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Environmental Hazards of Flooding : An Overview of Sapporo and Madras Experience (Environmental Hazards of Flooding)

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Thirumurthy, A. M.; Yamamura, Etsuo; Kagaya, Seiichi Environmental science, Hokkaido : journal of the Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 9(2): 177-193 1987-03-10

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Hokkaido University Collection of Scholarly and Academic Papers : HUSCAP

Plains. Drainage basin. Green wedges. Sesreral earlier stuclies [・tnd effort/s either proved to be inadequate or not/ in t/une "Jit'h the diinenslons of the problein as they lacked a coniprehen$ive approach anc{ concrete solution.ization. M.Environn]ental Science. More often the frequent occurance of fioocllng. The increasing deniand for land util. sci. socio-economic texture of the urban society ancl the function of the urban area$. Introduction: ' In the history of location and development of cities.)esign period. I. Sand bar effect. l)ivision of . Japan Abstract I?looding of low lying areas due to heavy rains.. I'n this paper an attempt ha$ been made to bring out the various facets of flooding hazards. However at the advent of industrialization. Human settlement planning was attempted on・a land normally not subiect to major natural calamities.''IiokR'[l"11'd"U'il' g (2) I i77N!g3 'i'' . Tropieal maritime monsoon. Ilnundation.y. Tliougli t. Conventional land use pattern. Hokkaido Univer$it. Graduate School of Environmentai Science. I'lasl'i 'floocls inundation and consequent heavy demaages to properties and lives are the common features in maany of the urban areas ef the world. Nen-renewable reso"rce. the c()st ancl opportunity factors etc inore often outbeat the effect/iveness of the developnient contro] stipnlations of the local Govts for these aureas. Thirurnurthy. the environmental and planning is$ue$ involved and measures undertal<en and needed to be tindertaken to mitigate the probleins in the city of Sapporo of Japan ancl Madras of IncHa. While the higher orcler activities forced their way to . nearness of water sources was of primary concern. Sapporo 060. while all other factors were also given due importance. Etsuo Yamamura and Seiichi Kagaya I)epartment of Regional Planning. Combined sewer system. 1. Apparently the pace of urban growtli is at a fast'er rate vLrhen compared to t/he protective measures undert'aken. Flood moderator.Dec・ igs6 i ' EnvironmentalHazardsofFlooding AnOverview of Sapporo and Madras Experience <Jl'nvironmentol Hazards of Flooding) A.177 i' Environ. As the cities grew the laRd economics started playing a vital role in making the land available at affordable cost for various activities. concentration of major activities and abunclance of employment opportunities caused a greater impact on the physical and economic clevelopment of urban areas. Key Words: Floocl prc)ne areas. poses a host of urban plannipg and development i$$ues for deeper tinderstanding of the problerus involved and tl)e efforts needeci te be unclertaken by the Govts concerned.he environinental 1iazards are comtnoa in betli the cleveloped ancl developing "rorld yet the dhnension ancl inagnitude of the problein varies in reiation to tl)e geographical location.

Greater efforts were made to induce people to settle in the new island by providing basic infrastructure facilities and development of land and public facilities. the lower order activities like residential use were pushed to the periphery creating an enormous impact on iRdividuals accessibility to the employment centre and other essential facilities and services. 9. Sapporo and Madras though fall in the Asian region.178 Environmental Science.5 million) and third largest in terms of area (1118 sq kms>. The fan shaped city of Sapporo is the capital of Hokkaido and the hub of commercial and administrative activities. fiatness of the terrain and host of cyclones and heavy rains. No. The effects though of short duration. E[okl<aido Vol. an enormous impetus was given for its development by the National Govt. the socio-economic conditions. weather conditions and the drainage pattern. During winter Olympics in 1972 the Sapporo city again got a face lift and huge amount was spent on development of infrastructure faeilities. However Sapporo city has been experiencing a 2% annual growth of population. the northern most island of Japan. Complex urban economic systems and the individuals affordability factors often resulted in occupation of low lying areas closer to the city center along the river margins and other water sheds which prirnarily serve as a draiRage basin for the whole city during monsoon seasons. Sapporo city experienced a greater influx of people till recently and the number of inmigrants has almost levelled off. The city of Sapporo has an unique short history of development and the settlement is often subject to inundation in the low lying areas although flash fioods during heavy rainfall are not uncommon. These areas are often not well protected against fiash floods and heavy rainfall and the people encounter a host of environ- mental problems besides heavy demages to properties. 1). Sapporo City ExperieRee: Sapporo city is the fif#h Iargest city in Japan in terms of population (1. interms of commerce. 2. 2. the Urban planning and development issves involved and a comparative analysis of the efforts made in these cities towards flood prevention and protection and the future po}icy needs. On the contrary the city of Madras in India which has a long history of growth also faces similar hazards with clifferent geographical conditions in terms of rivers and lakes. In this paper therefore an attempt has been made to bring out the salient features of the flooding causes. is located on the western plains of Hokkaido (Figure. Though Sapporo city does not have gxeater industrial activities. the river. the magnitude of the problem and the approach to the problem are vastly different. Both the cities. science and information it plays a vital role and is also a fast growing city . Under average rainfall conditions every year the impact of floods and inundation on the settlement are innumerable. In the short history of Sapporo which dates back to 1867. more often have longer lmpact. 1986 occupy centrallzed locations due to high accessibility factor. the terrain conditions. The geographical location of Sapporo has special features in terms of. the hazards and impact.

EHvirOnmenta1蕪azardS Of FlOOding 179 も 。. . .’      ! ・SaPP()ro 働 β o o Tぐ)kvo   鋤 ,           1くyQtO● .弓懸フ’畿 Figure 1.  Location of Sεし1)poro C玉ty. 諺   ・ア∼占 界。、鼠、じレ :・.i薫i,.    ざ   ざ .鍵ざ 議   .読..z 甘  ∼ぐ 壕譜 ヴ艦 .1 遠オ 猿 論.・  軍 総、  を 続.. @● .. g 薫 Do  訟 怠. _弓    』唱ヌ  嚢 =ミ冴  9 薩馨講、…,li辮  聡、. §  1 ζ   (.「き if竈 【 ,きし.r  {.. ’il 黙誤一通鵬1;鞭露.       ..“も’ 讐 一1灘難翻 撚髪 .様∫‘:一{3蛆。 雛 辱s定LI,1,監}夏』唱.,  sl‡ir[し1(1 こ町夏 T.. .顕   Hi琴hWay 轍翫曹辱, 一 r F 一__ ● 自今:肇     一謎bメ、、夢 7R。…3匙惚 瀦.  1一三=一  銭 孔禦 Z. 甑 譜躍 1「 獅 戴r 闘P庭ir照1下Ex・・i・1・i・.e R繍…li〔・i A照・ [:羅St・c【.1漁・y i1:xchlsl、.e Rし1滅le塵lti…ll AI、てし 灘曇dg廊油・〔,d CDm睦M・・.・i}皇l Arca 珊桑醒一 qe諏iし・ロual A整・轍 羅Cpm脚rciaし、re乱し 噛1・ヒヒ唱:卜ll;1瑞Q匡}asレlrldl屋s崔rilL1ノ、照1. 懸ln匡h崖Suial八r鉦斗こし 顯Exξ「}瞬w hL達蔓酬・i乙由、1・Cit ∫∼・・’・・a,、’ Figure 2.  City Land Use・ .

Snow fall starts in mid november and continues till March with an average annual accumulation of about 500cms depth of snow. however all the minor and light industries are located along the thorough fares away from the central area. 1986 in the northern part of Japan. The pattern of developments is one that of Gird iron pattern with moderately wide roads. buses and tram cars. 2 shows the Iand use pattern ofthe city of Sapporo. though the city is served with mass transport facilities like Tube railway. 2. (2) Rai7iftill i7i Samporo: Sapporo city experiences a widly varied rainfall pattem due to typhoon activities. The core of the city being the Odori area. encompasses all the major business and administrative establishments with all the major transport corridors converging towards the city center. The city on the southern direction of Toyohira river is comparatively on a higher level than the northern part of the city.18Q Environmental Sclence. For a major period of the year Sapporo experiences a cooler climate. The region where the Toyohira river merges with Ishil<ari river the land is at a very low level and the soil is of very poor character. The city basically depends on private mocle of transport to a greater extent. The average annual rainfall varies from 120 to 130cnis (including snow fall) with heavy showers in the month of August ancl September at an average rate of 13 to 15cms. the effectiveness of the £ransport facilities are not to the optimum Ievel of service in terms of percentage population served. Urban activities center principally on the fan shaped area formed by the Toyohira River which runs bifurcating the city of Sapporo towards the Ishikari Iow land. The third order use viz the resiclential use is predoininantly located along the periphery of the city. (1) Development and Land Use Pattern qf Samporo: The Figure. The minimum teinperature during win£er goes down to as low as -150C and maximum temperature during summer reaches a level of 33"C. River Toyohira is the tributory of the bigger river called the Ishikari river. Besides the main stream of the river there are many drainage channels running throvgh the city area and ultimately joining with the main at maRy Iocations. The conventional land use clevelopment pattern of the city has brought in a host of problems to the city center. HokkaidQ VoL 9. The Sapporo city being sandwiched between the high moun- . The Toyohira river which originates in the mountains on the west has a very small plain which is the central core of the city and runs in the East over a very large delta region. No. Surrounding the central business district second order activities like commercial and mixed resi- dential activities are located. The Sapporo city does not have major heavy and pollution causing industries. Green mountainous regions cover more than half of the entire city area. Akin to the grid pattern. 3). The central area in general and the public transport facilities in particular experience a tidal flow conditioRs during the peak hours. (3) TopograPhy of Sa2iboro: Sapporo ls located in the south western part of the Ishikari plain (Figure.

>iltrj...l----------Vr[Nui vlut-ing r{batl '/ --N:LGonnlroai.jlll'l...--. Figure `l・.V・・ xy...・Sl.. '' "pt<x l.. r ny Z Zi //lla '<L.l... itu .. x vet n jt. 2z uath z vat.li/: "・・ -gf-lx ws..t.... L' NXOas"ii.ili.V{l lt .l/>'i"i::'imu-'`'i ti-M`iitil]."...vf$iil)wlLy Figure 3..lfJlli" -.N ".l{1)huuied.・. &. .t lt.'・'C:'-v mu・・・.... .・ - x <1 /t/t 1....."-vttd ts11/:':1umL":1.nv""mhl'h'{/fvftttdtnlvoutl "'nr(tlx]t.l.... " . M..}.v//1. . -""""-l.:tij"tttt 'Y 'pt' VITI 't/t"vt v.1 T"WX ・.. tl vy.<1:'ggs' I'SU "'x INI"i. . / va ・ly ".1[t ' itl. : /t ..t///. x?I ////. .. f '" iZ. .=".)l Z'・・....`.II.'.l4. s .C/L '1.1 IS' ./v.. V・L.)i..g)}>II/ l- ' t l]lll./. / 1 TUYVIII±l./ ..'u.ddit]:it)' -"ttji/t'if'tttt' Nutlut.t t'・.lI}. (・III . i' -- ' Y:. J" V'['. ...lll..I//l(.t'v..l・... r:Ert7!il}.c-g. II}s ・ . .. River Basin.ll. z !. `x・...-..1.. tains on the west and the low lying land on the East has greater possibilities for periodic flooding during heavy downpour seasons as the catchment area is a very large mounatainous area with a veyy small plain which can hardly neutralize the fury of flood... :c.111'1-t'' }"xXt/ N .. -t'' li.Environmental Hazards of FIoocling 181 x-.} . .ND: ..Ir lii.'...U"T("LX CITY tx lt '/.u. Sapporo City ancl its General Topography.'l'eNnTliE{Ni'tlNl+t t.1.. ttrt' ys I. i・ i 1.v't .x`iil '"tl)""'/'/ ignc .Oi 511)l.z2/#. ' ..lr・:/"if''''i" > 1{"l[tuh..z n. XX'. *1.・ )・・".//K`lt 't t/tt . -' 'Nl/tL//m: " i.. Sapporo city experienced seveye fiooding during (Figures 4..' l ' t Xs ol.t t.. tJ・rbatiization I)ro]noiion = ww I:']oocled At'ea...-"il 'J. ・21・・・・・. / ・N t-"1...X'l3Ill i..Nl{p . & 5) the years 1980 ancl 1981 and the damages were also considerable.. Sapporo City F}oocE Affected Areas in 1980. / Area.d(2. .{} "・ <..

・ ' (.tt ttt. Hol<kaido Vol. The developrnent thrust and the population infiux in to the city induced a greater demand for land utilization in the plains of Toyohira river aRd the consequent exhorbitant land cost forced the Iower order uses (predominantly residential use> to spread to the delta region of the river which are mostly low lying areas subject to frequent flooding and inundation..182 Environmental Science. CIZ.tx iz./.iii u.i ・Z2. i l'l 7x tt . Zn.. 3.ttlll'1.h]GENI): ` t/ it ww as Urbanizatiei} I'ro]notioti Ai'va. if . the pace of construction and the level of construction have not been commensurate with the need and severity of the situation.・ . The urban planning and development issue has been. tt . EnviroRmental Kazards ef Flooding and Urban Planning Issues in Sappore: (1). 9. t' `z. While the Toyohira river has constantly been improved for fiood protection. tt /t/ /". D Figure 5. ?. (2). 2. . the areas where clevelopments are permitted are not devoid of fiooding or inundation. fi ' 1.'iiiifZlli#.li. (3). No..7. ・'v ' '" ?Xlzrllt. . . E[ere the major planRing and develop- ment consensus has been that the frequency of high flood risk is very less and the possible damage to the properties will be very less. Though high flood risk areas have been banned for any urban development purposes in the delta region. Ii'ivoded Aroa.tr . R ・e..t l/2'.. how and where safe land could be provided for development purposes as the non renewable source (the Iand) is very less when compared to the population in Japan.pt.. However flash fioods in the streams and intermitent landslides proved the venture to be more dangerous compared to the development in the low lying areas of the delta regions and thus the delta region attained greater .. however the yisk of fiooding is less frequent.e ・ .tt k 1 tr.Il {alfell.<'z lah ' ig ・ .. 1'x'iver Bafiin. At the time when there was a heavy demand for land utilization..va tt... Sapporo City Flood Affected Areas in 1981... " ' Z.6h "' .ZI. ' t.. hL ll7.....il. "z'・. 1986 xty- K fn2zZ - sx .' -...va. ..i % t. developments were initiated along the valleys in the mountainous region of west and southern parts of the city. ' 2 'N v " t/..

for the terrain and weather conditions of Sapporo it proves to be inaclequate and inefficient during the heavy rains. In many cases the dampness has led to the total destyuction of buildings. Considering the physical constraints for further developments. "fhile there is still the problem of 'fiooding . (4). The sewage getting mixed with the rain water while running towards the treatment plants chokes the sewer system.bined sewey system itself. What has been planned and constructed is a combined form of sewerage system. More serious environrr}ental hazard is caused by the corr]. One of the many studies conducted in these areas indicates that most of the settlers of the flood prone areas were not aware of the problems before settling there. This is fuyther aggravated by the flow of water from high lands (Plains) of the city which has a very high coefiffcient of runoff due to intense developments. Residential buildings located in the delta region with adequate protection against inundation get affected less than other buildings. thereby polluting ehem. (8). This is due to the large and suclden influx of rain water. OR the other hand the combined system of sewerage has been planned by the Local Govt for a design period of thirty years which has left a great gap in the effectiveness of the sewerage system to drain into the Toyohira river. (10).5 million. Taking in to consideration the need for proctecting a vast area of the city from the devastating effects of flooding of Toyohira river the National Govt has conceivecl a Toyohira yiver iinprovement scheme for a design period of hundred years and the civil works are being constructed accorclingly. (7). In the city of Sapporo there is no separate system of rain. (9). not only inundating the whole area with the sewage but also c]reates an unhygenic environment. The enormous quantity of water collected during the fiooding seasons at the sewage treatment plant more often increases the load on the treatment plant.85 iitillion from the present leve] o/f l. This in turn over fiows through the manholes located along the streets of low lying areas. snow water drainage and sewage. (5). The pumping stations which have been located along the river sides are more often inaclequate to meet the demand and xe}ieving the area of the rain water in the shortest time possib]e. The major criteria for the settlers was that Iand was available at an affordable cost. Frequency of heavy fioods in Toyohira river and coRsequent breaching of the bunds and 'fiooding of the city is very less. As a resvlt it becomes impossible to treat the entire infiow and therefore almost half of the sewage is led into the rivers untxeated.Environmental Hazards of Flooding 183 significance. While the combined system has its own advantages. It is a common feature that a high clegree of dampness is mostly caused to the buildings constructed with thermaly insulated walls due to inundation. <6). the Sapporo Development plan for 1995 stipulates for restriction of population to 1. however the water which gets colleted due to rains in the low lying city area (Delta region) itself is very large in quantity and causes inundation for several days. Lack of adequate and proper information on the flood prone areas seemed to have been the greatest handicap.

184 Environxnental Science. It is relatively uncongested city by Indlan standards and is expanding outwards rather than upwards because of the ready availability of Land (Figure. Developments in low lying flood prone areas are the manifestation of sky rocl<eting land prices in the central and surrounding area and greater danger of living in mountainous areas.km.MI - IN DIA -BOMBA¥ Arablun Seu CALCUTTA l3av ef Betigal MAD}・tAS Figure 6. Genaral: Madras is the fourth largest city in India vgrith a population of 4. 2. 1986 persisting for the existing populatlon adequate planning aRd development efforts are needed to be taken care of for the anticipated population. Location of Madras. So far the major thrust was on improving the Toyohira river alone against flood. . While the landuse or Zonal plans have 1)een effective iR controlling the land uses. Though there have been many studies relating to the flood hazards in the flood plains of the river a comprehensive hydyoiogical model. (11).5 million in an area of 1761 sq. 6) with a harbour that caters for a fifth of the country's iinports and exports. 7>. 9. No. It is well located in relation to rail routes to the rest of India aitd has a firm but relatively static base of large scale formal industry and commerce including insurance.. Its population is increasing rapidly at the xate of 3. Madras City Experience: 1).. characteristics of flooding and its impacts do not seem to exist. In the absence of such a study document it may not be possible to take major investment decisions. they are not effective in controlling the land cost and therefore the landuse plans in use do not seem to be functional in their existance. The Ishikari river of which the Toyohira river is a tributory has not been given adequate importance. Nevertheless the Madras Metropolitan area is experiencing acute problems of rapid urban growth. shipping and l)anl<ing. (12). 4.2% per 1)Ii]!. Hol<1<aido Vel. is located on the eastern sea board of the sub continent (Figure.

.y. the Madras Urban Agglomeration and the MMA.l e.・.-t (.)]・ING.2 . i "" .. annum. i"" { N (.・...s . its economy is not expanding at an equivalent rate and there is growing pressure on the limited utility services that exist.d.stltsviij s " tz !rl )ALi.. iaLDLEBATTU +. 5 . I.. About one third of the population lives in squatter settlements called slums mostly locaeed on river margins.ttsL.AJ.]vtneraticn .ra t l-. the trend of which is continuing. N. 2)..--i-F+・-...i.XIvivvpelitan <l'est・19'7SBuv"dur. This period also saw intensification of development ancl the gyowth of new residential and industrial suburl)s..iN. ' Cltv Madras . J s s s r') t! gt. re.+ti.+ .Xlatlrats .r'M'r'"hiA・. 1 NdN. . The growth of Madras did not take p}ace in a regulated manner except in a few areas developed through Town planning . low lying areas and public lands normal}y subject to fiooding and inundation.IS'.j X''N'-'-" rt-v. Boundaries of the City of Maclras.'L't. .r '-'v.:lt・ '{t-tt - .--.I.:'AME3ARAM f .i sXF) Figure 7.+・-l- i. +" . .-.vJi"'x.t ttmak E("kY・ e t a"y・・・. F l.J iytiY'-'L "xt'l'll`""aw ( ..". The population first passed the million mark around 1943 and then cloublecl itself in a short span of twenty years to cross.?1.t"+)Iaiii }{ai]"ay Lines i?:r .AYARAM g.t".Environmental Hazards of Flooding 185 .+t -./=.. i i f ! lix ib i i. Development and Land zese Pattern of Madras: The thirty years between 1941 and 1971 saw tremendous growth in population and economic activity ln ancl around the city.u-+.I.+ tl.-tiL・--. . It is becoming more clithcult to find wori< except in the informal sector and real incomes are declining.-.l t+'+'-'t' A' -' 'be. particularly on the west and south...y"" 1 -t BAlr' k 2 L" t 1 OF l.v l 1 i I )Iaclras ursan Ags..--...v) -'-'-tMx'aBvunLlar.-'4.XL ' c' 'u.. the two million mark.

.if x. west and south vvest directions.t'r/. . e. Government. 1・x MhidF:hiritii X' 1.l'{/.am. :.-.・XgE'ieulTiEi'itl t // ...y B.Iltr. 2....pti'lillt'. The industrial areas with in the city (Figure.v l.v"IV7h nntl LYnivr ]l".'/ttr.iiiilli.ll[iltssEittati.v T? " v t"t . The major developments in the industrial field during £he post independence era have been the establishment of a number of industries. 8) are mainly in the north and west where they are closely tied to residential developments.." E' geZ.x.. Hokkaido Vol.186 Environmental Science. Early Five Year P]an schemes gave impetus to industria} activity in the public sector and this broadened the city's function from that of a predominantly administrative and commercial center.niul 'pa .ut'c. The main reasons for this fast growth can be attributed to the forces of economic activity realised after the country obtained inclependence.i.・EI .I iua i. 1986 Schemes.1' z .i}.. No.ii. .]it Neiv Llii.// ./!i:. both private and public.111ii. The expansion of the city was not however accompanied by the provision of infrastructure faciilties. /・ti. quasi-government and private commercial firms are dispersed bu£ those which were established earlier are concentxated in the older parts of the city.. L .'wf'"''' . City Land Use.2 as Figure8.li:.'a tz.¥itiilf ll."ii-]]"] Cit.h]. Many of them are located at the outskirts in the north. 9.ill.'i.. 1 OF)i..1.y LIvvn{lnvy lll..kl・Nvl・l-lIl-L. In tij tt f/ nd .

`. Naturally all communication lines led to this centre and these in turn were linl<ed with each other producing a ring aRd radial pattern of development. km.・ '" .<?fZ.1Ic'l//・k.i 'i v .x.'./g. 'ropography showing Stream.. most of the whole sale trade."・' ea'". Early in the development of the city.¥. north-west.. g/1・'29 't't'-' i+'l'l'l.... The rural areas surrounding the city generally remain agriculture in use. west.i"ii' Bay of Btht)kTtl] -' 'l t/ z/'qN.i.i.-af.`lacrs. YS..ll.t. the north.}. The gross density of population over the entire city is of the order of 20900 persons per sq. ge・・-f・ -・・・ . ceRtral and southern sector....). t・x.g .l.ii91ii[lllii. It is here ' the commercial activity is intense.2{-Ias Figure 9. '/1/.it./../r/JJ・''l.. .t t.s and Waterbodies. d".0 metres above M. Q't:s K c"-di t tt /t ElsEas .sigf.. .f. .. specialised retail tracle and l)anl<ing and financial institutions are }ocated.nviromnental Hazards of Fl.."y ]'lt'nm{lav)' l}ve-l!)7S i+dmd"t+i"iRail"'aN ]..ill(i NalienalIEk'Iiways ' Ll/=/ 1{) . All the rive]rs run in a radial direction in the north..aR i.." fSlj A lli . All three rivers are non per..2. .tt:}. -'i'"'//le. The ring and radial type of development has created greeR wedges. 3)...oocling 187 the C. The main communication routes outside the city are linked with industrial establishments and shopping.f.. ・ rzk.west and south...illi'.l/ptiulliil'l'i'l.. -gn '・sllli $. B. the edges of which in some cases touch the city.s..$.L.stza-/ /x ..'. the area surrounding the Harbour had become the commercial cellter of the city.t su . Topqgraplry of Madras: C['he site of Madxas city and its environs is very flat.. Shopping facilities of }ocal importance have developed along almost all major roads.s 7.trA f llltl'sqi.' ('l"uiil)nt'ISm{/.0 to 10. X.14tt zatk・. .i. l)ut the development is diffused.i 61i. 1es kN ・kf/-i`g"'. Madras is the only urban agglomeration with over two million population in South India.rtSiJ ort /ya".S. ..--.1・・li・..ti'・k' 'i'//.}(. V..D which is the core aye of the city.I{.i`:..g'ib ? (. The present structure of the city approximates to a semi circle with extensions in five main dixections..ii:.t.. There are three rivers running through the Madras Metropolitan Area from west to east.i. "' f.ttt.---'-・h 'vee .l・:'}. :.."A'}..p- iv・w buVVVTL t'{"' ' .l.t}. s...i... . the contours ranging from 2. .)lltli ' 'L'2v l-` ewVBII .I・¥・fril..// ・・+ y y-' 7 ..il[il・i・11illliii・t.・. south.?.

A.v-l I. Figure. originally used for navigational purposes..""'. 4).r'-"" t 'g ll g l .--tittigil li `・i r[ j' j.7 i ] x4-4-iiL}Vlil x?"Va-I "k・"' '.Til]D Area -. The mean annual rainfall is 120 cms. but have a substantial flow during £he monsoon. lakes and canals existing in the Metropolitan area.v Boundar. some very severe cross the coast.188 Environmental Science. Hokl<aido VoL 9.-.Ii.:-[lIAj:'I"F. 1986 ennial. a g l 1 s t t i' li' ' ik f s / x 'X--. 4Zll}}. {L. Area affected by Floods in the City 1976.rf gi). and have obstruction at the mouths by sand bars.y. .v pre-197S r r ・- v ///t i' ] s' ]vi 2. w.]ii.(. All these water courses basically serve as dralnage courses during rainy seasons.. There is another artificial canal running in the North-South direction. ' Iy・ I 'i .- -V / t. 2. The storms and cyclones mainly originate in the Bay of Bengal and are experienced more severely during the period of Octobey to December of an year.."h f i 2 '1 l < t - it l I i[II[V]? 'Il' I IIi i .. The South-East Monsoon is between June and September and does not bring such precipitation. MX " t' k... The cyclone which hit the coast in 1977 generated a tidal wave about 6 M hlgh which travelled several 1<ilometres inland. -/ . Rai7ijf}ill i7i Madras: The climate of Madras is a `tropical maritime monsoon type'. No.. particularly during the North-East Monsoon can result in serious inunda- tioR.-N. R I ti-41t--il-' ""'I' ' :u / .6[[l[Il ・1 'x.L 1 I 't .v ' s l J'-' K 6 u 1 li i ' ' li l l il i1 il・ I 1 bj /l t' . During the monsoon period the maximum rainfall experienced is 66cm over a period of one month 11 is fikl..・ Figure 10. rdJ -H. cyclonic storms of varying intensity.-.C. 9 shows the rivers. . The intensity of rainfall. During the North East Monsoon period "Every year.T' n.

Drainage of this storm water is made more dicacult for a number of reasons: a. This has re-emphasised the seriousness of the flood hazard aRd the urgent need to implernent a programme to prevent physical damage and suffering resu}ting from floocls. A number of iryigation tanks which formerly also acted as flood moderators have been taken over fox urban development.[・i.? ioe{N Figttre 11.uulnvy lt.'`. The floods particularly those in i976 which were of unprecedentecl severity causing damage running into crores of rupees and inflicting gyeat human sufferiRg to the poorer section ef the community.Environrnental ffazards of Flooding 189 only. c. Stagnation in certain low lying areas lasts for several months. 5).Stn±e Boi. . b. Figure. . They have become constricted over tlme by silting and by having their margins encroached upon by developmeRt (mainly squatter settlements). The rivers and chanRels draining in to the sea do not possess adequate capacity. biundatio7i in Madras: The periods of heavy rain cause local floods for several days even after the rain has ceased. d. 11 x. "ll .m. 10 and Figure./pt. Large areas of open fields which used to absorb water have been progressively built up. Flooded Areas arouncl the City November 1976..v・ ・X IIHMIiAFI:l'{CTIID Area -. The upkeep of styeams and the construction of proper drainage channels leading to the streams have not kept pace with the growth of urban area.

costing the Government millions of rupees.190 Environmental Science. The city of Madras was bestowed with many lakes and ponds to act as natural fiood moderators. Hol<kaido VoL 9. Considering the gravity ef the situation the Govt created an exclusive departrnent for the improvement and clearance of slum areas. many slum areas have been improved. Gradual depletion of lakes. (4). The city planning challenge has been one that of finding alternate locations for development purposes which could form an integral part of the city. Under different programmes and with the aid of International development organisations. 2. The city has an intermittent supply at a maximum rate of 90 lpcd which is far below an acceptable standard of an urban area. To augment the water needs people draw water from wells. However with the onset of rapid urban growth most of the lakes were fi11ed up and developed. (2). The city of Madras has separate sewerage and storm water facilities. Siezable number of EWS people who migrated from the rural areas normally try to settle down along the river margins and low lying areas closer to work centres as the land belongs to Govt. However the non availability of sllch facilities in the low lying areas and along the river margins. Flooding and washing away of the temporary shelters are the common features wherein the Economically weaker section (EWS) of the society is uprooted from their localities temporarily forcing the local Govt to provide them shelter and food. the Govt is saddled with the burden of planning for the economic upliftment of the people as well as arrest migration by creating better economic opportunities at the regional level. Poer sanitary conditions previaling in the slum areas are aggravated during the monsoon period exposing the llWS people to greater health hazards. 5. Envlronmexxtal Hazards of Flooding aRd Urban Planning Issues in Madras: (1). 1986 show the areas which were inundated during the November 1976 floods. Besides relief operations. steady pavement of surfaces in developing areas have greatly increased the risk of less ground vKrater recharge resulting in steady lowering down of the ground water table. Plugging all such unauthorised inlets and planning for a comprehensive waste water collection and disposal system along these areas has posed great many physical and economic problems to the authorities concerned. Lowering of the ground water table often resulted in . The non availability of flood moderators coupled with increased runoff due to denser developments has increased the potential for frequent flooding and inundation in many low lying areas. Madras city is supplied with treated drinking water drawn from a net work of Iakes which in turn depend on monsoon. No. however many slums along the river margins and low lying areas continue to be exposed to the dangers of fiooding and inundation. (3). make the people let the waste and sullage in to the city water courses running along the densely developed areas of the city. In the recent 1978 and 1985 rains more than 70000 families had to be shiftecl and provided with temporary shelter and food. Reccurring damage to property particularly of slum dwellers is usually great. (5).

more often causes bacl< flow ixtal<ing the situation worse. The Madras urban area ls aat with hardly five metres above the MSL aBd has two heavy monsoon seasons bringing in a host of environmental problems. not only causing health nuisance. (9). This pxoblem has not only created the need for abandoning of the sewage farms. (6). co}lectioR and disposal system. formation of sand bars due to high tides is another major impedence for the smooth flow of drainage water. Given the topography and the c]imatical conditions o'f Madras the problem of fiooding and inundation needs deeper investigation interms of thelr hydrauiics and characteriseics. (ll). However more o'ften unauthorised low level activities spring up in such areas. The collected sewage is spread ovex large extent of land which is used for cultivation of cattle feed is fiooded during rainy seasons. Observations have revealed that traflic accidents durlng the xaiBy season is very high due to very bad road conditions and the annual maintenance cost of eroads has also been running in to millions. there . (7). (12). However lack of comprehensive system of drainage schemes with adequate arrangements for the remova.1 of sandbars at the mouth of the rivers have not been forthcoming and the problems continue to persist. Future Efforts and Policy Needs: In any urban situation where new land must be found for expansion. The three major rivers which serve as drainage channels discharge the fioodlng water in to the sea at cli'fferent locations. (10). Construction of main and feeder drains have been done in many parts of the city vnder different schemes. The Master plan for Madi'as stipulates a wide range of regulations to curb developments along flood plains and inundation prone areas.Ilnvironmental Hazards of Flooding 191 building settlement and crack formation due to soil settlement. At the mouth of these rivers. Any developments Iikely to be located closer to flood prone areas are carefully scrutinised before permitting such activities. but also construction of new treatment plants with improved. A Governmental Hydrological research institute established in Madras has been studying the problems only to a limited extent. Since the city has grown to a Iarger extent very often the sewage mixed water finds its way in to the living area. three layge sewage farms are used for the purpose of sewage treatment. Besides modern sewage treatment plants. because of low land price. During cyclonic seasons the high tides at sea not only impedes the inflow. 6. l)ut also po}lutes the ground water sources. construction of drainage channels with adequate fall to be effective is another major planning and eBgineering challenge. Besides planning for adequate drainage systeiiii. (13). Flooding and inundation cause enormous damage to the road surface during the rainy season. A comprehensive model study may lead to clarification of many problems 1)efore investment decisions are tal<en. ILacl< of concrete plans and programmes for the low lying areas to deve}op them as recreational centexs or for any other ventures is another handicap in deterring such unauthorised developments. (8).

Land use control of fiood prone areas. Improve the public transport system to be more efficient and suflicient to provide for better accessiblity. Though both the cities face almost similar problems. The Environmental hazards arising out of flooding and innundation in both the cities reveal that the problems are basically manifestations of rapid growth of cities and lack of timely action to combat the situation. Urban development thrust.192 Environmental Science. 7. No. Without planning control of any kind. and d. b. in view of the socio-economic conditions of the city and peculiarity of the terrain conditions. Study and develop appropriate plans to remove all the unauthorised coRstructions and slums from the river rr)argins and low lying areas and resettle them at locations which are easily accessible to employment centers. materials or a pool of labour. (2). (3>. market forces are likely to determine a pattern of `clesirable' land use based on such factors as convenience. jobs or in the case of industry. (4). 1986 are bound to be constxaints and opportunities and Sapporo and Madras are no exceptions.ation: - (1>. the following are the suggestions relating to the future effoxts and policy needs. Therefore it is absolutely vital to recognise that an effective flood control programme has four elements. in relation to tran- sportation terminals. 2. 8. Flood protection measures. Construct adequate number of sewage treatment plants and plug all the unauthorised drainage inlets in the river courses. Undertake a comprehensive hydrological study for the Toyohira and Ishikari river basins in view of the future developmental needs and investment decisions. Hokkaido Vol. Redensificatlon of low density areas of the existing city for an optlmum utilization of the facilities already created without foregoing the overall living environment by revising or redrafting the Zonal or land use plans to be more functional aRd effective. Plan for increased accessibility to public transport systems and reduce the dependance on private transport. (5). Relating to Salut)oro's situation: (i). . 9. ' a. (2). Develop low lying or fiood prone areas for recreational purposes during lean seasons and as flood moderators during rainy seasoRs. iocation in relation to services. Relatiiig to Math'as's sitor. Land use management (particularly soil conservation) in the catchment area c. Plan for exclusive drainage system atleast in elevated areas of the city to avoid choking of the sewerage system in the low lying areas. (3). thereby reducing wide roads construction and mamtenance cost. Thus many of the criteria which may be forma}ly studied by planners are used (perhaps even sub-consciously) by individuals or compEinies wishing to locate a home or a business.

Seiichi Kagaya and E"tsuo Yainamura (1983): A Study on St.I & 1. (1983): Land Pollution in Madras Metropolitan Area.World {1.Receiwed 31. A."hirumurthy. M. London. the Capital of IKokkaido. M.I)octoral 'l'hesis.Environmental Hazard$ of Flooding 193 (4). 76-86. (1982): I. Thirumurthy.Jniversity Congress. Allocate adequate fuRds towards carrylng out the various identified civil works on a systematic basis. I"Iokkaicle V 9 (1). (5). . (.nland Water Transport for Madras Metropolitan Area. References 1. 3. The UNFDAINUPRII International Seminar on Planned Popu]ation I)istribution for Development.(1980). Etsuo Yamarnura and Seiichi Kagaya (1980): Immigration of Farmers of Sapporo. 2. 43-56. A. A stucly on migration and I)evelopment in Hokkaido. 8. Seiichi Kagaya (l986): A Case Stucly on the Residents Response to the Flood Hazards and Flood Control }L(easures in the Inundated Areas of Sapporo ()ity. 7. Develop a plan for improvement of all water courses for xecreational or water transport purposes.'IEnvironmental Science. Slum clwellers of Maclras.[ndia). A Consultancy Report by Alan 'l"urner Associates. An E'conomie Profile of the 'Urban poor.rtictural Method for 'Physical ancl I'Hblic Conflicts in a River Basin.J)ily IS)86) . 6. A C(msultancy Report by Operation Research Group (. 5.Hokkaido Experienee. 'l. Seiichi Kagaya (1983): Studies on Corroboration of Analytical Methods for land use Control {n Flood Esthnated Areas.1. Structure Plan for Madras Metropolitan Area (198Q): Volume . 4.