scienc'i!just waiting to be investig,ated with the help of the D,ew, now being de'veloped ,at ,BD almost exp,l.'osiv,e rate", Anytbing w,e ean do to :sp,eed up thisreseareh will ,gt'ea'tly help humanity' to understand a'nd Improve itself., .


Chapter 3
Basic Concepts of Chi Kung
heen passed down, f~om ,ge:neration to generation. Since m,ost. ,ofthese terms are key wo.rdswhlc'h 'win help you to grasp the basic concepts of Chi Kung -practice, it is, important that yon understand their' real meaning. In this chapter we wiU discuss, the' m,ajor terms, w'bi,cb are Idire,ctly related tOI C:hit Kung training" Other terms will be ldiscussed in Appendix B. IS-I..The ThPee ~ea8~es

of special terms that are eommonly used by Cbi Kung practitiQ'ne'rs" and are found inth.e documents w'hi,cb have The'reare anumber

'"Jie,ng" IC'hi, ,and She'D Underst,anding Jiang' (Essence)., Chi (internal lenergy),. and, Shen (spirit) is one ot the mOist important requirements for effective Chi Kung training, They are the root 'DC yo,n!:'life and th.8l"iefore also the root of Chi Kung practice. Jie'll\g, Chi., and Sben are ealled "San Bao, "8~ L.! h W -hi h nenmeans J. ne T-h nrae rn... J.,lfeaSUreSI"aD,.iuan, .. WUJlC., means 11Th rne


Th,ree IOrigi.:ns"iI or "San Been," which means "The Three . '" t n- : 1 K It,llone'r 1 learns. h O'WO F ann d.,8,-· t 10n:&~ I" C'b' .'-;nngtr81DllD.g', a prac to, '.' "firm his Ji.eng" (Guh Jie,ng; Guh means to firm, soli,dify,retain, and dh J" conserve ) an,:, ,I'OW to OOD¥B,--.· lHO C-'h]" Tbi'·· 18, eaII d "Li It rn S, II,e.. "ann .. len_g' rt· · t' 'I.. J" rt it In. C·· lb,': Uau , m,: L! ..... m rte met H- _....Cb WJW,W, eans "t re fi th .elleng ani d eonvert t i tOU.1. Then he' learns how to lead the Chi to the head to convert it into Shen (also callednourishing Shen), This Is caned "Liann ChiH uah Sbe'n" which means "to refine the Chi. and convert it into (nourish) the, Shen.'" Finally, the practitioner learns to usc' hi,ssner,gized Shen to go,vern the ,emotional part of his personality., This is called "Liann ShenLeau :Shing/t Of' Uta refine' the Shen to end human (emotional)
C I.' .,'


nature." These conversion proeessesare what enable yon to gain health and, longevity~ As a Chi Kung practitioner, you must p'ay a great de'al of' IBttentionto these three elements daring the course of yourtraimng. If YOQ,k.eeplthese three elements Istrong and health.y, you win live a long B'nd healthy life. If you neglect lor abuse them, you will be sick

frequently and WiiUage fast. Each one of these three elements or treasures, has its own rao,i. You.must know the roots SOl that you. can strengthen and protect YlOurthreetreasures, ,Ji,eng: T'he Chinese 'world Jleng means a number of' things depending 00 where, when" and how it is used. Jiang can be used as a verb, ,an a(ljective, or a n.oun. When it is used as 18 verb, it means "tp refine." For example, to refine lor purify 8, liquid to a high. quality is, caned "Jieng Liann," When, it is, used as an adjectivle" itis used to describe 01" :signify 90m,et'hin,R 'which is "refined," "pnlished' and "pure 'without mixture, -For example, when a piece of art work is well done,peo,ple iSSY ~'Jieng Shih" which means "delicate sndpainstakiag" (literally, "pure and fine"), or Ii,Jieng' Liang" which means "excellent quality" (literally "pure and. good"), When ,Jie~g is used to a'pply to personal wisdom or persenalitj; it means, "keen" and "sharp." For example, when someoneis smart or wise, they are ealled nJien,g !ding',," which means "keen and efever," When ,Ji,en,g is ,aplpUed to ,. thoogbt"it means, "profeund'' Or' nastute," and indicates, that the! idea or plan was, wen land. carefully considered, Whe'DWJ,ed as a noun far'an objiect, ,Jieng means, "the essence" OT' "the essentiale." When it is used £01' the en-ergy side lof a being, it means "spirit" or "ghost." Since Chines,s people believe that the male sperm or semen :is the' refined and the, most essential praduet of aman, Ji,eng also 'means sperm or semen, When ,Jien,g is used as, "essence," :it exists, in everything., ,Jieng m,Bly 'be cOD,sild,el'led ,the pri,maJ suhstanea 'or olrigin,al source from which a thing is, made, and which exhibits the true nature of that thing .. When Jien,g is used in r,efer,ence to animals or humans, itmeans the 'Vfa'ry eriginal and assential source Iife and ,growth. This Jiang is the~origin of the, Shen '(spirit) which makes an ,animal,diifer,ent from a tree, In 'humans, J'ieng is passed down from the parents. Sperm is callfld "Jile':og T,zyy/'w'bich means lithe essence of sons," When this essenee i:smixedwitb the mother's ,Jieng (,e,g), a n'IW liie is genel'at,ed which is, In eeetain fundamental respects" an intertwinement of the Jitengs of both parents. The child .is formed, the Chi circulates" and the ,s,hen, grows. The ,Jien.g' which. has been carried over frem the parents is caned "Yuan IJieng," which means


Once you are born", O:riginalJ'ieng' is the fountainhead and :roo,t of' yO'W'lUe. It is what enables you to grow stronger and. bigger. Mer your birth you start to ab&olrb the ,Jie,ng food and ajir, converting these Jieo,g,s mt,o the Chi 'which supplies your 'body's needs, You should understand that when ,Ji'eng is mentioned. in Chi Kung society~ it refers usually to Yuan lieng (Ori,g:inal Jieng),. Chi Kung' ,practitioners believe Jien,g is the most important part of you" because it is the mot lOr your body's Chi and Shen. IThe amount and quality ofO.rigUUll Jileng is Idiffere:nt fmm person to person and it is, affected significant'~y by your parents' health and living habits, while th~y were creating you,. Generally speaking, it does not 'matter how mueh Origio,a.l,Jie:ng' you have carried over from youI' 'pare.nt.s,IO' If yo,'u,know how to conserve it, y'ou will have more than enough fO.f' your lifetime, A1thou,gh you probably cannot Increase the amount of Jieng' you have, C,hi Kung training can Improve il"s, quality. In Chi K.ung training, knowing how to. conserve and firm your Original Jieng is of pr'imary Importance. 110 conserve means to refrain from abusing your Original Jieng through overuse, Fen"

!'Origin.alE,ssence. ml


example, if ylou uv,eri.nduIge: in sexual activity; you will lose IOri,gin,al Jieng' .fas·ter than other people and your' body 'will de',gene'f'ate faster, To firm your ,Jiang means, to. 'keep and protect i,t~ For example" you, should knowhow to keep your' kidneys strong, Kidneys are thought of' as the' residenee of' 'Original,Jieng. When your kid.n~YB are strong, will t t e .mgma J-' 'e Aep arm an d wi . Doe '-b 11 - t Wl"thl DU,I JOEL ~ th- -0-"" 1 ,'llsn,g WI'Ill b - 11_ t fl' reason, The firming of your Original Jieng is called "Guh ,Jieng;ii which is translated "to make salid, to firm the essence." IO'oly after you know how to retain (m,eanin,g to eonserve and firm) yo,ur 'Olrigin.1 Jieng' ean you start seeking ways to improve its, quality. Therefore,

erder to know bow tOI conserve and firm your ,Jien,g"you must first know: the root of your Jieng, where the Original Ji,eng resides, and bo,w Original Jiemg :is cOlnve~rted in-to Chi. The: root o,f y,our IOrigin,o), ,Jfueng before your birth j,s in your parents. Mter birth, this Original Jisng' ,sta,YiB in, its residence, the kid:neys" which are now also its root. 'When you keep' this root strong" you win have pl!enty of Original Jieng to IUPP,ly to your body., If you look carefully at h,g,w you were formed, you can gain tnteresting insights into Iife. You started as one sperm which, because it managed to reaeh and :penetra.te the egg before any lof the atbe:):millions of :SPI@I"Ul eould, was oue Df the stronge,st and luckiest s,pe,rmaUv 8., Once t'hi,s sperm enteredthe e,gg', onehuman cell formed and then started tOI divide" from IOD'e to tW'IO, and &olm two to four.. FinaUy" the baby iarmed. All of the baby's health depended on the sperm and legg which. we~r'@' generated :from the Jieng of the parents, As the baby W,8S being formed itwBS, immersed in liquid" and it received allof its nutrition aad oxy,g:enfrom, the mother through the umbilical eord, Notic! that the umbilical cord eonneets at the navel, which is, ve'!'Y close, to both the' D'an ITieD, and ycrur body's centerof it rne ummnea 1 eorc lB, very 1ong, ana b L._'''1I1" d· - d neeauee L 1.8 h-are j,o:r -i.b"'t '" df ene gra'Vlly~ Th mother alone to push the necessary supplies to the baby, the baby needs tohelp, The baby must draw the nutrients to itself with an in and lout .pumping motion of its abdomen. Onee you are born, yo,u ,start taking in 0I:Y,ge'o through your nose and food threuga you.r mouth, Since! yo'u no Ienger need the abdominal motion tOI pump in nutrienta, it gra.d,ually stops, and, finally, you forget 'how bJI use it, En Chi Kung, the Lo,we'['Dan Tien or abdomen is still considered the original Chi. SDUTee because it is here that Chl is 'rna. e fro,m tbe OTi,ginal Jie'ng which you inherited. from d

conserving and firming your Jieng is the first st-ep' intrainmg,



According to Chine,se medical and Cbi. Kung society, the Original . h" btai d-,r.-· J _Ilene Wile ~h you otaloe':Ill"Om your 'parents s,ta;Y:BI ID your,. kid -lneys after' your' birth. This Original Jien,g itsr the source of your life and ~owth. This Ongina] Jileng is converted continuously into Chi which m,ov'es into the Lower Dan Tien,a,Dld. stays atored there in its residence for' future use. The Dan Tien is located IOn 'the Conception Ve9:sel' of the eight Chi "reservoirs' in the body which 'regulate the Chi Oow'in the ether Chi channels (this 'will be diseussed further in. Part Tb~ee). 'Dan Tie'n Chi is considered "Water Chi~1I and is able to eeol d,OWD the "]Fi're' Chin 'which is, generated 'fl",Q·m theJ'J[e::ng ot fbod], and air' and. which resides at the Middle Dan Tien. As you may realize from the above diseussion, if you wish. tOI s,ta,y strong and he,alth,y, you must fir,st conserve your Original Jiang. Remember that Original Jieng is Iike 'the principal in _flOur savings account in that itt is an lori,gina1 inves,tmllnt which win continue to

your parents ...

return in'teres,t, as long' as it isconaerved, Jiieng can produce Chi, 80 if yo'u handle this Jien,1 Icarefully; )'iao will eontinue 'to have Ji,eng and 'Chi How',ev1er-,.if y,ou abuse yourself with an unhealthy lifestyle', y10u may damage and reduce your erigina] ,Jiang,,, In. ,olrder to conserve yOUT' Ji.eng', you must firist control your sexual ,activity. The gnnads ,are called the: "external kidneys" in Chinese medica] society. This is because Chinese~ decters believe that sperm is a product of Original ,Jieng and the Jiengfrom food and air, The more ejaculation,s ,YllrD have, the faster' yo'u Will exhaust your' Original Jien,g" and the' shorter your life 'win be. Please understand that tbe Chinese doetors and Cbi Kung practitioners, are: .DO,t saying that in erderto conserve y,our Jie'ng, you, must stop ,Your sexual actilvity completely. As ,8 matter of fact, tbe'y encourage the proper amount ofsexual a,ctivity; believing that it 'will energize and activate the' Jie'ng'" which makes the Ji,eng',-,Chi eenversion more efficient., :Remember" Ji,eng is like ~'Ul, and Chi bi Uk,e the, ,ener,gy generated fl',om this fuel. The more' effi,cienUy you can eonvert your fuel into ,energy~ the less you will waste. In addition" the proper amount of sexual ,act~vity 'win 'energize the Chi so that it nourishes the' ,Sben (spirit), This will help y,ou s,tary mentallly balanced" and raise your Shen. It its very important to keep your' Shen. raised,. otherwise you, wiU tend. to get depressed and win be afraid to face life., It j,lJ very hard to d'efi:ne ho,w much sex is, the p,rop'ef' amount, It depends '0'11 the indivici.u,a.l',B age and state of health, Accordin,gtO Chi Kung, the ,Jieng which resides in the external kidne,ys (gonads) is the main seuree lof the Chi which fills up the fbul"major Chi vessels in. the legs. These four Chi reaerveirs (vessels) keep the legs strong and healthy. T'herefore, if yon feel that your leis are w,e·ak due tothe amount of sexual activity, you have lost too much of your dieng., The second thing you must do in order to eenserve ,f,our Original ,Jieng is to prevent your Original Chi from leaking out of your body. There are two acupuncture cavities called ",Sbenshu"~ or nJilengmen~i' (Essience Doors). Tbes,e:two cavities are the doors through which the kidneys communicate with the outside, and. they are used to regulate the Chi production in the kidn,eys. Wben Chit is converted from Ori.ginal Jiengll most o:f it moves forward to 'the D,an Tilen.. Howe:'v'er:~ SQ1me Chi. is lest backward "through tbe Kidney Doors, If you lose: toOl m'ueh 'Chi, yo,ur Jien.g will be d'epletedl as you try t,o make up fo,r the' 10s8. In Chi Kung practice, one of'the major trainings is le,aming how to Iead the! converted Chi from tbe kidneys to the Dan 'I'ien more efficiently.

Chi ,at the beginning' of' this chapter in general term's, we will now diseuse Chi in the human. body and in Chi Kung training. Before 'we start, we would like to p'oint out, one importan:t thin,g.At this time', there is .no clear exp,},anatioiD of the relationship between all of the circulatory ,syslt'ems and th.e Chi eireulatory ,system. TheWestem world. 'knows of the blood system, Diervou s, system, and ]ymph,atic: syste'm. Now" there is, the Chi cil",cuIation s,ystem from China. :Ho,w are, lor example, the Chi ,Plnd the nervous system l",elated?' If the nervous ,system ,d,oesnct.match the Chi system" where does, the s'en,sin,g energy in the nervous l,y8t~m come '&om? How is the, lymphatic, s,ystem related tOI the Chi syste1m?' All oCthese 'questions are still waiting for studty by modem scientifie

Chi: Sin.ce we have aJr,eady discu,ssed

related. Where Chi goes, blood,follows~ That is why "Chi Shiee" (ChiBlood) is commonly used in Chinese medical texts. It is believed that

methods and tecbnolo,gy. Here, we can only offer you some theoretical assumptions based on the research conducted UPI ton,ow~ Chinese medical society believes that the Chi and blood, are closely

Chi provid'es the energy for the blood cells, to 'keep them alive. As a matter of fact, it is believe,.) that blood is able to st-ore Chi, and that it helps to trans,pa,rt, air Chi especially to every cell of the body. If you look carefully" you can see that the elements of your physical body such as the organs, nerves" blood, and even every tiny cen are all like separate machines,. each with their ownun~que function. Just like electric mo,tors'J if there is no current in them" they are dead. If

you campare the routes of the blood circulatory system,the

channels" you will see that there is, a gre'at deal of eorrespondenee. Tbili, is simply because Chi is the energy needed t-o keep them all alive and funetiontng,

sy'stem,,. and the lymphatic system with the course aftbe, Chi


the machines req~ed to process the 'raw materials into the finished product. Some of the raw materials brought Intoa fa,ctory are used to, create the ener-gy with which otber I'a'w materials win be converted
into fmished goods,. The raw 'materials for your body are food and air, and the finishedll'~Dduct is life. The Chi in your body is analogous to the, electric current which the wire,s connecting

Now, let us look at your entire body. Your body is composed of two majlor parts~ The first part is your physical body, and the second is the energy sup,plywhich your body need:a to function. Your body is like a f&u:tory. Inside your body are many organs, whieh correspond to

£actory power plant obtains from eoal or oil. The factory has many

eonneeting telephones" mtereoms, and computers, There are also many conveyer belts, elevators, wagons, and trucks to move material from one place to, another. It is, nOIdifferent in yOIUTbody, VI'here there are systems, of intestines, blood vessels, complex networks 'of nerves and Chi ehannala to fa'cilitate, the supply at blood, sensory information and energy tOI the entire body. However, unlfke the diges,tive circulato,T:Y, and central nervous systems ....all of whose sup,portive vessels can be observ'ed as material structures in the body ...... channels ar-e non-material and cannot be observed as physical Chi objects,. The circulatory, nervous, and Chi systems all possess similar Iconfigurations withinth,e body, and are distributed rather' equally throughout the body. In a factory, different machines requir-e different levela of current. It is the same for your organs, which require diffeJ'lent levels of Chi. Ira machine i:s :supplied with, an improper'level of power, it will not fun'ction normally and may even be damaged. In the same way, your organ's, when the Chi level running to them is either too pOisitive or too negative', wiU be damaged and wiD degenerate more rapidly. The

the' power plant to the machines, and .other wire;s

formed of two words (*1). On the top is the word "nothin,glJ and ,at the bottom is the word "'me. It This implies tha.t Chi is "no tire." Tbatmeans that when the organs are supplied with the preper amount of Chi, they will not be

ancient Chinese character' for Chi

overhleated. and lion fire."

It ~


" ~,.''I!'

not only need high quality 'machines; but also ,II r,eliable power' 8upp;ly~ The same ,goes for your body. 'The quality olf yonr o,rgansis la~lely depen,dent upon what yOIU inherited from. your paren,ts. To m,llintain your ,organs in B bealthy state and to insure that. they function weU 'for ,91 lon;g time, .1011 must ha:ve an approp,riate Chi supply. If you don't 'Chi, is affected by the quality ,of air :you inhale" the kind, or food ,you eat, your .lifestyle; and leven Y'DUl' emoti,onal make~up aDdperilQnality~ The 'food and air are like the .fuel Of' pow'er supply. and their'quality

In oMer'for a factory to function :s'mootbly and!. p~Dductivlely" it will

have: it" you will become isick.

edfeets, ;you. Your lifesble is like the W,llY you ron ·the machine" ;RD,d ylour personal'ity is like the managem'snt, 'of tbe factory., The above IdiscuBsion clarifi,es tberole that Chi plays in your body., H;owever,it should be, noted thB.t the abov'e, 'metaphor' is an o,versimpliti .. es'tioD" and tbatthe 'behavior and functioll of', much mo~e complex
,and. ,difficult to handle than the power :IUpplly in a factory. You ,are. n,either' a,fs'c'tory ner a r,obot" you are ,It human being 'withleelings and

Chi ,circulation., For' example;, when you pinch Jour,Belf~, the Chi in that area. will be disturbed. 'This Chi disturbance win 'be sensed, tMougb the nervous 8YBliem and inteTpreted, by YOUf br,ain as ,pain. No m.aebine can ,do ·this. Moreover, ,after you bave ,felt tbepaiD, unlilre a macbine't _ you win l'eact ,eith,sr as '& result of'instinct or eenseieue thought., Human feeJings and thought, affect Chi ~cula'tion in the bod,Y;, wbereas s, machine cannot 'inO'ue'Dce it's power supply. In order'to Wlderstand .+ ... . ~ J. ...l.. . ., ...... '11ect y,oor Ch' yo,u mUSlb use your ,1'eemgs, rawer .&.'L__·,JUS t- tb· ··8 IDM:lu-·.·.c-" ...... .n, uUii. sense its flow and make judgements about it. Now a few words, u to 'the B01.U'Ce of human Chi. As mentioned, Chinese doctors ,and C,hi Kung practitioners believe that;, th.e body ,contains two . . -_I .f _ "- __ .'111 d ,cRr', ILrW C .. U'~as,I.Ua.L a1 .. genel'iu ~UJ'FS o· c·· .',. ITbe ,'::-t MJ"I"IoI!II 1S,IQIU,'e···n........b:-i;·L.· hi.~.or n.;:,.;..... Chi'' _ ,• lUll "IIJr: ...... ~ J.UBD. C·hi)· on·','gina. C--:-hi"·S, lUDUII!;aU~ ..J !IS~.!: ....·..... n·Jan. 1~L1l, u w'II1;\;.O" "_, __ I_L_.lI ,.' -1 '.. _,_'l ._1,........_ ....1'~ I; . ._ nt..: L.':_iL.. I!41U.I!IUaIoilSU. \ .... Uterailb;,meSllS nPre-heavenly Chi." Heaven here means the skJ" so pre-heaven means before the, baby sees the sky., In other wonts, Wore birth., Original Chi ICOrmesitom co'nverted Original Jienc w'hich you ',received L_.f!! 'L.:: ....:L.. !'M1I....:::.... . L. ~...:_.,.1 C·- .,' 11,IIIJliKJ 'Cu1U;JU ,~IV"" 'b:· CL.: _I, ...,...... _.1'_..:1,'0-... IUtUore your UJrLu., .1Wti, IS 'WUYVI.::.~.' nrm .. ·'111. ' i which The second 'type is called P'ol,t~birth Chi or iiHOu Tian Chi/ me'IUlSf "Pos,t-heaveD ,C,bi. This Chi ,is dr,awn&Om tb.e, JiB'll of the "ood . Jl 0" d. _R'th 'D t .~.1I"wl ' .. BDu3,',atr we "._1_· 'WU\.:8,m. A.a, men:· ODe'·~tb e reBI .d eeea UJ, _ :_8 t'OI1" ·b!··d ...' - ... 18 .•

emotions. Umo,rtunately, your feeling·s have

lIU\i'or'influence; on ylour


hi- -"



1 ....







, ,

the Middle D,an Tien (,8olar' plexus). This Chi, then ,cireu1ates, Idown and · '·th _e: P b"_"1..· lor, D aD n° DUXeS 'Wl'_" th'r&O'liLU . _-'en C'··hi' (0·-; •• .ngJna_ I C··hi' 'E) liT\..., .'-__ J.U,ge· they cirenlate Idown" passin,g into th,e Gove~g ves8'sl, from w,be,r8: · y are' di" s'·t· n"tib ~te-d'- to tb -,4.!re . 1..·""dy.• __ ' the. ~'U_'''_~I "e' g!ll:':W DU Pre-birtb 'Chi is ,commoIlb' called liWater Chi" (Shoei C,bi) because. it is able to ,cool down the PQst~birtb Cbi, which, is caUed, "',Fire Chi'" (H·UOD Chilo Fire Chi. usually bringB tbe body tol a 'positive, fYang) :state"whiCh stimulates, the ,em.otionl.and scatters_ and confUses the mj,od~ Whe'D the, Water C'hi cools your body d:OWll, 'the' mind wID becolme el'.ar, 'De'utraJ and ,cen:ter,ed,,,It if! beHeved in Chi KlIQl 'society ·that Fin Chi sup,portstbe
u• ,.' -

emotional part of'tbe: body, while Water ,CIDIU'PPOrts, the wisdom ,part. After th'eFire Chi ,and Water Chi mix" this Cbi will no,t only Imrc:u-,
hl'te: to t,he· Governing 've8sel.,but will also suppl, the n'ThruatiDl' ¥'l\ul'.lrl '(CboncMei) whicb will leadtbe Chi directl, 'Up 'through the bone marrow' in the spine to nourish the br,ain and energize the: Shen


and soul. As, will be diseuesed later" en1ergizmg' the brain and raising the Shen are: 'very important in Chi Kung practice, Acc'ord,ing to -i'ts, function, C'bit eanba divided into two m,l\iol' categories~ -The firs:t is, caned. lYing Chit' (M,anaging Chi), because it manages or controls the functioning of the body. This includes the funeti'Dnin:g' of the brain and the organs, and even body movement, Ying Chi is again divided into two maJor 'types. The first ~ype circulates in "the channels and is, responsible for' the func.ti,onin,g of the or:gans., The circulation of Chi to the organs and the extremities centinues ,autoDtatically as long as you have enough Chi in. you~r' reservoirs and you maintain your body in good 'condition~ The: second type: Ying Chi. is linked to your Yi (mind" Intentien). 'When yoor Yi decides to do something, for example, to lift ,9 box, this, 'type of Ying 'Chi will autoim,atically fl!DW to, the musclee 'needed t-o do tbejob .. This type of Chi is directed by your thoughts, and therefore Is related closely to your feelings and emotions. The, second m.ajo:r cate.gory of Chi is '1!'Way Chin (Guardian Chi). We,y Chi, forms a shield Ion the surface of th.e body to protect you from negative eutside influences,.'Ney em is, also involv,ed in the growth of hair,tbB repair of skinmjuries, and M,any other fun,ctioms on the surface of' the sld.n. Wey Chi comes from the Chi. channels, and is led thllo~gb the millions 'of 'tiny ehannelsto the surface of'the skin, 'This Chi can even reach beyond the body. When Y'OUT' body is, positive, (Yang)., this Chi is strong"SD,d your' peres will be open. 'Wben your body is ne,gativ,e (Yin), thia Chi is weak and your' pores will close up mereto pre,vent Chi from beinglost. In the summertime, Y'Dur body is Yang and your C.hi is strongJ SQi your C.hi shield 'will be b1igger and, extend beyond your pbysicalbody, and the peres will be wide open". In the wintertime'" your body is relatively Ym (negatrve), and you must conserve you!" Chi in order tell stay warm and. 'kee'p pathogene out. Th!e Chi shield is smaller and doesn't extend out much beyond your skin, Way Chi functions automataeally in response to changes in the environment" but it is 9.1:80 influenced ,significa.ntly by yOW' feelings ,Hnd emotions. For example, w'ben, you feel happy or angry, the Chi shield will be more open than when you are sad" . In urder tokeep your' body healthy and functioning properly, you must keep the ¥log Chi functionin.g· smoothly and, at the, sama time" keep th,e W'ey Chi strong to protect you from negative outside influences, such a's the eold, 'Chinese dootnrs and. Chi Kung praetifionera believe the key te doing this is through Shen (spirit). S,hen is eensidered to he tbe headquartera which directs and contra III the Chi. Th,erefofle" wben you practice Chi Kung you must understand what your Shen is and know 'how to raise it. Wben people are in and facmg death, very often the ones, with a s·troD,g SheD" whieh is Indicative of 8., strong win 't-o live,. win survive, Tbe people who are apathetic 01' depressed win generally not last },ong.A



will to miveraises, the, Bhen, which energizes. the body's, Chi and

keeps you alive 8Dd, healthy" In. to raise J'our S,hen, you must first nourish ,Your brain with Chi. 'This Chi energises the brain so that you can concentrate mora ,effectively .. "¥our mind, 'will then be :steady" :YOW" will strong, and your Shen raised, Shen win be 'mo,re thoroughly discussed in a later section. Th,ere IS laDO_,er way t· eB..e'gonz;e th,:e b0 d IS Chi V' t'h t .' I d -,0 _- ~~y .' '.. 'I: J!l.' 'Ire '..hi an. "1 Water Chi. As we di.scufu;ed p'reviously~, the Chi generated from the
'Ot -



fOD,d and ,ail' you take in warms, the body" and so it is called Fire Chi. ThiJs Chi is assceiated with the' emotirms, 'The· seeond type of Chi is called Water Chi., It is, also' called Origiuial Chi because it lEi generated from Original Jieng,. It bas its, 'root in the kidneys, and, it bas a coolling DC' th ~o _y., It IS aSSOO"ate-, W.l ' 'I:' Yi' -1 ,and WlSLom. ~ ... a C"h" "d 'th ,Il eu6C t' OD_- ,e b d .i -, '. d "" 1 Kung p,ractitione'l' you, want Water Chi and Fire Chi to be balanced, s,o, that your body and mind are eentered and balanced. It is also said that youI' Yi should be in the center of your em,ortions". Tbis w'ay wisdom rules and the emotions areeontrollsd, not s,upprI'l8ssed., As at Chi KUD,g practitioDer~ m, addition to p"aying atten,tion to the 'Dod and air you take In, it is, Important for ylou to learn bow to ge'nerate Water Chi and bDw to use it more effectively., Water Chi can cool down, the Fire Clhi and.tberefore, slow ,down, the de,gen1er,ation of the body~Wat,elr Chi also, helps to calm your mind and k.eep it center,ed. 'This allows, you to judge tbin,gs objectively. During, Chi Kun,g praetiee, y',ouwiU be able to sense YOUT Chi and direct it In orderto g',ene;,rateWater Chi. and use it effieiently, you must know bow an.dwhere it, lis generated, Since Water Chi eemes from th.e eenversion lo,fOriginal Jiellg, they both h,avlB th.ekidneys, for their TODt. Once Water Chi is, grenera.ted" it re,sides in the, Lower Dan Tien below your- navel. In order to, Iconserve your Water Chi, you must keep your kidneys, firm and strong,


As, in

and supernatural,

m,any other cases"the contex.t d'eternrines, the translation. Shen can 'be translated as, s,pirit, god, im'mortal, soul, mind, divine,

It is v,ory difficult to rmd an English

·w'Or.dto exa,ctlly express She'D.

to ,govern ·the Shan., When someone's Shen is excited, h.owever; jt is, not being' controlled by his,Yi, so 'we s~y~uSben Jyh Bub Ching, which. m,eans II'tbe,sp,irit and the will (generated f"mmYi) are not, clear,' In Chi Kung it is very mmportan't for you 'tel train your wisdom Yi to contrnID yOW' emotional Rain efTe,ctively. In order -,to reach this goal,

Whein you are alive" ISben is the I,pirit which is directed by your mind., When your mind :is net s,te,ady it is said "Ham. Shen Buh Ning.," hi h d'I'" ~t t ieeful W lei means -'"th-'( lemo ti", ..... mmad an~ SpuoL are ' no'~peace, '·.e Th" ,. -e -[onW1) • B,verage person ean use his lemotional mind 'tOI energize and ,stimulate his Shen to ,8,higher state, but ,at the IUlme time be' must restr,ain his ..: . "t'h hi · aommm'.' d ("U;:"I If hiS yj".' I. can ,CODt '1tb emotiena al nun, d WI .~~',',IS VIIlS d -=-- l' ,ro. "_-_e Hsin,the mind as a whole will be eoneentrated and the Yi will be able


Buddhists and Taoi:sts train tbemselvtuJ, to be free 0" lemotions. OnIy in, this way are they ,able 'to bniIDd a s, Shen which is completely d ..nerr eentrot,1 UD'er tb· When you are healthy you, are able· to use your Vi to protect )Tlour

Shen andkeep it at its residence:: the Upper Dan Tien, Even when your Shen is energized, it is still coutroUed. .Howev,er, when you are very ,slick lor' near de'ath, ylour Yi becomes weak. and your She'nwill leave i.ts residence and wander around, When you are dead, your Shen separates cQim.ptetely the: physical 'body. It is then called ,s "H ul.' ",~en th t uS: h H 'd' ,- "0 'wen n or 8'0,1',. 0' .,·eerm ·,,'ID awen IS usea, BII.DC'B tb Hwe'D originated with the Shen. Sometime's "Shen H:wen" is 818'0 used







to refer to the sp,irit 'of a Idying person. since his spirit i.s,between

"Shein aDd "Hwen."


Chin,ese' beUev,e that when your lShen reaches a higher and s,tronger state', you are able to sense and feel 'more :sbarply, an,d your mind is


more clever and. inspired., The w'Qrt,d. of living' human 'beLngs is usually considered a Yang' world" and "the spirttual w_orId after death is

who is sharp, clever nimble, and able to 'q:uiickly'thh:e with peoplle and things ... It is believed that when .you.die this supernatural Sh,enwill not die with your body righ·t ,a.way~ It is this supernatural She'D (Ling) which still holds your' energy tog"et'herr as a "ghost" or' uGo·-. oe,' ', 'e,relore,R 'T'-b:- G: :1.,... II d ·1101.' e -• • g,uos'~ U;· 1- - le"a .eo, ~'iL-. - . Go" meanIng flspm it 1 ,BS'U .ua --" t" or "'iI ,. '-Hn 1 so ul g b -oS.,lulng _w,en meamng spm ._ .. You can see from the' above discusaicn that Ling is, th,e supernatueal 'pla:rt, of the s",ilrit. Iti.s believed that if this 8ups'rna:tural spiritual s'oul is s,trolng ·e,nongb, i.t will live for along time after the physicaJbody bJ dead and have plenty of opportunity to reincarnate, Chinese peopb~believe that if' a 'person hasreaehed the stage of enlightenment er Buddhahood when he is alive, after he diea this supernatural s,pirit will leave t,be cycle of reinearnation and live forever, These spirrts are' cafled "Shen .Mlng/' which means '~s]llirit'Uany enlightened beings," or slln'ply "Shen,' which here implies ·th,at this spirit has 'be,come divine, Normally; i_f you die ,and you.r supernatural spiritual soul is not strong ylour s,pirit bas only a ,short time: to search for 8. new' residence in. which to be reborn before its ene·rgy disparses, In this, ease, the :spiri·t is, called "'·Gae; wh:ich mean:s, "ghost." Buddhists, andTaoists belie,ve that when ,you are alive YDiU may use your ,Jiang and Chi to nourish 'the She:n (Ye-ang SheD) and make yOW" Ling s,t-rang·. When. this "'Ling .sben.'~ ils,built up to a high level" your win is able to lead it to separat-e from the phy:sical body even 'while you are aliv,e..Wben yOIU have reached this, stage, your physical body IS ab~e to Utvefor m.DDy hundreds of year,s., People wbo can, ,do this are ..... '1 'de- "S'-h d"" t So. Cal!:1- e '._ ..ian, W.hi h means 'n go: ,. nnmortai, I"·· or 1I.fl·· ... rcr IBlry.·lnce "Bhian" o,ri.,ginated with theShen"the "Bhian" is sometimea called !ISh S·· . an" Wile h means nnmortar 1-spIn_.le ·Th ' 18 a, nvmg -hi" hi .... rt . "t- ~~ S" "' h _~ . <_ .en
II • tl

eensidered a Yin world. It is believedthas when your Shen has reached this higher, sensitive state' you can transcend your mind's normal cap,acit,Y. Ideas beyond your usual grae,p can be! understood and controlled" and you may d&velo,p the ability to sense or even communicate with the Yin worrfd. 'This supernatural Shee is called. "Ling." "Ldng" is eo,mmoruy used by the Chinese to describe someone












perscn wh'o,se Shen has reached the stage of enligbtenmant or - '-- - ." .•." ..~5 . "II ,--8 n"·d uS'h B--dd-h-a h' .- d ., A'ft·.-e:r hi" :8 d ea:th hi a"pl'll. .i·t. WL_ b eane ··,_~,en M· --" u~ '.~. ·0o __ . .,' lng. The foundation of Buddhist and Taoist Chi Kung training is to finn you-r S'hen"no uri sh 'it" and gl"'DW it until it is mature enou,gh to separate from ylour p:hyrrsica] body., In order to dothis, Chi Kung practitinnar must knoww here the Shen resides, and. bow to keep, protect, nourish, and train it." It is also essentlal for you to know the :roo,tor origin of your Shen. Your Shen resides, in the Upp'er Dan. Tien (m'rehead), in the place often known as the third. eye. Wh.en you eeneentrate on ,the Upper' Dan Tien, the Shen can be firmed. Finn here means to. keep and to, proteet, 'Wben someone's mind. is scattered and confused, his, Sllen wanders. This is caned "Shen Buh Shnou She!b, which means lithe . "t·· ld SPU'l- IS no t k t a t"t resmenee .: ,erp. - 1_S According tOI Kung theory, ·thoug'hyrour Hsin (emetdonalmind) is able to raise up your' spil'it~ this mind can also make yOUI' Shen confused , so th,a.t it leaves, its, residence. You must use yOIUI" Yil (wisdom mind) constantly' to restrain and control your Shen at the
I 11



Your O'riginal Chi (Yu,an Chi) is, created from, thi,s Original Ess,enoe, and it mixes withtbe Chi generated from the food 'yOU eat and the air you breathe to sup'ply the energy for your gTowtb and activity_ Na,turaUy, this '.mixed, Chi is nourishing your ;s'ben as 'w;eU. While

In Chi Kung" when your Chi can reach and neurish your Shen effi.ciently" y,our Shen will be eu'ergizedto 8i higher' ]'ev@l and, in tum, conduct the Chi in its ,circutation,. Sben, i'B force which keeps you alive, and it is also the cOlo'trol tower for tbe Chi, When, y'Dlur Shen is strong, your Chi 'is s'tro~g and you can lead i,t 8,ffieiently. When your Shren is weak, your Chi Is we,ak and the body will deg'enera,te rapidly. Likewis,e, Cbi 8npp,orts, the Shen, e1D,e.r,gizin,g' them and keeping them sharp, clear, and strong.. If' ·the Chlin ,)'lour hody is weak, your Shen will also be, w'e'ak.. 'Onceyou know the residence lof your :Sben, you must und,srstand the root of you.r Bhen, and learn how to nourish it and make it ,gr,ow~ 'We have ,already diseussed Q,riginal ,Es'seuce (Yuan, which is the ess,e.ntialHfe inbe'rited from, your "arents .. After y'our birth, this Original Bs,gence is your' most important energy source,

thre F.ire Chi will energize your ,Shen, Water Chi win strengthen the wisd,om mind to control the en,ergized, Sben+ 'The Shen whieh is 'kept in its residence by the Yi". 'w'hieb is nourished by tb.e Original Chi; is called IOr~ginal Sh'en (Yuan Shen)., Therefore, the root or your 'Origin,aI traeedbaek to your Original Ess'snce'. When your Sben ha energised but restrained by yonrYi it is called ""J'ien!g :Shen,,11 literally "Essence Shen" which is commonly t,r,ansiated ns,pirit of vitality. "~ Or:iginal8hen is, thought of as, the center of'youl' being. ItIs abl,! tOI 'mu'e you calm, clear your mind" and firmyollr will. When yon .- t your mme on 'u01Ug' somet·'hi'·t '1" IS ca Il d nJ" h d" · d ..;m,' .' concentrate nng, ~'e.~ ·lU~~-leng Huey Shen," which means ngatbe,ring ,your IJiengto meet 'your Shen. n This implies that when y'orU concentrate, you must use your Ori.ginal Essence to meet and lift up your Original 'Shen, so tha.t your mind will be calm, stea.dy, and concentrated, SiDell! this Shen is nour.ished b:y yiOIlU"' Original Chi " which is, considered Water 'Cbi, Origin;al Shen is considered Water SheD. ,For tho·se who hav'e reached a higher Ievel of CbiKun;g pr,actic9" cultivating the Shen becomes th,e most implortant sul.lject,. For Buddhists and ~EI.OistB the final goal of cultiv-ating the Shen is to form or ganerata 8 Hlolly Embryo (Shi.S'D Tai)from their ,Shen, and nourish it until the spiritual ba~Y' is, born and can be Independent. For the average Chi Kun,g pra,ctitioner howeve~, the final gOlll of' cultiv,ating Shen is to raise UPI the Shentbrougb Chi nourishment while .maintaining control the Yi.. Thirs raised-up Shen, can dire'ctand ,govern 'the Ohi lefficientl.,. to achieve heatth and longevity. In eonclusien, we w'Ould, like to pcint out that your Shen and brain cannot he separated. Shen is tbe spiritual part of your bein,g' and is gener,ated, and controlled by your mind. The m·in.rdgenerates


d p,reVlOU'S I,y, th e · l_lS,cus,se·,_, d'·


are mutually 'related" and assist eaeh other, From this you can see that the material foundation of the B,pirit illS ylour' brain. When it is said "'nourirsh your' Sben, it means, 'IiInourb,b your brain, As, we

wbich keeps the SheD firm. Three com_monly use Shen (spirit) and IJyh (will) as I1Sbe,D, Jyh~· ecause tbey are. b SOt related, In 8 ddition, y'on should understand tbe;t 'w:hen your Shen is, raised and firm" this raised s.pirit will firm your wilt They


.. ... Ol"lgID,w.'1,


., nouns;.ng


• 1,8 your


J" lang".


Thi,s ,Jieng is then converted into Chi" whicb is, led to the brain to nourish and ene,rgize It, In Chi Kun,g practice, this process is,called "FaBD Jie'll~g Buu Na,o;1i which means "to return the ,Jie'ng tOI nourish ,th brain n ,~'e _,r;8lR. Chinese people wiU frelquent~.Y use both "Yi" and "Hsin'' at different time's to mean "mind,' often confusing people who are not familiar with the Chinese language", HefOl'Fe advancing any fnrth,e:r:, you should first be: sure, that you have a clear understanding of the subtle differences between thes,s' tWOI words,. Yi is, themind which i.SI related tn wisdom and judgement. When Yi has an Idea, it strirv,ss to bring it 'to actuelisation in thephysieal world as either an event you will seek to bring' about.; or as an objlect :you willereate, The Yi is focused and nrm,ed, by the will. - C.hinese people also use the 'word "Hain" tOI mean "mind," although h d~.·_er'al'y means lib 11,1t 'h'·l 11 . .;31 t the wor-I Iit heart, ,,1 'W' ",ILe' H~' aa80 aenotes th 81.n ne presence 011 an idea, this ide'a"il,smuch weaker than that expressed in Vi., Hsin is generated from and affected by the emotions. Thil, mind is ,passive:Instead of active Iike theYi. When ,someouesa:ySI be has Yi to do something, this means he intends to d,iQit. If be ,says be has Hsin to do it" ,this means his emctions intend to do it, he has within'st do something before a certain deadline, but .your a'motional mind (Hsin) tries to convince you that it is not a big deal, and you needn't worry too mueh about it. In most people, the emotional mind is stronger than tbe wi, mind.. ITbey act aeeording to how they lee'l,. instead of wba't they think. We!ve all heard. the comment at one time or another: "You're your own wersrenemy," YOIll,1" emotienal mind is, your wisdrOm. mind's e.nemy. The emotional mind .. is the source of laziness, bad te·mper, emo.tio,nal upset" and 910 on, If yOU.1"

'Yi'~1 lID'. ,-,d ~ ""'I''"D'--"

I. ~,~

him the desif1e to do It, but. be m,ay lack the s:t,ren.gth of'r@so]ve· to alctually commit himself. Fer example, your wisdom mind (Yil !m'DWS

thought. Since most of the tbou,gbt was generated and given its primal nature by the emotions first, before being' refin,edby the' will,

'wisdom mind i.s able to dominate your emottcnal mind, you will 'surely be asueeess in whatever you attempt, Sometimes, people win put both words, together' and say "Hsin Yi~' to denote the mind which is .generated from both ,emotiD'D and the word HaiD is, placed before Vi. This 'is a good example of how Hsin Is used, to denote the emotional mind, and Yi is used fOlr the . .d . te t' • h, '. t ," ;I mrn d- 0 f'- wisaem, mtenncn, an d will • I me di t anon sOCle!Ui lIS " S81.'':''': 'WI m m t.! "y' .U .i.' 'BtD H ueyll, j., Wh' h means mo'du l' • 'H" y~' th I em ( .~ ne .ate the 'H· le.mot1l0na' Imind) to mateh fhe Yi (wisdom mind)." This means t.h.att,he emotio.n,al aspect and the wisdom aspect of your mind must work. toge;tbe.r in harmony during meditation, 'O'nly then will you be able to 'Use your Yi to regulate your body; far it is also said: "YiiYi Buey Bhenn" which means "use y'our Yi to meet the bo,dy:" Hsin and Shan are commonly used together as "Hsin Sben.!1 'This, refers to the emotional mind which affects or is affelcted by- Sben. 'When a person is absent-minded or eonfusedvpeople say "Hsin Shen Buh Ning, means "mind and 'spirit. are not stable. 8pirit is also I",ela,t'ld to Vi " lor the wisdom mind. However, the Yi aspect of the mind is still the strongest, being generated from thought and will, This, mind can firm, the scattered emcticnal mind and the sipirit" t'hereby rail:dnJg' up the spirit, When the sipirit Is raised and firmed, the' emotional mind ( will be steady. UYi!I' is commonly used
'I~ II ~I

togetber with will .... lYiJyh.,u This implies, tbat the wisdo'm m'ind and ! "h-· ,nriiIlI 1 are WOll:' -', t'-ag,·t'he·iI"- T----:-ha -w,.!'Ie! -".m·· .. min ",~, fi'rm--:-'e'd, -b'Y th-n arkin go~.... ,l:!!d' o' ',' !·_e ·n,.. ..,,",, ,', -d' ~il:!!_ "" '_ _ ." _' win, and the wiU firms, the wisdommind, In Chines,e Chi KnDIg society it ]:s heIievled that the' emotional mind (Hain) is m,ainIy generated from the Pos,t-birth Chi or Food Chi (Sh,yr' Chi), whi!ch is converted fro'm the food Essence, while 'the wllsdofm mind (Yi). comes frem the ,Pre-birth Chi (Yuan Chi) which is, converted, from the O'r'ilginal E,sliu~nlce yon, inherited from your p,a.:rents". The Pest .. irth Chi, is oons,idered to be "'Fire'" Chit while the b Pre-birth Chi is, eenaidered "Water,1I Chi" Itia balieved that your lrmt'ltions and tempe'r are clJQ'sely related tOI ,tbe£ood :Y'OU eat, It ean be seen that the animals- who eat plants, are mere tame and! nonviolent than the' animals which eat meat, Generally speaking, food t .' _,111, k_ Whi Ie'h geDer,a~eBexce,S,ilve'·C·,-,1·10 lh' _e M'' 11", e .an ' .. 'd-d) D en usu1UJllym,a,es the body more positive and makes the person more emotional T'hia ,elfe'ct, can also be caused by dirty air, dirty thought,s" or th'B lurr-ou:ndin,g' Chi (for example, in the summer when it is too hoi)., Ce'rta'in food.s and drug's ean also. directly interfere with clear thinking. For example, alcohol and drugs can stimulate your' emotienal mind and suppress your wisdom mind. 'The 'Chi generated fr,o,m, ood is, normally elassified as Fire Chi, and i't can restde in, the f Middle Dan Tien (solar plexus) .. One part of Cbit Kung training is learning how to 'regulate your Chi and Water Chi S'D tha,t they' are, balanced, This involves learning t,oue6 y'Gal'" wisdom 'mind te dominate and direet your emotional mind. One of the more common m,ethods, of strengthening the Water Chi (and, wisdom mind) and. weakening tbe Fire, ,Chi (and emotacnal mind) is tOI grea'tly reduce or eliminate meat frcm the diet, and live mainly on vegetables. Taoists and Buddhists, periodically fa,at in order to we,aken the Fire Chi &;5 much as, pos8lible~ 'which allows, them to strengthen their' Wa,ter Chi and wisdom mind. This preeees 'of'"cleaning" t'heir bodies and minds is important inridding th:s monks of ,emotional disturbance.
c ,










Dan Tien is translated literally as "Elixir Field.'~ In Chines'! Chi Kung society, three ,spots, are considered, Dan Tien. The fir,st one is called "Shi.ah Dan Tien (Lower Dan Tien). In Chinese medicine it is called, which means !lC-hi Ocean." It is lecated about one to one and a, half inches below your navel and, about one to two inches deep, depending of course on the mdividual. In both Chinese medicine and. Chi Kung B'ociety, 'the LOlwer Dan Tien is considered the well-spring ,of human ,ener,~., It isthe residence of Original Chi (Yuan Chi), wbi-cb has been, eonverted from Original EBse:o,ce (Yuan Jieng),. Tbe 'human body' bas, twelve Cbi ehannels which are like rivers olf Chi 'They circul&.te Chi throughout 'the body, and connect the organs to, the extremities, In addition to these twelve Chi rivers, there are , i!extraol'idin.a'ry Chi vessels." Tbese are like reservoirs 'of Chil, and they regulate the flow of Chi in. therivel"B, (the tw's]ve channels). In erder 00 be he,althy, ,the Chi reservoirs 'must be full and the' Chi must flow smoothly witheut stagnaticn in the rivers (see the Idetailed explanation of human Chi circulation in Part ,3,)' .. Among the eight vessels is the Conception vessel, which is Yin, and the Governingvessel, which is 'Yang,. Tney are located, ,on the center line of the front and the back o,:fthe tor,so and head,

a·3., Dian, TieD

reSIl,ectively, and run into oint'; another, creating 8. clo'B'ed Ioop about the body (Pi,gure 3,..1)., Chi in th.ese two vessels must be full and circulate smoothly in order to regulate all of the Chi in the twelve rivers :prolperly. At any .particular time) there is a ssetion of this circle wher'B the Chi flow IS stronger than in the Dither seetiens, 'This ,. . _.']-. l -. d sect 100 IS Cw ed itTzyy W·· Li .uu .-Oll Job II Wh,.h means U · h~ an·. -..~_,. Ie -,-Dl,g_~t noon maier flow," and it keeps the Chi Oowin,g in these two vessels. Chi behaves Iike wa·ter. If there is no difference Inpotential the Chi will stay stilland become stagnant, and you are likely to become ill .. Normally~, this area of stronger' Chi moves wound the circle of these two vessels once eVlery da.y. Chinese Chi Kung practitioners believe that the Chi must be full and circulate' s,trDn,g]y in these two vessels, for' then the GDverning vessel will be able to govern. the entire body's Chi effectively~ They a11,0 believe that 8.8 a child YOlu continuallymove the abdomen while bre,Bthi-ng~which ~e,eps the p,ath. of'theee two vessels elear, However, a,s yon get older and gr,adually Jos,e the habit of this abdomina] movlemen.t, the path becomes obstrueted and the Chi eirculation


The most significant blockage can occur in the Hniyin cavitty (Figure 3-2),. Try an experiment, Use ODie finger to p':fiess firmly at yOUI" Huiyin Ic,Blvity while' your abdomen is moving in and out", You. ·win diseovar that the Hwym. c·m,vi.ty movies 'u'p and down in :synewith the in and IOU.t motion of the abdemen, It is 'this up and. down meticn of the perineum which keeps the Huiyin cavity ellulf :lor

__ p" ._


Conception Vessel

Governing' Vessel

Figure 3..1. Conception and GovernmgVesse']s,


Chi circulation. For this reason, exereises which move the ,abdom'en '"_ -'11'd ' , aan ,'me; _,',~ I~u hildh -od) , - '. D'~' In an.d ou t a-re ear ,e ~"F', _ To -_ (ba'-'l-, t C", _: ' eo ,- exer ClS'I::>o. Abdominal exe'l'cises not o,n,}" open the Chi channels, they can alSOI draw Original Chi ,from:'tsr'B:sidence in the: 'LOwltr Dan Tien to join the Po'st.. irth Chi in i.ts eireulation, Original, ,Chi it:sconsidered the b original vital source of human ener,g,. 'I'herefere, in and out abdomin,al,ex'er,ci~se is alSOI called, "ChiiHuoe," which means "start the :6.1"8'." This hints at the way the: Taoists build 'U.p Chi lenergy. The 'Taoists COD'lidd,erth,e Dan TieD bJI he the furnace in which. the,y,cain PurifY and dis,till the elixir (Chi) for longe'vity~ The! B'eeon.d o,f the three Dan Ti,ens is, called the Middle DaD Ti.en (Jong Dan Tie'n), and it i:1 loc.abed a·t tbe eolar plexus, T'be Middle Dan Tien is considered the ,centerwhe're the Post .. irth Chi is b _ prndueed and gather,ed~Post, ..birth Chi, is the energy wbi1ch is th ,-:_ (', f' " d P,081!''', b'" th t, h-1 19 t ill" n C- · .' CODve e',. f J.en,g \eSfJenCE!') 0, air an d;£ ,1(100'. rt d rrom tne J'" ,affected therefore by the type of food Y'DU eat and the quality ofthe air' you breathe. The Ievel ;ofyour Post ..birth IChi is also Intluen,ced, by such things as, wbetb,er you, are' getting enough sleep"whether you are tired, irritable, nervous, sadt :and :BO an, It is believled in Chinese medical socie~y that the lungs, and the heart are the places 'where the air ,Jieng is, eonverted into C.hi. The
A' -lAC!

stomach and thel digesti'Y'le sys;tem are the canter wbere 'the food Jilen,l is absorbeld and then converted into Chi.. This Chi then r,esid!lS at the Mid,dleD'an Tien, and foU,ows the Conce'ption and Governing vessels t-o dispers,e th~oughout the entire bOldf~ The conversion 'Of air land food to Chi is lsimila'r the bU'l"ning U:PI of wood. t'D give heat,

Therefbre, the lungareais called the Upper Burner (,shang Jiae), the stomach is ealled th.e Mid.dle Burner (Jong Jiao), and the Icwer abdemen is, calledthe Low'er' Burner (,Shiah Jiao). The' three' are
fieferred to coUectively as the: "Triple Burner" (lSanjiao). You can deduce from the a'bove dec8cription tbat the Upper Burner is the burner which bandles air Ch.i, while the ·Mid·dIeand Lower




i• Ii





much. positive food such as 'peanut's or sesame seeds, the IBxcess Chi will cause heat. This is caned "Shang Hooo 'which means simply that the body is "en ti:re."'When you don't get enough sleep, the body can, alsopass into the, "on fire" state. 'Wben the Post-birth C,hi is, too
l, II

handle food Chi T'be Lower Burner, in addition to separating the pure from the impure and leliminatin,g waste, also processes tbe Lower Dan 'Tien Chi. When someone has eaten too

will gr:adually become more' unbalanced until you become ill Most people g'et more than enough food" so their Post-birth Chi iafoo po:sitive. FOlr' this reasen, Post-birth Chi is usually called Fire Chi. 'There is a Chi Kung pralctice which leads, tbeWater Chi (Pre-birth

:positive" it is called "Huee Chi," which means, "fire Chi," Whe'D the Pest-btrth Chi is too pcaiti ve and is directed, to the organs, the, Q,rg:answill bec-ome positive and degenerate faster, When the Post,h Chi is too weak, for example because or starvation" 'there is not enloug'h. Chi to supply 'the organs and the body; and! you

Chl) at the Lower Dan Ti.en up, to mix with the' Fire Chi (Post-birth ,ebO at the Middle Dan Tien in order to cool the :Fire Chi. The third Dan Tien is located on the' fU'T,ebead and is called the Upper Dan TIen (S,hang'Dlan Tien). Your brain uses a lot of ener,gy (C·m) for thinking. 'This, Chi is supplied by one of the vessels caned C,hong Mei (Thrusting' Vee,se]), w'hilch flows through the mar-row in the spine up to the br',sin.Ybur spirit resides in yourUp,pe'r' nan Tien, and whe:n it is, amply supplied. with Chi, it is "raised or energized, If the' Chistoipped nO'llris,'bing your brain and spirit, you 'would, Iese your mental center, :your judg,ement 'would become faulty, and ylou would become depires,se,d and mentally unbalanced. '¥ou can see from tbis, discussion that all three Dan 'I'iens are Ioeated on the Conception Vessel. The Conce'pti,on Vess,el and tbe Govem'ingVe;se[ together form the most, important Chi reservoir' in the body~and. it is Important for it to be full.

3... , 'Three Fl'Qlwers, Reaeb the 'Top 1(:S:8D B'uea. ,Jiuh 'Dib~g) 4.. T,aoi.sts commonly eall the thlr,ee treasures (.Jieng" Chi ,I and Shen) thethree flowers. 'O'neof the' final goals of ITaois,t Chi Kung t'raining is ,to gather the three flowers at the t.op of' 'the bead (88.:0, Huea Jiub The normal Taoist Chi Kung tr,ainin,g' precess is 1. to convert the Jj_eng (essence) into Chi (Yii ,JiengHuah, Chi); 2" to nourish ,the, Shen (spirit) with Chi (Yii Chi Huah She:n); 3. 'to reflna the SbftD. into
emptiness Diing),

(Liann Shan Huan Shin); and 4. Crush the E,m,p,tines"s (Feen Suory ,Shiu The firat step is, to 'firm and strengthen the Jieng" then convert th:islJi,eng into Chi threugh meditation er other methods. This Ch:i is then Ied to. the top of the head to, nourish the brain and raise up the, She'n. When a Taoist has reached this stage, it is called "the three flowersmeet on the top. This, stale is neeessary

to gain, health. and lon.gevity~ Now the Taoist can. start training tOI reachthe ,goal of enlightenment .. ,3,·,5. iw'e Chi~s Towud, Tbe:il"Origios (Wuu IChi IChaor 'Yuan) F According to Chinese medilcal, science, among the twe'lvem,ain ergans are five Yin Q~gans, hich have a great effect, IOn the health. These five w o,rg'ans are: heart, Iungs, livezkidneys and ISpbu~n.lf a'ny internal org,8t'D does not have th-e~ appropriate' I-evel of Chi, it is either ioo Yang
rpo;~dtive)or too Ym (negative). When this happens" it ts like 'running the wrong level of electric current into a machine, ]f the condition


unenrreeted, the 1O'l"g&ns, will run. less 'effi,cl,ently.

This wiU

atrect thebody',s m.etabolism, and ·eventually even damage 'the ,organs. Therefore" one of the most important practiees in Chi Kung tr'sinin,g is Jeamingto keep, the Chi in tbese five' organs at tb.eproper Ievel, Wh,en the Chi. ofthese organs has reached the' ,Brppitopriate levelsi it is called i~Wu.U Chi Chaur 'Yuan,!! which means, "the five Chi 'atoward theim" origmJ!,.," Your org,ans COD. now func.Q'on. optim,wly, ,and your b.e,alth will be maintained. at; a. high lev,el. There are twelve Chi ehannels and eight extraordinary ,Chi vessels, Tbe 'Cbi in tbe tw,elve' channels should he at the .levels approp,riate for the corresponding org,an_s. The Chi in these twelve channels changes with the tiDlI!' of day, theseasons, and. the y'ear,~,This Chi is, :afJected:by the- food you eat, the ,air yon br,saihe, and yOUI' 'emotions., Therefore; in. order to kee'p your 'fivei Chi's 8,t their' right lave,ls" you. m.U,S,tknow bow Chi is affe,cted. by time" food, and air, and YOru must learn. how ·to

regulate your emoti"ons,,,


Chapter 4
Chi and the Human Body
In order to UDlderstand 'human Chi KUDg~you, must 'understand 'the nature of the Chi in the 'human body~ and bo'w' it functions, Tbi,B includes understanding what kinds, of Chi are in the body~ what functions the'y perform, and how they carry outthese functions" In. the fil,st three chapters we have offered a general definition of' Chi, discussed bow human Chi is included in and ,afiected by H,e,Bven Chi and Earth Chi, and [shown, how Chi relates 'to other ,a~spec·ts,of D'ur 'bodies",such as ,sprirlt and Bssenee. In Part IThree of'thi,1 book 'we'will

review how Chi c,irculates, in the human 'bod,,:,, In this chapter we will first focus on the! g,ener',al'chu'acteristmes of Chi in our bcdies. 'I'his will provide a feundation to help you understand the rest of' ,the cb.apte.r. We will then eeneentrate on a
'number of' ,su~jects whic:h will lead you to a deeper understanding of human Chi, s,uch as Chfs Yin and Yang', and the! quality of Cbi. Once you understand the 'tra,diUoDal eoneept of Chi, we! will diseuss the 'modem concept of bioelectromagn.eti,c 'energy. t'hi,9,~~ e: 'will w offe.r some hypotheses based upon this @oe'rgy w hieh Western science haa reeently diseevered. FinaUY"we win discuss the theory' ,of how Chi gates, can be opened through Chi Kungp'l"8cti'ce,.

,'·l~ About Chi. In this seetion, 'we 'will fir',st discuss the natural eharacteristiee or Chi and the r sJatlonahip, between Chi and the human body. Then w,e win explain how' Chi's Yin, and Yang are de,fined, and how-the! Iquality

of Chi is determined.

The Na.ture 'of Chi: To, understand the nature of Chi, you should tiTSit know wher~ Chi

SO'mething cannot come from nothing, &0 Chi (any tne of energy) mus,t come fr,om matter, usuallg through some kind or L .' .... 1. t... ·.. . ·· 1-" at J!OlDl o· energy" an·' e'nel"gy'lUill f d .. , enamrearreac t· aon, 'M' a.·IMt:l1" III a pny,IIC···~ I!'.

(,or an insubstantial form) olf matter. FIOl' example, you may burn 8, piece of' w,ood or ,gas, and. obtain Chim the form of heat and ijght. Similarly. food and ,air Brie taken into your

an unlocked potential

body; and tbrou,gh bieehemieal reaction are converted into Chi, 'which

i,s commonly in tbe form of heat and bi'oele,ctrODlalDetic energy. Whenever you, 'taklein morefaodthan your 'body requires" the uneBrei,ed ,exce,S is I,tored in your body as fat., 'N,ext you :sbou1d u.ndentand 'that, Chi p'oeraD" manifests, aBheat" light; "dectmmagnetie fOllcs., Strictly spealrina, ligbt is an &ltem.tin :lorm, of electroma,gnetic wave, 80,,. in effect, there ar-e' O'nly 'two ~B, lof e'8e'rgy which w,e~ d,em with in our' daily livle8~ As II matter of fat¢, v,ery o,ften ligh:t and heat exils,t ,at the 'same ti.ml1" Fin any" you should recognize 'that Chi mOVies'from the area of'hilher potential, to the area of lower pote'lltial" ,and 'tbis aets, to :natur,ally and, alltolDa:ticaUy bring y,our B,ys,tem into balan,ee,.

,Ohlin the 'B'nmaD Body: Altbough" 8 CCOrding'to the general Idenmtion, 'heat is 'cons',de'red a 'type, of human 'Chi, beat is not the type o:f 'Chi whiCh is eireulating in ,your' bDdy~ Ofte,nti:me:s you will reel he:B,t 'wbe'D C,hi is ci'rculatiDI

strongly, but the, heat is nOlt the circulating Cbi 'itself. There, is another type of Chi which eir,culate,B th~o~ho'lIt, y'our body to DDurish the eeItls ,and kee'pihem, fu:netioniDg'" ,and even to Mp'air damage. Bince eleetrici:ty has become' 'more famUiar to, people in. Chi.DB over the las,t fifty year,B"man_y Obi 'K~g Plr,8,ctitio'Den bav,e! come to believe L 1...- t·· 'th e.'.IL1 W bi·... C!rcw8:l!C'·'! ln. ·the ''''A.A,.;; l·'a ,.~.'!I,;UUJI.i;J" C' LoZ, . I. \ill . '''........... 1 " -Iantrg-tic . :"'1ilII' B... ·- ... ~v e_~",c . ~ ..... e· , f!l'lergy. .reyau 'nm an elect.ric current through a wire, the wire 'Willheat UPI because of the resistance 'of the 'wire~ The heat is, an effect lcaused 'by the current, but it 'is not 'the cunent itse1f~ According to this th,eory, ...:: ,·""'te ~u1J"1 your' bod' '~'e, 'reS,J.81W:wce. .,,JOU!' "_..1:.,~causes h.' ., of' as eL,':: .......... tl.._111 Liu'CWi1s .~-,~" th .~ w...Q' part IOf the Chi to be converted .into 'heat. IChi Kung pra c,titio D,eI'8 'beli,eve that the light which is sometimes, · d d' dOt.....:,· ...,1,_ ,... , .. ~~umq' .. _,,__· penelve-,_unngme laW!on 11 ~O_ .. ·., U-·ht IS ,Il £0- ·.rm,w, el..... -,-~I', .. ,. netic energy. Sin.eeaU 'types of'lene,rgy are convertible, 'beat can generate ,ei,eetromagn.etiepower and vlcev'er,s8 and light, ean alse generate
't· nail I

;IIo ...

,L ..




heat" ,and vice' vare,a. Once r-eached the higher levels, of medi .. tation,,. yo,u, will Ben. 1ig_ht in your eyes and mind, At an aVian hj,gher level, your head win geDerate a glow 1&e ,Il halo. All of ihlu.e, can, be eensidered transrormati.oDsthat 'the' electrie, Chi undsl'goes, whe'D :nna" tF,aining has, reached a higher' level,

The Behavior orBuman C.hI: Cbinese d.loeto'ls and Chi Kung' practitione'rs, have! tradirti,o.;nally ib d . 'be" BiuuJ.Brwl wa ·r~ Tbi" tI IS seen m :_:11 ..... ,. ,_.e8cn~(L_ tb,8 b .L_· ,elluilVl,or ,0r' C'hi· as'.clftg - ", ,.~.' '. d a number of ways,., First. just as water OOWS from .higher ar-e8ato lowe'f areas, Chi fllOW8 from,u,eas arhi.her POtB'Dtial to areas of law,er polen ... till. In 'this way, Chi balances itself natur,al1y~ ,Second, if muddy water iis,left undi:sturbed" the sand wiD settle to the bottom, leaving the water above 'it calm, and clear. Bowever,if you stir, 'u:p the water,tb'l sand will rise up, ,and dirty 'the 'w,ater again., Thia is simi1 HI" 'to ho'w;, wben the mi,nd is :ste'sdy, the: will be calm a.nd clear, but 'when, the mind 'is scattered, the IChi will be dis,turbed and excited. Third, the Chi channels, which e,upply IChi to the en.tire body are USU,BUy comp,ared! to, 'rivlers, and 'theveBse']B which sto,n the Chi ,are cD, to reservoirs,. Water and Chi, should both now s,moothly and, cantinuo'usly~, When., river lor channel is, obs,tmlcted; the water/Chi :Dow will be agituted and uneve.D. In an o,bs,tructed ehBDDsl,the, water/Chi ftowwill 'be ,higher"

and mB;Y overflow th,e~ banks.

Chi-··,S -Yi-' RD_d'·v;_ _ "m ,aDD,r: Wh,en it is said that Chi can be either Yin, or Yangl it does not mean th,er,e are two different kinds, of Chi like male and fem,ale, fire and w,ater" lOr positive and negative charges. Chi is ener,gy~and energy' itself does not, haV'eYin and Yang., It ill Iike the energy which . ki f 'h IS gen,errate' d f __'rom th Ie sparsang ,0 nega tJY"ean d POSit·t· ~ lye enarges, Cb,9..l',geshave the potential of generating ene:r,gy but are not the "t --. energy )-S0if-' When ,it is, said that Obi is Yin or Yang, itmeans tb,e..tthe Chi is too :S;tror~g or tee we,ak [or a particular eireumstanee, It is relative and not absulute. Naturally;, this, impli,ea, that fhe 'p"ot@n'tial which generates the Chi ia strong 01" weak~For example" the Chi from the ,SUD is, Yang Chi and Chi from the moon is Yin Chi. This is, beeause ,tb,e sun's energy is Yan,g in eompariscn to Human Chi, wbile tOI 'mloon"s is Yin. In ,any discussion 'of energy wherepeople are: involved, Human Chi is used as the standard. People are alway.s es'pecilaUy interested in what concerns 'them directly, so it is, :na't.ulI"sl that we are interes,ted primarily in Human Chi and tend to view' aU Chi from the perspeetive of human Chi. This Is ,not unlike looking at the U.mV'81"Se from the perspective of the Earth. Wb.en w,e look a,t the: 'Yin and Yang of Chi within and in regard 'to the human body, however, w,emust redefine our point IOf reference. F,or example:, when ,8 person is dead, his residual 'Human Chi (Goa Cbi or ghost Chi) its weak compared to, alivi:ng person's. Therefo,re., the gbOSt',S Chi i,s Yin while the living person's is Yang. Wh'en ,discussing' Chi within. the 'bod,)!" in the Lung channel for example the referenee point is, the normal, healthy status of the, Chi there!.. If the t ths . · _. . " l.ang"- ana, d ,1 state, Lt- IS v Ch·· IS S'_,rO'ft,g'e:r.~- ,an. 1t" 18 m th e nermar Itt· naturallg if it is weaker' than. this, it is Yin, 'The're are twelveps'rts ,of the human 'bo,dy that are considered organe in Chinese medicine, six of' them are Yin and six are Yang, Tbe Yin organs are the: Heart, Lungs" 'Kidneys", Liver, Spleen, and Pericardium, and the Yang Dirgaft,S are Larger Intestine SmallIntestme Stoma,ch, Gall Bladder, Urinary Bladder, and Triple Burner. Gene'rally speakin,g"the' Chi level of the Yin oflans is ],ower "th,an t'hat of'the Yan,g org,BD:S. The Yin organs, store: Original Bssenee and process "the Es,se,nee obtained. from food and air, while' the Ya,ng organs handle the dige.stio.n and exeretion. Wewilll discuss tbis :subject inmore detail in, the Part.:3 'of "this, book. When the Cbi in, any of your' organs is not in, its normal state, you. ,feel uneomfortable. If it. is velY much off' from the normal. state the ,o'.rg,an win start to malfunction, and Y'DU, .may become sick. Wben 'this ha'PPs'D,S, the Chi in your entiroe body 'will alse be affected and. you win feel 'too Yang, perhaps, feverish, or too Yin,. sueb asthe weakness after diarrhea. Your hody"s IChi level is also, affected by natural eireumstanees such as the weather, climate, and seasonal changes, Therefore, when the hody·s Chi level Is classified, the reference pDint is the Iavel which. feels most comfortable lor those particular circumstances .. Na,tul",aIly, each of us is a lil'ttle bit di.fferent~ and 'what Ceels best and most natural :(tor one person may be B bit different from what is 'ri,ght fOF' another person. That is why the dcetor will usually ask "how d!D ,you reerr It is aeeerding to ,y'ourown standard that JlOU - ,ale jilll,QBd,,, Bra',ath is ch:u:Jely I"\ela'ted to the state of your 'Chi, aD,d -therefo,re' also ,considered Yin ,or Yang'. When you exhale you ,expel air [rom your Lungs, your mind mOV"BS outward, and the Chi. around the, body expands. In the Ch:inell8 :marti,al,BrtB, the exhale' is generally used "to


expand t.he C'bi to energize the muscles during an attack, Therefore, you can 5,ee that the exhale is Ya'ng-~it is expanding, oft"e,nsive~ and s,t:rong" Na,iurally,baB,ed, on the' same tbeory, the inhale is cons,i,d'e~ed Your breathing is eloselyrelated to YOW' emetions, When you lose yoor temper, your breathing' is shnrt and fast, Le, Yang", Wben you are sad, :your' body is more Yin, and you inhale mere than you emaI,! ,m order to abserb the Chi .f'rom the air to balance the, bDd-y~s Yin to bring the bodybac'k into balance. When you are exclt,ed and happ'y, your' body is Yang'., Your exhale i:r; longer t,han your inhale in order to :g,etrid ef the excess Yan,g w'hicb, is caused by the excitement. , As mentione,d before" yout' nrindis also closely r-elated to your Chi. The~efore', when your Chi is, Yang, your mind i:s usually also Yang (exc,i.ted) and vi!ce versa. In ,addition, as we discussed in the previaus :section,.the mind can also be elassiftsd ,accorwng to the Chi which generates jt~ The mind (Yi) which is ,gene,rate,d from the calm and peaceful Chi obtained from Original Esu'J·e,nee:s eonsidered Yin" The i mind (Hsin) w'hich originat,es with the food and air E,ssence' is emotional, scattered, and excited,. and ,it is CODJlddu:rea: Yang. Finally, the Shen" whicb is relatedte the Chi" can also be clas'sified as, Yang or 'Yin based Ion its origin. Do 'Do,t co,nfuse Vm Chi and Yang Cbi with Fire Chi and Water C,b!. When the Yin andYan,g or Chi are mentioned, it refers to ,tbe Ie'vel of Chi a.ceordin,g to some reference point. 'However" wheiD Water and Fire Chi are mentioned" :it re;f\'ers to tbe'lquaHty of the Chi. Thi.s, 'will be di:seu8sed in the next :sectian. The Quali~ of HumBU C,hi.: .Burne people think that, Chi is o,rgood quality when it is 'neither too Yinnol' too Yang'. However, they are WTOD;g'. When Chl is neither too Yin .nOlr too Yang:, this, means th,at the ,level of the Chi is right. It is a qnantita:tive :s;tatemen,tratber than a qualitative one. The, quality gf' Chi 'refers to its, purity, ,BB, w',ellas its eontents. This, quality ,depends on where and how the Chi originated,. Usually. the ql1ality of the Cbi determines how t,t behaves and. how it affects the body's,Yin ,and Yang' wbenit .is eirculating in your body~. Within, the' human body, Chi Kung prAc.titio,ner:s have generally'~goriz'ed Chi into '~Flire Chi'" and! "'Wate'l Chf' toexpre:,ss, the: qualitative! purity 'of the Chi. The: terms ·!,Fire:" and. "'~Water"indicate the effects that, the C.hi has on our' body. For example, when Chi ,that is, Impure or of POD,t" quality circulates in the human body, it may cause beat in the body and organs, and, make the body ton Yang., It is therefore called "FIre ICbi.'J!' If, b.ow,ever"tbe Chi is pure, clean, land ci~ctllati~g' smoothly, it will enable the body to remain calm, keep tha mind elear and ,steady, and allow the body to function properly_ This Chi is called "'Water Chi" because it is the Chi 'whi,ch enables the body to remain calm and cool, JikeW'llter. In. the, thousands of y,ears that Chi ,Kung has been studied, 'piractitioners have' found that the Chi w.hi,ch comes from. "Original Ji,eng" (and is theJlefoJr1e caned Original Chi) is, ~'W:llter Chi," It 'iispure and smo'Dtb, like sunsbrne in the winter, like cry'stal-puf',e water flowing smoothly in a stream, 'vlery c()mfortabb9 ,B'nd natur,at This, Chi maklu;, it p06sibl,e ftn" the wisdom -miu,d (Vi) to remam calm and ,grow!ger~ When thisl Chi is circulating' in the 'human bod,Y, i't, is, smooth and will &eep the phys,ieal body functioning' in a steady" calm" and 'Yin state.


Conversely, tbe ,Chi wmcb comes, from, food and air is D'G,t of ias high a quality as Original Chi., Because the body eannot disertminate between g,ood and bad ra,w materials, many uD!desirablrB ingliedients in the food and air ,BN also converted intOr Chi. The ,quality of this Chi is dirty" and :no'Dunifrbrm" like water which has, been polluted, When this, Chi gO!rS t,o your br,aio,i.t ean exeite y,our emo,tioDS, and upset ,your em,otional balance, When, this Chi is circulating'in your bodY,r the undesirable ingredie,nts can change: the bally into Yang and,





eon:taminants than the Chi generated from food obtained from piJants., You can see from this discQ,I,'sion that it, is v,ery 'impo.rtant to distinguis:h both. the le'vel of Chi and its quality. The' l'ev,el,o.f Chi (Yin or Yang) depends on the~ circ.umstances", and mu:s't have; a reference point~ The rquality of C,hi depends upon, 'the Essence fra,m which it

cause p,roblems,. Fo.r example tbe ,Chi 'which was converted from fat can convert back into fat, an,dp.lug up the ehip,aths., 'Plugged up Chi eharmels can, have undes,irable eiIects suchas high blood, pressure, " whicb :speeds 'U:Pthe ,degen,er,ation of the intemallo~gans.. For' this the reason, diet is g, part of Chi Kuu:g practice. 'Gen'erallyspe,akin;g" the Chl generated frcm food whi,ch eemes fr,om animal sources has more

p,j C(




4,..2. Chi aDd Bio ... Eleetro'm&:lDe'tie E'De,ru In anetent China;; people had very little knowl'edge of' ele,etrlcity. They only knew from aeupuneture "that when a ,needle WiUI inserte,d into the acupuncture cavities, :Ioma kind of energy other' than heat was pmdueed 'which often caused a :shock 'or a tickling sensatien, It was, not until the last few decade's, when the Chinese: people were 'more B,cquain,ted, with eleetroma,gnetic science, that tbey began 'to recognize ,that this ,energy circulating In the body"whicb they called Chi, might be ,the 'same 'thi,ng aa what t'o,d.ay"'s, seience calts

t- '. . I'd (5 d" It ,e,e,c'_rom.aign.e'~1.C,lel aD~_ Clr'cw' ·t •

l -

'Eleer'om,a;gne'lI!;lc" e:ner,gy '18 t --- .. . cOD,tinuously being generated in tbe human body through tbe bieehemtcal reaction of food and air" and circulat,ed by the e'lectro'm,agnetic fo'rce:,s (EMF') generated within the body by, fOlr

nbioelectricity:.,n It is understeodnow tba:t the human body is constructed of many 1 t' 11d to, t' "t ~ rnerent t' e,l,ec,~rlc,a y ,con" U!CIv,e materia I 8:, an d' 1 rorms a I"' . .lvmg d'eJ':

into account. Countless experimenta have been cOD.ducted in. China,Jap:an, and o,the'r countries, to, s,tu,dy how extemal ,m~gnetic or ,elec,trieal fields 'can. :Iftec,t, and acljus,t the body's Chi field. _ Many acupuncturists, use magnets and electricity in their treatments. Tbey attach, a magnet t-o the 8,kin over a cavity and leave it tbere for ,a, period. rof'time. The magnetic 'ti,eld gradually affects the Chi cir'culatio,D in tha't, channel Altem,stiv,ely, they lnsert needles into c,avitiles and th,en run an electric current t,hMugh the needle. "toreach the Chi channels directly.

exampl,s, tbhlkin,g' or mo.vement.. In' add.itio.n, you are als,a const,antly being ,affected by external electromagnetic fields such. as that of ' earth, or the ele,ctri,c,al fie'lds generated, by clouds. When you practice Chinese medicine or' Chi Kung, JiOU need tOr be aW,art) ,of these outside faetora and take 'tbe~m



their, 'experiments, none haa been able to,publis,b any detailed and cQ,nvinci'ng plrool of hie results, or give ,S! good explan,a'tion of the theory behind his expernnent, As with many other at,te.m'pte to ,lain tbe How and Why of acupuncture, conclusive 'proof is, elusive, ,oxp

e:xperimeo', have claimed a d.egree, of su,cee·s's in

has dis,covered ,about bieeleetromagnetic

and many unanswered questions remain, Of course, this theory is quite new" and it will probably take a lOlt, more, study and researeb befolre it is verifi,ed and, completely understood. At present, there are ~y eenservative acupuncturists who, are skeptical To untie this knot, we must loolk ,at what medem Western science

,energy. Many bioele'ctric related reports have been publisbed, and frequently the results are

closely related to what is lexperienced in Chinese Chi Kung training and medical science. For example during tbe electro,physiological research of the 1960',8, several investigators discovered that bones are pie soeleetrie; that is, when, tbey are stressed, mechanical energy is

converted to electrical energy in the form of electrle current (*1). This, might explain ene of the- practices of M,RROw Washing Cbi Kung in whi,ch. the stress on 'the bones and muscle's is, increased in certain way:s t-o increa'se the Chi eirculation (electric circulati,on). Dr~ RObert O. Becker has done important work in this tiel'd. His book "The, Body Ellectric"('*2) reports on much of' the research
concerning 'the body's electric field. It is pre,sently believed that food and air are the fuel which generates the electricity in the, body

tbrough biochemical reaction.

magnetic e·nergy has been sucee'ssful in tre;ating chronic pain related t-o tissue ischemia, and also work;ed in clearing up slow-healing ulcers, and in
90 percent of patients tested, raised blood flow significantly. 11(*3) 'Mr., Leviton also reports that every cell of the body functions like an electric battery and is able '00 store electric charges, He reports that: "Other biomagnetic investigators take an even closer loo,k to ftnd out· what is happening, right down to the level 'of the blood. the organs, and the individual cell, w'hich they regard as 'a small electric "(*3') . d -l,S ..... .... b - '. · t l.· ue b att,ery.· . _ Tho; h as C'ODvmce··me th a t. our en ....:-..0 dY lS J,US~ 1·ke a big battery which is s!ssembled from millions of small batterie's.All of these batterie,stogether' form the human electromagnetic field.

througho,ut the entire body tmough electrically ,conductive tis,sue, is one of the main energy sources which keep the cells of the 'physical 'body aliv'e. When,ever you have an injury: Orrare sick" your bod'y~s 'electrical circUiati-OD 'is affected. If this cireUIati'on of electricity stops, you die, But bioelectric energy not only maintain's life, it is, also res!pon:sible for rep,airing physical damage. Many researchers, have 'sought ways of using external electrical or magnetic fields to speed up the body's, recovery from physical inj'Ury~ Richard Leviton reports that "Researchers at Loma Linda Univ,erslty"s School 'Of M'sdicine in California have found, following 'studies,- in :si_xteen countries with

'This ,electricity, which is circulated

over l~OOO patients, t.hat Iow~frequency, low intensity


relates to acupuncture.

Furthermore, much of the research on the body's electrical fieJd

For example, Dr.. Beeker repurtsthat the

conductivity of the, skin is mueh higher at acupuncture carine's" and that it is, now prnssible to locate them precisely by measuring the skin",s conductivity. Many of these '.r,epons prove that the acupuncture which has been done: in 'China for thousands of years is ressonable

· JI.!J: •. d SClen'LWC

Mo.rr:ow New Yo:rk, 1985. (*'3)."Healing with Nature's E.nerlY"'by Ri'chard Leviton, EastW.t

(*'1)."Life's Invisible Current" by Albert L. Huebner, Eut West, Journal, June 1986. (*2)."The: Bo.dy EJectri.c" bY' Bobert O"Beck'erJ M.D. M,d Gary Selden. Quill .. William ,Jounud, June 1981.

practice of Chi 'Kun,g. A report by Albert LI. Huebner states: "These demlonstra..tion.s ofhody electricity in human beings may 'also offer a 'new' e:xpls_n.ation of an ancient be,aling p,ractic,e'. If w,eak external fields can prodnee powerful physiological effects" it may be thatfield& from human tissue's in one person are capable of produeing clinical imp,]'IDrvements,m 'aDothe:r. In ,short, the method of healing 'known as the laying on of hands could bean especially subt:1e form ,of electri'cal
S""_JI.llIIl . '.

many ,o.f'the aneient "miracles" which have been attributed

Some researchers

use! the theory of tbe bedy's electrici.tyto


to, the

""'::'-ul- a, an. '11'(* 1) ·ti··· . .•.

Another frequen,tly reported phenemenon is that when ,8 Chi Kung praetitioner has 'reached a high leve!I of development, a, bel,o would appear behind andlo'r around his head during meditation. This is commonly seen in p,ainting .of Jesus Christ, the Buddha, and other Oriental gods. Fre'quently the light is pictured as, 'surroundin,g the whole 'body~ 'This phenomenon may again be explained by body electric theory. Whe'n a, person has cultivated his Chi (electricity) to a high level, the Chi may be led to accumulate in thehead, This, Chi may then interact 'with 'the oxygen moleeuleain the air" ,and ionize them,

,ca,u;singthem to glow,~

,Although the link. between the theo.l~Y of the 'body electric and the Chine:setheory of Cbi is, beco:ming more aeeepted and better proven, tber-e are still m~y' questions still to be answered, Ft).!" example, how ean the mind Iead Ohi (el.'ectri,cityJ?How actually doas the mind generate an EMF (electromagn.etic force) to circulate ijlo' 'electricity in the body? How is the hUDUID electromagnetic field affecte,d by the multit.ud,e of other eleetrle fields whi£h surround us, lU1C'h as radio and 'television waves" orthe fields ,,ated by household electrical wiring or eleetrical appliances? Bow 'can we l"ea..djust o,ur'lelectromagnetl'c 'Salida and survive in euter space or on other planets, whel'e the magnetic field. is C!:omp,]etely differe~nt fro,m earth's? You can see that the future of Chi Kun,g' and bioelectric 'science is a challe'nging and ex:citin;g one. It is about time that we started to use the medern te~chno,logies to UD derst and the inner energy world 'which has been ignor-ed by Western soci,ety.

4-8. Some Hypothe8 es

1 a number of' questions whieh have puzzled Chi Kung 'p'ractiltioners ,and acupuncturists for many ye,KS.,. If' Chi is the same thing as what is now' being called bioelectricityl' which Westem medical science iSI ju'st'covering'l then certain deductions, or hypotheses: can 'be made which might offer convincing 'explanations for many ofthese puzzle,s., In this section I will try to link together these' ,aspects of Ea~dem, and Western scienees, based on my understanding" .In thi:s seetien, I 'would like to raise U.p 'some' que'stions and draw some hypothe·ses concerning, as, an example, how a. human, body may re·aet to and be inftuenced by external electromagnetic fields such as that of the more' cDnservative Chi Kung pr,actitioners to ace,eptthis, new science and participate in future a.oal,ysis and, discussion.


I hope this :section will stimulate yourt~g

and help the

iD '&beDumlaol BOQ'E A. How ,IS,the :H:UDlan EI,ectromapetic ':Field Formed?

1. The Electromapeti,eField,
S,ince' we and Earth's, magnetic


olther living things are formed and live in. the field, OUl" 'bodies, alSl) have a magnetic field. of their


own., 'The magnetic, fi,e'ld lof our body ,always corresponds with and is affected by the Elsrth.'s field. ,Modern scienee has shewn that magnetic fields and electrical ftelrds, cannot be se"arat-ed" and indeed, are s,Jpects of the 'same ,fo~ce. Where there is, ene, tbe'~e is also the

other~ This type of freld is co,mmo,~y Icalled, ,an electromagnetic field. Whe,n a piece of ,steel is placed inside a me,petie Bel!d,-it beeomea a, magnet (Figure 4~1). S,ine ! our hodi,e,s are made UPI of co,ndnctivl' material" and we are i.n thle m,ag.netic 'fileld 0'1' the E,artb'l it is

magnet has two 'poles,whichm'Us,t be loca,ted, OlD tbe! centerline of t__h,e ma,gnet,wie can ,e'Blily guess, tha,t tbe, poles of our bodies must, be somewbe,re on the be,ad and tbe bottom of' ,the ahdomlen. Thus" our' firs,t task is to locate the pole,s of the: human ,magnet,.

raascnable ta assume that our bodies are like magnets,

Since a

Figure 4..1. A piece ,of :slteel.beco,mes a m.agoet wben placed in ,B. , magnetic field

BeEule wle cODtin,ue~"et USN'riewsome l 'of tbe concepts ,concerning the Earth"s, magnetic field.·ad tOI understand the difJeren,ce betwee'n :fo'ur 'terms, which are often confused: 1. The north BIld, sou:tb po~e's,olf a magnet; 2. The' North &DId the South Magnetic Poles of the 'Earth; 3. 'Th.e geographic North andthe ISOUth Peles of 'the Ea.rth; and 4. 'The actual north and south poles of the Earth~ma,gne't. Evezybndy knows that there is a 'magnetic field in ,tbe Earth. If'we plaee a ~bar'magnet in the Earth~:s magnetie field, the magnet will align its,elf with the Earth!s, fiellid. The "nerth" pole oftbis har magnet is the, 'north ..seeking 'p'Dla" 'which po-ints, to'ward N,ortb. of the, Earth"s m~gneti'c, field, 'which called the "North Pole" (Figure ,4-2)", Na'turally; ·the pole: which points to the South is defined as 'the, "seuth pole," ITherefore" the poles ana magnet are dafin,eel accQlrdingto 'the dir-ec:t,LoruJ, n whi,chtbey i point wi,thin the Earth's magnetic field. Furthermore, we have, defined the 'pole of theEartb tow,ardwhi,cb a magnet's 'north pole points ias the Earth', "Magnetic, 'North Pole' 'while' the other end is the Earth's, nMap:etic .South P'ole.,""H'iUlentially, this means that" for ease IOf' navigation and through conv1entioft, the Earlb."s, Magnetic North 'Pole is for' all inten.ts ODd purposes conlidered- to lie in


I Oeo,graphic South P'ole

M,ag;netic South Pole

Fignr-e 4-2. TbeEartb"s, magnetic field

magnetic poles.) (Figure ~2). We still do not kn,ow how the Earth's magnetic field was formed. Tbe most acceptable explanation is, thatthere is a ,cir-cw&rting current deep within the Earth, or in 'the upper atmosphere, or both, We also do not know erxactl,' how 'the magnetic poles camero be 80 close to tbe geographic pelea, W,e know that the :Earth's magnetic field has started a't the geographic South Pole, and ended at the geographicN'orth Pele for at least tbe last million 'yea~8 (although evidence :su,ggests 'that during ,the last several million Y'BaI'Sthe magnetic pole,s of the E,arth have, reversed several tim,es)(*·4 and 5). This conflicts with h.ow we under.stand the 'ma,gn,e:tic fi,eld of a bar 'ma.gnet to be" beeauaa the lines of'force outside the magnet start at t.he north pole and end at the south pole, and the lines of force iDsid,e the: magnet, gOI from the south pole to the north pole (Figure 4-3)., 'Tber-efo,re, 'w'e! usually ealltheEarth'a Nortb M,agne'tic Pole is actually the south pole of the Earth"s megnetic field. In other 'words, the actual ,magnertie. poles 01 the earth are the reverse of how they ar,a shown ennavigation m,aps (F~e 4-'2),. Once you have ,assimilated these oo,n,cepts, consider :y'om bod.y~s m8\gnetic field,. Since your body's magnetic -li,eld is formed under the 'influen,ee or the E,artb",s magnetic field,. the :nonh and poles or ,your body will be deterruined by whether you are' in the, Northern or' ISo'utbern Hetnisphere. For' example" it you are standing in the

the same direction as the Barth's Ge~graphic North Pole, (In fact, howev,er, the geegraphic 'poles do 'DO't actually eedncide with t,he

Figure 4-3,. Magnetic field of a magne,t

1(*,6).~'OoUepPby~ieEh" yP:rankIm. Mille!;",Jr.t :HElf'COun, Bn,ee JOiV,BDovich1Inc- 19 7:2. b

i 1

(9'JilI\ ..",.

"Wh··II·t Fli"IPS E~'''''''h' 'Fi" e'ld' , "h_YlU"U.l1lt" lBl h er, rU}I'!.,il..l!Arctence J 8DutU'J' Inc8' - tIIL'IiS iII.-L1!., P' ,,1,..., S" . - -- ..,10" .,' I.
u c




Northern Hemisphere~, for ,example in the United S,ta:tesl, then. the lines of force of the Earth"s magnetic 'field 'will 'enter yom body throU\gh,your 'b ddt emerge outrrom th b ~- tne -o'_~'m '0_f your b0d:y~ N' ,R'manyJ) if"" you 't -... ,_" '11'1, eae anc _ are in the Soutbem Hemis,pbe:re, say in Brazil, then the lines o,ffmoe of the Ea.rth's magnetie6eld will enter the bo,ttom of' yOUI" bod)'"and ,exit from Y'OUl" be-ad, (Figure ,4-4). This means that if you are in tbe Nort.hern Hemisphere yourbe,ad will be ill south ]polle while ,Your' abdomen 'wiUbe a north pole, NaturaUy,the sit-us,tion will be R'versed, if',yon are in the Sou,them Hem,ispbe're. When'you are lying Idown or Ion the equator:, the ,poles, are Din thelsid,e of your body; ,and tbe,Y ehange eVllU'Y time you move. This prob,a'bly me-ans tha.t under ,these eireumstances tbeEartbls magn'etic field has

'Now let 'us ,discuss how this is related to Chi Kon.g.. Ass,umiDg' that you are in the Northem Hemisphere, your 'head, should be ,B,south pOlle while your abdomen is, a north pole' (Figure 4-,5). ExeIwling' all Qithet facto,rs su,ch 8S, location" weather, eb!;, the strength of you!" magnetic, BeI,d depends on the natural qualities o.f YDur body. This may be what th,e Chinese 'mean by "'Original E,ssenc-e. analo,lous to the fact

o,nly ,miDimal'effect



Figure 4-4. Human magnets, in the' Nor1bem Hemisphere and the Soutbiem Hemisphere

Fi,gure, 4··,s. A human magnet in the Northern Hemisphere that when you place high quality reftned steel, in a magnetic fie'ld" the magnet formed 'w,iD have strOD:ger magnetic field than if you had. used poorly refined steel. Since this m,agnet irsstronger, the magnetic energy WiU last longer. Similarly, if you received high quality Original ESBlenoefrom Ylour parente, your' body's maenetic 'field will 'be Istr'ong; and the Chi or eleetrieal energy cir,culating in your body win be strong and smooth. This means that your vitality will be great, and you will probably have a long and healthy life. If this line of reasoning is valid, tbenwe are abl1e to explain something which has been confusin,g' Chi Kung metiitato,rs,. According

Hemisphere)" when 18 person meditates facing south he is be able to obtain, a s,trongler Chi Ro,w and is able to balance his ICbi more quickly than if be were facing another direction. Facing south lines, up the ingoming 'en,8I"gy with the liSman Circulation" of energy down the center of the front of the body and up the spine. Sinee the front of the body is Yin,!] it absorbs ,energy more easily than the back or sides. Another possible explanation is, related to 'the fact that we tend to turn and look at people who are talking 'to us as if this let us hear

to pas't axpertenee

(mostly from meditators

in the Northern


them bette'r. Since, YOUI" mind bas a considerable influence on your' body's, energy, facing i-om tbe :Lneomlng ener,gy may also help you to . '.. '. b.ung' p'ra..,'u. .....i;.::: a -b b' d ",":':-' It,. ''[11: can ,a so exp 1· w'h.y many C'hi, u: ~s:or.·an'· ~e:Blt· ne . 1 . 8lD ti.oners claim that if they sleep with their bead pointing north they sleep better, and feel more r'este,d and 'balanced, the; ne'It 'morning'. (However, if y;ou eitee'p,s,ittmg up, you should again [B,ca Boutb,.) 'These two clainls 'become reasD'Dable and understandable if 'we accept the ,concept of a hi,polal" human magnetie field. ,N'ext we must, consider othe'F phenom,ena which. hav,e the' pDwer 'to influence 'the E,arth"s, and 'bumanma,gnetic fieLds. ,It 'is believed ,that there is a, 'type of Bu.dde,n,,BDd sbort,.lived change in, tbe Earth's, magnetic 'field. These "'magnetic. storms'll are correlated with S,unSpot out~eaks, 'QI'moving' clouds ,and are: a Msult of temporary currents of ions in the up,per' atmosp:here., It is, clear that the s'nergy' patterns in the human, body ,are affected, 'by n.s,tural forces.. It is 0110 de:8r 'that tbe ene~gy &om the SUD bas a , mor-e ,Bignificant affect than the energy from the earth, IThis Ieadsme to believe that when you are mleditating durln,g the day'you should face the' Eas,t simply 'because the influen,ce o'f'the sun's ener,gy is 'more:sig... nifi.cant than that 'of the: Earth"SL 'magneti,c field., During the n~gb,ti 'wbe:n the influenc-e of the 'sun has waned, it is probably best to£ace :Bouth if you ,are in the Northern Hemisphere, Within the human magnet, we may again assume that there are mil'lio:ns'of smaller magnets 'wiUch Ico'rreepoD,d 'to ,the cells, (Figure' ,4~)., Jus,t as every cell has its, own minute: @,lectric:alfield~ '80 too. does each cell have its IOwa, magnetic fiel<L. Ind,eed, the twa ,are merely differ-ent aspects of the same force,. When. all 'of' tbese, auullmapetic fields, are' co,mbinsd togethelr, t'hey fonn a complete human magnetic fie~d. All of these ma,g:netic _Belds nDl:Bin, :Itea.fiy ,88 lonr as meno other energy' SOHI'C,e to disturb tbem. Howevisr,whenever any extra energy is, generated either wide lor' outside oftms fiel,d"the field mUno, monger 'be B,ooady; ,and an electrical CUlTen.t win be generated. Eacb, time this, happens, the body'l:s field must 'l'\ebal8ll&e' .itaelf~ and a D,ew pa.:t,te:rnlof Dner-gy must 'be Cormed" This, me8.D8 that if there is, no energy soUm! for the human magnet, the -· ~_'~,WllI . ..3:... bed AD.d InaturlWl' th 'ere' will' 'be ,no en,ergy . - 11 _ magnetic &'eld _..:::11 not: be'.•watu:r1_,
U •

-=-,.. JIin~_nr" w:u.zs:ut:::: .~. __ 1 gn;;lwg.IA,l.i.S'm L... -! .... .e-'ld"- InB.l'8

t1li..':::- caseW'~ ~u'.o u:., 'daadom ....'1... ~. . ~Iia


c '.

HowiB'It'l'Sr, ~ . ~~ ~'.'~

wh en -'. '..

U~" .1';';U'

,alive" fOOd and air Essence gene:'ra:tes energy insid.e· your magnetic ,fi,eld 'through biochemi,cal reaction. This energy builds up in your solar plexus" and theD. 'circulates throughout your body by way ofthe Chi channels, 'whim are'highly conducti\'ie paths through the! facial tissue. As the eDe·rgy circulates, in, your' 'body~ it is important that every 'put, ,e:speeiall,Y the! organs" receives 'th~eright ,amount'm order to fuDction propel'~Jt ,Let 119 take an even closer .look. A'ocording to Chinese medical science" the IB,leetricity (Chi) cireulates thronghout ,yOul' body from one, channel ,to the: nex1 in, & ,epeemc, order. One end or each channel is t,berefore positiwe; and 'the other end n,elative. If an a.cupuncturist wisbes to use B magnet tol correct the Chi level o,f,8, channel, he,t 'know .how'the mqn,etic field will influonce the internal .chi circulation,. . 1.. ...__ ,_,;, ~.,' ',~ 'd"d .... . t' "t . H ,e mus t 1m''.ow JJl.UW C'hi"-' '''lnOwB teo8 BD_, an ~.m w h- ,9"., dio, _ .. ~ ". ,'re", ~.O'D l' C:lrcU." 18tes~ 'He mus't alse know how' to ,orient, the poles of the: magnet., Wr,on,g o,ri'e:ntation willl'Q,olyworseD, ,tbe s,ituatio,n~ According to reports, ,I have read ,about the use of magne·ta in aeupuaeture, sometimes it works BDd sometimes it doesn.'t. Possibly thefaillurea are due: '00 'the: acupun,ctmiB,t"s :no,t taki,ng ,orientation or the magnets into account.

.B..Time and the Human 'MalDeticField, Since we are p,an of the Earth :8 'sl,ectromagne'ti.c field, our own fields aretdJected by variations, in the Earth's 'energy field~ These variation's can be caused by s.u,chsourees ,8SI the mOOD the sun, or' even the stars.

exposed to is that of the day~ Every twenty.. our hours our bodies should go. through a cycle as the earth f ,rotates enee and goes througb a ,cycle of light, and day. 'The rotation of the Earth ism tum aftiected qy the 8,un"S energy. It bas been proposed that, there is another ,cycle generated by the moon's influence, on the
W,! alit!

The most obvious ,cycle that,

the sun moves .highe·r and lower above the southern

throughout the year, our bodies also la' through
ii, yearly

Earth·s, energy patte,m which repeats every twen~ ... eight ,days,,, Since

other cycles every twelve and Isixty years because of the influence of the stars. If you wish 'to study the human electromagnetic fiel'd you must also taJt.e aU of these cydes into your ,consideration.

The Chinese believe that the Earth and human beings go througb





Oh.i Ku.n.1 sloeiety it is eommon knewledge that there are three' energy s,torage areas from. whi,cb. en,ergy can be taken. and used without limit. Tbee,e three, places are ealled Dan Ti,en" or tbe Fields 'The Lo'wer' Dian Tien is thougbt of as the furnace of Original lObi.. Let us consider it the north pole: of the human magnetic ,fi'eld since the ,sn'B,rgy origin,atee tbere., ,L:et us' consider- 'the Upper Dan Tien (tbe tbird eye) to be the 'south p,ole because it,
reeeives energy (Figure, 4..5,)., Science tells, us that the lines, of force in a magnetic D'eld 'start from the, north plol,e and end up at the south pole, I'D Chi Kung practice, the ICbi ori,ginates, at the Lower Dan 'lien, ,and ends, up atth.e Upper Dan Tien tOI nourish tbe brain. The 'Dorth pole .is in energy and is i.n a relatively 8,x cite,d state w:hile tbe s,outhpole is lower in energy and is 'in a calm and steady

,M"pet,ie Model Based OlD tbe ,abo-v'e information, I would .like to otfe'I' ,6 magnetic model [o,r a human bemg ,in.'the Nortbern Hemisphere on Eart_h. 'In

c. A B'uman

'state. In his 're:port o'n biomagneties, Richard Leviton states: "One magnet pr,actitioneT; bot,h a physi,cian and a researcher, is Dr.

Richard Btoeri:ngm@ye~, ,a 'chiropractor, nutritiDnist" and pubIis.her of the ~Bio-Ene·rgy Health News,letter'J in Murray, Kentucky. 'Life i;s not possible witbo'ut eleetrcmagnetie flelds, ~ be :said" 'and optimum bealtb is not possible if ,the lelectroDulgn,eti'c Bel,ds are lout o{ balance flOr long pe,r.iods of'time .. Magneti'c 'energy is nature's ene,f,gy in , perfect balance. Each of a magnet's two poles bas a energy and 'influence:, says Biroleringmeye~. The· bipOllar' .funct,ioID is near the be,Bl'"t of bio,magnetism."(*',3)

In r'eg(l'l'lds,to the two pole,s", I. believ'B that it is, the m,agnetic n'orlb pole a:t thle ,Lolwe:rD,aD Tien whi,eh otfer·s energy 0·1" Chi. It i.s able to
increase the oVieraU vital. life foree, 'stre'ngth, and development

'the Idevo:!loplment of a living sYs,tem. You m.ay 1Jln,derstand now w·hy I have located tbe pcles of our m.agn,st·ic field on eithe.r ,side of'tbe Middle Dian 'Tien (solar plexus), The Middle Dan TieD can be considered the furnace: w'here' the Esss'ncs,s lof food, and air are ICOIlverted intol electricity and generate an EMF' for ICirCUia,QIOD,.• Th,e a,bovie ,assumptions, are based on Chine;se Chi Kuu.g system,s which were d,eveloped iu thei ,No,rtbem .Hemispbere of the Earth. over

of a livings,Ystem. In contrast, the :south pol,e orthe Upper Dan Tiel} aecep·ts ener:gy or C,hL It Be,ts,to slow down, to calm" and, t-o oontrol

Hemiaphere. The: im'plication" bowev'er, is that people in the Southe:rD ,Hemisphere bave their magnetic pole's reviersed from how they are in ,tbe 'Northe,rn. Hemis,phere. In other words" tbeir Upper Dan Tien will offer lenergy while the Lower Dan Ti'e,nwiU receive: it., ICan thi:s .mean tbat"while 'thre braina of p'eople in. 'the Nortbern Hemisphere are constantly being nourish,ed, 'tbe brains of peop'Js: in tbe Southern Hemi.sphere: are being deple'ted'?D'Oes, this. [explain why mOist technology W8,S, d'evelopEu! in the No,rtbem Hemisphere? De 'peDp,le in the Soutbe'm. Hemispbere live longerbe1cause their Lo,wer Dan Tien is their south pole 'BD.d it absorbs and 'retains Chi better than 'the D,an nen of ,. person i'D the' Northem B,emispbere? I have, he,ard 10'£ sever,al doctOIFS who l'",seommend that pa.ti,ents, who have lost th.eir ene,ro balance spend tim.e: on the equ8'tor,. where: the earth·s, 'magnetic fi'eld has amimmal affect" and their' bodie,s,will be able to

the 'Ja!st.several thousand year,s~ ]' do not 1m ow if this, theory is, accurate, or bow the poles :a'ffect Uvin;g ,thin,gs, in the Souther'n

is time for a 'wid,e"8cah~'study of human e:n,srgy or Chi comer of this world. I,., Chan,Dsl.,: 'If Chi channels are'

~ebalance 'themselvea". Thes'e are ex,citing and ,cbaUenging ideas,~ It


in eV9'ry

where the eleetrteal conductivity of the body tissue is bigber' than elsewhere, then w,e have answered. one of the bi,g questions of Chi Kinng'. In addition to, eocpll!liuing how Chi circulates" this, can also enable us to Iearn wh,a.t 'the ancients were never able to diseover: 'what is, the shape efthe channels; and w:here exactly are tbey located? In the past we have only been. able to do Chi 'r,es,e,ar1chen living people, but now we should be able to UBI! cadavers and. measure electrical ,conductivity tbrou,ghou,t the: 'body~ and thereby detel"tnine theprecise toeati.cnn and shape or the channels. ,9. YaRBel.: We ma.l assume wba:t is, called the Chi vessels, are tis:sues which are able to, store' electrical charges like a eapacitor, The body has ,eight of these capaeitors (called the eight extraordinary vessels) which are Ferspon,sible fo,r regula:ting the current circulating: in the t,welv,e channels. 'If this aStJumptio'D is true, wei should 'beab]e ,to determine the' exact. location and characteristics, 'DC these vesaels with tod,ay"S technology. where the eleetrfeal conductivit,y is higher than the surr-ounding ,areas (*2). Electricit,Y is
main electrical c'hBDll.els, (Chi ehannels) and the surface of the skin more B'8,SUY' at these loeatiens than elsewhere. These cavities are the ga.te,s where needles" magnets, electricity, and other means such as lasers ean be' used to ,affect the flow ,of electricity in the Chi channels. Tbe I'Five: Centers" 0)" IIFiv,e Gates II (two L,tlo,gong'
thiS ,. 4' C:a' VI· ·t~;e~·I11ACOP'UIu:~tur,e cBvitie:s are small spots



,conducted between'ties,twl}! Bubbling Wen cavities and the' Baihui c,B\vity) are p,r,obably larger openings whe're either the electri,c eonduetivity is higD,er' Dir' th.e eonduetrse cbannela ,a~e ~arler. e:l,ectric circulation" ,the,e 'must be an. e,lectromagnetic ro'roo (EMF').. Wi.tbou,t the :E.M'F, the electrie poten'tisl in the circuit will be the aame throughout, and an electric current 'will not occur. The aameprinciple ap'plies to your' body's electrical eireuit, Gener:a.n,y~ I can ,think of four possible causes fort.he g,sneration of EM·' in the human circuit: 1., T'b:rou,l"hthe influence or natural energy- 'That. means the E,MF generated in the human body circuit can be' affected by ,extemal'energy interference, for' exampl'e :fromthe In order to have


F'oree (EMF):

Inn llnd ths m,OOD.. Alte:rnativel,JI you may exp,ose y,o'ur body to radioactive area or even an electromagnetic field w'bl:ch can influence' the electrica.l eireulation in your'body;~ 2. From the conversion of food and air e,B8,ence.Wbenev,er food and air are taken in, 'they are conve,rted into biom.Je:ctric ,energy. This Increase of' the ,electricity will generate EMF' for eireulation .. 8. From exercise, Whenev'e.l" yon move your mU8,cles,part of the stored essence in ynurbody is converted into ,electri,ci~y and ,generate:s an E,MF in the ex!el"l!ised ares., 4" ,From, the mind and Shen (spirit), YonI"'mind playa an important role in the

geneT'Btlion of E,MF. It might n,ot be easy for' the aver:agl: person to underatand this eOllcept"howeveir', itf yo'u understand that your thinking is able t-o atfe,ct the 'bod:y"sC.h:icirculation, y,ou may be' able to understand that, the mind can generate an EMF. For example,

:you'r mind Ieads elect,ricity

tissues, 'Exactly how' this, happens is a question st111w,aiting .for a complete answer, In C,hlKuD,g' trai.nin.g" you are training to Increase yOlur' EMF through proper intake of' food and Bir'~ CbiKung exe rei ses and focused thought. can ber,educed wh,en the muscles are tigh.tened, or the :structure 'of the channels (the cj()nductive tissue) 'is changed. In Chinese medieine this would be IcaUed ,Chi s:tagnati,on. 'Tigbtenin,g'tbe muscles increases reaistance to the flow of' electricity ,and cansesther'eby an increase in temperature, It is, still hardto ,saY
Th.e! flow' of e:lectricity


the limbs


energize the muscle

- I.,,, :Sta.gnat,ion:

just bow the resistance i~smereased, It m,ay be! due to s, bieehemieal reactron generated by the mind, or 'possibly a 'change in the eonduetivetissue. The~electrie circulation C8'D also, be ,significantly affected Whl~D, the eonduetrve tissue is contaminated 'wit.h low.. c-ondu!ctivity material such Be, fat, Obviously, relaxation ii8 stble 'to Increase elaetrieal ,ei'rculatio"D.ln, aeupuneture, when a, cavity is, ,afJected by a needle or magnet, the ,electrical field in that Bf\ea is stimulated ,0,1' :sedated.Iimay poss,ih,]y also convert the! :fat,into heat and ther,efor,s open the pa.. th.
7. 'Th,e SSDlatioJl of Rea,t: If Chi is electromagnetic ene!rgy cir,cullatmg in the hody, then the beat w.hich it produces, is caused. b, tbe bocly"s resistance to, the ielectrica.l Row. If you mn. ,BD. electric eurren'tthrougb a wire" when, the current encounters resistanee electric ,energy is Iconverted, into


tr,ea,tments and Chi Kiung p:ritlctice is net Chi, but I"B,thet a s~ptom of the pres,ence of Chi. If 'this is true, then whren ,pr,aeticing Chi KUDg it hs, desirable ,to circulate the Chi so smeothlj' that it does not ,gene'r,B,t'e, ,aDY sensatiea o,{ heat, This is Iike running your current 'through a copper wire with lo,w resistance i'n8,b~'ad of an iron. one with

Th.elre~ore, the heat which is, felt durtng acupuncture

,high resistance. 'Wbenev'er you generate too much heat in your body, espec.iaUy in, the olrgans" the tissue will begin to degenerate faste'r" Remember that 'the eriginal Chines'e symbof for Chi was C,oD'strU'cted. of'two wo~dls,"no fire." Therethre, 88 a Chi Kung pr,octiti,rOD,er" you should not try to feel your Chi as heat", It is, better to, feel it as, Bn electrical sensation. If youkeepl thisl in mind, you win be able to avoid making your body teo Yan,g during practice, Whe'n w'e praetiee Chi 'Kung or Tai Chi, it is common '00 e,xperience, · warmth on the skin e:s:pecially in, the eenter of the' 'palms (Laogon,g ca:,vitie:s). ,the bot.tom of .feet (Bubbling Well cavities)" and ,on tbe faee, We know' that warmth is an indication of'increased Chi eireuladcn, but eX,Betly how is this heat caused? Before we continue; I wouhi like to quote a re'port by Albe~rtL. Huebner: "In ,E.nglanld" dOlctors have discovered, that children ean regrow lost fmg,ertips, perfect in lev,e~ydetail, when a procedure is foUowerd that bears an interesting' resemblance tal limb reg,eneratiQD. :in B.mphibians,.,. A salamander' won't r,egensr,ate its limb if the s,tump has become covered with skin ,pr'e:sumab,ly becaus'e 'this blocks, the 'eurrsnt 'o,f injury'known til' flJ..rm there. Dr" Cynthia IUingvlorth of Sheffield found 'that if a ehild's fingerti.p' is, to grow' back, the ,stump, must also be left, uncovered. JI{* 1) This seems to ind.icate that tbe conductivity of muscle tissue i,g much bi,gber than that of :s.kin tissue, When s,kin has, eove:l'ed. the

the s,tnmp and effecting the: multiplication regeneration of'tbe finger.

inj,ure,d area, itpreV',entis

the electric energy from enending' beYDnd

of cells and finany the

and both are less conductive than bone, Wbe'n w,e have an injluzy
• B-- • 1,S:superC18.,1

I now believe that skin tissue 'ii,s less eonductive than muscle tissue,

L"k " t "e,pam rrem ,an Uijury u,eep' enougth t 0 ., Do' ....::11 -,1 _BWlse; th reach the bone is even worse, 'The bone marrow and the- brain are plrobably the' tw'o plaees where, electric Iconductivity is tb.e bighestin the human Do,dy. However, it must be :str,es,se.d that thts is, in large 'measure" speculation, ,E,xperimentatiioD and lempirical evid'en,eewiU be the Dnly 'way tOIactuallY' prove tbe eerreetness of the 'tbeo,ry. If' you can ,ac-eept tbes'e j"de,a's,.then it sho'ull.d be ve~.ryeasy for you, to '1 t", fh -. he !SJO..U'unng' d' aceep t th e expanD,'I'On. 'D' , 'o'w h" t .:UJgenerated d In t·, e ski..... . ,,as' ,', ,internal martial! arts and ICbi ,Kung. I'D these, praetiees you orbl~!n learn to relax and. le,&ld Chi to the ends, of the' limbs. 'The Chi or electricity wiU 'pass easily through the muscle and connective tissue, but whe:n it reaches tbe e,kin tbe conduetivity is suddenly lower., Thi:s means' that, resistanee to the flow'ilsincr,eased. In eombmation with betwe,en the skin and themuscle, converted into heat (Figure ,4-7).
the fat (al:so of low eleetriic conductivity) 'which normally accumulates

deep in themuscle,~ the 'pain is more signific,B'ot'than

whe,n th.e ,injlury

the E!'iec'triciiy is, stopped


Fiigure 4..1., Cross secti,on of a hand '


'between the mus'c!es and the skin and, therefere Increase the C,hi 'flow to the surfaee of the akin. This insures ' the' skin, hair, ,BDd . d' f -I tri ·hll' t . tai "leal --_ nai "'1 receive an ,a''bunaanee 0', el',eCiltlC11<I,J'-0 m,81D"-BID hi. Ith B,Dd s In ere a:s'e IiYrO: wth If..
,. , _" - eJir4.',-,

'You, can see from this discussion why one of the purposes of Chi Kung is, to reduee the heat and to open up the electrical blockages

ean also explain bow some people can. heal another perSIO'D by touching him wi,th his hands, The ,average' pere.onca.D move only a limited, amount of Chi through his body, and can bring' only a Vf!'ry' small ametmt to the surface of the skin, However, somepeople, incllld-in,g Chi Kung practitioners" can move Chi easily to the surface of the skin and beyond, and can e'Vlen, ,affect another person's Chi. If'they CBndetermine the status aftha Chi throughout a person's hody, they can supply lenergy to the areas that are low, andwitbdraw €!!xces,s lenergy &om areas which are l{)tverBupr,plied. Once they ,dOl this, it is im,portant to rid their own bodies of the' e'x,ceSB, Chi through various Chi ~e,gula!'ting 'methods. One' of the major goals of ,Chi Kung is, "opening the gates" (Tong" Guan), 'This means, to remove any cause of electr-ic (Chi), :stagnation. Stagnation is when the' flow 'Df currenti,s hindered in. the Chi ehannels, usually around c'8vities,. This is, caused 'by improper food" low quality air, and ,a,ging of the bod,Y tis,luesl", V:Br.ious Ohi Kung stylest whi,ch are based upnn difteren.t theories, have various, methods of opening the gates (this is discussed in Chapter 61. How,eveJ", regardless or the, style, tbe' key to opening' the ga:t,eiB i.B, Incre aaing the Tlow of IC'll.l'rent.. Thi,8 eleura B,W,BY ebstrueticne and, widlens eenstricted areas Cgate,s" lo'r c'Bviti,e,s'lf) , sm,oothing the circulation. In order' to Increaaethe current flew, the EM-F must, be mereased. Thi,s can be' done by Chi Kung exercises and, meditation in, which the concentrated mind plays the main role,

8".Realift '': The ideas we havI! di.lcues'ed

8., OpeDinK 'the' Gs'tea.:

The Meaa,u,r,eDl,eDt of Chi.: If the -tbeoiriee discussed above can be proven to be valid, then we have finally an:lwered the big question of'just what Chi is. We have also solved anothe.r big problem, namely 'wba..,tunit of measurement to use, If ,Chi i,s bioe~ectrici~y,then. we can simply 'Use the, same units oC measueements we use 'with electricity. 'This is a gr,eat step forward, because with Ii standArd unit of measurement we can nDIW scilentiCilc,aIly eompare and ev'a]ua'te r'8sults of' tests and

experiments ..

several AlthD'Ugb we have used modern. science's concepts of the magnetic fi,eld to draw compariaona with the magnetic n,elds, which surround all living ,thi.ngs" you should understand that the fi_s'lrd around your body is much more eomplieated than the field around B simple magnet .. Perhaps the main cause of this is due 'to your mind" which can affeet Ylour magnetic field,.. EX8,ctly how the mind ge,ner,.te's, EMF' is another OID,e' of the! m,811y mysbe.rie's, of the, brain. - We also dOr not know exactly how food, and. air iEs,sences are

Before wle eonelude this, section,

I, would. like tor remind



eenverted into electric power.

Pleaseremember also that. many ,0£ the id!e.fiS d.i~u~:U8geid above are not proven facta. Although experimental evidence and seientifie ,pr,oof'are aceumulating, th,e-re are still many areas which. are not

.. 45


I have offered explanations for many of the big questions of Chi KUD,gl! but they are pers'on,al thecrtes and co:nclusioD'ti only. YouB,hould not take them as fact. because they still need! more! experhnental proof I hope that this section will stimulate people to think" and encourage' a syntbs'sis of 'the theoiries d ' ' " "ty ofC'h" an_ bO' 1. ctncL--~ II ~'_l

4..4. OpeDiDg t'he C,m Gatss, " r lSC1l8S110n h outd give you ani iea I(]"f some 0, 't-h .' s - Id ai , id ", f _ "I'__ Th e p~ocee dnng d· preblems that need to be overcome in order tOI practice· Chi Kung. To maintain your he,alth, you must keep your Chi -Oo,wing smoothly in theproper p,atbw,ay,s,. Reducing the ;amount o:f bad food you eat, which is the main source of ecntaminated Cbi" will help to maintain a smooth Chi t1ow~ 'Then you must learn .how to open all of the gates (cavities) whi,ch are obstructed and are causing Chi stagnation, This, is a majorp,art of the Chi Kung which Is pr'sctio@d fo,r health, In Chi Kung., opening 'the ga'tes is caned "Tong' Gu,an" (literaHy lito Iget through the ga.tels,~''). 'The iheory of openin,g these gates, is veri simple, First think of wba,t you would do if the drainpipe- in your sink, were partiaUyblocked. You proibab,1y would run a lot of water throu,gh it to inerease the pressure on the obstruction and wash it away~ You would kno,wwben the pipe was, clear' because: the water wOllll,d pas.s tbrlJ.llgh i.t ,quic'kly and ,stflong'ly. 'You, can. 'Use the, same meth.odl 'with your Chi channels by running more Chi thro,u;gb. them, But In order to move mere 'Chi" you must first generate ilt., In \Vs.i Dan Cbi Kung" when Chi ia built Ull' in th.e limbs, it flows back into the body 'more strongly than before, ,As, you Icontinue tOI 'practice, the Chi wiD gradua11ywiden the channels. N'ow,you migbtthinkthats.ince rnereasingthe Chi flow' lopens. the gates, the more you increase the Chi, 'the mote, ,qui,ckl,y Y'DU will open up the gates. However, you must rsmember one important thing.. Your' Internal organa are ,des,igne,d t'OI o'perate at ce"rtain levels of Chi., and iftbey receive toOl much Chi.~they 'will become toOl Yang and will degenerate more quickly., It is very important in Chi Kun,g tOI de onJ.Y'en.ou,gb to, raise your' Chi level just Blightly above ttsnormal lev:el. As you continue to practieevthe Chi ehannels will gradually wi,den, 810 that the: Chi Ievel eomes back down to normal, and 'the obstructed gates wiU slowly open, Then you, can again merease the Chi le·vel ·B, Uttl,e, the channels win become cleaner, and th,ey win gradually become wider, Regula,r practice of the n,gbt exereises will smooth out the _ eirculatien, and kJeep the organs running properly. 'The ,proper' amount 'Df pra'ctic,e win maintain your healthvwhile too 'litthl practice will allow the channels to become p,illgg'ed 'up, and tJDD much practice win make your body toe Yang, and will;sho,rten your life. This is the ke'y ,theory 'of'Wai Dan, The'~e 'is no ,dift'eirencI!: Inthetheory of N ei Dan. Howe:v,er:, in N'ei. Dan training you. normally open "tbe gates in the Conceprtion and Go,vemio,g vessels first, These two vessels are considered the majiO!"' Cbi reservoirs, whiehgovem 'the Chi, and so your mustepen them first if you want tOI regulate the Chi. Onee this, is done, you have completed Slm,RU CirculatioD. (Sheau Jou Tian), The:r 8 are 'three gate,s in this path whieh are eensidered the most d.iffh~ult and dangerous 'when y,DU p,ractice. When you open 'these three gate's U'PI" ··t· - -11'· J.'OBti.'an C'to b,e· thro Ie.. us ca_'e d ~~II"I1' d S··· G--- a ,u',n, . _u ,D' - t "U.g -h- the th ~a ga 1'- _II) e5,'.





·. __ rIC,,",

After yo;u, have completed the Small Cir,eulatiOln" yOut, then. lead the Chi t,he Hmb.s open up all or the ,gates, located on the Chi channels; Onee "QU 'have comp;letedthis" you have a,ecomplishe,d GrBn,d 'Circulation (Dah Jou Tian). For' further infbl'matio'D" please refer the author's bDoks "Chi Kun.1' .. Health and Martial ,ArtsU and



IIM·'-l-_·""'-' .d-I' Ch-··,an,gIn,I' _"US,C 'e1'J.'I:~nen

1 ~',


dM aD_,8lT'OW


h" ."BSjml,-- C'hi K ·UDg.



Chapter 5
Categories of Chi Kung
Chi Kung is. the 'study of :your body'si,gy field, ..and it is directly relatedto y,our phy'si,cal" emoltional, mental, and even :spirituaI bealth .. Both Eastern. and Western religions inf1uence~the body",s Chi, indil'lectly through Dr mental means, or directly through eonscieus manipulation. In tbe East" I',eligi,onhas been responsible fer s'ome of' the .greatest developments in Chi !tung.. Th!e

'Oriental religions have been more aware than the Occidental religions, of the rol'l Chi plays in OUI' spiritual and em.otional lives. Chi Kung starts withphys.ieal science (:strengthening' the body); then. movies on. to lenergy- s·cie~nce (Chi), then with mental seiance (nJeut.ralizing the mind), ..and I"leaches science (enlightenment). When YDU study Chinese Chi Kung, you should be 8'w:ar,e IOfthe large role thatr,eli.gion has playe·d in it~ development .. .As, you. learn more about Chi Kung, you. will. beeome mor-e ·aw·.DJ'Ie 0'£ the W'ays in whieh tbe· Welstern :religioDs, have alse pr.acticed. this

'In this chapter we will first discus:s the relationshipl between Chi·and the Chinese religtens, and th'e·n. w,e will dlscusathe diffelrent cate,gories, of Chi Kung ..


", C""C'l- . Ji .. hj-' _ '

It is part of the human eonditien that w·e frequ·ent!y experience conflict betwe,e.n out hearts and. ourminds. So often we WftD,t to do " that we know 'we shouldn't, Apart lof us' knows whe're IJIUl' duties and moralobligations US'" but at the same time, our deairea are 'pulling' us in the opPoEdte dlire·ctio.n. All ,too often. 'we rm.d tha.t wi,ed.Gim .and de·sire· are in diXloctconflict. Desires which. we feel we cannot centrol drive us into I!U~tB'iJ,.ffoohshnessl or even violence. When. we do things w1eknow w'e 8IhO'uldm"t~w,e fe,s] an Inner pain caused by the conflict. T'he Bud·dbbll,tSI and Taoistsl say that there are sevenhuman em,oitioDS·: joy, anger, sorrow, £ear~ lo-ve, hate, and. Iust; and s.ix. desires w'bich originate six roots: the leye~s,ears, nose, tongue, body, ..and mind, Th,es,C! seven ,e'motions and six: desirles. are produeta of the emotional mind. Although some of the e~motionsl, like Ieve, can aet fo uplift US" moat of the emotions and desires

X·_ ···d R-.-:-Ii~lion .gnll 1lB_,_. .,e


lead us to the evil and u,gly side of life, the side of human disaster, IT W:B learn tJOIst,rsngthen the wisdom mind. we ean gain calmness and peace, and this cam b,elp U:& to de'velop' p,atience" perseverance, mind, People need tOI be taught how to strengthen the g,ood side and overcome tbe negative side of the:ir' nabure. A ,P JUJr' ru edueatiun cu1:tivates and, matures the wiadem min-d -- the ,ability to judge which can cO'Dtrol the seven emetions and six desires. -P,art of DUll" nature is, greedy and selfish, and causes us to struggle for' money and power. Whe~n th,e mo,r,al IUl'rt ,of our natures is suppressed, our minds seem to become ,evil ~- murder, tbe£t 'rape, anything becomes posisible..Throughout history" 'm,aDY people have worshiped as heroes those who could kil], eanquer, an,d enslave others.. TtJday"s movies and TV p~Dlgrams, are filled wi:th stories of kHHng and viol.enc,e. 'The younger ganerarions are eentlnually being educated in-to,this mindset whe:n tbey w,at,ch these programs, ,and even in history classreoms, In 'thiiBl way the seed of the ugly side of human nature isplante,d and continually noueished. 'This seed will grow, and the next generation wUl perpetuate the violence, hatred, and greed, Tbesle violent emo,tioDS lean Dften suppress or distort the Iove and peace in people, but there is a cost. Since the ),o'D'ging for love and peace is - an inborn pa'rt of human nature, the violent. and, hatefUl emotions c,onsta.ntly cause an inner conflict. It is tbis, confli.ct which bas generated the different rehgions of mankind. Relig,ion br'iDg,s a hope fur peace, and encourages people to ~:l'treDgthe:n the, good sidle oftheir natures. Manycp'eo,ple gainpeace B'nd confidence, and overcome the, sometimes crushing fear and . unee rtam t:Y' Wh1&h surrnun dus In thi me, ' .... us i .·U;, lI'S':

strong 'will, and a sense of justice and harmony, These virtues enable us to overcome the disasters ereated from the emotiena]

-- tbe believers mu.stlearn to meditate in order' te gain peace of mind..M.editation (andp,rayer,.whic.h is a form of meditation) is, able to bring eenselation and calmness, and build. B,e,lf .. ,co"nfiden,c,e. Meditation regulates tbe mind, and. balanees the Chi
'Whi.iCh had been disturbed by emetional distress. M,any people have found. that prayer brings them an iOD,e,'!" 'peace which has 'helped them 'recover from fllness, Wi'th the increase of selfconfidence, the 6,p,irit is ralsed and firm,e,d. Th,][s, raiaed slp,irit has,

All ef the Idifferent

re1i:g1ons seem to have ODiepoint of s,imilarity



major force in the: fight to lassen the suffering in this

Buddhiam and Taois,m teach, like Ch.ristianity, that there is 18 heavenly kingdom and there is ,8 hell, 'If you are good and have . d' d -1 uve, done g,oD'-eEL dSW. hi]e yOiU. were a.)'" you WI"'11 be ret'b ern ,U, a human being, o:r you may even go to heaven as a Buddha iQlr,saint and leave the ~:vclle of'rerin.carnation behind, If you have been evil, ylou may end. up in tbe hell of suffering and punishment, and/or be rebo"rn as aD anim,aL Al:mo,st everyone in aneient times was, uneducated. They we,'Fe worried and confused about their' Iives, and they were afraid of what might bap,pen after death, Religions teach about heaven and hen tOI encourage people to bagoad instead of bad. Once people w'er'e t~ying tOI behave moraJl,Y, 'm@;lditation. Not ,surprisingly" a great nnmber of meditation teehniques were developed by religious practitioners" and the Chinese Buddhists
reli,gion tau,ght them how' to gain peace of mmd thr-ough


and Taoists dee',ply researehed the related field of Chi Kung,. In '[" it W&S' the 'religious Cbi KUD,g' practitione:l";s whom.ade th,e lI'eates,t achieive·m.,e'nts :in tbe developmle.nt 'Of Chi ,Kung'. T.hia is e:sp,eciaJly tru.le i:n this. hi,gbes,'t .le:·vel, of Chi KUD:g',-which is enlighteriment~ ,At thialevs:l t.hesltudy of' human ,s,ner,gy is spiritus,l science, and it becomee independent of religi,'Dln. From thi:s, di'B'cussion you e,B.nsee tbatreligion and, Chi. Kung are' deeply intertwined. A- thoroug.b research of Chinese Chi Kung' 81h.oufd also includeth.e study ef the historical bac'krr,oIUDld and theory oftbese religbJln:s wm1ch bave :inOuenced Ohinese culture, It eould ,also Involve a cOlmparisQ'o of Chine,se Cbi .Kung w'ith di t' 'hi"' I.gJIOU·S mac itat- l'DiD t tee h . 'ruques., '1 b ,etevet 'h" a;', 't: 18, WO-uId'" ~ Ii· W'estern r,a1· · ,be.lp you to understand more clearl,y the relatio1n:s'hip betwee,n human nature and 'C.,hiKung,.

&.:ZIICa'tegorie8, of Chi K:un8

.beal,th wer,e discovler'ed~ ev'ery levlel of "the C,hines,e pop,ulati1on has practiced. ,Cbi ,Kung at some time. There are four maj,lolr' 8,chools. or c,atego,ries wbic.h were created by the different elasses IOf peopl'e. 'Tbe' s'cbolars" medieal doctors, ms.rtial artists, and rehgious 'monks all bad tbeir Idis'tincti,ve categories of 'C-biKung. The martial. 'Cbi KaB,g W,B.:8 a,gain divided into external and internal s,tyles, RDd the reUKious C·hi KUllgW~UI divided into Buddhist, Ta,oist" and, Ti.betan styles. -In order to obtain 18 healthy 'body;, you must cultivI8'tebo,tb Shing (Human Nat,ure)' and, MinK (Physlicai Life). A majorp,art ef Chinese pbiloB10p.byh.lI.s focu8,e,d IO,D tbe ,study of' humannatllr"(!:I' feeIingst ,and spiri:t" as can be seen Ifuj,peciaUy in Chinese scbolarly and Buddhis't (also Tibetan}religious, :society. Of all the diffe'rent catego' o:f CbiKuD,g', the .,c,holarly and, rehgioua Chi KUD"g c:ategol'is18 originated fro,m a.n.d focused, on th,ecultiv;ation of' human, nature andslp,irit. Human and sp,irit; as ,a. matter of fact" were tbe m'tilst baJl!d,c: root ,of'scholarly and. religiolu:s philosophy in China.. Pbysi cal 'life was cODsid,e:red to be not IUi~ im,p'ortant aathe spiritual life.. Fo,rthis reasen, most of the still m,edita.t.i.on"whicb B,pec.ialize:s in t.he eultiv,ation of the spIrit, wa'l developed and studied by the sehelars and BuJddbisotmon'k;s'. Howev,e:r~, tbes'e two groups, wer'e striving for different goals. The scholars believed t.bat -t'he 'major .iU.nesse:s wer,e caused by emotional and Bpil',c1e., Tb,ey used medttati'oD, te regulate the miu!d and sp,irit., and. 'thereby Igain gDoldhealth, T'he Bud.dhist monks were aiming' for sp,ir'ltual in1d1ependence and ultimately th.ei ,stage of enli,gbtenment or 'Buddbabood.Of these two groups, the .B,ud.,dhist (including Tibetan) 'monu we're able to re'ach the highest, levels of ,mc,di'ta'tion., which almo'st no other Ityl.le 'in China was able to de, Howevle,r, even though these t,WO :scbo'o1:s of Chi Kung erm.pbasized s,pirituaJ me ditatioll , t,hey also used 8 .limited 'Dumber of Chi KU.Qg exerci.8,e·g which train.ed. 'tbe' pihY~8Iica] body, aueh a's D,B. Mo'si M.U's,cletrendoln 'Ch.anging,ex'ercises., The 'Cbine,se medical doctors, on ,the otheir hand, thoulbt ,altbough sp,irituBI m'editati,oDW'BS 'important,'ltivatioD was even more critical,Eor he:alth and healing, Furtberm'Qlrtl, i.t wa;1 ,difticultto teach laymen 8,t.ill ,medi'tati,o,n,. which. wa,s vle'ry 'hard, to un.ders'tauld and practi,cs:. Therefof'e, tb,€' Chi Ku:ng
l l

I'D the several thous,Bnd year.s since Chi and its, to

exereises ereated 'by the 'med,icai doctors focused O1:n physfcal health andhealing; and used 'mostly physical Chi Kung exercises. 'ThrB pby,si,cians also relied heavily on acupuncture and herbs to adj:u,st irregular Chi eausedby sickness". HowevrerJ! acecrding to the available' deeuments, many Chi KUD"g practitio:ners of ditTelle:nt categeries feel that the, Taoist, Chi Kung was probably the 'mos,t eomplete both In ,theory and training because it empha,B,ized the spiritual and phy,sic,al equally. The Taois,t,8, ,also researched how different herbs ,af£ect the Chi circulation" and, 1Jl:serd, these herbs, to speed and sm,Qo,th their share his- Chi' with his partners, or' through mutual. assistance 'help each other to speed up, the eul tivatioD., The effect of' ,diet, on the rChi eireulation W,B.S, also dreeply studied. The'irres,earch, W,II, extensive and p:ractical. Their training methods therefore spread m,dely in 'Chine'se Cbi Kung socie~ .. According to the available documents, we can roughly lclas,sify Chi Kung into fiv'rs' major lca,ts'gories, according to th.eir pUI'pOSIB01" fmal goal: 1 .. m.aintaining health; 2. curing siekness; 8.proloroging· life; 4.. 'martial skill; and ,5 enhghtenment or Buddbahood. Even, .. though w'e show 8 different training purpose ,01' aim for each category" you should understand that it is not possible to define all ef the ca.te,gories, strictly a:cc'o,rding to their traimn,g purpose, This is ,s:im:ply because almost reve'ry ,styl,e of Chi. Kung serve's,merethan one of'the above purposes. For example, although martil,a] Chi Kung focuses on tncreastng fightin,g effectiv'I'nleBs~ it, can also improve your health. T'he, Taoist, C,hl Kung aims fbr' longevit:y and ,enlightenment, 'but to reach this goal you need to bel in g'ood, health and know 'bow to cure sickness. Because of this multipnrpese aspect of the categories, illt will be simpler to ,dis'CU9.B their' backgrounds rather than the goals, of their training, Kn,Qwing 'the:
his,tory and 'bas,ic principles of each ,c:ateJg'ory will help you to understand their IChi Kung more cl,early. In this seetien we:will progr'e,ss. Th.ey even ,stu.died how one Chi Kung p'ractitiione'r could

discuss each category in more detail, 1 Scholar Chi Kuol '"for ,MaintaiDing Healtb: •. In ,Ohina before the Han dynasty, there W.f!re two ,m,ajO'r sehools of aehelarship. One rof them was created b,' Confucius (,551-47r9 B .oC:.) during the Sp'ring' and Autumn Period, -and the scholar I 'who practice his philo~sopb'y' are rcommonly called 'Confucian:s,. Later his philos,o'phy waapepularized and enlarged by M en.ciu8 (372:-289 B.C ..) in the Warrin,g S,tates, Period. Tb.,e:peoplewno practiced this were ealled Ru Jis (Oonfucianieta). The key words to 'their basic phHo,s,ophy are Loyalty, F:ilial Piety~, Humanity, Kindness, Tru,s,t, Justice~ H',armo:ny, and Peaee, H:nmanity and the human fe'elings,

are the main sul)jects of study~ Ru J'j,a. 'philrCUJOpby 'has become the,

center of mueh OIf Chinese' culture. The second majnr school of fH~h{JI,arsbipwB.9, called T'ao rJia

(Taois,m) and was, created by L,SOrTzyy in the 6th cen:tury B,.C., Lao Tzyy is cDnsideredto be ·the author of a. book called 'the ~mTao ~e Ching" (Mror'wity Classic) which described 'human morality, Later, in the Warrina State,s Period, his follower' ,Jusng ,Jrou 'Wl\O,te H, book. called IIJ'u,ang T,zyy,,"" which led to th.e ferming of another 8,trong branch of 9cbo},arsbip. Bei£ore' the Han dyna,sty, Taoism was not, eensidered a. reUgioD but rather another braneh lof scholarship, It was Dot until the Han dyn,8.sty that traditional Taoi,sm W,B,S,

.. 06

combined with the! Buddhism imported from India, and it began gradually to be treated as a religion, Therefore, the Taoism before the Han dynasty should be considered scholar ly Taoism rather In regards to their contributi'on to Chi Kung, both sehoels of schularahip emphasraed maintaining health - and preventmg disease. 'Thier believed that many Illnesses are caused b,Ymental and emo,tion,g] exeesaes. W'hen ,8 person's mind is not calm" balanced" and peaceful, the organs, 'win not function Jlorm,all'y~ For example, depression lean cause stumaeh ulcers and indi,ges,tion. Anger wiU cause tbe liver to malfunction. Sadness, will cause stagnation and tightness in the Iungs, and fear ean disturbthe normal functioning of'the kidneys and bladder. T'he:YfieaUzed that if youwa.nt to avoid illness" you must learn to balance, and relax your tbon,ghts Bud emotions. 'This, is, called "regulating' the mind, Tber,efore,the scholars emphasized gainina a peaeeful mind threughmedisatien. In their stillmeditationvthemaln part of the training is getting zid of thoughts sathat tbemind Is clear and calm. When you become calm; the flow IOf thoughts, and emotions slow's down, and you feel mentally and emotionally neutral, 'This kind of'meditation can be tbought of as praetieing' emetional selfcontrol. When you are in this "no thought'! state, you become very relaxed, and can even r'lelax deep d.own into yonI' internal organs, When yonrbody Iathis relaxed, youI' Chi win flow ,smoothly and stron,gly naturally. This kind of' still meditation was, very eemmon in, ancient Chinese scholarly :society. In erder to reach, the ,goal of a calm and peaceful mind" their training foeused on regulating the mind" body, and breath, IThey believed th,at as long asthese three thin,gs were re,gulateld,the Chi flow wou.ld be smooth and sickness would. not occur. This is,w'hy 'the Chi training of the scholars is called. "Shieu Chi, ~~ which means "eultfvating Chi." S,hiou in Chinese means tore,gulate, to cultivate;J or to repair, It means to maintain in goed condition. This is very different from the Taoist Chi training after' the Han d.yn,as,ty whicb was called "Liann Chi,·· w,bich is tr,anslated "train Chi, Liann means to drill or to practice to make stro-nger. T,aoist Chi Kung afte'r the Han dynas'tywill be discussed Iater, Ma~ny-of the Chi Kung documents writt'en by 'the Confucians and Taoists, were limited to the mairrtenanee of health, The scholar's atti.tude in Chi Kun,g w,as to :follow his, natura') de'stinY' and maintain his health. This 'philos,o,phy is quite' differeD.t from that of "the Taoist'l, after the Han, dynasty" who denied that one's des,tiny could D,al he changed, They believed t.hatit is possible to train your Chi t,o make i.t stronger, and tOI reach the goal of longevit~, It is, fJ'aid in seholarly society: IIRen ,Sbeng IChii Shyr' Guu Lai Shi/~(*l) which 'means "[n human life se:venty is rare." You shenld understand thai :few of the commcn people in ancient tim,as lived past s,even,ty because of the lack lof' ,good food and raodernmedical 'tecnnlology: It is also saild: II'An Ti,an Leh Ming," which means "peace with heaven and delight in. your destiny"; and "'Slh' 'Sh .' ~:nn Ai· '. M' - .,'W_I'C" mleans. cu Itiva t· th b 0'dy ,aD.~ hich -- d, __IOU _'_.,·.lng, ·l,va'e' . Ie. awail destiny. Co'mpar~e this, with tbe phillosopby lof the later

tban, l"eH,gions.



C*U. Li.,J ,.... •..


l't··J'.t- f: ..



14 ." ..'~



'Taoists, who said: 'Yi Baa E,r Shyr Wey,J'y Yeau;,""(*'2') which 'means, "~olDe:
hnndred and twen.ty means dying yo~g.,'i They be)i'eved, and have proven that human nCe can be' lengthened and destiny can, be resiste,d and




CQ,nftIcianism,,and Tao,ism were the two major schools of scho]srsbip 'in Cbina, but there were 'many other 8chool:s which were also more lOr less involved in Chi e~er,ci8tlS~ We will .not discuS's, thelm here beeanse 'the're is O,nlY,8 limited number of Chi Kung ,documents from 'tb'ese ,schools., To 'conclude, the basic c'huaeterisititS ef scholarly' Chi. Kung training


over 1
M,I after' typ.ic: Aniu on IS]• aneu

Cbi f

A Spiritual and mental Chi K~g wu lemphasized more, than phyBi,cal Chi Kung. B. Tbepuhlisbed deeuments 'which ,ue related to Chi Kung diseuss it in a random, 'Unorganized~and unsystematic fashion. e,1I M'aintainiDg heal,tb was the ,g)oalof Chi cultivation. Overcoming' deatb and d,eltiny was eonsi,dendl impossible. D..Before the Han dynas,t:y" Taoism was considered a branch of scbolarship"w'her,eas, after the Han dynasty it became in.volved in
religion and became' 'the' Taoist I',eli:gi.on .. TheJ'lefore" the IChi Kung , de-vslOiped by the T,aois.ts, before the Han dy-ua:s.ty was, considered sebolar~y'Taoist Cbi Kung~.


help man. heal this




mac pbyz

2'.MedIcal, Chi KUDI' .. tor BeaUDI:


because they made tbeir- di.agnosis by touching tbe patient'si body, whieh was considered ,chara,cteristic of'the IDlwer elasseain :BocietJ~, AlthoQgh the Idoc:torR d'e,veloped, a profound, and a,u£cessful medi,ool science, they were commonly lookled down '0,0. However, they eo'ntinued 'to wortham. and stu"y" ,and quis,tlypsssed down the res,ults lof th.eir researc.b to following geneT,aeons. ,Ofall the: groups studying Chi Kung in China,the dooton have been at it ,the:longest. S,moo ibe discovery of Chi ,ci~culation in the human body about four' 'thousand years 8,go,the Chinese doctors have devoted II major' portion of their efforts to the' ;study of the, behavior iQf Chi. Their efforts r,e'sulted in acupuncture" acupr,essure or 'Ca:vity Press massage, ,ana herba1 In addition"many Chinese doctors, used their medic91kn'owledge t-o ereate different Bets of GmKung exercises either for maintainin,g' hea),th or fot' curin,g specifi.c illnesses. C.hioele' medical doctors, believed that ,doing only sitting Oll" .still m,editati.on toregul:ate the: body~mind, and br-eathing as the: scholars, didw88 not enough to cure ,sickness. Theybe:lieved, that, in order teinereasa the: Chi eireulation, you 'must move. Although a calm and peaceful mind W,ILS ,important fbr bealth, lexercismg the body W,D :more important. They'learned through theirmedicaI practice' tbatpeO'ple wbo exer-ci:sed. properlly gOot. ick, less o.ften~ and. their' bodi,e~s,degenerated less, s quickly than W,IlS the case with 'peoiple who just sat around, IThey also reBlized that specific 'body movemenblJ could, increase the ,Chi circulation in specific organs. They reasoned from, this, ,that tbe,B8 ex,er·cises,could also be use-d '~O treat s:pecmc illneeses and b,resto:re, the n.ormal tb.nctio,ning of these organs,.

In ancient Chinese society, most emperors respected 'the :s'Cholarsand w'ere ,dected by their ph.uOBOpby~ Doctors were not regarded higbly


'too chal


not the


con of ,s





the bee









Some of these movements are s;imDar to 'the way in whieh ,certain animalsmove. It is clear' 'that in order for an animal to survive in the wild, it must have an ins,tinct for 'how to protect its body. Part 'Of this instinct ill concerned with how to build up, its, ChiI' and how to keep ,i'ts Chi from being lost. We: humans have lost many of these instincts oy,er 'tbeyeare that we have been separ,sting ours'elves fr,om nature .. Many doctors de'f,eloped Chi Kun,g ,e~erd:ses which wem mode'led after animal movements to maintam health and, cure sickness, A typical. well known 8 8t o.f such exercises is uWuu Chyn Sh:ih". (Five Animal Sports) ,cr,eated by Dr. Jinn Ohiam, Anothe'l' famous set based on ,similar principles i!s called "Ba Duann Gin (The Eight Pieces of' Brocade). It was created by ,Marsha),Yeuh Fei 'who, in.tere,s.tin.,gly


Chinese doeters researched until 'they fo'und which mOV8'ments could. help eurepartieular illnesses and health problems. Not s,urprisingly, many Qif thesemeeements were not, unlike the ones used tOI maintain bealth, ~dnee many illnes,s,es, are caused by unbalanced Chi .. Wh.en . I . " d f-':'··· ts, rmna anee continues, f,Qlra ,o~g' pen,o~ 0,. ', t'h organs will b ~e '. '_Ie hi . bal

enough was, a s'oldier rather than a ,docto,r;" In addition, using th.eir medical knowled,ge olr Chi, eirculation

affected, and m,a;y be 'physic,ally d,

ABNORMAL CHI CIRCULATION 1:8 THE 'VEHYBEGINNING -F: .I.Lt.II.d,.m." 1131AND' . _>.::lI..1li:1c__ TTT~sa PT:r'ViCJ-ICAL O'-RG"AN- DA.· ... ·.. 'G·EI 'Wh--·en C"b'" IS '_" :tti:,.Lft! <.' :- _: i O tooposfut,ive: (Yan,g) or too negative (Yin) in II. speeifie ,organ, Obi channel, your physieal organ is beginning to suffer damage, If Y'DU do

machine without supplying the proper electrical eurrent ....over time, the machine will be ~dam.ged.- Chinese doetors believe that before physi,csl d,amag,e to an o'l,g,an shows up, in a patient's body; there is first an abnol"m,ality in the Chi bakanee and circulatio,D,.
_c_-,' . '." .' ,'_
"I .

irs, just like running a

,dllener,a.te, .. The best way to heal someone: is to, at\jus,t, and balance 'th,e Chi evsn before there is ,any physical problem. Th,ere~orie., eo.~recting or increas,ing the normal Chi circulation, is, the' maj,or ,goa] of aeupuneture 01" acupressure tre'atm,enis., Herbs ,and ,speci,al dietsl are a]:80 considered important treatments, in rel\lla,tin:g the Chi in the

not eerreet the Cbi cireulattun,

that organ w'iU malfunction



the ,phy:sicaI oreans ha ve started to fail;i then th,e rsituatio,n has become eritieal and a specmctre's.,tm8nt is ne cess ary" The,t can be liU!Upnneture'" herbs, QIl"'even an operation" as well a,s speci:flc

,As lOln,gas the Illness is, Iimited toth.e lev,s:l o.f ,Chi stagnation and there is nophy,sical organ damage, the Chi Kun,g' 'eXi81',cis'BS used 'for maintaining bealth can be: used to r,eadj:nst the' Chi circulatien and treat the' problem. However" if the s.ickn,esI81 i8 already so serious that

C.hiKUIlg e~e~cises d' speed up the healing or' even to. cure the sickness,. For esample, ulcers and asthma can often be cured or helped by ,simple exercises. Recently in both. mainland China

Over the th'Dusands of ye,ars, of observing nature and themselves, some C'hiKung' praetitaoners went even deeper. They realized that

and T'a'iwan, eertain Chi. Kung exercises have been shewn to 'bel effective in treating certain kinds of Icaneer.(*S)

(,*3).Tber,e fie m8lllY "epo:rts in. popular ,M.d profussi.onaiUml',a.ture ,of using Chi :Kung to help 'Dr even eure many jUne se8 .. inelu_dimg Icancer.Many ,ca8e9hay~' been discus,sed in the 'Chinese IC:hi. Kung j!oumal.s. ODie book w'bicb d,escri'bea, the use ,uf Chi Kung to cure canee:l'is New Chi Kun _' fol" ~e,veDlin:I' and CuriDl Cancer

( ,jl;~ ~/J' rZ )~' ~~~:.J!,'by Yah MinI, Chinese )


'iola. Publications Taiwan,

"the~ body's 'Chi Ci.f,cwatioln changes, with the seasons" andthBt characteristic preblems,

good idea ,to help the body out dur,illg the:se peri,lodic adjustments,. Theyo,ot,iced also that in eaeh SI'UiBon differe'ot org,ans had

i:t l'S a

Your digesltive syslte,m is ,also affected during :se'8sonal changes., Your appe'ti.tem,ay mereaee, air you, may have diarrhea. 'When the temperature gees down, your' 'kidneys aDd bladd,er'will start to pv,e y,ou troublel. For exam'p~e, because the: kidneys are s,tres,sed" yon 'm,ay feel pain in the baek, -Focus,iDg 'on these seasonallChi disorders, ,the meditators, created a B,et of movements whicb can be used to speedup 'the body':s a,djust'ment. Tbese: Chi Kung' exercises, will be introduced,

your lungs may feeJ uncomffJrt'abl'e

For example, in. the beginning' 'of Fa'll tbe lung:s have to adapt to the eolder air that youa~e breathing. Whil,e this,usting i.s pin,g 'On, the' lungs are :sus1ce'ptible: to' dlstutbanlee:, so'

and ylou may catch cold,s easily.

in sIater volume, In addition tal Marsbal Ye:uh F:ei",manypeoplle, who w'ore not, d'octors ,curing Isi,cknesa.


also created s,ets of medical Chi Kung. 'T'bes,e: sets w'ere probably created to maintainbeaitb,; and later 'w,ere also used, for
Tbe characteristics of medical Chi Kung are: moving .meditativ'e lex1ere'is'es more

,A,. .M,edical Chi Kung' empbasizes

B,.The ,ml\ior goals of medical Chi .Kun;g are maintaining health and, curin,g sickness., C. Chi :Kung exereises w,el""eonly a s,m,aU p,art of 'Chinese medi}cal ·'science. Herbal ·tr,e.atmlent't ,acu.punctul'Ie; and aeupressure remain,ed the majo,r ',methods, Dr h.ealing.

tbansitting stiUmedit'atio.n.,

3. Martial Chi KUDg'

Ohinese martial .Mo"sMuscl~ndon


Chi Kung wa·s probably nOlt, dev,elop'ed until Da Changing Classic w;as-developed in the SbBoUn Templ,! during the Liang dynu'ty (5h02~557 A.D.,)", Wbe'D ShaoUn mOlnks tr,aine1d DB. M'g's, Mu·s'clelTendon Changi_ng Chi Kung, th.ey fonnld thattb.e:y could Do,t only improve their bealth but, also greatly merease the: power of'tbeir martial techniques, Since th.en,m,a'n,Y ma'rti.a1 sityles, have d'evelop,ed Chi Kung set's to increase effeetiven,ess,. In ,addition, many martial styles, haver 'been ereated based on 'Chi Kong theozy~ M,artial,Brti,sts baveplayed a majlor rol.e in Chinese Cbi Kung society. When Chi Kung theory 'was ,fif,st appUed, to ,the martial art's" it, 'W,8S 'Used 'to merease the pOlwer and effiei1ency of' the muscles~ 'The thenry is, ve,ry :simple,--the 'mind (!i) is u8'ed '00 lle,ad Cbi 'tOI the 'musc}esoo ene'rgizethem. 101that theyfu'DctioD mOll! efficiently. The average person Ie/nerally uses his mnaeles at under 40% maximum. eftieilency~ If one ean trainhie eeneentration and use his stJ'long Yi te lead Chi to 'tbe muscles effectively, be 'will beahle tOI energize tbe m.U!Bcle:B tOI a h_igher level an.d, ,therefolre, in,c~easlehis fighting effectiveness,. As acupuncture 't.h,eory became better nn,der:sto,o"m, 'fight'ing techniques, were able to reach even .Morre ,advanced! leV1els. Martial eaused inj,ury or eveD ds'ath . In order 'to dethis, the practitioner must unlderstan.d 'th,e .~oute and timing olr the ICbi circula.tion i'D the buma__n body. He also bas, to train sothat he can :strik'B tbe ,cavitilBS ,Bccurat,e·ly and, "to the correct depth,. The'se cavity strike techniqu,es are 'call'ed

'or' 'Fi.ghtiDI=

artista Iearned to attack specific area's, such. a,8 vital aeupuneture Icavit:i'es,'oo disturb the enem;y"s Chi n,ow and Icrea·te bnbalanee'swhich

nD-C,· - s·'1·.. - h~w'h" ('Do· -t"_·g- C-'a ...rit·e)· al liD" . M'Iak~.. (0-· ... ·.w;ves'sel-) ~ len rl_',ml~ .. ' ,u,~,,·.l'._rs. - ,1m ......' " rOln",l·n···1:l' ' ;13

which were based on Chi Kung theory, They can be roughly divided into externaland internal styles., .

Most of the m,a,rtiai Chi Kung praetiees help to improve the 'practitioner's health. However', there are other' martial Chi Kung' practices which, although the'j build up, some special skill which. is useful for fighti.nK, also damage the p'I",actitioner's, health. ,An example of this, is, Iron Sand Palm, Although this training can build up amazing destructivlepowel", it can also harm your bands and affect the Chi circulation in the hands and the internal organs, Since the' 6th ,c,eD'tur''y~many martial styles have been created IThe extern,al styles, emphasize building Chi in the Hlmbs to coordinate with the physica] martial techniques. IThey fonow the theory of Wai D,aD '(external elixir) Cbi Kung. In. 'Wai Dan. Chi. Kung, Chi iSI usually generated in the limba through special exercise,s., Tbe' concentrated mind is used during the exercises to energize ths Chilo This increases, muscular st'r,ength significantly,

Increases the effectiv,eness of' the 'martial techniques, Chi Knng can alse be used to train the' body t.O resist punches and kicks, In this training', Chi. is lela. to energise the skin and the muscles, enablmg them to 'resist a blow withDut injury. This "G' J'IIO,D&' J' awr, T'h'e ma, rt' Il ar Stryres W hime use ) 1. Ow I '\ '. -in -h Wai Dian Chi. Kung training are nnrmally called external styles


tr,aining' is commonly
,0ld en~ B--C-' II._ over ' __c,e,-CC


'*Ir'OD S,hirt," (TieiB Buh Shan)





hard sty~,es (Ying Kung). Shaolin Kung Fu is, a, typi,cal example 'of a, style which uses Wai Dan martial Chi Kung" Altholugb Wail Dan Chi Kung can help the martial artist increase his power, therals a disadvantage, Because Wai Dan Chi Kung' emphasizea nraining the external muscles, it can cause overdevelopment. This, can cause a problem called "energy disperaion" (Sann Kun,g) wben the practitioner gets older, I:n order te rem'e,dy thia, when an external marti a] arti Ell reaches a high le'vel of external Chi Kung tr,sining he wiU start training internal Chi Kun,g, which specializes in curing the energy disper;sion problem, That is why it is "Shaolin Kung Fn from external to inte'mal.'~ Internal ,M,artial Chi Kung is based on the theory of Ne'li Dan (irrternal elixir), In this method, Chi is generated in th.e,bc'ldy Instead of the Iimbs, and this Ch.i is then led tOI the limbs to increase power, In order to lead Chi to. the limbs, the techniques must be soft and muscle usage m'Us't be 'kept to a :minimum. Tbe 'trainiQg and theory of' Nei Dan martial Chi KUD,r is much harder than those IOf the Wai. 'Dan martial Chi Kung. The interested reader should refer to the author's book: n,Adv,ancedYang Style Tai Chi Chuan- .. ai Chi Thre10ry and Tai. Chi Jing'." Several Internal T martial styles were cl"e'a.tedin. the Wuudaog' and Ermei M.ountains. Popular styles are Tai Chi Chuan, Ba Kua, Liu Ho Ba F,B, and Bs;in,gYil.Howeve!r" you. should understand 'that. even theinterna] martial s,tylles" which are ,commonly called ,soft style's", must on some oeeasions use muscular strength while fighting., Therefore" once' an internal martial artist has achieved a degree of competence in Internal Chi Kung, 'he should also Iearn how t-ous'e harder" more external techniques, That is why it 'is said: "the internal B,tyleJs are
I(Wai Kung)

from soft, to hard .."

In the last "fifty ye,ars, some of the Tai Chi Chi Kung or Tai Chi Chuan praetitionere have developed training which. is mainly 'or h ea lrh ' . II IIW:' hi ~_"an: d IS carreud vwu 'Ch· C·,,·.1 ~ungl '. III h-. -K' W,'UL h means .DO extremitiEU! Chi Kung." Wu Chi is the state of' neutrality



preeedes Tai Chi" w'bich i's tbe state of complim1entary op'posites. When thef1e are thoughts and feeHn\g:B -in your mind, there is, Yin and Yang', but if }'OU ean still you-r mind you can return to tbe em.ptiness of 'W'u Cbi. When you achieve this, s,tate your mind is cen.tered. and clear and your bodyrelaxed, and your Chi is able to 'flo,wn,atur,aUy and ~8m,oo,thly ,and reach the proper balance by itself. Wu, Chi lC,hl ,Kung has beeerne very popular -in mamypa'rts of China, M.rd Canton., You ean see th.a,t although. Cbi Kung is widlely studied jn Chinese ' "society, the main focus, of'tr'sinin\g was originally onincreasing'.figbting- -ability inste:od of he,altb" Good bealth was, eonaidered H, by"plrodue.t oftbe'tr,Q,i.ning,. It W',IS not 'UntH, ,ce.ntu,rythat the health aSrpelct ,01'£ m,iil'r'tial,Chi. Ku'ng started .. tt to, . ,y._,ru1em- tb e In,erns_ ·lc . .t reeervmg grea t-er a·!en_llOn. Thi'" 18 espeerar 11 t _lIS ". 'martial arts,. Please refer to the fu,tur-eYMAA in-depth. Chi Kun:g


book aeries: !~ChiKung and Martial Arts."

4., Re'ligiou8

Chi K,UDI'·' fo,1"EnJilhte,nm,eD't or B;ud:dhahood,:. Religious, Chi Kun,g, though not a.s popular ,8S, categories in Chi.ns", is re'cognized as havin:g' aehleved the highlest aC1com.plis,h.ment's ,of .all tbe rChi Kung categories. It used to b'e k,lep't secret, an.ditis only in this, ce,ntury that it has been revealed 'to. In. C'hina" religiousl Ch.i Ku'ng includes malnly Taois,'t, and Buddbi~st Chi ,Kung., The main. purpose of their tr,8! is striving for enligh~enment, Oil"what tbeBuddhists refer to as, Buddhahood, They are looking for' .aw.ay to li.ft themselves above normal human s,ufferi~g, and 'to eseape &om 'the cycle 'o!fcontinual reinearnatlon. They believe tb,at all human suffering' is, caused by the, seven emotions land six de,B,ires. If' you are still bound tOI these emotiolls and desires, you will reincarnate: after your death, To avoid, reincarnation" yo"u.must tr,ain your Ispirit 'to reach a very bi,gh stage ",berle it is. strong enough to be independent. after your death, This spirit 'will enter the he a.v'enJY' kingdom and gain et'er,nal peace. This iSi hard to do in the everyday world, S'O they fr·equentl,Y flee 's'ociety and 'm,ove intotbe solitude of the mountains, whe:re they ean concentrate all of their energies on self-enlfivation. ,Religious Chi ,Kun,g' pra,etitione,rs train to str'engthen their' internal Cb~i, o nourish their g,'pirit (Shen) this 8pj~riti9 able t-o t s'Ufflv,ethe' death of the pbysical body. M,arrow Washing Chi Kung training is necessary to reach this ,$tag,e. It enables 'them to 'lead Chi to the for1ebeBd., wber,e ther:rpirit resides},on.d r,lIi,se the brain to, a highe,r' energy state. ITbis training used to be restrilcted to lo.nly B. few priests wbol had reached an advanced. level. Tibetan Buddhists 'were also mvolved heavily in,g. Over fhe last two tboiusand years. the Tibetan Buddhists, tbe Chinese Buddhists, and the Taoist have foUowe,d the same prmeiplea to become the three
'major religious sehool s of ebi Kun,g' training', .. This, religious striving tow8,t'd enlightenment or Buddhahood is recognized as the higbest and most d~imCll1t level of Cbi Kung. Ma.ny Chi Kun,g practition:ers rejected. the rigor:s of thi,9 religious striving,~ and pr'Bcticed M'arrow W,a,ebing Chi Kung s,olely For the purpose of longevity. It W8JS these people. wbo leventuBUy revealed the secreta of Marrow Wa:sbingto the o,u'tside world. Marro,w' Was,hing Chi 'Kung win be diseusaed in the second v,ollumeo,f YMAAis in .. opth Chi Kung 'book series. d


-66 ..

Buddhi:s,t Chi Kon,g .. fo,r ,BUlddhahood: Buddhism. was created by an Indian prince named Sakyamuni (558,.. 7,8 B,.C".). he was 29 ye,ars old, he became dissatisfied 4 with his comfortable' and sheltered life and left his, country. He went ou·t into the W'oFld. amo,ngtbe common 'people to experience' the pain and suffering in their Iives, Six y',e,ars Iater, he suddenly apprehended the "Truth and started t-o travel around and spread

his philo:soph'y~

Buddhiens 'was, imported, mto China during the EaJstS'l"D. Ban dynasty '(58 A.D'.)., The Han emperors became sincere Buddhists, and Buddhism became the, main religion in China, Natnrally, the Buddhis,t m,,ation methods, were also learned by the Chinese Buddhist monks. Buddhist em Kung training is v',er,' ,similar to Chinese' scholarly Chi Kung. The main difference' is that while scholarly Chi K~g aims, at mJsintainiDg health; Buddbi It Chi Knng aims at becoming a Bu,ddha.Meditation is, a neeeasary process in trainingthe priest. to

s,tay emotionally neutra.L Buddhism behaves that all human 8uiferin,g is, caused by the seven passions, and six desires (Chii Ching y~. T-h .. .c.' L· lOW,W;l,. 'L) -. ie 's,ev',en paSS;lO'DS are JOY, ange:r"s'oITOW', rear, 1ave, hate, and lust. The desires are generated. from, the six roots which are the eyes" ears, nose, tOD,JlUe body, and mind (Hsin), Buddhists also cultivate within themselves a neutral ,state separated from the four emptlnesaes of earth, water. fire"and wind. They 'believe that this, training enables them to keep their spirits independent so they The early p,riestswerf! Dot so eoneerned with their 'phys,][c,al he:alth, and meditated in order to train themselves, to stay emotionally neutral. :Natnrally" most of the priests did not have long pbysic's1 lives, This situation lasted until the' Liang dynasty (502-5,57 A.D.)". when phYisical Chi Kung' exercises began to be emphasised in a limited Du,mber of Buddhist templea,,eis a famu,us, story about
can 8SC8:pe from.

the 'cycle of repeated, reincarnatton.

seclusion for nine years.. When he emerged he had written two books, the Yi Gin Ching' (MusclelTendon Changing Classic), and the Shii Soei Ching (M.arrowWashi'ng Classte). The techniques taught iln.the MusclelTeiodoDl Changmg Classic wera praeticed by ma.ny Buddhist pri,est,s,. They believed that th,ey needed strong a:nd he,althy bodies to complete their training, Th.e Shaolm prtests learned that when they practiced these exercises, not only did their health incrrea:s'e but their physical J power a1s,01increased si,gnHile,antly~ 'Tbey naturally used this, power funcoordination with, their fighting techniques when. th.ey had to defend themselves. This change marked 'OD'e more step i.n the ,growth of Chinese martdal arts: M.artial Chi Kung, This W,RS dilscuslred earlier. Many suets, IOf' physi,c'al Chi Kung exercise have been develop ed over the' ye,ars based on the principles expounded, in.

Da MOl. Da Mo 'W,8.S an 'Indian, Buddhist prince' who was invited to China tOI preach by emperor' Liang, Wben the, emperor did not favor' hlspbHosopby" Da Mowent to the Shaolin Templ-. He discovered that ,aU of the priests were weak &DId sickly, so he decided to help them. He shut 'himself a,way to ponder the' problem, and, stayed in

Da Mo",s book

Although it 'was often nece,ss'sry to defend eneself' durmg that violent period, the:l'lB' werf'O' many priests who Wlere' againsr fhe martial training. 'T'bey believed that as, Buddhist priests, they


MuscletThndon Changing.


finiihe,d this training he, can go, on to more' advanced training which has, the goal of' attaining' Buddhaheed, Before apriest ,started his Ma'r'row Wash'ing trai:nin,g 'be had to first complete the Mus:clelTendon Changing" which was conaldered the foundation. Unfortunately, the theory of ,MarrowWas,hing is very difficult, to understand, and the 'whole process, was kept secret 'by the monks, so for many centuries it was thought to be lest, It was o,nly in the last public. Da Mo is considere,d the ancest-or of the: Chinese' Cham 'I'zong, or 'the Zen seet of Th.e tradi tional teaching philosophy which has, been attributed to him is: t!'Jiaw Wa:i Bye Chwan, Bub -Lih Wen Tzyh; Jyr Jyy 'Ke,n Hsin, Jiann Shing Cherng 'For"'(*4) (Do n.ot paEU~n to people outside of our religion, 'words should not be written o down, point directly to the person's mind, to see 8.D..d cultivate the perlon.ali:t,Y, humanitY'1 and becoming a Buddha), Whe:n Da 140 died, it was ,s,aid that he passed his Cham Buddhist philnsophy and, his Marrow Washing Classic techniquesto his best and trusted, disciple, Huoy Kee'. Huqy Keels name as alaymanwaa Jib Guang. He was ,8. sehelar who ,g'Bve up his, normal life: and became a. priest in o,rd!er to conquer hims,elf. Buoy Kee passed ,the Buddhist philosophy on. to Seng 'Tsann. It then w,ent to TaD-Shinn" Homg ,Z!en,and Huoy Nang. Including Da Mo,. these six are caned the' Six Ance:stor.s of Charn (Cham Tzong Liow Tzuu), Later, Chinese Buddhist society honored another monk, Shen Huey of the 'I'arng d,yn,8.sty ef KaiYuan (71.,3-742 A.D'.)~ and subsequently referred tor the Seven Ance:st,oTa of Cham (Char.n Tzon,g Chii Tzuu). theory developed b, him was, identical to Indian Yog.a.(such asthe still m,editatio'n), w'hich had existed fbI' some time in India, Later, Ohara theory and t'r,aining 'was brought to Japan by Chine,:se Buddhist monks, and became the Zen meditation IQf -Japan. Yo0, can see tha't befere the Liang dynal,ty~, the Buddhists used, anIy sti.ll'meditation. Sinlce the Liang dyna,sty" many priests Jearned Da 'Mole axercises, and then adopted the movements, of various animals to use in Chi Ku:ng lets" or even, for martial purpases, TO' suznmariset

should avoid all vielence, For ,this, reason, most of the temples practiced only the still meditation for cultivating their Buddhahcod, Da MoM:s, Marrow W:ashing Clasaie describes, 'how a priest can strengthen hisbealth and increase his Iengevity, Once he has

Kung a: D.'The M~
bas bee E!!DaMo


TibetaD' Tibeit "' eultures. Kun.g 118


tw,enty ye,ars that some


the documents have been revealed to the

their 'Own are ealled arts. Bec:

Lamas' 1m Indian B' means I.,SI 1anguage Ge.nera.IlJ

Tibetan C the eutsi

spread iII
19 11 A.D.

em phasis

sometime they stH Buddhisf


To sum

Since Da MOl came from India, part

or the

Chi Kung training

A. TibetBl develej B ~,... e.'.... ---'Ti'b LiGJ _ the Bu ,C,.,Doeum 'who is


Taoi,stC, He wrots
discusses Taois:DJ

exertises~-The MU9clefrendon Changing Olassie ..-was intreduced, B.Muscl,elTendon Changing was, the foundation of Marrow Washing .. MusclelTendo,n Changing can change a, person's physical body fro,m weak to S:tI"O'D,g" and oM,arrow Wasbi~g is, able to train a monk to use his Chi to keep his mar,flOW elean, and reach the goal of Buddhaheed. C.,Becausethe ,M'uselelTendon Chan,ging training is able to increase the 'I'tr1ength of the body, it has been used by Buddhists and non-

A.B,efore'Da MOl (527 A.D.);) still meditation was the major' part of Chinese Buddhist training. Mter DaMo" moving -Chi Kun,g

the Warr another 1


theavailt In the the Tams Shyy Tis Bupreme or OldL(

After tb~ there WI E:xcelleoc

which co


Buddhists in their martial tra.ining. Since then, many martial Chi Kung j3,tyie,shave been created. D.The Marl'lDW' Washing Classic is hard to understand and train, and has belen kep't secret for a Iong time, E ..Da Mowaethel ancestor of Charn. or .Zenmeditation. Tibetan ,Chi ~lor Buddhahood:' 'Tibet was signjfic'anUy influenced by both Indian and Chinese' Kung is similar to that However, ever thousands of Ylears of IstUdy and, research, tbe Tibetans established their own unique style of Chi Kung meditation, The Tibetan priests are: called 'Lamias, (Laa M,a), andmany ,of them also learned martial arts. Because ,of the tiitIerent cultural background, Dot only are the
Lamas' meditatio,n techniques Buddhism had a great effect,

of' Indian Buddhism.

S·OI the'

root ofTibetan


Indian Buddhists, b'ut their martial techniques, are also different, Tibetan Chi Kung meditation. and martial arts were s,eCTe:t from the outside world, and were therefore called "Mih Tzo,ng',"!'which means "secret styba. Becaus,s' of this" and because of the different language, there ,arlevery few' documents available in Chinese. ,Gen,er,ally speaking, Tibetan Chi KUD,g and martial arts were not spread, into Chinese' SOcLety almost until the Chin,g dynasty (1,644 .. , 1911 A.D.). Since then, howeve~, they have become more popular. However, even though Tihetan Chi Kung training techniques are sometimes different from 'those of the Chinese and, Indian Buddhists, they still have tn,e same goal of an Buddhists -.. Buddhaheod. Ae,cording to the available documents" Tibetan Chi Kung training' emphasizes spiritual cultivation through s,till meditation Iike the Buddhist meditation" although they use manY}J,hysic,al C.hi. Kung'

difieriont from those of the Chinese or'

exercises which are similar to Indian, 'Yoga,. To' summarize:

A.,Tibe'tan Chi Kunr is, plan o.f B'uddhist Chi Kung, although it has developed its, own unique sy;stem of cultivation .. B,;; ibetan still meditation theory and training is, similar to th,at of' T
C. Documents, on Tibetan Chi ,Kung are scarce. Ho'pefully someone who is, specializing' in researching' Tibetan eulture ean fill this void,

the Buddhists. However, th.ey also have some physical Chi Kung' training similar to' Indian ,¥oga.

Tao:ist Chi Kuu.1 .1 for Euligb.tenmea:tz, Taoism 'was, ereated by Lao Tz:yy (Li Erh) in the ,8th century B.C. He wrote a book titled Ts.,o Te Ching' (Classic on MOJ',ality) which

diseuases natural human morality~ Later, his foUow,er IJuang IJau in the,Warrin,g States Period wrote a book called Juang Tzyy. Snon, another branch ,of Scholarship de'veloped, 'which ·W,B,.S separate from

the available decuments, it W8.S not eonsidered a religion. In the Eastern Han dynas~y (25 ..1 68 A"D,.), Chang' Tao-Ling created the Taoist religion (TaOI Jis'w). Taoism, wor,shiped p·nm,arlly the "Yuan 8hyy Titan T,zuen (The Primal Celestial ExceUenc,Y - a Taoist Deity. After the Bo,og dyna.sty itW'8S called Yuh Hwang Dah Dih - The Supreme Dei~y) and Lao, Tz,", (popularly titled 'Tai Shang Lao, ,Jiun" or Old Lord or the Ultimate). In Tao Jiaw philosophy, they believed wa.s a, heavenly kingdem Tule,db:y "The Primal Celes,ti,al Excellency..'u Only the immortals and the gods lived in this kingdom, whi,ch controlled everything on the earth, 'You can see that th,e
1 1

.B,efore the Han dynasty, ~Boism 'was purely ,8 form of' Bcholarelnp. It studied the human. s,pirit and nature but, B'CCOr<i:iQg tal



ori,gin,al concept of Heaven Chi has been modified" and ,iI religious color added, These religious Taoists, also believed that when a person died", if he bad done something very good, be' w,ould become a. saint. Heaven would offer' him a position which allowed 'him to, rul.e' 'the living. If a person did 'Dot do anything especially good while alive, when be died, be would reincarnate as, a human being. Ho'wevel", if ,8. ,p,ersonbad been bad, his 5'001 would be sent to, one of t.he 18 levels IQf hell for punishment. There, the King 0" Hell CYan LUDI Wang) would decidewhat kind of animal he should reincarnate as, If someone: had beenvery bad" he would not reincarnate, but would stay in 'hell fJOI" an eternityof torture, Thereli,gioruB, philosophy and vie'WB on reincamatlon of' the Thoists were very similar to those of the B,g,dd.hl,sts", This may 'be related to the fact that the 'Iaeiatreligian was created onlly about one hundred years after Buddhism was Imported into China,. It is said t.bat religious Taaism is a blend of Buddhism and traditional Taoism. Like the Buddhists" the Taoists believe that if they can build up, their spirit (Shen) so that it is 'independent and strong" they win be able to escape from the, cyo],e of repeated reincarnation. When a 'Taoist or Buddhist 'has reached this stage, he has reached thegos] of enlightanment or Buddhahond, I.t is said that he has attained eternal life. However, if he cannot build. his, spirit s,tf1ong enough before he dies, 'his soul or' splint will not go to hall, and be will be able to eontrol his own destin and either stay ,8 spirit or be reborn as, a human. They believed that it is, only possible to develop the human slp,irit while in a ba,dy, so that the continual eye'le of rebirth is, necessary to attain enlightenment. The monks found that in order to enhance their spirit, the'y had, to cultivate the Chi which W,IlS converted from their Jieng (E,ss'enee)., The normal Taoist Chi Kung training' process is 1, to eonvert the Jileng (essence) into Chi (Vii J,ieng' Huah Chi); 2. to nourish the Shen (spirit) with Chi (Yii Chi Huah Shan); S. to refine the Sh,en into emptiness, (Liann Shen HUBn Shin); and 4,., to crush the' emptiness (Feen Suory Shiu Kong) .. The ,first step is 'to firm and strengthen the Jien,gJ then convert this, JieJQg int-o Chi throughmeditatfon or other methods, Thi:B, Chi is then lied tothe top of the head to nourish the brain and raise up, the Shen. 'When a Taoist has reached this statg,e" it ,is called "the three flow,ers meet on the top." This stage is n.ecessary to gam health and! Iongevity, Ymally,the Taoi:s,t, can start training to reach the goa] of enlightenment, However, the biggest obstacle to, achieving this goal is the emotions. which a.ffect the thinking' and upset, the balance of the ,spirit.. This is, the' reason they hid themselves awayin the mountains" aw',ay from other people and t'beiir distractions, They also abstained from eating meat, feeling' that it. muddied thinking and Increased the emotions, Ieading the spirit away from s'elf..cultivation, While' ,s,triving~or enlightenment or Buddhahood, most Buddhist monks concentrate all their attention on the eultrvation of t'he spirit, The' Taoistst however, feel that in order to reach the final goal, you have to firs,t be in good physical health. 'This may be the reason why more Taois,ts. than Buddhists have Iived very long liv'es.ln their nineteen hundred years of research they found manymore wayiS to strengthen the body and to SI'DW' down the de,generation of the, o-rgans" which is the key to obtaining a Iong life. There have bean many Taoi:s,ts whe have lived mOf'e'than 150 yaars. In T;aoist society it is said: "nnehundred and tw'enty means ,d_ying' young." Unfortunately,


aU of this Chi ,Kun,g'trBining' has, been passed down secretly in the menasteries, ItwB:S Dot un.til the last twen.ty years, tha:t these secret t.b.eories and training lD.eth.ods were revealed to tbe outsid'e wo.rld. An Important part of this training to prolong li£e is Ma,rriJiw Wallhing C,hi Kung,. The basic bies of Ma~owW:ashing Chi Kung Ie,

lot faster than it needs to.

to keep the Chi circulating' In your marrow so that the marrow s,t.ays clean and 'h.ealtbJ~ '¥o;ur bone marrow manufactures Y',our blood cells, IThe bleod cells 'bri.n,g nourishment tOI tha organs and all the: otber cella of the body, and also take waste products a way. When 1'our blood .is healthy and functions properly,. your whole body is, w·e'lI·'noQ,l"i:she,dand healthy; and can resist disease ,e'ff8c:tive:ly~ When the marrow is clean an.d fresh, it m,Bn-ufactures an enormous number 'Df' healtby blood ,cells w'hich will d.o their' jlob ,properly. Your whole: bodY' will stay he,altby, and the ,de.g,ene'ration of' your internal organs will be :signifi,cantl;y slowed. Your body is not unlike' an 'e']I,pens.ive ear, It will run a long time if' you use a high quality fuel; but if you use a low quality .fuel, the ,caT engine 'will d'eterior,ate a
AlthouRh'ths' theo,ry is :sim'ple, the training isv,er-y ,diffie'oIt. You must first learn how "tel build up your Chi and fill up your e,igb.t Chi vessels (the 12 major Obi ehannels and 8 Chi vessela wi.n 'be: di;8cUBsed in P:art 'T'br,e,e), and tbenyoumu!,t know how 'to' lead this 'Ll • h" ne ._···e_,one ·.··xcep, ror e'III. In.t' 0 th 'b marrow t- 0. ", was,.. th marrow. E' t..&!- someI

Taoist monks, there are ver-yfew people who have liv,ed more than 15,0 ye'ars. The reason for this is th,at the training p'roce88 is, 'long and ha-rd. You must have ,B, pure mind and! a flimple Ufestyle so
that y,on can eoncentrate

'''11 b ft' to'. ·h~" 1.., pealce,ful. Jll~,e, your' rmDIDJg' WI- no t.e' el-leClve., T':,-='18, rs Wuy tb . 1I,.e, . ne Taois,t monks hldetbem'selv,es in the mountains" U'nfo,rtunatelYI this is s,impily not po,sllI,ible for the: ,Bverag'e, PeI"SOD,. MarrowWsshing Cbi Kung' t,raining will be ,dJis'cussed in the second volume of'the YMAA in.. epth ,C.hi 'Kung book series. d Do not bemisled mto thinking t,hs.t the Bud,dhl~st Cham I(Zen) medi'tat.ic'D is inferior to ,the Tao,j,st approach. In f,Bct, the Buddhiats often had mueh greater success in reaehfng enlighten.ment than, the T(loists, through t',beir 'Use' or still me,ditation. Additionally, many of the Taoist, Chi Kung praetiees ,originated with the Buddbist.s .. The Tao'ls;ts then modifiedthem to :auft their own cireumatanees and jmrpoaea .• and some of the pra,ctices" like Marrow WashingJ were practieedmuehmore widely


o.n the: t,rainin,g..

Withou"t a

by tbe: Taoists than the, Buddbi,sts .. - MallY Ta.oits't C.h,iKung s,tyles are based on tbe theory of cultivatin.g both the sp,int and the p,hys,icaI bod,Y,~,n. 'raois,m" the:re: I are generaUy tbree wa;ys of training: 'Gin DSDDab Tao (Golden E,lixir Large 'Way), Shiou. (Double Training), and Tao, Wai. ITa,ae Yaw (H,erb 'Pickin,g' outside of the Tao). Gin Dan Dah Tao teaches the w,ay,s of Cbi Kung tr.aining wi.thin yours,elf. T'his approach believes that you can, rind tbe elixir of iong,e'vity lor even enlightenment within your own body. _ In th,S' second appreach, S'huang Shiou (double training), ,& partner is, used to balenee one's Cbi more Iqu'ickly., Most people ,s Chi il8 not, en,tir,ely balanced. Somepeop.]e are a bit too positive,

ot.hers too negative", and individual channels a18,0 are positive nr negB,' .. If you kno,w bow to ,exchaoge Chi 'with your partner, you can help each other out and speed :your training .. 'Your partner C'Hn , be either the same sex or opposite.


The third way, which is ealled Tao \Vai Tsae Yao~ uses herbs to speed and control fhe cu,ltivati'Q'D. Herbs, can be plants; Isuch as ,gin.sBn,g,;or animal products such as, musk from themusk-deer, be drvided into two m,Bjolr schools; Ching Shiou Pay (Peaceful Cultivation Division) and T,zai Jie Pay (Plant and Graft Division)'. This division W'8SI eS',paeiaU" clear afterthe SUD,g and Yuan dyn,astie,s (960 ... 36;7 A~D',.). 'I'he me.ditationsn.d 1 the training theory and metlul"ds 0'£ the C.hing Shion Division are close to these of the Buddhists. Tbey believed that the IOolly way to reach enlightenment is, Gin. Dan Dah Tao (,Go,lden Elixir Large Wayl, aoooniiqg to 'wbicb you build up the elixir within your body_ Usin,e; a partner :for 'the eultivation is immoral and will cause emotional p.robl,ems, which may signifi,cantly affect the' cul~iv,ation.,
Aeconiing to the tc,aining methods used, Taoist Chl KWl\g ean again

However, the Tzai Jie Pay claims, that in addition to Gin Dan Dah ~ao, their methods, 0.1 Shuang' Shiou (Double Trainin,g) and Tao Wai 'Thae Yaw (Herb Picking' outside of the Tao) make ,tbe eultivatien faster and more praetieal, For this reason Taoi,st Chi Kun,g training is also commonly called "Dan DUng Thol Kung,l~ 'which means "the Tao Trainin,g in the Elixir Crucible. The Taoists originally believed that they 'would be able to find and purify the elixir' from herbs. Later, they realized that the' onJy real elixir was in your hody. According to myunderstanldin,g,. the major differ,enc'B 'betwe,en the two' Ta,oi9t aehools is, t,.h,at th,s Ching S.hiou Par aims for


normal, healthy, long life. We will discuss, these two mlQlor Taoist schoob; more ex,tenSi:vely in a later volume. YOIU ean see ,that. T,aois,:m has already been a re.ligion and ,8 s,cholarly study of Chi Kung methods, As ,9 modern and. s,cientitic Chi Kung pra.ctitioner, yo'u should adopt the' Chi Kung training methods which. can 'benefit ,YOU. Su.perstition should be filtered ou.t.. Howerver, you need to know' the bisto,rical background so that ,)'10U will understand the' root and the metivation of the training. 10 eencluds, the eharaetertsties of ~ois,t Chi Kung are: A. Taois,t Chi Kung and enlightenment theori,es we're based, on, those of the Buddhists,. It later developedinto ita, own unique a,tyle. B,.Taoist r,eligionwas, a mixture of Buddhism with traditional Taoism,. C.Original Ts,oist Ohi Kung tl"aunn,g' aimed fOil" enlightenment, and later was, used fO'J" improving health and longevity. D;.'The're are two major schools of Taoist Chi Kung training, one ef which is, similar to Buddhtsttraining.

in a way ,similar to the Buddhiats' striving for .ldhC""''L hil 'h .. ,Z81. . Ie ,~,ay ... h~' .• '. to ·h" B IUQM.OO d " w.· 1 Ie t, e Tc . J" Pa uses t: e training t' ae iave a


- .... _

Chapter 6
Chi Kung Theory
8·1. Introduction M,any people t.hinkth,at Chf Kung is a difricu~t sub~j'ect to understand. In some ways ,this is true, However, regardless of how difficult the theoryand practice of a particular s,tyle of Chi Kung might be, the basic C,hi theory and principles are very simple and remain the same for all of the Chi Kung ,styles,. Basic Cbi th,eory and Cht Kung principles are: the reots of all Chi Kung practice, and it is from t:beseroots that the different styles of training blossomed, Naturally, thte results and, the depth achieved

are difJer,ent from style to ,s~le. If,. however; y,ou understand the root of what yoo are doing" it does ,nol;mattsrwhieh I,tyle you are
pra,cticing" because you will be able to grasp the key to the practice and grow.

As discussed in the last cnapte:ro" ,there are three major purposes of Chi Kung other than martial: health, longevity, and spirttual enlightenment, Althou,gh all three groups usethe same basic Chit theory in their training, they use Idifferent tr,aining theories and methods to reachtheir goals, For example, people who are trainmg for lengevity usa deeper, more advanced training methods than people who are P'Fo:ctieing to improve their health, while th.e people who are st,riv-ing ror enlightenment use training theories a.nd methods which are deeper ,stilL If you wish to understand the science of' Chi Kun,g', you must understand the different eategcries and their respective' .training theories, This, wUI be like a. map of the terrain making it easier fOr you to select your goal. and plan your route .. 'Without this map; you will wander around confused, uncertain of yOUI" goal, Previous sections have discussed general Chi tbeor,Y, and Borne of the ways in which Chl affects humanbeings, Chi circulation theory

general training theory and methods" and what each approach bas,

will be discussed

in gr'B'a'tel" detail latJer. N'ow; we will


to, effer

Icate,gorie,i,:Wa:i Dan (External Elixir) and Nei Dan (Internal Elixir),

Generally speaking', all Chi Kungprlu:tices, according to the training theo,ry and methods, ean be divided in to two general


Un,d'er,stan.diDg the difference between them 'will give you an overview 0'1 'molt, Chine's,a Chi Kung practi,ces.

8-,2.Wai Dan (External Blisir) . !i'Wai~i' means lexternalof' outside, and "Dan" means "ehxir." External here means the limbs, as, oppose'd to the torso, which includes all tbevital organs", Eli.xir is a hypothetical~Hfe pro,' lubsta'Dlce for which Chinese TaOiS,tBhave been searching 'forr millennie. They origin,ally thou,ght that 'the elixir W,RSI som,ething physilcalwhicb could be pre,pared with herbs or cbemicalspurified 'in a furnace. Afterthousundsl of years of study and experimentation,


that the elixir is m the body. In other words, if' yon wan"t 'to p'l'olong your life, yOll must 'fmd the elixir in your body, and then th,eyfound

Sometimes Wai Dan also :r,efers to herbal pills which can be used to t· th ,8,di _,JUS_ or mcrease th Chi esreu1.a Ion m "e'uClII- d ,yo I n "!L.: -b k we Ie, n·_ WJJ.,S ~OOI, will on!y discusa the Chi- Kung Wai Dan training theory and methods, and leav-e "the di.8C,UBSion. of' herbal Wai nan theory to qualified he',rba! masters., The human body has tw,elve m,ajor Chi channels (Gin) (actually pairs of' ehannels, one on eith'er side of the body)" whi,ch a;ro, cemparable to rivers. Six o,f these are connected to the fingers, and
t-" "

learn to protect it and nourish it.

the other six are connected to the teea, All of these twelve are conn,ectad to Internal organs, The body alSOI has ,eight Chi vessels

channelschannels to every part of tbe body" from the skin t-o the bone marrow. Wh'enev',er the Chi i8 stagnant in any ,of the twelve: majolf ehannele, the 'related oFgBnwill l"leceivean ineorreet amount of Chi. 'This, win cause the organ tomalfunetioD, or B:t least to degenerate :S-ODoe-, than . '-11 if is r I d - 11 · .•"_m "II normai, anc thi ID, tu 'WI _ eause 1· nesaan d·'premature agIng' n I ft-· uncorrected. Just as II 'machine needs thle correct amount of current tOI -run properly, yonr organsmllst have the right amount of Chi 'to
fu.ncUoD weU.

aareservoirs and also regulate the Chi in the twell ve Millions of tiny channels (Lou) carry Chi, :from the mejlor

'Therefore, 'the most basic 'way to maintain the health. 'D,f th,e ol.rgans 'is, tOr keep the 'Chi now balanced and smooth", Thi.S ms,

concentra.te your attention on, your limbs. As you exercise, the IChi builds up in your arms and le,g.s. When the Chi potential in your limbs builds, to a .bigh enough level, the w,iU Bow' through the channels clearing any obstructionsl BOld nourishing the organs. This, is the main fleason that a person who w10rks out, or baa, a physical job, is glnerally healthier than someone who :si'ts ,around all day~,e are many available Wai Dan Chi Kun.g sets. A typical lone is '0,9 Mol':! MusC!lle/rendo'D, Cban,ging Classic (WaiD,Bn Yi Gin Ching). In this set" the praetitioner slightly tens'es up thel local limb muscles in specific poatures, such ,a,s tensing up the wris't while holdtng both arms in front of the chest, and th,en flelaxlng 'co'mpletely. 'This

the ide:8 'upon whi,ch, Wai Dan (External Elixir) Chi Kung'is based, The theory is very simple, When :you, do Wai Dan exereises you

repe,a'ted teosing and relaxing builds up a greater concentration lor Chi in the area being' exe'rcised~ Wh!eD the practitioner fin.1us,bes tbe exe:lIci:se and. relaxes, accumulated Chi nowsto the orgs'DS. In thi,s of Wai Dan training', 'the' s,p,eci,fi,c,s'tati,onary 'postures, and 'the, tensing and relaxing of the muscles are tbet,wo ways In which the Chi etreulatton is in.crea,Bed. There are other Wai Dan Isets which" in addition to tensing ,and relaxing the muscles, also move the arms and legs in specific w,a;ys so

that the muscles around eertain organs are, ,stretched, ,and,then relaxed. In ,addition, to building up, ebi in the Iimbs, these 'ex,eJlcises increase the Chi eireulatien around and in ,the organs more directly than tbeMuscleJTendon, Cbanging' Class,ie does. -Por example, you may raise your arms, over your' .bead and then lower tbem r,epeatedlYi exereising the muaeles around the lungs" exte'nding and ~eleaslinl' them 'gently to massage the lungs and ;stim,ula:tethe flow of' Chi and blood. A typical set of 'Wai Dan which usea moving esereises is the E~gbtPieceg of Broc,ad'e., Many 'Cbi KWlg beginn,ers beli,e\l'B :misltakenly that since 'Wai Dan 'Chi Kung theory and 'tr,aining are simph" these sets are o.nly for begmnere. In fact, most peop,Je who tr,ajn Nei Dan Chi, Kung later come back to Wai Dan, and Icombine the· two to, increllse their control These two eategD,rie,s, of Wai D'an training'm,ethods~ i'n additi.on to Improving martial arts,performan,ce,ab!o gi¥e you a .healthy body, and Ican even, ,cur,e~some Illnesses, Im'Pl'Ioved health ma.y increase tbe length of your life" but not to the 150 years that was achlev'e,d by SODle of tbe 'Taoists and. Buddhi;sts., The,se re,sults require deeper theory and training" under the 8upervi:sioD of a, quaUfiled master, Longevity Chi Kung exef1cises win be dis/cussed in the, section on Nei Dal1l-Chi Kung,. ,I wo,uld like, to eonelude m,th three, po~nts about 'Wai D,8!n Chi Kung.: L 'Wai Dan Chi ,Kung aims at maintaining health, and has lonly ,8 limited effect on long'Bvity: Many Wai. Dan Chi Kung exercises w'sre c.reated to inerease martial abili.ty. Ii Wai Dan .MuslclelTendou tension and.l"lela.xB,tioD practice focuses on tramiQg' the Chi .in ,the:'limbs. The main purpose of increasing the Chi in t.he limbs, is to lene'rg,]ze the muscles, to tbe'ir bigbe'st efficiency~ The s,pecific' postures 0.18'0 train the coordination 'of the 'mUJsc.les,n tbe torso wi.tb 'those inthe limbs. If ,YOU Ufi,derstand i tha,t ODe of the majlor purposes of DB Mol's, Wai Dan, exer,elses is, to increase martbll power, then you,wiU s'eewhy the Iimbs are' emphasized in the training. Afte'rD'El Mo, many ,sets Wexe c,reated from the same theo'ry, mostly 'b,martiai artists,. 'NaturaUy" these exercises will also imp-roVlehealth,. However" many martial artists who trained the Da Yo 'Wai Dan ezercises he'arily 'fOr a long time, found that the:y over'elop,e:d the'ir muscles, t'be' w,ay w'eigbt lifters often do, - Although they were bealthy as long as they were able to practioe., once th.ey got oldlheirmuscles degeneratedmuch ,[aster than 'normal. 'Thisisl called. "San ,KlUlg" ('energy Idis,
Beeeuse of tbis,,; Da Mo created a :set ofNei Dian exercises which is also inc,luded in tbe 'Mus,elefI'endon Changing Classiic,. This, set builds up and Iciren1ates the Cbi internally,prev, the Chi channels, from plu,gging up when the 'practitioner' gets, ,o,lder~

over their Chi.

a'i The

moving Wai Dan practiees focus, on in ereast ng' th.e Chi circulation around the ot:gans througb specific move.ments,~ IThis category of WaiD,Bn pl'acticewiU not build the masclea like the last category~ W~,iD,&nexereises like this, are used mainly for health.

8-8.,Nei DaD '(lnte,mal Elmr) Nei means ,internal and D'aD means elixir; Thus, Nei Dian means to build "the elixir internally. Here, internaUy means in the body instead 10f' in 'the Umbs Whereas, in WaiD,an the ICbi is buiItnp in


the limbs and then moved into the body, N ei Dan exercises build up Chi. in the body and lead it out to the limbs, Ge'D.lsrally speaking, .Nei 'Dan theory Is deeper than Wai Dan theoryJ and- its, train:ing theory and methods are more diffic,ult to understan,d and practice. Traditionally, most of'the Net Dan Chi Kung' practices; have beenpasaed d:own mlON secre!tly tban those of the Wai Dan, This is especially 'true of the hi.,gnestlevels of Nei. Dan" such as Mar~fJw Washing, wh.iCbwere passed down to .only ,8 ,t"ewtrusted disciples,. There are an.umber of rea SODS fOll" this: I. N'ei Dan iSI hard to und.rer:stand" so only the discipiles who were intelligent and wise enough to under'stand it were taught, 2., 'Nei Dian practice can be dangereus. Inaeeurate practice may 'C"BU'Ii·e crippliDg':~ paralys"is" 01" even death, This, can happen es,pecially to the ,disciple' who does nlol understandthe what" why" and how' oC his practice. 8. Inmuch of 'Nei Dan, Chi Kung yon are wor.kin,g with and gWldied by ve'ry subtle ree~in,gs and senaations. Under 'tbe guidance' ,olfa maste:t you should be able to grasp the ,k,~Y' the training in a to s'hori time. Howe'ver, if' you try to ·figure it out by yourself, you may g'et confused, oriDjure yours,eH' BeriouBly~, 4:., n order to reach the higher levels ofNei Dan Cb.i Kung, you I must conserve your J'ieng and. restrain yo'ursex. life, AlSOJi you must spend ,8.. lot of time in practice, which makea mirmal marrtad Hfe irapossfble. Furthermore, in order te reach 8 spiritual balance, you must train yourlle"lf to be ,emotionally neutral and Independent, In order to pr 9s'erve your Jieng and have a. peaceful environment, for your' training', you almost have to go away to the mountains and become a hermit, or become 8 mo,ok in a monastery. Still, though N'ei Dan 'is, difficult to understand and prfu~tice,it is practiced, by many laymen. TheYt bowever~ lean, only realch a certain level ofaehievernent, such as health and 1 orng,e·vit,.-, but nDt 8nlightenmen.t.
l I

Before we discuss the training categories, of Nei Dan, youshoulld understand how Nei Dan Chi Kung practi..ce' relates to the 'Chi circulation. in "the hum an body. As, we have mentioned, the- human 'body has, twelve Chi channels which. are considered Chiriivers., Each o:f thes/@: ehannels is eonneeted to a finger ortoe and is also associated wtth an inie'rnal organ, In ord"er to keep' the t,welv,e' organs healthy" the Cbi flo,wingin the Chi rivers 'must be smooth an-d centinuons, and the' Chi ~eveI running in leach. channel must be appropriate for t'hat channel, 'Whenever the Chi .flow iSI stagnant or the Chi: level abnormal, the organs will not mnction p,roperly and m,s.y even:tually be damaged. Therefore, the first goal of this, Chi KUD,g pralc,ti,ce is to k,eep the Chi running' smoothly and at the appropriate levels in the channels. In addition to these twelve channels.vthere are ,eight vessels w.hich araeonsidered Chi reserveirs and whieh 'regubite the Chi 'running in the Chi rivers, In order to have the po,tenti.a] tOi ,supp,ly and regulate the: 'C,bi" the vessels must be 'full When there is enough Chi in the reserv'rdr,s. to supply andregnlate the Ch.i in the rivers, ,you will be healthy, There:fol",e~tbe second goal of lObi. 'Kung p,rac.tice is to. Iearnto fill up the Chi reservoirs, with Chi. When you have attained! these t'wo goals, you have built a good found.atiD!n for a be.althy body. The' trainingmethods you must practice to reach these two goals, are explained clearlyin Dill, Mois

Classic. Howev'er, if you desire long,evity, you must enter a. deeper level of N,ei Dan Chi Kung exercises. This level is described in Da MO':SI M:arrolw Washtng Classic. In order' to have a long life, you need to, have net IDnly a healthy :physical body and smooth Chi circulation, but also traini~g in twe more disciplines. The 'first concerns your ]bloDd!, the second. YO'ur spiri,t,. Your blood, runs, through your entire body. If your blood cells are not healthYi it Idoes, not matter how healthy and strong your phy:si'ca1l body and or,galls appear to he; because ,Your :pbys,icaJ body will d'egenerate, quickly~The marrow i.sthe factory which makes your' blood .eells, If you know how to keep' yourmaerow healthy and fresh, the quaHt,y of th.@ blood cella will be' high, 'When these healthy ,and fresh blood eells are running' :in you'f'physi,cail body., the de,ge,nerati,on, process will slow down and your' Iifespan will inereasa Whe'n you train Marrow Washing Chi Kung, you must also learn bow to lead Chi to your brain and raise up your Shen. Whe'n the Shen is raised, youwiH have ,R center er headquarters whicbwin be ableto effectively control your Chi and strengthen your bndy's Guardian Chi 80 that it is better able to repel .negative -olltsi,de influences. The raised Shen win also direct the Chi 80 that 'the organa function properly, However, themost important, benefit 0'[ Marrow Washing training is the fresh, nourishing Chi brought, to your brain, which insures it,1 health, Mal'f'o'w Washing trainlng 'will keep your brain strong, calm, and, peaceful, Before we discuss Nei Dan practice further, you should understand that there' are many differe:ni methods of Nei 'Dan practice, We will discuss the two' major ones: Da Mo ,15 MUflcle!rendon Changing Classic (Yi Gin Ching), and his Marrow Washing Classie (ShiiSoei Ching).
Muscl,e1Te.ndon C:hanging

A •. D'II MO',B MaRcie/Tendon

As mentioned before, Da MO'S MUfH:le/Tendon Changing Classic includes two p,ans". The first p,att is the Wai Dan external Chi Kung exercises, and the seecnd ]part is the Nei Dan internal Chi KUD,g training. The Wail Dan ex,tern,aI Chi Kung has already been discussed" so we will diseuse the Nei Dan internal! tr,aining here, D'B, Moie .Nei Dan training includes "twomajor pralctices: I~ Small CiJ."lculatioD (She·.au do,u Ti,an):: One of ,the ma.joir' purpesee of N ei Dan 't~aining is, to fill up the Chi reservoirs; i.. the eight vessels. When the Chi ther,c is abundant, yo,u, e. win be able to supply enough Chi. to the rest ,Dr your' bo.cly~ Small Circulation has two ml%iol' purpeses, The first purpose Is to buildup Ohi at "the Lower' Dan Tien,. and the second purpo,se is to store and ,cit'culate Chi in the tw'O major r'es,s'rv,oirs: 'the Conception and You must learn abdominal bre'atbin,g in order to build 'up Chi :at your Lo'wer Dan Tien. The:D you must lead this Chi to circulate in the v'essels and open up thee cavities which are plugged 'up or where "the Chi flow' is sluggtsh, For example" when you were ,8 child, the' Huiyin cavity (Fi,gul'le 6-1) intbeperineum was wide open. However, as you got ol.d,erand abandoned. abdominal brsatbing it gradually plugged up so that the Chi circulation through it became l,lu,ggish. The'l,m are a number of other' ,c,avitiEUJ where the Chi path narrewe and the olrculation slows down. Wherever the circUlation is sluggish and unsmcoth, the Chi supply to the organs and the entire body will Iose it'B balance and you may become sick.



C~B88ie (DB M.o 'Yi Gin

Gov,@ming vessels,


Figu~e 6-1. Huiyin ,cavity

The're are a, 'number of w&,y,s in 'which Chi ean be circulated :inthe body-through. the Bmall C:i~culation. Ho:we vel",thel"lea.l":etwomajo[' ones which are commonly practiced: the "Fire Path" and the' '''Wind, Path

II., The

The F'ire Path is the way Chi naturally circulates in the human body. The Chi moves, dlO'Vlll 'the' COD'cep,tion Ve,s:se,1 (Ren M'ei) and up the Governing Ves:sem(Du Mei)(Fi,gure 6-2,)., The Conception vessel is considered 'Yin (ne,g,ative), and runs down, the center of the front of the body., Thoe GQ' vessel is considered Yan.,g (positive)" It runs from the Huiyin, where it connects to the Coneeptica vessel, up along 'the o,utsi,d,e of 'the spine to the back of the neek, passes over the head to the top, of the inside of the meuth where it 'connects with the Yin. vessel enthe tongue. No,rmaUy, Post-birth Chi (Fir-e' Chi), which was converted fromthe J'ieng of food and air' in the "'S,anjiiou" (triple burner). After this, Chi :is converted, it is Js.ttll1!,din. the Middle' Dan Tien. This Cbi moves down to the Lower Dan Tien and mixes 'with Water Chi, The mJxed Chimoves down tetha Huiyin, and at the H~yin it divides into t'w'o Chi tlO,WIi. One ,ofthem ,enters the! Thrusting' Vessel (ChOD2: MeD in

Fire Pa,ib:


F'i,oonr-e' 6~2. The Fi'm Path of'Chiit "'ell'"


Figue 6",3. The 'Wind Peth of'Chi ,. . ,~-,IuD ellen Inti'....

the: Bpin,e and moves up to nourish the brain, This path is, eoasidered the '~WSlter' Path" and iSI the' path 'trained in Marr,ow Washing Chi Kung. The 'Water Pathwill be discussed later; Tbe second .Dow'passes the Hui,yiln and moves up the baek foUowin,1 the Gov,e'rni:ng vessel (along the outside of the spine), passes, over the erown and (maUy eonneets to the Conception vessel to complete the cycle" This second path is, the 'iFire Path," As, Chi eireulatesthrough the Fir,ePa,tn, there is always one part of' th,epatb 'WhIU"e , Chi level ts than ,eilse'wbere~and this area eirealates around the 'p,atb r,egulo.rly 'twenty four hours, It i,i this area ,of 'higher' Chi potential which. k'eepsi the Chi flowing. (I believe that this potential is created by the earth's s,pinning inside the sun's electromagnetic field.) ,Just as water will only flow from a higher to a lower level, Cbi will on~y move from B place, of higher

the marrow


potential to one' o'flowe'r po,ten.tia.1. In Chinese medicine, this, place higher potential is ealled "Tzyy Wuu Lieu ,Job. 'I' T,zyy refers to the two hours between. 11 PM and 1 AMI' and Wuu referato the time: between 11 A1d to 1 P.M. Liou means "flew," and! Juh means "'tendency.," TI," Wuu Liou Juhtberei'bre means "the ma,jo.r Chi flow tendency which foUows the time' change." In the Fir,e patb~the'


tbe Middle Dan TieDt (s,olar ple,xus) and moves down, to reach the .Lolwer Dan Tien and mix with. the Dan Tien Chi between 2,..4 .P·M. Ne~xt~it ,g08S down to the Huiyin at sunset and moves tOI the back in the evening" reaching the top of the bead at midnigbt A.t sunrise the Chi is, in the face, ,a.nd by neon :it has reached the Middle Dian Tien, to
at nOODat

place ,of higher potential normally


purposes of Small Circulation practice is, to buildl UPI Original Chi ,at the Lowe:r Dan TieD. Original Chi is crea,ted frem the Original Essence drawn from the kidne)f1s, which. .mix,es with and dilutes the Post-birth Chi which. comes from food! and. air., Post-birth Chi" which contains undesirableprodueta from tbe food and air, is considered Fire Chi because j·t has a be,atin,g
effect on the body. Original Chi iis eonsideeed Water Chi, and it is pure and cools down the 'Fire Chi. DHu.tio,g and cooling down, the' conta'minate:d Chi is the first step in cooling down thre 6r'8 iu your physieal body. 'Thisl process will slow :your body'is degeneration. In

t:he cycle. One of th,emajror

the Fire Path, 9., p,rae,titioner usually learns, to-build 01' strengthen his Water Chi in the Lower Dan Tien (Field of E,]i.xir) through, abdominal breathing 'or mental eeneentraticn. Wben the Chi is built up tOI a certain levelvthe mind Ieads the Chi to eireulate

An'o,tber' task in S,mall Cireulation is the opening of ca'viti,es where the Cbi flCJ'w is sluggis,h,. In Fire Path Chi Kung training, there are three ,cavitie'B which must be opened and, are considered dangerous. If ,YOU dignot understand 'this and Ida not proceed
C'8utious;~,y,you might cause, yours, elf serious injury. Tbe Fire P,ath will 'be diseusaed in greate'T detaU fun a later vo]um,e: on Taoi,st meditation" Y:ou,m~y also, Jr,efel" to the' chapter on Nei Dan in the


and Gov·ernin,g Ves,se:ls.

author's Chi Kung book: "Chi Kung ...Health and MarlialArls." b.. Tb,s Wind Pa,th: Generally speaking, the Wind Path ,of Chi clrculation is not as popular as the Fire Path. Because it circulates Chi in the direction
opposite to the normal 'flow" many Chi KUD,g practitlonere believe that it will distu'rb the natural ehi circulation and cause problems, There are very few' documents w'bich discuss this path. How,ev'er,
sume discuss

Lower Dan Tien UPI to the 'Middh! nan pr,a'ctiiioners have trained It, ~ In this, portion of the WindP',atb Chi eireulazion, once the Original Chi is built up in the Dan 'lien, the pr,actition.erlea,ds it up tOI eireulate in the direetien oJlPoslite tOI the' one trained in the Fire Path (Figure 6..3). NormaI1y~ this is trained when you have eempleted your .Pir,e Path Small Circulation. There aratwo reasons for circulating the! Wind Path: 1~ slow down thenatural To Chi circulation. in 'the COiDception and Governing Ves,sels by circulating Chi .gams,t ,the, 'flo,w. If the Chi now in your Fire path is, too Yan,g because of excitement, injury, sickness, or ,even eating poor food, your' whole body win become


,of the complete

cy,c.IE:lusually from the ', Tien1 and. many Chi Kung'


too Yang when this Chi is distributed through the' twelve Chi channels" This Yang Chi will damage your o'rgans"i and make your mind exeited and scattered. The WilndPa.,th eanregulate the Chi circulating in your' F:i~e Path, and rebalance the Chi in your body. 2,. An important Chi Kung practice is raising' up the Pre-birth Chi (Essenee Chi or' Water ChB generated in 'the' Lower Dan Tien to 'cool down the Post-birth Chi (food and air Chi, 01" Fire Chi) 'which is gene'f,ated in the Middle Dan Tien at "the s,Qllar'p,lexns. When this is done, the clean Water Chi will be' able to. dilute the contaminated Fire' Chi before it starts to circulate. This raising ofthe Wat'er Chi is done througb the 'Wind!Path. WindPa'th, circulation will be discussed in more detail in volume o:nTaoist meditation,


II., Large, CireulatioD (Dab J'QIU Tian): Aft,er yon have opened UPI the path of the Ccnceptten and Governing vessels, 'YOU have completed what is caned ·"Slbeau ,Jon Tian, or Small Circulation,. n ThisWB,S the first ,step in the Nei Dan part of Da MO'S Mus,clefrendo,n Changing Classic. The second step is opening the twelve channels, to keep the Chi flowing in the organs and limbs". As we mentioned before, N ei Dan differs frolm, Viai Dan Chi KUD"g in 'that it builds up Chi 'in the body a,nd then circulates, it outward to the limbs. Only after you have opened up all of the twelvle channels and the Chi is able to flow to the exiremi'tie's are yO'll protected from the Chl blockages which are associated with the Wai Da,p Musclel~endon exereises, Once you have completed your Large C.irculatio.n you have completed Da Moll Nei Dan MU8c'le /Te,ndon Chi Kung training, This, training must be completed before a Chi Kung' practitioner begins Da Mo'a Marrow Washing Chi Kung training .. ,
II 'I t

B. Da Mo,'s Marrow Washing 'Cla,lsic (D'a Mo S'hii ,SDB,i Ching): Da Mo's Marrow' Washing Cla:ssic was keprt, secret until only the last ten years, It explains theseerat of longevity and of reaching the goal of e.nlilghtenment and Buddhahood, Both the theory and. the training are deep, NJOrmaHy" only thosle who tborou,ghly understcod Chi Kung training theory and had Iong years of' Ch.i Kung experience, especially of Da Mo's Mus,c]efEendon Changing Classie, were taught the M,arrow Washin,g Classic, The Chinese of the w,ol'k is, "Shii Soei Clting.,11 Shiri means "to w'a:sh:,to keep clean and fresh ..n Soei means two things" the marrow which is called "Gnu Soei'" and the brain which is called "Nan Soei." Ching is a treatise or elassic, You ,can see from this that the main goal of Shii Soei Ching is to wash the bone marrow and. -the 'brain and keep them clean and fresh. Generally s:ll,eakin£" MJa'rro1wWashing 'bas t.wo mldor purposes: longcevity~and enlighte:nms!nt or Buddhaheed, Laymen, usually s;trive for longevity, w'hile monks sought enlightenment or Buddhahood as, the eulminatien of their Taois,t or Buddhist training. We!will discuss these two purpo'ses briefly belle. The intere,ste,d reader shouldrefer to theYMltA book "MuscLei'rendon Changing and Marrow'Washing Chi



According to Chinese medicine, your body deteriorates as you age mainly' because 'y'out blood Ieses it~ ability to feed and protect your

1. LODgevity:


body. Your bone ,marrow produces theretl


blood cella and, one type ,of'

the whi.te blliood cella, bui as, you rr,QiW elder, themarrow becomes n,dir(y,,'·andproduees fewlelr' and, 'fe!w,er useful 'bloDd cells. H;owever~, if' you know how to ~'wash:!~ themarrow~, itwiU Sitart once a_gain to produce Iresh" be,althy b'looid. Your' bodly win begin to rejo,ve:nate: ibH~~~fJ' and fresta,r-e itself to tbe glowing h,ealth gf' youth~ YOlllDooId understand that in o~de,r'to proiu,ae healthy bloDd eells, 'thl~ marrolw must be, alive, fresh (clliean)l~ ,BOd acti,ve., ITo keep the lD,ftlTO'W 'fresh BDd lalive BOd functiolningpmperlJ~ Obi mus"t 'be p'len,tifu) and COD'tiDlIoDlsly supplied. Wbene¥sr then' is B shortage of'Chi, the 'manowwill
DOt runCtiOD,

Dormant,. In Marrow Washing Chi. Kun,g', you must first

'Ieam, how' 'fin UPI the !let extrao:rdjnal'Y Chi, vessels' with IChi. LThese vfJsse;Ls BN your lRU3Iervoirs of Chi. With plenty ,of ,Obi ston,d in them]j ylD1l!l will have enough Crutel:lupply your mus!elesl~ Drgans" land 'mamJw~ In

ord.e'rto 'fiU up the lIeSel"'VDir,s, you :must le:amhow 00' Ifticie:ntly eonvert ,your ]Esleoce into IChi., Yon must also' learn.hew to increase your Essenoe 101 'thut youwW have enough rna,rerial to Iconvert :into Chi. !,ssence ~s Uh.e the fuel, Obi is, like the enerllY pnerated,aD!d bone marro'" is the faciory. With plenty 'o,ren.ergy lupplied" the prlOdluetion liDe IOf the blood, eeDswi]l
be healthy .. When (,he: fresh, throughout yOlJ]; bod(YiI'beywill t

,and bealthy blood cells are circulated

ClDTJ' aut their mission efft.cientI.y~,This 'will! slow d,OW11 the degen,era,tion lofyorur' body eo that ithiSis a 'lot monger~ It is justtike running fJD expeD!8iv'~ 1081'" wi:thgood Quality fuel ,the!car wiU run mi&r~: ffioie'D'tly and last ,a,.lDt lo,npr. .. e

2. EDli.httmm.ent:

Fortbe Chio@lemoMs, ,M,o;rmw 'WBshi~g i;B lonly a s,tep nem&sary for HaChing theftnalgoal lof enlightenment ,011" Bud,dhah,ood. In o:rder to,reach this purpose, th.e Chi must be, led up throu£ht'he marrlowin 'the spine tonouri,ih the brain. When the' brain is nourished, tbe Shen is also nOurisbed, and it wiUII'0W ,strou,ger and Istronger until it is ,ah,le tOrNBcb tbefinal,goallDf' spiiritual independen.ce .. Aecolrdiiing tOI CbinslB'e .medical ,science, the Chong Mei fT'hru8,tiDg Ves,sel)i,s the major Chi reservoir whicb slu.p'pUes Chi to the, brain. Cbong Mei i:s mocated in th!emlDTo,w althe Ispin.e. Th.en~Jfore, in ordarto have p,],enty o,f Chi to ,contiin'uo,us]ynounshthe brai.n and ,S,beD, the CbongMei :f1eeervoirmust. be ke'pt full
You con see: ,b,at :r'eH.gioo,B M,orrow' Washin,g' cioncentr,a.tiO'S Dn the spine marrow. 'H'owever"for ,good 'health aDd lo:ng,evity YiDU must 'wash I th.E!:manolw m ,aU ,ofthe banes, ISOthat all o,fth.e blood, cell factorieSI funetioDllro'perly. Many techniques, have been d,evelo,ped, by Chi Eung'

practitio,m.ersoo achieve true, purpo!fJu!.Howev·er" the complete an.d pfofOUDd lstUdy both in toeQry and training is credite,d tOI the Tatl,]sts ..
Since ancIent time,s, Taoists have :p,racticredl Chi KnngFor both~o~gevity and enUgmtenment. Donat think ths,t, thelia is 110 'health land longevi~y benefit 'when the Chi is, rued 'tel n.ourishthe brain and raisI; up the Siben. As a matter of fact, yOU.F' b.rajB and spirit are the Icen,iter and, head.qu.a.rterI9 of your 'w'.hnlle: being. When your brain. is heaJthy~ you will be ,able, to think clearly. 'Yon need to bave, a, healthy brain ]f' you 'want. 8. h.ealthy body. In the same WBY, ,our Sbeni!s yoW" Chi control !eenter~ When your sp,int is high ~e Chi can 'be led eflicientlyto levery part, of the body, but when your spirit is mow yOiUlI' enel"-gJ']evel will be lorw l8lRdthe, Chi will not circulate sm,oothl~