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ModernHindiGrammar

ModernHindiGrammar

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Sections

  • 1.1. Area and Its Speakers
  • 1.2. Dialects and Classification
  • 1.4. Linguistic Characteristics
  • 1.5. Status
  • 1.6. Grammars in Hindi
  • 2.1. Phonological Units (Segmental)
  • 2.1.1. Distinctive Segments
  • Vowels
  • Consonants
  • 2.1.2. Description of Phonemes
  • 2.1.2.1. Vowels
  • 2.1.2.2. Consonants
  • 2.1.2.3. Distribution of Phonemes and Allophones
  • 2.2. Phonotactics
  • 2.2.1. Vowel Sequences
  • 2.2.2. Consonant Clusters
  • 2.2.2.1. Word-initial Consonant Clusters
  • 2.2.2.2. Word-medial Consonant Clusters
  • 2.2.2.3. Word-final Consonant Clusters
  • 2.2.3. Syllable Structure
  • 2.3. Suprasegmental Features
  • 2.3.1. Nasalization
  • 2.3.2. Length
  • 2.3.3. Stress
  • 2.3.4. Intonation
  • 2.3.5. Juncture
  • 2.4. Morphophonemics
  • 2.4.1. Loss of Phoneme
  • 2.4.2. Addition of Phoneme
  • 2.4.3. Alternations
  • 3.1. Nouns
  • 3.1.1. Noun Inflection
  • 3.1.1.1. Gender
  • 3.1.1.2. Number
  • 3.1.1.3. Case
  • 3.1.2. Postpositions
  • 3.1.2.1. The Postposition nao ne
  • 3.1.2.2. The Postposition kao ko
  • 3.1.2.3. The Postposition sao se
  • 3.1.2.4. The Postposition maoM mẽ
  • 3.1.2.5. The Postposition pr par
  • 3.1.2.6. The Postposition ka ka
  • 3.1.2.7. Compound Postpositions
  • 3.1.3. Noun Derivation
  • 3.1.3.1. Nouns from Nouns
  • 3.1.3.2. Nouns from Adjectives
  • 3.1.3.3. Nouns from Verbs
  • 3.1.4. Noun Compounds
  • 3.1.4.1. Noun-Noun Compounds
  • 3.1.4.2. Copulative Compounds
  • 3.1.4.3. Reduplicated Compounds
  • 3.1.4.4. Partially Duplicated Compounds
  • 3.1.4.5. Superordinate Compounds
  • 3.1.4.6. Complex Compounds
  • 3.1.4.7. Hybrid Compounds
  • 3.1.4.8. Adjective-Noun Compounds
  • 3.1.4.9. Modifier-Noun Compounds
  • 3.2. Pronouns
  • 3.2.1. Personal Pronouns
  • 3.2.2. Demonstrative Pronouns
  • 3.2.3. Relative Pronouns
  • 3.2.4. Reflexive Pronouns
  • 3.2.5. Interrogative Pronouns
  • 3.2.6. Indefinite Pronouns
  • 3.2.7. Oblique Forms of Pronouns
  • 3.2.8. Compound Pronouns
  • 3.3. Adjectives
  • 3.3.1. Inflected
  • 3.3.2. Uninflected
  • 3.3.3. Types of Adjectives
  • 3.3.4. Degree of Adjectives
  • 3.3.5. Derivation of Adjectives
  • 3.3.6. Numerals
  • 3.3.6.1. Cardinals
  • 3.3.6.2. Ordinals
  • 3.3.6.3. Fractions
  • 3.3.6.4. Multiplicatives
  • 3.3.6.5. Approximation
  • 3.3.6.6. Aggregation
  • 3.4. Verbs
  • 3.4.1. The Verb hona:
  • 3.4.2. Main Verbs
  • 3.4.2.1. Intransitive Verbs
  • 3.4.2.2. Transitive Verbs
  • 3.4.2.3. Ditransitive Verbs
  • 3.4.2.4. Causative Verbs
  • 3.4.2.5. Dative Verbs
  • 3.4.2.6. Conjunct Verbs
  • 3.4.2.7. Compound Verbs
  • 3.4.3. Tense
  • 3.4.4. Aspect
  • 3.4.4.1. Habitual Aspect
  • 3.4.4.2. Progressive Aspect
  • 3.4.4.3. Perfective Aspect
  • 3.4.5. Mood
  • 3.4.5.1. Indicative Mood
  • 3.4.5.2. Imperative Mood
  • 3.4.5.3. Subjunctive Mood
  • 3.4.6. Voice
  • 3.4.7. Non-finite Verb Forms
  • 3.4.7.1. Infinitives
  • 3.4.7.2. Participles
  • 3.4.7.2.1. Imperfective Participles
  • 3.4.7.2.2. Perfective Participles
  • 3.4.7.2.3. Conjunctive Participles
  • 3.5. Adverbs
  • 3.5.1. Types of Adverbs
  • 3.5.2. Expressions of Time
  • 3.5.2.1. General Time Expressions
  • 3.5.2.2. Time of Day
  • 3.5.2.3. Period of Day
  • 3.5.2.4. Days of the Week
  • 3.5.2.5. Months of the Year
  • 3.5.2.6. Year
  • 3.5.2.7. Seasons
  • 3.5.3. Frequentative
  • 3.6. Particles
  • 3.6.1. The Particle Bar bhi: ‘also’
  • 3.6.2. The particle hI hi:
  • 3.6.3. The Particle tao to
  • 3.6.4. The Particle tk tak ‘up to’
  • 3.6.5. The Particle Bar bhar
  • 3.6.6. The Particle maa~ ma:tr
  • 3.7. Connectives
  • 3.7.1. Mono-morphemic
  • 3.7.2. Poly-morphemic
  • 3.7.3. Phrasal
  • 3.8. Interjections
  • 4.1. Structure of Phrases
  • 4.1.1. Noun Phrase
  • 4.1.2. Postpositional Phrases
  • 4.1.3. Adjectival Phrases
  • 4.1.4. Adverbial Phrases
  • 4.2. Structure of Clauses
  • 4.2.1. Subordinate Clauses
  • 4.2.2. Noun Clauses
  • 4.2.2.1. Finite Noun Clauses
  • 4.2.2.1.1. The ik ki Complement Clauses
  • 4.2.2.1.2. Direct and Indirect Speech
  • 4.2.2.1.3. Non-finite Noun Clause
  • 4.2.3. Relative Clauses
  • 4.2.3.1. Restrictive and Non-restrictive Clauses
  • 4.2.3.2. Non-finite Relative Clauses
  • 4.2.3.3. Finite Relative Clauses
  • 4.2.4. Adverbial Clauses
  • 4.2.4.1. Adverbial Clauses of Time
  • 4.2.4.2. Manner Clauses
  • 4.2.4.3. Purpose Clauses
  • 4.2.4.4. Cause Clauses
  • 4.2.4.5. Condition Clauses
  • 4.2.4.6. Concession Clauses
  • 4.2.4.7. Result Clauses
  • 4.3. Sentence Construction
  • 4.3.1. Copular Sentences
  • 4.3.2. Verbal Sentences
  • 4.3.2.1. Direct Object
  • 4.3.2.2. Indirect Object
  • 4.3.2.3. Other Types of Verb Argument
  • 4.3.3. Negation
  • 4.3.3.1. Sentential Negation
  • 4.3.3.2. Constituent Negation
  • 4.3.3.3. Double/Multiple Negation
  • 4.3.3.4. Negation and Coordination
  • 4.3.3.5. Negation and Subordination
  • 4.3.4. Interrogative
  • 4.3.4.1. Yes-No Questions
  • 4.3.4.1.1. Neutral Yes-No Questions
  • 4.3.4.1.2. Leading Questions
  • 4.3.4.2. Question-Word Questions
  • 4.3.4.3. Echo-Questions
  • 4.3.4.3.1. Yes-No Echo-Questions
  • 4.3.4.3.2. Question-Word Echo-Questions
  • 4.3.4.4. Answers
  • 4.3.5. Imperatives
  • 4.3.5.1. Unmarked or True Imperatives
  • 4.3.5.2. Prohibitive Imperatives
  • 4.3.5.3. Degrees of Imperatives
  • 4.3.6. Anaphora
  • 4.3.7. Reflexives
  • 4.3.8. Reciprocals
  • 4.3.9. Equatives
  • 4.3.10. Comparison
  • 4.3.11. Superlatives
  • 4.3.12. Coordination
  • 4.3.12.1. Coordination and Accompaniment
  • 4.3.12.2. Structural Constraints
  • 5.1. Animals, Birds, and Insects
  • 5.2. Flowers, Fruits, and Vegetables
  • 5.3. Jewels, Metals, and Minerals
  • 5.4. Miscellaneous Items
  • 5.5. Body Parts
  • 5.6. Occupations

Modern Hindi

Grammar
Omkar N. Koul
Modern Hindi Grammar
Omkar N. Koul
Modern Hindi Grammar
Omkar N. Koul
2008
Dunwoody Press
Modern Hindi Grammar
Copyright © 2008 by McNeil Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved.
No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and
recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without the
prior written permission of McNeil Technologies, Inc.
All inquiries should be directed to:
Dunwoody Press
6564 Loisdale Ct., Suite 800
Springfield, VA 22150, USA
ISBN: 978-1-931546-06-5
Library of Congress Control Number: 2004113175
Printed and bound in the United States of America
ISBN: 978-1-931546-06-5
9 781931 546065


Table of Contents

Preface .......................................................................................... i
Abbreviations ............................................................................ iii
References .................................................................................. iv

1. Introduction
1.1. Area and Its Speakers ......................................................... 1
1.2. Dialects and Classification ................................................. 1
1.3. Hindi - Urdu ....................................................................... 2
1.4. Linguistic Characteristics ................................................... 4
1.5. Status .................................................................................. 4
1.6. Grammars in Hindi ............................................................ 7

2. Phonology
2.1. Phonological Units (Segmental) ...................................... 11
2.1.1. Distinctive Segments .................................................. 11
Vowels ................................................................................ 11
Consonants .......................................................................... 12
2.1.2. Description of Phonemes ............................................ 12
2.1.2.1. Vowels ................................................................... 12
2.1.2.2. Consonants ............................................................. 14
2.1.2.3. Distribution of Phonemes and Allophones ............ 19
2.2. Phonotactics ..................................................................... 20
2.2.1. Vowel Sequences ........................................................ 20
2.2.2. Consonant Clusters ..................................................... 20
2.2.2.1. Word-initial Cosonant Clusters .............................. 20
2.2.2.2. Word-medial Consonant Clusters .......................... 21
2.2.2.3. Word-final Consonant Clusters .............................. 23
2.2.3. Syllable Structure ........................................................ 24
2.3. Supersegmental Features ................................................. 25
2.3.1. Nasalization ................................................................. 25
2.3.2. Length ......................................................................... 26
2.3.3. Stress ........................................................................... 26
2.3.4. Intonation .................................................................... 27
2.3.5. Juncture ....................................................................... 29
2.4. Morphophonemics ........................................................... 30
2.4.1. Loss of Phoneme ......................................................... 30
2.4.2. Addition of Phoneme .................................................. 30
2.4.3. Alternations ................................................................. 31


3. Morphology
3.1. Nouns ............................................................................... 33
3.1.1. Noun Inflection ........................................................... 33
3.1.1.1. Gender .................................................................... 33
3.1.1.2. Number .................................................................. 35
3.1.1.3. Case ........................................................................ 36
3.1.2. Postpositions ............................................................... 37
3.1.2.1. The Postposition -( ne ............................................. 37
3.1.2.2. The Postposition =( ko ............................................ 41
3.1.2.3. The Postposition ·( se ............................................. 47
3.1.2.4. The Postposition -( mẽ ............................................ 52
3.1.2.5. The Postposition +· par .......................................... 53
3.1.2.6. The Postposition =( ka ............................................ 55
3.1.2.7. Compound Postpositions........................................ 57
3.1.3. Noun Derivation .......................................................... 68
3.1.3.1. Nouns from Nouns ................................................. 68
3.1.3.2. Nouns from Adjectives .......................................... 70
3.1.3.3. Nouns from Verbs .................................................. 71
3.1.4. Noun Compounds ....................................................... 72
3.1.4.1. Noun-Noun Compounds ........................................ 73
3.1.4.2. Copulative Compounds .......................................... 73
3.1.4.3. Reduplicated Compounds ...................................... 73
3.1.4.4. Partially Duplicated Compounds ........................... 73
3.1.4.5. Superordinate Compounds ..................................... 74
3.1.4.6. Complex Compounds ............................................. 74
3.1.4.7. Hybrid Compounds ................................................ 74
3.1.4.8. Adjective-Noun Compounds .................................. 74
3.1.4.9. Modifier-Noun Compounds ................................... 75
3.2. Pronouns .......................................................................... 75
3.2.1. Personal Pronouns ....................................................... 75
3.2.2. Demonstrative Pronouns ............................................. 77
3.2.3. Relative Pronouns ....................................................... 77
3.2.4. Reflexive Pronouns ..................................................... 77
3.2.5. Interrogative Pronouns ................................................ 78
3.2.6. Indefinite Pronouns ..................................................... 79
3.2.7. Oblique Forms of Pronouns ........................................ 79
3.2.8. Compound Pronouns ................................................... 80
3.3. Adjectives ........................................................................ 81
3.3.1. Inflected ...................................................................... 82
3.3.2. Uninflected .................................................................. 82
3.3.3. Types of Adjectives .................................................... 82
3.3.4. Degree of Adjectives ................................................... 84


3.3.5. Derivation of Adjectives ............................................. 85
3.3.6. Numerals ..................................................................... 88
3.3.6.1. Cardinals ................................................................ 88
3.3.6.2. Ordinals .................................................................. 90
3.3.6.3. Fractions ................................................................. 91
3.3.6.4. Multiplicatives ....................................................... 92
3.3.6.5. Approximation ....................................................... 92
3.3.6.6. Aggregation ............................................................ 93
3.4. Verbs ................................................................................ 93
3.4.1. The Verb hona: ........................................................... 93
3.4.2. Main Verbs .................................................................. 95
3.4.2.1. Intransitive Verbs ................................................... 95
3.4.2.2. Transitive Verbs ..................................................... 96
3.4.2.3. Ditransitive Verbs .................................................. 98
3.4.2.4. Causative Verbs ..................................................... 98
3.4.2.5. Dative Verbs ........................................................ 100
3.4.2.6. Conjunct Verbs .................................................... 102
3.4.2.7. Compound Verbs ................................................. 103
3.4.3. Tense ......................................................................... 105
3.4.4. Aspect ....................................................................... 107
3.4.4.1. Habitual Aspect .................................................... 107
3.4.4.2. Progressive Aspect ............................................... 111
3.4.4.3. Perfective Aspect ................................................. 113
3.4.5. Mood ......................................................................... 116
3.4.5.1. Indicative Mood ................................................... 116
3.4.5.2. Imperative Mood .................................................. 116
3.4.5.3. Subjuntive Mood .................................................. 119
3.4.6. Voice ......................................................................... 121
3.4.7. Non-finite Verb Forms .............................................. 122
3.4.7.1. Infinitives ............................................................. 122
3.4.7.2. Participles ............................................................. 124
3.4.7.2.1. Imperfective Participles .................................. 125
3.4.7.2.2. Perfective Participles ....................................... 126
3.4.7.2.3. Conjunctive Participles ................................... 128
3.5. Adverbs .......................................................................... 129
3.5.1. Types of Adverbs ...................................................... 130
3.5.2. Expressions of Time ................................................. 133
3.5.2.1. General Time Expressions ................................... 133
3.5.2.2. Time of Day ......................................................... 133
3.5.2.3. Period of Day ....................................................... 135
3.5.2.4. Days of the Week ................................................. 135
3.5.2.5. Months of the Year .............................................. 135

3.5.2.6. Year ...................................................................... 136
3.5.2.7. Seasons ................................................................. 136
3.5.3. Frequentative ............................................................. 137
3.6. Particles .......................................................................... 137
3.6.1. The Particle ·(· bhi: ‘also’ ......................................... 137
3.6.2. The Particle r( hi: ...................................................... 150
3.6.3. The Particle -( to ........................................................ 155
3.6.4. The Particle -= tak ‘up to’ ......................................... 157
3.6.5. The Particle ·(· bhar .................................................. 158
3.6.6. The Particle -((| ma:tr ................................................ 159
3.7. Connectives .................................................................... 160
3.7.1. Mono-morphemic ..................................................... 161
3.7.2. Poly-morphemic ........................................................ 161
3.7.3. Phrasal ....................................................................... 161
3.8. Interjections .................................................................... 162

4. Syntax
4.1. Structure of Phrases ....................................................... 165
4.1.1. Noun Phrase .............................................................. 165
4.1.2. Postpositional Phrases ............................................... 171
4.1.3. Adjectival Phrases ..................................................... 173
4.1.4. Adverbial Phrases ..................................................... 176
4.2. Structure of Clauses ....................................................... 179
4.2.1. Subordinate Clauses .................................................. 179
4.2.2. Noun Clauses ............................................................ 180
4.2.2.1. Finite Noun Clauses ............................................. 181
4.2.2.1.1. The i= ki Complement Clauses ........................ 181
4.2.2.1.2. Direct and Indirect Speech .............................. 182
4.2.2.1.3. Non-finite Noun Clause .................................. 184
4.2.3. Relative Clauses ........................................................ 187
4.2.3.1. Restrictive and Non-restrictive Clauses ............... 189
4.2.3.2. Non-finite Relative Clauses ................................. 194
4.2.3.3. Finite Relative Clauses ......................................... 195
4.2.4. Adverbial Clauses ..................................................... 198
4.2.4.1. Adverbial Clauses of Time .................................. 198
4.2.4.2. Manner Clauses .................................................... 200
4.2.4.3. Purpose Clauses ................................................... 202
4.2.4.4. Cause Clauses ...................................................... 203
4.2.4.5. Condition Clauses ................................................ 204
4.2.4.6. Concession Clauses .............................................. 205
4.2.4.7. Result Clauses ...................................................... 206


4.3. Sentence Construction ................................................... 207
4.3.1. Copular Sentences ..................................................... 207
4.3.2. Verbal Sentences ....................................................... 211
4.3.2.1. Direct Object ........................................................ 213
4.3.2.2. Indirect Object ..................................................... 214
4.3.2.3. Other Types of Verb Argument ........................... 215
4.3.3. Negation .................................................................... 216
4.3.3.1. Sentential Negation .............................................. 216
4.3.3.2. Constituent Negation ........................................... 217
4.3.3.3. Double/Multiple Negation ................................... 220
4.3.3.4. Negation and Coordination .................................. 220
4.3.3.5. Negation and Subordination ................................. 221
4.3.4. Interrogative .............................................................. 222
4.3.4.1. Yes-No Questions ................................................ 222
4.3.4.1.1. Neutral Yes-No Questions .............................. 222
4.3.4.1.2. Leading Questions........................................... 225
4.3.4.2. Question-Word Questions .................................... 226
4.3.4.3. Echo-Questions .................................................... 246
4.3.4.3.1. Yes-No Echo-Questions .................................. 246
4.3.4.3.2. Question-Word Echo-Questions ..................... 248
4.3.4.4. Answers ................................................................ 250
4.3.5. Imperatives ................................................................ 254
4.3.5.1. Unmarked or True Imperatives ............................ 254
4.3.5.2. Prohibitive Imperatives ........................................ 255
4.3.5.3. Degrees of Imperatives ........................................ 257
4.3.6. Anaphora ................................................................... 260
4.3.7. Reflexives ................................................................. 263
4.3.8. Reciprocals ................................................................ 269
4.3.9. Equatives ................................................................... 271
4.3.10. Comparison ............................................................. 274
4.3.11. Superlatives ............................................................. 277
4.3.12. Coordination ........................................................... 278
4.3.12.1. Coordination and Accompaniment .................... 286
4.3.12.2. Structural Constraints ......................................... 287

5. Lexicon
5.1. Animals, Birds and Insects............................................. 293
5.2. Flowers, Fruits, and Vegetables ..................................... 294
5.3. Jewels, Metals, and Minerals ......................................... 296
5.4. Miscellaneous Items ....................................................... 296
5.5. Body Parts ...................................................................... 302
5.6. Occupations.................................................................... 303


5.7. Kinship Terms ................................................................ 305
5.8. Adjectives ...................................................................... 307
5.9. Verbs .............................................................................. 310
5.10. Adverbs ........................................................................ 315
5.11. Conjunctions ................................................................ 317
5.12. Pronouns ...................................................................... 317


Preface

Modern Hindi Grammar aims at providing basic information on
various aspects of Hindi phonology, morphology, and syntax along
with their unique features or characteristics.

Hindi has a special status in India. It is spoken by the largest
population in India. It is the official language of the Union of India
and eleven state governments, including Delhi. It is taught as a
second language in all the non-Hindi speaking states under the three-
language formula. Under this formula, a child is supposed to learn
his mother tongue, Hindi, and English. If a child’s mother tongue is
Hindi, (s)he is expected to learn an additional modern Indian
language or a foreign language. Hindi is taught as a foreign language
in a large number of countries throughout the world. Besides need-
based language learning materials, there is a need for a
pedagogically oriented grammar of this language. The present
grammar aims to fulfill the need of second/foreign language learners
of Hindi in India as well as other countries. A large number of Hindi
speakers have settled in non-Hindi speaking states in India, or have
migrated and settled abroad. The second generation of these
migrants is fast losing contact with their mother tongue in the
absence of its use in various domains of their day-to-day life in alien
surroundings. They are looking for suitable language learning
materials including pedagogically oriented grammars for
maintaining the language among their children.

Hindi has a long tradition of grammars and grammatical literature.
The existing grammars mentioned in the introduction as well as in
references are either too old and do not describe modern spoken and
written Hindi, or they are sketchy or too scholarly or detailed. They
do not fulfill the needs of second and/or foreign language learners or
those native speakers who want to maintain the language in an alien
atmosphere.

This grammar is pedagogically oriented. It will be of special interest
to Hindi language learners and teachers in different situations. It will
also be of interest to linguists and researchers working in the area of
language typology, and to general readers as well.

i


In Modern Hindi Grammar we have utilized simple terminology and
provided suitable descriptions with tables for grammatical
categories, phrases, and sentence types. The introduction gives a
survey of the Hindi speaking area and the number of its speakers, its
classification and dialects, Hindi-Urdu relationship, the status of
Hindi and its use in administration, education and mass media, Hindi
grammars, and the objectives of the present grammar. The
phonology section describes segmental phonemes, suprasegmentals,
and morphophonology. The morphology provides a description of
different word classes: nouns, pronouns, adjectives, numerals,
adverbs, particles, connectives, and interjections. It deals with
inflectional as well as derivational morphology. The syntax
describes the structure of phrases, sentence types, complex and
compound constructions, special word order variations, and other
intricate syntactic features. The lexicon presents a list of useful
classified vocabulary which is useful for students and teachers of
Hindi as well as general readers. This grammar emphasizes special
features of Hindi that set it apart from other Indo-Aryan languages.
In short, it will fulfill the needs of the basic language learner as well
as provide useful information for the linguist and the general reader.

I would like to take this opportunity to thank Mr. Thomas Creamer,
Director, Language Research Center (a division of McNeil
Technologies) for asking me to write this grammar and for deciding
to publish it. I would like to thank Prof. Anjani Kumar Sinha, and
Prof. Kashi Wali for going through the first draft of it and for
offering useful comments and suggestions. Finally, I would like to
thank my colleagues at the Indian Institute of Language Studies for
providing their assistance.

I hope students, researchers, teachers, and linguists will find this
book useful.

Omkar N. Koul

ii


iii


Abbreviations

1. first person
2. second person
3. third person
abl ablative case
adv adverb
asp aspirated
aux auxiliary
caus causative
cond conditional
cor correlative
cp conjunctive participle
dat dative
emp emphatic
erg ergative
fut future
gen genitive case
hon honorific
imp imperative
impf imperfective
inf infinitive
indef indefinite
ms masculine singular
neg negative
nom nominative
non hon non honorific
NP noun phrase
obl oblique
part particle
pass passive
pl plural
pol polite
poss possessive
postp postposition
pre presumptive
prox proximate
psp past participle
ptc participle
q question particle
refl reflexive
rel relative
rem remote
sbj subjunctive mood
sg singular
unas unaspirated
VP verb phrase
vd voiced
vl voiceless
* ungrammatical



References

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___. 1984. The conjuctive participle in Hindi-Urdu. In International
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___. 1974. Studies in the Semantic Structure of Hindi. Delhi: Motilal
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___. 1993. Punjabi: A Cognitive-Descriptive Grammar. London:
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___. and P.B. Pandit 1965. Hindi: A Spoken Approach. Poona:
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iv


Hook, Peter Edwin 1974. The Compound Verb in Hindi. Ann Arbor:
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___. 1970. Hindi Structures: An Intermediate Level. Ann Arbor: The
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in Spoken Hindi: A Microwave Approach To Language Teaching
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___. 1978. On relative clause formation in Hindi-Urdu. Linguistics,
207: 5-26.
___. 1980. Aspects of Hindi Grammar. New Delhi: Manohar.
___. 2006. Hindi. Amsterdam: John Benjamin.
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Word Phonology. Poona: Deccan College.
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rd
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___. 1982. Coordinating Conjunctions in Hindi. In Koul, Omkar N.
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___. (ed.) 1994. Topics in Hindi Linguistics Vol 3. New Delhi:
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Bahri Publications.
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v


___. and Kashi Wali 2006. Modern Kashmiri Grammar. Springfield:
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___. 1981. Identified object marking in Hindi and other languages.
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rd
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vi


vii

Sharma, Aryendra 1958. A Basic Grammar of Modern Hindi. New
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1. INTRODUCTION
1

1. Introduction

1.1. Area and Its Speakers

Hindi is an Indo-Aryan language (a branch of the-Indo-European
family of languages), spoken primarily in the states of Bihar,
Chattisgarh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya
Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, and Uttar Pradesh in India.
Besides being the official language of these states it is also the
official language of government of India along with English.
According to the 2001census, it is spoken by 422,048,642 speakers
which include the speakers of its various dialects and variations of
speech grouped under Hindi. It is also spoken by a large number of
people of Indian origin settled abroad.

1.2. Dialects and Classification

Hindi and Urdu languages have their origins in Khariboli spoken in
areas around Delhi. Khariboli was adopted by the Afghans, Persians,
and Turks as a common language of interaction with the local
population during the period of Islamic invasions and the
establishment of Muslim rule in the north of India between the
eighth and tenth centuries AD. In time, it developed a variety called
Urdu with significant borrowings from Arabic and Persian and that
uses a Persian script. It was also known as rexta “mixed language.”
As Urdu gained patronage in the Muslim courts and developed into
a literature language, the variety used by the general population
gradually replaced Sanskrit, literary Prakrits, and Apabhramsas as
the literary language. This latter variety looked to Sanskrit for
linguistic borrowings and Sanskrit, Prakrits, and Apabhramsas for
literary conventions. It is this variety that became known as Hindi.

Hindi and Urdu have a common form known as Hindustani which is
essentially a Hindi-Urdu mixed language. This was the variety that
was adopted by Indian leaders as a symbol of national identity
during the struggle for freedom. Hindi has been used as a literary
language since the twelfth century. The development of prose,
however, began only in the eighteenth century, which marks the
emergence of Hindi as a full-fledged literary language.

1. INTRODUCTION
2

Grierson (1906) has divided Hindi into two groups: Eastern Hindi
and Western Hindi. Between the Eastern and the Western Prakrits
there was an intermediate Prakrit called Ardhamagadhi. The modern
representative of the corresponding Apabhamsa is Eastern Hindi and
the Shaurasena Apabhramsa of the middle Doab is the parent of
Western Hindi. In the Eastern group Grierson discusses three
dialects: Awadhi, Bagheli, and Chattisgarhi. In the Western group he
discusses five dialects: Hindustani, Braj Bhasha, Kanauji, Bundeli,
and Bhojpuri. Eastern Hindi is bounded on the north by the language
of the Nepal Himalaya and on the west by various dialects of
Western Hindi, of which the principal are Kanauji and Bundeli. On
the east, it is bounded by the Bhojpuri dialect of Bihari and by
Oriya. On the South it meets forms of the Marathi language.
Western Hindi extends to the foot of the Himalayas on the north,
south to the Jamna valley, and occupies most of Bundelkhand and a
part of central provinces on the east side.

The Hindi region is traditionally divided into two: Eastern Hindi and
Western Hindi. The main dialects of Eastern Hindi are Avadhi,
Bagheli and Chattisgarhi. The Western Hindi dialects are Haryanvi,
Braj Bhasha, Bhundeli, Kanuji and Khariboli. The dialects spoken in
the regions of Bihar (i.e., Maithili, Bhojpuri, Maghi etc.) in
Rajasthan (i.e., Marwari, Jaipuri, Malvi etc.) and some dialects
spoken in the northwestern areas of Uttar Pradesh, and Himachal
Pradesh were kept away from the earlier classification. Now, all of
these dialects are also covered under the term Hindi. The standard
Hindi developed from the Khariboli has borrowed lexical items from
Sanskrit and is the vehicle of all official literary and commercial
communication. It is intelligible throughout the broad Hindi
language region. Another literary style, Urdu, has also developed
from Khariboli and it uses the Perso-Arabic script and borrows from
Perso-Arabic sources.

1.3. Hindi – Urdu

Historical and cultural processes and the linguistic affinity which
exists in Indian languages led to the emergence of Hindi-Urdu or so-
called Hindustani as the lingua-franca of major areas of India long
before its freedom. In an earlier period, the languages of
administration, Sanskrit in the case of the earliest Hindu kingdoms,
Persian in the case of the Muslim dynasties, and English in the case
of the British regime, have mostly remained confined to the elite.
1. INTRODUCTION
3


Beginning with the invasion of Mohammed Ghori in the late 12
th

century AD, the foreign invaders settled down in India to rule. The
Slave, Tughluq, Lodi, and Mughal dynasties used Persian in their
administration, but they used the local language spoken in and
around Delhi for communicating with the people for their day-to-
day needs. This local language was a form of Apbhramsha, which
eventually became Khariboli; they called this language Hindi - a
language belonging to Hind. Thus, the Hindi language derived its
name from the Persian towards the end of the 12
th
century or
beginning of the 13
th
century. During the Mughal period, the word
“Urdu” was derived from the Turkish word “Yurt” or “ordu” that
meant “military encampment.” This variety was distinguished on the
basis of Perso-Arabic influence at the lexical level and was written
in the Perso-Arabic script. Hindi-Urdu became the medium of
communication between the Muslim rulers and the local people. The
southern variety of the speech, best known as Dakhini, also became
the medium of literature and socio-religious discourse. This variety
is influenced by Dravidian languages as a result of language contact.

Due to a common structural basis, Hindi and Urdu continued to be
treated as synonymous for centuries at least up to the period of
Mirza Ghalib. Mirza Ghalib called his language “Hindi” on several
occasions, though he used the Perso-Arabic script for writing it. He
named one of his works “ode-e-Hindi” (perfume of Hindi).
Primarily in the domain of different genres of literature, Hindi and
Urdu started drifting away from each other not only in the use of
two different scripts, but also in literary styles and vocabulary. Hindi
started drawing more and more from Sanskrit, and Urdu from
Persian and Arabic. The processes continue today.

During British rule, when English was adopted as the official
language, local languages were assigned roles for certain functions
at lower levels of administration. A competition started between the
proponents or supporters of Hindi and those of Urdu for official
recognition of their languages. In the first instance, Urdu was
recognized by the British in the Northwest and Oudh, Bihar, and the
Central Provinces in 1830 AD as the language of the courts. This
was followed by the recognition accorded to Hindi in certain areas.
Hindi and Urdu were involved in controversy and mutual
competition for their recognition in various domains of education
and administration. The mutual conflicts intensified at the beginning
1. INTRODUCTION
4

of the 20
th
century. On the one hand, there were proponents of Hindi
and Urdu who were eager to maintain separate linguistic identities,
and, on the other hand, some national leaders wanted to develop
Hindustani as a combined linguist identity on the basis of its use by
the general population.

1.4. Linguistic Characteristics

Hindi shares major linguistic characteristics with other Indo-Aryan
languages. It has ten vowels. The length of vowels is phonemic. All
vowels can be nasalized and nasalization is phonemic. The Hindi
syllable contains a vowel as its nucleus, followed or preceded by
consonants. Words usually have two or three syllables.

Nouns are inflected for number, gender and case. There are two
numbers: singular and plural, two genders: masculine and feminine;
and two cases: direct and oblique. Nouns are assigned one of the two
genders. The gender of inanimate objects is not predictable from the
form or meaning. Pronouns are inflected for number and case.
Adjectives are of two types: declinable and indeclinable. The first
type is uninflected for number, gender, and case, whereas the second
type is not.

Verbs are inflected for person, number, gender, tense, mood, and
aspect. There are three tenses: present, past, and future; three moods:
imperative, indicative, and subjective; two aspects: imperfective and
perfective. Hindi is a verb-final language.

Hindi is written in the Devanagari script which originated from
Brahmi. The Devanagari script for Hindi is standardized, but certain
minor variations still exist. In this grammar we are using Devanagari
and Roman scripts for the data from the language.

1.5. Status

As stated above, Hindi is the official language of the Union of India
and ten states. It is spoken by the largest number of people in India.
It is widely used in administration, education, and mass media.

The use of Hindi in administration at the Union level as well as in
the Hindi speaking states is not free from problems (Koul 1994a).
There are some serious gaps in the Official Language Policy (OLP),
1. INTRODUCTION
5

and the rules and procedures which are being followed in its
implementation. There are problems related to the development of
its administrative register. The main problems related to the
development of the administrative register are: (i) an artificial
coinage of terminology, (ii) lack of standardization, and (iii) lack of
coordination between various agencies and duplication of efforts.
Problems related to its practical use include the lack of proper
monitoring, lack of encouragement, and absence of strong political
will.

The implementation of the OLP at the Union level has become the
victim of political indecision, the attitude of its protagonists, the lack
of will of the monitoring agencies, and the lack of adherence to the
rules and regulations set up for it. Even after its continuous use in
administration for more than sixty years, its development is still
questioned by critics. There is a need to review the OLP, and the
rules and procedures of its implemenation to identify its problems
and resolve them.

The Constitution of India adopted in 1950 provides for the use of
Hindi in Devanagari script as the official language of the Union.
Article 343 states:

The official language of the Union shall be Hindi in the Devanagari
script. The form of numerals to be used for the official purpose of
the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals.

Article 351 provides a directive for the development of Hindi as
follows:

It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi
language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of
expression for all the composite culture of India and to secure its
enrichment by assimilating without interfering with its genius, the
forms, style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other
languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule, and by drawing,
whenever necessary or desirable, its vocabulary primarily from
Sanskrit and secondarily from other languages.

The Hindi language was supposed to replace English in 1965, fifteen
years after the adoption of the Constitution of India. The early
sixties witnessed resentment and agitation, primarily in the southern
1. INTRODUCTION
6

states of India, regarding the replacement of English by Hindi. It
was argued that Hindi was not developed enough to replace English
in its administrative domain. Thus, the Official Language Act
(OLA) was passed in 1963 providing for the continuation of English
as an associate official language in the Union and also for its use in
parliament for an indefinite period of time. The Act dealt with the
setting-up of the Committee on Official Language, authorization of
the Hindi translation of Central and State acts, optional use of Hindi
in judgments of High courts, etc. The passing of the OLA was
successful in achieving timely political gains, but it has not been in
the interest of the development of Hindi and its use as the sole
official language of the Union in the years to come.

The development of Hindi has become a complex concern for the
Government of India. The development of Hindi is often linked to
the development of other regional languages. The Ministry of Home
Affairs (Government of India) Resolution (1968) made some
important recommendations in this regard:

1. It is the duty of the Government of India to promote the spread
of the Hindi language.
2. The development of Hindi as well as other regional languages
is in the interest of the educational and cultural advancement of
the country.
3. Efforts should be made to implement the Three-Language
Formula.
4. Compulsory knowledge of Hindi or English should be essential
for the public service of the Union.
5. Languages of the Eighth Schedule should be used as alternative
media for examinations for all-India and higher Central
services.

The Resolution adopted by the Ministry of Home Affairs has turned
out to be merely a political policy statement. It was not followed by
an action plan for the promotion or the spread of the Hindi language
in a sustainable manner, although it was rightly realized that the
development of Hindi and regional languages is necessary for the
educational and cultural advancement of the country. No clear-cut
strategies were framed for encouraging their use in education. It did
not stop the mushrooming of competing English-medium private
schools. Efforts were made to implement the Three-Language
Formula, but, in the absence of proper monitoring of its
1. INTRODUCTION
7

implementation, the Formula itself was diluted by different states,
which resulted in its several versions. The Union Public Service
Commission (UPSC) has made a provision for the use of languages
of the Eighth Schedule as alternative media for competitive
examinations, but, in the absence of adequate study materials in
Hindi and regional languages, English continues to reign supreme as
the only viable medium of examinations. Hindi is taught to the
officers and staff of the Central service during their in-service
training, but there is no urgency for its use as long as English
continues as an associate official language. The Resolution makes
important recommendations, but in the absence of an effective
action plan and a sense of urgency on the part of the agencies
involved, these recommendations are not implemented properly.

Hindi has a significant role in education. It is used as a subject of
study as well as a medium of education in India from the primary
level to the university level in all the Hindi-speaking states in India.
It is also used as a medium for technical education at the lower
levels. Various organizations at the Union and state levels are
engaged in the preparation of textbooks and supplementary
instructional materials in Hindi. English continues to be a preferred
medium of instruction for science and technology at the higher
levels.

Hindi has a prominent role in both electronic and print media. Hindi
is widely used in programs on radio and television and in films. The
language style of Hindi used in electronic media is close to the
spoken variety of so-called Hindustani. In the print media, styles
vary from high Hindi to that commonly understood by the Hindi-
Urdu speech community. Whereas a few newspapers and periodicals
prefer high Hindi or the Sanskritized style, others prefer to use the
Urdu vocabulary. A large number of newspapers, periodicals, and
journals are published in Hindi.

1.6. Grammars in Hindi

Beginning in the eighteenth century, Hindi has a long tradition of
grammatical literature which falls under the categories of (a)
traditional grammars, (b) comparative and historical grammars, and
(c) modern linguistic grammars. Bhatia (1987) provides a critical
survey of the Hindi grammatical tradition. Traditional grammars
describe the language using the traditional framework of Sanskrit
1. INTRODUCTION
8

grammars. Comparative and historical grammars are mostly
concerned with presenting the diachronic description of the
grammatical features at different linguistic levels, especially
phonology and morphology. They are useful for historical linguists
and those interested in the comparative linguistics of Indo-Aryan
languages.

Modern linguistic grammars in Hindi have been written with various
objectives. Most of the modern linguistic grammars deal with some
aspects of syntax at length and tend to apply the western theoretical
models and raise theoretical issues. They are useful for linguists
interested in theoretical discussions and are of little use to the
language learners and teachers of Hindi or to general readers. It is
important to mention a few grammars here.

Aryendra Sharma (1958) prepared first detailed descriptive grammar
of modern Hindi in English. It has been revised and printed several
times. Though written in a traditional format it presents a good
description of Hindi. Different linguistic aspects of Hindi have been
described in various dissertations and independent grammatical
studies lately. I will specially mention three recent works: Mountaut
(2005), Kachru (2006), and Agnihotri (2007) written with different
objectives.

Moutaut (2005) provides a functional description of Hindi from a
typological perspective. She provides a brief phonological outline of
standard Hindi, its morphological analysis, an analysis of simple
clauses and complex sentences. The final section provides
representative features of standard Hindi, its various dialects with
special reference to other neighboring Indo-Aryan languages. She
presents review of the earlier works on the subject and uses
examples from various written texts. It is a first linguistic grammar
of Hindi written from a typological point of view and is useful for
linguists working in the area of linguistic typology with special
reference to Indo-Aryan languages.

Kachru (2006) describes the structure of modern Hindi keeping in
view primarily the sociolinguistic context of language use. She
provides description of sounds, devices of word formation, rules of
phrases, and sentence constructions and conventions and practices of
language use in spoken and written texts keeping in view recent
linguistic theories. She also deals with the information and
1. INTRODUCTION
9

discourse structure of the current use of Hindi. This is quite useful
for linguists and language learners of Hindi in various situations.

Agnihotri (2007) is a practical reference guide to the core structures
and linguistic features of Hindi. He provides brief description of
various simple, compound and complex structures of Hindi. Word
morphology, phonology, and issues related to Devanagari script are
dealt with adequate examples. It is useful for linguists and students
of Hindi for reference.

There is a scope for a pedagogically oriented grammar which
provides essential information for the use of Hindi language learners
as well as teachers. The present Modern Hindi Grammar is an effort
in this direction. It is pedagogically oriented; utilizing simpler
terminology and authentic data from standard spoken and written
Hindi; providing useful descriptions and tables of grammatical
categories as well as simple descriptions of phrases, and sentence
types designed for the use of language learners, teachers of Hindi at
various levels. The Phonology describes segmental phonemes
(vowels, consonants), suprasegmentals (length, stress, intonation),
and morphophonology (alternations, deletion and insertion,
allomorphs). The Morphology provides descriptions of nominal
morphology (noun inflection, gender, number, case, postpositions,
pronouns, adjectives), verb morphology (types of verbs, verb
inflections, voice, tense, aspect, mood, non-finite verb forms), and
adverbs. The Syntax describes the structure of phrases, sentence
types, complex and compound constructions, other syntactic
constructions among other items. The Lexicon presents a classified
vocabulary of Hindi under 12 sub-sections. It is followed by Index.

2. PHONOLOGY
11

2. Phonology

2.1. Phonological Units (Segmental)

The pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism is involved in the
production of all phonetic segments of the language.

2.1.1. Distinctive Segments

The inventory of the distinctive segments of Hindi is as follows:

Vowels

Front Central Back
High i: u:
Lower High i u
Mid e o
Lower Mid
´

ø
Low a a:

The nasalization is phonemic in Hindi. It is represented by the nasal
sign ˜ written above the vowel signs as given below:

Front Central Back
High ĩ: ũ:
Lower High ĩ ũ
Mid ẽ õ
Lower Mid
´~

ø~
Low ã ã:

2. PHONOLOGY
12

Consonants


B
i
l
a
b
i
a
l

L
a
b
i
o
-
d
e
n
t
a
l

A
l
v
e
o
l
a
r

D
e
n
t
a
l

R
e
t
r
o
f
l
e
x

P
a
l
a
t
a
l

v
e
l
a
r

G
l
o
t
t
a
l

S
t
o
p
s

vl.unasp p t t k
vl.asp ph th th kh
vd.unsap b d d g
vd.asp bh dh dh gh
Affricates
vl.unas c
vl.asp ch
Vd.unas j
vd.asp jh
Nasal m n n η
Trill r
Flap
unasp r


asp rh
Lateral l
Fricative
vl f s š x
vd z h
Semivowel v y

2.1.2. Description of Phonemes

2.1.2.1. Vowels

Oral Vowels

There is a contrast in the position of the tongue, the height of the
tongue, and the rounding of the lips in the articulation of vowels.

/i:/ (high front unrounded long vowel):
:: i:d Eid
-((· ni:r water
(-:( jaldi: hurry

2. PHONOLOGY
13

/i/ (high front unrounded short vowel):
:-((·- ima:rat building
i·(·-(( girna: to fall
+i- pati husband
/e/ (mid front unrounded long vowel):
¤= ek one
·- ret sand
(- ju:te shoes
/a/ (low central unrounded short vowel):
¬·(· agar if
+· par but
-( na no
/a:/ (low central unrounded long vowel):
¬(-( a:m mango
¬(·(-( a:ra:m rest
¬·=( accha: good
/u/ (high back rounded short vowel):
.=-(( uthna: to rise
+| putr son
i=- kintu but
/u:/ (high back rounded long vowel):
=-( u:n wool
·(: su:d interest
·((-( bha:lu: bear
/o/ (mid back rounded long vowel):
¬(·( os dew
·(º( roti: bread
:( do two
/´/ (lower mid unrounded front vowel)
¤-(= ´nak mirror
·(· g´r stranger
-( l´ tune
/ø/ (lower mid rounded back vowel)
¬(·- ørat woman
:(-(- dølat wealth
·(( sø hundred

2. PHONOLOGY
14

Nasal Vowels

Nasalization is phonemic in Hindi. All the vowels can be nasalized.

/ĩ/ :·( ĩc inch
i+(·( pĩjra: cage
/ĩ:/ :(º ĩ:t brick
·((·(-(( sĩ:cna: to irrigate
-(r( nahĩ: no
/ẽ/ ·(º bhẽt meeting
-( mẽ in
/ã/ ¬·(=( ãgu:tha: thumb
=z thãd cold
/ã:/ ¬(·(-( ã:gan courtyard
-((·( mã:g demand
-(( mã: mother
/ũ/ .·( ũs ounce
-(r mũh face
/ũ:/ =º ũ:t camel
·(·(-(( sũ:ghna: to smell
( jũ: louse
/õ/ ¬(= õth lip
·((: gõd gum
·(··(( sarsõ mustard
/´~/ ¤=-(( ´~thna: to tighten
·(·( bh´~s buffalo
-( m´~ I
/ø~/ ¬(·(( ø~dha: upside down
·((-(·( cø~ti:s thiry-four
·(( bhø~ eyebrow

2.1.2.2. Consonants

Consonants are classified into different groups on the basis of their
manner and place of articulation. Examples of phonemic
consonantal segments of Hindi are presented in minimal or near
minimal pairs. Non-phonemic phonetic segments are also
exemplified. The examples given below represent their phonetic
transcription.
2. PHONOLOGY
15

Stops and Affricates

In the production of stops, air coming out of the lungs is stopped at
the point of articulation and then released with plosion. Stops occur
at initial, medial, and final positions of words.

/p/ (voiceless unaspirated bilabial stop):
+-( pal moment
=+z( kapra: cloth
·((+ sã:p snake
/ph/ (voiceless aspirated bilabial stop):
=-( phal fruit
·(=-( saphal successful
·((= sa:ph clean
/b/ (voiced unaspirated bilabial stop):
·(-( bal strength
¬·(· ambar sky
·(·( sab all
/bh/ (voiced aspirated bilabial stop):
·((-( bha:lu: bear
·(·(( sabha: meeting
-((·( la:bh profit
/t/ (voiceless unaspirated dental stop):
-(· ta:r wire
=(--(( ka:tna: to spin
·(- ra:t night
/th/ (voiceless aspirated dental stop):
·((-(( tha:li: palate
r(·(( ha:thi: elephant
r(·( ha:th hand
/d/ (voiced unaspirated dental stop):
:··((( ( darva:za: door
·(:( vardi: uniform
·(: band closed
/dh/ (voiced aspirated dental stop):
·(-( dhan wealth
¬(·(( a:dha: half
:·( du:dh milk
/t/ (voiceless unaspirated retroflex stop):
º(=·( tokri: basket
2. PHONOLOGY
16

=(º-(( ka:tna: to cut
=(º kot coat
/th/ (voiceless aspirated retroflex stop):
=·( thag cheat
i-(=(: mitha:i: sweets
¬(= a:th eight
/d/ (voiced unaspirated retroflex stop):
z(-(( da:li: branch
i-(z· nidar fearless
·((z sã:d bull
/dh/ (voiced aspirated retroflex stop):
c(-( dhol drum
·(c( gadha: ditch
/k/ (voiceless unaspirated velar stop):
=(-( ka:n ear
-(=z( lakri: wood
-((= na:k nose
/kh/ (voiceless aspirated velar stop):
=(:-(( khodna: to dig
:=-(( dekhna: to see
·(= ra:kh ashes
/g/ (voiced unaspirated velar stop):
·(:-( gardan neck
¬·(· agar if
¬(·( a:g fire
/gh/ (voiced aspirated velar stop):
·(· ghar home
·(·(-(( sũ:ghna: to smell
·((·( ba:gh tiger

In the production of affricates, air coming out of the lungs passes
with friction when the articulator is released gradually. Affricates
occur in the initial, medial and final positions of words.

/c/ (voiceless unaspirated palatal stop):
·((· ca:r four
·(··(( bacca: child
=(·( kã:c glass
/ch/ (voiceless aspirated palatal affricate):
= che six
2. PHONOLOGY
17

-(=-(( machli: fish
== kuch some
/j/ (voiced unaspirated palatal affricate):
((-( ja:n life
·(((· ga:jar carrot
-(( ta:j crown
/jh/ (voiced aspirated palatal affricate):
:(z( jhãda: flag
·(:((·( sujha:v suggestion
·((:( sã:jh evening

Fricatives

There are alveolar and glottal fricatives. They occur at all positions.

/f/ (voiceless labio-dental fricative)
=( farz duty
-(=·- nafrat dislike
i·(= sirf only
/s/ (voiceless alveolar fricative):
·((- sa:t seven
·(·-( sasta: cheap
:·( das ten
/z/ (voiced alveolar fricative):
(·((-( zaba:n language
·((((· ba:za:r market
·(( gaz yard
/š/ (voiceless alveolar fricative):
(= šak suspicion
¬((( a:ša: hope
-((( na:š destruction
/x/ (voiceless velar fricative):
=·(· xabar news
¬=·((· axba:r newspaper
((= ša:x branch
/h/ (voiceless glottal fricative):
r(·(( ha:thi: elephant
·(r(· baha:r spring
·(r ra:h way

2. PHONOLOGY
18

Nasals

There are bilabial, alveolar, and velar nasals. The velar nasal occurs
in medial and final positions only.

/m/ (voiced bilabial nasal):
-((·(( ma:tha: forehead
=-(·( kamra: room
¬(·(-( a:ra:m rest
/n/ (voiced alveolar nasal):
-((= na:k nose
-((-(( la:na: to bring
·((-( dha:n paddy
/n/ (voiced retroflex nasal)
¬ª( anu atom
+(ª( pra:n life
/η/ (voiced velar nasal):
··(-((
raηna: to dye
··(
raη color

Trill

There is a voiced alveolar trill which occurs in all positions.

/r/ (voiced alveolar trill):
···(( rassi: rope
-(-( narm soft
-(· ta:r wire

Flaps

/r/ (voiced unaspirated retroflex flap):
·(z= sarak road
·((z bhi:r crowd
/rh/ (voiced aspirated retroflex flap):
+c-(( parhna: to read
·((c dha:rh jaw

2. PHONOLOGY
19

Lateral

There is a voiced alveolar lateral which occurs in all positions.

/l/ (voiced alveolar lateral):
-((·( log people
=-(( kala: art
((-( ja:l net

Semi-vowels

/v/ (voiced labio-dental semi-vowel):
·((:( va:da: promise
:·((: dava:i: medicine
-((·( na:v boat
/y/ (voiced palatal semi-vowel):
·((: ya:d memory
·((·(( sa:ya: shade
·(·( ra:y opinion

2.1.2.3. Distribution of Phonemes and Allophones

The retroflex voiced aspirated stop c /dh/ does not occur in the final
position of words. The velar nasal = /η/, and the retroflex flaps z
/r/and c /rh/ do not occur in the word-initial positions.

The nasal phoneme -( /n/ has dental, retroflex, palatal, and velar
allophones: -( [n], ª( [n ], and = [η]. Palatal and velar nasals are not
assigned any phonemic status in Hindi. Phonetically they are
pronounced in the speech only when they are followed by palatal
and velar voiced consonant phonemes. They occur before
homorganic voiced consonants.

2. PHONOLOGY
20

2.2. Phonotactics

2.2.1. Vowel Sequences

In Hindi only two vowel sequences are permissible.

ai: -((: nai: new
ia: i:¬( dia: lamp
ie ·(i-(¤ calie let’s go
ui: ·(: sui: needle
uã: =¬( kuã: well
oi: ·(: roi: wept
oe =(¤ khoe lost

2.2.2. Consonant Clusters

2.2.2.1. Word-initial Consonant Clusters

Word-initial consonant clusters are not as frequent as the word-
medial consonant clusters.

ky +·(( kya: what
kr =-( kram order
gy ··((·r gya:rah eleven
gr ·(·( granth book
jy ·(= jyešth elder
jv ·(· jvar fever
tr º-( tren train
dy z·((z( dyoda: two and a half times
dr z(-(( dra:ma: drama
ty ··((·( tya:g sacrifice
tv ··(·(( tvaca: skin
dhy ··((-( dhya:n attention
py ·((· pya:r love
pr +··(( prithvi: earth
br ·(r-(( bramha: Brahma
by ··((r bya:h marriage
šy ·((-( šya:m Shyam
šr >(-( šram labor
sv ·((·( šva:s breath
2. PHONOLOGY
21

sy ··((· sya:r jackal
zy ·((:( zya:da: more
nr -(··( nraty dance
ny -·((·( nya:y justice
mr -(·( mrig deer
vy ··(i+- vyakti person
hr ÷:·( hriday heart

Initial three-consonant clusters

str ·|( stri: woman
skr ·=(-( skri:n screen
smr ·-(i- smriti: remembrance

2.2.2.2. Word-medial Consonant Clusters

Consonant clusters occur frequently in the medial position. Most of
these clusters are formed across syllable or morpheme boundaries.
There are some restrictions in the formation of consonant clusters as
follows: (i) two aspirated consonants do not combine to form a
consonant cluster, (ii) /ch/ is not combined to form a consonant
cluster, (iii) /d/ does not occur as the second member of a consonant
cluster. Examples of the consonant clusters are given below.

pt =-(-( kapta:n captain
ps ·((+·(( va:psi: return
fs ¬=·((·( afsos sorry
fl ·(+-(- gaflat mistake
fr -(+·- nafrat hate
fv ¬+·(( afva: rumor
bn (·-(-( šabnam dew
bz ·(·(( sabzi: vegetable
tm ¬(·-(( a:tma: soul
dt ·(:-· badtar very bad
dm ·(:-((( badma:š rouge
kb -(+·(-( makbu:l popular
kt -(+-·( maktab school
kt ¬+º· aktar actor
kd r+:(· hakda:r rightful owner/entitled
kr :=·(· ikra:r acceptance
2. PHONOLOGY
22

ks -(+·((-( nuksa:n loss
gv ·(·(·((-( bhagva:n God
ck ¬·(=-( ackan a long button-up coat
mb ¬·(· ambar sky
md -(-:( namda: a carpet
mjh ·(-:(-(( samjhna: to understand
mv r-·((· hamva:r smooth
nd ¬:· andar inside
nt ·(º( ganti: a bell
nd =z( thãda: cold
nkh +=( pãkha: fan
nj ·i(( rãjiš anger
ns :·((= insa:ph justice
nz -(i( -( manzil destination
nv ((-(·(· ja:nvar bird
sp ¬·+-(-( aspata:l hospital
sb =··(( kasba: town
st ·(·-( sasta: cheap
sd r·:( hasdi: jealous
sv -··((· tasvi:r picture
št =-( kušti: wrestling
šm :-(-( dušman enemy
šv i··(- rišvat bribe
lt ·(--( galti: mistake
lt .-º( ulta: opposite
lk r-=( halka: light in weight
lm i=--(( filmi: related to film
ls ¬(-·(( a:lsi: lethargic
lz -(i-(-( mulzim accused
rb ·(·(- gurbat poverty
rd ·(:-( gardan neck
rx =(·=(-(( ka:rxa:na: factory
rz -((( marzi: consent
rh ·(·r: sarhad frontier
rv :··((( ( darva:za: door
zm ¬((-((-(( a:zma:na: to try
hb ·r·(· rahbar guide
ht -((r-(( mohta:j dependent
hs -r·((-( tahsi:l tehsil ( subdivision)
hl -((r--(( mohlla: mohalla (dwelling ward)
2. PHONOLOGY
23

yd +((·(:(· pa:yda:r strong
yv +·(·(: payvand grafting

Medial three consonant clusters

mjhn ·(-(:(-(( samjhna: to understand
pgr .+·(r upgrah satellite
tpr .·+(-( utprokš metaphor
tthr +··(·(-(( patthri:la: stony
cct .··(-( uccta: height
kšp +-(+(- pakšpa:t partiality
jjv .(-( ujjval bright
ndr ¬-:=-(( andru:ni: internal
ndhk ¬·(=(· andhka:r darkness
ndg ·(:·(( bandgi: worship
nsk ·(·=(· sanska:r rites
ndn ·(:-(( vandna: prayer
nyv ·(-·(·((: dhanyva:d thanks
rtk -(-=( nartki: dancer (f)
rkht -(=-( mu:rkhta: foolishness
rmc =-(·(((·( karmca:ri worker
ršn :(-((·( daršni:y worth seeing
rvj ·((·((i-(= sa:rvjanik public
syt ·(:··(-( sadasyta: membership
stm ¬··(-(( asthma: breathing problem
štr ·(º(·( ra:štri:y national

Medial four-consonant clusters

ntrt ··(-|-( svatantrta: independence
ndrv +:r·(( pandhrva: fifteenth

2.2.2.3. Word-final Consonant Clusters

Consonant clusters occur less frequently in the word-final position.

pp ·(+ gapp gossip
pn ··(-( svapn dream
tm =·-( xatm finish
tn ·(·-( yatn try
2. PHONOLOGY
24

tth -(º= latth stick
cc .··( ucc high
cch ··(·= svacch clean
kt ·+- rakt blood
mp -(-+ lamp lamp
nt ·(-- sant saint
nk ·(= bank bank
nkh (= šankh conch
st -(·- mast carefree
št ·(- gašt take a round
št =º kašt trouble
rth ¬·( arth meaning
rkh -(= mu:rkh fool

Final three-consonant clusters

ntr -(| mantr hymn
ndr :: indr name of God
str ¬·| astr weapon

2.2.3. Syllable Structure

Hindi has a (C)(C)V(C)(C) syllable structure. The assignment of the
medial units to syllables does not depend on morphological
structure. The first consonant of the medial cluster is assigned to the
preceding syllable and the remaining elements of the unit to the
following syllable. In the following examples, the syllable boundary
is marked with [+] sign.

-(= + (( -(+(( nak+ša: nakša: map
·(-( + :· ·(:· sun+dar sundar beautiful
i=·( + -(- i=·-(- kis+mat kismat fate

The vowel-initial syllables are found only in the initial position of
words.

¬(=(( a:ka:š sky
¬-(- amrit nectar
:-((·- ima:rat building
:-((( ila:j treatment
2. PHONOLOGY
25

There are different types of syllables.

Monosyllable:
-(( mã: mother
·((·( ca:y tea
·(· ghar house

Di-syllable:
=(·(:( fa:ida: profit
((-(( šola: flame
=(·(( ka:gaz paper

Tri-syllable:
-(·((·(- nasi:hat advice
ir·(·(- hira:sat arrest
r=(=- haki:kat fact

Quadra-syllable:
ir:·-(-(( hindusta:ni: Indian
-(=(·(-(( muka:bila: competition
:·((i-(·(- insa:niyat humanity

2.3. Suprasegmental Features

Nasalization, length, stress, intonation, and juncture are
suprasegmental features.

2.3.1. Nasalization

Nasalization is an important suprasegmental feature in Hindi. All
the vowels can be nasalized. Nasalization is distinctive so it has
phonemic status.

·((·( sa:s mother-in-law ·((·( sã:s breath
=(º( ka:ta: cut =(º( kã:ta: thorn
+= pu:ch ask += pũ:ch tail
·((: god lap ·((: gõd gum
·(( thi: was ·(( thĩ: were

2. PHONOLOGY
26

2.3.2. Length

Length is phonemic in Hindi. There are three pairs of short and long
vowels: /i/ and /i:/; /a/ and /a:/; /u/ and /u:/. The following minimal
pairs illustrate the contrast in the length of these vowels.

i-(-( mil mix -((-( mi:l mile
:·( das ten :(·( da:s servant
.-( un they (obl) =-( u:n wool

2.3.3. Stress

Stress is not a distinctive feature of Hindi; it is not in phonemic
contrast. Hindi is a syllable-timed language, sometimes individual
words are stressed for emphasis only. Usually, the syllable
preceding the consonant cluster gets stress.

·(i= buddhi intelligence
·(··( saty truth

The initial cluster of the word also gets stress.

+-( prem love
·+º-( spaštta: clarity

In di-syllabic words where both syllables have long or short vowels,
the first syllable is stressed.

¬+·(· aksar always
¬:· andar inside
¬(=(· a:ka:r figure
¬(·(-((-( a:sma:n sky

In di-syllable words wherein the first syllable contains low front or
back vowels, the first syllable is stressed.

=((( føji: soldier
=:( k´di: prisoner

2. PHONOLOGY
27

The second syllable is stressed when the first syllable has a short
vowel and the second has a long vowel.

-(·((·( nasi:b fate
i=-(·( kita:b book

In tri-syllable words, the first syllable is stressed if the first syllable
has a long vowel, the second has a short vowel, and the third has a
long vowel.

·(r·(( behaya: shameless
·(·(== bevaku:ph stupid

The last syllable is stressed if the first syllable has a short vowel and
the last two have long vowels.

ir:·-(-( hindusta:n India
·(-(((·( banja:ra: nomad

In words of more than three syllables, the stress is always on the
penultimate syllable.

·(-(:(:(·( samajhda:ri: understanding

2.3.4. Intonation

There are four major types of intonational patterns: (1) high-fall,
(2) high-rise, (3) rise-and-fall, (4) mid-level. Intonations have
syntactic rather than emotional content. Statements have a high-fall
intonation pattern. Intonation peaks are generally positioned on the
penultimate word or on the negative particle if there is one.

1. ·(r i=-(·( +c ·r( r|
vah kita:b parh raha: h´.
he book read-pr is
He is reading a book.

2. =(·(( ¬-(-((·( -( -(r( r|
ka:gaz alma:ri: mẽ nahĩ: h´~
papers almirah in neg are
The papers are not in the almirah.
2. PHONOLOGY
28

Yes-no questions and tag questions have a high-rise intonation.

3. +·(( ·(r =-( ¬(·((?
kya: vah kal a:ya:?
Q he yesterday came-Q
Did he come yesterday?

Information questions have a rise-and-fall intonation. The rise in
intonation is registered on the question word and the fall is attained
gradually.

4. ¬(+ =·( ·((((· ·(¤?
a:p kab ba:za:r gaye?
you when market went
When did you go to the market?

5. -((r-( i=·(·( i-(-((?
mohan kisse mila:?
Mohan who-dat met-3s
Who did Mohan meet?

Commands generally follow the mid-level intonational pattern.

6. :··((( ( ·(: =·( |
darva:za: band karo.
door close do-imp
Close the door.

Contrastive and Emphatic Intonation

The contrastive and emphatic intonations are the same as they
employ more than the average stress on the constituents of a
sentence. The element to be contrasted carries a slightly higher
stress than the emphasized segment. For example, any of the
elements can be emphasized in the following sentence depending on
the degree of emphasis. The emphasis is indicated by bolding
different elements.

2. PHONOLOGY
29

7a. ¬(+ i:--(( ((:¤|
a:p dilli: ja:ie.
you Delhi go-fu-2p
You go to Delhi.

7b. ¬(+ i:--(( ((:¤|
a:p dilli: ja:ie.
You go to Delhi.

7c. ¬(+ i:--(( ((:¤|
a:p dilli: ja:ie.
You go to Delhi.

2.3.5. Juncture

Juncture is functional in Hindi. Internal juncture may be considered
as phonemic juncture. Mostly, the medial clusters have juncture
because those sequences of sounds do not occur in the same
syllable.

-(i=-( muškil difficult
¬-(((-( anja:n ignorant
=-( kurta: shirt
·(:-((( badma:š rogue

The following minimal pairs indicate the phonemic status of
internal juncture:

=(-(( kha:na: food
=( + -(( kha: + na: to eat
=-((: kala:i: wrist
=-( + ¬(: kal + a:i: came yesterday
i·(=( sirka: vinegar
i·(· + =( sir + ka: of the head

There are two types of juncture: (i) internal juncture and (ii)
external juncture. The internal juncture (+) reduces words into
phrases or compound words in the sentences.

2. PHONOLOGY
30

8a. i(:·(( + -((- =( +·(( ·(·(·((
zindagi: + møt ka: kya: bharosa:
life death-gen what guarantee
There is no guarantee of life or death.

External juncture (#) occurs between each word and the words
joined by this juncture retain their separate identity.

8b. i(:·(( # -((- =( +·(( ·(·(·((
zindagi: # møt ka: kya: bharosa:
There is no guarantee of life or death.

2.4. Morphophonemics

Various morphological processes can be marked as loss, addition,
and replacement of phonemes.

2.4.1. Loss of Phoneme

The vowel /a/ in the last syllable is dropped when the suffix /-õ/ is
added to the word.

¬(·- ørat woman
¬(·-( øratõ women (obl)
+(·(-( pa:gal mad
+(·(-(( pa:glõ mad persons (obl)

The consonant -( /n/ of a numeral system is lost before any numeral
suffix beginning with /- t-, · r-, r h-/ is added.

-(-( ti:n three + ·r rah ten marker = -·r terah thirteen

2.4.2. Addition of Phoneme

The vowel ¤ /-e/ is added to the root before the suffixes are added to
it.

i-· tir + +-( pan = i-·+-( tirepan fifty-three
i-· tir + ·(= sath = i-··(= tiresath sixty-three

2. PHONOLOGY
31

When different suffixes are added to the root, the an addition of a
consonant takes place.

·( ba + -(·( ti:s = ·(-(·( batti:s thirty-two
(= šak + : i: = (=( šaki: one who doubts

2.4.3. Alternations

The long vowel ¬( /o/ of the verb root changes to a short vowel .
/u/ when the suffix --(( /-la:/ is added to the verb roots.

=(-( khol open + -(( la: = =-(( khula: opened
·( ro weep + -(( la: = =-(( rula: to make weep?

The long vowel : /i:/ of the verb root becomes the short : /i/ when
the suffix ¬ -a: is added to the verb root.

+( pi: drink + -(( la: = i+-( pila: make drink
·((= si:kh learn + ¬( a: = i·(=( sikha: teach

When the suffixes -(( /-la:/ or ¬( /-a:/ are attached to the
monosyllabic verbal stems their vowels ¤ /e/ and ¬( /a:/ change into
: /i/.

: de give + -(( la: = i:-(( dila: cause to give
=( kha: eat + -(( la: = i=-(( khila: cause to eat
:= dekh see + ¬( a: = i:=( dikha: cause to see

In certain morphophonemic changes, some consonants are replaced
by others.

-(-( ti:n three + +-( pan = i-·+-( trepan fifty-three
:= ik one + ·((-((·( ca:li:s = :=-(-((·( ikta:li:s forty-one

Morphophonemic changes at junctural points or sandhi are very
common in Hindi. They usually takes place in compound words.

·(·( su:rya
sun
+ ¬(i: a:di
etc.
= ·(·((i: su:rya:di sun and the
like.
·(: candr
moon
+ .:·( uday
rise
= ·(:(:·( candroday moonrise

3. MORPHOLOGY
33

3. Morphology

This chapter deals with the morphological structure of different
word classes, describing their inflectional and derivational forms.
Word classes described include nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs,
adverbs, particles, connectives, and interjections.

3.1. Nouns

3.1.1. Noun Inflection

Nouns in Hindi are inflected for gender, number, and case. There are
three declensions of nouns; Declension I includes ¬( /a:/ ending
masculine nouns; Declension II includes all other masculine nouns;
and Declension III includes all feminine nouns.

3.1.1.1. Gender

There are two genders in Hindi: masculine and feminine. Besides
the natural gender of animate nouns, every inanimate noun is
assigned a gender. Though the gender of a large number of
inanimate nouns can be predicted by their endings, there are no hard
and fast rules for assigning the genders. Masculine forms are
traditionally taken as basic. The gender formation involves (a)
suffixation, (b) phonological changes, and (c) suppletion. We can
make some general observations as follows.

(i) Most of the ¬( /a:/ ending masculine nouns have their feminine
forms ending in : /i:/.

-(z=( larka: boy -(z=( larki: girl
·((·(( ca:ca: uncle ·((·(( ca:ci: aunt
i·(--(( billa: he cat i·(--(( billi: she cat
·(··(( bacca: child (m) ·(··(( bacci: child (f)
:(:( da:da: father’s father :(:( da:di: father’s mother
-((-(( na:na: mother’s father -((-(( na:ni: mother’s mother
·((-(( sa:la: wife’s brother ·((-(( sa:li: wife’s sister
+·(-(( pagla: a mad man +·(-(( pagli: a mad woman

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In the above examples, the final -¬( /-a:/ in the masculine nouns is
replaced by - : /-i:/ in their feminine forms.

(ii) Most of the - : /-i:/ ending animate masculine nouns have their
feminine forms ending in -¬-( /-an/.

Masculine Feminine
·((·(( dhobi: washerman ·((·(-( dhoban washerwoman
--(( teli: oilman --(-( telan oilwoman
-((-(( ma:li: gardener (m) -((-(-( ma:lan gardener (f)
((·(( jogi: saint (m) ((·(-( jogan saint (f)

(iii) Some nouns ending in - ¬( /-a:/ form their feminine (diminutive)
by
replacing -¬( /-a:/ with - :·(( /-iya:/.

z·(( daba: box izi·(·(( dibiya: a small box

(iv) Most of the -¬( /-a:/ ending inanimate nouns are masculine and -
: /-i:/ ending inanimate nouns are feminine.

Masculine Feminine
+=( pankha: fan +=( pankhi: a small fan
·((º( sota: a big stick ·((º( soti: a small stick
=º(·( katora: a bowl =º(·( katori: a small bowl
=(=( kotha: a room =(=·( kothri: a small room

In the above examples, the final -¬( /a:/ in the masculine forms is
replaced by the suffix -: /i:/.

(v) The suffix --(( /-ni:/ is added to the masculine nouns to form the
feminine.

Masculine Feminine
(· šer lion (·-(( šerni: lioness
-((· mor peacock -((·-(( morni: peahen
-((·º· ma:st ar teacher (m) -((·º·-(( ma:st arni: teacher (f)
=º ũ:t camel =º-(( ũ:tni: she-camel
-((=· nøkar servant (m) -((=·(-(( nøkra:ni: servant (f)

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(vi) The suffix -: /-i:/ is added to the masculine nouns to form the
feminine.

Masculine Feminine
:(·( da:s servant :(·(( da:si: maid
+| putr son +|( putri: daughter
·(:· sundar beautiful ·(:·( sundri: beautiful woman

3.1.1.2. Number

There are two numbers: singular and plural.

(i) The -¬( /-a:/ ending masculine nouns (including pronouns and
adjectives), with a few exceptions change into -¤ /-e/ ending forms
in the plural.

Singular Plural
-(z=( larka: boy -(z= larke boys
·((z( gho:ra: horse ·((z ghore horses
-(·( mera: my -(· mere my
=(-(( ka:la: black =(-( ka:le black

The following -¬( /-a:/ ending masculine nouns do not change in
their plural form.

i+-( pita: father/fathers
-(-( neta: leader/leaders
:i··(( dariya: river/rivers

(ii) All other consonant and/or other vowel-ending nouns do not
change in their plural forms.

-((· mor peacock(s)
=(º kot coat(s)
·((-( gra:m village(s)
r(·(( ha:thi: elephant(s)
=-((-( ruma:l handkerchief/handkerchiefs
·((·(( dhobi: laundry man/ laundry men

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(iii) The feminine plurals are formed by adding the suffix -¤ /ẽ/ to
the consonant-ending singular forms.

i=-(·( kita:b book i=-(·( kita:bẽ books
-(( mez table -(( mezẽ tables
·((·( ga:y cow ·((·( ga:yẽ cows

(iv) The plural suffix -:·(( -iyã: is added to the -: -i: ending feminine
nouns.

-(z=( larki: girl + :·(( -iyã: = -(zi=·(( larkiyã: girls
=·(( kursi: chair + :·(( -iyã: = =i·(·(( kursiyã: chairs
=r(-(( kaha:ni: story + :·(( -iyã: = =r(i-(·(( kaha:niyã: stories

Notice that when the suffix is added the final vowel of the stem is
deleted.

3.1.1.3. Case

The syntactic and semantic functions of noun phrases are expressed
by case-suffixes, postpositions and derivational processes. There are
two cases: direct and oblique. Case-suffixes and postpositions are
used to express syntactic and semantic functions. Case suffixes are
defined as bound suffixes, which do not occur independently as
words and are added only to the noun phrases. Case suffixes added
to the oblique forms of nouns agreeing in number and gender.

Case Masculine Feminine
Sg Pl Sg Pl
Direct Ø Ø Ø Ø
Oblique -¤ -e -¬( -õ -: -i -¬( -õ
Vocative -¤ -e -¬( -o -: -i -¬( -o

The vocative address forms may be preceded by the vocative
morphemes ¬( o/ r he/ ¬· are. The role of case-suffixes and
postpositions is explained in the paradigms of -(z=( larka: ‘boy’ and
-(z=( larki: ‘girl’ given below.
3. MORPHOLOGY
37


Case Noun + Marker
Masculine Feminine
Sg Pl Sg Pl
Direct -(z=( -(z= -(z=( -(zi=·((
larka: larke larki: larkiyã:
Oblique -(z= -(z=( -(z=( -(zi=·((
larke larkõ larki: larkiyõ

Vocative ¬( o/ r he/ ¬· are -(z= larke Oh boy
¬( o/ r he/ ¬· are -(z=( larko Oh boys
¤ e/ r he/ ¬· are -(z=( larki: Oh girl
¤ e/ r he/ ¬· are -(zi=·(( larkiyo Oh girls

Case-suffixes followed by postpositions indicate various
relationships between the noun phrases and the verb phrases.

3.1.2. Postpositions

Postpositions have specific semantic functions. They express the
semantic dimensions of a noun such as benefaction, manner, or
location. The main postpositions are: -( ne ‘ergative marker’; =( ko
‘to’; = i-(¤ ke liye ‘for’; +· par ‘on’; -( mẽ ‘in’; ·( se ‘from’; ·( se
‘with’; =( /= /=( ka/ke/ki: ‘of’.’ The postpositions are written as
separate words with nouns (¬i-(- -( amit ne, .-(( =( uma: ko), but they
are tagged to pronouns (-(-( m´~ne .·(=( usko, i=·(=( kiska:).

3.1.2.1. The Postposition -( ne

The postposition -( ne is used with subject noun phrases usually with
the transitive verbs in the past tense. The verb agrees with the object.

1. -(-( +| i-(=(|
m´~ne patr likha:
I-erg letter wrote
I wrote a letter.

1a. *-(-( +| i-(=(|
*m´~ patr likha:

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38

2. .·(-( =+z ·((¤|
usne kapre dhoye
he-erg clothes washed
He washed clothes.

2a. ·(r =+z ·((·((|
*vah kapre dhoya:

Whenever the objects are followed by the dative postposition =( ko,
the verb remains in masculine singular form.

3. -((r-( -( ·(ir-( /·(r-(( =( ·(-((·((|
mohan ne bahin/bahnõ ko bula:ya:
Mohan-erg sister/sisters-dat called
Mohan called (his) sister/sisters.

4. r-(-( -(z= / -(z=( / -(z=( /-(zi=·(( =( +c(·((|
hamne larke/larkõ/larki:/ larkiyõ ko parha:ya:
we-erg boy/boys/girl/girls-dat taught
We taught the boy/boys/girl/girls.

The -( ne postposition is not used with the subjects of the following
transitive verbs: -((-(( la:na: ‘to bring,’ =-(-(( khelna: ‘to play,’ ·((-(-((
bolna: ‘to speak,’ ·(-(-(( bhu:lna: ‘to forget,’ and ·(=-(( bakna: ‘to
chatter.’

5. .-(( =-((( -((:|
uma: kami:z la:i:
Uma-nom shirt brought
Uma brought a shirt.

5a. *.-(( -( =-((( -((: |
*uma: ne kami:z la:i:

6. -(z=( ·((-((|
larka: bola:
boy said
The boy said.

6a. *-(z= -( ·((-((|
*larke ne bola:
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39

7. ·(r ·(·-( ·( -((|
voh ra:sta: bhu:la:
he way forgot
He forgot/lost the way.

7a. *.·(-( ·(·-( ·( -((|
*usne ra:sta: bhu:la:

8. ·(r =(=( :· ·(=(|
vah ka:phi: de:r baka:
he-nom lot duration chattered
He chattered for a long time.

8a. *.·(-( =(=( :· ·(=(|
*usne ka:phi de:r baka:

The postposition -( ne is used with the following intransitive verbs:
=(=-(( chĩ:kna: ‘to sneeze’; =(·(-(( khã:sna: ‘to cough’; -(r(-(( naha:na:
‘to take a bath’; and ·(=-(( thu:kna: ‘to spit’.

9. .·(-( ·(· ·( i-(=-(- ·(-(·( =(=(|
usne ghar se nikalte samay chĩ:ka:
he-erg house-abl from set out-ptc time sneezed
He sneezed as he was leaving the house.

10. ·((-((· ··(i+- +-(} ((· ·( =(·((|
bi:ma:r vyakti (ne) zo:r se khã:sa:
ill person-erg loudly coughed
The ill person coughed loudly.

11. -(-( ·(·-( +(-(( ·( -(r(·((|
m´~ne garm pa:ni: se naha:ya:
I-erg hot water with bathed
I took a bath in hot water.

12. --(-( ·(z= +· +·(( ·(=(?
tumne sarak par kyõ thu:ka:?
you-erg road on why spit-past
Why did you spit on the road?

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40

It is not used in constructions using the modal verbs -(·(-(( lagna:, ·(=-((
cukna:, and ·(=-(( sakna::

13. ·(r ·(·( =(-( -(·((|
vah seb kha:ne laga:
he apple eat-inf-obl started
He started eating apples.

13a. *.·(-( ·(·( =(-( -(·((|
*usne seb kha:ne laga:

14. -( ·(r =(-( =· ·(=(|
m´~ yah ka:m kar cuka:
I this work do completed
I finished this work.

14a. *-(-( ·(r =(-( =· ·(=(|
*m´~ne yah ka:m kar cuka:

15. ·(r i·(º=( i-(= ·(=(|
vah citthi: likh saka:
he letter write could
He could write a letter.

15a. *.·(-( i·(º=( i-(= ·(=(|
*usne citthi: likh saka:

In the case of a few transitive verbs like ·(-(:(-(( samjhna: ‘to
understand’ and =-(-(( khelna: ‘to play,’ the use of this postposition is
optional.

16. -(-( .·(=( ·((- ·(-(:((|
m´~ne uski: ba:t samjhi:
I-erg his/her matter understood
I understood what he said.

16a. -( .·(=( ·((- ·(-(:((|
m´~ uski: ba:t samjha.:
I his/her matter understood
I understood what he said.

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17. -( ·(-(:(( ·(r ·((-((· r|
m´~ samjha: voh bi:ma:r h´.
I understood he sick is
I thought he was sick.

17a. -(-( ·(-(:(( ·(r ·((-((· r|
m´~ne samjha: voh bi:ma:r h´.

18. ·(r r(=( =-((|
vah ha:ki: khe:la:.
he hockey played
He played hockey.

18a. .·(-( r(=( =-((|
usne haki: khe:li:.
he-erg hockey played
He played hockey.

The use of the postposition -( ne is invariably found in compound
verb constructions with the verb ·(-(:(-(( samjhna: ‘to understand’ as
the main verb.

19. -(-( ·((- ·(-(:( -((|
m´~ne ba:t samajh li:
I-erg matter understand took
I understood the matter.

19a. *-( ·((- ·(-(:( -((|
*m´~ ba:t samajh li:

3.1.2.2. The Postposition =( ko

The postposition =( ko is used in different types of sentences and is
placed after nouns. It is optional when used with object nouns which
are followed by conjunct verbs with an adjective or adverb and the
verb.

1. -(( (=() ·((= =·( |
mez (ko) sa:f karo
table (dat) clean do-imp
Clean the table.
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2. =(-( (=() =·-( =·(|
ka:m (ko) xatm karo
work (dat) finish do-imp
Finish the work.

3. =(· (=() -( =·(|
ka:r (ko) tez karo.
car (dat) fast do-imp
Speed up the car.

4. =(·(( (=() : · ·=(|
ka:gaz (ko) du:r rakho.
paper (dat) away do-imp
Keep the paper away.

5. ·(:= (=() :·(·/ .·(·/ =+·/ -((·( ·=(|
sandu:k (ko) idhar/udhar/upar/ni:ce rakho
box (dat) here/there/up/down do-imp
Keep the box here/there/up/down.

In the object +=( ko+verb construction, the verb may be transitive or
causative.

6. -(-( +| (=() +c (|
m´~ne patr (ko) parha:
I-erg letter (dat) read
I read the letter.

7. .·(-( i=-(·( =( ·(·((|
usne kita:b ko beca:
he-erg book-dat sold
He sold the book.

7a. .·(-( i=-(·( ·(·((|
usne kita:b beci:
He sold the book.

8. .·(-( ·(··( =( ·( -((·((|
usne bacce ko sula:ya:
he-erg child-dat sleep-caus
He made the child sleep.
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8a. .·(-( ·(··(( ·( -((·((|
usne bacca: sula:ya:

In the subject + =( ko + complement + verb constructions, the verbs
express the state of mind, physical experience, involuntarily actions,
feelings, obligations, and emotions (9-12).

9. ·(-((-( =( ·(=(· r |
suni:ta ko bhukha:r h´
Sunita-dat fever is
Sunita has fever.

10. ¬-(· =( := r¬(|
amar ko dukh hua:
Amar-dat pain felt
Amar felt pain.

11. -((r-( =( =(·(( ¬(: |
mohan ko hãsĩ: a:i:
Mohan-dat laugh came
Mohan laughed.

12. ·(··( =( z· -(·((|
bacce ko dar laga:
child-dat fear struck
The child was afraid.

The postposition =( ko is used in the secondary object + =( ko + main
object + verb constructions.

13. -( ¬+-( ·((: =( +| i-(= ·r( r|
m´~ apne bha:i: ko patr likh raha: hũ:
I self-obl brother-dat letter write-prog am
I am writing a letter to my brother.

Pronouns + =( ko have alternate forms as follows:

·(r vah + =( ko = .·(=(/ .·( usko/use
·(r yah + =( ko = :·(=(/ :·( isko/ise
:-( in + =( ko = :-(=(/ :-r inko/inhẽ
.-( un + =( ko = .-(=(/ .-r unko/unhẽ
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In the .·( use/:·( ise/:-r inhẽ/.-r unhẽ forms, there is an inherent =( ko.
It is possible to use these forms along with nouns + =( ko.

14. .·(/.-r -((r-( =( : :(|
use/unhẽ mohan ko de do.
that/those-dat Mohan-dat give-imp
Give that/those to Mohan.

15. :·( -( ((¬(|
ise le ja:o.
this-dat take-imp
Take this.

The postposition =( ko is not normally used with time adverbials.

16. ·(r ¬(( ¬(¤·((|
vah a:j a:ega:.
he today come-fut
He will come today.

16a. *·(r ¬(( =( ¬(¤·((|
*vah a:j ko a:ega:

17. ·(r =-( ((¤·((|
vah kal ja:ega:.
he tomorrow go-fut
He will go tomorrow.

17a. *·(r =-( =( ((¤·((|
*vah kal ko ja:ega:.

But in certain contexts, =( ko can be used with =-( kal, not to indicate
‘tomorrow,’ but to denote an indefinite time in the future.

18. =(-( ((-( =-( =( +·(( r(·((|
køn ja:ne kal ko kya: hoga:.
who know-obl tomorrow-obl what happen-fut
Who knows what will happen tomorrow?

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19. ¬·(· =-( =( .-r == r( ·(·(( -( …
agar kal ko unhẽ kuch ho gaya: to…
if tomorrow-obl he-obl something happenened then …
If anything happens to him tomorrow then …

The postposition =( ko can be used optionally with time adverbs, like
·(- ra:t ‘night,’ ((-( ša:m ‘evening,’and :+r· dupahar ‘afternoon.’

20. ¬(( ((-(/((-( =( ¬(+ -( · ·(· ¬(:¤|
a:j ša:m/ša:m ko a:p mere ghar a:iye.
today evening/-dat you mine house come-imp.pol
Please come to my house today in the evening.

The postposition =( ko is not used with place adverbs like ·(r( yahã:
‘here’; ·(r( vahã: ‘there’; =+· upar ‘above’; -((·( ni:ce ‘under’; ¬(·( a:ge
‘in front’; and +(= pi:che ‘behind.’

21. -( ·(r( ¬(=·((|
m´~ yahã: a:ũ:ga:
I here come-fut
I will come here.

21a. *-( ·(r( =( ¬(=·((|
*m´~ yahã: ko a:ũ:ga:

22. ·( =+· +r ·(|
ve u:par pahũce
they top reached
They reached up (the stairs).

22a. *·( =+· =( +r·( |
*ve u:par ko pahũce

The postposition =( ko is added to the subject noun/pronoun if it is
followed by an object and the verb ·((ir¤ ca:hiye ‘need/want’ or the
modal ‘should’ (i.e., subject + =( ko + object + ·((ir¤ ca:hiya).

23. .·(=( ·(r ¬=·((· ·((ir¤|
usko yeh akhba:r ca:hiye
he-obl this newspaper wants
He wants this newspaper.
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24. .·(=( ·(r =(-( =·-(( ·((ir¤|
usko yah ka:m karna: ca:hiye
he-obl this work do-inf should
He should do this work.

The verbal noun + =( ko (as complementizer) construction shows
purpose.

25. .·( ¬(-( =( =r( |
use a:ne ko kaho.
he-dat come-inf-obl tell-imp
Tell him to come.

26. .=-( =( i:-( =·-( r|
uthne ko dil karta: h´
rise-inf-obl pp heart want-ptc be
One would like to get up.

27. r-( :+-· ((-( =( -·((· r|
ham daftar ja:ne ko t´ya:r h´.~
we office go-inf-obl pp ready are
We are ready to go to the office.

28. ¬(+= +(·( +(-( =( +·(( r?
a:pke pa:s pi:ne ko kya: h´?
you-gen-obl near drink-inf-obl pp what is
What do you have to drink?

The postposition =( ko can be used for emphasis as well.

29. ((-( =( +·((, -( =·(( ·(( (( ·(=-( r|
ja:ne ko kya:, m´~ kabhi: bhi: ja: sakta: hũ:.
go-inf-obl dat what, I anytime go can be
What is there, I can go anytime.

=( ko can also be used to denote an object of a verb requiring a
predicate.

30. ¬i-(- ·(·(·(( =( +(+ ·(-(:(-( r|
amit gari:bi: ko pa:p samajhta: h´.
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47

Amit poverty sin consider-ptc is
Amit considers poverty a sin.

31. =+z( =( ·(:( -(- =·(|
kaprõ: ko ganda: mat karo.
clothes dirty neg do-imp
Don’t dirty your clothes.

It is used to denote time. When it is used with time adverbials it
denotes specificity like :(+r· =( dopahar ko or -(·(-(·((· =( maηalva:r ko
but not (-(·(·( =( janva:ri ko or ¬(( =( a:j ko, =-( =( kal ko.

32. ·(r :(+r· =( ¬(¤·((|
vah dopahar ko a:yega:.
he noon come-fut
He will come at noon.

33. -( -(·(-(·((· =( i:--(( ((=·((|
m´~ maηalva:r ko dilli: ja:ũ:ga:.
I Tuesday Delhi go-fut
I’ll go to Delhi on Tuesday.

3.1.2.3. The Postposition ·( se

The postposition ·( se is used to indicate association or mutual
dealing.

1. -( .·(·( ·((- =·-( r|
m´~ us-se ba:t kar-ta: hũ:.
I he-obl-with talk do-ptc am
I talk with him.

2. ·(r +z(·(( ·( -(z(|
vah parosi: se lara:.
he neighbor with quarreled
He quarreled with his neighbor.

3. -(r= ·(··(( ·( ·((· =·- ·(|
nehru: baccõ se pya:r karte the.
Nehru children-obl with love do-ptc was
Nehru used to love children.
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4. -(:(·( :(= -( ·((-(( |
mujh-se jhu:th na bolo.
me-obl-with lie neg say-imp
Don’t lie to me.

5. .·(·( -(((= -( =·( |
usse maza:k na karo.
he-obl-post joke don’t do-imp
Don’t joke with him.

6. ·(r +z(·(( ·( -(=·- =·-( r|
vah parosi: se nafrat karta: h´.
he neighbor with hate do-ptc is
He hates his neighbor.

7. -( ¬(+·( +(·( -(( =·-( r|
m´~ a:pse pra:rthna: karta: hũ:.
I you-post request do-ptc am
I request you.

8. ·(·=(· ·( -((·( =( ((-( r|
sarka:r se mã:g ki: ja:ti: h´.
government with request do aux is
The government is requested.

9. -( ¤·( -((·(( ·( :· ·r-(( +·(: =·-( r |
m´~ ´se logũ: se du:r rahna: pasand karta: hũ:.
I this type people from far remain-inf like do-ptc am
I like to be away from this kind of people.

It is used to indicate a sense of separation or keeping away from
something.

10. i:-( ·( =( ·( i-(=(-(( |
dil se krodh nika:lo
heart from anger remove-imp
Remove anger from your mind.

11. ·(r :+-· ·( i-(=-((|
vah daftar se nikla:.
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he office from came out
He set out from the office.

It represents cause, reason and origin.

12. ·(r ·(=(· ·( =-((( · r¬(|
vah bukha:r se kamzor hua:.
he fever from weak became
He became weak by fever.

13. ·((( ·( +( ·(( i-(=-(-( r|
bi:j se pødha: nikalta: h´.
seed from plant comes out
The plant grows out of a seed.

14. ·((- ·( ·((- i-(=-(-( r|
ba:t se ba:t nikalti: h´.
talk from talk comes out
One thing comes out of the other.

15. -(=z( ·( -( ( ·(-(-( r|
lakri: se meze~ banti: h´~~.
wood from tables make-ptc are
The tables are made of wood.

16. i-(ºº( ·( ·(--( ·(-(- r|
mitti: se bartan bante h´.~
clay from pots make-ptc are
Pots are made of clay.

It indicates the starting point, place, time, and direction.

17. -(:( :+-· ·( -(· i-(-(( |
mujhe daftar se ta:r mila:.
I-obl office from telegram got
I got a telegram from the office.

18. ·(r( ·( (r· ·(r- : · r|
yahã: se šahar bahut du:r h´.
here from city very far is
The city is far away from here.
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19. =-( ·( ¬(( ¬·=( ·+ r|
kal se a:j acchi: dhu:p h´.
yesterday from today good sunshine is
It is more sunny today than yesterday.

It indicates time.

20. ·(r :· ·( ·(·((|
vah der se gaya.:
he late went
He went late.

It is used to indicate the difference or comparison in quality and
quantity.

21. ·(r( ·( ·(r( ¬i·(= ·(·-(( +z-( r |
vahã: se yahã: adhik garmi: parti: h´.
there from here more heat fall-ptc is
This place is hotter than that place.

22. ·(r :( ·((-( ·( ·((-((· r|
vah do sa:l se bi:ma:r h´.
he two year from sick is
He has been sick for the last two years.

23. +(= ·( ¬(·(( ¬(:|
pi:che se a:va:z a:yi:.
behind from call came
Someone called from behind.

It is used to indicate means, instrument, or agency.

24. ·((= ·( ·(·(( =(º( |
ca:ku: se sabzi: ka:to.
knife with vegetable cut-imp
Cut vegetables with the knife.

25. =-(-( ·( +| i-(=(|
kalam se patr likho.
pen with letter write-imp
Write a letter with the pen.
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26. r-( r(·( ·( =(-(( =(- r|
ham ha:th se kha:na: khate h´~~.
we hand with food eat-ptc are
We eat our meals with our hands.

27. +(·(( =( +(-(( ·( ·(( -((|
pødhõ: ko pa:ni: se dho lo.
plants-obl to water with wash-imp
Wash the plants with water.

28. ·(r ·((i·( ·( ·((·( ·(·((|
vah ba:riš se bhi:g gaya:
he rain with wet became
He was drenched in the rain.

29. .·(-( ¬+-( ·( =(-( i=·((|
usne akl se ka:m kiya:
he-erg wit with work did
He worked with wit.

It indicates manner.

30. -(·( ·((- ··((-( ·( ·(-((|
meri: ba:t dhya:n se suno.
my talk attention with listen-imp
Listen to what I say with attention.

31. ·(r -(( ·( ¬(·((|
vah tezi: se a:ya:.
he fast came
He came fast.

32. r-( =i=-((: ·( ·º(-( +r·( |
ham kathina:yi: se stešan pahũce.
we difficulty with station reached
We reached the station with difficulty.

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3.1.2.4. The Postposition -( mẽ

The postposition -( mẽ is used to denote location or presence of
something in or within; duration; price; comparison with reference
to more than two; or difference.

Location
1. -(·( :+-· i:--(( -( r|
mera: daftar dilli: mẽ h´.
my office Delhi in is
My office is in Delhi.

2. -(·( ·(º( =(-( ( -( +c-( r|
mera: beta: ka:lej mẽ parhta: h´.
my son college in study-ptc is
My son studies in college.

3. :·( i=-(·( -( -(-( ·(( +º r |
is kita:b mẽ ti:n sø prašth h´.~
this book in three hundred pages are
There are three hundred pages in this book.

Duration
4. ·(r -(= -( -( ·((· i:-( -( i-(=(|
yah lekh m´~ne ca:r din mẽ likha:.
this article I-erg four days in wrote
I wrote this article in four days.

5. ·(r :-((·- :( ·((-( -( ·(-((|
yeh ima:rat do sa:l mẽ bani:.
this building two years in constructed
This building was constructed in two years.

Price
6. ·(r -(( :( r((· =+·(( -( i-(-((|
yah mez do haza:r rupyõ mẽ mila:.
this table two thousand rupees-obl in obtained
This table cost two thousand rupees.

7. -(-( ·(r =-((( -(-( ·(( =+·(( -( -((|
m´~ne yah kami:z ti:n sø rupyõ mẽ li:.
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I-erg this shirt three hundred rupees in got
I got this shirt for three hundred rupees.

Comparison
8. :-( -(z=( -( ¬i-(- ·(·(·( ·(·- r|
in larkõ mẽ amit sa:bse cust h´.
these boys-obl in Amit all from active
Amit is the most active out of all these boys.

3.1.2.5. The Postposition +· par

The postposition +· par is used to denote location or position, point
of time of an action, sequence of actions, cause or reason, and the
object of verbs.

Location
1. =(·(( -(( +· r|
ka:gaz mez par h´.
paper table on is
The paper is on table.

2. -(· =+z =- +· r |
mere kapre chat par h´~.
my clothes roof on are
My clothes are on the roof.

3. .·(=( :+-· ·(r( ·( == :·( +· r|
uska: daftar yahã: se kuch du:ri: par h´.
his office here from some distance at is
His office is some distance from here.

Point of time
4. ·(r ·(-(·( +· -(r( +r·((|
vah samay par nahĩ: pahũca:.
he time at not reached
He didn’t arrive in time.

5. ·(·( ·((· ·((=· :·( i-(-(º +· ¬(¤·((|
bas ca:r bajkar das minat par a:yegi:
bus four stuck-cp ten minutes at come-fut-f
The bus will arrive at ten minutes past four.
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Sequence of actions
6. ·(r( +r·(-( +· r-(-( :=( i= =(: -(r( ¬(·((|
vahã: pahũcne par hamne dekha: ki koi: nahĩ: a:ya:.
there reach-inf-obl on we-erg saw that no one neg came
On reaching there, we found that no one had come.

7. -(-( = ¬(-( +· ·(·(-( -(i-(·(( ·(((:|
neta: ke a:ne par sabne ta:liyã: baja:ĩ:.
leader-gen come-inf-obl on all-erg clapped hands
Upon the arrival of the leader, all clapped their hands.

Cause or reason
8. ·((=( :-( +· .·( ·((( r:|
dhokha: dene par use saza: hui:.
deceive give-inf-obl on he-obl punishment given
He was punished for deceiving (someone).

9. :(= ·((-(-( +· -(( -( ·(··( =( z(º(|
jhu:th bolne par mã:ne bacce ko dã:ta:.
lie tell-inf-obl on mother-erg child-dat scolded
The mother scolded the child for telling a lie.

Object of verbs
10. ·(·(·(( +· :·(( =·( |
gari:bõ par daya: karo.
poor-obl on mercy do-imp
Be kind to the poor.

11. ·(r i=·(( +· =( ·( -(r( =·-(|
vah kisi: par krodh nahĩ: karta:.
he someone on anger neg do-pr is
He doesn’t get angry at anyone.

12. -(:(+· i·(·((·( =·( |
mujhpar višva:s karo.
me on faith do-imp
Have faith in me.

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3.1.2.6. The Postposition =( ka

The postposition =( ka: is used to denote the relationship between a
noun or pronoun and another noun that follows it. It is used to
denote possession and relationship, material or composition, worth
and measure, source, origin, cause, subject or object of an act, part
of a whole, purpose or characteristics or trait. The form of this
postposition agrees with the gender and number of the noun as
follows.

Masculine Feminine
Sg Pl Sg Pl
=( ka: = ke =( ki =( ki

Possession and relationship
1. ¬i-(- =( ·((: ¬(( ¬(¤·((|
amit ka: bha:i: a:j a:yega:.
Amit of brother today come-fut
Amit’s brother will come today.

2. ¬i-(- =( ·(ir-(/ ·(ir-( =-( ¬(¤·((/ ¬(¤·(|
amit ki: bahn/bahnẽ kal a:yegi:/a:yẽgi:.
Amit of sister/sisters tomorrow come-fut-fs/-fp
Amit’s sister/sisters will come tomorrow.

3. ¬i-(- = :( :(·- +··(( ¬(¤·(|
amit ke do dost parsõ a:ẽge.
Amit of two friends day after tomorrow come-fut
Amit’s two friends will come day after tomorrow.

Material or composition
4. ((( =( ¬-(-((·( º º ·(:|
ši:še ki: alma:ri: tu:t gayi:.
glass-obl of almirah broke went
The glass almirah broke.

5. i-(ºº( = ·(--( ¬·= r|
mitti: ke bartan acche h´~.
clay of pots good are
The earthen pots are good.

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Measure or worth
6. ¤= i=-(( ·((·(-( i=--( =( r¨
ek kilo ca:val kitne ka: h´?
one kilogram rice how much-obl of is
What is the price of one kilogram of rice?

7. ·( :·( =+¤ = =-( r|
ye das rupye ke kele h´~.
these ten rupees of bananas are
These bananas cost ten rupees.

Source, origin, or cause
8. +-(·( : = .+-·((·( ·(r( -(r( r|
premcand ke upnya:s yahã: nahĩ: h´~.
Premchand’s novels here neg are
The novels of Premchand are not available here.

9. :·( +z = =-( -((= r|
is per ke phal mi:the h´~.
this tree gen fruit sweet are
The fruit of this tree is delicious.

Subject (doer of an act)
10. ·((·(( =( =(-( ¬·=( r|
dhobi: ka: ka:m accha: h´.
washerman gen work good is
The washerman’s work is good.

Object (of an activity)
11. .·(= ·(··(( =( i(-(( ¬·=( r|
uske baccõ ki: šikša: acchi: h´.
his children-obl of education good is
The education of the children is good.

12. .·(= +(·( :·((: =( =·(( -(r( r|
uske pa:s dava:i: ka: kharca: nahĩ: h´.
he-gen near medicine-gen expenses neg is
He doesn’t have money to pay for medicine.

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Part of a whole
13. ·(r =(·(( =( º=z ( r|
yeh ka:gaz ka: tukra: h´.
this paper gen piece is
This is a piece of paper.

14. ·(r :·( +z =( ((= r|
yeh is per ki: ša:kh h´.
it this tree-gen branch-fs is
It is the branch of this tree.

Purpose
14. +(-( =( +(-(( ·((= r |
pi:ne ka: pa:ni: sa:f h´.
drink-obl gen water clean is
The drinking water is clean.

Characteristics
15. :·( =( i-(=(·( ¬·=( r|
du:dh ki: mitha:s acchi: h´.
milk gen sweetness good is
The milk is sweet.

3.1.2.7. Compound Postpositions

Compound postpositions are formed by combining the postpositions
= ke, =( ki:, and ·(se with other words in certain set phrases as
follows.

(i) = ke

= ¬-((·((/¬i-i·+- ke ala:va:/atirikt in addition to
= ¬-(·((· ke anusa:r according to
= ¬:· ke andar inside
= ¬(·( ke a:ge in front of
= ¬(·+(· ke a:rpa:r through
= ¬(·(+(·( ke a:spa:s near about
= ·((:/.+·(-/+·((- ke ba:d/uprã:nt/pašca:t afterwards
= +(· ke pa:r across
= =(·ª( ke ka:ran because of
= :·((·(/r(·( ke dwa:ra:/ha:th through
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= +(·(/i-(=º/-(( :(=/·(-((+ ke pa:s/nikat/nazdi:k/sami:p near
= =+· ke upar above
= +·( ke pu:rv before
= +i- ke prati for, toward
= +i-=-(/i·(==/i·(+·(- ke pratiku:l/virudh/vipri:t against
= i·(-(( i·(·((/·(·(· ke bina:/siva:/bag´r without
= ·(:-( ke badle in place of
= ·(·(·(·/·(-((-( ke bara:bar/sama:n equal
= ·((r· ke ba:har outside of
= ·((·(/-(··( ke bi:c/madhya inside of
= -(·(·(·( ke lagbhag about
= i-(¤/·((·- ke liye/va:ste for
= ·((··(/-((·(= ke yogya/la:yak appropriate
= ·(-(-/·((·( ke samet/sa:th along with
= ·((-(-( ke sa:mne in front of
= -(=(·(-( (-() ke muka:ble (mẽ) comparison to
= ·(r(/r( ke yahã:/hã: at some place

(ii) =( ki:

=( ¬(·/-·= ki: or/taraf towards
=( ¬+-(( ki: apekša: in comparison with
=( -·r/·((i- ki: tarah/bhã:ti like
=( (·(r ki: jagah in place of

(iii) ·( se

·( ·((r· se ba:har out of
·( +r-( se pahle before

The compound postpositions are employed to express various
semantic expressions in combination with other elements. There are,
however, alternate ways of expression possible where postpositions
are not used. Examples of the usage of various semantic expressions
are given below.

Cause is expressed either by the (i) postposition ·( se; or by the (ii)
compound forms = =(·ª( ke ka:ran ‘for the reason of,’ and ·=( ¬( · ki:
or ‘side.’

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1. ·((c ·( -(=(-( i·(· ·(·((|
ba:rh se maka:n gir gaya:.
flood with house fell
The house fell down because of the flood.

2. .·(= =(·ª( -(:( -(+·((-( r¬(|
uske ka:ran mujhe nuksa:n hua:
he-gen-obl reason I-obl loss occurred
I had to suffer loss because of him.

3. .·(=( ¬(· ·( -(:( =·(( ·(= -(r( i-(-((|
uski: or se mujhe kabhi: sukh nahĩ: mila:.
he-gen-obl side I-dat ever comfort neg got
He has never provided comfort to me.

Purpose is expressed by the use of the oblique infinitive verb
optionally followed by the postposition = i-(¤ ke liye ‘for.’

4. ·(r ·(·(( -( -( (= i-(¤) ·((((· ·(·((|
vah sabzi: lene (ke liye) ba:za:r gaya:.
he vegetables bring-inf-obl for market went
He went to the market to buy vegetables.

Function is expressed by the genitive postpositional phrase - =( -·r
ki:
tarah ‘like.’

5. ·(r =(- =( ·((º( =( -·r :i·--((-( =·-( r|
vah cha:te ko soti: ki: tarah istima:l karta: h´.
he is umbrella-obl dat stick-gen like use do-pr is
He uses an umbrella like a stick.

Reference is denoted by the postpositional expression = ·((· -( ke
ba:re mẽ ‘about.’

6. .·(-( -(:( ¬+-( ·(··(( = ·((· -( =r(|
usne mujhe apne baccõ ke ba:re mẽ kaha:.
he-erg me self’s children-dat about said
He told me about his children.

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7. --r :·(= ·((· -( =( i(( =·-(( ·((ir¤|
tumhe iske ba:re mẽ košiš karni: ca:hiye.
you-obl this-gen-obl for effort do-inf-fs should
You should make efforts in this regard.

The compound postposition = =+/·(·( -( ke ru:p/bhes mẽ expresses the
meaning ‘in the form of.’

8. ·(((( ¤= i·(=(·( = ·(·( / =+ -( i-(=-((|
ra:ja: ek bhikha:ri: ke bhes/ru:p mẽ nikla:.
king one beggar-gen-obl in set out
The king went out in the disguise of a beggar.

The compound postposition -( ·( mẽ se is used to express the sense of
‘among/out of’.’ Numerals and quantifiers occur after the noun
marked -( ·( mẽ se.

9. .·(= i·(··((i·(·(( -( ·( ·((· =-((· -( r |
uske vidya:rthiyõ mẽ se ca:r kašmi:r mẽ h´~.
he-gen-obl students-obl from four Kashmir-abl in are
Among his students, four are in Kashmir.

Value is expressed by the genitive or it can be denoted by the
expressions =( =(-(- ki: ki:mat, or =( -(-·( ka: mu:ly ‘the price of X’
which precedes the value expression.

10. :·( =-((( =( =(-(- -(-( ·(( =+¤ r |
is kami:z ki: ki:mat ti:n sø rupye h´~.
this shirt-gen price three hundred rupees is
The price of this shirt is three hundred rupees.

The compound postposition = ·((·((: ke ba:vaju:d is used to express
the meaning of ‘despite of.’

11. ·((-((· r(-( = ·((·(( : ·(r =(·((-(·( ¬(·((|
bi:ma:r hone ke ba:vaju:d vah ka:rya:lay a:ya:
sick be-inf-obl despite he office came
He came to the office despite being sick.

Inclusion is expressed by the compound postposition = ·(-(- ke
samet/·((·( sa:th ‘including.’
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12. ¬(+= ·(-(- ·((· ¬-(+i··(-/ ·(·r(i( · ·( |
a:pke samet sa:re anupasthit/g´rha:zir the.
you-gen including all absent were
All, including you, were absent.

13. ¬(+=( i-(-((=· r-( :·( ·(:··( r|
a:pko mila:kar ham das sadasy h´~.
you-dat include-cp we ten members are
We are ten members, including you.

Exclusion is expressed by the dative postpositions = i·(-(( ke bina:/ ·(·(·
bag´r ‘without.’

14. ¬-(· = i·(-((/ ·(·( · ·((· .+i··(- /r(i( · ·(|
amar ke bina:/bag´r sa:re upasthit/ha:zir the
Amar-gen without all present were
All, excluding/except Amar, were present.

Addition is expressed either by the use of the comitative compound
postposition = ·((·( ke sa:th ‘with/ along with,’ or by = ¬i-i·+- ke
atirikt/ ¬-((·(( ala:va: ‘in addition to.’

15. -((r-( = ·((·( +·((·(}/¬-((·(( .-(( ·(( ¬(:|
mohan ke sa:th (sa:th)/ala:va: uma: bhi: a:yi:
Mohan-gen with /besides Uma too came
In addition to Mohan, Uma came too.

Locational semantic functions are generally marked by the postposi-
tions =( ¬(· ki: or ‘motion to,’ (= ·((·( ke bi:c) -( ·( mẽ se ‘motion
through.’

16. ·(r ·((·( =( ¬(· ·(-((|
vah ga:ũ: ki: or cala:
he village towards set out
He set out towards the village.

17. ·(·( ·((·( (= ·((·() -( ·( ·(( ·-( r|
bas ga:ũ: (ke bi:c) mẽ se guzarti: h´
bus village-abl through passes-pr is
The bus passes through the village.

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The approximate location is expressed by = i-(=º ke nikat/ -((:(=
nazdi:k/ =·(·( kari:b ‘near.’

18. -(=(-( = i-(=º/-(( :(= :=(-( r |
maka:n ke nikat /nazdi:k duka:n h´.
house near shop is
The shop is near the house.

19. ·(r :+-· = -((:(= -= +r·((|
vah daphtar ke nazdi:k tak pahũca:.
he office near up to reached
He reached up to/ near the house.

20. ·(··( =( ¬(·((( ·(· = =·(·( ·( ¬(:|
bacce ki: a:va:z ghar ke kari:b se a:yi:.
child-obl gen voice house-gen near from came
The child’s voice came from near the house.

Interior location is expressed by = ¬:· ke andar/ -( mẽ ‘inside of,’or
= ·((·( -( ·( ke bi:c mẽ se ‘from inside’ preceded by the oblique case
suffixes.

21. :·( -(=(-( -(/= ¬:· =(: -(r( ·r-( r |
is maka:n mẽ/ke andar koi: nahĩ: rahta: h´.
this house inside anyone neg live-pr is
No one lives inside this house.

22. ·(··(( =-(· = ·((·( -( ·( i-(=-((|
bacca: kamre ke bi:c mẽ se nikla:.
child room-abl from came out
The child came out of the house.

Exterior location is denoted by the postposition = ke/ ·( se ·((r· ba:har
‘outside of.’

23. ·(r ·((·( = ·((r· ·r-( r|
vah ga:ũ: ke ba:har rahta: h´.
he village outside live-pr is
He lives outside the village.

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24. ·(r =-(· ·( ·((r· i-(=-((|
vah kamre se ba:har nikla:.
he room-obl outside set out
He came out of the room.

Anterior location is expressed by the postposition = ·((-(-( ke sa:mne
‘in front of.’ It may also be followed by other postpositions like ·( se
‘from,’or -= tak ‘up to.’

25. i·(··((-(·( = ·((-(-( ¤= ·((·( r|
vidhya:lay ke sa:mne ek ba:g h´.
school in front of a garden is
There is a garden in front of the school.’

26. :=(-( = ·((-(-( ·( ·(·( i-(=-(-( r |
duka:n ke sa:mne se bas nikalti: h´.
shop-gen front-obl from bus start-ptc is
A bus starts in front of the shop.

27. :=(-( = ·((-(-( -= ·(z= r|
duka:n ke sa:mne tak sarak h´.
shop-gen in front-obl up to road is
A road is built up to the front of the shop.

Posterior location is denoted by = +(= ke pi:che ‘behind.

28. i·(··((-(·( = +(= ¤= :=(-( r|
vidhya:lay ke pi:che ek duka:n h´.
school-gen behind one shop is
There is a shop behind the school.

29. ·(·( ¬·+-(-( = +(= ·( ((-( r |
bas aspata:l ke pi:che se ja:ti: h´
bus hospital-gen behind-obl from go-ptc is
A bus runs at the back of the hospital.

30. ¬·+-(-( = +(= -= ·(·( ¬(-( r|
aspata:l ke pi:che tak bas a:ti: h´
hospital-gen behind-obl up to bus come-ptc is
The bus comes up to the back side of the hospital.

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Superior location is denoted by the use of the postpositions =+· (·( )
u:par (se), ‘above,’ preceded by the oblique case suffixes added to
the nouns.

31. -(=(-( = =+· ·( +-(( .z- r|
maka:n ke u:par se pakši: urte h´~.
house-gen above from birds fly-ptc are
The birds fly above the (top of the) house.

Interior and interior-contact locations are not distinguished. They are
indicated by the postposition -((·( ni:ce ‘under, below,’ -((·( ·( ni:ce se
‘from under’and -((·( -= ni:ce tak ‘up to under’ preceded by the case
suffixes added to nouns.

32. (-((-( = -((·( +(-(( i-(=-((|
zami:n ke ni:ce pa:ni: nikla:.
ground-obl under water came out
Water appeared from under the ground.

33. (-((-( = -((·( ·( +(-(( ·(-(-( r |
zami:n ke ni:ce se pa:ni: calta: h´.
ground-obl under from water flow-pr is
Water is passing through under the ground.

34. :(·((· = -((·( -= +(-(( r |
di:va:r ke ni:ce tak pa:ni: h´.
wall-obl under upto water is
Water is underneath the wall.

Lateral and lateral-contact locations are expressed by the
postpositions = +(·( ke pa:s/= ·((·( sa:th ‘in the company of/besides.’

35. ¬-(· .-(( = +(·(·((·( ·(=(|
amar uma: ke pa:s/sa:th b´tha:
Amar Uma near sat
Amar sat near Uma.

Citerior location is expressed by =( ¬(· ki: or ‘towards’ preceded by
the proximate demonstrative :·( is ‘this’in the oblique case. It is also
denoted by the term :·( ¬(· is or ‘this side’ which does not take a
separate proximate demonstrative.
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36. .·(=( :=(-( ·(z= = :·( ¬(· r|
uski: duka:n sarak ke is or h´.
his shop road-obl this side
His house is on this side of the road.

37. -(:( = :·( ¬( · i=--( ·(··( r?
nadi: ke is or kitne bacce h´?
river this side how many children are
How many children are there on this side of the river?

Ulterior location is expressed by =( ¬(· ki: or ‘side’ preceded by the
remote demonstrative .·( us ‘that.’ It can also be denoted by the use
of .·( +(· us pa:r ‘on the other side.’

38. ·(z= = .·( ¬(· -(¤ -(=(-( ·(-( r|
sarak ke us or naye maka:n bane h´~.
road-obl that-obl side new houses constructed are
New houses are constructed on that side of the road.

39. ·(z= = .·( +(· =(=( ¬(·((:( r |
sarak ke us pa:r kaphi: a:ba:di: h´.
road that side abundant population is
There is a large population on the other side of the road.

Medial location is expressed by the terms = ·((·( -( ke bi:c mẽ ‘in the
middle,’ = ·((-· ke bhi:tar ‘inside,’ or = :·i-(·((-(/-(··( -( ke
darmia:n/madhy mẽ ‘in the middle,’ = ·((·( ·( ke bi:c se ‘through the
middle,’ = ·((·( -= ke bi:c tak ‘up to the middle of.’

40. -(·( ·(· ·((((· = ·((·( -( r|
mera: ghar ba:za:r ke bi:c mẽ h´.
my house market middle in is
My house is in the middle of the market.

41. ·(r :=(-( :( ·(z=( = ·((·( -( r|
yah duka:n do sarkõ ke bi:c mẽ h´.
this shop two roads-obl middle is
This shop is between the two roads.

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42. ·((·( = :·i-(·((-( ¤= -(i·(: r |
ga:ũ: ke darmiya:n ek masjid h´.
village middle is one mosque is
There is a mosque in the middle of the village.

43. ·((·( = ·((·( -( ·( ¤= -(:( ·(r-( r|
ga:ũ: ke bi:c mẽ se ek nadi: bahti: h´.
village middle through one stream flow-ptc is
A stream passes through the village.

44. ·((·( = ·((·( -= +(-(( +r·(-( r|
ga:ũ: ke bi:c tak pa:ni: pahũcta: h´.
village center up to water reach-ptc is
Water reaches up to the center of the village.

Circumferential location is denoted by adding = :: i·(: ke ird gird
‘around,’ = ·((·( ¬(· ke ca:rõ or ‘on all sides’ preceded by the oblique
forms of subject nouns.

45. :·( ·((·( = :: i·(:·((·( ¬( · ¤= :(·((· r|
is ba:g ke ird gird/ca:rõ or ek di:va:r h´.
this-obl garden around/four sides one wall is
There is a wall around this garden.

46. +-((·( ·(= = ·((·( -·= =z( r|
puli:s bank ke ca:rõ tarph khari: h´.
police bank all sides standing is
The police are standing on all the sides of the bank.

Citerior-anterior location is expressed by ·((-(-( sa:mne ‘in front
of’preceded by the subject nouns in oblique case. The expression =
·((-(-( ·( ke sa:mne se is used to denote ‘in the opposite direction.’

47. ¬-(· ·((· = ·((-(-( =z( r|
amar cor ke sa:mne khara: tha:.
Amar thief-gen front-obl standing was
Amar was standing in front of the thief.

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48. ·(r +i-(·(·((-(( = ·((-(-( ·( ·((·(|
vah pulisva:la: ke sa:mne se guzra:.
he policeman-gen front-obl from passed
He passed in front of the policeman.

Motion past an object at some distance is expressed by = ·((·( -( ·( ke
bi:c mẽ se ‘past/through in(side)’ preceded by the noun in the
oblique case.

49. --( -(·(( +(:+ ·( =(·=(-( -= +r·(-( r|
tel lambi: payip se ka:rxa:ne tak pahũcta: h´.
oil long-fs pipe through factory-obl up to reach-ptc is
Oil reaches the factory through the long pipe.

Motion past an object at right and left angles to it is expressed using
phrases such as :(: ¬(· da:ĩ: or ‘on the right-hand side’ and ·((: ¬(·
baĩ: or ‘on the left-hand side.’

50. ·(z= = ¬(i=· +· ·((·( :(: ¬( · i-(=-((|
sarak ke a:khir par si:dhe da:ĩ: or niklo.
road-gen end at straight right hand side go-imp
At the end of this road, go straight towards the right.

51. +-( +(· =·= ·((: ¬(· ((-((|
pul pa:r karke ba:ĩ: or ja:na:.
bridge cross-cp left towards go-imp
After crossing the bridge, go straight towards the left.

Other directional locatives are exemplified as follows.

52. ·((·- = .-(·:i-(ª(+·(+i·(-( -( -((·(-( =(= r|
bha:rat ke uttar/dakšin/pu:rv/pascim mẽ møsim thi:kh h´
India-gen north/south/east/west in climate good is
The climate is good in the north/south/east/west of India.

The directional postposition =( ¬(· ki: or ‘towards’ is added to the
above terms of directional locatives to indicate the meaning of
‘toward north/south/east/west.’

The expression -((= = ·((·( -( na:k ke si:dh mẽ ‘straight in the direction
of nose’ is used to denote the directional locative ‘straight ahead.’
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53. --( -((= = ·((·( -( ·(-(( |
tum na:k ke si:dh mẽ calo.
you nose-gen straight in walk
Walk straight ahead.

Directional/locational precision is expressed by adding the emphatic
particle - r( hi: to the locative expression.

54. ·(r ·(· -( r( ·r(|
vah ghar mẽ hi: raha:.
he home inside-emp remained
He stayed right inside the house.

55. .·(-( -(:( ·(·(-(( :··((( +· r( :(|
usne mujhe su:cna: darva:ze par hi: di:
he-erg me message door-at-emp gave
He conveyed the message to me right at the door.

3.1.3. Noun Derivation

A large number of nouns in Hindi are derived from nouns,
adjectives, and verbs by using prefixes and suffixes. In this process
certain morphophonemic changes take place.

3.1.3.1. Nouns from Nouns

Mostly Persian and Sanskrit prefixes and suffixes are used with the
nouns of Persian and Sanskrit origin respectively. Some of these are
used with native words. The most common prefixes are: ·( be-, ·(:
bad-, ·(· bar-, -(( na:- ¬+ ap-, = ku-, :· dur-, and i-(· nir-.

·( be- (Persian) without
(-( šarm shame ·((-( bešarm shameless
:-((-( i:ma:n faith ·(:-((-( bei:ma:n dishonest
-(--(·( matlab meaning ·(-(--(·( bematlab meaningless

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·(: bad- (Persian) bad
--((( tami:z manner ·(:--((( badtami:z mannerless
i-(((( miza:j temperament ·(:i-(((( badmiza:j bad
temperament
((- za:t character ·(:((- badza:t bad character

·(· bar- (Persian) on
·(+- vakt time ·(··(+- barvakt on time

-(( na:- (Persian) not
+·(: pasand like -((+·(: na:pasand dislike

¬+ ap- (Sanskrit) opposite
-((-( ma:n honor ¬+-((-( apma:n dishonor
(·: šabd word ¬+(·: apšabd bad words

:· dur- (Sanskrit) bad
:(( daša: condition ::(( durdaša: bad condition
·(i- gati: position :·(i- durgati: bad position

= ku- (Sanskrit) bad
=-( karm deed ==-( kukarm bad deed
+((-( pošan nutrition =+((-( kupošan malnutrition

i-(· nir- (Sanskrit) without
¬(:· a:dar respect i-(·(:· nira:dar disrespect
:(( doš fault i-(:(( nirdoš innocent

The most common suffixes are -:(· -da:r, -·(· -gar, -· (: -band, and -:(-(
-da:n.

- :(· da:r (Persian) owner
:=(-( duka:n shop :=(-(:(· duka:nda:r shopkeeper
(-((-( zami:n land :(-((-(:(· zami:nda:r landlord

·(· -gar (Persian) with
·((:( soda: items ·((:(·(· soda:gar merchant
((: ja:du: magic ((:·(· ja:du:gar magician

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-·(: band (Persian) bound
=-(· kamar waist =-(··(: kamarband belt
i·(·-· bistar bed i·(·-··(: bistarband hold-all

-:·(( ci: (Persian) with
=((-(( xaza:na: treasure =((-(·(( xaza:anci: cashier
¬=(-( afi:m opium ¬=(-(·(( afi:mci: opium addict

-:(-( da:n (Persian) container
=-(-( kalam pen =-(-(:(-( kalamda:n penholder
·((-( rošan light ·((-(:(-( rošanda:n window

-=(-(( kha:na: (Persian) house
=(· ka:r work =(·=(-(( ka:rxa:na: factory
(·(·( šara:b liquor (·(·(=(-(( šara:bxa:na: bar

3.1.3.2. Nouns from Adjectives

The most productive suffixes used for deriving abstract nouns from
adjectives are -: -i:, --( -ta:, -pan, -¬(: -a:i:, -:·(- -iyat, -¬(·( -a:s.

-: -i:
=-((( · kamzor weak =-((( ·( kamzori: weakness
=( xuš happy =(( xuši: happiness
·(·-( garam hot ·(·-(( garmi: heat
·(·(·( gari:b poor ·(·(·(( gari:bi: poverty
·(: sard cold ·(:( sardi: coldness
-((º( mota: fat -((º(: mota:i: thickness
=·(·( xara:b bad =·(·(( xara:bi: defect
·((= sa:f clean ·(=(: safa:i: cleanliness
=·(( ũ:ca: high =·((: ũ:ca:i: height
·((z( cør a: wide ·((z(: cør a:i: width
-(= nek noble -(=( neki: nobility
·(··(( sacca: true ·(··((: sacca:i: truth
-((=( mi:tha: sweet i-(=(: mitha:i: sweets

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--( -ta:
-(= mu:rkh stupid -(=-( mu:rkhta: stupidity
+i·(| pavitr pure +i·(|-( pavitarta: purity
i·((( višeš special i·(((-( višešta: specialty
i·(((-( viša:l large i·(((-(-( viša:lta: largeness
·(:· sundar beauty ·(:·-( sundarta: beautiful
·(-((-( sama:n equal ·(-((-(-( sama:nta: equality
·(·((· gambhi:r serious ·(·((·-( gambhi:rta: seriousness

-+-( -pan
=··(( kacca: raw =··((+-( kacca:pan rawness
=-((-(( kami:na: mean =-((-((+-( kami:na:pan meanness
+(·(-( pa:gal mad +(·(-(+-( pa:galpan madness

-¬(: -a:i:
·(c carh climb ·(c(: carha:i: climbing
+c parh study +c(: parha:i: studies
=-(( kama: earn =-((: kama:i: earning
·(-( sun listen ·(-((: suna:i: hearing

-:·(- -iyat
¬·(-(( asli: real ¬·(i-(·(- asliyat reality
=(·( xa:s special =(i·(·(- xa:siyat specialty

- ¬(·( -a:s
-((=(( mi:tha: sweet i-(=(·( mitha:s sweetness

3.1.3.3. Nouns from Verbs

The suffix --(( -na: is used to derive gerundive nouns from verb
stems. The suffixes -¬·( -as, -¬-( -an, -: -i:, -·(- -vat, and -2 are also
used to derive abstract nouns from verb stems.

--(( -na:
¬( a: come ¬(-(( a:na: coming
-(( la: bring -((-(( la:na: bringing
i-(= likh write i-(=-(( likhna: writing
+c parh read +c-(( parhna: reading
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- ¬-( -an
·(z= dharak throb ·(z=-( dharhkan throbbing
+-(·( lag attach +-(·(-( lagan devotion

- : -i:
((z jor add ((z( jori: a pair
-(z lar quarrel -(z(: lara:i: dispute
i-(= likh write i-(=(: likha:i: writing
+c parh read +c(: parha:i: studies

-·(º -vat
·(-(( bana: make ·(-((·(º bana:vat shape
·((( saja: decorate ·(((·(º saja:vat decoration
·(= thak be tired ·(=(·(º thaka:vat tiredness

-2
=(+ cha:p print =((+ cha:p printing
=·( thag cheat =·( thag cheat
:(z dør run :(z dør race
-((· ma:r beat -((· ma:r beating
-((z mor turn -((z mor turning point
.+( upaj produce .+( upaj product
r(· ha:r be defeated r(· ha:r defeat
=·( kharc spend =·( kharc expenditure
=-( khel play =-( khel play
·(-(:( samajh understand ·(-(:( samajh understanding
·((·( soc think ·((·( soc thinking

3.1.4. Noun Compounds

Compounds belonging to the noun category are headed by a noun,
which is a final member of the group. The first member may be a
noun, an adjective, or a participle and may be declined for number,
gender and case. A postposition is attached to the final member of
the compound.

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3.1.4.1. Noun-Noun Compounds

Noun-noun compounds can be divided into several subgroups based
on semantic criteria: copulative compounds, partial duplicated
compounds, superordinate compounds, complex compounds, hybrid
compounds, genitive-noun compound, and participial compounds.

3.1.4.2. Copulative Compounds

Copulative compounds, also known as co-compounds, are composed
of semantically-related nouns. Each noun behaves as an independent
constituent in the sense that each may be separately inflected for
gender and number, though not for a postposition. Members of some
compounds occur in a fixed order.

-((-( i+-( ma:ta: pita: mother and father *pita: ma:ta:
·((: ·(ir-( bha:i: bahan brother and sister ?bahan bha:i:
·(= := sukh dukh happiness and sorrow dukh sukh
+(+ + -·( pa:p puny sin and good deeds *puny pa:p
=·( -((·( ũ:c ni:c high and low *ni:c ũ:c

3.1.4.3. Reduplicated Compounds

Reduplicated compounds express exhaustive meaning.

·(· ·(· ghar ghar (house-house) every house
·(··(( ·(··(( bacca: bacca: (child-child) every child
+·(( +·(( p´sa: p´sa: (penny-penny) every penny

3.1.4.4. Partially Duplicated Compounds

In a partial duplicated compound, also known as an echo-compound,
the second member is formed by changing the initial letter of the
first member. An initial ·( /v/ is changed into ( /š/ or +( /p/; all other
initial consonants or vowels are replaced by ·( /v/ or ( /š/. The
meaning of the ompound extends beyond the meaning of their
members. The compounds usually represent the meaning of similar
or associative things.
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·((-(· ((-(· va:nar ša:nar monkey and the like
·((:( ((:( va:da: ša:da: promise and the like
·((º ((º vot šot vote and the like
=(-( ((-(/·((-( ka:m ša:m/va:m work and the like
=r(-(( ·((-((/((-(( kaha:ni: va:ni:/šahni: story and the like
:·( (·( du:dh šu:dh milk and the like
+(-(( ·((-((/((-(( pa:ni: va:ni:/ša:ni: water and the like

3.1.4.5. Superordinate Compounds

In this type of compound, the meaning projected by the members
does not in any way relate to the meaning of the compound as a
whole.

r(·( +(·( ha:th pa:ũ: (hand-feet) body
=(-(( +(-(( kha:na: pi:na: (eating-drinking) lifestyle
(-( ·((·( jal va:yu (water-air) climate
·((·( +(-(( ca:y pa:ni: (tea-water) refreshment

3.1.4.6. Complex Compounds

Complex compounds involving three or more nouns are not very
common in Hindi.

--( -(-( ·(-( tan man dhan (body-mind-money) devotion

3.1.4.7. Hybrid Compounds

In hybrid compounds, one member is usually borrowed from another
language and the second member is a Hindi noun.

z·(-( ·(º( dabal roti: (double-bread ) bread
·-( ·((z( rel ga:ri: (tracks-vehicle) train

3.1.4.8. Adjective-Noun Compounds

A large number of compounds are composed of an adjective
followed by a noun. There are no single terms for them.

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=(-(( i-(·( ka:li: mirc (black-pepper) pepper
=(º( :-((·(·(( choti: ila:yci: (small cardamom) cardamom

3.1.4.9. Modifier-Noun Compounds

In modifier-noun compounds, the first member acts like a modifier
or source and the second member is a noun.

·(-( ·((z( b´l ga:ri: (bull-vehicle) bullock cart
·(·(( (-( gaηa: jal (Ganges-water) water of Ganges

3.2. Pronouns

Pronouns are inflected for number and case. Broadly, there are seven
classes of pronouns in Hindi: personal, demonstrative, relative,
possessive, reflexive, interrogative, and indefinite. Pronouns in the
direct and oblique cases are presented below.

3.2.1. Personal Pronouns

Case Person Sg Pl
Direct
1
st
-( mẽ r-( ham
2
nd
(sg) - tu --( tum
(hon sg/pl) ¬(+ a:p ¬(+ a:p
3
rd
prox ·(r yah ·( ye
rem ·(r vah ·( ve

Note that the personal pronoun ¬(+ a:p is used as an honorific form
of address for both singular and plural subjects. In the polite speech,
it is occasionally used for a person spoken about in place of ·( ye.
The term -((·( log may be attached to a plural pronoun for defining or
emphasizing plurality: ¬(+ -((·( a:p log, r-( -((·( ham log, --( -((·( tum log,
·( -((·( ye log, ·( -((·( ve log.
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Case Person Sg Pl
Dative =( ko

1
st
-(:( mujhe/ -(:(=( mujhko r-( hamẽ/ r-(=( hamko
2
nd
--r tumhe/--(=( tumko --r tumhẽ/--(=( tumko
¬(+=( a:pko ¬(+=( a:pko
3
rd
prox :·( ise/:·(=( isko :-r inhẽ/:-(=( inko
rem .·( use/.-(=( unko .-runhẽ/.-(=( unko

Ergative -( ne
1
st
-(-( m´~ne r-(-( hamne
2
nd
--( tu:ne --(-( tumne
¬(+-( a:pne ¬(+-( a:pne
3
rd
prox :·(-( isne :-r(-( inhõne
rem .·(-( usne .-r(-( unhõne

Locative +· par
1
st
-(:(+· mujhpar r-(+· hampar
2
nd
-:(+· tujhpar --(+· tumpar
¬(++· a:ppar ¬(++· a:ppar
3
rd
prox :·(+· ispar :-(+· inpar
rem .·(+· uspar .-(+· unpar

Ablative ·( se
1
st
-(:(·( mujhse r-(·( hamse
2
nd
--(·( tum se --(·( tumse
¬(+·( a:pse ¬(+·( a:pse
3
rd
prox :·(·( isse :-(·( inse
rem .·(·( usse .-(·( un se

Possessive / Genitive =( ka:/ = ke/=( ki
1
st
-(·( mera: r-((·( hama:ra:
2
nd
-·( tera: --r(·( tumha:ra:
¬(+=( a:pka: ¬(+=( a:pka:
3
rd
prox :·(=( iska: .·(=( uska:
rem .·(=( uska: .-(=( unka:

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3.2.2. Demonstrative Pronouns

Direct/Nominative Case
Sg Pl
prox ·(r yeh ·( ye
rem ·(r vah ·( ve

Oblique Case =( ko/-( mẽ/+· par/=( ka:/= ke/=( ki:/ ¬·( se
Sg Pl
prox :·( is :-( in
rem .·( us .-( un

Note that the demonstrative pronouns are also used as personal
pronouns of the third person.

There are two additional pronouns which are used in the sense of ‘so
and so’ to refer to third person subjects: ¬-(= amuk and =-(( falã:/
=-((-(( fala:na:.

3.2.3. Relative Pronouns

Hindi has one relative pronoun: (( jo ‘who, which, that, what’ in
both the singular and plural. It is accompanied with ·(r vah in the
main sentence called correlative of (( jo. The correlative form ·(( so
‘he, they’ is now obsolete, it is used in proverbs and sayings. The
term -((·( log may be added to (( jo to indicate or emphasize plurality:
(( -((·( jo log. The oblique forms of the relative pronoun used along
with the case-signs are as follows.

Singular Plural
i(·( jis/i(·(-( jisne i(-( jin/i(r(-( jinhõne
i(·(=( jisko/i(·( jise i(-(=( jinko/i(r jinhẽ
i(·(·( jis se i(-(·( jin se

3.2.4. Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns substitute and refer to a noun or pronoun which
is the logical subject of the sentence. Hindi has three reflexive
pronouns: ¬(+ a:p, its oblique forms ¬+-(( apna: and ¬+-( apne, and a
compound form of these two, ¬+-( ¬(+ apne-a:p. The oblique form
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¬(+·( a:pas means ‘each other’ or ‘one another.’ The reflexive
pronoun ¬(+ a:p is also substituted by the Sanskrit borrowed term ··(·(
svayam or Persian-borrowed term =: khud in Sanskritized and
Persianized styles respectively. The reflexive pronoun ¬(+ a:p
optionally followed by the emphatic form r( hi: has an adjectival
meaning. It can also be used as an adverb in the meaning ‘of one’s
own accord, spontaneously.’ Similarly, ¬+-( ¬(+ apne-a:p can either
be used in an emphatic sense or in the adverbial meaning of ‘of
one’s own accord.’

1. ·(r ¬(+ r(¬+-( ¬(+ ·(· ·(·((|
vah a:p hi: / apne-a:p ghar gaya:
he himself emp home went
He himself went home.

Note that the oblique forms of ¬+-( apne and ¬+-( ¬(+ apne-a:p
(except when adverbial) mean ‘oneself’ with the case-
signs/postpositions =( ko, ·( se, -( mẽ, and +· par.

3.2.5. Interrogative Pronouns

In both singular and plural, there are two basic interrogative
pronouns: =(-( køn ‘who’(referring to person) and +·(( kya:
‘what’(referring to things). The interrogative pronoun +·(( kya: is a
neutral form. It is also used for denoting the interrogative nature of
the sentence. Note that =(-( køn and +·(( kya: can be used as relative
pronouns too.

2. =(-( ¬(·((, =(: -(r( ((-(-(|
køn a:ya:, koyi: nahĩ: ja:nta:
who came no one neg knows
Nobody knows who came.

The interrogative pronoun +·(( kya: is also used as an exclamatory
adjective.

3. +·(( ·(:· ·((·( r!
kya: sundar ba:g h´!
what beautiful garden is
What a beautiful garden!

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It is also used as an emphatic negation.

4. -(z=( +·(( r, -((( = =-( r|
larki: kya: h´, na:zuk phu:l h´.
girl what is delicate flower is
It is not a girl; it is a delicate flower.
(What a girl! Just like a delicate flower.)

Interrogative adverbial forms related to these pronouns are: =·( kab
‘when,’ =·(( kaisa: ‘how,’ =(-(·(( kønsa: ‘which one,’ i=--(( kitna: ‘how
much.’

3.2.6. Indefinite Pronouns

There are two indefinite pronouns in Hindi: =(: koi: ‘someone,
somebody’and == kuch ‘something.’ == kuch is also used as an
adjective (numeral and quantitative) and as an adverb meaning
‘some, a few, a little, partly.’ Similarly, =(: koi: can be used as an
adverb in the sense of ‘some, about.’ It can refer to ‘something’ if
used with -·(( -sa:/-·(( -si: = =(: ·(( koi: sa:/ =(: ·(( koi: si:. =(: koi: may
also be used as the plural form to indicate ‘some people.’

3.2.7. Oblique Forms of Pronouns

Whereas the same case-signs namely -( ne, =( ko, = ·( se, -( mẽ, +· par
and =( ka: are attached to pronouns as they are attached to nouns, in
some cases the oblique forms of pronouns are formed differently.

Direct Oblique
Sg Pl Sg Pl
·(r yeh ·( ye :·( is :-( in
·(r vah ·( ve .·( us .-( un
(( jo (( jo i(·( jis i(-( jin
·(( so ·(( so i-·( tis i--( tin
=(: koi: =(: koi: i=·(( kisi: i=r( kinhĩ:

Note that (i) when the case-signs are added the singular forms ·(r
yeh, ·(r vah, (( jo, and ·(( so change to :·( is, .·( us, i(·( jis and i-·( tis
respectively; =(-( køn and +·(( kya: change to i=·( kis; and == kuch
changes to i=·(( kisi:. (ii) In the plural, except before -( ne, these
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change to :-( in, .-( un, i(-( jin, i--( tin, i=-( kin, and i=r( kinhĩ:. (iii)
Before -( ne, the plural oblique forms are: :-r inhũ:, .-r( unhũ:, i(-r(
jinhũ:, i=-r( kinhũ:, and i=-r( kinhĩ:. (iv) -( m´~ and - tu: remain
unchanged before -( ne: (-(-( m´~ne, --( tu:ne). v) Followed by other
case-signs, -( m´~ and - tu: change to -(:( mujh and -:( tujh (-(:(=(
mujhko, -:(=( tujhko). (vi) The pronouns r-( ham and --( tum remain
unchanged before all case-signs: r-(=( hamko, --r tumhẽ. (vii) The
postposition =( ka: is not attached to -( m´~, - tu:, and --( tum. They
change to the following forms agreeing with the object noun in
gender and number.

Masculine Feminine
Sg Pl Sg/Pl
-(·( mera: -(· -(·( meri:
-·( tera: -· tere -·( teri:
--r(·( tumha:ra: --r(· tumha:re --r(·( tumha:ri:

(viii) As an alternative to =( ko, all oblique forms attach an ¤ e in
singular and r hẽ in plural: :·( ise/:·(=( isko, .·( use/.-(=( unko, :-r inhẽ
/:-(=( inko, .-r unhẽ/.-(=( unko, --r tumhẽ/-:( tujhe, r-( hamẽ/r-(=(
hamko. In the case of ham, ¤ ẽ is added, not r hẽ. Note that ¤ ẽ or r
hẽ is not attached to the indefinite pronouns =(: koi: and == kuch.

As pointed out earlier, the reflexive pronoun .¬(+ a:p changes to
.¬+-( apne before the case signs =( ko, .·( se, -( mẽ, and +· par. -( ne is
not added to the reflexive ¬(+ a:p but only to the subject to which ¬(+
a:p refers. For denoting various senses of =( ka:, ¬(+ a:p changes to
¬+-(( apna:, ¬+-( apne, and ¬+-(( apni:.

3.2.8. Compound Pronouns

Two, or more than two pronouns may be compounded or the same
pronoun may be repeated to convey various shades of meanings.
The following are some important compound pronouns.

¬+-( ¬(+ apne a:p by oneself
¬(+ r( ¬(+ a:p hi: a:p by oneself, to oneself
(( =(: jo koi: who(so)ever
(( == jo kuch what(so)ever
(( (( jo jo whoever/whatever
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=(: =(: koi: koi: some, a few (archaic)
·(·( =(: sab koi: all, everybody (archaic)
r· =(: har koi: all, everybody
=(: koi: na koi: someone or the other
=(: =(: koi: … koi: some … others or one … another
== -( == kuch na kuch something or the other
== =( == kuch ka: kuch something different from expected
·(·( == sab kuch everything
·(r- == bahut kuch a great deal
== == kuch kuch somewhat, a little
=(: ¬(· koi: ør someone else
¬(· =(: ør koi: someone else
=(: :·(·( koi: du:sra: someone else
== ¬(· kuch ør something else, a little more
¬(· = = ør kuch something else
== … == kuch … kuch some … some (Conjunctive)
=(: ·(( koi: sa: anything, something
=(: ·(( køn sa: which one
=(-( =(-( køn køn which persons, which ones
+·(( +·(( kya: kya: which things
+·(( ·( +·(( kya: se kya: something contrary to expectations
+·(( +·(( kya: … kya: equally, without difference
¬(+·( -( =( a:pas mẽ/ki: each other, one another

All the pronouns can be combined with the emphatic particle r( hi:
like -( r( m´~ hi: ‘I myself,’ - r( tu: hi: ‘thou thyself,’ ¬(+ r( a:p hi:
‘you yourself,’ =(: r( koi: hi: ‘hardly any one,’ and == r( kuch hi:
‘hardly a few.’ Note that most of these compounds are affected by
Sandhi and are modified: -(:( mujh + r( hi: = -(:(( mujhi:, -:( tujh + r(
hi: = -:(( tujhi:, r-( ham + r( hi: = r-r( hamhi: , --( tum + r( hi: = --r(
(tumhi:, ·(r vah +r( hi: = ·(r( vahi:, ·(r yeh + r( hi: = ·(r( yahi:, .·( us +
r( hi: = .·(( usi:, :·( is + r( hi: = :·(( isi:, i=·( kis + r( hi: = i=·(( kisi:, :-(
in +r( hi: = :-r( inhi:, .-( un + r( hi: = .-r( unhi:, i(-( jin + r( hi: + i(-r(
jinhi:, i=-( kin + r( hi: = i=-r( kinhi:.

3.3. Adjectives

Adjectives in Hindi can be classified into two groups: (i) inflected
and (ii) uninflected.
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3.3.1. Inflected

These adjectives are inflected for gender and number.

Masculine Feminine
Sg Pl Sg / Pl
·(z( bara: ·(z bare ·(z( bari: big
=(º( chota: =(º chote =(º( choti: small
-(·(( lamba: -(·( lambe -(·(( lambi: tall
=(-(( ka:la: =(-( kale =(-(( ka:li: black
r·( hara: r· hare r·( hari: green
¬·=( accha: ¬·= acche ¬·=( acchi: good

3.3.2. Uninflected

These adjectives are not inflected for number and gender.

·(:· -(z=(/-(z=( sundar larka: /laṛki: beautiful boy/girl
:=( ¬(:-(( /(¬(·- dukhi: admi:/ ørat sad man/woman
·(=: =+z( /=-((( saphed kapra: /kami:z white cloth/shirt

3.3.3. Types of Adjectives

There are two broad types of adjectives: (i) those that describe a
quality or quantity, and (ii) those that distinguish one person or thing
from another.

(i) Quality is expressed either by a basic adjective or by an adjective
derived from a noun.

·(:· -(z=( sundar larki: a beautiful girl
(-((-(( -(z=( šarmi:la: larka: a bashful boy

The adjective (-(( -(( šarmi:la: is derived by adding the suffix - : -((
i:la: to the noun stem. Negative qualities are expressed by a separate
set of adjectives and also by adding negative prefixes.

·(:·(·- ¬(·- bad-su:rat ørat an ugly woman
·((-( -(z=( be-šarm larka: a shameless boy
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Quantity may be expressed either by numerals or by the adjectives
of quantity like ·(r- bahut / ¬i·(= adhik ‘a lot,’ =(=( ka:fi: ‘sufficient,’
=-( kam ‘less,’ ·((z( thora: ‘a little.’

= i=-(·( che kita:bẽ six books
·(r- -(·( bahut log many people
·((z( :·( thora: du:dh a little milk

Adjectives of quantity may also be formed by the combination of
numeral + unit of measure + (classifier (terms of weight,
length))/genitive postposition) (+ the particle ·((-(( va:la:) + noun.

:( ·(( ·(( -(·(( +·((-((} ···((|
do sø gaz lambi: (va:li:) rassi:
two hundred yards long (gen.) rope
the two-hundred-yard long rope

:( i=-(( ·((-( ·((-(( +··(·|
do kilo vazan va:la: patthar
two kilo weight-gen stone
the stone weighing two kilograms

The postposition ·( se is used in the formation of reduplicated
adjectival phrases.

¬i·(= ·( ¬i·(= adhik se adhik at most
=-( ·( =-( kam se kam at least
¬·= ·( ¬·=( acche se accha: the best of all
·(· ·( ·(·( bure se bura: worst of all
-((= ·( -((=( mi:the se mi: tha: very sweet

Almost all pronouns can function as adjectives. The demonstrative
adjectives that point out persons or things ·(r - yeh ‘this,’ ye ‘these’
·(r vah ‘that,’ ve ‘those’ - are used in the initial position.

·(r ·(· yeh ghar this house
·( i=-(·( ye kita:bẽ these books
·(r -(z=( vah larka: that boy
·( ·(··( ve bacce those children

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Interrogative pronouns are used to ask questions.

=(-( -(z=(? køn laṛka:? which boy?
+·(( =(-(? kya: ka:m? what work?

The possessive pronouns particularize or show relation.

-(·( / -·( :(·- mera:/tera: dost my/your friend
-(·( / ¬(+=( ·(ir-( meri:/a:pki: bahan my/your sister
.·(=( / .-(=( ·((: uska:/unka: bha:i: his/their brother

Indefinite and relative pronouns, too, function as adjectives.

=(: ¬=·((· koi: akhba:r some newspaper
== ·(i·(·(( kuch sabziyã: some vegetables
(( ·(··(( jo bacca: the child who

3.3.4. Degree of Adjectives

There are three varieties of adjectival degrees: superlative,
comparative and minimal. Superlative and comparative degrees of
qualities are denoted with the help of the postposition ·( se attached
to the noun or pronoun (in oblique form) with which the comparison
is made. Superlative involves comparison with all. For example,

·(·( ·( ·(z( :-((·- sab se bari: ima:rat the biggest building
·(·( ·( ·(:· -(z=( sab se sundar larki: the most beautiful girl

Comparative involves comparison between two.

¬+-( :(·- ·( -(·(( apne dost se lamba: taller than his friend

Minimal involves no comparison.

-(·( ¬·=( :(·- mera: accha: dost my good friend

The postposition -( mẽ is also alternately used to denote the
superiority of one out of two or more.
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:(-(( -( ·(z( donõ: mẽ bar a: bigger of the two
·(·( -( =·(( sab mẽ ũ:ca: the tallest

Sometimes, the phrase =( ¬+-(( ki: apekša: ‘in comparison to’ is
substituted for ·( se.

.-(( =( ¬+-(( -(·(( uma: ki: apekša: lambi: taller than Uma

Notice that words ¬i·(=/·((:( adhik/zya:da: ‘more’ and =-( kam ‘less’
may be prefixed to adjectives for denoting comparison.

·((-( ·( ¬i·(=
·(-(=(-((
sone se adhik
camki:la:
brighter than gold
=-( ·( ·((:( =(-(-( phu:l se zya:da: komal more delicate than a
flower
·((·( ·( =-( bi:s se kam less than twenty

3.3.5. Derivation of Adjectives

A large number of adjectives are derived from nouns by adding the
suffixes -¬( -a:, -: -i:, -.-u:, -:-(( -i:la:, --( -lu:, -:= -ik, -(-(= -janak, -
:(:-da:i:, --(·( -mai:, -·(-( -van, -¬(-(( -a:na: , --((= -na:k, -:-( -i:n, --( : -
mand, and -:(· -da:r.

-¬( -a:
Noun Adjective
·(·( sac truth ·(··(( sacca: truthful
:(= jhu:th lie :(=( jhu:tha: liar
·(= bhu:kh hunger ·(=( bhu:kha: hungry

-: -i:
=(-(- ki:mat price =(-(-( ki:mti: expensive
·(= sukh comfort ·(=( sukhi: happy
-(= nek good -(=( neki: goodness
+r(z paha:r mountain +r(z( paha:ri: mountainous

-= -u:
+º pet stomach +º petu: voracious
·((((· ba:za:r market ·((((= ba:za:ru: common
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-:-(( -i:la:
··( ras juice ··((-(( rasi:la: juicy
(r· zahar poison (r·(-(( zahri:la: poisonous
=·( kharc expense =·((-(( kharci:la: expensive
+··(· patthar stone +··(·(-(( patthri:la: stony

--( -lu:
>(=( šradha: faith >(=(-( šradha:lu: devotee
:·(( daya: kindness :·((-( daya:lu: kind

-:= -ik
·(-((( sama:j society ·(-((i(= sama:jik social
i·(n(-( vigya:n science i·(n(i-(= vigya:nik scientific
·(( varš year ·((i(= va:ršik yearly

-(-(= -janak
¬((( a:ša: hope ¬((((-(= a:ša:janak hopeful
i·(-( cinta: worry i·(-((-(= cinta:janak worried

-:(: -da:i:
·(= sukh comfort ·(=:(: sukhda:i: comfortable
:= dukh pain :=:(: dukhda:i: painful

--(: -mai:
¬((( a:ša: hope ¬(((-(: a:ša:mai: hopeful

-·((-( -va:n
·(-( dhan wealth ·(-(·((-( dhanva:n wealthy
·(-( bal strength ·(-(·((-( balva:n strong

-¬(-(( -a:na:
·((-( sa:l year ·((-((-(( sa:la:na: yearly
·(( roz day ·(((-(( roza:na: daily
-(: mard man -(:(-(( marda:na: manly

--((= -na:k
:: dard pain ::-((= dardna:k painful
=(= xøf fear =(=-((= xøfna:k frightful
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=-·( xatra: danger =-·-((= xatarna:k dangerous

-:-( -i:n
··( rang color ··((-( rangi:n colorful
-(-(= namak salt -(-(=(-( namki:n salty
((= šøk liking ((=(-( šøki:n fond

--(: -mand
¬+-( akl wisdom ¬+-(-( : aklmand wise
:(-(- dølat wealth :(-(--(: dølatmand wealthy

-:(· -da:r
-((-( ma:l property
-((-(:(· ma:lda:r wealthy
(-((-( zami:n land
(-((-(:(· zami:nda:r landlord
:=(-( duka:n shop
:=(-(:(· duka:nda:r shopkeeper

When ·(( sa: ‘like’ is attached to the oblique forms of nouns or
pronouns, they function as adjectives.

=-( ·(( phu:l sa: flower-like
-(:(·(( mujh sa:/ --(·(( tum sa: me-like/you-like

·(( sa: is also attached to adjectives to denote ‘looking, seeming.’
When added to quantitative adjectives, it intensifies the meaning.

-((-( ·(( la:l sa: red-looking
·(z( ·(( bara: sa: big-looking
:·(-(( ·(( dubla: sa: slim-looking
=-((( · ·(( kamzor sa: weak-looking
=·(( ·(( ũ:ca: sa: high-looking
·(r- ·(( bahut sa: a great deal
·((z( ·(( thora: sa: just a little

The forms of ·(( sa: (agreeing in number and gender with the noun)
are also added to the genitive/possessive forms to denote a similarity
of quality, or possession.
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·((·( =( ·(( -(r ga:y ka: sa: mũh a face like that of a cow
.-(= ·( =+z unke se kapre clothes similar to his
-(·( meri:/ -·( ·(( -((= teteri: si: na:k a nose like mine/yours

·(( sa: may be replaced by (·(( j´sa: with nouns and pronouns (other
than indefinite or interrogative ones.)

·(:· ·((/(·(( bandar sa:/j´sa: similar to a monkey
--( ·((/(·(( tum sa:/j´sa: like you

The forms of ·(( sa: can be added to =(: koi: and =(-( køn to indicate
‘any one,’ and ‘which one’ respectively.

=(: ·(( ··( koi:-sa: raη any color
=(: ·(( =-((( koi:-si: kami:z any shirt
=(-( ·(( =(º køn-sa: kot which coat
=(-( ·(( =-((( køn-si: kami:z which shirt

3.3.6. Numerals

Numerals are adjectives indicating number. They may by divided
into cardinals, ordinals, or multiplicatives.

3.3.6.1. Cardinals

Cardinal numeral forms in Hindi are given below.

¤= ek 1 :( do 2
-(-( ti:n 3 ·((· ca:r 4
+(·( pã:c 5 = che 6
·((- sa:t 7 ¬(= a:th 8
-(( nav 9 :·( das 10
··((·r gia:rah 11 ·((·r ba:rah 12
-·r terah 13 ·((:r cødah 14
+:r pandrah 15 ·((-(r solah 16
·(|r satrah 17 ¬=(·r atha:rah 18
.--((·( unni:s 19 ·((·( bi:s 20
:+=(·( ikki:s 21 ·((:·( ba:i:s 22
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-:·( tei:s 23 ·((·((·( cøbi:s 24
+··((·( pacci:s 25 =··((·( chabbi:s 26
·(-((:·( satta:i:s 27 ¬º=(:·( attha:i:s 28
.-(-((·( untti:s 29 -(·( ti:s 30
:=-((·( ikatti:s 31 ·(-((·( batti:s 32
--(·( t´~nti:s 33 ·((-(·( cønti:s 34
+-(·( p´~ti:s 35 =-((·( chatti:s 36
·(-(·( s´~ti:s 37 ¬z-(·( arti:s 38
.-(-(-((·( unta:li:s 39 ·((-((·( ca:li:s 40
:=-(-((·( ikta:li:s 41 ·(·((-((·( baya:li:s 42
--((-((·( t´~ta:li:s 43 ·(·((-((·( cava:li:s 44
+-(-((·( p´~ta:li:s 45 i=·((-((·( chiya:li:s 46
·(-(-((·( s´~ta:li:s 47 ¬z-(-((·( arta:li:s 48
.-(·((·( unca:s 49 +·((·( paca:s 50
:+·((·(-( ikya:van 51 ·((·(-( ba:van 52
i-·+-( tirpan 53 ·((·(-( cøvan 54
+·(+-( pacpan 55 =+-( chappan 56
·(-(·(-( sata:van 57 ¬=(·(-( atha:van 58
.-(·(= unsath 59 ·((= sa:th 60
:=·(= iksath 61 ·((·(= ba:sath 62
i-··(= tirsath 63 ·((·(= cøsath 64
+·(= p´~sath 65 i=·((·(= chiya:sath 66
·(··(= sarsath 67 ¬z·(= arsath 68
.-(r-(· unahttar 69 ·(-(· sattar 70
:=r-(· ikahttar 71 ·(r-(· bahttar 72
i-r-(· tehttar 73 ·((r-(· cøhttar 74
+·(r-(· pacahttar 75 i=r-(· chihttar 76
·(-r-(· satahttar 77 ¬=r-(· athahttar 78
.-((·(( una:si: 79 ¬··(( assi: 80
:+·((·(( ikya:si: 81 ·(·((·(( baya:si: 82
i-·(·(( tira:si: 83 ·((·(·(( cøra:si: 84
+·((·(( paca:si: 85 i=·((·(( chiya:si: 86
·(-(·(( sata:si: 87 ¬=(·(( atha:si: 88
-(·((·(( nava:si: 89 -(··( nabbe 90
:+·((-(·( ikya:nave 91 ·(·((-(·( baya:nave 92
i-·(-(·( tira:nave 93 ·((·(-(·( cøra:nave 94
+·((-(·( paca:nave 95 i=·((-(·( chiya:nave 96
·(-(-(·( sata:nave 97 ¬=(-(·( atha:nave 98
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i-(-·((-(·( ninya:nave 99 ·(( sø 100
(-·( šu:ny zero r((· haza:r 1,000

Starting with one hundred, the numerals proceed regularly.

(¤=) ·(( (ek) sø 100
¤= ·(( ¤= ek sø ek 101
¤= ·(( :( ek sø do 102
:( ·(( do sø 200
:( ·(( do sø ek 201
¤= r((· ek haza:r 1000
:( r((· -(-( do haza:r ti:n 2003
:( r((· ·((- do haza:r sa:t 2007

The numerals one thousand and above are as follows.

(¤=) r((· (ek) haza:r one thousand
:·( r((· das haza:r ten thousand
-((= la:kh hundred thousand
:·( -((= das la:kh million
=·(z karor ten million
¬··( arab thousand million (billion)
=··( kharab hundred billion

3.3.6.2. Ordinals

The first six ordinals are +r-(( pahla: ‘first,’ :·(·( du:stra: ‘second’;
-(·(·( ti:sra: ‘third’; ·((·(( cøtha: ‘fourth’; +(·(·(( pã:cva: ‘fifth’; ==(
chatha: ‘sixth.’ The suffix - ¬( -ã is added to the cardinals from
seven onwards to make ordinals: ·((-·(( sa:tvã: ‘seventh’; ¬(=·(( a:thvã:
‘eighth’; -((·(( navã: ‘ninth’; :·(·(( dasvã: ‘tenth’; ·((·(·(( bi:svã:
‘twentieth’; -(·(·(( ti:svã: ‘thirteenth’; ·((·(( søvã: ‘hundredth’; r((··((
haza:rvã: ‘thousandth’ etc.

Adjectives of Quantity

Nouns denoting measure, and weight preceded by a numeral or by
an adjective denoting an indefinite number, such as =(: koi: or = =
kuch, are used as adjectives of quantity.
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-(-( i=-(( ·((·(-( ti:n kilo ca:val three kilograms of rice
:( ·((-( ·((·( do pya:le ca:y two cups of tea
== ·((--( (r: kuch botal šahad some bottles of honey
=: i=-(( :·( kai: kilo du:dh several kilos of milk

Collective Adjectives

Some regular numerals can be replaced by collective adjectives like
((z( jora: ‘pair,’ ·((=z( cøkr a: ‘four,’ +(( panja: ‘five,’ =+=( chakka:
‘six,’ :(-( darjan ‘dozen,’ ·((·(( bi:si:/ =(z( kori: ‘score,’ ·(=z( s´~kr a:
‘hundred.’ They are treated as nouns and may be qualified by the
regular numerals.

:( ((z =+z do jore kapre two pairs of clothes
-(-( :( -( ·(·( ti:n darjan seb three dozens of apples

The ·(=z( s´~kr a: is also used in the sense of ‘per hundred.’

·((·( =+¤ ·(=z( bi:s rupye s´~kra: twenty rupees per hundred

3.3.6.3. Fractions

Fractions are expressed as follows:

¤= ·(º ·((·/+(·( ek bate ca:r/pa:v one quarter
(pa:v is used mainly for denoting weights)
¤= ·(º -(-(/i-r(: ek bate ti:n/tiha:i: one-third
¤= ·(º :(/¬(·(( ek bate do/a:dha: half
-(-( ·(º ·((·/+( -( ti:n bate ca:r/pøn three quarters
¤= ·(r( ¤= ·(º
·((·/·((·((
ek sahi: ek bate
ca:r/sava:
one and a quarter
¤= ·(r( ¤= ·(º :( zc ek sahi: ek bate do/derh one and a half
:( ·(r( ¤= ·(º :( c(: do sahi: ek bate
do/dha:i:
two and a half
+(-( :( pøne do two less by a quarter
+(-( -(-( pøne ti:n three less by a
quarter
·((c -(-( sa:rhe ti:n three and a half

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Note that ·((c sa:rhe denoting ‘half’ is attached to the numerals
beginning with three: ·((c ·((· sa:rhe ca:r ‘four and half,’ ·((c +(·(
sa:rhe pã:c ‘five and half,’ etc. The system of denoting fractions is
also used to denote fractions of hundred, thousand, ten thousand, etc.

·(·(( ·(( sava: sø 125
zc ·(( derh sø 150
·c(: ·(( dha:i: sø 250
zc r((· derh haza:r 1,500
·(·(( :( -((= sava: do la:kh 2,25,000

3.3.6.4. Multiplicatives

Multiplicatives are formed by attaching ·(-(( guna:‘multiplied by’ to
the numerals. The numerals 2 to 8 are slightly modified.

:·(-(( dugna: or :-(( du:na: ‘double,’ i-·(-(( tiguna: ‘threefold,’ ·((·(-((
cøguna: ‘fourfold,’ +·(·(-(( pancguna: ‘fivefold,’ =·(-(( chaguna
‘sixfold,’ ·(-·(-(( satguna: ‘sevenfold,’ ¬=·(-(( athguna: ‘eightfold.’
After this the forms are regular: -(·(·(-(( navguna: ‘ninefold,’ :·(·(-((
dasguna: ‘tenfold,’ ·((·(·(-(( bi:sguna: ‘twentyfold,’ -(·(·(-(( ti:sguna:
‘thirtyfold,’ ·((·(-(( søguna: ‘hundredfold,’ r((··(-(( haza:rguna:
‘thousandfold. The ·(-(( guna: can be attached to fractions too: ·(·(( ·(-((
sava: guna: 1¼ times as much, zc ·(-(( derh guna: 1½ times as much,
c(: ·(-(( dha:i: guna: 2 ½ times as much.

3.3.6.5. Approximation

Approximation is expressed by placing =(: koi:, -(·(·(·( lagbhag, or +(·(
pra:ya: before the numeral.

=(: ·((·( ¬(:-(( koi: bi:s a:dmi: about twenty persons
-(·(·(·( +(·( ·(( -((·( lagbhag pã:c sø log about five hundred people
+(·( :( ·(( ·((
+ir-(
pra:ya: do sø varš
pahle
about two hundred years
ago

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It is also expressed by certain pairs of numerals.

:(-¤= do-ek one or two
:(--(-( do-ti:n about two or three
:·(-+(·( das-pã:c about ten
·((-·(·(( ·(( sø- sava: sø about 125

Reduplication of a numeral denotes ‘… at a time,’ or ‘…per piece.’

:(-:( -(z= do-do larke two boys at a time
¤=-¤= -(z= =( -(-(--(-(
i=-(·( :(|
ek-ek larke ko ti:n-ti:n
kita:bẽ do
Give three books to
each boy.

3.3.6.6. Aggregation

Aggregation is expressed by adding - ¬( -õ to a numeral. In the case
of :( do, --(( -nõ is added. (e.g., :(-(( donõ ‘both,’ -(-(( ti:nõ ‘all the
three,’ ·((·( ca:rõ ‘all the four,’ :·(( dasõ ‘all the ten,’ ·((·(( bi:sõ ‘all the
twenty,’ etc.). Notice that -:·(( -iyõ is added to numerals :·( das or ·((·(
bi:s to indicate an indefinite large number (e.g., :i·(·(( dasiyõ ‘several
tens,’ ·((i·(·(( bi:siyõ ‘several scores,’ etc.)

The suffix -¬( -õ is also added to the nouns signifying duration,
measures, weight to indicate large and indefinite number or quantity.
(e.g., -(r(-(( mahi:nõ ‘a number of months,’ ·(··(( barsõ ‘a number of
years,’ ·((i··(( ¬-((( boriyõ ana:j ‘sackfulls of grains,’ etc.

3.4. Verbs

There are two types of verbs: main and auxiliary.

3.4.1. The Verb hona:

The verb r(-(( hona: ‘to be’ is used as a copula in simple predicative
sentences, as well as an auxiliary in different types of verbal
constructions. The verb r(-(( hona: has four sets of verbal forms:
present, past, presumptive, and subjunctive.

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(a) The present tense forms of r( -(( hona: agree with their subjects in
number and person.

Person Singular Plural
1
st
r hũ: r h´~
2
nd
(intimate) r h´ r( ho
2
nd
(polite) r h´~ r h´~
3
rd
r h´ r h´~

-( r m´~ hũ: I am r-( r ham h´~ we are
- r tu: h´ you are --( r( tum ho you are
¬(+ r a:p h´~ you are ·(r r vah h´ he/she is
·( r ve h´~ (s)he is/ they are

(b) The past tense forms of r(-(( hona: agree with their subjects in
gender and number.

Masculine Feminine
Sg Pl Sg Pl
·(( tha: ·( the ·(( thi: ·(( thĩ:

-( ·((/·(( m´~ tha:/thi: I was
·(r ·((/·(( vah tha:/thi: he/she was
- ·((/·(( tu: tha:/thi: you were
r-(/ --(/ ¬(+/ ·(/ ·( ·(| ham/tum/a:p/ye/ve the. we/you/she/they were
r-(/ --(/ ¬(+/ ·(/ ·( ·((| ham/tum/a:p/ye/ve thĩ: we/you/she/they were

(c) The presumptive forms of the verb r(-(( hona: agree with their
subjects in person, gender, and number.

Person Masculine Feminine
Sg Pl Sg Pl
1
st
r·(( hũ:ga: r(·( hõge r·(( hũ:gi: r(·(( hõgi:
2
nd
(intimate) r(·(( hoga: r(·( hoge r(·(( hogi: r(·(( hogi:
2
nd
(hon sg/pl) r(·( hõge r(·( hõge r(·(( hõgi: r(·(( hõgi:
3
rd
r(·(( hoga: r(·( hõge r(·(( hogi: r(·(( hõgi:

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(d) The subjunctive forms of r(-(( hona: are used to indicate the
situations of speculative, hypothetical, contingent, or desired nature.
They agree with their subjects in person and number.

Person Singular Plural
1
st
r(= hoũ: r( hõ
2
nd
(intimate) r( ho r( ho
2
nd
(hon sg/pl) r( hõ r( hõ
3
rd
r( ho r( hõ

-( r(= m´~ hoũ: r-( r( ham hõ
- r( tu: ho --( r( tum ho/ho
¬(+ r( a:p hõ ·(r/·(r r( yeh/vah ho
·(/·( r( ye/ve hõ

3.4.2. Main Verbs

There are three types of main verbs: simple verbs, conjunct verbs,
and compound verbs. A simple verb may consist of one main verb
and person, gender, number, tense, and aspect markers. In the
compound verb construction, the person, gender, number, and aspect
markers are taken by the explicators/operators, and in the conjunct
verbal construction they are taken by the verb element. We will
classify the verbal constructions as intransitive, transitive,
ditransitive, causative, dative, conjunct, and compound.

3.4.2.1. Intransitive Verbs

Intransitive verbs like ¬( a: ‘come,’ (( ja: ‘go’ .= uth ‘get up,’ and ·( =
b´th ’sit.’ do not take a direct object and are not marked by any
postposition in the present or future tense. Subjects in such cases are
controlled by the verb agreement.

1. ·(r ((-( r|
vah ja:ta: h´.
he go-ptc is
He goes.

2. ¬i-(- ·(· ((¤·((|
amit ghar ja:ega:.
Amit home go-fut
Amit will go home.
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Besides verb agreement, subjects demonstrate a number of other
properties which are explained below. Intransitive verbs in the past
tense take their subjects in the direct case.

3. ·(r ·(r- ·(= ·(:|
vah bahut thak gai:.
she very tired aux
She was dead tired.

4. ¬i-(- ·(-(·( +· ¬(·((|
amit samay par a:ya:.
Amit time at came
Amit came on time.

Some intransitive verbs, such as =-( khel ‘play’ and -(z lar ‘fight,’
may sometimes be used as transitives when they take abstract nouns
as objects.

Intransitive Transitive
=-(-(( khelna: to play =-( =-(-(( khel khelna: to play a game
-(z(: lara:i: fight -(z(: -(z-(( lara:i: larna: fight a battle

5. -((r-( = -((|
mohan khela:.
Mohan played.

5a. -((r-( = -( =-((|
mohan ne khel khela:.
Mohan played a game.

3.4.2.2. Transitive Verbs

Transitive verbs, such as +c parh ‘read,’ i-(= likh ‘write,’ -(( la:
‘bring,’ : de ‘give,’ -( le ‘take,’ and =· kar ‘do,’ take direct objects,
and in the past tense they require their subjects must be marked with
the ergative case markers agreeing with the object in gender and
number.

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6. .-(( -( i=-(·( +c (|
uma: ne kita:b parhi:.
Uma-erg book-fs read-fs
Uma read a book.

7. ¬-(· -( ¬=·((· = ·(:(|
amar ne axba:r xari:da:.
Amar-erg newspaper-ms bought-ms
Amar bought a newspaper.

Some transitive verbs are derived from intransitives by certain
vocalic changes to the verb roots.

Intransitive Transitive
-(· mar die -((· ma:r kill
=+ chap be printed =(+ cha:p print
=º kat be cut =(º ka:t cut
i·(· gir fall i·(·( gira: fell
i+·( pis be ground +(·( pi:s grind
·(: bandh be tied ·((: ba:ndh tie
=-( khul be open =(-( khol open
.= uth rise .=( utha: raise
(·( jag wake up (·(( jaga: awaken
=-( ph´l stretch =-(( ph´la: spread
i:= dikh be able to see := dekh see
·(-( ban be made ·(-(( bana: make
·(-( ghu:m go round ·(-(-(( ghuma: turn round
:(z dør run :(z( døra: make x race

In certain cases besides vocalic changes, some consonantal changes
also take place.

Intransitive Transitive
ºº tu:t break -(z tor break
i·(= bik be sold ·(·( bec sell
=º phat be torn =(z pha:r tear
·(( so: be asleep ·(-(( sula: to make x to sleep
·(-( ban be made ·(-(( bana: to make

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A few transitive verbs like ·((-( bol ‘to speak,’ ·(-(:( samjh ‘to
understand’ and ·(-( bhu:l ‘to forget’ are sometimes used as
intransitives and do not take an ergative case marker.

8. -( ·((-((/ ·(-(:((/ ·(-((|
m´~ bola: / samjha: / bhu:la:.
I said/ understood/ forgot.

3.4.2.3. Ditransitive Verbs

Some verbs like :-(( dena: ‘to give,’ ·(-(( suna: ‘to tell,’ ·(·(-(( becna: ‘to
sell’ are called ditransitives. Ditransitives take three arguments,
namely, subject, object, and indirect objects. Indirect objects are
always marked in the dative. Other arguments follow the transitive
pattern noted above.

9. ¬-(· -( .-(( =( i=-(·( :(|
amar ne uma: ko kita:b di:.
Amar-erg Uma-dat book-fs gave-fs
Amar gave a book to Uma.

10. .-(( -( ·(··( =( =r(-(( ·(-((:|
uma: ne bacce ko kaha:ni: suna:i:.
Uma-erg child-dat story-fs told-fs
Uma told a story to the child.

3.4.2.4. Causative Verbs

Casuative verbs may be derived from transitive verbs by adding
causative suffixes. They include the transitive verbs derived from
intransitives. Causative verbs are, therefore, invariably transitive and
take the same forms as other transitive verbs. There are two types of
causative forms: causal I and causal II.

Causal I forms

Causal I verbs are formed by adding the causal suffix -a: to the
transitive verb form. As a result of adding this suffix, certain
morphophonemic changes take place.

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(a) Consonant ending roots with short vowels remain unchanged.

Transitive Causal I
=· kar do =·( kara: make x do
·(-( sun listen ·(-(( suna: make x tell
+c parh study +c( parha: teach x

(b) The long vowels of the verb roots are shortened. The vowels ¤ /e/
and : /i:/ change to : /i/.

Transitive Causal I
:= dekh see i:=( dikha: show
·((= si:kh learn i·(=( sikha: make x learn

(c) The long vowel ending verb roots are shortened and the suffix
--(( -la: instead of -¬(-a:, is added to derive the first causal forms. As
a result of adding the causative suffix to the verb root, the vowels ¤
/e/ and ¬( /a:/ change to :/i/, and ¬( /o/ changes to /u/.

Transitive Causal I
+( pi: drink i+-(( pila: make x drink
·(( si: stitch i·(-(( sila: make x stitch
=( kha: eat i=-(( khila: feed x
: de give i:-(( dila: make x give
·(( dho wash ·(-(( dhula: make x wash

Causal II

Causal II or extended causatives are formed by adding the causal II
suffix -·(( -va: to the verb roots.

Causal I Causal II
·(-(( suna: tell ·(-(·(( sunva: cause x to tell
+c( parha: teach +c·(( parhva: cause x to teach y
.=( utha: lift .=·(( uthva: make x to lift
i+-(( pila: make x drink i+-(·(( pilva: cause x to drink
(·(( jaga: awaken (·(·(( jagva: cause to awaken
·(-(( ghuma: move ·(-(·(( ghumva: cause x to move
:(z( døra: make x run :(z·(( dørva: cause x to run
i:-(( dila: cause x give i:-(·(( dilva: cause x to give y
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i=-(( khila: feed i=-(·(( khilva: cause x to feed y
·(-(( bana: make ·(-(·((-(( banva:na cause x to make
=· kar get done =··(( karva: cause x to do
·(-(( dhula: make x wash ·(-(·(( dhulva: cause x to wash

(a) As a result of adding the causal II suffix to the transitive verb
root, the vowel ¬( /o/ changes to . /u/.

-(z tor break -z·(( turva: cause x to break

(b) There are few irregular forms. In the following example, the
causal suffix -·(( -va is added to the intransitive verb root i·(= bik
‘sell’ instead of its transitive verb form ·(·( be:c:

·(·( bec sell i·(=·(( bikva: cause x to sell

(c) In certain cases, the meanings of the first and second causals are
the same as in =·(-(( kara:na:/ =··((-(( karva:na: ‘to get done’ or ·(-((-((
dhula:na:/ ·(-(·((-(( dhulva:na: ‘to get washed.’

11. -(( -( ·(··( =( :·( i+-((·((|
mã: ne bacce ko du:dh pila:ya:.
mother-erg child to milk drink-caus-past
The mother made the child drink milk.

11a. -(( -( ·(··( =( -(·( ·( :·( i+-(·((·((|
mã: ne bacce ko nars se du:dh pilva:ya:.
mother-er child to nurse by milk drink-cause
The mother caused the child to drink milk from the nurse.

3.4.2.5. Dative Verbs

Most dative verbs fall into the stative-inchoative category of verbs.
They represent a small class of verbs but are very frequently used.
They can be derived by substituting the intransitive verbs r(-(( hona:
‘to be,’ and ¬(-(( a:na: ‘to come’ in place of =·-(( karna: ‘to do’ in
active/conjunct verbs as given below.

Stative Inchoative Active
+·(: r(-(( +·(: ¬(-(( +·(: =·-((
pasand hona: pasand a:na: pasand karna: to like
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·((: r(-(( ·((: ¬(-(( ·((: =·-((
ya:d hona: ya:d a:na: ya:d karna: to remember

+-( r(-(( +-( =·-((
pata: hona: … pata: karna: to find out

12. .·(=( ·(r i=-(·( +·(: r|
usko yeh kita:b pasand h´.
he-dat this book like is
He likes this book.

12a. .·(=( ·(r i=-(·( +·(: ¬(:|
usko yeh kita:b pasand a:i:.
he-dat this book like came
He liked this book.

12b. .·(-( ·(r i=-(·( +·( : =(|
usne yeh kita:b pasand ki:.
he-erg this book like did
He liked this book.

13. .·(=( ·((·( ·((- ·((: r|
usko sa:ri: ba:t ya:d h´.
he-dat all matter remember is
He remembers the whole matter.

13a. .·(=( ·((·( ·((- ·((: ¬(:|
usko sa:ri: ba:t ya:d a:i:.
he-dat all matter remember came
He remembered the whole matter.

13b. .·(-( ·((·( ·((- ·((: =(|
usne sa:ri: ba:t ya:d ki:.
he-erg all matter remember did
He remembered the whole matter.

14. .·(=( ·(r ·((- +-( r|
usko yah ba:t pata: h´.
he-dat this matter know be
He knows this matter.
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14a. .·(-( ·(r ·((- +-( =(|
usne yah ba:t pata: ki:.
he-dat this matter find did
He found out this thing.

3.4.2.6. Conjunct Verbs

A conjunct verb consists of a noun or an adjective and a verb, which
takes all the verbal inflections. The verbs may be transitive or
intransitive. The most frequent verbs used in conjunct verbal
const+ructions are =·-(( karna: ‘to do’ and r(-(( hona: ‘to be.’ Other
verbs used are :-(( dena: ‘to give,’ ¬(-(( a:na: ‘to come,’ and -(·(-((
lagna: ‘to feel.’

15. -(-( ¬+-(( =(-( ·(-((- i=·((|
m´~ne apna: ka:m sama:pt kiya:.
I-erg self’s work finish did
I finished my work.

15a. ·(r =(-( ·(-((- r¬(|
yeh ka:m sama:pt hua:.
this work finish be-past
This work is done.

16. :··((( ( ·(: =·( |
darva:za: band karo.
door close do-imp
Close the door.

16a. :··((( ( ·(: r¬(|
darva:za: band hua:.
door close be-past
The door was closed.

One class of conjunct verbs is formed by the combination of a noun
and an intransitive verb, which requires the subject to be marked in
the oblique case. This class includes psychological predicates such
as ·(··(( ¬(-(( gussa: a:na: ‘to be angry,’ ·(= -(·(-(( bhu:kh lagna:’to be
hungry,’ ·((·( -(·(-(( pya:s lagna:, ‘to be thirsty,’ -··( ¬(-(( taras a:na: ‘to
have pity.’ It also includes non-volitional verbs such as i:=(: :-((
dikha:i: dena: ‘to be seen.’
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17. ¬-(· =( ·(··(( ¬(·((|
amar ko gussa: a:ya:.
Amar-dat anger came
Amar was angry.

18. ·(-((-( =( ·(=/ ·((·( -(·((|
suni:ta ko bhu:kh/pya:s lagi:.
Sunita-dat hunger/thirst struck
Sunita was hungry/thirsty.

19. -((r-( =( ·(·(·( +· -··( ¬(·((|
mohan ko gari:b par taras a:ya:.
Mohan-dat poor on pity came
Mohan took pity on the poor.

20. .·(=( ¬-· i:=-( -(r(|
usko antar dikhta: nahĩ:.
he-dat difference see-ptc neg
He is not able to see the difference.

3.4.2.7. Compound Verbs

Compound verbs in Hindi are combination of Verb 1 + Verb 2 (+
inflections). Whereas Verb 1 (also called main verb) expresses
general meaning and occurs in its stem form, verb 2, which is called
an explicator/operator, takes all the inflections. The explicators
belong to a small group of verbs. The original meaning of the
explicator is lost. They add certain aspectual values, such as
completion of an action, benefaction, or intensification, to the main
verb. The most frequent explicators are listed below with their actual
meaning and the aspectual meanings they add to main verbs.

Explicators Aspectual Values
¬( a: come change of state from within
(( ja: go change of state
-( le take action for or toward others
+z par fall action for or towards self
: de give change of state, suddenness
(( ja: go direction away, simple completion
z(-( da:l throw speed, recklessness, relief, completion
=(z chor release psychological separation, relief
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·= rakh put/keep proactiveness, future use in view
·(= b´th sit action for or towards self
.= uth rise action for or towards self
+r·( pahũc reach action for completion, direction
·(-( cal walk direction away, completion
-(· mar die completion, lack of control
-((· ma:r kill change of state, suddenness

Thus, a compound verb is made of two verbs, the first, the main verb
which expresses its general meaning and, the second, an
explicator/operator which is conjugated for different inflections. A
large number of compound verbs are formed by the combination of
verbs in which the first verb represents the meaning and the
explicator takes all the grammatical inflections. Examples of such
verbs are: ¬( ((-(( a: ja:na: ‘to come,’ i-(-( ((-(( mil ja:na: ‘to get,’ =( -(-((
kha: lena: ‘to eat,’ +( -(-(( pi: lena: ‘to drink,’ -( ¬(-(( le a:na: ‘to
bring,’ =·(: -( -(( xari:d lena: ‘to buy,’ ·(-( :-(( cal dena: ‘to leave,’ =·
·(=-(( kar b´thna: ‘to do,’ =· z(-(-(( kar da:lna: ‘to do,’ =· =(z-(( kar
chorna: ‘to do,’ : :-(( de dena: ‘to give.’

21. ·(·(( ·(··( ·(-(·( +· ¬( ·(¤|
sabhi: bacce samay par a: gaye.
all children time on came went
All the children came on time.

22. ·(··( -( ·(·( =( i-(·((|
bacce ne seb kha: liya:.
child-erg apple eat took
The child ate an apple.

23. ·(r ·((· +·( -( ·(·((|
vah sa:re p´se le gaya:.
he all money take went
He took all the money.

24. .·(-( -(: =(· = ·(: -((|
usne nai: ka:r xari:d li:.
he-erg new car buy took-fs
He bought a new car.
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25. -(-( ¬+-(( =(-( =· z(-((|
m´~ne apna: ka:m kar da:la:.
I-erg self’s work do threw
I completed my work.

There are verbal phrases in which there are two or more inflexible
verbs, such as +(-( ·(·(( pi:ta gaya: ‘went on drinking,’ ·(-(-( ·r( sunta:
raha: ‘kept on listing,’ ·((·(( +z( ·r( soya: para: raha: ‘remained
sleeping,’ ·(-(( ·(·(( cala: gaya: ‘gone.’

26. ·(r ·((·( ·(- ·((·( +(-( ·(·((|
vah sa:ri: ra:t ca:y pi:ta: gaya:.
he all night tea drink-ptc went-ms
He kept on drinking tea throughout the night.

27. ·(r -(·( ·((- ··((-( ·( ·(-(-( ·r(|
vah meri: ba:t dhya:n se sunta: raha:.
he my talk attention with listened-ptc remained-ms
He kept on listening to my story with attention.

28. ·(r ·((·( i:-( ·((·(( +z( ·r(|
vah sa:ra: din soya: para: raha:.
he whole day slept fell remained-ms
He kept on sleeping for the whole day.

3.4.3. Tense

Tense and aspect are major grammatical categories of the verbal
system in Hindi. There are three grammatical aspects: habitual,
progressive, and perfective. Each of them is expressed by marking
the verbal stems.

Hindi has six tenses: present, past, future, present perfect, habitual
past, and past perfect. The present tense represents an ongoing
action, a habitual, repeated or characteristic action, or simply
expresses a fact.

1. ¬-(· ·(· (( ·r( r |
amar ghar ja: raha: h´.
Amar home go-prog is
Amar is going home.
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2. ·(r =(i-(( -( +c-( r|
vah ka:lej mẽ parhta: h´.
he college in study-pre-hab. be
He studies in college.

The verb in (1) is in the progressive aspect and in (2) in the habitual
aspect.

The past tense represents an ongoing action or an action completed
in the past.

3. ¬-(· i:--(( (( ·r( ·((|
amar dilli: ja: raha: tha:.
Amar Delhi-obl go-prog was
Amar was going to Delhi.

4. .·(-( ¬=·((· +c(|
usne axba:r parha:.
he-erg newspaper read-perf
He read the newspaper.

The verb in (3) is in the progressive aspect and in (4) is in the
perfect aspect.

The future tense represents an action yet to take place or a state yet
to come into being.

5. .-(( =-( i:--(( ((¤·((|
uma: kal dilli: ja:egi:.
Uma tomorrow Delhi-obl go-fut
Uma will go to Delhi tomorrow.

The present perfect tense represents a completed act the effect of
which is still present.

6. .·(-( ·(r (·(r :=( r|
usne yah jagah dekhi: h´.
he-erg this place see-perf be
He has seen this place.

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The habitual past tense represents an act habitually done in the past.

7. ·(r r-((( -(r-(- =·-(( ·((|
vah hameša: mehnat karta: tha:.
he always hard work do-hab be-past
He always used to work hard.

The past perfect tense represents an action completed in the past or
before a certain past time.

8. ¬-(· +··(( ·(·( · ¬(·(( ·((|
amar parsõ savere a:ya: tha:.
Amar day before yesterday morning-obl came be-past
Amar had come the day before yesterday in the morning.

3.4.4. Aspect

Verbal forms indicating one of these aspects are specified for one of
the four tenses: present, past, presumptive, and subjunctive. The
combination of one of the three aspects with the four different tenses
results in the production of various aspectual-tenses: present-
habitual, past-habitual, presumptive-habitual, subjunctive-habitual,
present-progressive, past-progressive, presumptive-progressive,
subjunctive-progressive, present-perfective, past-perfective,
presumptive-perfective, and subjunctive-perfective. It also permits
the simple-perfective form. Besides these aspectual verb forms,
some non-aspectual verb forms of Hindi are the future, root
subjunctive, and the imperative and infinitive forms. They will be
discussed separately.

3.4.4.1. Habitual Aspect

The habitual aspectual-tenses are formed by adding the following
suffixes to the verb stems agreeing with the subject in gender and
number:

Masculine Feminine
Sg Pl Sg / Pl
--( -ta: -- -te --( -ti:

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They are followed by appropriate forms of the auxiliary verb r(-((
hona:. Present and past habitual forms are used to express habitual
actions or the state of affairs viewed from the perspective of the
present and the past respectively.

Present-habitual
1. -( ·(· ·( ( ¬(-(/ ¬(-( r|
m´~ ghar roz a:ta:/a:ti: hũ:.
I home daily come-ptc-ms/-fs be
I come home daily.

2. r-( ·(· ·( ( ¬(- / ¬(-( r|
ham ghar roz a:te/a:ti: h´~.
we home daily come-ptc-mp/-fp be
We come home daily.

3. - ·(· ·( ( ((-(/ ((-( r|
tu: ghar roz ja:ta:/ja:ti: h´.
you home daily go-ptc-ms/go-fs be
You go home daily.

4. --( ·(· ·( ( ((-/ ((-( r(|
tum ghar roz ja:te/ja:ti: ho.
you home daily go-ptc-mp/go-fs be
You go home daily.

5. ¬(+ ·(· ·( ( ((-/ ((-( r|
a:p ghar roz ja:te/ja:ti: h´~.
you home daily go-m/go-f be
You go home daily.

6. ·(r/ ·(r (r· ((-(/ ((-( r|
yah/vah šahar ja:ta:/ja:ti: h´.
(s)he city go-ptc-ms/go-fs be
He/she goes to the city.

7. ·( (r· ((-/ ((-( r|
ve šahar ja:te/ja:ti: h´~.
they city go-ptc-mp/go-f be
He/she/they goes/goes/go to the city.

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Past-habitual
8. -( ·( ( ·(( ((· ((-( ·(( /((-( ·((|
m´~ roz ba:za:r ja:ta: tha:/ja:ti: thi:.
I daily market go-ptc-ms was /go-fs was
I used to go to the market daily.

9. - ·(( ·((((· ((-( ·((/ ((-( ·((|
tu: roz ba:za:r ja:ta: tha:/ja:ti: thi:.
you daily market go-ptc-ms was/go-ptc-fs was
You used to go to the market daily.

10. --(/ ¬(+ ·(( :+-· ((- ·(/((-( ·((|
tum/a:p roz daftar ja:te the/ja:ti: thĩ:.
you-fam/you-hon daily office go-ptc-ms were/go-ptc-fs were
You used to go to the office daily.

11. ·(r ·(·(· ·((·( ((-( ·((/ ((-( ·((|
vah savere ga:ũ: ja:ta: tha:/ja:ti: thi:.
he/she morning-abl village go-ptc-ms was/go-ptc-fs was
He/She used to go to the village in the morning.

12. ·( ((-( =( ·((·( ((- ·( / ((-( ·((|
ve ša:m ko ga:ũ: ja:te the/ja:ti: thĩ:.
they evening-dat at village go-ptc-ms was/go-ptc-fs was
They used to go to the village in the evening.

Present-habitual in conjunction with the adverb ¬·(( abhi: ‘right
away’indicates that an action is to be carried out in the near future.

13. -( ¬·(( ((-( r |
m´~ abhi: ja:ta: hũ:.
I right away go-ptc.ms am
I’ll go right away.

In the negative construction of the present-habitual form, the present
form of the verb r(-(( hona: is usually deleted.

14. ·(r ·(·(r ·((·( -(r( +(-(|
vah subah ca:y nahĩ: pi:ta:.
he morning-abl tea neg drink-ptc.ms
He doesn’t drink tea in the morning.
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Past-habitual also indicates that an action has taken place in remote
past.

15. .-(( r(º-( -( ·((-(( ·((-( ·((|
uma: hotal mẽ ga:na: ga:ti: thi:.
Uma hotel in song sing-ptc was
Uma used to sing at the hotel.

Presumptive-habitual
Presumptive-habitual forms are used to indicate that an action or
state of affairs is both habitual and presumed, but not known
definitely.

16. -( ¬(-( r( =·((/ ¬(-( r(=·((|
m´~ a:ta: hoũ:ga: /a:ti: hoũ:gi:.
I come-ms be-pre.hab/ go-fs be-pre.hab.
I would be coming.

17. r-( ¬(- r(·(/ ¬(-( r(·((|
ham a:te hõge/a:ti: hõgĩ:.
We would be coming.

18. -/ ·(r ¬(-( r(·((/ ¬(-( r(·((|
tu:/vah a:ta: hoga:/a:ti: hogi:.
You/he would be coming.

19. --(/ ¬(+/ ·( ¬(- r(·( / ¬(-( r(·((|
tum/a:p/ve a:te hõge/ a:ti: hõgi:.
You/they would be coming.

Subjunctive-habitual
Subjunctive-habitual forms are used to indicate actions that are both
habitual and hypothetical, contingent, or speculative, but not directly
guaranteed to take place.

20. -( ·((r-( r ·(r ¬(¤ |
m´~ ca:hta: hũ: vah a:yẽ.
I want him/her to come.
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21. -(·( :·=( r ¬(+ ·(r i=-(·( +c |
meri: iccha: h´ a:p yeh kita:b parhẽ.
I want you to read this book.

22. ·(r ·(· +· =(-( =·-( ·((/ =·-( ·((|
vah ghar par ka:m karta: tha: /karti: thi:.
he/she home at work do-ms/do-fs was
He/she used to work at home.

3.4.4.2. Progressive Aspect

Progressive aspect verbs are formed by adding the following
auxiliary forms immediately after the verb stems and appropriate
forms of the verb hona: ’to be’ and they agree with the person,
gender, and number of the subject of the verb:

Masculine Feminine
Sg Pl Sg / Pl
·r( raha: ·r rahe ·r( rahi:

The progressive aspect is used to indicate actions or states of affairs
of a continuous nature or extended through time. There are two
primary categories: present-progressive and past-progressive.

Present-progressive
23. -( ·(· (( ·r(/ (( ·r( r|
m´~ ghar ja: raha:/ja: rahi: hũ:.
I home go-prog-ms/ go-prog-fs am
I am going home.

24. -(/ r-(/ ·( ·(· (( ·r / (( ·r( r |
ham/ve ghar ja: rahe/ ja rahi: h´~.
we/they home go-prog-mpl/-prog-fpl be-pl
We/they are going home.

25. - =(i-(( ·( ¬( ·r( r/ ·r( r |
tu: ka:lej se a: raha: h´ / rahi: h´.
you-fam/he/she college from come-prog-ms /-prog-fs be-sg
You are coming from the college.

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26. --( =(-(( =( ·r/ ·r( r(|
tum kha:na: kha: rahe/rahi: ho.
you-non.hon pl food eat-prog-mpl/-fpl be
You are eating food.

27. ¬(+/ ·( ·((·( +( ·r r|
a:p/ve ca:y pi: rahe h´~.
you/they tea drink-prog are
You /they are drinking tea.

Past-progressive
28. -( ·(( ·r( ·((/ ·r( ·((|
m´~ ga: raha: tha:/ rahi: thi:.
I sing-prog was-ms/sing-prog was-fs
I was singing.

29. - ·(·( =( ·r( ·((/ ·r( ·((|
tu: seb kha: raha: tha:/ rahi: thi:.
you-fam. apple eat-prog-ms was/ -prog-fs was
You were eating an apple.

30. --( i=-(·( +c ·r ·( / ·r( ·((|
tum kita:b parh rahe/rahi: ho.
you book read-prog-mp/ -fp be
You are reading a book.

31. ¬(+ +| i-(= ·r ·( |
a:p patr likh rahe the.
you-hon letter write-prog be
You were writing a letter.

Presumptive-progressive
Presumptive-progressive forms are used to indicate that an action or
state of affairs is extended in time and presumed to be occuring.

32. .-(( i:--(( ·( ¬( ·r( r(·((|
uma: dilli: se a: rahi: hogi:.
Uma Delhi from come-prog be-presumptive
Uma must be coming from Delhi.

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Subjunctive-progressive
33. ·(-·(·( r ·(r (( ·r( r(|
sambhav h´ vah ja: raha: ho.
possible is he go-prog be-subj
It is possible he would be going.

34. -(-(i=-( r ·( ¬( ·r r(|
mumkin h´ ve a: rahe hõ.
possible is they come-prog be-subj
It is possible they would be coming.

3.4.4.3. Perfective Aspect

Perfective aspect indicates an action or state of affairs that has been
completed. There are five sets of perfective forms in Hindi: simple-
perfective, present-perfective, past-perfective, presumptive-
perfective and subjunctive-perfective. The following perfect
participle suffixes are added to the main verb stems. In constructions
with intransitive verbs, they agree with the subject in gender and
number. In constructions with transitive verbs, they agree with the
object’s gender and number.

Masculine Feminine
Sg Pl Sg Pl
-¬( -a: -¤ -e -: -i: -: -ĩ:

These suffixes are added to both intransitive and transitive verbs.

Verb Masculine Feminine
Sg Pl Sg Pl
i·(· gir fall i·(·( gira: i·(· gire i·(·( giri: i·(·( girĩ:
·(-( cal walk ·(-(( cala: ·(-( cale ·(-(( cali: ·(-(( calĩ:
+c parh read +c( parha: +c parhe +c( parhi: +c( parhĩ:
i-(= likh write i-(=( likha: i-(= likhe i-(=( likhi: i-(=( likhĩ:

In vowel-ending verb stems, the glide -·( -y is inserted before the
masculine singular ending -¬( -a: is added to the verb stem.
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Verb Masculine Feminine
Sg Pl Sg Pl
¬( a: come ¬(·(( a:ya: ¬(¤ a:e ¬(: a:i: ¬(: a:ĩ:
·(( so sleep ·((·(( soya: ·((¤ soe ·((: soi: ·((: soĩ:
·(( si: sew i·(·(( siya: i·(¤ sie ·(( si: ·(( sĩ:
= khe row =·(( kheya: =·( kheye =: khei: =: kheĩ:
(( ja: go ·(·(( gaya: ·(¤ gae ·(: gai: ·(: gaĩ:
=( kha: eat =(·(( kha:ya: =(¤ kha:e =(: kha:i: =(: kha:ĩ:

Notice that the verbs ·(( so ‘sleep’ and ·(( si: ‘sew’ have alternate
feminine plural forms; the verb = khe ‘row’ has the feminine plural
form with inserted ·( y glide; the verb (( ja: ‘go’ has an irregular past
perfective form.

Some transitive verbs have irregular perfective participle forms.

Verb Masculine Feminine
Sg Pl Sg Pl
=· kar do i=·(( kiya: i=¤ kiye =( ki: =( kĩ:
-( le take i-(·(( liya: i-(¤ liye -(( li: -(( lĩ:
+( pi: drink i+·(( piya: i+·( piye +( pi: +( pĩ:
: de give i:·(( diya: i:·( diye :( di: :( dĩ:

Simple-perfective
The simple-perfective form appears without verbal auxiliaries.

35. -(z=(/-(z=( ·(· ·(·((/ ·(:|
larka:/larki: ghar ga:ya:/ ga:yi:.
boy/girl home went-ms/went-fs
The boy/girl went home.

36. -(-( /.·(-(/ .-r(-( -··((· :=(|
m´ne~ /hamne/usne/unhõne tasvi:r dekhi:.
I-erg/we-erg/(s)he-erg/they-erg picture-fs saw-fs
I/we/(s)he/they saw the picture.

Present-perfective
37. -( =(-(=-( ·(·(( r |
m´~ kolkata: gaya: hũ:.
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I Kolkata went be-pre
I have gone to Kolkata.

38. -(-(/ r-(-( /.-r( -( =(-(=-( :=( r |
m´~ne/hamne/unhõne kolkata: dekha: h´.
I-erg/we-erg/thy-erg Kolkata see-perf be-pre
I/we/they have seen Kolkata.

Past-perfective
39. -(/ - /·(r ·((((· ·(·(( ·((|
m´~/tu:/vah ba:za:r gaya: tha:
I/you/(s)he market went-perf be-past
I/you/(s)he had gone to the market.

40. -(-(/ --(-( /.-r(-(/ =(-(( =(·(( ·((|
m´~ne/tumne/unhõne kha:na: kha:ya: tha:
I-erg/you-erg/(s)he-erg/they-erg food eat-perf be-past
I/ you/(s)he/they had eaten the food.

Presumptive-perfective
41. ·(r =-( i:--(( ·(·(( r(·((|
vah kal dilli: gaya: hoga:.
he tomorrow Delhi went be-pre.perf
He would have gone to Delhi tomorrow.

42. .·(-( =-( ·(r i=-(·( +c( r(·((|
usne kal yah kita:b parhi: hogi:.
he-erg tomorrow this book read-fs be-pre.perf
He would have read this book tomorrow.

Subjunctive-perfective
43. ·(r ¬(·(( r(|
vah a:ya: ho.
he came be-subj.perf
He might have come.

44. +·- +z ·( i·(· r(|
patte per se gire hõ.
leaves tree from fell be-subj.perf
The leaves may have fallen from the tree.

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3.4.5. Mood

In Hindi there are three moods: indicative, imperative, and optative.

3.4.5.1. Indicative Mood

The indicative represents the action as a fact or makes a query about
it. The verb can be used in habitual (hab), progressive (prog), or
perfective (perf) aspects. The present and past participle forms of
these verbs have been explained above. The following aspectual
marks are added to the verb stem bol ‘say’ in the indicative mood.

Masculine Feminine
Sg Pl Sg Pl
Habitual ·((-(-( ·((-(- ·((-(-( ·((-(-(
bolta: bolte bolti: boltĩ:
Progressive ·((-( ·r( ·((-( ·r ·((-( ·r( ·((-( ·r(
bol raha: bol rahe bol rahi: bol rahĩ:
Perfective ·((-(( ·((-( ·((-(( ·((-((
bola: bole boli: bolĩ:

The above paradigm shows the agreement of indicative mood with
gender and number.

3.4.5.2. Imperative Mood

The imperative expresses an action as a command, a request, a
warning, a prohibition, etc. The imperative is restricted to the future
and cannot refer to the present or past tenses. Since the imperative
denotes a command, request, etc., its proper domain is the second
person. Indirect commands or requests made to a third person are
expressed by the subjunctive form. In imperative constructions, the
subject is omitted and can be guessed from both the context and the
form of the verb. The verb agrees with the second person subject
which has three second person pronominal forms: (i) intimate, (ii)
familiar, and (iii) polite.

The intimate imperative forms are used in issuing orders/commands
for those who are usually addressed with the intimate second person
pronoun - tu: ‘you.’ The familiar imperatives are used in issuing
commands to all those who are normally addressed by the familiar
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second-person pronoun --( tum ‘you.’ Polite imperatives are used for
making requests to those who are normally addressed by the second
person pronoun ¬(+ a:p ‘you.’

Second Person
Verb Intimate Familiar Polite
¬( a: come ¬( a: ¬(¬( a:o ¬(:¤ a:iye
(( ja: go (( ja: ((¬( ja:o ((:¤ ja:iye
=( kha: eat =( kha: =(¬( kha:o =(:¤ kha:iye
+c parh read +c parh +c( parho +ic¤ parhiye
i-(= likh write i-(= likh i-(=( likho i-(i=¤ likhiye
=·(: xari:d buy =·(: xari:d =·(:( xari:do =·(i:¤ xari:diye

In the above, the intimate forms are the same as the verb stem forms;
in familiar forms, -¬( -o is added to the verb stem form and in polite
forms -:¤ -iye is added.

1. (- ) ¬( /(( /=( /+c /i-(= /=·(:|
(tu:) a:/ ja:/kha: / parh /likh/xari:d
you-intimate come/go/eat/read/write/buy
Come/go/eat/read/write/buy.

1a. (--() ¬(¬( /((¬( /=(¬( /+c( / i-(=( /=·(:(|
(tum) a:o/ja:o/kha:o/ parho/likho/xari:do
you-familiar come/go/eat/read/write/buy

1b. (¬(+) ¬(:¤/ ((:¤/ =(:¤ /+ic¤ /i-(i=¤ /=·(i:¤|
(a:p) a:iye/ja:iye/ kha:iye/prhiye/likhiye/khari:diye.
(you-polite) come/go/read/write/ buy
Please come/go/eat/read/write/buy

A few verbs have irregular familiar and polite forms.

: de give : de :( do :(i(¤ di:jiye
-( le take -( le -(( lo -((i(¤ li:jiye
=· kar do =· kar =·( karo =i·¤ kariye/=(i(¤ ki:jiye

In the above forms, - ¬( -o is added to the vowel-ending verb stems
in the intimate form and the stem vowel is elided. The suffix -:i(¤ -
i:jiye is added in the polite form and the stem vowel is elided. The
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verb =· kar ‘do’ has an alternate form =i·¤ kariye ‘do’ in its polite
form, as well.

2. (- ) : / -( / =·
(tu:) de/le/kar
(you-familiar.sg) give/take/do

2a. (--() :( / -(( / =·(
(tum) do/lo/karo
(you-familiar.pl) give/take/do

2b. (¬(+ ) :(i(¤ / -((i(¤ / =(i(¤
(a:p) di:jiye/li:jiye/ki:jiye
(polite) give/take/do

The operators take the same imperative forms in the compound verb
constructions.

3. ·(r i=-(·( -( -(( |
yah kita:b le lo.
this book take-explicator
Take this book.

3a. ·(r i=-(·( -( -((i(¤|
yah kita:b le li:jiye.
this book take explicator-polite
Please take this book.

4. :··((( ( ·(: =· -(( |
darva:za: band kar lo.
door close do take-explicator-familiar
Close the door.

4a. :··((( ( ·(: =· -((i(¤|
darva:za: band kar li:jiye.
door close do take-explicator-polite
Please close the door.

In negative or prohibitive imperative constructions, the negative
markers na /nahĩ ĩ ‘no’ may precede the verb in the infinitive form.
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However, it is optional with the use of prohibitive morpheme mat
‘don’t.’

5. :·((: -(- / -( / -(r( =(-(( / =( -( -((|
dava:i: mat/na/nahĩ: kha:na:/kha: lena:.
medicine neg eat-inf./eat take-inf
Don’t take medicine.

5a. :·((: -(- =( -((i(¤|
dava:i: mat kha: li:jiye.
medicine neg eat take-inf.
Don’t take medicine.

3.4.5.3. Subjunctive Mood

The subjunctive forms are formed by adding certain suffixes to the
verb stems that agree with the subjects in person and number, e.g.,

Sg Pl
1
st
person -= -ũ: -¤ -ẽ
2
nd
person (familiar) -¤ -e -¬( -o
2
nd
person (polite) -¤ -ẽ -¤ -ẽ
3
rd
person -¤ -e -¤ -ẽ

The subjunctive forms of the verb r(-(( hona: ‘to be’ have been given
in 3.4.1.(d). Here we will illustrate the subjunctive forms of a few
other verbs.

6. -( ((= / == / +c |
m´~ ja:ũ:/karũ:/ parhũ:
I go-subj /do-subj /read-subj

6a. r-( ((¤ / =· / +c |
ham ja:ẽ/karẽ/ parhẽ
we go-subj /do-subj /read-subj

6b. - ((¤ / =· / +c |
tu: ja:e/kare/ parhe
you go-subj /do-subj /read-subj

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6c. --( ((¬( / =·( /+c(|
tum ja:o/karo/ parho
you go-subj /do-subj /read-subj

6d. ¬(+ ((¤ / =· / +c|
a:p ja:ẽ/karẽ/ parhẽ
you go-subj /do-subj /read-subj

6e. ·(r ¬(¤ / =· / +c|
vah a:e/kare/ parhe
he come-subj /do-subj /read-subj

6f. ·( ¬(¤ /=·/ +c|
ve a:ẽ/karẽ/ parhẽ
they come-subj/do-subj /read-subj

The stem final vowels -: -i: and -= -u:, as in +( pi: ‘drink,’ and =
chu: ‘touch’, are shortened in length as -: -i and -. -u before the
subjunctive verb suffixes are added to them.

7. -( i+= /==|
m´~ piũ:/chuũ:
I drink-subj /touch-subj

7a. r-( i+¤ /=¤ |
ham piẽ/chuẽ
we drink-subj/touch-subj

7b. - i+¤ /=¤|
tu: pie/chue
you drink-subj/touch-subj

7c. --( i+¬( /=¬(|
tum pio/chuo
you drink-subj/touch-subj

7d. ¬(+ i+¤ / =¤|
a:p piẽ/chuẽ
yiu drink-subj/touch-subj

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7e. ·(r i+¤ / =¤|
vah pie/chue
he drink-subj/touch-subj

7f. ·( i+¤ /=¤|
ve piẽ/chuẽ
they drink-subj/touch-subj

3.4.6. Voice

The verbal stem can also be used to indicate the passive voice. It
indicates the subject of a verb in the passive voice and it has
agreement of number, person, and gender.

1. .-(( ·( +| -( i-(=( ·(·((|
uma: se patr na likha: gaya:.
Uma by letter neg write-pass
Uma couldn’t write a letter.

2. .·(·( ·(-(( -( ·(·((|
us-se cala: na gaya:.
she-by walk neg be able
She couldn’t walk.

3. .·(·( ·(r =(-( -(r( r( ·(=-(|
us-se yah ka:m nahĩ: ho sakta:
she-by this work neg be able-model
She would not be able to do this work.

4. -(:(·( i=-(·( i·(· ·(:|
mujh-se kita:b gir gayi:.
me-by book fell down
The book fell from my hands.

5. .·(·( ¬(:-(( º º ·(·((|
us-se a:yi:na: tu:t gaya:.
she-by mirror break explicator
The mirror was broken by her.

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6. +·(-( ¬=·((·( =( ==( ·(·((|
pura:ne akhba:rõ ko phẽka: gaya:.
old newspapers-obl dat thrown explicator
The old newspapers were thrown away.

It can also be used to express ‘from’or ‘through’

7. -(:(·( ¬·(( ( +c -(( |
mujh-se ãgrezi: parh lo.
me-from English learn explicator
Learn English from me.

It is used with the indirect objects of verbs meaning ‘to tell, say, ask,
ask for, beg, demand, claim, request,’

8. .·(-( .-(( ·( =r( i= …
usne uma: se kaha: ki …
he-erg Uma said that
He told Uma that …

9. .-(( -( -(:(·( + =( i= …
uma: ne mujh se pu:cha: …
Uma er me-obl from asked
Uma asked me …

10. ¬i-(- -( .·(·( +(·(-(( =(
amit ne us-se pra:rthana: ki:.
Amit-erg him/her request made
Amit requested him/her.

3.4.7. Non-finite Verb Forms

We have discussed various finite verbal forms under tense, aspect,
mood, and voice above. We will now discuss the non-finite forms of
verbs which include infinitives and participles.

3.4.7.1. Infinitives

Infinitives are formed by adding the suffix --(( -na: to the verb stems:
¬(-(( a:na: ‘to come,’ ((-(( ja:na: ‘to go,’ =·-(( karna: ‘to do,’ i-(=-((
likhna: ‘to write,’ etc. Infinitives are used both as nouns and as
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adjectives. An infinitive is usually an abstract noun and, being an
abstract noun, it is not used in the plural.

1. (-:( ·((-(( =(= r |
jaldi: sona: thi:kh h´.
early sleep-inf good is
It is good to go to sleep early.

2. .·(= ¬(-( -( : · r: |
uske a:ne mẽ der hui:.
he-gen-obl come-inf-obl in late be-fsg
He/she arrived late.

3. -(-( .·( ((-( ·( ·(=(|
m´~ne use ja:ne se roka:.
I-erg he-dat go-inf-obl from stop-pst
I stopped him from going.

Despite being a noun, the infinite can take an object.

4. ·(r =(-( =·-( -( -( r|
vah ka:m karne mẽ tez h´.
he work do-inf-obl in fast is
He is prompt in (his) work.

The postposition =( ko ‘to’ is not added when the infinitive is used as
an object.

5. ·(r i=-(·( -((-(( ·(-( ·(·((|
vah kita:b la:na: bhu:l gaya:.
he book bring-inf forget go-operator-pst
He forgot to bring the book.

6. -( .·( i-(-(-( ((=·((|
m´~ use milne ja:ũ:ga:.
I him-obl meet-inf-obl go-fut
I will go to see him.

Infinitives are frequently used as adjectives in combination with
verbs denoting obligation, necessity, requirement, or compulsion
like ·((r ca:h ‘want,’ r( ho ‘be,’ and +z par ‘compulsion. The
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compounds made are passive in meaning.

7. -( ·((·( +(-(( ·((r-( r|
m´~ ca:y pi:na: cahta: hũ:
I tea drink-inf want-ptc am
I want to drink tea.

8. -(:( i:--(( ((-(( +z (|
mujhe dilli: ja:na: para:.
I-dat Delhi go-inf fell(explicator)
I had to go to Delhi.

9. .·( =(-( ((-( -= ·(-((- =·-(( ·((|
use ka:m ša:m tak sama:pt karna: tha:
he-obl work evening up to finish do-inf be-past-obligatory
He had to finish the work by evening.

When an infinitive is transitive, it is used as an adjective for its
object and changes its ending --(( -na: to --(( -ni: or --( -ne.

10. .·( +·( -((-( r|
use p´se la:ne h´~.
he-obl money bring-inf-obl-pl be-obligatory
He has to bring money.

11. .·( / .·(=( :·((: +(-(( +z·((|
use/usko dava:i: pi:ni: paregi:.
he-obl tea medicine drink-inf-fs necessary-fut
He has to drink medicine.

12. -(-( .·(=( -(:: =·-(( ·((r(|
um´~ne uski: madad karni: ca:hi:.
I-erg his/her help-f. do-inf.fs want-fs
I wanted to help him/her.

3.4.7.2. Participles

Participles in Hindi are largely verbal in nature and function as
adjectives and adverbs. They are of two types: imperfective and
perfective. Whereas imperfective participles represent incomplete or
unfinished activities, perfective participles designate completed
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verbal activities.

3.4.7.2.1. Imperfective Participles

When used adjectivally, imperfective participles are formed by
adding the suffixes --( -ta: (ms), -- -te (mp), --( -ti (fs), and --( -tĩ:
(fp) that are made to agree with the noun in gender and number.
Adjectival imperfective participles are expanded with one of the
simple perfective forms of r(-(( hona: ‘to be,’ like r¬( hua: (ms), and
r¤ hue (p), and r: hui: (fs).

1. :(z-( r¬( ¬(:-(( == ·(·((|
dørta: hua: a:dmi: ruk gaya:.
run-imp.ptc be-ms man stop went
The running man stopped.

2. :(z- r¤ ·(··( (( · =· ·r r|
dørte hue bacce šor kar rahe h´.~
run-imp.ptc be-mp children noise do-prog.asp are
The running children are making noise.

3. ·(-(-( r: ·(·( == ·(:|
calti: hui: bas ruk gai:.
move-imp.ptc-fs bus stop went
The moving bus stopped.

When used adverbially, the suffix -- -te is added to the verb stem
and is followed by r¤ hue.

4. :+-· ·( -((º- r¤ -(-( =-( =·(:|
daftar se løtte hue m´~ne phal khari:de.
office from return-while I-erg fruit bought
I bought fruit while returning from the office.

5. ·(··( ·=-( ((- r¤ ·(( ·r ·( |
bacce sku:l ja:tee hue ga: rahe the.
children school go-while sing-prog.asp were
The children were singing songs while going to school.

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Adverbial imperfective participles may be reduplicated.

6. ·(r +:-( ·(-(- - ·(-(- ·(= ·(·((|
vah p´dal calte-calte thak gaya:.
he on foot walk-ptc walk-ptc tired went
He was tired of walking on foot.

7. ·(r =- ·( i·(·- - i·(·- ·(·( ·(·((|
vah chat se girte-girte bac gaya:
he roof from fall-ptc-fall-ptc save went
He almost fell from the roof.

Adverbial imperfective participles are used with different time
expressions.

8. ·(r ·(· ((- ·(-(·( -((·(·( ·((|
vah ghar ja:te samay ma:yu:s tha:
he home go-ptc time sad was
He was sad when it was time to go home.

3.4.7.2.2. Perfective Participles

Perfective participles are formed by adding the adjectival suffixes -
¬( -a:, -¤ -e, and -: -i: to verb stems agreeing with the noun in
person, gender, and number. A few perfective stems are irregular.
Perfective participles represent a verbal activity carried through to
completion. Perfective participles may be employed either
adjectivally or adverbially. The adjectival participles are expanded
with the forms of r¬( hua:, r¤ hue, and r: hui: that agree with the
modified noun in person, gender, and number.

9. ·(=( (r¬( ) -(z=(
b´tha: (hua:) larka:
the sitting (i.e., seated) boy

9a. ·(= (r¤ ) -(z=
b´the (hue) larke
the sitting boys

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9b. ·(=( (r:) -(z=( -(zi=·((
b´thi (hui:) larki:/larkiyã:
the sitting girl/girls

The adjectival participles may precede or follow the noun they
qualify.

10a. =-((( ·(-(( (r:) r |
kami:z dhuli: (hui:) h´.
shirt washed (perf-ptc) is
The shirt is washed.

10b. ·(-(( (r:) =-((( ¬-(-((·( -( r|
dhuli: (hui:) kami:z alma:ri: mẽ h´.
washed (ptc) shirt almirah in is
The washed shirt is in almirah.

There are two types of adverbial participles. In one type, the
invariable suffix –¤ -e is employed.

11. =- +· ·(= r¤ ·(r ·(( ·r( ·((|
chat par b´the hue vah ga: raha: tha:.
roof at siting-perf.ptc he sing-prog was
He was singing while sitting on the roof.

In the other type, the adverbial participle uses the adjectival suffixes
–¬( -a:,- ¤ -e, and –: -i:.

12. -(: =-((( +r-(( r: ·-(( ·((((· (( ·r( ·((|
nai: kami:z pahni: hui: rama: baza:r ja: rahi: thi:.
new shirt wear-perf.ptc Rama market go-prog was
Wearing a new shirt, Rama was going to market.

The perfective adverbial participles are frequently reduplicated.

13. ·(r ·(· +· ·(= - ·(= ·(= ·(·((|
vah ghar par b´the-b´the thak gaya:
he home at sitting-perf.ptc tired went(explicator)
He was tired of sitting at home.

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The perfective participles are used to indicate the passing of time.

14. ¬-(· =( ¬-(·(=( ·( ¬(¤ r¤ :( ·((-( r( ·(¤ r|
amar ko amri:ka: se a:ye hue do sa:l ho gaye h´~.
Amar-dat America from came-perf.ptc two years elapsed are
It has been two years since Amar came from America.

3.4.7.2.3. Conjunctive Participles

Conjunctive participles are used to form sentences in which two
verbal activities share the same subject and one of the activities is a
temporal antecedent of the other. In this construction, the verb of the
first clause is used in the verb stem form and is immediately
followed by kar, while the verb of the subsequent clause takes all
the conjugation markers.

15. ·(r ·(· +r·(=· ·((((· ·(·((|
vah ghar pahũckar ba:za:r gaya:.
he home reach after-cp market went
He went to the market after coming home.

16. .·(-( ¬=·((· +c=· i·(º=( i-(=(|
usne axba:r parh kar citthi: likhi:.
he-erg neewspaper read after-cp letter-fs wrote-fs
He wrote a letter after reading the newspaper.

If the verb =·-(( karna: ‘to do’ appears in the main clause either
independently or as a part of a compound, the form ke is used in
place of =· kar.

17. :+-· =( =(-( ·(-((- =·= ·(r ·(· ·(·((|
daftar ka: ka:m sama:pt karke vah ghar gaya:
office of work finish do-cp he home went
He went home after finishing the office work.
Sometimes the conjunctive clauses are used in the adverbial
sense.

18. ¬-(· :(z=· ¬(·((|
amar dør kar a:ya:.
Amar run do-cp came
Amar came running.
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19. .-(( -(·=·(=· ·(( -(( …
uma: muskara kar boli: …
Uma smile do-cp said
Uma said smilingly …

The conjunctive participle marker kar is also used in certain fixed
expressions.

20. -( i·(((/ =(·( =·= ¬-(· ·( i-(-((|
m´~ višeš/xa:s karke amar se mila:.
I especially do-cp Amar with met
I especially met Amar.

21. ·(r i:--(( r(=· ¬(·((|
vah dilli: ho kar a:ya:.
he Delhi be do-cp came
He came via Delhi.

22. ¤= - ¤= =·= ·(·(( i·(··((·(( ¬(¤|
ek - ek karke sabhhi: vidhya:rthi: a:ye.
one one do-cp all students came
All the students came one by one.

3.5. Adverbs

An adverb may precede an adjective, a verb, and sometimes another
adverb as a qualifier or modifier.

Preceding an adjective
1. ·(r -(·( ·(r- ¬·=( :(·- r|
vah mera: bahut accha: dost h´.
He my very good friend is
He is my very good friend.

Preceding a verb
2. -(·( :(·- ·(( ¬(-( r|
mera: dost roz a:ta: h´.
my friend daily come-ptc is
My friend comes daily.
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Preceding another adverb
3. ·(r =-( ·(r- -( :(z(|
vah kal bahut tez dørha:.
he yesterday very fast ran
He ran very fast yesterday.

3.5.1. Types of Adverbs

Adverbs can be classified by form or function. By function, adverbs
can be grouped into the following subclasses.

(a) Adverbs of time/duration: ¬(( a:j ‘today,’ =-( kal ‘yesterday,’ ·(·(r
subah ‘morning.’

(b) Adverbs of place or direction: ¬:· andar ‘in/inside,’ ·((r· ba:har
‘out/outside.’

(c) Adverbs of manner: ¬(·((-(( ·( a:sa:ni: se ‘easily,’ ·((·-·((· dhi:re-
dhi:re ‘slowly.’

(d) Adverbs of reason: ·(·(·(( = =(·ª( gari:bi: ke ka:ran ‘for the reason
of poverty,’ =-((( ·( = =(·ª( kamzori: ke ka:ran ‘for the reason of
weakness.’

(e) Adverbs of instrument: =-(-( ·( kalam se ‘with pen,’ ·((= ·( ca:ku: se
‘with knife.’

(f) Adverbs of purpose: +c-( = i-(¤ parhne ke liye ‘for reading,’ =(-( =
i-(¤ ka:m ke liye ‘for work.’

(g) Comitative: X -= ·((·( -ke sa:th ‘with/ in the company of X,’ and

(h) Adverbs of degree/intensity: ·(r- bahut ‘very,’ =(=( ka:phi:
‘enough,’ i·(·-(( r( =(: virla: hi: koyi: ‘hardly any,’ -(·(·(·( lagbhag
‘approximately.’

By form, adverbs can be classified into the following subgroups: (a)
basic or non-derived adverbs, (b) derived adverbs, (c) phrasal
adverbs, (d) reduplicated adverbs, and (e) particles.
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(a) The basic or non-derived adverbs may be either pure adverbs like
¬(( a:j ‘today,’ ·(:( sada:/ r-((( hameša: ‘always,’ or may be formed
by adding the postposition se to nouns, adjectives, or adverbs.

4. ·(r r-((( ¬·=( -(r-(- =·-( r|
vah hameša: acchi: mehnat karta: h´.
he always good hard work do-ptc is
He always works very hard.

5. .·(-( ¬+-(( =(-( = (( ·( i=·((|
usne apna: ka:m khuši: se kiya:.
she-erg own work happiness with did
She did her work very happily.

6. -((·( ·( =+· ¬·=( i:=-( r|
ni:ce se u:par accha: dikhta: h´.
below from top good appear is
It looks better at the top than at the bottom.

7. ·((r· ·( ¬:· ¬i·(= =z( r|
ba:har se andar adhik thãda: h´.
outside from inside more cold is
It is colder inside than outside.

8. .·(-( ¤=:-( ·( -(·( r(·( +=z(|
usne ekdam se mera: ha:th pakra:
he-erg at once my hand caught
He caught hold of my hand at once.

9. -(-( :(º ·( .·(=( ·((- -((-( -((|
m´~ne jhat se uski: ba:t ma:n li:.
I-erg at once his talk agreed
I agreed with what he said immediately.

(b) Derived adverbs are formed by adding adverbial suffixes to the
base form of demonstrative, relative, correlative, and interrogative
pronouns. Locative adverbs are formed by adding the -: -ĩ:/ -¬( +· -
ã: par suffixes: ·(r( yahã:/ ·(r( +· yahĩ:(par) ‘here,’ ·(r( vah-ã:/ ·(r(
vahĩ:/ ·(r( r( vahã: hi: ‘there,’ =r( kahã:/ =r( kahĩ: ‘where.’
Directional adverbs are formed by adding the suffix -·( -se/-=( -ki: or
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as in ·(r( ·( yahã: se/:·(· ·( idhar se ‘in this direction,’ ·(r( ·( vahã: se/
·(r( =( ¬(· vahã: ki: or/ .·(· ·( udhar se ‘in that direction’, =r( ·( kahã:
se/ =r( =( ¬(· kahã: ki: or ‘in which direction.’ Manner adverbs are
formed by adding the suffixes --·r tarah/+=(· praka:r as in :·( -·r is
tarah/ :·( +=(· is praka:r ‘in this manner,’ .·( -·r us tarah/ .·( +=(· us
praka:r ‘in that manner,’ i=·( -·r kis tarah ‘in which manner.’

(c) Phrasal adverbs are formed by adding a simple or a compound
postposition to a noun.

10. ·(r -(-( i:-( = ·((:/+·((- ¬(·((|
vah ti:n din ke ba:d/pašca:t a:ya:.
he three days post. after came
He came after three days.

11. .·(-( +c -( ·( +r-( ¬+-(( ¤-(= ·((= =(|
usne patr parhne se pahle apnii ´nak sa:f ki:.
he-erg letter read-inf-obl post before self’s glasses clean did
He cleaned his glasses before reading the letter.

12. r-((· ·(· = +(= ¤= ·(z( +(= r|
hama:re ghar ke pi:che ek bara: pa:rk h´.
our house post. behind a big park is
There is a big park behind our house.

(d) Adverbs can be reduplicated to show intensity and distribution:
·((·- ·((· dhi:re-dhi:re ‘slowly,’ -( - - ( tez- tez ‘fast’, =r(- =r( kahã: -
kahã: ‘where’, =·((- =·(( kabhi: - kabhi: ‘sometimes.’

13. ·(r ·((·- ·((·/ -( - -( ·(-(-( r|
vah dhi:re- dhi:re/tez- tez calta: h´.
he slowly/fast walk-ptc is
He walks slowly/quickly.’

14. +-( -(r( ·(r =r(- =r( ·(·((|
pata: nahĩ: vah kahã: - kahã: gaya:.
aware neg he where where went
One doesn’t know which places did he go to?

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Reduplicated adverbs may be separated by the negative particle na
to express indefiniteness: =·(( -( =·(( kabhi: na kabhi: ‘sometime or
other.’

15. =·(( -( =·(( ·(r ¬+-(( ·(--( -((-(·((|
kabhi: na kabhi: vah apni: galti: ma:nega:.
sometime neg sometime he self’s mistake accept-fut
He will realize his mistake some day.

3.5.2. Expressions of Time

3.5.2.1. General Time Expressions

General time expressions employ nouns in the direct and oblique
cases. The dative sufix =( ko is added to adverbs of time, such as : +r·
duphar ‘noon,’ ((-( ša:m ‘evening,’ ·(- ra:t ‘night,’ i:-( din ‘day,’ =-(
kal ‘tomorrow/yesterday.’

1. ¬(+ : +r· =( ¬(:¤|
a:p duphar ko a:yiye.
you noon dat come-pol
Please come at noon.

2. ·(- =( ¬i·(= ·(-(( -(r( ·r-(|
ra:t ko adhik garmi: nahĩ: rahti:.
night dat more hot neg remain-ptc
It is not very hot during the night.

3.5.2.2. Time of Day

Time of day is expressed by ·(( baje. It is used in reporting time and
not in expressions such as ¤= ·(º = ·((: ek ghante ke ba:d ‘after one
hour.’ In such cases, ·(º( ghanta: ‘hour’ is used in the oblique case
with a postposition.

3. ·(r :+-· ·( :·( ·(( ¬(:|
vah daftar se das baje a:yi:.
she office from ten o’clock came-fs
She came from the office at ten o’clock.
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4. ·(r :( ·(º = ·((: ¬(:|
vah do ghante ke ba:d a:yi:.
she two hour-obl post came-fs
She came after two hours.’

The expressions ‘quarter,’ ‘three-quarters,’ and ‘half an hour’
precede the numerals.

5. ·(r ·(·((/ +(-(/ ·((z ·((· ·(( ·(·((|
vah søa:/pøne/sa:re ca:r baje: gaya:.
he quarter past/quarter to/half past four o’clock went
He went at quarter past/quarter to/half past four.

Expressons indicating minutes before the hour add the dative suffix
to the infinitive of the verb followed by the postposition -( me ‘in’.
The expression =-( kam ‘less’ also is used.

6. ·(r = ·((-( -( :·( i-(-(º +· ¬(·((|
vah che bajne me das minat par a:ya:.
he six o’clock-inf-obl in ten minute at came
He came at ten minutes to six.

6a. ·(r :·( i-(-(º =-( = ·(( ¬(·((|
vah das minat kam che baje a:ya:.
he ten minutes less six o’clock came
He came at ten minutes to six.

Two types of expressions are used to ask for the time.

7. ·(-(·( +·(( r¬(/ r?
samay k’a: hua:/h´?
time what happened/is
What time is it?

7a. i=--( ·(( ·(¤?
kitne baj gaye?
how much strike went
What time is it?
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3.5.2.3. Period of Day

Periods of day are usually expressed by various nouns in the direct
or oblique case with or without postpositions: ·(·(· - ·(·(· savere
(savere) ‘early in the morning,’ ·(- =( ra:t ko ‘during the night’, i:-( -(
din me ‘during the day,’ :· ·( der se ‘late.’ Other frequent
expressions are: +(- =(-( pra:ta: ka:l ‘eary in the morning,’ ·(··((
sandhya: ‘dusk/evening,’ :(+r· dophar ‘noon’, :(+r· = ·((: dophar ke
ba:d ‘afternoon.’

3.5.2.4. Days of the Week

The days of the week are:

·((-(·((· somva:r Monday
-(·(-(·((· mangalva:r Tuesday
·(·(·((· budhva:r Wednesday
·(=·((· guruva:r Thursday
(=·((· šukrva:r Friday
(i-(·((· šaniva:r/šani:car va:r Saturday
·i·(·((·/:-·((· raviva:r/itva:r Sunday

3.5.2.5. Months of the Year

Months are expressed in both indigenous and English forms.

1. Hindi months

·(·((= vaiša:kh April-May
·(= jyešth May-June
¬((c aša:rh June-July
>((·(-( šra:van July-August
·((: bha:dr August-September
¬(i·(-( a:švin September-October
=(i-= ka:rtik October-November
-((·( ma:rg November-December
+(( pøš December-January
-((·( ma:gh January-February
=(-·(-( pha:lgun February-March
·(- caitra March-April
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2. English nativized versions: (-(·(·( janvari:, =··(·( pharvari:, -((·(
ma:rc, ¬i+-( april, -(: mai:, (-( ju:n, ( -(: julay, ¬·(·- agast, i·(--·(·
sitambar, ¬+-(·(· akto:bar, -(·(·(· navambar, i:·(·(· disambar.

3.5.2.6. Year

In Hindi, a reference to a year is usually to the year AD called :··((
i:svi:. Hindus refer to their indigenous calendar as i·(=-(( bikrami or
((= ša:k and Muslims as ir(·( hijiri:. The term ·(-( san used before the
Christian year, is optionally followed by :··(( i:svi:. Similarly, an
indigenous year starts with ·(·(- samvat before the year and ends with
i·(=-(( bikrami.

8. ·(-( .-((·( ·(( ·((= : ··(( -(
san uni:s sø sa:th i:svi: me
year nineteen hundred sixty Christian era in
in the year 1960 AD

9. ·(·(- :( r((· ·((= i·(=-(( -(
samvat do haza:r sa:th bikrami: me
year two thousand sixty Bikrami in
in the year 2060 Bikrami

The terms :·(( +·( i:sa: pu:rv ‘before Christ’ are used to denote BC.

10. :·(( +·( = ·(( ·((
i:sa: pu:rv che sø varš
Christ before six hundred years
six hundred years before Christ

3.5.2.7. Seasons

There are five major seasons: ·(·(- vasant ‘spring,’ ·((-( gri:šm
‘summer,’ ·(··((- barsa:t ‘rainy season’, (·: sharad ‘autumn,’ and
((-=(-( ši:tka:l ‘winter.’ These terms can be followed by?- ritu/ -((·(-(
møsim ‘season’ in both the direct and oblique cases with or without a
postposition.
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11. ·(·(- +=-}-( =-( i=-(- r|
vasant (ritu) me phu:l khilte h´.
spring (season) in flowers bloom-ptc are
Flowers bloom during spring.

3.5.3. Frequentative

Frequentative expressions employ reduplication, an emphatic
particle, or +i- prati/ r· har ‘every’ before a time expression.

·(( ·( ( roz roz every day
+i- i:-( prati din every day
r· ·(º har gante every hour
·(- ·(· ra:t bhar whole night
·(r· +-( har pal every moment

12. ·(r ·(( ·( ( / +i- i:-( +·( -((·(-( r|
vah roz roz/ prati din p´se mã:gta: h´.
he daily/every day money demand-ptc is
He asks for money daily.

3.6. Particles

Particles are generally attached to a particular word in a sentences to
mark emphasis, or contrast. The main particles used in Hindi are: ·((
bhi:, r( hi:, -( to, -= tak, ·(· bhar, and -((| ma:tra. The use of these
particles with different word classes covers a wide range of shades
of meaning and semantic interpretations. Here we will illustrate the
use of these particles with detailed reference to the prominent
particles ·(( bhi: and r( hi:.

3.6.1. The Particle ·(· bhi: ‘also’

The particle ·(( bhi: is used with different types of nouns in the direct
or oblique case. It immediately follows a noun in the direct case and
the postposition in the oblique case.

1. ¬-(· ·(( ·(·((|
amar bhi: gaya:.
Amar part went
Amar also went.
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2. -(z=( ·(( ¬(·((|
larka: bhi: a:ya:.
boy part came
The boy also came.

3. ·(-(( ·(( r |
garmi: bhi: h´.
hot part is
It is hot, too.

In the oblique case, ·(( bhi: is placed immediately after the
postposition following the noun.

4. ¬-(· =( ·(( ((-(( r |
amar ko bhi: ja:na: h´.
Amar-dat part go-inf is
Amar, too, will have to go.

5. -((r-( -( ·(( ·(º( =(:|
mohan ne bhi: roti: kha:yi:.
Mohan-erg part bread ate-fem
Mohan, too, ate his meals.’

6. ·(·(( ·( ·(( ·(--( r: |
radha: se bhi: galti: hui:.
Radha-abl part mistake happened
Radha, too, committed a mistake.

It is to be noted that ·(( bhi: cannot be used between a noun and a
postposition.

7. ·(· -( ·(( ·(-(( r|
ghar mẽ bhi: garmi: h´.
house in part hot is
It is hot in the house as well.

But not
7a. *·(· ·(( -( ·(-(( r|
*ghar bhi: mẽ garmi: h´.
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It is also not used in vocative constructions.

8. *·((r-( ·(( ¬(¬(!
*sohan bhi: ao!
Sohan part come-voc

9. *r -(z= ·((
*he! larke bhi:
oh! boy-voc part

The particle ·(( bhi: can be used with all types of direct and oblique
personal, demonstrative, indefinite, relative, and reflexive pronouns.

10. -(/ -/ ·(r ·(( ¬(·((|
m´~/tu:/vah bhi: a:ya:.
I/you/he part came
I/you/he came too.

11. r-(/ --( / ·( ·(( ¬(¤|
ham/tum/ve bhi: a:ye.
we/you/they part came
We/you/they came too.

12. -(:( / -:( ·(( ((-(( r|
mujhe/tujhe bhi: ja:na: h´.
I/you/he-obl part go-inf aux
I/you, too, have to go.

13. r-(/ ¬(+=( / .-r ·(( ((-(( r |
hamẽ/a:pko/unhẽ bhi: ja:na: h´.
we/you/they-obl part go-inf aux
We/you/they, too, have to go.’

14. -(:(=( / -:(=( / .·(=( ·(( ·((+·( ¬(-(( r|
mujhko/tujhko/usko bhi: va:pas a:na: h´.
I/you/he-obl part go-inf aux
I/you/he, too, will have to return.
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15. ·(r -(·( /--r(·(/ ¬(+=(/ .·(=(/ .-(=( ·(( :(·- r|
vah mera:/tumha:ra:/a:pka:/uska:/unka: bhi: dost h´.
he my/your/his/their friend is part friend is
He is my/your/his/their friend, too.

16. ·(r -(:(·( /--r(· ·(/ ¬(+·(/.·(·(/ .-(·( ·(( ·(z( r|
vah mujhse/tuma:hre se/a:pse/usse/unse bhi: bara: h´.
he me/you/him/they also elder is
He is older than me/you/him/her.

17. .·(/.·(=(/ .-r/.-(=( ·(( ·(-(( -((:¤|
use/usko/unhẽ/unko bhi: bula: la:yie.
he/they part call bring.
Please call him/her/them also.

18. ¬(+ :·(= ·((· -( ·(( == =(i(¤|
a:p iske ba:re mẽ bhi: kuch ki:jiye.
you this-gen about part something do-pl
Please do something for it.

19. ¬(+ i=--(( ·(( =(i(( =(i(¤ ·(=-( -(r( r(·(|
a:p kitni: bhi: košiš ki:jiye, saphal nahĩ: hõge.
you how much part try do success neg be
No matter how much you try, you won’t succeed.

20. ¬(+ -(:( =(: ·(( i=-(·( : :(i(¤|
a:p mujhe koyi: bhi: kita:b de di:jiye.
you me-dat any part book give-pl
Please give me any book.

In the oblique form of the indefinite pronouns, the particle ·(( bhi: is
placed after the postpositions.

21. ¬(+ i=·(( =( ·(( ·( -((:¤|
a:p kisi: ko bhi: bula:iye.
you any-dat part call-pl
Please call anyone.
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Not
21a. *¬(+ i=·(( ·(( =( ·(-((:¤|
*a:p kisi: bhi: ko bula:yie.

The use of the particle ·(( bhi: with the indefinite pronouns =(: koyi:
and == kuch, represent different meanings: =(: ·(( koyi: bhi: ‘anyone,’
== ·(( kuch bhi: ‘anything.’

22. ¬(+ (( ·(( =(-( =·-(( ·((r- r, =· -((i(¤|
a:p jo bhi: ka:m karna: cahte h´~, kar li:jiye.
you any part work want is do take
Whatever work you want to do, go ahead.

23. (·( ·(( ¬(+ ¬(- r , i=-(·( ·((·( -( ¬(- r|
jab bhi: a:p a:te h´~, kita:b sa:th le a:te h´~.
when part you come are book with bring past aux
Whenever you come, bring your book with you.

24. ·(r ¬((+ (·(( ·(( -(r( r|
vah a:p j´sa: bhi: nahĩ: h´~.
he you like part neg is
‘He is not even like you.’

25. ¬(+ i(--(( ·(( +·(( : ·(=- r, : :(i(¤|
a:p jitna: bhi: p´sa: de sakte h´~, de di:jiye.
you as much part money give can give-pl
Whatever money you can give, please give it.

In the oblique case, the particle ·(( bhi: is placed after the
postpositions.

26. i(·(=(/i(-(=( ·(( ((-(( r, ((¬(/ ·(-( ((¤|
jisko/jinko bhi: ja:na h´, ja:o/cale ja:yẽ.
who-dat part go-inf. is go go-subj
Whosoever has to go may leave.

The use of the particle ·(( bhi: with relative pronouns represents
different meanings: (( ·(( jo bhi: ‘whosoever’ or ‘whatsoever,’ (·( ·((
jab bhi: ‘whenever,’ i(--(( ·(( jitna: bhi: ‘whatever.’

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27. ·(r ¬(+ ·(( -(r-(- =·-( r, :·(·( =( ·(( =··((-( r|
vah a:p bhi: mehnat karta: h´, du:srõko bhi: karva:ta: h´.
he self part hard work do is others-obl dat part do-caus is
He works hard himself and makes others work hard too.

28. ¬(+ ¬+-( ¬(+/ ··(·( / ··(-: ·(( ·(r =(-( =· ·(=- r|
a:p apne a:p/svayam/ svatah bhi: yah ka:m kar sakte h´~.
you self part this work do-abl are
You can do this work yourself.

In the case of oblique forms, the particle ·(( bhi: is placed after the
postposition, not between the pronoun and the postposition.

The particle ·(( bhi: is used with different types of adjectives. It
always follows the adjectives.

29. ·(r -(z=( ·(:· ·(( r ¬(· ·(i=-((-( ·((|
vah larki: sundar bhi: h´ ør buddhima:n bhi:.
that girl beautiful part is and intelligent part
That girl is beautiful as well as intelligent.

30. i=--( ·(( -((: · +·(( -( ¬(¤, ·(r =(-( ¬(( -(r( r( ·(=-(|
kitne bhi: mazdu:r kyõ na a:yẽ, yah ka:m a:j nahĩ: ho sakta:.
how much part laborers neg come-subj this work today neg
possible
No matter how many laborers come, this work cannot be
finished today.

31. :·( :=(-( +· i=-(( ·(· ·(( ·((-(( -(r( r |
is duka:n par kilo bhar bhi: ci:ni: nahĩ: h´.
this shop at kilogram about part sugar neg is
There is not even a kilogram of sugar in this shop.

32. =·(( ·(( =(-( r(, ·(r =· -(·((|
k´sa: bhi: ka:m ho, vah kar lega:.
what type part work be he do explicator-fut
No matter what type of work it is, he would be able to do it.

In (29), (30), and (31), the particle ·(( bhi: is merely an emphatic
marker. In (32), however, the expression =·(( ·(( k´sa: bhi: is a
combined phrase meaning ‘any type of.’ If ·(( bhi: is deleted, the
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sentence will be ungrammatical.

The particle ·(( bhi: is used with different forms of the verb r( ho ‘be’
and the auxiliary verb.

33. -((r-( r (·(() i= -(r(?
mohan h´ (bhi:) ki nahĩ:?
Mohan be (part) or neg
Is Mohan there or not?

34. ·(r r(·(( ·(( i= -(r( ?
vah hoga: bhi: ki nahĩ:?
he be-fut part or neg
Will he be there or not?

35. ¬(+ ¬(¤·( ·(( i= -(r(?
a:p a:yẽge bhi: ki nahĩ:?
you come-fut part or neg
Will you come or not?

In the above examples, the particle ·(( bhi: is used for emphasis only.
Barring the progressive forms, the particle ·(( bhi: is used with
different types of verbs.

36. .·(=( ·(· ((-(( ·(( =(= -(r( ·((|
uska: ghar ja:na: bhi: thi:k nahĩ: tha:.
his home go-ing part right neg was
His going home was not good.

37. ·(r =·-( ·((-(( ·(( r ¬(· =··((-( ·((-(( ·((|
vah karne va:la: bhi: h´ ør karva:ne va:la: bhi:.
he do-ing-obl part is and do-caus part
He can do it himself and get it done, too.

38. ·(r :=(-( +· ((-( ·(( r i= -(r(|
vah duka:n par ja:ta: bhi: h´ ki nahĩ:.
he shop at go part is or neg
Does he go to the shop or not?
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39. ¬(+ ¬(¤ ·(( ¬( · ·(-( ·(( ·(¤|
a:p a:ye bhi: ør cale bhi: gaye.
you came part and go-obl part went
You came and have left, too.

40. ¬(+=( ·(r( ·(¤ ·(( ·(r- i:-( r( ·(¤|
a:p ko vahã: gaye bhi: bahut din ho gaye.
you-dat there went-obl part many days passed
It is a long time since you have gone over there.

41. ·(r =( ·(( ·r( r ¬(· ·((- ·(( =· ·r( r|
vah kha: bhi: raha: h´ ør ba:tẽ bhi: kar raha: h´.
he eat part prog is and talk part do-prog is
He is eating as well as talking.

It is to be noted that the particle ·(( bhi: cannot follow the progressive
aspect marker ·r( raha:.

42. ·(r =( ·(( ·r( r|
vah kha: bhi: raha: h´.
he eat part prog is
He has been eating.

Not
42a. *·(r =( ·r( ·(( r |
*vah kha: raha: bhi: h´.

The particle ·(( bhi: can be used with conjunct verbs. It is used either
between the main verb and the operator (auxiliary verb) or following
the main verb and the operator as follows.

43. .·(-( :=( ·(( ·((|
usne dekha: bhi: tha:.
he-erg saw part was
He had seen it.

44. .·( -((-( ·(( :( |
use la:ne bhi: do.
he-abl being-inf-obl part let
Let him bring (it).
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45. ¬·( ((-( ·(( :( |
ab ja:ne bhi: do.
now go-inf-obl part let
Now let it go.

46. -(-( i·(º=( i-(= ·(( :( r|
m´~ne citthi: likh bhi: di: h´.
I-erg letter write part gave (explicator) is
I have written a letter, too.

The particle ·(( bhi: is also used between the main verb and the
negative marker.

47. ·(r ¬(·(( ·(( -(r(|
vah a:ya: bhi: nahĩ:.
he came part neg
He did not even come.

48. ·-(( ·(( ¬(·(( -(r( |
rameš bhi: a:ya: nahĩ:.
Ramesh part came neg
Even Ramesh did not come.

Notice the change of meaning in the use of the particle ·(( bhi:
different from the lexical meaning ‘also’ in the following examples.

49. ·(r .·(= ·(· ·(·(( ·(( -(·(· .·( i-(-( ·(( -( ·(=(|
vah uske ghar gaya: bhi:, magar use mil bhi: na saka:.
he his home went part but he-dat met part neg able
He did go to his house, but could not meet him.

50. ·(r ((¤·(( ·(( ·(( ·( =( r( ·r·((|
vah ja:yega: bhi: ya: b´tha: hi: rahega:.
he go-fut part or sit part remain-fut
Will he go or keep on sitting?

51. ·(r ·(r( ·(·(( ·(( -(r(|
vah vahã: gaya: bhi: nahĩ:.
he came part neg
He did not even go there.
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52. ((-( ·(( :( |
ja:ne bhi: do.
go-inf-obl part let-imp
Let it go.

53. ·r-( ·(( :( |
rahne bhi: do.
remain-inf-obl part let-imp
Let it be.

The particle ·(( bhi: can be used with different types of adverbs.

54. ·(r( ·(( =z r |
yahã: bhi: thãd h´.
here part cold is
It is cold over here, too.

55. ·(r( ·(( :=( |
vahã: bhi: dekho.
there part See-imp
Please look over there, too.

56. i:-( ·(· ·(( ·(r( =(-( -( r¬(|
din bhar bhi: yahã: ka:m na hua:.
day part here work neg be-part
The work could not be done for the whole day over here.

57. +(·( ·(( ·(( ·(¤, ·(r ¬(·(( -(r(|
pã:c bhi: baj gaye, vah a:ya: nahĩ:.
five part struck went he came neg
It is now five o’clock and he has not come.

58. ·((· ·((· ·(( ((-(( =(= -(r( r|
ba:r ba:r bhi: ja:na thi:k nahĩ: h´.
again part go-inf right neg is
It is not good to go time and again.
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59. (·( ·(( r( ·(r ¬( ((¤·((|
j´se bhi: ho vah a: ja:yega:.
somehow part be he com-fut
He will come somehow.

60. ·(r :·(i-(¤ ·(·(( ((·(: +·( i-(-(|
vah isliye bhi: gaya: ša:yad p´se milẽ.
he for this part went perhaps money get-subj
He went in the hope of getting money.

61. -( -( ·(( ((= --( ( =· ((-((|
m´~ na bhi: ja:ũ: tum zaru:r ja:na:.
I neg part go-subj you definitely go-inf-imp
You should go, even if I don’t.

62. =·(( r( ·(( =·(·(?
kabhi: hã: bhi: karoge?
sometime yes part do-fut
Will you ever say yes?

63. ·(r ·(( -(r( =·(·( -( +·(( =·(·(?
yeh bhi: nahĩ: karoge to kya: karoge?
this part neg do-fut part what do-fut
If you are not able to do this much, what else will you do?

The use of the particle ·(( bhi: with different adverbs represents
different meanings: ¬·( ·(( ab bhi: ‘even now’ -·( ·(( tab bhi: ‘even
then,’ ‘even so,’ (·( ·(( jab bhi: ‘whenever,’ (r( ·(( jahã: bhi: ‘where
ever’ =r( ·(( kahĩ: bhi: ‘anywhere,’ (r( =r( ·(( jahã: kahĩ: bhi: ‘in any
place whatsoever,’ i=· ·(( phir bhi: ‘yet’ ‘even so.’

The particle ·(( bhi: is used after certain case markers and /or
postpositions as well.

64. .·(= +(·( ·(( =(-( -(r( r|
uske pa:s bhi: ka:m nahĩ: h´.
he-gen-abl near part work neg is
He, too, doesn’t have work.
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65. :·(= i·(-(( ·(( =(-( r(·((|
iske bina: bhi: ka:m hoga:.
this-gen-obl without part work be-fut
The work can be done even without it.

66. .·(= ·(:-( ·(( =(: -(r( ¬(·((|
uske badle bhi: koyi: nahĩ: a:ya:.
he-gen-obl place part someone neg came
No one came in his place.

The particle ·(( bhi: used with ¬(· ør ‘and’ indicates the meaning of
‘more.’

67. -((-(( ·((z( -( ·(r ¬(· ·(( ·(:· -(·(-( r |
ni:li: sa:ri: mẽ vah ør bhi: sundar lagti: h´.
blue saree in she more beautiful appear-ptc-is
She appears more beautiful in a blue sari.

68. ¬(· ·(( ¬·=( r ¬(|
ør bhi: accha: hua:.
more good happened
It is better still.

From the semantic point of view, ·(( bhi: represents different
meanings depending on its use in different contexts. The meanings
are represented in the following examples.

69. =(-( ¬(·((-( ·(( r ¬(· i:-(·(·+ ·((|
ka:m a:sa:n bhi: h´ ør dilcasp bhi:.
work easy part is and interesting part
The work is easy and interesting, too.

70. ·(r -(· ·((·( ·(( -(-( ·(( -(r(|
vah mere sa:th bolta: bhi: nahĩ:.
he I-poss-obl with speak-ptc part neg
He doesn’t even talk with me.
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71. ((-( ·(( :( |
ja:ne bhi: do.
go-inf-obl part let-imp
Let it go.

72. ·(·( =(º( r i=· ·(( -((=( r|
seb chota: h´ phir bhi: mi:tha: h´.
apple small is even then part sweet is
Despite of being small, the apple is sweet.

73. -(( =( :==· ·(··(( ¬(· ·(( ( (· ·( ·(·((|
mã: ko dekh kar bacca: ør bhi: zor se cila:ya:.
mother-dat see-cp child more part loudly cried
On seeing the mother, the child cried more loudly.

74. .·( == ·(( ·(-(:( -( -(r( ¬(·((|
use kuch bhi: samajh mẽ nahĩ: a:ya:.
he-dat anything understand in neg came
He was not able to understand anything.

In the above sentences, ·(( bhi: represents the general meaning of
‘too,’ ‘even’ and ‘let’ in the sentences (69), (70), and (71)
respectively. In (72), i=· ·(( phir bhi: represents the meaning of ‘even
then.’ In (73), ¬(· ·(( ør bhi: represents the meaning of ‘more,’ and in
(74), == ·(( kuch bhi: represents the meaning of ‘anything.’

The particle ·(( bhi: can be used interchangeably with r( hi: in certain
examples with no change in the meaning.

75. .·( -(·( ·(:((·( i·(-=-( ·(( / r( +·(: -( ¬(·((|
use mera: sujha:v bilkul bhi:/hi: pasand na a:ya:.
he-dat my suggestion exact part like neg came
He did not like my suggestion at all.

In such cases, the use of the particle ·(( bhi: or r( hi: is meant to
emphasize only. Wherever ·(( bhi: adds meaning to the sentence, it
cannot be interchanged with r( hi:.
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76. -((-(( ·((z( -( ·(r ¬(· ·(( ·(:· -(·(-( r |
ni:li: sa:ri: mẽ vah ør bhi: sundar lagti: h´.
blue sari in she more part beautiful appear is
She looks more beautiful in the blue sari.

76a. *-((-(( ·((z( -( ·(r ¬(· r( ·( :· -(·(-( r|
*ni:li: sa:ri: mẽ vah ør hi: sundar lagti: h´.

3.6.2. The particle r( hi:

The particle r( hi: is generally used for emphasis and also in the
sense of ‘exclusiveness’ or ‘alone.’ As indicated above, the particle
r( hi: can be used as an emphatic marker with nouns. It can also be
used with different types of pronouns in both the direct and the
oblique cases: -( r( m´~ hi: ‘I myself,’ - r( tu: hi: ‘thou thyself,’ ¬(+ r(
a:p hi: ‘you yourself,’ =(: r( koi: hi: ‘hardly anyone,’ == r( kuch hi:
‘hardly anything,’ ‘hardly a few.’

1. -( r( ¬(=·((|
m´~ hi: a:ũ:ga:.
I past come-fut
I will come myself.

2. ¬(+ r( ·(-(:¤|
a:p hi: bata:yiye.
you part say
You say (it) yourself.

3. =(: r( ·(r =(-( =· ·(=-( r|
koyi: hi: yah ka:m kar sakta: h´.
any part this work do able-ptc aux
Hardly anyone can do this work.

4. == r( -((·( ¬(¤ ·(|
kuch hi: log a:ye the.
some part people came aux
Hardly a few people had come.

Adding the emphatic particle r( hi: to certain words results in certain
phonological changes.
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(a) ¬·( ab + r( hi: = ¬·(( abhi: just now
-·( tab + r( hi: = -·(( tabhi: just then
·(·( sab + r( hi: = ·(·(( sabhi: all, everybody

When r( hi: is preceded by pronouns in the oblique case, such as :·(
is, .·( us, i=·( kis, and i(·( jis, the r h is elided.

(b) :·( is + r( hi: = :·(( isi: this very
.·( us + r( hi: = .·(( usi: that same
i=·( kis + r( hi: = i=·(( kisi: someone
r( jis + r( hi: = i(·(( jisi: the very one which

The r h is dropped when preceded by -(:( mujh, -:( tujh, ·(r yah, ·(r
vah, or r-( ham.

(c) -(:( mujh + r( hi: = -(:(( mujhi: me myself
-:( tujh + r( hi: = -:(( tujhi: you yourself
·(r yah + r( hi: = ·(r( yahi: this itself
·(r vah + r( hi: = ·(r( vahi: he himself
r-( ham + r( hi: = r-(( hamĩ: we ourselves

In certain cases, exclusiveness is dropped in the preceding word and
the final vowel is nasalized.

·(r( yahã: + r( hi: = ·(r( yahĩ: at this very place
(r( jahã: + r( hi: = r( (r( jahĩ: wherever
·(r( vahã: + r( hi: = ·(r( vahĩ: at that very place
=r( kahã: + r( hi: = =r( kahĩ: somewhere

The emphatic particle r( hi: is frequently used with different types of
pronouns. Its use with reflexive pronouns is quite interesting. Hindi
has only four reflexive pronouns: ¬(+ a:p, its oblique forms ¬+-((
apna: and ¬+-( apne, and a compound of these two ¬+-( ¬(+ apne-a:p
‘by oneself’; ¬(+·( a:pas meaning ‘each other,’ or ‘one another.’
When ¬(+ a:p is followed by r( hi:, it has an adjectival intensifying
force and qualifies a noun or a pronoun which, as a rule, is the
logical subject of the sentences.

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5. -((r-( ¬(+ r( ·(r( ·(·((|
mohan a:p hi: vahã: gaya:.
Mohan self part there went
Mohan went there on his own.

6. -(:( ¬(+ r( ((-(( +z·((|
mujhe a:p hi: ja:na: parega:.
me-dat self part go-inf fall-fut
I shall have to go myself.

7. ·( ¬(+ r( ¬(¤·( |
ve a:p hi: a:yẽge.
they self part come-fut
They themselves will come.

8. ·((-( -( ¬(+ r( ·(r i·(º=( i-(=( r|
šya:m ne a:p hi: yah citthi: likhi: h´.
Shyam-erg self part this letter wrote is
Shyam has himself written this letter.

¬(+ r( a:p hi: sometimes qualifies nouns or pronouns which are not
the logical subjects of the sentences.

9. .·(-( ¬(+ r( ·((r·( -(r( r|
usmẽ a:p hi: sa:has nahĩ: h´.
he in self part courage neg is
He himself has no courage.

10. .·(=( ¬(+ r( i:·((-(( i-(=-( ((¤·((|
uska: a:p hi: diva:la: nikal ja:yega:
he -gen self part bankrupt come go-fut
He will himself become bankrupt.

¬(+ r( a:p hi: can be used as an adverb to mean ‘of one’s own
accord.’

11. ·(r ¬(+ r( ¬·+-(-( ·(·((|
vah a:p hi: aspata:l gaya:.
he self part hospital went
He went to the hospital on his own.

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It is interesting to note the different shades of the meanings of the
particle r( hi: in the following sentences.

12. ¬-(· = ¬(- r( -(( r-( ·(-(( ·(·((|
amar ke a:te hi: mohan cala: gaya:.
Amar-gen-come-ptc part mohan went
As soon as Amar came, Mohan left.

13a. ·(·(( ¬( ·r( ·((|
ra:dha: a: rahi: thi:.
Radha come-prog was-f
Radha was coming.

13b. ·(·(( ¬( r( ·r( ·((|
ra:dha: a: hi: rahi: thi:.
Radha was come-part-prog was-f
Radha was just coming.

14a. -((r-( ((¤·((|
mohan ja:yega:.
Mohan go-fut
Mohan will go.

14b. -((r-( ((¤·(( r(|
mohan ja:yega: hi:.
Mohan go-fut part
Mohan will certainly go.

15a. -( ·(·(( -(r(|
m´~ gaya: nahĩ:.
I went part neg
I did not go.

15b. -( ·(·(( r( -(r( |
m´~ gaya: hi: nahĩ:.
I went part neg
I did not go at all.

16a. ·(r ¬(( ·(·(( r(·((|
vah a:j gaya: hoga:.
he today went be-presumptive
He might have gone today.
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16b. ·(r ¬(( r( ·(·(( r( ·((|
vah a:j hi: gaya: hoga:.
he today part went be-presumptive
He might have gone just today.

17a. ·(r ¬·=( r¬(|
yeh accha: hua:.
this good happened
It is good.

17b. ·(r ¬·=( r( r¬(|
yeh accha: hi: hua:.
this good part happened
It is good (emphatic).

18a. ¬·=( r |
accha: hũ:
good am
I am fine.

18b. ¬·=( r( r|
accha: hi: hũ:.
good part am
I am fine (emphatic).

19a. == ¬( · -(( ( ¬(·((|
kuch ør maza: a:ya:.
some more enjoyment came
It was an extra enjoyment.

19b. == ¬( · r( -((( ¬(·((|
kuch ør hi: maza: a:ya:
some more part enjoyment came
It was quite a different kind of enjoyment.

20. ·(··( -( -··((· +·(( :=(, -··((· r( =(z z(-((|
bacce ne tasvi:r kya: dekhi:, tasvi:r (hi:) pha:r da:li:
child-erg picture what saw picture (emp) tear explicator-past
Instead of seeing it, the child has torn off the picture.
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In sentence (12), the particle r( hi: becomes part of the verb adding
the meaning ‘as soon as.’ In (13b), the particle r( hi: adds the
meaning of ‘just.’ In (14b), the particle r( hi: adds the meaning
‘certainly.’ In (15b), it adds the meaning ‘at all.’ In (16b) and (17b),
it makes the adjectives emphatic. By adding the particle r( hi: to = =
¬(· kuch ør in sentence (19b), it gives the meaning ‘different kind
of.’ Thus, besides its use for emphasis, the particle r( hi: adds
different shades of meaning depending on its use.

3.6.3. The Particle -( to

The particle -( to is mostly used as an emphatic marker and also
denotes contrast.

1. ·(r ¬(·(( -( r|
vah a:ya: to h´.
he came part is
He has come indeed.

2. .·( ¬:· ¬(-( -( :(|
use andar a:ne to do.
he-dat inside come-inf+obl part let
Let him come inside.

3. -((-(·(-( -( i-(-((, i:·((·(-((: -(r(|
mombati: to mili:, diya:sala:yi: nahĩ:.
candle part found match-box neg
The candle was found, (but) not the matchbox.

4. ·(r .·(= +(·( -( ·(·((, +· ·((-(( -(r( |
vah uske pa:s to gaya:, par bola: nahĩ:.
he he-gen+obl near part went but said neg
He did go near him, but did not speak.

The particle to is also added to the negative marker -(r( nahĩ:. The
phrase -(r( -( nahĩ: to has several uses including as an emphatic
negative reply denoting ‘surprise’ or ‘disapproval.’

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5. ¬(+ ¬(·(·( ·(¤ ·(?
a:p a:gra: gaye the?
you Agra went were
Did you go to Agra?

5a. -(r( -(|
nahĩ: to.
neg part
Not really/Not at all.

As a coordinate conjunction, -(r( -( nahĩ: to means ‘otherwise.’

6. -( ·(-((, -(r( -( ·((z( =º ((¤·((|
tez calo, nahĩ: to ga:ri: chu:t ja:yegi:.
Fast walk neg part train miss-fut
Walk fast, otherwise you will miss the train.

Another use in combination with the particle ·(( bhi: indicates ‘yet,
even so.’

7. ¬·(· ·(r =r·(( ·((, -( ·(( -( .·(= ·((·( -(r( ((=·((|
agar vah kahega: bhi:, to bhi: m´~ uske sa:th nahĩ: ja:ũ:ga:.
If he say-fut part part ĩ he-gen-obl with neg go-fut
Even if he says so, I will not go with him.

In sentence (7), -( ·(( to bhi: can be replaced by i=· ·(( phir bhi: ‘even
so, yet.’ In its adverbial use, -( to is a correlative of (·( jab ‘when’ or
of ·(i: yadi ‘if’ and it signifies ‘then.’

8. (·( .·( -((-( -( r¬(, -( ·(r ·(-( -(·((|
jab use ma:lu:m hua, to vah rone laga:.
when he-dat know be-past part he cry-inf-obl starts
When he came to know, (then) he began to cry.

8a. ·(i: --( ·(· ·(¤ -( +=-(¬(·( |
yadi tum ghar gaye to pachta:oge.
if you home went part repent-fut
If you go to your home, (then) you will repent.

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3.6.4. The Particle -= tak ‘up to’

The particle -= tak has two primary meanings: as the limited particle
‘even’ and as the postposition ‘up to.’

1. .·(-( -(· -= -(r( ·(((|
usne ta:r tak nahĩ: bheja:.
he-erg wire part neg sent
He did not even send a telegram.

2. .·(-( -(·( ·((- -= -(r( ·(-((|
usne meri: ba:t tak nahĩ: suni:.
he-erg my talk part neg listened
He did not even listen to what I said.

As a postposition, -= tak is used in the sense of ‘up to’ or ‘until.’

3. ·(r =-( -= (=· ¬(¤·((|
vah kal tak zaru:r a:yega:.
he tomorrow part definitely come-fut
He will come by tomorrow definitely.

4. ·(r =-( -= +·(( -((º(¤·((|
vah kal tak p´sa: løta:yega:.
he tomorrow part money return-fut
He will return the money by tomorrow.

5. ·(r( +r·(-( -= :( i:-( -(·(·( |
vahã: pahũcne tak do din lagẽge.
there reach-inf-obl part two days take-fut
It will take two days to reach there.

6. (·( -= ¬(+ ¬(n( -(r( :·( -( -(r( ((=·((|
jab tak a:p a:gya: nahĩ: dẽge, m´~ nahĩ: ja:ũ:ga:.
when part you permission neg give-fut I neg go-fut
Until you permit me, I will not go.

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3.6.5. The Particle ·(· bhar

The particle ·(· bhar denotes the meaning of ‘measuring a …,’
‘weighing a…,’ ‘a…ful,’ etc. In this meaning, it acts like a suffix,
forming the adjectives from nouns. Unlike the English suffix -full, it
is a separate word which can be attached to nouns, adjectives, verbs,
and other parts of speech.

1. -((º· ·(· =+z( : :(i(¤|
mi:tar bhar kapra: de di:jiye.
meter part cloth give-fut
Please give (a piece of ) cloth measuring a meter.

2. ·(r i=-(( ·(· : ·( ¤= ·((· +( ·(=-( r |
vah kilo bhar du:dh ek ba:r pi: sakta: h´.
he kilogram part milk one time drink able-ptc aux
He can drink a kilogram of milk at a time.

3. ·(· -( -(º=( ·(· ·((·(-( -(r( r|
ghar mẽ mutthi: bhar ca:val nahĩ: h´.
home in handful part rice neg is
There is not even a handful of rice in the house.

As a particle, ·(· bhar denotes the meanings ‘the entire…,’ ‘the
whole…, ‘only,’ and ‘just.’

4. :( ·(· -( ·( -((·( r( ·r r |
deš bhar mẽ cuna:v ho rahe h´~.
country part in election be prog are
The elections are being held throughout the entire country.

5. ·(r i:-( ·(· ·((·(( ·r(|
vah din bhar soya: raha:.
he day part slept remained
He slept for the whole day.

6. .·(-( +-( ·(· ·(( ¬(·(-( -(r( i=·((|
usne pal bhar bhi: a:ra:m nah´~ kiya:.
he-erg moment part rest neg did
He did not rest even for a moment.

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7. ·(· ·(· -( ·(··( ((· =·- ·r |
ghar bhar mẽ bacce šor karte rahe.
home part in children noise do-pr remained
The children made noise throughout the entire house.’

8. ¬(+ :=- ·(· r(, =·(:- -(r(|
a:p dekhte bhar ho, khari:dte nahĩ:.
you see-pr part be purchase-pr neg
You only look but do not purchase.

Notice that in sentence (8), ·(· bhar can be replaced by the particle r(
hi:.

3.6.6. The Particle -((| ma:tr

The particle -((| ma:tr is borrowed from Sanskrit and means ‘only’ or
‘whole.’ In Sanskrit, it is used as a suffix and is attached to nouns.

i·(··(( vidhya: + -((| ma:tr = i·(··((-((| vidhya:ma:tr only learning
+-( pal + -((| ma:tr = +-(-((| palma:tr only a moment
-((-(·( ma:nav + -((| ma:tr = -((-(·(-((| ma:navma:tr all of humanity

In Hindi, the particle -((| ma:tr is an equivalent of =·(-( keval or r( hi:
‘only,’ ‘alone.’ It is also used as a separate word.

1. ¬(+ i=-(·( -((| :(i(¤|
a:p kita:b ma:tr di:jiye.
You book part give-fut
Please give only the book.

1a. ¬(+ =·(-( i=-(·( :(i(¤|
a:p keval kita:b di:jiye.
Please give only the book.

1b. ¬(+ i=-(·( r( :(i(¤|
a:p kita:b hi: di:jiye.
Please give just the book.

2. -(:( ·(( =+¤ -((| :(i(¤|
mujhe sø rupaye ma:tr di:jiye.
me hundred rupees part give-fut
Please give me a hundred rupees only.
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2a. -(:( -((| ·(( =+¤ :(i(¤|
mujhe ma:tr sø rupaye di:jiye.

2b. -(:( =·(-( ·(( =+¤ :(i(¤|
mujhe keval sø rupaye di:jiye.

The particle ·(· ma:tr can also be used in the initial position in
sentences. It can be replaced by ·(· keval as in (3a).

3. -((| .·(-( ·(r =(-( -(r( i=·((|
ma:tra usne yah ka:m nahĩ: kiya:.
part he-erg this work neg did
He was the only one not to do this work.

3a. =·(-( .·(-( ·(r =(-( -(r( i=·((|
keval usne yah ka:m nahĩ: kiya:.

To sum up, the use of various particles in Hindi is important from a
semantic point of view. Besides their use as emphatic markers, they
cover a wide range of meanings and further shades of meanings
when used in combination with various word classes. They are
frequently used in different dialects and styles of speech in Hindi.

3.7. Connectives

Connectives are words that join two elements.

¬(· ør and ·(( ya: or
-(i=-( lekin but i= ki that
-(·(· magar but ·(i-= balki rather
·(-(( varna: otherwise :·( i-(¤ isi: liye that is why, therefore
+·((i= kyõki because -(i= ta:ki so that
¬·(· agar ‘if’ r(-((i= ha:lã:ki ‘though’

Structurally, connectives are divided into three classes: (i) mono-
morphemic, (ii) poly-morphemic, and (iii) phrasal.
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3.7.1. Mono-morphemic

Mono-morphemic is composed of only one morpheme.

1. -( ·(· ·(·(( ¬( · ¬-(· ·((((· ·(·((|
m´~ ghar gaya: ør amar ba:za:r gaya:.
I house went and Amar market went
I went home and Amar went to the market.

2. --( :·(· ¬(¬(·( ·(( -( .·(· ¬(=·((|
tum idhar a:oge ya: m´~ udhar a:ũ:ga:.
you here come-fut or I there come-fut
You will come here or I will come there.

3.7.2. Poly-morphemic

Poly-morphemics are composed of two or more morphemes.

3. -( ¬(( =(-( ( -(r( ·(·((, +·((i= -(·( -·((·(- =(= -(r( r|
m´~ a:j ka:lej nahĩ: gaya: kyũki meri: tabiyat thi:k nahĩ:h´.
I today college neg went because my health right neg be
Today I didn’t go to college because I am not well.

4. .·(-( =(-(( -(r( =(·((, :·(i-(¤ -(-( ·(( -(r( =(·((|
usne kha:na: nahĩ: kha:ya:, is liye m´~ne bhi: nahĩ: kha:ya:.
He food neg ate for that I part neg eat
He did’t eat the food, therefore I also didn’t eat.

3.7.3. Phrasal

Phrasals consist of two elements interrupted by intervening words,
such as ¬·(· agar … -( to ‘if … then.’

5. ¬·(· --( =r( -( -( ¬(=·((|
agar tum kaho to m´~ a:ũga:.
If you say-fut then I come-fut
If you say so then I will come.

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3.8. Interjections

Interjections express some emotions such as pain, pleasure, anger,
surprise, and disgust. An interjection is in the vocative case and has
no grammatical relation with any other word in the sentence. In
Hindi, interjections are used as independent words or they can be
prefixed to nouns.

r ·(·(·((-(! he bhagva:n! O God!
¬( -(z=! o larke! O boy!

Surprise is expressed by: ¬( r oh! ¬· are! ¬(r( oho! +·(( kya:!

1. ¬(r / ¬· / ¬(r( / +·(( --( ¬( ·(¤!
oh/are/oho/kya: tum a: gaye!
o/what you came
O you came!

Applause is expressed by: ·((r va:h! =·( khu:b! ((·((( ša:ba:š!

2. ·((r / =·( / ((·((( ·(º --(-( ¬·=( =(-( i=·((!
va:h/khu:b/ša:ba:š bete tumne accha: ka:m kiya:!
oh son-voc you-erg good work did
Oh (my) son, you have done good work!

Sorrow or grief is expressed by: r(·( ha:y! r( ha:! ¬r( a:h! .= uph!
¬=·((·( afsos!

3. r(·( / r( / ¬(r /.= /¬=·((·( ·(r +·(( r¬(!
ha:y/ha:/a:h/uph/afsos yah kya: hua:!
alas this what happened
Alas what happened!

Joy is expressed by: ¬(r( a:ha:! ¬r( aha:! ·((r ·((r va:h - va:h!

4. ¬(r( / ¬r( / ·((r - ·((r +·(( ·(:· (·(r r!
a:ha:/aha:/va:h-va:h kya: sundar jaga:h h´!
oh what beautiful place is
Oh what a beautiful place!

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Disgust or disapproval is expressed by: =( chi: (=( chi:)! ·( thu:!
i·(+=(· dhikka:r!

5. =( ( =( )/ ·( / i·(+=(· i=--(( ·(:( r !
chi: (chi:)/thu:/dikka:r kitna: ganda: h´!
shame, how dirty is
Shame, how dirty it is!

Distress is expressed by: r(·( · ha:y re!

6. r(·( · -( -(º ·(·((!
ha:y re m´~ lut gaya:
oh I rob went(explicator)
Oh I am robbed (of everything)!

Certain nouns, pronouns, adjectives and verbs are used as
interjections.

7. ·(-( ·(-( ra:m ra:m! (expresses sympathy or disapproval)
8. ·((+ · ·((+ ba:p re ba:p! (expresses surprise or distress)
9. ¬·=( accha:! (expresses surprise)
10. +·(( kya:! (expresses surprise)
11. (( -(· ja: mar! (expresses rebuke)

Some interjections can be used as nouns.

12. +·(( r(·( r(·( =· ·r r(?
kyõ ha:y ha:y kar rahe ho?
why expression of ditress do-prp be
Why are you raising the hue and cry?

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4. Syntax

4.1. Structure of Phrases

4.1.1. Noun Phrase

A noun phrase is defined as a nominal head preceded by one or
more modifiers. It also serves as a nucleus of a postpositional
phrase. It may function as a subject or object (indirect or direct)
predicative complement or as a direct object of a postposition. A
noun or a pronoun can be the minimum constituent of a noun phrase.
A nominal may be modified by a variety of modifiers such as
adjectives, quantifiers, numerals, emphatic markers, limiters and
comparative, equative, and superlative markers.

Attributive adjectives immediately precede a nominal head as a
modifier, e.g., -(·(( =(º naya: kot ‘new coat’ and ·(:· -(z=( sundar larki:
‘beautiful girl.’ Possessive adjectives precede the head noun as
modifiers in noun phrases. They may or may not also be preceded
by an appropriate form of the genitive postposition =( ka:/ = ke/ =(
ki: agreeing in gender and number with the object noun.

1. ¬((- =( ·(z( ·(º( ¬(·((|
aji:t ka: bara: beta: a:ya:.
Ajit-gen-ms elder son came
Ajit’s elder son came.

2. ¬((- = :( i-(| ¬(¤|
aji:t ke do mitr a:ye
Ajit-gen-mpl two friends came
Ajit’s two friends came.

3. -((r-( =( =(º( ·(º( ·(:· r |
mohan ki: choti: beti: sundar h´..
Mohan-gen-f younger daughter beautiful is
Mohan’s younger daughter is beautiful.

4. -((r-( =( =(º( ·(iº·(( (( ·r( r |
mohan ki: choti: betiyã: ja rahi: h´~.
Mohan-gen-fpl small daughters go-prog are
Mohan’s younger daughters are going.
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There is no distinct category of articles used in Hindi. The concept
of definiteness and indefiniteness is expressed indirectly by means
of pronouns, and the numeral ¤= ek ‘one.’

5. =(: ¤= -(z=(
koi:/ek larka:
some /a/one boy

6. ·(r/·(r ·(··((
yah/vah bacca:
this/that child

The numeral ¤= ek and the indefinite pronoun =(: koi: ‘some(one)’
are used in place of an indefinite article. A definite determiner
involves either a demonstrative/personal pronoun or a zero marking
as given in (6). It is only the context which disambiguates the
potential ambiguity present in the above two sentences.

Besides determiners, a noun may be preceded by quantifiers and
numerals in the form of (i) approximate/ordinal (e.g., -(·(·(·( lagbhag
‘about,’ =·(·( kari:b ‘almost,’ =·(-( keval ‘only,’ +r-(( pahla: ‘first’, :·(·(
du:sra: ‘second’, -(·(·( ti:sra: ‘third’, ·((·(( cautha: ‘fourth’), (ii)
cardinal/ multiplicative/fraction (e.g., ¤= ek ‘one,’ :( do ‘two,’ :·(-((
dugna: ‘twice,’ i-·(-(( tigna: ‘three-fold,’ ¬(·(( a:dha: ‘half’, -(·(·( ·((·(
ti:sra: bha:g/ ir·(( hisa: ‘one-third’, ·((·(( ·((·( cøtha: bha:g/ir·(( hisa:
‘one-fourth,’), and (iii) collective/measure (e.g., ((z( jori: ‘pair’, :(-(
darjan ‘dozen,’ i=-(( kilo ‘kilogram,’ ¬(·(( i=-(( a:dha: kilo ‘half a
kilogram’).

Definite + Cardinal + Noun

7. ·( ·((· =-((( ¬·=( r|
ye ca:r kami:zẽ acchi: h´~
these four shirts good are
These four shirts are good.

Definite + Ordinal + Noun

8. +r-(( ·(··(( r-((( -(((-(( r(-( r |
pahla: bacca: hameša: lajji:la: hota: h´.
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first child always shy be-ptc
The first child is always shy.

Definite + Ordinal + Cardinal + Noun

9. ·( +r-( :( -(= =+-( ·((··( r|
ye pahle do lekh chapne yogya h´.~
these first two essays print-inf-obl suitable are
These first two essays are worth publishing.

Definite + Cardinal + Collective

10. ·( -(-( :( -( ¬z -(( r |
ye ti:n darjan ãde ta:ze h´.~
these three dozen eggs fresh are
These three dozen eggs are fresh.

Definite + Cardinal + Measure

11. ·( +(·( ·((i··(( ·((·(-( i+=-( ·((-( =( r |
ve pã:c boriyã: ca:val pichle sa:l ki: h´~.
those five sacks rice last year gen-fp are
Those five sacks of rice are last year’s.

Definite + Ordinal + Fractional + Measure

12. ·(r :·(·( ·((-(( ¬(·(( i=-(( ·((·(-( =(= -(r( r|
yah du:sra:(va:la:) a:dha: kilo ca:val thi:k nahĩ: h´.
this second half kilogram rice good not is
This second half kilogram of rice is not good.

Notice that quantifiers such as ·((· sa:re/ --((-( tama:m ‘all’ follow a
head noun when the head noun is a pronoun.

13. ·( ·(·(( i=-(·( -(-( +c( r|
ye sabhi: kita:bẽ m´~ne parhi: h´~.
these all books I-erg read-past-fp are
I have read all these books.

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14. r-( ·((· i-(((- ·((·( ·(· =·-( ((¤·( |
ham sa:re niša:t ba:g s´r karne ja:yẽge.
we all Nishat Bagh walk do-inf-abl go-fut
All of us will go for a walk to Nishat Bagh.

Limiters such as i·(= sirf/ =·(-( keval/ ‘only’ precede the head noun,
whereas emphatic particles -r( -hi: ‘only’ and ·(( bhi: ‘also’ follow
the head noun.

15. =·(-( ·( +r-( :( ·(··( :i--r(-( -( ·(=|
keval ye pahle do bacce imtiha:n mẽ b´the.
only these first two children exam in sat
Only these two children appeared in the examination.

16. =·(-( ·(··(( r( ·((( (· ¬(·((|
keval bacca: hi: ba:za:r a:ya:.
only child-limiter market came
Only the child came to the market.

17. -(( ·(( ¬(: ¬(· ·(··(( ·((|
mã: bhi: a:yi: ør bacca: bhi:.
mother also came and child too
The mother came and so did the child.

Comparative, superlative and equative structures are formed by
adding certain morphological forms after the head noun. The
comparatives are formed by adding se after adding the ablative case
markers to the genitive forms of the head noun.

18. -((·( ·(-((-( ·( ·(i=-((-( r|
neeraj suni:l se buddhima:n h´.
Neeraj Sunil than intelligent is
Neeraj is more intelligent than Sunil.

19. ·(r -(· ·( -(( º( r |
vah mere se mota: h´.
he is me-gen-abl than fat is
He is fatter than me.

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Superlatives are formed by adding ·(·(·( sab se before the head noun.

20. ·(·(·( -(·(( -(z=( =(-( r?
sabse lamba: larka: køn h´?
superlative tall boy who is
Who is the tallest boy?

21. ¬((- +-((·( -( ·(·(·( =(º( r|
aji:t kala:s mẽ sab se chota: h´.
Ajit class in superlative young is
Ajit is the youngest of all in the class.

Equative structures are formed by adding a form of (·(( j´sa:/ ( ·(
j´se/(·(( j´si: ‘like’ that agrees with the head noun in gender and
number.

22. ¬((- ¬-(· (·(( ·((-((= r|
aji:t amar j´sa: ca:la:k h´.
Ajit Amar like clever is
Ajit is as clever as Amar.

23. r-( .-( (·( ·((-((= -(r( r |
ham un j´se ca:la:k nahĩ: h´~.
we they like clever not are
We are not as clever as they are.

24. ((-(( .-(( (·(( ·((·( -(r( r|
ši:la: uma: j´si: gori: nahĩ: h´.
Shiela Uma like fair complexioned neg is
Shiela is not as fair-complexioned as Uma.

25. ·( ·(·( .-( ·(·(( (·( -((= r|
ye seb un sebõ j´se mi:the h´~.
these apples those apples like delicious are
These apples are as delicious as those ones are.

4. SYNTAX
170

The terms ¤= (·( ek j´se/ ( ·(( j´si: ‘as good as/alike’ are also used in
equative expressions.

26. ·( :( ·((: ¤= (·( r|
ye do bha:i: ek j´se h´~.
these two brothers alike are
These two brothers are alike.

27. ·( ·(r-( ¤= (·(( r |
ye bahnẽ ek j´si: h´~.
these sisters alike are
These sisters are alike.

There are certain co-occurrence restrictions. Indefinite determiners
do not co-occur with ordinals. Similarly, the multiplicatives do not
co-occur with collective or measure quantifiers. There are other
usage constraints on modifiers. For example, the combination of
indefinite determiners and cardinal quantifiers is possible; the
combination of an indefinite determiner and a demonstrative
pronoun in not allowed.

28. =(: ·(··(( ·(r =(-( -(r( =· ·(=-(|
koi: bacca: yah ka:m nahĩ: kar sakta:.
some/any(one) child this work neg do can-ptc
No child can do this work.

28a. *=(: ·(r ·(··(( ·(r =(-( -(r( =· ·(=-(|
*koi: vah bacca: yah ka:m nahĩ: kar sakta:.

Similarly, the combination of multiplicative and collective
quantifiers do not yield well-formed sentences.

29. *:·(-(( ((z( :·-(-((
*dugna: jori: dasta:na:
twice pair gloves

As mentioned above, emphatic particles and limiters follow head
nouns. All other constituents precede the head noun they modify.
There is a flexibility in the word order of the preceding modifiers as
illustrated below.

4. SYNTAX
171

Demonstrative - possessive - quantifier - adjective - head noun

30. ·( -(· ·((· ¬·= i-(|
ye mere sa:re acche mitr
these my all good friends
all these good friends of mine

Possessive - demonstrative - quantifier - adverbial - adjective - noun

30a. -(· ·( ·((· ·(r- ¬·= i-(|
mere ye sa:re bahut acche mitr
my these all very good friends
all these very good friends of mine

Demonstrative - quantifier - possessive - adverbial -adjective - noun

30b. ·( ·((· -( · ·(r- ¬·= i-(|
ye sa:re mere bahut acche mitr
these all my very good friends

Possessive - quantifier - demonstrative - adverbial -adjective - noun

30c. -(· ·((· ·( ·(r- ¬·= i-(|
mere sa:re ye bahut acche mitr
my all these very good friends

Quantifier - demonstrative - possessive - adverbial -adjective - noun

30d. ·((· ·( -( · ·(r- ¬·= i-(|
sa:re ye mere bahut acche mitr

The word order constraint for adverbs and adjective is quite strict.
The word order of the constituents of demonstrative, possessive and
quantifier appear quite flexible.

4.1.2. Postpositional Phrases

A postpositional phrase is defined as a noun phrase followed by an
oblique case marker and a postposition. Time adverbials take case
markers as well as postpositions.

4. SYNTAX
172

1. ·(r ·(·(· ·(· ·( ¬(·((|
vah savere ghar se a:ya:.
he morning-obl home from came
He came in the morning from home.

1a. *·(r ·(·(·( ¬(·(( +·(· ·(}
*vah savera: a:ya: (ghar se).

2. ¬((- ((-( =( =(-( =·-( r|
aji:t ša:m ko ka:m karta: h´.
Ajit is evening-obl work do-ptc is
Ajit works in the evening.

2a. *¬((- ((-( =(-( =·-( r|
*aji:t ša:m ka:m karta: h´.

3. .·(-( i:-( =( = = -(r( =(·((|
usne din ko kuch nahĩ: kha:ya:.
he-erg day-obl for nothing neg ate
He didn’t eat anything during the day.

4. .·(-( i:-( ·(· = = -(r( =(·((|
usne din bhar kuch nahĩ: kha:ya:.
he-erg day for nothing neg ate
He didn’t eat anything for the whole day.

5. ·(r ·(·(· ·( ((-( -= =(-( =·-( r|
vah savere se ša:m tak ka:m karta: h´.
he morning-obl from evening up to work do-ptc is
He works from morning till evening.

The use of the direct forms of the time adverbials ·(·(·( savera: and
((-( ša:m in sentences (1a) and (2a) make them ungrammatical.

A postposition may be added to simple or compound noun phrases
that consist of more than one element.

6. r-((· :+-· ·(
hama:re daftar se
our-obl office from
from our office
4. SYNTAX
173

7. -(=(-( = :··((( ·(
maka:n ke darva:ze se
house of door-obl from
from the door of the house

Notice that the presence of a postposition changes all the elements
of the compound noun phrase from direct to oblique by adding the
oblique case markers.

There are a limited number of compound postpositions used in Hindi
such as ¬(·( a:ge/ +(= =( ¬( · pi:che ki: or ‘in front/back of’, and :(:
da:ĩ:/ ·((: ¬(· ba:ĩ: or ‘towards right/left’. All these are directional.
The first element indicates the direction, and is followed by the
postpositional form =( ¬(· ki: or ‘toward’. They are always used after
the oblique noun. Notice that a free postposition without an
argument functions as an adverb.

It is possible to modify postpositions by using a limiter -= tak ‘up
to/till,’ or a particle r( hi: ‘only.’

8. ·(r ((-( -= +r·(·((|
vah ša:m tak pahũcega:.
he evening up to reach-m
He will reach by evening.

9. --( i=-(·( -(( +· r( ·=(|
tum kita:b mez par hi: rakho.
you book table on emp keep
You just keep the book on the table.

4.1.3. Adjectival Phrases

Adjective phrases are of two types: simple and complex. Simple
adjectives may also be divided into basic and derived adjectives.
The derived adjectives are derived from other word classes such as
nouns. The examples of basic adjectives are: ¬·=( accha: ‘good,’ -(·((
lamba: ‘long,’ ·((= sa:f ‘clean,’ etc. Derived adjectives are derived
from nouns:
4. SYNTAX
174


-(r-(- mehnat hard
work
+ : i: = -(r-(-( mehnati: hard worker
ir--(- himmat courage + : i: = ir--(-( himmati: courageous
:(c( da:rhi: beard + ·((-((
va:la:
= :(c( ·((-(( da:r hi: va:la:
bearded

Adjectives may also be derived from adverbs:

+(= pi:che behind + -(( la: = i+=-(( pichla: last
-((:(= nazdi:k near + : i = -((:(=( nazdi:ki: close one

The use of the forms of ·((-(( va:la: and genitive markers =( ka:/ = ke/
=( ki: are frequently employed in the derivation of adjectives. Their
forms agree with the following noun in number and and gender as
follows:

Masculine Feminine
Sg Pl Sg Pl
·((-(( va:la: ·((-( va:le ·((-(( va:li: ·((-(( va:li:
-=( ka: -= ke -=( ki: -=( ki:

1. i:--(( ·((-(( :=(-(:(·
dilli: va:la: duka:nda:r
Delhi of shopkeeper
the shopkeeper from Delhi

2. :· =( i·(-:(·
du:r ka: rišteda:r
distance of relative
a distant relative

Complex adjectives are finite (full relative clauses) as well as non-
finite (participle used as adjectives). Adjectives usually precede the
nouns they modify.

It is difficult to define adjective phrases because adjectives are not
distinguished morphologically from nouns. However, it is possible
to distinguish an adjectival phrase from a noun phrase because: (1)
the semantics of adjectives is quite distinct from that of nouns; (2)
an adjective phrase functions as a modifier for a substantive; (3)
4. SYNTAX
175

some adjectives are bound forms and their surface form is
determined by the number and gender of a following noun. In nouns
the gender is marked inherently; (4) adjectives usually precede a
head noun and occur in the attributive position. The word order of
adjectives with respect to other constituents of an adjective phrase is
as follows: determiner - quantifier - adjective - noun.

3. ·( :( -(·(( =-(((
ye do lambi: kami:zẽ
these-f two long-fp shirts
these two long shirts

There are two types of adjectives: those which do not take a
complement, and those which do take a complement. Adjectives like
-(-(( m´la: dirty do not take a complement, whereas adjectives like
-·((· taya:r ready do take it. The latter type of adjectives with their
complements occurs attributively.

4. =+z ·((-( = i-(¤ -·((· -(z=(
kapre dhone ke liye t´ya:r larka:
clothes wash-inf-obl for ready boy
the boy who is ready to wash clothes

4a. *-·((· -(z=(
*t´ya:r larka:

4b. -(z=( -·((· r|
larka: t´ya:r h´.
The boy is ready.

Adjectives can be either stative (¬·=( accha: good, ·(:· sundar
beautiful) or non-stative (+·(--( prasann ‘happy’, -((·(( na:ra:z
‘angry’).

The adverbs of degree in their basic form can serve as modifiers of
adjectives.

5a. ·(r ·(r- ·(z(/=(º( +z r|
yeh bahut bara:/chota: per h´.
this very big/ small tree is
This is a very big/small tree.
4. SYNTAX
176

The marker –r( -hi: can be added to adverbs of degree for
intensification of meaning.

5b. ·(r ·(r- r( ·(z(/=( º( +z r |
yeh bahut hi: bara:/chota: per h´
This is a very big/small tree.

4.1.4. Adverbial Phrases

Phrasal adverbs are formed by adding a simple or a compound
postposition to a noun.

1. -(-( -(r(-( = ·((:
ti:n mahi:ne ke ba:d
three month-obl after
after three months

2. +c-( ·( +r-(
parhne se pahle
read-inf-obl before
before reading

3. :=(-( = +(=
duka:n ke pi:che
shop-obl back side
in the back of the shop

Adverbs are reduplicated to show intensity and distribution.

4. ¬(+ =r( =r( ·(¤?
a:p kahã: kahã: gaye?
you-p where where went
Which places did you visit?

5. ·(r =·( =·( ¬-(+i··(- ·r(?
vah kab kab anupasthit rahi:?
she when absent remained-fs
On which dates did she remain absent?

4. SYNTAX
177

6. ·(r =·(( =·(( ·(r( ¬(-( r|
vah kabhi: kabhi: yahã: a:ta: h´.
he sometimes here come-ptc is
He comes here sometimes.

Reduplicated adverbs may be separated by the negative particle -( na
as in the phrases =·(( -( =·(( kabhi: na kabhi: ‘sometime or other’. This
category of adverbials expresses indefiniteness.

7. ·(r =·(( -( =·(( ( =· ¬(¤·((|
vah kabhi: na kabhi: zaru:r a:yega:.
he sometime neg sometime definitely come-fut
He will come sometime or other.

The emphatic particle r( hi: can occur with an adverb or a noun to
render an adverbial reading.

8. ·(r =·(-( ·(-(·( r( -(º =·-( r|
vah keval samay hi: našt karta: h´.
he is only time-emp waste do-ptc is
He merely wastes time.

9. ¬-(· r( ¬(¤·(( -((r-( -(r( ¬(¤·((|
amar hi: a:yega: mohan nahĩ: a:yega:.
Amar-emp come-fut Mohan neg come-fut
Only Amar will come, not Mohan.

Various case markers and postpositions are employed with a noun to
render an adverbial reading, for example, ·(·(· savere ‘in the
morning’, :(·((· +· di:va:r par ‘on the wall’, ·(· ·( ghar se ‘from the
house’, and ·((= ·( ca:ku: se ‘with the knife’.

10. ·(r ·(·(· (-:( :+-· ((-( r|
vah savere jaldi: daftar ja:ta: h´
he morning-obl early office go-ptc is
He goes to his office early in the morning.

11. ·(r -··((· :(·((· +· º(·((|
yeh tasvi:r di:va:r par tã:go.
this picture wall on hang
Hang this picture on the wall.
4. SYNTAX
178


12. -( =-( ·(· ·( ¬(=·((|
m´~ kal ghar se a:ũ:ga:.
I tomorrow home from come-fut
I’ll come from home tomorrow.

13. ·(·( ·((= ·( =(º(|
seb ca:ku: se ka:to.
apple knife with cut
Cut the apple with the knife.

Adverbials may precede or follow the direct object depending on the
emphasis given to it in the sentence. Compare the examples (10-13)
with (10a-13a).

10a. ·(·(· ·(r (-:( :+-· ((-( r|
savere vah jaldi: daftar ja:ta: h´.

11a. :(·((· +· ·(r -··((· º(·((|
di:va:r par yeh tasvi:r tã:go.

12a. ·(· ·( -( =-( ¬(=·((|
ghar se m´~ kal aũ:ga:.

13a. ·((= ·( ·(·( =(º(|
ca:ku: se seb ka:to.

Certain adverbs of degree and derived adverbs with j´sa: like can
sometimes serve as adverbial modifiers of an adverb.

14. -( :(z|
tez dør
fast run
Run fast.

14a. ·(··(( (·(( -( :(z
baccõ j´si: tez dør
children-obl like fast run
as fast as children run
4. SYNTAX
179


Adverbials are always optional and not obligatory in any
construction.

4.2. Structure of Clauses

In this section major constituents of a sentence namely subordinate
clauses, main clauses (or noun clauses), relative clauses, adverbial
clauses are discussed.

4.2.1. Subordinate Clauses

Subordinate clauses are of two types: finite and non-finite. Finite
clauses normally have the same sentence structure as main clauses.
Sometimes they may precede the main clause due to the
consideration of focus. Consider the following examples:

Main clause
1. ·(r ¬(¤·((|
vah a:yega:.
he come-fu
He’ll come.

Subordinate clause
1a. -(:( ¬((( r i= ·(r ¬(¤·((|
mujhe a:ša: h´ ki vah a:yega:.
I-obl hope that he come-fut
I hope that he will come.

1b. *i= ·(r ¬(¤·(( -(:( ¬((( r
*ki vah a:yega: mujhe a:ša: h´

In case non-finite clause precedes the main clause due to the
consideration of focus, the complimentizer is dropped and the
element ·(r yeh this is added in the initial position of the main clause.

1c. ·(r ¬(¤·(( ·(r -(·( ¬((( r|
vah a:yega:, yeh meri: a:ša: h´.
he come-fut, this my hope is
I hope that he will come.

4. SYNTAX
180

Non-finite subordinate clauses are structurally quite distinct from the
main clauses. They are marked by (i) verb modification, (ii) lack of
agreement, and (iii) word order. The subordinate verb undergoes a
process of verbal participation or infinitivization/gerundivization.
The subordinate verb does not agree with subject and/or object in
number and gender and is not marked for tense.

Participle subordinate verb
2. ·(r i·(--((- r¤ i-(=-((|
vah cilla:te hue nikla:.
he shriek-ptc left
He left shrieking.

The infinitive subordinate clause with an adverbial phrase can be put
in the initial position.

3. -(·( ·((i+·( ¬(-(( -(-(i=-( -(r( |
mera: va:pas a:na: mumkin nahĩ:.
my return come-inf possible neg
It is not possible for me to come back.

4. -(((-( ·(-( ·r( ·((|
maši:n cal rahi: thi:.
machine move prog was
The machine was working.

4a. ·(r ·(-(-( -(((-( =( := ·r( ·((|
vah calti: maši:n (ko) dekh raha: tha:.
he running machine-dat see-prog was
He was watching the running machine.

4b. *·(r -(((-( ·(-( ·r( ·(( := ·r( ·((
*vah maši:n cal rahi: thi: dekh raha: tha:.

4.2.2. Noun Clauses

Noun clauses are of two types: finite and non-finite.

4. SYNTAX
181

4.2.2.1. Finite Noun Clauses

Finite noun clauses are introduced by the subordinator /
complementizer ki that and follow the main clause verb. They
function as subjects, direct objects, or complements of the main
predicate. Finite subject clauses usually occur as subjects of
adjectival predicates such as ·(·( sac ‘true’, ·((= sa:f/ ·+º spašt ‘clear’,
and -(-(i=-( mumkin/ ·(·(·( sambhav ‘possible’.

1. ·(r ·(·( r i= -((r-( ·((-((· r|
yeh sac h´ ki mohan bi:ma:r h´.
it true is that Mohan sick is
It is true that Mohan is sick.

1a. ·(r ·((= / ·+º ·(( i= -((r-( ·((-((· ·((|
yeh sa:f/spašt tha: ki mohan bi:ma:r tha:.
it clear was that Mohan sick was
It was clear that Mohan was sick.

4.2.2.1.1. The i= ki Complement Clauses

ki that complement clauses are usually governed by verbs like ((-(-((
ja:nna: ‘to know’, +-( r(-(( pata: hona: ‘to know’, =r-(( kahna: ‘to
say’, :=-(( dekhna: ‘to see’, and -(·(-(( lagna: ‘to appear/seem’.
Consider the following examples.

2. -( ((-(-( ·(( i= ·(= i·(··((|
m´~ ja:nta: tha: ki barf giregi:.
I know-ptc was that snow fall-fut
I knew that it would snow.

3. -(:( -(·(( i= ·(r ·((-((· r|
mujhe laga: ki vah bi:ma:r h´.
I-obl felt that he sick is
It seemed to me that he was sick.

The verb ·((r-(( cahna: ‘to wish, desire’ in the matrix clause selects a
conditional verb form in its complement clause.
4. SYNTAX
182


4. -( ·((r-( r i= ·(r :i--r(-( :|
m´~ ca:hta: hũ: ki vah imtiha:n de.
I desire-ptc am that he exam give
I wish that he appears in examination.

4.2.2.1.2. Direct and Indirect Speech

Direct and indirect speech are not distinguished by the use of any
syntactic device, such as a quotative marker or particle. However,
both quoted and reported material may be preceded by the
complementizer i= ki that which is subordinate to the higher verb of
communication in the matrix sentence, such as =r kah- ‘say’, +=
pu:ch- ‘ask’, i-(= likh- ‘write’, ·(-( sun- ‘hear’, ·((·( soc ‘think’, ·((r ca:h
‘desire/want’.

5. .·(-( =r( i= :·(( =·(:( |
usne kaha: ki dava: xari:do.
he-erg said that medicine buy
He said, buy medicine.

6. =(( -( + =( i= -( +·(( ·((·( ((=·((?
u:ša: ne pu:cha: ki m´~ kyõ ga:ũ: ja:ũ:ga:?
Usha-erg asked that I why village go-fut
Usha asked, why should I go to the village?

7. -((r-( -( i-(=( i= - -( ·(r i=-(·( +c( |
mohan ne likha: ki tum yah kita:b parho.
Mohan-erg wrote that you this book read
Mohan wrote, Read this book.

8. r-(-( ·(-(( i= ·(r z(+º· r ||
hamne suna: ki vah da:ktar h´.
we-erg heard that he doctor is
We heard that he is a doctor.

9. -(-( ·((·(( i= ·(r -(r( ¬(¤·((|
m´~ne soca: ki vah nahĩ: a:yega:.
I-erg thought that he neg come-fut
I thought that he would not come.
4. SYNTAX
183


Verbs like ·(-( sun-, ·((·( soc- are ‘hear/say’ type verbs, and they
usually occur as higher verbs in reported speech. In sentences (7-9),
the complementizer i= ki precedes quoted material and in sentences
(10-11), it precedes the reported material. The complementizer is
frequently omitted. In Hindi, direct speech is preferred to indirect
speech. Sentence (12) may appear ambiguous.

10. ·(-( -( =r( (i=) ·(r i=-(·( +c·((|
ra:mne kaha: (ki) vah kita:b parhega:.
Ram-erg said (that) he bookread-3s-fut
(a) Ram(i) said, he(j) will read the book.
(b) Ram(i) said that he(i) will read the book.

In (a) Ram and the noun and pronoun are not co-referential, and in
(b) they are. In this sentence, the first or direct speech reading is
preferred to the second or indirect speech reading. Instead of using
indirect speech, it would be more natural to use direct speech in the
second meaning as in (11).

11. ·(-( -( =r( (i=) -( i=-(·( +c·((|
ra:m ne kaha: (ki) m´~ kita:b parũ:ga:
Ram-erg said (that) I book read-1s-fut
Ram said, I’ll read a book.

Sometimes direct and indirect speech can be differentiated with the
help of number and gender markers. For instance, the gender
discrepancy between the matrix verb and the embedded verb may
indicate an indirect quotation.

12. ·(-( -( =r( (i=) -( +| i-(= ·r( r|
ra:mne kaha: (ki) m´~ patr likh raha: hũ:
Ram-erg said (that) I letter write-prog am
Ram (i) said, I(i)m writing a letter.
Ram (i) said that I (j) am writing a letter.

12a. ·(-( -( =r( (i=) -( +| i-(= ·r( r|
ra:mne kaha: (ki) m´~ patr likh rahi: hũ:
Ram-erg said (that) I letter write-prog.fs am
Ram(i) said that I(j) am writing a letter.
*Ram(i) said that I(i) am writing a letter.
4. SYNTAX
184


In (12a) the auxiliary verb of the embedded sentence is feminine,
therefore it cannot be co-referential with Ram. Whereas in (12), the
verb of the embedded sentence is co-referential with the verb of the
matrix sentence. Sentence (12) can be disambiguated by adding a
reflexive pronoun ··(·( svayam/ ¬+-( ¬(+ apne a:p ‘self’.

12b. ·(-( -( =r( (i=) -( ··(·( ¬+-( ¬(+ +| i-(= ·r( r|
ra:m ne kaha: (ki) m´~ svayam/apne a:p patrlikh raha: hũ:.
Ram-erg said (that) I self letter write-prog.ms am
Ram (i) said, Im (i) writing a letter myself.

Similarly, the nominalization of an embedded sentence may also
result in a reported speech interpretation.

13. ·(-( -( -(·/¬+-( ¬(+ +| i-(=-( = ·((· -( =r(|
ra:m ne mere/apne a:p patr likhne ke ba:re mẽ kaha:.
Ram-erg my/he-refl letter write-inf-obl about said
Ram told about my/his writing the letter.

Thus, there are no quotative markers to distinguish between direct
and indirect speech. Direct speech is preferred over indirect speech.

4.2.2.1.3. Non-finite Noun Clause

A non-finite noun clause may consist of an infinitive (or gerundive)
verb form. Infinitive gerundive forms can precede or follow the
matrix clause and are inflected for case like other types of noun
clauses. Non-finite noun clauses change the embedded verb into its
infinitival form (stem + -(( na:) which lacks subject - verb agreement
and tense information. The infinitival form is like a derived noun
which can take case markers and postpositions. The oblique form of
the infinitival ends in --(( -na:. When changing finite noun clauses
into nonfinite clauses, certain morphological markers like person,
number, tense, aspectual suffixes are lost.

Finite verb Infinitival form
+c parh read +c-(( parhna: to read

4. SYNTAX
185


14a. -( +c·((|
(m´~) parhũ:ga:.
(I)read-1s-fut
I’ll read.

14b. r-( +c·(|
(ham) parhẽge.
(we) read-1p-fut
We’ll read.

14c. =·(( :=( -(r( r|
(ve) parhẽge.
(they) read-3p-fut
They’ll read.

Notice that --(( -na: is added to the verb stem in the formation of the
infinitive form.

15. -(·( +c-(( .·( +·(: -(r( ¬(·((|
mera: parhna: use pasand nahĩ: a:ya:.
my read-inf he-dat like neg came
He did not like me to read.

16. -(:( +c -(( +·( : r|
mujhe parhna: pasand h´.
I-obl read-Inf like is
I like to read.

Noun clauses can function as subjects, direct objects, postpositional
objects, and adverbials.

Verbs are made non-finite by the processes of infinitivization and
participialization. Infinitivizaton is the result of adding the suffix –-((
-na: to the verbal stem. There are three groups of participial
constructions: (i) present participle, (ii) past participle, and (iii)
agentive participle. The present participle indicates ongoing action
or process, the past participle indicates completed action or process,
and the agentive participle indicates a habitual or potential action or
process.

4. SYNTAX
186

17. ·(r +c( - i-(=( -(z=( r|
vah parha: - likha: larka: h´.
he read-past-ms write-past-ms boy is
He is a literate boy.

17a. ·(r +c( - i-(=( -(z=( r|
vah parhi: - likhi: larki: thi:.
she read-past-fs write- past-fs girl was
She was a literate girl.

17b. +c-( i-(=-( ·((-(( -(z=( ·(-(·( ·(·((: -(r( =·-(|
parhne likhne va:la: larka: samay barba:d nahĩ: karta:.
read-inf-obl write-inf-obl gen boy time waste neg do-ptc
The boy who studies does not waste time.

Notice that participial forms remain unaltered in the present and past
participles. It is the auxiliary which takes person, gender, number,
and tense markers. The participial forms agree with the following
nouns in number and gender.

Masculine Feminine
Sg Pl Sg Pl
=( ka: = ke =( ki: =( ki:

18. .·(=( .-(( =( =-( ·(r =r-(( ¬·=( -(r( ·((|
uska: uma: ko kal yeh kahna: accha: nahĩ: tha:.
he-gen Uma-dat yesterday this say-inf good neg was
His telling this to Uma yesterday was not proper.

The word order of non-finite noun clauses remains unchanged. The
focus-related movements to the left of the non-finite verb yield well-
formed sentences. Examples of various movements of non-finite
noun clauses are given as follows:

Leftward movements of indirect objects
18a. .-(( =( .·(=( =-( ·(r =r-(( ¬·=( -(r( ·((|
uma: ko uska: kal yah kahna: accha: nahĩ: tha:.
Uma-dat his yesterday this say-inf good neg was
His telling this to Uma yesterday was not proper.

4. SYNTAX
187

Leftward movement of the time adverb
18b. =-( .·(=( .-(( =( ·(r =r-(( ¬·=( -(r( ·((|
kal uska: uma: ko yah kahna: accha: nahĩ: tha:.

Notice that no constituent of the non-finite noun clauses can be
moved to a position following the non-finite verb =r-(( kahna: ‘to
say’ as below.

Rightward movement of indirect object
18c. *.·(=( =-( ·(r =r-(( ¬·=( -(r( ·(( .-(( =(|
uska: kal yah kahna: accha: nahĩ: tha: uma: ko.

Rightward movement of time adverb
18d. *.·(=( .-(( =( ·(r =r-(( ¬·=( -(r( ·(( =-(|
uska: uma: ko yah kahna: accha: nahĩ: tha: kal.

4.2.3. Relative Clauses

There are two types of relative clause constructions: finite and non-
finite participial relative clauses. The finite relative clauses maintain
full sentence structures with subject verb agreement and are very
common. Participial relative clauses exhibit the non-finite form of
the verb. The former is more explicit than the latter. The former type
is also labeled as the real relative clause.

In the formation of finite relative clauses, the relative marker (( jo
‘who’, which is placed in front of the relativized element, the
correlative marker ·(r vah ‘that’ is placed at the beginning of the
head noun, and the second identical or co-referential noun phrase
may be deleted. The forms of relative and correlative markers are
given below.

Relative markers
Direct Oblique
Sg Pl Sg Pl
(( jo (( jo i(·( jis i(-( jin

4. SYNTAX
188


Correlative markers
·(r vah ·( ve .·( us .-( un

The relative marker begins with a ( /j/ sound, whereas correlative
markers begin with ·( / v/ and . /u/ sounds. In the direct case, the
noun is not followed by a postposition and when it is, it is in the
oblique case. The relative and correlative markers change for the
number and case of the noun. The forms are as follows.

Direct
Relative Pronouns Correlative Pronouns
Sg Pl Sg Pl
(( jo (( jo ·(r vah ·( ve

Oblique
i(·( jis i(-( jin .·( us .-( un
i(·( jise i(-r jinhẽ .·( use .-r unhẽ
i(·(=( jisko i(-(=( jinko .·(=( usko .-(=( unko
i(·(·( jisse i(-(·( jinse .·(·( usse .-(·( unse
i(·(-( jisne i(-r(-( jinhõne .·(-( usne .-r(-( unhõne

In the examples given below, the symbol Ø indicates the presumed
site of relativized and head NP prior to deletion.

1. (( -(z=( i:--(( -( ·r-( r ·(r Ø -( ·( ·((: r|
jo larka: dilli mẽ rahta: h´ vah Ø mera: bha:i: h´.
rel boy Delhi-loc live-ptc is cor -Ø my brother is
The boy, who lives in Delhi, is my brother.

Sentence (1) consists of two clauses which share an identical and co-
referential noun phrase.

Main clause:
-(z=( -(·( ·((: r |
larka: mera: bha:i: h´.
The boy is my brother.
4. SYNTAX
189


Relative clause:
-(z=( i:--(( -( ·r-( r|
larka: dilli: mẽ rahta: h´.
The boy lives in Delhi.

Here the relative clause takes the relative pronoun (( jo, whereas the
correlative clause takes the correlative pronoun ·(r vah. When the
relative clause precedes the main clause it results in the sentence
(1a):

1a. [(( -(z=( i:--(( -( ·r-( r ] ·(r -(z=( -(·( ·((: r|
[jo larka: dilli mẽ rahta: h´] vah larka: mera: bha:i: h´.

The second occurrence of -(z=( larka: is deleted to yield sentence
(1b). There are two other possibilities for relative clauses: (i) the
relative clause may follow the head noun phrase (1b), and (ii) the
relative clause may follow the correlative clause (1c).

1b. ·(r -(z=( [(( i:--(( -( ·r-( r ] -(·( ·((: r|
vah larka: [jo dilli: mẽ rahta: h´] mera: bha:i: h´.

1c. ·(r -(z=( -(·( ·((: r [(( i:--(( -( ·r-( r ]|
vah larka: mera: bha:i: h´ [jo dilli: mẽ rahta: h´].

Notice that the participial relative clause is formed by (i) deleting
the relativized noun phrase, and (ii) changing the verb into a
participial form by adding the suffix --( -ta: for the present participle
and --( ·((-(( -ne va:la: for the agentive participle.

4.2.3.1. Restrictive and Non-restrictive Clauses

The restrictive relative clauses allow three possible word orders as
given above (1a-1c). The non-restrictive relative clauses are those
where some extra but relevant information is provided about the
antecedent head noun. They allow only one word order in which the
additional information follows the head noun.

2. -(r= [(( ·((·- = +r-( +·((-(-( |( ·(]
nehru: [jo bha:rat ke pradha:n mantri: the]
Nehru who India-gen first prime minister was
4. SYNTAX
190

:-r(·((: -( (--( |
ilha:ba:d mẽ janme.
Allahabad in born
Nehru, who was the first prime minister of India, was born at
Allahabad.

2a. *-(r= (--( :-r(·((: -( [(( ·((·- = +r-( + ·((-(-(|( ·(]
*nehru: janme ilha:ba:d mẽ [jo bha:rat ke pahle pradha:n
mantri: the].

2b. *[(( ·((·- = +r-( +·((-(-(|( ·( ] ·( -( r= :-(r(·(: -( (--( |
*[jo bha:rat ke pahle pradha:n mantri: the] ve nehru:
illha:ba:d mẽ janme.
There are no word order differences between a restrictive and
a non-restrictive participial relative clause.

3. [Ø i:--(( -( ·r-( ·((-(( -(z=(] -(·( ·((: r|
[Ø dilli: mẽ rahne va:la: larka:] mera: bha:i: h´.
Delhi in live-inf-obl gen boy my brother is
The boy who lives in Delhi is my brother.

4. :-r(·((: -( (--( -(-( ·((-( -(r= ·((·- = +r-( +·((-(-( |( ·(|
ilha:ba:d mẽ janm lene va:le nehru: bha:rat ke pahle
pradha:n mantri: the.
Born at Allahabad, Nehru was the first prime minister of
India.

The relative clause may precede or follow the head noun. The non-
restrictive relative clause always follows the head noun. In general,
the participial relative clauses precede the head noun.

The form of the relativized element in the relative clause
corresponding to the head noun (i.e., the relativized element) is
usually preserved in full when the relative clause precedes the main
clause. Alternately, it is deleted. It is pronominalized when the head
is a pronoun.

5. ·(r [(( -(r-(- =·-( r ] .--(i- =·-( r|
vah [jo mehnat karta: h´ ] unnati: karta: h´.
He who hard work do-pr is progress do-pr is
He who works hard progresses.
4. SYNTAX
191

Here the second occurrence of the identical noun phrase is
nominalized. The antecedent noun phrase may undergo deletion too,
as in sentence (6).

6. [(( i:--(( -( ·r-( r ] ·(r -(z=( -( ·( ·((: r|
[jo dilli: mẽ rahta: h´] vah larka: mera: bha:i: h´.
Who Delhi in stay is he boy my brother is
The boy who lives in Delhi is my brother.

The original position of the relativized element usually remains
unchanged. In case the relative constituent is placed in the beginning
of the clause, the effect is that of contrastive focus.

7. -(-( ·(r -(= +c( [(( ·(i·-( -( i-(=( r |]
m´~ne vah lekh parha: [jo sarita: ne likha: h´].
I-erg that essay read which Sarita-erg write is
I read the essay which was written by Salim.

The place of the relativized direct object is usually in the preverbal
position. The placement of the relativized object NP to the relative
clause initial position indicates focus on the relativized NP. The
relativized adverbials and indirect objects can undergo similar
movement.

7a. [-( -( ·(r -(= +c(] (( ·(i·-( -( i-(=( r|
[m´~ne vah lekh parha:] jo sarita: ne likha: h´.
I-erg that essay read which Salim-erg wrote is
I read the essay which Sarita wrote.

If the relative clause occurs to the left of the main clause, the
relativized element can be placed in the sentence initial position.

7b. [(( -(= ·(i·-( -( i-(=( r ] -( -( +c( ·(r|
[jo lekh sarita: ne likha: h´] m´~ne parha: vah.
which essay sarita-erg wrote I read that
I read the essay which was written by Sarita.

In the third order, the relative clause follows immediately after the
head NP.

4. SYNTAX
192

7c. -(-( +c( ·(r -(= (( ·(i·-( -( i-(=( r|
m´~ne parha: vah lekh jo sarita: ne likha: h´.
I read that write which Sarita-erg wrote is
I read the essay written by Sarita.

In a headless relative clause, the relative clause cannot be placed
immediately after the head NP.

8. [·(( -( (( ·(-((] -(-( ·(-(( -(r(|
[ra:j ne jo suna:] m´~ne suna: nahĩ:.
Raj-erg rel heard I-erg hear not
I didnt hear what Raj heard.

However, it is possible to place the relative clause to the right of the
main clause.

8a. -(-( ·(-(( -(r( [(( ·(( -( ·( -((|]
m´~ne suna: nahĩ: [jo ra:j ne suna:.].
I didnt hear what Raj heard.

All the constituents of a main clause except the verb can be
relativized in a finite relative clause.

Relativization of subject
9. ·(r ¬(:-(( [(( Ø ¬(·((:]
vah a:dmi: [jo Ø a:ya:]
cor person rel came
the person who came

Relativization of direct object
10. ·(r ¬(:-(( [i(·( Ø -( ·(r( -((·((:]
vah a:dmi: [jise Ø m´~ yahã: la:ya:]
cor person rel I here brought
the person whom I brought here

Relativization of indirect object
11. ·(r ¬(:-(( [i(·( Ø -(-( i=-(·( :(]
vah a:dmi: [jise Ø m´~ne kita:b di:]
cor person rel I-erg watch gave
the person who I gave the book

4. SYNTAX
193

Relativization of adjunct (object of associative postposition)
12. ·(r ¬(:-(( [i(·(= Ø ·((·( -( i:--(( ·(·((]
vah a:dmi: [jiske Ø sa:th m´~ dilli: gaya:]
cor person rel with I Delhi went
the person with whom I went to Delhi

Relativization of adjunct (object of a locative postposition)
13. ·(r :+-· [i(·(-( Ø -( =(-( =·-( r ]
vah daftar [jis Ø mẽ m´~ ka:m karta: hũ:]
cor office rel in I work do-ptc am
the office in which I work

Relativization of possessor noun
14. ·(r ¬(:-(( [i(·(=( Ø ·(r -(=(-( r ]
vah a:dmi: [jiska: Ø yeh maka:n h´ ]
cor person rel-poss this house is
the man whose house this is

Relativization of object of comparison
15. ·(r -(=(-( [i(·(·( Ø ·(r -(=(-( ·(z( r ]
vah maka:n [jisse Ø yeh maka:n bara: h´]
cor house rel than this house big is
the house which is smaller than this house
Relativization of a subordinate subject
16. ·(r -(z=( [(( Ø .-(( -( =r( r(=( = -(-( r ] ·(·((|
vah larka: [jo Ø uma: ne kaha: ha:ki: khelta: h´] gaya:.
rel boy cor Uma-erg said play-ptc hockey is went
The boy that Uma said plays hockey has gone.

Relativization of a subordinate direct object
17. ·(r º(+( [(( Ø [·((( -( =r( [.-(( -( ·(-(( r ]]
vah topi: [jo Ø [ra:ja: ne kaha: [uma: ne buni: h´]]
rel cap that Raja-erg said Uma-erg has knitted
-(· +(·( r|
mere pass h´.
me-poss is
The cap that Raja said Uma knitted is with me.

4. SYNTAX
194

Relativization of subordinate indirect object
18. ·(r -(z=( [ i(·( Ø [-((r-( -( =r( i= ·((( -( i=-(·( :(]] ¬(·((|
vah larka:[jiseØ[mohan ne kaha: ki ra:ja: ne kita:b di:]a:ya:.
rel boy cor Mohan-erg said that Raja-erg book gave
The boy that Mohan said Raja gave a book to came.

Relativization of object of a postpositional adverbial phrase
19. ·(r =(-(( [ i(·( Ø -( [¬((- -( =r( [i= .-((
vah ka:lej [jis Ø mẽ [aji:t ne kaha: [ki uma:
rel college cor in Ajit-erg said that
=(-( =· ·r( r ]]] =(º( r |
ka:m kar rahi: h´]]] chota: h´.
Uma work do-ing is small is
The college that Ajit said Uma works at is small.

Relativization of object of comparison in subordinate clause
20. ·(r -(=(-( [ i(·( Ø ·( [¬((- -( =r( [i= -( ·( -(=(-(
vah maka:n [jis Ø se [aji:t ne kaha: [ki mera: maka:n
rel house cor than Ajit-erg said that
·(z( r ]]] :· -(r( r|
bara: h´]]] du:r nahĩ: h´.
my office is big is far not is
The house that Ajit said that my house is bigger than it is not
far way.

4.2.3.2. Non-finite Relative Clauses

Participial/non-finite relative clauses allow the subject and the direct
object constituent to undergo the process of relativization. However,
the indirect object etc. cannot undergo relativization.

Relativization of subject
21. [ Ø ·(c-( (r ¬() ] ·(··((
[Ø barhta: (hua:)] bacca:
grow-pst-ms (part.) child
the growing child

4. SYNTAX
195

22. [ Ø +c-( i-(=-( ·((-(( ] -(z=(
[Ø parhne likhne va:la:] larka:
read-inf-obl write-inf-obl gen boy
the boy who is studying (Lit. the studying boy)

Relativization of direct object
23. [.·(=( = ·(:( r: ] i=-(·(
[uski: xari:di: hui:] kita:b
his buy-pst-fs book
the book bought by him

Indirect object
24. *[ Ø i=-(·( :( r: ] -(z=(
*[Ø kita:b di: hui:] larki:
the girl to whom the book is given

Any constituent of a subordinate relative clause, except the verbs,
can be relativized.

4.2.3.3. Finite Relative Clauses

In finite relative clause modifiers, the possessor elements of the
noun phrase can be subjected to further relativization. Also any
constituent of a relative clause can be subjected to further
relativization.

Relativization of possessor
25. ·(r z(+º· [i(·(=( -((r-( :·((: =(-( r ] ¬·=( -(r( r|
vah da:ktar [jiska: mohan dava:i: kha:ta: h´] accha: nahĩ: h´.
rel doctor cor-poss Mohan medicine eating is good neg is
The doctor whose (prescribed) medicine Mohan is taking is
not good.

Relativization of modifier
26. ·(r :·( .--(( ·(-( -(r( r i(--(( (·(-() -( ·((r-( ·((|
yeh du:dh utna: garm nahĩ: h´ jitna: (garm) m´~ ca:hta: tha:.
this milk rel hot neg is cor hot I wanted
This milk is not as hot as I wanted.

4. SYNTAX
196

Relativization of a constituent of a relative clause
27. ·(r -(( [ (( Ø [-( :( +-( ·(( [i= ¬(+-( =·(:(]
vah mez [jo Ø [mujhe pata: tha: [ki a:pne xari:da:]
that table cor I know was that you-erg bought
.--(( ·(z( -(r( r i(--(( -(·( r|
utna: bara: nahĩ: h´ jitna: mera: h´.
rel big neg is cor mine is
The table that I know you bought is not as big as mine.

The participialization, however, does not allow relativization of any
constituent of a relative clause.

The noun phrases in postpositional phrases can be relativized by the
finite relativization strategy. The constituents within coordinate
noun phrases can be relativized.

28. ·(r -(z=( [ (( Ø -(· ·((: =( :(·- r ] ·((-((= r |
vah larka: [jo Ø mere bha:i: ka: dost h´] ca:la:k h´.
cor boy rel my brother of friend is clever is
The boy who is a friend of my brother is clever.

Elements within coordinate verb phrases and coordinate sentences
can also be relativized. In (29) an element of the first conjunct of a
coordinate verb phrase is conjoined.

29. ·(r -(= [ (( Ø -( -( +c( ¬(· +| i-(=(] ¬·=( r |
vah lekh [jo Ø ´~ne parha: r patr likha:] accha: h´.
cor article rel I-erg read and letter wrote good is
The article which I read and wrote a letter about is good.

This sentence can be interpreted as the joining of two actions in
which the first stimulates the second one. The two actions, thus
joined, are not independent of each other. In (30) an element of the
second conjunct of a coordinate verb phrase is relativized.

30. -(-( -(= +c( ¬( · (( +| i-(=( ·(r ¬·=( r|
m´~ne lekh parha: ør jo patr likha: vah accha: h´.
I-erg article read and cor letter wrote rel good is
I read an article and the wrote a good letter about it.

4. SYNTAX
197

This sentence can be interpreted as the joining of two actions in
which the meaning after doing one thing the second one is done is
implied. Therefore it appears like a participial construction. The
preferred version will be (30a).

30a. -(= +c=· (( +| -(-( i-(=( ·(r ¬·=( r|
lekh parhkar jo patr m´~ne likha: vah accha: h´.
article read-cp cor letter I-erg wrote rel good is
After reading the article, I wrote a good letter about it.

The relativization of the first or second conjunct elements of a
coordinate sentence result in ill-formed sentences.

31. *·(r -(= [ (( -( -( +c( ¬(· -((r-( -( +| i-(=(] ¬·=( r |
*vah lekh jo m´~ne parha: ør mohan ne patr likha: accha: h´.
*The essay which I read and Mohan wrote a letter is good.

31a. *-(-( -(= +c( ¬( · -((r-( -( (( +| i-(=( ·(r ¬·=( r|
*m´~ne lekh parha: ør mohan ne jo patr likha: vah accha: h´.
*I read the essay and the letter which Mohan wrote is good.

The order of pre-sentential and post-sentential positions of relative
with reference to a correlative clause, also yield well-formed
sentences.

32. [ (( Ø -(-( +c( ¬( · +| i-(=(] ·(r -( = ¬·=( r |
[jo Ø m´~ne parha: ør patr likha:] vah lekh accha: h´.
which I-erg read and letter wrote rel essay good is
The essay which I read, and wrote a letter about is good.

32a. ·(r -(= ¬·=( r [(( Ø -(-( +c( ¬( · +| i-(=(|]
vah lekh accha: h´ [jo Ø m´~ ne parha: ør patr likha:].
he write good is which I read and letter write
That essay is good which I read and wrote a letter about.

Notice that a conjunct intervening between a relative and a
correlative clause is less preferred. Therefore, sentence (32a) more
preferred than (32). The relativized element can be moved within the
constituents and sometimes to the initial position for the
consideration of focus.

4. SYNTAX
198

Mostly the relative clauses favor the finite relativization strategy.
The participilization strategy, which is non-finite in nature, is
subject to various syntactic and semantic constraints as pointed out
above.

4.2.4. Adverbial Clauses

Adverbial clauses are marked by (a) the finite form of the verb, or
(b) the non-finite form of the verb. Finite adverbial clauses can be
placed in pre-sentential as well as post-sentential position. The
unmarked order of a nonfinite adverbial clause is at the pre-verbal or
post-verbal position. There are time, manner, purpose, cause,
condition, concession, and degree adverbial clauses.

4.2.4.1. Adverbial Clauses of Time

There are three kinds of the adverbial clauses: (a) finite clauses with
relative clauses like time markers such as ·(i: yedi ‘if’, (b) participial
(non-finite) adverbial constructions, and (c) the infinitival
constructions.

(a) Finite clauses with relative clause time markers

Some of the adverbial markers in this category are (·( jab ‘when’, (·(
·( jab se ‘since’, and ·((r( jyõhi: ‘as soon as’.

1. (·( ·(r ¬(¤·(( -( ·(( ¬(=·((|
jab vah a:yega: m´~ bhi: a:ũ:ga:.
when he come-fut I too come-fut
When he comes, I’ll come too.

2. (·( -( ((-( r (-·() ·(r ·(( ((-( r|
jab m´~ ja:ta: hũ: (tab) vah bhi: ja:ta: h´.
when I go-ptc am (then) he too go-ptc is
When I go, (then) he goes too.

3. (·(·( ·(r ·(r( ¬(·(( (-·(·() r-( ·((·( ·((·( =(-( =·- r |
jabse vah yahã: a:ya: (tabse) ham sa:th-sa:th ka:m karte h´~.
cor-from he came here rel-from we together work do-ptc are
Weve worked together since he came here.

4. SYNTAX
199

In sentences (2) and (3), time adverbial clauses are introduced by the
markers (·( jab and (·( ·( jab se respectively. Like relative clauses,
they distinguish themselves from question words which begin with =
k. The time clause contains a finite verb with tense aspect
information. The time marker (·( jab denotes a sequence of events
(2) and simultaneous events (3) respectively. It is important to note
that the relative clause time markers (·( jab or (·( ·( jab se do not
undergo deletion as do the correlative markers -·( tab and -·( ·( tab
se.

(b) Participial (non-finite) constructions

Four participial constructions, present participle, past participle,
absolutive and the as soon as participle, also act as time adverbials.
The present and past participles agree in gender and number with the
subject of the main clause, whereas the last two do not undergo any
agreement changes.

4. -((r-( :(z-( ¬(·((|
mohan dørta: a:ya:.
Mohan run-ptc came
Mohan came running.

5. ¬+·(· -( =·(( +· ·( ==· +=(
afsar ne kursi: par b´thkar pu:cha:
officer chair on sit-cp asked
the officer asked, sitting on the chair

6. ·(· +r ·(=· .·(-( º -((=(-( i=·((|
ghar pahũckar usne teliphon kiya:.
home reach-pp she-erg telephone did
She telephoned after reaching home.

7. ¬(- r( .·(-( ·(r ·(·((-( +=(|
a:te hi: usne yah sava:l pu:cha:.
come-emp he-erg this question asked
As soon as he came, he asked this question.

A present participle expresses an ongoing action or process. It takes
the progressive aspect in the subordinate clause.

4. SYNTAX
200

8a. -((r-( .·( ·(-(·( ¬(·(( i(·( ·(-(·( ·(r :(z ·r( ·((|
mohan us samay a:ya: jis samay vah dør raha: tha:.
Mohan at that time came when he run-prog was
Mohan came at the time when he was running.

The participle forms can be reduplicated as in (8b).

8b. -((r-( :(z-( - :(z-( ¬(·((|
mohan dørta: - dørta: a:ya:.
Mohan run-ptc run-ptc came
Mohan came running.

(c) Infinitival construction

A verbal noun followed by +r-( pahle ‘before’, ·((: -( ba:d mẽ ‘after’,
or +· par ‘on’ results in a time adverbial.

9. .·(= ¬(-( ·( +r-( =(: -(r( ¬(¤·((|
uske a:ne se pahle koi: nahĩ: a:yega:.
he-gen-obl come-inf-obl before none neg come-fut
No one will come before he comes.

10. .·(= ((-( = ·((: -( ((=·((|
uske ja:ne ke ba:d m´~ ja:ũ:ga:.
he-gen-obl go-inf-obl after I go-fut
I’ll go after his departure.

11. .·(= ¬(-( +· ·((· =( r¤|
uske a:ne par sa:re khuš hue.
he-gen-obl come-inf-obl on all happy became
All were happy on his coming.

4.2.4.2. Manner Clauses

Manner clauses also employ relative-like and participial
constructions. They are not expressed by infinitival or gerundive
constructions. The relative clause-like manner markers (·( ·(·( j´se -
v´se ‘as/which way’ indicates the manner reading.

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201

12. (·( -( =r ·(( ·(·( r( =·(|
j´se m´~ kahũ:ga: v´se hi: karo.
as-rel I tell-you the same way-cor emp do
Do as I tell you.

The word order of the relative manner clause and correlative manner
clause can be altered.

12a. ·(·( =·( (·( -( =r ·((|
v´se karo j´se m´~ kahũ:ga:

The following participial constructions express manner rather than
tme.

13. ·(r ·(- - ·(- ¬(·((|
vah rote - rote a:ya:.
he weep-ptc weep-ptc came
He came (while) crying.

14. ·(r =( +· ·(==· ·(·((|
vah faraš par b´thkar roya:.
he floor on sit-cp wept
He cried sitting on the floor.

15. ·(r (·(·- = ·((·( ·((-((|
vah šara:rat ke sa:th bola:.
he anger-gen with said
He said with anger.

The negativized participial form is formed by adding -¤ i·(-(( -e bina:.

16. ·(r r·( i·(-(( ·((-((|
vah hãse bina: bola:.
he laugh-obl without said
He said without laughing.

Infinitival constructions also express manner.

17. .·(=( -((·(-(( -(:( +·(: r|
uska: na:cna: mujhe pasand h´.
(s)he-gen dance-inf me-dat like is
I like his/her manner of dancing.
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17a. .·(= -((·(-( =( -·(=( -(:( +·(: r |
uske na:cne ka: tari:ka: mujhe pasand h´.
(s)he-gen-obl dance-inf-gen manner I-dat like is
I like his/her manner of dancing.

4.2.4.3. Purpose Clauses

Purpose clauses are formed in two ways: (a) infinitival form
followed by ¤ e or the oblique form plus the postposition = i-(¤ ke
liye ‘for’, and (b) the +·((i= kyõki ‘because/ as’ clause modifying :·(
i-(¤ is liye ‘therefore’.

18. ·(r -((º= :=-( ·(·((|
vah na:tak dekhne gaya:.
he play see-inf-obl for
He went to see a play.

18a. ·(r -((º= :=-( = i-(¤ ·(·((|
vah na:tak dekhne ke liye gaya:.
he play see-inf-obl for went
He went to see a play.

Notice that in (18) the oblique case marker e is added to the
infinitive form of the verb, which expresses the meaning for. In
(18a), the oblique case marker -¤ -e is added before the postposition
= i-(¤ ke liye ‘for’. In the above construction, there is an option
between the two alternatives. If the verb is not a motion verb the
oblique form and postposition must be used.

19. -(-( .·( i=-(·( +c-( = i-(¤ =r(|
m´~ne use kita:b parhne ke liye kaha:.
I-erg he-dat book read-inf-obl for said
I told him to read the book.

19a. *-(-( .·( i=-(·( +c-( =r(|
*m´~ne use kita:b parhne kaha:.
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The co-referential phrases kyõki because and is liye ‘therefore’ can
also be used.

20. +·((i= ¬(( ·(-(( ·(( :·(i-(¤ -( ·((((· -(r( ·(·((|
kyõki a:j garmi: thi: isliye m´~ ba:za:r nahĩ: gaya:.
because today hot was therefore I market neg went
Because it was hot, I didnt go to market.

The elements of co-referential phrases +·((i= kyõki and :·(i-(¤ is liye
can be deleted. The word order undergoes a change as in (20a) and
(20b) below.

20a. ¬(( ·(-(( ·(( :·(i-(¤ -( ·((((· -(r( ·(·((|
a:j garmi: thi: isliye m´~ ba:za:r nahĩ: gaya:.
Today hot was therefore (· -(r( I market neg go-past
It was hot, therefore, I couldnt go to market.

20b. +·((i= ¬(( ·(-(( ·(( -( ·((((· -(r( ·(·((|
kyõki a:j garmi: thi: m´~ ba:za:r nahĩ: gaya:.
because today hot was I market neg go-past
Because it was hot, I didnt go to market.

4.2.4.4. Cause Clauses

Cause is expressed by using these constructions: (a) finite clauses
marked by +·((i= kyõki ‘because’, (b) participles, and (c) infinitival
plus ·( se from.

(a) Finite clauses

21. ·(r +c -(r( ·(=-( +·((i= ·(r ¬-(+c r|
vah parh nahĩ: sakta: kyõki vah anparh h´.
he read not able because he illiterate is
He cannot read because he is illiterate.

21a. +·((i= ·(r ¬-(+c r ·(r +c -(r( ·(=-(|
kyõki vah anparh h´, vah parh nahĩ: sakta:.
Because he is illiterate, he cannot read.

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204

(b) Participles

22. ·(-(- ·(-(- ·(r ·(=( ¬(· ·(= ·(·((|
calte calte vah thaka: r b´th gaya:.
walk-ptc he tired and sat aux
Because of walking (constantly), he was tired and sat down.

23. -( +-(-(( =·- =·- ·(= ·(·((|
m´~ prati:kša: karte karte thak gaya:.
I wait do-ptc tired aux
I got tired of waiting.

The cause is expressed in (22) and (23) by reduplicated present and
past participles respectively. Cause can be expressed by other
participles, too.

24. ¬i·(= (·(·( +(=· ·(r ·((-((· r¬(|
adhik šara:b pi:kar vah bi:ma:r hua:.
more liquor drink-cp he sick was
Because he drank a lot (of liquor), he was sick.

25. :·((: =(- r( ·(r =(= r¬(|
dava:i: kha:te hi: vah thi:kh hua:.
medicine eat-ptc emp he alright became
Immediately upon taking the medicine, he recovered (from
illness).

(c) Infinitive plus se with

26. ·(··( = ¬(-( ·( ·(·(( =( r¤|
bacce ke a:ne se sabhi: khuš hue.
child-obl-gen come-inf-obl with all happy were
Because of the arrival of the child, all were happy.

4.2.4.5. Condition Clauses

Condition clauses are marked by the conjunction agar/yadi ‘if’.

27. ¬·(·/·(i: ·(r ·((((· ((¤·(( i=· -( -(r( ((=·((|
agar/yadi vah ba:za:r ja:yega:, phir m´~ nahĩ: ja:ũ:ga:.
if he market go-fut-ms then I neg go-fut.1s
If he goes to market, (then) I won’t go.
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28. ¬·(·/·(i: ·((i·( r( ·(( i=· ¬·=( =·(-( r(·((|
agar/yadi ba:riš hogi:, phir acchi: fasal hogi:.
if rain fall-fut then good crop be-fut
If it rains, then the crops will be good.

The sequence of if - then clause can be reversed.

27a. i=· -( ·((((· -(r( ((=·(( ¬·(· ·(r ((¤·((|
phir m´~ ba:za:r nahĩ: ja:ũ:ga: agar vah ja:yega:.
again I market neg go-fut if he go-fut
I will not go to the market if he goes.

28a. i=· ¬·=( =·(-( r( ·(( ¬·(· ·((i·( r(·((|
phir acchi: fasl hogi: agar ba:riš hogi:.
again good harvest will if rain comes
The crop will be good if it rains.

It is to be noted that the condition marker ¬·(· agar is not deleted,
whereas its co-referential marker i=· phir can be deleted. The
conjunction marker ·(-(( varna: ‘otherwise’ also is used in condition
clauses.

29. =-( (-:( ¬( ((-(( ·(-(( -( ¬= -( ((= ·((|
kal jaldi: a: ja:na: varna: m´~ akele: ja:ũ:ga:.
tomorrow soon come otherwise I alone-obl go-fut
Come early tomorrow, otherwise I will go alone.

The same tense reference is marked in both constituents conjoined
by the markers ¬·(· agar and ·(-(( varna:.

4.2.4.6. Concession Clauses

A concession clause is marked by subordinate conjunction markers
such as ·(··(i+ yadhypi/ r(-((i= ha:lã:ki/ ·((r ca:he ‘although’, ¬·(· - i=· ·((
agar - phir bhi: ‘even if’, and +·(( -(r( kyõ nahĩ: ‘why not’.

30. ·(··(i+/ r(-(i= ·(r ·(r- ¬-((· r i=· ·(( ·(r =(·( r |
yadhypi/ha:lã:ki vah bahut ami:r h´ phir bhi: vah kanju:s h´.
although he very rich is still he miser is
Although he is very rich, he is a miser.

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31. ·((r ¬(+ .·(=( +(º(·( ·(( ·(r ·(r =(-( -(r( =··((|
ca:he a:p usko pi:toge bhi:, vah yah ka:m nahĩ: karega:.
even if you he-dat beat-fut too he this work not do-fut
Even if you beat him/her up, he/she won’t do this work.

31a. ·((r ¬(+ .·(=( +(º(·( ·(( ·(r i=· ·(( ·(r =(-(
ca:he a:p usko pi:toge bhi:, vah phir bhi: yah ka:m
even if you he-dat beat-fut too even then this work
-(r( =··((|
nahĩ: karega:.
not do-fut
Even if you’ll beat him/her up, even then he/she won’t do this
work.

32. ·(r +·(( -( =(=( ¬-(·( ·( =· i=· ·(( -( .·(= ·((·(
vah kyõ na ka:phi: anurodh kare phir bhi: m´~ uske sa:th
he why do much insist do even then I he-gen with
i:--(( -(r( ((=·((|
dilli: nahĩ: ja:ũ:ga:.
Delhi not go-fut
Even if he insists, I’ll not go to Delhi with him.

4.2.4.7. Result Clauses

In result clauses, the main clause contains a cause marked by an
oblique infinitive followed by the postposition = =(·ª( ke ka:ran / =(
·((r ki: vajah ‘because of the reason’. This expresses the result of a
sentence. In a sentence sequence, the cause is usually given in the
first sentence, followed by another sentence giving the result of it.
The second sentence usually contains the phrase :·( i-(¤ is liye
‘therefore’.

33. ·((i·( r(-( = =(·ª( / =( ·((r ·( -( ·((((· -( (( ·(=(|
ba:riš hone ke ka:ran/ki: vajah m´~ ba:za:r na ja: saka:.
rain fall-inf-obl reason I market neg go able
I could not go to market because of the rain.

34. =-( ¬·=( -((·(-( ·(( :·(i-(¤ -( ·(-(-( ·(·((|
kal accha: møsam tha: isliye m´~ ghu:mne gaya:.
yesterday good weather was therefore I walk-inf-obl went-1s
The weather was good yesterday, therefore, I went for a walk.
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207

4.3. Sentence Construction

Here we will discuss the different types of sentence constructions:
copular, verbal, negation, interrogatives, imperatives, anaphora,
reflexives, reciprocals, equatives, comparison, superlatives, and
coordination.

4.3.1. Copular Sentences

The verb r(-(( hona: ‘to be’ is employed in copular sentences. The
copula may take a predicate noun, predicate adjective, participle, or
a predicate adverb as a complement.

Predicate noun
1. ·(r ·(=(-( r|
vah vaki:l h´.
he lawyer is
He is a lawyer.

Predicate adjective
2. ·((-(( -(·(( r |
sušma: lambi: h´.
Sushma tall is
Sushma is tall.

Predicate adverbial (participle)
3. -((r-( =z( r |
mohan khara: h´.
Mohan stand is
Mohan is standing.

Predicate adverbial
4. .·(=( ¬(·((( -((=( r|
uski: a:va:z mi:thi: h´.
his/her voice sweet is
His/her voice is sweet.

The unmarked order of constituents in the examples given above is
subject - complement - copula.

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208

There are two types of predicate adjectival copular sentences: (a)
those which change for gender and number of the nouns they modify
and (b) those which do not. The adjective -(·(( lamba: ‘tall’ falls into
the first category, and the adjective ·(=: safed ‘white’ falls into the
second.

5. ·(r -(·(( -(z=( r|
yah lamba: larka: h´.
this tall boy is
This is a tall boy.

5a. ·( -(·( -(z= r|
ye lambe larke h´~.
these tall boys are
These are tall boys.

5b. ·(r -(·(( -(z=( r|
yeh lambi: larki: h´.
this tall girl is
This is a tall girl.

5c. ·( -(·(( -(zi=·(( r |
ye lambi: larkiyã: h´~.
these tall girls are
These are tall girls.

6. ·(r ·(=: =-( r|
yeh safed phu:l h´.
this white flower is
This is a white flower.

6a. ·( ·(=: =-( r|
ye safed phu:l h´~.
these white flowers are
These are white flowers.

6b. ·(r ·(=: =-((( r |
yeh safed kami:z h´.
this white shirt is
This is a white shirt.

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209

6c. ·( ·(=: =-((( r|
ye safed kami:zẽ h´~.
these white shirts are
These are white shirts.

The copular verb must be retained in both affirmative (positive) as
well as negative sentences. In the case of co-ordinate structures, it is
optionally deleted.

7. -((r-( z(+º· r |
mohan da:ktar h´.
Mohan doctor is
Mohan is a doctor.

8. ·((r-( ·(=(-( -(r( r |
sohan vaki:l nahĩ: h´.
Sohan lawyer not is
Sohan is not a lawyer.

9. -((r-( ¬(· ¬((- z(+º· r|
mohan aur aji:t da:ktar h´~.
Mohan and Ajit doctors are
Mohan and Ajit are doctors.

9a. -((r-( z(+º· r ¬( · ¬((- ·((|
mohan da:ktar h´ ør aji:t bhi:.
Mohan doctor is and Ajit too
Mohan is a doctor and so is Ajit.

9b. -( -((r-( ·(=(-( r ¬(· -( ¬((-|
na mohan vaki:l h´ ør na aji:t.
neg Mohan lawyer is and neg Ajit
Neither Mohan nor Ajit is a lawyer.

The copular verb is used for definition, identity, existence, and role
functions. It is also used as a second member (explicator) in the
compound verb sequences.

10. ¬((=-( ·(·( (-:( ·(c-( r |
a:jkal su:rya jaldi: carhta: h´.
nowadays sun quick rise-ptc is
The sun rises early these days.
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210

11. i:-( +i- i:-( r(-((- ·(·(· ·r r |
din prati din ha:la:t sudhar rahe h´~.
day after day situation improve-prog are
The situation is improving day by day.

12. ¬((=-( (-:( ¬·( ·( r(-( r |
a:jkal jaldi: andhera: hota: h´.
nowadays early dark be-ptc is
It becomes dark early (in the evening) these days.

13. :·(· r|
i:švar h´.
God is

14. ·(·(·((-( ¬+-(( ¬+-(( r|
bha:gya apna: apna: h´.
luck self self is
One is born with his/her own luck.

15. ·(··( i=+-( -(r(|
satya chipta: nahĩ:.
truth hidden neg
The truth (eventually) comes out. Or
The truth cannot be hidden.

16. ·(-(·( ·(-(·((-( r |
samay balva:n h´.
time strong is
Time is strong.

The copular verb always takes a complement. In sentence (13) the
complement does not appear at the surface and is understood as
i·(··(-((-( vidhyma:n/ -(((: møju:d ‘exists/omnipresent’ and/or r· ··((-( har
stha:n/ =ª( =ª( -( kan kan mẽ ‘everywhere’.

16a. :·(· i·(··(-((-(/-((( : /r· ··((-( +·/ =ª( =ª( -( r|
i:švar vidhyma:n/mauju:d /har stha:n par/kan kan mẽ h´.
God present/every where particles in is
God exists. Or God is present everywhere.

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211

In Hindi the copula verb r(-(( hona: ‘to be’ is used as a non-stative
verb and is translated as to become/happen/take/occur. This meaning
is expressed by using the verb r(-(( hona: or r( ((-(( ho ja:na: ‘to
become’.

17. :· r: /r( ·(:|
der hui:/ho gai:.
late be-pst-fs/be aux-fs
It became late.

18. ·((-·((- r:|
ba:tci:t hui:.
conversation be-pst-fs
The conversation took place.

19. =(-( r¬(|
ka:m hua:.
work be-pst-ms
The work was done.

4.3.2. Verbal Sentences

Verbal phrases can be grouped into three categories based on the
classification of their verbs as simple, conjunct, or compound. The
first category has only one verbal root as in (1).

1. -(-( i=-(·( +c(|
m´~ne kita:b parhi:.
I-erg book read
I read a book.

The second category is formed by combining a noun/adjective plus
the verb =·-(( karna: ‘to do’, or r(-(( hona: ‘to be’. (i.e. =(-( =·-(( ka:m
karna: ‘to work’, -(r-(- =·-(( mehnat karna: ‘to work hard’, ·((= r(-((
sa:ph hona: ‘to be clear’ -(=- r(-(( ta:kat hona: ‘to be
strong/healthy’.)

2. -(:( =(-( =·-(( r|
mujhe ka:m karna: h´.
I-dat work do-inf be
I have to work.
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212

3. ·(r -((-(-(( ·((= r|
yeh ma:mla: sa:f h´.
this matter clear is
This matter is clear. or It is clear.

4. .·(-( -(r-(- =(|
usne mehnat ki:.
he-erg hard work did
He worked hard.

5. .·(-( -(=- r|
usmẽ ta:kat h´.
he-obl-loc strength be
(S)he is strong/healthy. or (S)he has strength.
The third category employs a sequence of verbs like +c -( -(( parh
lena: ‘to read’, and i-(= :-(( likh dena: ‘to write’.

6. .·(-( ¬=·((· +c i-(·((|
usne axba:r parh liya:.
he-erg newspaper read took-explicator-ms
He read the newspaper.

7. -(-( i·(º=( i-(= :(|
m´~ne citthi: likh di:.
I-erg letter write gave-explicator-fs
I wrote the letter.

The subject of a transitive verb in the past tense is in the oblique
case, followed by the case sign or the postposition -( ne.

8. -(z= -( -(= i-(=(|
larke ne lekh likha:.
boy-erg essay-ms wrote-ms
The boy wrote an essay.

9. -(z=( -( +| i-(=(|
larki: ne patr likha:.
girl-erg letter-ms wrote-ms
The girl wrote a letter.

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213

10. -(z=(/-(zi=·(( -( ¬=·((· +c(|
larkõ/larkiyõ ne axba:r parha:.
boys-/girls-erg newspaper read
The boys/girls read the newspaper.

11. -(-(/r-(-( i=--( :=(|
m´~ne/hamne film dekhi:.
I-erg/we-erg film-fs saw-fs
I/we saw a film.

12. --(/--(-(/¬(+-( i=-(·( +c(|
tu:ne/tumne/a:pne kita:b parhi:.
you-erg book-fs read-fs
You read a book.

13. --(-(/¬(+-( =·(( : =(|
tumne/a:pne kursi: dekhi:.
you-erg chair saw-fs
You saw a chair.

The plural forms of personal pronouns are used as honorific
singular/plural subjects as well.

Psychological predicates such as ·(··(( ¬(-(( gussa: a:na: ‘to be angry
or irritated’, and -(·(-(( lagna: ‘seem’ always take a dative subject
using a dative case marker and the postposition =( ko.

14. -(z= =( ·(··(( ¬(·((|
larke ko gussa: a:ya:.
boy-obl to anger came
The boy was angry.

15. .·( ·((º -(·((|
use cot lagi:.
he-dat injury struck
He got injured.

4.3.2.1. Direct Object

Verbs are conventionally divided into intransitive and transitive on
the basis of whether they take a noun phrase as an object. Transitive
4. SYNTAX
214

verbs take noun phrases as their object and intransitive verbs do not.
In certain cases, the objects are understood and they do not appear at
the surface level. For example, see the use of the transitive verbs =r-((
kahna: ‘to say’ and +=-(( pu:chna: ‘to ask’ in sentences (16) and (17)
below.

16. -(-( =r(|
m´~ne kahi:.
I-erg said-fs
I said (it) to him/her.

17. .·(-( +=(|
usne pu:cha:.
he-erg asked-fs
He asked (it to) him/her.
In (16), the verb =r-(( kahna: is inflected for an implied generic
feminine object. Similarly, in (17), the verb +=-(( pu:chna: is
inflected for an implied generic masculine object. These sentences
can be completed as follows.

16a. -(-( .·(·( ¬+-(( ·((- =r(|
m´~ne usse apni: ba:t kahi:.
I-erg him/her selfs matter-fs told-fs
I told him/her my story.

17a. .·(-( r(-(·((-( +=(|
usne ha:lca:l pu:cha:.
he/she-erg welfare-ms asked-ms
He/she asked (him/her) welfare.

4.3.2.2. Indirect Object

Whenever direct and indirect objects occur in a sentence, the
indirect object receives the dative case markings. The order of the
direct and indirect object in a sentence mainly depends on the
emphasis given to these constituents in a given sentence. When
animate indirect objects precede direct objects, they get extra
emphasis. Notice the following examples of sentences using indirect
objects in the dative case.

4. SYNTAX
215

18. -(-( ¬((- =( i=-(·( :(|
m´~ne aji:t ko kita:b di:.
I-erg Ajit-dat book-fs gave-fs
I gave Ajit a book.

18a. -(-( i=-(·( ¬((- =( :(|
m´~ne kita:b aji:t ko di:.

19. ¬((- -( ¬+-(( +·-(( = i-(¤ ((-( = ·(:(|
aji:t ne apni: patni: ke liye ša:l xari:da:.
Ajit-erg selfs wife for shawl bought
Ajit bought his wife a shawl.

19a. ¬((- -( ((-( ¬+-(( +·-(( = i-(¤ =·(:(|
aji:t ne ša:l apni: patni: ke liye xari:da:.
Ajit-erg shawl selfs wife for bought
Ajit bought a shawl for his wife.

20. .-(( -( -(:( =(-(( i=-((·((|
uma: ne mujhe kha:na: khila:ya:.
Uma-erg I-obl food feed-fs
Uma offered the food to me.

20a. -(:( .-(( -( =(-(( i=-((·((|
mujhe uma ne kha:na: khila:ya:.
I-obl Uma-erg food feed-fs
Uma offered the food to me.

In (18), (19) and (20) the indirect objects receive more emphasis
than in (18a), (19a) and (20a).

4.3.2.3. Other Types of Verb Argument

Other types of verb arguments appear in the form of various
postpositional phrases. They include locatives, instruments,
benefactives, and comitatives.

There are no restrictions regarding the number of arguments
(subject, direct/indirect object, and optional arguments) put together
in a sentence. There are, of course, certain semantic restrictions,
including the selection of their cases (nominative, dative, and
ergative subjects), imposed by the choice of verbs and tense.
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216


In Hindi, the verb occurs in the final position. The unmarked word
order is subject, indirect object, direct object, adverbial (time,
locative), and verb. The direct object may occur before the indirect
object depending on the emphasis given to it. Consider sentences
(21)- (21c) below.

21. -((r-( -( +(º· =( ¬((- = i-(¤ =-( ·(· +· i=-(·( :(|
mohan ne pi:tar ko aji:t ke liye kal ghar par kita:b di:.
Mohan-erg Peter to Ajit for yesterday home at book gave
Mohan gave Peter a book for Ajit yesterday at home.

21a. -((r-( -( ¬((- = i-(¤ +(º· =( =-( ·(· +· i=-(·( :(|
mohan ne aji:t ke liye pi:tar ko kal ghar par kita:b di:.

21b. -((r-( -( +(º· =( ¬((- = i-(¤ ·(· +· =-( i=-(·( :(|
mohan ne pi:tar ko aji:t ke liye ghar par kal kita:b di:.

21c. -((r-( -( =-( +(º· =( ¬((- = i-(¤ ·(· +· i=-(·( :(|
mohan ne kal pi:tar ko aji:t ke liye ghar par kita:b di:.

In sentence (21), the direct object gets more emphasis than the
indirect object. The order of emphasis is reversed in sentence (21a).
Similarly, the adverbial phrase can also precede the direct or indirect
object for emphasis.

4.3.3. Negation

4.3.3.1. Sentential Negation

Sentential negation is expressed by the negative particles -(r( nahĩ:
not, -(- mat don’t, and -( na no. The negative particle -(r( nahĩ: is
added before the main verb, which may or may not be followed by
an auxiliary verb.

1. ·(r ¬((=-( :+-· -(r( ((-( r|
vah a:jkal daftar nahĩ: ja:ta: h´.
he nowadays office neg go-ptc is
He doesn’t go to the office nowadays.
4. SYNTAX
217


2. -(-( ·(r i=-(·( -(r( +c( (r)|
m´~ne yeh kita:b nahĩ: parhi: (h´).
I-erg this book neg read (have)
I have not read this book.

The particle -(- mat ‘don’t’ is used with imperative constructions. It
is added in the preverbal position.

3. ¬=·((· -(- +c(|
axba:r mat parho.
newspaper neg read
Don’t read the newspaper.

4. ¬(( ·(· -(- ((:¤|
a:j ghar mat ja:iye.
today home neg go-pl
Please don’t go home today.

The negative particle -(- mat can be replaced by -( na ‘no’, but it is
not used frequently.

3a. ¬=·((· -( +c( |
axba:r na parho.
Don’t read the newspaper.

4a. ¬(( ·(· -( ((:¤|
a:j ghar na ja:iye.
Please don’t go home today.

4.3.3.2. Constituent Negation

A number of devices are employed to mark constituent negation.
The main constituents are the stress and the use of a negative
particle after the negated constituent. Sometimes stress is used to
negate the constituent.

5. .·( =-( +·-(( ·( -(z -(( -(r( ·((ir¤ ·((|
use kal patni: se larna: nahĩ: ca:hiye tha:.
he-dat yesterday wife with quarrel neg should was
He should not have quarreled with his wife yesterday.
4. SYNTAX
218


6. .·( r· ·( ( (·(·( -(r( +(-(( ·((ir¤|
use har roz šara:b nahĩ: pi:ni: ca:hiye.
he every day liquor neg drink should
He should not drink (liquor) daily.

In sentences (5) and (6), the negated constituents are stressed by
stressing the adverbs.

The negative marker follows the negated constituent.

7. ·(r ·(· -(r( ·(·(( ·(r ¬·+-(-( ·(·((|
vah ghar nahĩ: gaya:, vah aspata:l gaya:.
he home neg went he hospital went
He did not go home; he went to the hospital.

7a. ·(r ·(· -(r( ·(·(( ¬·+-(-( ·(·((|
vah ghar nahĩ: gaya:, aspata:l gaya:.

The negative constituent is also expressed by the use of the negative
markers i·(·(( siva: except and i·(-(( bina: without added after the main
verbs as given below.

8. ·(r =(-(( =(¤ i·(-(( =(-(( ·(·((|
vah kha:na: kha:ye bina: ka:lej gaya:.
he food eat without college went
He went to college without eating.

9. .-(( = i·(·(( ·((· ·(-(·( +· ¬(¤|
uma: ke siva: sa:re samay par a:ye.
Uma gen without all time on came
All came on time except Uma.

In sentences (7) and (8), the negative markers cannot be replaced by
-(r( nahĩ:.

The indefinite markers =( : koi: ‘someone’ and == kuch ‘something’
and the question words =r( ·(( kahĩ: bhi: ‘anywhere’ and =·(( ·(( kabhi:
bhi: ‘ever’ are also used with negative constituents.
4. SYNTAX
219


10. =(: -(z=( ·=-( -(r( ·(·((|
koi: larka: sku:l nahĩ: gaya:.
someone student school neg went
No child went to school.

11. :--( +·( ·( == -(r( r(·((|
itne p´se se kuch nahĩ: hoga:.
this-obl money with something neg be-fut
This money is not sufficient.

12. .·(-( =-( ·( =(: =(-( -(r( i=·((|
usne kal se koi: ka:m nahĩ: kiya:.
he-erg yesterday from any work neg did
He has done no work since yesterday.

13. ¬i-(- =r( -(r( ·(·((|
amit kahĩ: nahĩ: gaya:.
Amit anywhere neg went
Amit went nowhere.

14. ·(r =(-( =·(( ·(( ··(·( -(r( r(·((|
yeh ka:m kabhi: bhi: vyarth nahĩ: hoga:.
this work ever waste neg be-fut
This work will never go waste.

Participles are also used along with negated constituents.

15. ¬i-(- :(z- - :(z - -(r( ¬(·((|
amit dørte - dørte nahĩ: a:ya:.
Amit run-ptc neg came
Amit did not come running.

The negative prefixes be- and an-, borrowed from Persian
(morphological negation) negate the constituent to which they are
prefixed.

16. ·(r ·(·r-( r |
vah beraham h´.
he without-mercy is
He is merciless.
4. SYNTAX
220

17. ·(r ·(i:-( =(-( =·-( r|
vah bedil ka:m karta: h´.
he without-heart work do-ptc is
He works uninterestingly.

4.3.3.3. Double/Multiple Negation

Hindi allows only one negative particle per clause. Double or
multiple negation markers are not used.

18. -( r:·(·((: -(r( ·(·(( r|
m´~ h´dara:ba:d nahĩ: gaya: hũ:.
I Hyderabad neg went be
I have not gone to Hyderabad.

It is, however, possible to use double negation markers for
emphasis.

19. -( -((·=( -(r( -( ·(·(( r|
m´~ ma:sko nahĩ: na gaya: hũ:.
I Moscow neg neg went be
Have I ever gone to Moscow? Or
I have never gone to Moscow.

4.3.3.4. Negation and Coordination

Negation occurs in coordinate structures as it does in simple
sentences. The negative element is not moved to the co-ordinate
position unless the identical element is deleted from the second
negative conjunct. It is only in the -( na … -( na ‘neither … nor’
situation that negative elements are used sentence initially.

20. -( ¬i-(- -((=·( =·-( r ¬(· -( =(·(·((·|
na amit nøkri: karta: h´ ør na karoba:r.
neg Amit service do-prt is and neg business
Amit has neither a job nor a business.

20a. ¬i-(- -((=·( -(r( =·-( r|
amit nøkri: nahĩ: karta: h´.
Amit job neg do-pr is
Amit is not doing a job.
4. SYNTAX
221

20b. ¬i-(- =(·(·((· -(r( =·-( r|
amit ka:roba:r nahĩ: karta: h´.
Amit business neg do-ptc is
Amit is not doing a business.

4.3.3.5. Negation and Subordination

With predicates expressing opinion (+-( r(-(( pata: hona: ‘to know’,
expectation/ intention (·((r-(( ca:hna: ‘to want’), or perception (-(·(-((
lagna: ‘to seem’ and i·(·((· r(-(( vica:r hona: ‘to have an opinion/to
think’), the matrix verb can be negated to express subordinate
negation.

21. -(:( +-( r i= ·(r -(r( ¬(¤·((|
mujhe pata: h´ ki vah nahĩ: a:yega:.
I-obl know is that he neg come-fut
I know that he will not come.

22. -(:( -(·(-( r i= ¬(( ·((i·( -(r( r(·((|
mujhe lagta: h´ ki a:j ba:riš nahĩ: hogi:.
I-dat seem-ptc is that today rain neg be-fut
It seems to me that it won’t rain today.

23. -( ·((r-( r i= ·(r =(·(·((· -(r( =·|
m´~ ca:hta: hũ: ki vah karoba:r nahĩ: kare.
I want-ptc am that he business neg do-subjunctive
I don’t want him to do business.

24. -(·( i·(·((· r i= .·( ·(r -((=·( -(r( =·-(( ·((ir¤|
mera: vica:r h´ ki use vah nøkri: nahĩ: karni: ca:hiye.
my opinion is that he-obl this job neg do-inf should
In my opinion, he should not take this job.

The negative particle -(r( nahĩ: can occur before the modal verbs +-(
r(-(( pata: hona:, -(·(-(( lagna: and ·((r-(( ca:hna: but not before i·(·((· r(-((
vica:r hona:. Thus, sentences (21-23) can be rephrased as (21a-23a)
but not as (24a).

21a. -(:( -(r( +-( i= ·(r ¬(¤·(( (i= -(r()|
mujhe nahĩ: pata: ki vah a:yega: (ki nahĩ:).

4. SYNTAX
222

22a. -(:( -(r( -(·(-( r i= ¬(( ·((i·( r(·((|
mujhe nahĩ: lagta: h´ ki a:j ba:riš hogi:.

23a. -( -(r( ·((r-( i= ·(r =(·(·((· =·|
m´~ nahĩ: cahta: ki vah ka:roba:r kare.

24a. *-(:( -(r( i·(·((· r i=
*mujhe nahĩ: vica:r h´ ki.

4.3.4. Interrogative

There are two types of interrogative sentences: yes-no questions and
information questions using question-words. These questions are
marked by certain intonation characteristics.

4.3.4.1. Yes-No Questions

On the basis of the expected answer, yes-no questions can be put
into two categories: (a) neutral yes-no questions (where a definite
answer is not expected) and (b) leading yes-no questions (where
either an affirmative or a negative answer is expected).

4.3.4.1.1. Neutral Yes-No Questions

Neutral yes-no questions are formed by the optional placement of
the question word +·(( kya: what in the sentence initial position of a
declarative sentence. Note that the use of the question marker +·((
kya: in neutral questions is different from its use in the question-
word questions. In question-word questions, +·(( kya: usually occurs
in the second position, and in yes-no questions it occurs only in the
initial position.

1. --( =-( i:--(( ((¬(·(|
tum kal dilli: ja:oge.
you tomorrow Delhi go-fut tomorrow
You will go to Delhi tomorrow.

1a. (+·(() --( =-( i:--(( ((¬(·(?
(kya:) tum kal dilli: ja:oge?
(Q-word) you tomorrow Delhi go
Will you go to Delhi tomorrow?
4. SYNTAX
223

1b. --( +·(( =-( i:--(( ((¬(·(?
tum kya: kal dilli: ja:oge?

A declarative sentence can be converted to a neutral yes-no question
without adding any question marker by raising the intonation at the
end of the verb.

A negative declarative sentence is changed to a yes-no question by
adding the negative morpheme before the verb.

2. --( =-( i:--(( ((¬(·(|
tum kal dilli: nahĩ: ja:oge.
you tomorrow Delhi neg go-fut
You won’t go to Delhi tomorrow.

2a. (+·(() --( =-( i:--(( -(r( ((¬(·(?
(kya:) tum kal dilli: nahĩ: ja:oge?
(Q) you tomorrow Delhi neg go-fut
Won’t you go to Delhi tomorrow?

2b. --( +·(( =-( i:--(( -(r( ((¬(·(?
tum kya: kal dilli nahĩ: ja:oge?
Aren’t you going to Delhi tomorrow?

A negativized yes-no question invokes multiple answers. Consider
the answers to questions (3) and (4):

3. --( ·(r i=--( -(r( : =(·(?
tum yah film nahĩ: dekhoge?
you this picture neg watch-fut
Won’t you watch this film?

3a. r(, -( :=·(( (·(r i=--().
hã:, m´~ dekhũ:ga: (yeh film).
yes I watch-1s-fut (this film).
Yes, I’ll see (this film).

3b. -(r(, -( :=·(( -(r( (·(r i=--().
nahĩ:, m´~ dekhũ:ga: nahĩ: (yeh film).
neg I see-fut neg (this film)
No, I won’t watch (this film).
4. SYNTAX
224

3c. r(, -( :=·(( -(r(|
hã:, m´~ dekhũ:ga: nahĩ:.
yes, I watch-1s-fut neg
Yes, I won’t watch.

3d. -(r(, -( :=·((|
nahĩ:, m´~ dekhũ:ga:.
neg I watch-fut
No, I’ll watch.

4. ¬(( ·(:( r -((?
a:j sardi: h´ na:?
today cold is neg-Q
Isn’t it cold today?

4a. r(, ¬(( ·(:( r|
hã:, a:j sardi: h´.
yes today cold is
Yes, it is cold today.

4b. -(r(, ¬(( ·(:( -(r( r|
nahĩ:, a:j sardi: nahĩ: h´.
Neg today cold neg is
No, it isn’t cold today.

4c. r(, ¬(( ·(:( -(r( r |
hã:, a:j sardi: nahĩ: h´.
yes today cold neg is
Yes, it isn’t cold today.

4d. -(r(, ¬(( ·(:( -(r( r|
nahĩ:, a:j sardi: nahĩ: h´.
neg today cold neg is
No, it isn’t cold today.

In these examples, the (a-b) answers indicate positive-negative and
the (c-d) indicate agreement-disagreement answering systems. The
agreement-disagreement answering systems are less frequently used
than the positive-negative ones.

4. SYNTAX
225

4.3.4.1.2. Leading Questions

Leading questions are formed by adding the repetitive form of the
verb negative or positive question markers -(r( nahĩ: and r( hã:
respectively at the end of a declarative sentence to serve as tag
questions. The tag question comprising of the verb + -(( na: is
preceded by a positive proposition and the tag question of the verb +
r( hã: is preceded by the negative proposition.

The expectation of a positive answer is expressed by an affirmative
proposition preceding the verb + -(( na: as a tag question.

5. ¬(( ·(-(( r, r -((?
a:j garmi: h´, h´ na:?
today hot is is neg-q
It is hot today, isn’t it?

6. ·(r i=-(·( +c·((, +c·(( -((?
vah kita:b parhega:, parhega: na:?
he book read-3s-fut read-3s-fut neg-q
He will read a letter, won’t he?

The expectation of a negative answer is expressed by a negative
proposition preceding the verb + -(( na: or the repetition of the verb
form as a tag question.

7. ¬(( ·(-(( -(r( r, -((?
a:j garmi: nahĩ: h´, na:?
today hot neg is neg-q
It isn’t hot today, is it?

8. ·(r +| -(r( +c·((, +c·((?
vah patr nahĩ: parhega:, parhega:?
he letter neg read-3s-fut read-3s-fut-q
He won’t read a letter, will he?

Note that the occurrence of certain negative polarity markers such as
+r-( pahle, ·((z thore ‘ever’ in the interrogative sentence also invoke
a negative answer.

4. SYNTAX
226

9. ·(r +r-(/·((z =(-( =·-( r?
vah pahle/thore ka:m karta: h´?
he ever work do-ptc.ms is
Does he ever work?

Alternative questions are formed by adding the expression i= -(r( ki
nahĩ: ‘or not’ at the end of an interrogative yes-no question.

10. --( +| i-(=(·( i= -(r(?
tum patr likhoge ki nahĩ:?
you letter write-3s or not
Will you write a letter or not?

An alternative form of this question will be:

10a. --( +| i-(=(·( i= -(r( i-(=(·(?
tum patr likhoge ki nahĩ: likhoge?
you letter write-fut or neg write-fut
Will you write the letter or not?

4.3.4.2. Question-Word Questions

Interrogative sentences with wh- question words are referred to as =-
k-questions in Hindi because question words begin with the =- k-
sound. Question words always occur in the second position of
interrogative sentences. The main question words are +·(( kya: what,
=(-( køn ‘who’, =r( kahã: ‘where’, =·(( k´sa: how, +·(( kyõ ‘why’, i=--((
kitna: ‘how much’, =·( kab ‘when’ and i=·(· kidhar ‘in what
direction’. The question word is always stressed.

11. ·(r +·(( r?
yeh kya: h´?
this what is
What is this?

12. -((r-( =r( r?
mohan kahã: h´?
Mohan where is
Where is Mohan?

4. SYNTAX
227

13. --( +·(( ¬(¤?
tum kyõ a:ye?
you why come-2pl
Why did you come?

14. --( =·( ¬(¬(·(?
tum kab a:oge?
you when come-2s-fut
When will you come?

15. ·(r i=·(· ((¤·((?
vah kidhar ja:yega:?
he where go-3s-fut
Where will he go?

The question words =·(( kaisa: and i=--(( kitna: agree with the
following or preceding noun in number and gender. They have the
following three forms.

Masculine Feminine
Sg Pl Sg / Pl
=·(( k´sa: =·( k´se =·(( k´si: how
i=--(( kitna: i=--( kitne i=--(( kitni: how much

16. ·(r -(z=( =·(( r?
yeh larka: k´sa: h´?
this boy how is
How is this boy?

17. ·( -(z= =·( r?
ye larke k´se h´~?
these boys how are
How are these boys?

18. ·(r ·(z( =·(( r?
yeh ghari: k´si: h´?
this watch-f how is
How is this watch?

4. SYNTAX
228

19. ·( ·(iz·(( =·(( r?
ye ghariyã: k´si: h´~?
these watches how are
How are these watches?

20. ·(r +-( i=--(( -(·(( r?
yeh pul kitna: lamba: h´?
this bridge how much long is
How long is this bridge?

21. ·( i=--( ·(··( r?
ye kitne bacce h´~?
these how many children are
How many children are there?

22. ·(r i=--(( ·(z( i=-(·( r ?
vah kitni: bari: kita:b h´?
that how big-fs book-f is
How big is that book?

23. ·( =i·(·(( i=--(( =( º( r?
ve kursiyã: kitni: choti: h´~?
those chairs how small are
How small are those chairs?

The question words +·(( kya: what and =(-( køn who have the oblique
forms i=·( kis (Sg) and i=-( kin (Pl) which are followed by case
suffixes and postpositions. The oblique forms of postpositions are
inflected for number as follows.

Masculine/Feminine
Sg Pl
i=·( kise i=-r kinhẽ to what/whom
i=·( =( kis ko i=-( =( kin ko to whom
i=·( ·( kis se i=-( ·( kin se by what/whom
i=·( -( kis ne i=-(r(-( kinhõne who
i=·( = ·((·( kis ke sa:th i=-( = ·((·( kin ke sa:th with whom
i=·( +· kis par i=-( +· kin par on
i=·( =( kis ka: i=-( =( kin ka: whose

4. SYNTAX
229

24. ·(r i=-(·( i=·(/i=·( =( :-(( r?
yeh kita:b kise/kis ko deni: h´?
this book who give-inf-f aux
To whom is this book to be given? Or
Who is this book to be given to?

25. i=·( -(z=/-(z=( =( ((-(( r?
kis larke/larki: ko jana: h´?
who-obl boy-dat/girl-dat go-Inf aux
Which boy/girl has to go?

26. i=-( -(z=(/-(zi=·(( =( ¬(-(( r?
kin larkõ/larkiyõ ko a:na: h´?
who.pl-dat boys-dat/girls-dat come-inf is
Which boys/girls have to come?

27. ·(r i=·( (r·/i=-( (r·( ·( ¬(¤·((?
vah kis šahar/kin šahrõ se a:yega:?
he which-abl city-abl/cities-abl from come-3s-fut
Which city/cities will he come from?

28. ·(r i=·(-( /i=-r( -( ·(·( =(·((?
yeh kisne/kinhõne seb kha:ya:?
this who-erg-ms/-fs/-p apple ate-ms
Who ate this apple?

29. ·(r i=·(=( ·(-(( r?
yeh kiska: bana: h´?
this what-of made is
What is it made of?

30. ·( i=·(= ·(-( r?
ye kiske bane h´~?
these which-gen-ms made-mp are
What are these made of?

31. ·(r i=·(=( ·(-(( r?
ye kiski: bani: h´~?
these which-gen-fp are
Which are these made of?

4. SYNTAX
230

32. ·(r i=·(=(/i=-(=( -(=(-( r?
yeh kiska:/kinka: maka:n h´?
this who-s-gen-ms/-p-gen-ms house is
Whose house is this?

33. ·(r i=·( =(/i=-( =( i=-(·( r?
yeh kiski:/kinki: kita:b h´?
this who-s-gen-fs/-p-gen-fs book is
Whose book is this?

34. ·( i=·(=/i=-(= +: r?
ye kiske/kinke parde h´~?
these who-s-gen-mp/-p-gen-mp curtains are
Whose curtains are these?

35. ·( i=·(=(/i=-(=( =-((( r ?
ye kiski:/kinki: kami:zẽ h´~?
these who-gen-fp shirts are
Whose shirts are these?

When question words are combined with postpositions they create
adverbials like =r( ·( kahã: se ‘in which direction’, =·( k´se/ i=·( -·r
kis tarah ‘in what manner’, and =r( kahã:/ =r( +· kahã: par
‘wherein’.

36. ·(r =r( ((¤·((?
vah kaha~: ja:yega:.
vah where go-fut
Where will he go?

37. ·(r i=·( -·r ¬(¤·((?
vah kis tarah a:yega:.
he what manner come-fut
How will he come?

38. ¬(+ =r( ·( ((¤·( ?
a:p kahã: se ja:ẽge?
you-p which direction go-2p-fut
Where will you go from? Or
In which direction will you go?

4. SYNTAX
231

39. ¬(+ =·( ¬(¤·(?
a:p k´se a:ẽge?
you how (manner) come-2p-fut
How will you come?

40. ·(r =r( (+·) ·(=( r(·((?
vah kahã: (par) b´tha: hoga:?
He where (at) sit-PP be-fut
Where will he be sitting?

The question words are reduplicated when the expected answer
provide a list (of more that one thing, person, event, etc.).
Reduplication is obligatory with plural nouns.

41. ¬(+-( +·(( +·(( :=(?
a:pne kya: kya: dekha:?
you-p-erg what what saw-2p-Pa
What items did you see?

42. ·(r =r( =r( ·(·((?
vah kahã: kahã: gaya:?
he where where went
Which places did he visit?

The masculine plural forms of pronouns are used for honorific
singular subjects as well.

Different constituents of the main clause can be questioned as may
be seen in sentence (43) below.

43. ¬-(· -( =-( ((-(( =( ¬+-( ·(· ¤= =-((( i:=(: |
amar ne kal ši:la: ko apne ghar ek kami:z dikha:i:.
Amar-erg yesterday Shiela to selfs house a shirt showed-fs
Amar showed a shirt to Shiela at his home yesterday.

Subject
43a. i=·(-( =-( ((-(( =( ¬+-( ·(· ¤= =-((( i:=(:?
kisne kal ši:la: ko apne ghar ek kami:z dikha:i:?
Who showed a shirt to Shiela at his home yesterday?

4. SYNTAX
232

Direct object
43b. ¬-(· -( =-( ((-(( =( ¬+-( ·(· +·(( i:=(·((?
amar ne kal ši:la: ko apne ghar kya: dikha:ya:?
What did Amar show Shiela at his home yesterday?

Indirect object
43c. ¬-(· -( i=·(=( =-( ¬+-( ·(· ¤= =-((( i:=(:?
amar ne kisko kal apne ghar ek kami:z dikha:i?
To whom did Amar show a shirt at his home yesterday?

Time adverbial
43d. ¬-(· -( =·( ((-(( =( ¬+-( ·(· ¤= =-((( i:=(:?
amar ne kab ši:la: ko apne ghar ek kami:z dikha:i:?
When did Amar show Shiela a shirt at his home?

Location adverbial
43e. ¬-(· -( =r( =-( ((-(( =( ¤= =-((( i:=(:?
amar ne kahã: kal ši:la: ko ek kami:z dikha:i:?
Where did Amar show a new shirt to Shiela?

It is not possible to use simple questions word for questioning a
constituent of a verb. Usually the verb phrase +·(( i=·(( kya: kiya: ‘do
what’ is used for transitive verbs and +·(( r¬( kya: hua: ‘what
happened’ is used for intransitive verbs.

43f. ¬-(· -( =-( ¬+-( ·(· +·(( i=·((?
amar ne kal apne ghar kya: kiya:?
Amar-erg yesterday self-obl-home what did
What did Amar do at his home yesterday?

43g. ¬-(· = ·(· =-( +·(( r¬(?
amar ke ghar kal kya: hua:?
Amar-gen home yesterday what happened
What happened at Amars house yesterday?

In non-equational copular interrogative sentences, all the elements
except the verb may be questioned. In examples (44-47) the subject,
the accompanier, locative, and time adverbial have been questioned.
The copular verb cannot be deleted as shown in in (44a-47a).

4. SYNTAX
233

44. =(-( r?
køn h´?
who is-3s
Who is (there)?

44a. *=(-(?
*køn?

45. --( i=·(= ·((·( r(?
tum kiske sa:th ho?
you who-gen with are-2s
Who are you with?

45a. --( i=·(= ·((·(?
*tum kiske sa:th?

46. i=-(·( =r( r?
kita:b kahã: h´?
book-fs where-abl is
Where is the book?

46a. *i=-(·( =r(?
*kita:b kahã:?

47. =ºº( =·( r?
chutti: kab h´?
holiday when is
When is the holiday?

47a. *=ºº( =·(?
*chutti: kab?

In equational copular interrogative sentences, either the subject noun
phrase or the predicate nominal can be questioned. The
demonstrative pronoun used as a subject cannot be questioned.
Consider the following examples.

48. ·(r +:( r |
yeh parda: h´.
it curtain is
It is a curtain.
4. SYNTAX
234


48a. ·(r +·(( r?
yeh kya: h´?
it what is-3s
What is it?

48b. *+·(( +:( r?
*kya: parda: h´?

49. ·(r i=-(·( r|
yeh kita:b h´.
this book is
This is a book.

49a. ·(r +·(( r?
yeh kya: h´?
this what is-f
What is this?

49b. *+·(( i=-(·( r?
*kya: kita:b h´?

Different constituents of subordinate clauses can be questioned.
There are two types of subordinate clauses: finite and non-finite. As
is the case with matrix sentences, all elements of these clauses can
be questioned. Constituents, which undergo deletion in the process
of non-finitization, however, cannot be questioned. This supports the
argument that the question formation rule applies after the rules for
non-finitization of the subordinate clauses take place.

50. (+·(() ¬(+=( +-( r -((r-( -( ¬-(· =( =-(
kya: a:pko pata: h´ mohan ne amar ko kal
Q you-dat knowledge is Mohan-erg Amar-dat yesterday
i=-(·( :(¨
kita:b di:?
book gave-f
Do you know that Mohan gave a book to Amar yesterday?
4. SYNTAX
235


Subject
50a. (+·(() ¬(+=( +-( r ¬-(· =( i=·(-( =-( i=-(·( :(?
(kya:) a:pko pata: h´ amar ko kisne kal kita:b di:?
You know who gave a book to Amar yesterday?

Direct object
50b. (+·(() ¬(+=( +-( r i= -((r-( -( =-( ¬-(· =( +·(( i:·((?
(kya:) a:pko pata: h´ ki mohan ne kal amar ko kya: diya:?
Do you know what Mohan gave to Amar yesterday?

Indirect object
50c. (+·(() ¬(+=( +-( r i= -((r-( -( i=·(=( =-( i=-(·( :(?
(kya:)a:pko pata: h´ mohan ne kisko kal kita:b di:?
You know to whom Mohan gave a book yesterday?

Time adverbial
50d. (+·(() ¬(+=( +-( r i= -((r-( -( =·( ¬-(· =( i=-(·( :(?
(kya:) a:pko pata: h´ ki mohan ne kab amar ko kita:b di?
You know when Mohan gave the book to Amar?

The questioning of the constituent clauses may also involve
questioning of the matrix clause.

Note that no constituent of a finite relative clause can be questioned.

51. ·-(( ·( (( :(·- ¬(( i-(-(( ·(r ·((-((= r|
rameš se jo dost a:j mila: vah ca:la:k h´.
Ramesh-abl rel friend today met he clever is
The friend who met Ramesh is clever.

51a. *·-(( ·( =(-( :(·- ¬(( i-(-(( ·((-((= r?
*rameš ka: køn dost a:j mila: ca:la:k h´?

Constituents of non-finite subordinate clauses which comprise
infinitival and participial phrases can be questioned.

52. ·(r =(-(( =(- r¤ ¬=·((· +c ·r( ·((|
vah kha:na: kha:te hue akhba:r parh raha: tha:.
he food eating-part newspaper read-prog was
He was reading a newspaper while eating his meal.
4. SYNTAX
236


Direct object
52a. ·(r =·(( =(- r¤ ¬=·((· +c ·r( ·((?
vah kya: kha:te hue akhba:r parh raha: tha:?
What was he eating while reading a newspaper?

53. ·(r ·((·( +(- r¤ ·(··( =( +c( ·r( ·((|
vah ca:y pi:te hue bacce ko parha: raha: tha:.
he tea drinking-part child-dat teach-prog was
He was teaching the child while drinking his tea?

Indirect object
53a. ·(r i=·( =( ·((·( +(- r¤ +c( ·r( ·((?
vah kis ko ca:y pi:te hue parha: raha: tha:?
Who was he teaching while drinking his tea?

54. ·(r ·(( = ·((·( ·((- =·- r¤ (( ·r( ·((|
vah ra:j ke sa:th ba:tẽ karte hue ja: raha: tha:.
he Raj with talk do-ptc go-prog was
He was talking to Raj while going.

Object of a postposition
54a. ·(r i=·(= ·((·( ·((- =·- r¤ (( ·r( ·((?
vah kiske sa:th ba:tẽ karte hue ja: raha: tha:?
Who was he talking to while going?

The subject of the subordinate clauses undergoes deletion in
sentences (52a-54a) because it is co-referential to the subject of the
matrix sentence. All the constituents of gerundive and infinitival
clause can be questioned.

55. ·(r +·(( =·-( i:--(( ·(·((?
vah kya: karne dilli: gaya:?
he what do-inf-obl Delhi went
Why did he go to Delhi?

56. -((·º· -( -(z= =( +| i-(=-( = i-(¤ =r(|
ma:star ne larke ko patr likhne ke liye kaha:.
teacher-erg student-dat letter write-inf-obl for told
The teacher asked the student to write a letter?
4. SYNTAX
237


56a. -((·º· -( -(z= =( +·(( =·-( = i-(¤ =r(?
ma:star ne larke ko kya: karne ke liye kaha:?
What did the teacher ask his student to do?

56b. -((·º· -( -(z= =( +·(( i-(=-( = i-(¤ =r(?
ma:star ne larke ko kya: likhne ke liye kaha:?
What did the father ask his son to write?

Different constituents of a noun phrase can be questioned. A noun
phrase may be made up of any of the following: (a) demonstrative
pronoun, (b) quantifier, (c) intensifier, (d) descriptive adjective, (e)
classifier/specifier, (f) possessive adjective, (g) possessor, (h)
particle and a noun. Nouns may also modify relative clauses and
objects of comparison.

Demonstrative pronoun
57a. ·(r =(º( -(z=( ·(· ((¤·((|
yeh choti: larki: ghar ja:yegi:.
this little girl home go-3s-fut
This little girl will go home.

57b. =(-( ·(( =( º( -(z=( ·(· ((¤·((?
køn si: choti: larki: ghar ja:yegi:?
Which little girl will go home?

Quantifier (cardinal number)
58a. -((r-( = -(-( :(·- =-( ¬(¤·(|
mohan ke ti:n dost kal a:yẽge.
Mohan-gen three friends tomorrow come-3p-fut
Mohans three friends will come tomorrow.

58b. -((r-( = -(-( :(·- =-( ¬(¤·(?
mohan ke kitne dost kal a:yẽge?
How many friends of Mohan will come tomorrow?

Quantifier (ordinal number)
59a. .·(=( -(·(·( ·(º( i:--(( -( r|
uska: ti:sra: beta: dilli: mẽ h´.
he-gen third son Delhi in is
His third son is in Delhi.
4. SYNTAX
238

59b. .·(=( =(-( ·(( ·(º( i:--(( -( r ?
uska: køn sa: beta: dilli: mẽ h´?
Which son of his is in Delhi?

Quantifier (proportional number)
60a. ·(r r-((( ·((·( -(( =·( =·-( r |
vah hameša: cguna: kharc karta: h´.
he always four times expenditure do-pr is
He always incurs four times the expenses of everyone else.

60b. ·(r i=--( ·(-(( =·( =·-( r?
vah kitne guna: kharc karta: h´?
How many times the expenditure of everyone else does he
incur?

Descriptive adjective
61a. +--(( -(z=( ·((z +· -(r( ·(c ·(=-(|
patla: larka: ghore par nahĩ: carh sakta:.
slim boy horse on neg ride can-ptc
The slim boy cannot ride the horse.

61b. =(-( ·(( -(z=( =(· -(r( ·(-(( ·(=-(?
køn si: larki: ka:r nahĩ: cala: sakti:?
Which girl cannot drive the car?

Intensifier
62a. ·-(( ·(r- r( -(·(( -(z=( r|
rama: bahut hi: lambi: larki: h´.
Rama very (intensifier) tall-fs girl is
Rama is a very tall girl.

62b. ·-(( i=--(( -(·(( -(z =( r?
rama: kitni: lambi: larki: h´?
How tall a girl is Rama?

Possessive adjective
63a. -((r-( =( =(-(( i:--(( -( r |
mohan ka: ka:lej dilli: mẽ h´.
Mohan-gen college is Delhi-loc is in
Mohan’s college is in Delhi.
4. SYNTAX
239

63b. i=·(=( =(-(( i:--(( -( r?
kiska: ka:lej dilli: mẽ h´?
Whose college is in Delhi?

Specifier/classifier
64a. -((r-( =( ·(z( ·((-(( ·(º( ·((-((· r |
mohan ka: bara: va:la: beta: bi:ma:r h´.
Mohan-gen elder (specifier) son sick is
Mohan’s elder son is sick.

64b. -((r-( =( =(-( ·(( ·(º( ·((-((· r?
mohan ka: køn sa: beta: bi:ma:r h´?
Which of Mohans sons is sick?

Particles r( hi: and ·(( bhi: cannot be questioned.

65a. --( r( ((¬(|
tum hi: ja:o.
you-par go-3s-fut
Only you go.

65b. *=(-( r( ((¬(|
*køn hi: ja:o.

66. ·(r ·(( ¬(+= ·((·( ¬(¤·((|
vah bhi: a:pke sa:th a:ega:.
he-part you-gen with come-3s-fut
Hell also come with you.

66a. *=(-( ·(( ¬(+= ·((·( ¬(¤·((|
*køn bhi: a:pke sa:th a:ega:.

A comparative phrase can also modify a noun phrase.

Object of comparison
67a. -(-( ·(-(( ·( -(·(( -(z=( :=(|
m´~ne rajini se lambi: larki: dekhi:.
I-erg Rajni-abl than tall-fs girl saw-fs
I saw a girl taller than Rajni.

4. SYNTAX
240

67b. -(-( i=·(·( -(·(( -(z =( :=(|
m´~ne kis-se lambi: larki: dekhi:?
I-erg who-abl tall girl saw-fut
I saw a girl taller than whom?

There are two types of relative clauses: non-finite and finite. No
constituent of a finite relative clause can be questioned. Any element
of a non-finite relative clause, except the subject, can be questioned.

68. ·(r ·(··(( =( +·( :-( ·((-(( r|
yeh baccõ ko p´se dene va:la: h´.
he children-dat money give-inf aux
He is going to give money to the children.

Direct object of a non-finite relative clause
68a. ·(r ·(··(( =( +·(( : -( ·((-(( r ?
yeh baccõ ko kya: dene va:la: h´?
What is he going to give to the children?

Indirect object of a non-finite relative clause
68b. ·(r i=-(=( +·( :-( ·((-(( r?
yeh kinko p´se dene va:la: h´?
Who he is going to give money to?

Elements of a postpositional phrase can also be questioned. A
postpositional phrase consists of a head noun followed by a
postposition. The postposition assigns the case to the head noun. The
noun phrase elements of a postpositional phrase can be questioned.
The noun phrase, which is followed by a postposition, is in the
oblique case.

69. :·( -(( +· =(=( r|
is mez par ka:kaz h´.
this-obl table on paper is
There is paper on this table.

69a. i=·( -(( +· =(=( r?
kis mez par ka:kaz h´?
Which table is the paper on?

4. SYNTAX
241

69b. =(=( i=·( +· r?
ka:kaz kis par h´?
What is the paper (placed) on?

70. -((r-( = ·(· = +(·( :=(-( r|
mohan ke ghar ke pa:s duka:n h´.
Mohan-poss house near shop is
There is a shop near Mohans house.

70a. i=·(= ·(· = +(·( :=(-( r?
kiske ghar ke pa:s duka:n h´?
Near whose house is there a shop?

70b. i=·(= +(·( :=(-( r ?
kiske pa:s duka:n h´?
Near which place is a shop?

It is only the noun phrase elements of a postpositional phrase which
can be questioned, not the postpositions.

Elements of a coordinate structure can be questioned. The
coordinate structures are formed either by juxtaposition or by the use
of a conjunction.

Juxtaposition
71. ((-(( i·(º=( i-(=-( = i-(¤ =(=( =-(-( -((:|
ši:la: citthi: likhne ke liye ka:kaz kalam la:i:.
Shiela letter write-inf for paper pen brought
Shiela brought paper and pen for writing a letter.

71a. ((-(( =(=( =-(-( +·(( i-(=-( = i-(¤ -((:?
ši:la: ka:kaz kalam kya: likhne ke liye la:i:?

71b. ((-(( i·(º=( i-(=-( = i-(¤ +·(( -((:?
ši:la: citthi: likhne ke liye kya: la:i:?

Conjunction
72. -((r-( ¬(· ¬((- i:--(( ·(¤|
mohan r aji:t dilli: gae.
Mohan and Ajit Delhi went
Mohan and Ajit went to Delhi.
4. SYNTAX
242


72a. -((r-( ¬(· =(-( ·(¤?
mohan r kn gae?
Mohan and who went? (Mohan went with whom?)

72b. *=(-( ¬(· ¬((- i:--(( ·(¤?
*køn ør aji:t dilli: gae?
Who and Ajit went to Delhi?

72c. =(-( =(-( i:--(( ·(¤?
køn køn dilli: gae?
Who (are the ones who) went to Delhi?

73. (((-(( ¬(· -(( r-( -( ¬+-(( ¬+-(( =(-( ·(-((- i=·((|
ši:la: ør mohan ne apna: ka:m sama:pt kiya:.
Shiela and Mohan-erg self’s work finish did
Shiela and Mohan finished their work.

73a. (((-(( ¬(· i=·(-( ¬+-(( =(-( ·(-((- i=·((?
ši:la: r kisne apna: apna: ka:m sama:pt kiya:?
Shiela and who finished their work?

73b. *i=·(-( ¬(· ((-(( -( ¬+-(( =(-( ·(-((- i=·((?
*kisne ør ši:la: ne apna: ka:m sama:pt kiya:?
Who and Shiela finished their work?

73c. i=·( i=·( -( =(-( ·(-((- i=·((?
kis kis ne ka:m sama:pt kiya:?
Who (are the ones who) finished their work?

74. .·(-( i·(º=( i-(=( ¬(· i=-(·( +c(|
usne citthi: likhi: ør kita:b parhi:.
he-erg letter wrote-fs and book read-fs
He wrote a letter and read a book.

74a. *.·(-( i·(º=( i-(=( ¬(· +·(( +c (?
*usne citthi: likhi: ør kya: parhi:?

74b. *.·(-( +·(( i-(=( ¬(· i=-(·( +c(?
*usne kya: likhi: ør kita:b parhi:?
4. SYNTAX
243


74c. .·(-( i·(º=( i-(=( ¬(· +·(( i=·((?
usne citthi: likhi: ør kya: kiya:?
He wrote a letter and what else did he do?

74d. .·(-( +·(( +·(( i=·((?
usne kya: kya: kiya:?
What are the things he did?

75. .·(-( ·( º( =(: ¬( · :·( i+·((|
usne roti: kha:i: ør du:dh piya:.
He-erg bread ate-fs and milk drank-ms
He ate bread and drank milk.

75a. .·(-( ·( º( =(: ¬( · +·(( i+·((?
usne roti: kha:i: ør kya: piya:?
He ate bread and what did he drink?

75b. *.·(-( +·(( =(·(( ¬(· : ·( i+·((?
usne kya: kha:ya: ør du:dh piya:?

No part of the juxtaposition phrase can be questioned. The
questioning of the first element of a coordinate noun phrase results
in the formation of ill-formed sentences as in (73b) and (75b).
Similarly, in the coordinate verb phrases, the object of the first verb
phrase cannot be questioned.

There is no constraint on the number of constituents of a sentence
that can be questioned at one time. The multiple question-word
questions are normally used at the end of the narration of a story,
especially a folk tale, for checking the comprehension of the
listeners.

76. -((r-( =-( ¬-(· = ·((·( ·((·( :=-( ·(·((|
mohan kal amar ke sa:th ba:g dekhne gaya:.
Mohan yesterday Amar with garden see-inf-obl went
Mohan went to see the garden with Amar yesterday.

76a. -((r-( =-( +·(( :=-( ·(·(( ¬-(· = ·((·(?
mohan kal kya: dekhne gaya: amar ke sa:th?
What did Mohan go to see with Amar yesterday?
4. SYNTAX
244


76b. -((r-( =·( +·(( :=-( ·(·(( ¬-(· = ·((·(?
mohan kab kya: dekhne gaya: amar ke sa:th?
What did Mohan go to see with Amar and when?

76c. -((r-( i=·(= ·((·( +·(( :=-( =-( ·(·((?
mohan kiske sa:th kya: dekhne kal gaya:?
Who did Mohan go with to see what yesterday?

76d. -((r-( =·( i=·(= ·((·( +·(( :=-( ·(·((?
mohan kab kiske sa:th kya: dekhne gaya:?
When did Mohan go with whom (and) for seeing what?

Question-words are reduplicated when the expected answer is a
listing of persons, items, or events. Multi-question-word questions
are used when information about different things is wanted all at the
same time in one answer.

77. =(-( =(-( =·( =·( i=-( i=-( = +(·( ((-( r?
køn køn kab kab kin kin ke pa:s ja:ta: h´?
who when whom near go-ptc is
Who (which individual) goes with whom (which individual)
where/what places (and) when?

This sentence can be used by an employer seeking information
regarding his/her employees. Question-words which are not used in
plural cannot be reduplicated. For example, the question word kyõ
why cannot be used in its reduplicated form.

78. *=(-( =(-( =·( =·( +·(( +·(( ((-( r ?
*køn køn kab kab kyõ kyõ ja:ta: h´?

The constituents of both the main and subordinate clauses can be
questioned at the same time and the question words can be
reduplicated.

79. i=·(=( ·(·( -( =(-( =(-( =r( =r( i=·( i=·( = +(·( ((-( r?
kiski: ra:y mẽ køn køn kahã: kahã: kis kis ke pa:s ja:ta: h´.
who-obl opinion in who where who-obl near go-ptc is
Who thinks that who (which individual) goes (near) to whom
(which individual) and where (what place)?
4. SYNTAX
245


There is a flexibility as far as the placement of the questioned
constituent is concerned. The movement of the questioned elements
is related to their focus. Consider the following examples:

80. ·-(( =·( ¬(¤·((?
rameš kab a:yega:?
Ramesh when come-3s-fut
When will Ramesh come?
80a. =·( ¬(¤·(( ·-((?
kab a:yega: rameš?

80b. ·-(( ¬(¤·(( =·(?
rameš a:yega: kab?

80c. ¬(¤·(( =·( ·-((?
a:yega: kab rameš?

81. ·(·-(( =r( ((¤·((?
sarla: kahã: ja:yegi?
Sarla where go-fs
Where will Sarla go?

81a. ·(·-(( ((¤·(( =r(?
sarla: ja:yegi: kahã:?

81b. =r( ((¤·(( ·(·-((?
kahã: ja:yegi: sarla:?

81c. ((¤·(( =r( ·(·-((?
ja:yegi: kahã: sarla:?

The question-word in the sentence initial position carries a stronger
focus than when it is in the second position. In other words, it is
marked by more stress in the sentence initial position than in other
positions. Interrogative sentences (80) and (81) are in natural word
order. In (80a) and (81a), the subject is stressed, in (80b) and (81b)
the question words are stressed, and in (80c) and (81c) the verb is
stressed. The interrogative sentences (80c) and (81c) do not
necessarily invoke an answer.

4. SYNTAX
246

Usually the question-word +·(( kyõ why occurs in the pre-verbal
position. It follows the verb within the sentence. The movement of
this question- word influences the meaning of the sentence. The
placement of this question word in the post-verbal position is
possible, but it does not necessarily invoke an answer.

82. ¬(+-( .·( i=-(·( +·(( :(?
a:pne use kita:b kyõ di:?
you-erg book he-dat why gave?
Why did you give him a book?

82a. i=-(·( +·(( :(?
kita:b kyõ di:?

82b. +·(( i=-(·( :(?
kyõ di: kita:b?

82c. :( i=-(·( +·((?
di: kyõ kita:b?

In (82a) there is stress on the direct object; in (82b) the stress is on
the question-word; and in (82c) the stress is on the verb and the
indirect object.

4.3.4.3. Echo-Questions

There are two types of echo-questions: (a) yes-no echo-questions,
and (b) question-word echo-questions.

4.3.4.3.1. Yes-No Echo-Questions

A yes-no echo-question usually repeats one or more elements of the
statement uttered by the previous speaker. The element/elements
chosen for clarification is/are retained with a rising intonation and
other elements are deleted. For example, the response to a statement
made in (83) can be in different forms (83a-83e) in yes-no echo-
questions.

4. SYNTAX
247

83. -((r-( =-( ·((((· ((¤·((|
mohan kal ba:za:r ja:yega:
Mohan tomorrow market go-3s-fut
Mohan will go to market tomorrow.

83a. -((r-( =-( ·((((· ((¤·((?
mohan kal ba:za:r ja:yega:?
Will Mohan go to market tomorrow?

83b. ·((((· ((¤·((?
ba:za:r ja:yega:?
Will (Mohan) go to market?

83c. -((r-( =-( ((¤·((?
mohan kal ja:yega:?
Will Mohan go tomorrow?

83d. -((r-( ((¤·((?
mohan ja:yega:?
Will Mohan go (to the market tomorrow)?

83e. -((r-(?
mohan?
(Will) Mohan (go to market tomorrow)?

The yes-no echo-questions may be preceded by the term accha: ‘it is
so’.

84. ·(r =-( i:--(( ·( ¬(¤·((?
vah kal dilli: se a:yega:.
he tomorrow Delhi-abl from come-fut
He will come from Delhi tomorrow.

84a. ¬·=(, ·(r =-( i:--(( ·( ¬(¤·((?
accha:, vah kal dilli: se a:yega:?
Is it so that he’ll come from Delhi tomorrow?

Using the same intonational patterns as in yes-no questions echoing
a statement, yes-no question echo-questions are formed either by
asking the previous speaker whether he/she asked the question or by
replacing the constituent under focus. Yes-no questions are
prompted by the previous speakers question and they do not merely
4. SYNTAX
248

seek clarification of the previous speakers statement.

85. ¬(+-( i=-(·( +c(?
a:pne kita:b parhi:?
you-erg book read-fs-pst book
Did you read the book?

85a. -(-( i=-(·( +c(?
m´~ne kita:b parhi:?
Did I read the book?

85b. ¬(+ + = ·r r i= -(-( i=-(·( +c(?
a:p pu:ch rahe h´~ (ki) m´~ne kita:b parhi:?
You are asking if I read the book?

The focused constituent receives stress if the speaker chooses to
retain unfocused elements.

4.3.4.3.2. Question-Word Echo-Questions

A question-word may also be used in echo questions and elements
of the statement may be repeated depending on the clarification
sought.

86. ·(r +| i-(= ·r( r |
vah patr likh raha: h´.
he letter write-pr is
He is writing a letter.

86a. +·(( i-(= ·r( r?
kya: likh raha: h´?
What is he writing?

86b. +·((?
kya:?
What (is he writing)?

86c. +||
patr
(He is writing a) letter.

4. SYNTAX
249

Question-word echo-questions are uttered with a slightly rising
intonation at the end of the phrase or sentence in yes-no questions. It
is not so in question-word questions. The questioner may also use
the expected answer in his/her question with a rising intonation.

86d. +·(( i-(= ·r( r, +|?
kya: likh raha: h´, patr?
What is he writing, a letter?

86e. r( r(, +||
hã: hã:, patr.
Yes, a letter.

In (86d), a pause (indicated by a comma) separates the two rising
intonation patterns. A statement containing more than one
constituent permits the use of more than one echo-question.

87. r(, .·(-( =-( i=-(·( +c(|
hã:, usne kal kita:b parhi:.
yes he-erg yesterday book read-fs
Yes, he read a book yesterday.

87a. i=·(-( (=-() i=-(·( +c(|
kisne (kal kita:b) parhi:?
Who read (a book yesterday)?

87b. i=·(-( +·(( +c(?
kisne kya: parhi:?
Who read what?

87c. i=·(-( +·(( i=·((?
kisne kya: kiya:?
Who did what?

Question-word echo-questions follow the same pattern.

88. ¬(+ +·(( =· ·r r ?
a:p kya: kar rahe h´~?
you what are-2s doing
What are you doing?

4. SYNTAX
250

88a. -( +·(( =· ·r( r?
m´~ kya: kar raha: hũ:?
I what am-ms doing
What am I doing?

All elements in a sentence, including the verb and any possible
combination thereof, can be questioned.

89. -( += ·r( r i=·(-( i=·( ¬(· =·( =-((( :(?
m´~ pu:ch raha: hũ: kisne kisko ør kab kami:z di:?
I ask-pr am who-erg who-dat and when shirt gave
Im asking you who gave a shirt to whom and when?

89a. i=·(-( i=·( ¬( · =·( =-((( :(?
kisne kise kab kami:z di:?
Who gave a shirt to whom and when?

89b. i=·(-( i=·( =·( +·(( i:·((?
kisne kise kab kya: diya:?
Who gave what to whom and when?

In (89b), the verb is echo-questioned.

4.3.4.4. Answers

Not all types of answers can be formally distinguished from other
declarative statements. Answers to yes-no questions require the use
of the agreement and disagreement markers r( hã ‘yes’ and -(r( nahĩ:
‘no’ respectively in the sentence initial position, which may be
followed with certain honorific markers. Answers to question-word
questions involve the stating of the constituent required by the
question. The rest of the elements of the sentence are usually
deleted.

90. ·(r =·( ¬(·(·( ((¤·((?
vah kab a:gra: ja:yega:?
When will he go to Agra?

90a. +··(( ((¤·((|
parsõ ja:yega:.
(He) will go day after tomorrow.
4. SYNTAX
251

90b. +··(( |
parsõ.
Day after tomorrow.

The minimum answers to a yes-no question include r( hã: ‘yes’, -(r(
nahĩ: ‘no’ ((·(: ša:yad ‘perhaps’, -((-(-( ma:lu:m/ +-( -(r( pata: nahĩ: ‘it
is not known’. The short answers may optionally be followed by
polite or honorific particles or terms. The polite particle (( ji: can be
added to both positive and negative short answers. It usually
precedes the answers. In speech under the influence of Punjabi, it
follows the affirmative or negative short answers. It is added to
indicate politeness for any questioner older or younger than the
respondent. Other formal honorific markers used are i(-((·( jina:b or
·((r·( sa:hab ‘sir/madam’ for addressing people of all communities.
The English honorific terms, sir and madam are also frequently used
by the educated community.

91. ·(r ¬(( ¬(¤·(( ¬(·(·( ·(?
vah a:j a:yega a:gra: se?
he come-fut today Agra-abl from
Will he come from Agra today?

91a. r( /(( r( /r( i(-((·(/ r( ·((r·(/ r( ·(·/ r( -(z-(
hã:/ji: hã:/hã: jina:b/hã: sa:hab/hã: sar/ hã: m´dam
Yes/ yes sir/madam.

91b. -(r( / (( -(r( /-(r( i(-((·(/ -(r( ·((r·(/ -(r( ·(·/ -(r( -(z-(
nahĩ:/ji: nahĩ:/nahĩ: jina:b/nahĩ: sa:hab/nahĩ: sar/
nahĩ: m´dam
No/no sir/madam.

91c. ((·(:|
ša:yad.
Perhaps.

91d. +·(( -((-(-( /+·(( +-((/ (( +·(( +-(?
kya: ma:lu:m/kya: pata:/ ji: kya: pata:?
Who knows?
4. SYNTAX
252


91e. +-( -(r( /-((-(-( -(r( / (( -((-(-( -(r( |
pata: nahĩ: /ma:lu:m nahĩ:/ ji: ma:lu:m nahĩ:.
It is not known.

91f. +-( -(r( /-((-(-( -(r( |
pata:/ma:lu:m nahĩ:.
I don’t know.

The honorific terms i(-((·( jina:b and ·((r·( sa:hab can also be added in
the sentence initial position.

91dd. i(-((·( / ·((r·( +·(( +-(?
jina:b/sa:hab kya: pata:?
Sir, who knows?

91ee. i(-((·( / ·((r·( +·(( +-(?
jina:b/sa:hab kya: pata:?
Sir, it is not known.

91ff. i(-((·( / ·((r·( +-(/-((-(-( -(r(|
jina:b/sa:hab pata:/ma:lu:m nahĩ:.
Sir, I don’t know.

The agreement or affirmative response is sometimes indicated
merely by using the honorific terms i(-((·( jina:b and ·((r·( sa:hab as in
the following examples:

92. ·(r ·((-((= -(r( r?
vah ca:la:k nahĩ: h´?
he clever neg-Q is
Isn’t he clever?

92a. (( /(( r/ r(, ·(r ·((-((= -(r( r?
ji:/ ji: h´/ hã:, jina:b/hã: sa:hab h´.
Yes, he is.

As shown above, answers to yes-no questions may be yes, or no, or
other response terms or expressions. The positive and negative
response particles r( hã: yes and -(r( (nahĩ: no can be reduplicated for
4. SYNTAX
253

emphasis. They may be followed by certain expressions for greater
emphasis.

93. ¬(+ -( ·( ·(r =(-( =··(?
a:p mera: yeh ka:m karẽge?
you my this work-ms do fut-q
Will you do this work for me?

93a. r( r(, ( =·/ ¬·(·(|
hã: hã:, zaru:r/avašya.
yes yes definitely.
Yes, I’ll do it, definitely.

93b. r( r(, +·(( -(r(?
hã: hã:, kyõ nahĩ:?
yes yes why not
Yes, why not?

94. ¬(+ ¬(·(·( -(r( ¬(¤·(?
a:p a:gra: nahĩ: a:yẽge?
you Agra neg come-2p-fut
Won’t you come to Agra?

94a. -(r( -(r(, i·(-=-( -(r(|
nahĩ: nahĩ:, bilkul nahĩ:
no no absolutely not
No, not at all.

The expression i·(-=-( bilkul is followed by the negative marker. It is
to be noted that affirmative and negative particles only are
reduplicated, not other response terms and expressions.

94b. *-(r( (-(r(), ((·(: ((·(: -(r( |
*nahĩ: (nahĩ:) ša:yad ša:yad nahĩ:.

94c. *-(r( (-(r(), +·(( +-( +·(( +-(|
*nahĩ: (nahĩ:) kya: pata:, kya: pata:

Answers to positive and negative leading questions are determined
by the proposition underlying the question and not by the tag
question.
4. SYNTAX
254


95. ¬(+ ·(r =(-( =··(, =··( -((?
a:p yah ka:m karẽgẽ, karẽge na:?
you this work do-fut, do-fut neg-q
You will do this work, won’t you?

95a. r(, ==·((|
hã:, karũ:ga:.
yes do-1s-fut
Yes, I’ll do it.

96. ¬(+ ·(r =(-( -(r( =··( , =··(?
a:p yah ka:m nahĩ: karẽge, karẽge?
You won’t do this work, will you?

96a. -(r( (-( -(r( ==·(()|
nahĩ: (m´~ nahĩ: karũ:ga).
No (I will not do it).

4.3.5. Imperatives

Imperative sentences are marked for number, gender, person, and
degree of politeness. There are three types of imperative
constructions: (a) unmarked or true imperatives, (b) prohibitive
imperatives and (c) obligative imperatives.

4.3.5.1. Unmarked or True Imperatives

The unmarked imperative takes the second person subjects - tu:
‘you’ (non honorific intimate singular), --( tum ‘you’ (non-
honorific/plural), and ¬(+ a:p ‘you’ (honorific plural/singular).
Notice that the honorific plural and the honorific singular forms are
the same. The singular imperative consists of the verbal stem.
Whereas the singular non-honorific form remains unchanged, the
suffix -¬( -o is added to derive the plural non-honorific forms and
the suffix – :¤ -iye is added to derive the singular/plural honorific
forms. If the verb stems end in the vowels : /i:/ or ¤ /e/, the suffix – :
i(¤ -i:jiye is added to the honorific singular and plural forms. The
stem final vowels : /i:/ and ¤ /e/ are dropped before the imperative
suffixes or the plural non-honorific -¬( -o and singular/plural
honorific suffix – :i(¤ -i:jiye are added.
4. SYNTAX
255


1.
Sg non hon Pl non-hon Pl/hon
(- tu:) (--( tum) (¬(+ a:p)
+c +c( +ic¤
parh read parho parhiye Please read.
i-(= i-(=( i-(i=¤
likh write likho likhiye Please write.
-(( -((¬( -((:¤
la: bring la:o la:iye Please bring.
=( =(¬( =(:¤
kha: eat kha:o kha:iye Please eat.
+( i+¬( +(i(¤
pi: drink piyo pi:jiye Please drink.
-( -(( -((i(¤
le take lo li:jiye Please take.

The polite markers (( ji:, ·((r·( sa:hab, and i(-((·( jina:b can be added
to the honorific imperative forms.

1a. Polite pl./hon. sg.
+ic¤ (( parhiye ji:/ ·((r·( sa:hab/ i(-((·( jina:b Please read.
i-(i=¤ (( likhiye ji:/ ·((r·( sa:hab/ i(-((·( jina:b Please write.
-((:¤ (( la:iye ji:/ ·((r·( sa:hab/ i(-((·( jina:b Please bring.
=(:¤ (( kha:iye ji:/ ·((r·( sa:hab/ i(-((·( jina:b Please eat.
+(i(¤ (( pi:jiye ji:/ ·((r·( sa:hab/ i(-((·( jina:b Please drink.
-((i(¤ (( li:jiye ji:/ ·((r·( sa:hab/ i(-((·( jina:b Please take.

With an object, the order will be as follows:

1b. ¬(+ i=-(·( +ic¤|
a:p kita:b parhiye.
you book read-pl
Please read the book.

4.3.5.2. Prohibitive Imperatives

Prohibitive imperatives are formed by adding the negative particle
mat don’t in the pre verbal position.

4. SYNTAX
256

2. i=-(·( +c/+c (/ +ic¤|
kita:b parh / parho / parhiye.
Read a book.

2a. i=-(·( -(- +c/+c (/ +ic¤|
kita:b mat parh / parho/ parhiye.
Don’t read a book.

3. +| i-(=/i-(=( / i-(i=¤|
patr likh/likho/likhiye.
Write a letter.

3a. +| -(- i-(=/i-(=( / i-(i=¤|
patr mat likh/likho/likhiye.
Don’t write a letter.

Prohibitive imperatives can also be formed by using the verb form
-(-(( mana:/ ·(i( - r(-(( varjit hona: to be prohibitive as in (4-4a).

4. (·(·( +(-(( -(-(( /·(i(- r|
šara:b pi:na: mana:/varjit h´.
liquor drink-Inf prohibited is
Drinking (of liquor) is prohibited.

4a. i·(·(·º +(-(( -(-(( r |
sigret pi:na: mana: h´.
cigarette smoke-inf prohibited is
Smoking is prohibited.

Prohibitive imperatives are also constructed from expressions like
=·(·:(· xabarda:r/·((·(·((-( sa:vadha:n ‘beware’.

5. =·(·:(· / ·((·(·((-( :· ·( -( ¬(-((|
xabarda:r/sa:vadha:n der se na a:na:.
beware late-abl neg come-inf
Beware, don’t come late.
(You better not come late.)

The expressions =·(·:(· xabarda:r/ ·((·(·((-( sa:vadha:n are followed by
conditional clauses.

4. SYNTAX
257

4.3.5.3. Degrees of Imperatives

The unmarked ordinary imperative is stronger than the polite
imperative. The obligatives of compulsion are stronger than the
obligatives of prescription and the polite imperatives. Certain
devices are used to strengthen or weaken the force of the imperative.
Intonation and tone play an important role in the degree of the
imperative. A soft tone of persuasion weakens and a hard
authoritative tone strengthens the degree of the imperative.

Certain lexical items or phrases, such as =+·(( krapaya: kindly =+(
kripa:/ -(r··((-(( =·= meharba:ni: karke ‘after being kind’, and ·(·(·((-(
·((·(·((-( =:( = i-(¤ bhagva:n/xuda: ke liye ‘for God’s sake’ are added to
imperative sentences to add politeness. They weaken the imperative.

6. =+·(( ·(· ((:¤|
krapaya: ghar ja:yiye.
kindly home go-pol-fut
Kindly go home.

7. =+( / -(r··((-(( =·= +·( :(i(¤|
krapa:/meharba:ni: karke p´se di:jiye.
kindness do-cp money give-pol-fut
Kindly give money.
8. ·(·(·((-( = i-(¤ ·(-(·( ·(··((: -(- =(i(¤|
bhagva:n ke liye samay barba:d mat ki:jiye.
God-abl sake/for time waste neg do-pol-fut
For Gods sake, don’t waste time.

The vocative forms may also be used in the sentence initial position
to strengthen and weaken the degree of imperative. The vocative
forms are as follows.

Masculine Feminine
Sg Pl Sg Pl
¬( o ¬( o ¬( o ¬( o
¬· are ¬· are ¬·( ari: ¬· are

4. SYNTAX
258

9. ¬·, :··(((( ·(: =·(|
are darva:za: band karo.
hey door do-2s-fut close-2s-imp
Hey, close the door.

9a. ¬·, -( ·( ·((- -( ·(i-(¤|
are, meri: ba:t to suniye.
O, my talk emp listen-2p-imp
Hey, listen to me.

The vocative address forms may be followed by kinship terms like
·((:bha:i: ‘brother’, ·((· ya:r/:(·- dost/i-(| mitr ‘friend’, ·((· pya:re ‘dear
one’ ·i(r-( bahin ‘sister’, and -((: ma:i: ‘mother’.

10. ¬· ·((:·((·:(·-i-(|·((· :·( -((¬(|
are bha:i:/ya:r/dost/mitr/pya:re du:dh la:o.
hey brother/friend/dear one milk bring-2s-imp
Hey brother/friend/dear one, bring the milk.

10a. ¬·( ·(ir-(, ¬+-(( =(-( =·|
ari: bahan, apna: ka:m kar.
hey-f sister selfs work do-2s-imp
Hey sister, do your work.

10b. r ·((: ·((r·( ·(r ¬=·((· +ic¤|
he bha:i: sa:hab yah akhba:r parhiye.
oh-hon brother hon this newspaper read-pol
Oh brother, please read this newspaper.

The vocatives may also be followed by derogative terms like +(·(-(
pa:gal ‘mad’, abusive terms like ·((-( sa:le ‘brother-in-law’, and ·(·(·
susre ‘father-in-law’ or other derogative expressions of address. The
use of such derogative terms and abusive kinship terms strengthen
the imperative.

11. ¬· ·((-(, +·(( ·((-(-( r¨
are sa:le, kya: bolta: h´?
hey-mas brother-in-law what say-ptc be
Hey (my) brother-in-law, what are you saying?

4. SYNTAX
259

11a. ¬( +(·(-(, ·(r( ¬(¬(|
o pa:gal, yahã: a:o
hey mad person here come-2s-imp
O mad one, come here.

The use of reduplicated forms of imperatives reinforces the impolite
force.

12. (( ((, ·(-( i-(·((|
ja: ja:, sun liya:.
go go listened
Go, I have listened.

Yes-no positive and negative questions in the future tense may also
convey the force of imperative form.

13. +¬(+}-··((· :·(¨
(a:p) tasvi:r dẽge?
you picture give-fut-q
Would you give the picture?

13a. ¬(+ :·( +·(( -··((·¨
a:p dẽge kya: tasvi:r?
you give-fut-q picture

13b. -··((· :·( +·((¨
tasvi:r dẽge kya:?
Would you give (me) the picture?

Performative verbs such as i-(·(:-( =·-(( nivedan karna: ‘to make a
request’, and (r((·( ((z=· ha:th jor kar) +(·(-(( =·-(( pra:rthana: karna:
‘to make a request (with folded hands’) also render imperative force
in their complement clause.

14. -( r(·( ((z=· +(·(-(( =·-( r -(:(+· = +( =·(|
m´∫ ha:th jorkar pra:rthana: karta: hũ: mujhpar kripa: karo.
I hands fold-cp request do-ptc am me-dat on kindness do
I humbly request you to be kind to me.

4. SYNTAX
260

4.3.6. Anaphora

Here we will discuss (i) the means of expressing anaphora and (ii)
the domains of anaphora. Anaphora in Hindi may be personal
pronouns, reflexives, zero pronouns (i.e., null elements PRO or pro)
or quasi-pronouns.

In a narrative text or natural discourse, deletion is a prominent
device in expressing the anaphora, e.g.,

1. ¤= i:-( -(-( ¤= ·(··( =( ·(·- +· ·(- :=(,
ek din m´~ne ek bacce ko ra:ste par rote hue dekha:,
one day I-erg one child-dat road-obl on weep-ptc saw
+=( --( =( -( r(¨
pu:cha: tum køn ho?
asked you who are
One day I saw a child crying on the road; I asked (him),
Who are you?

In the above example, the anaphoric subject and object (the child)
become accessible by means of deletion or zero anaphora in the
second sentence. They are recoverable from the first sentence.

Since the verb agrees with the subject and/or object in gender,
number, and person, depending on various kinds of constructions,
the subject and object can be deleted.

2. -((r-( = ·(( ·(· +r ·((, =+z ·(:-( ¬(· ¬(·((|
Mohan che baje ghar pahũca:, kapre badle ør a:ya:.
Mohan reached home six-abl hour clothes changed and came
Mohan reached home at six oclock; (he) changed his clothes
and he came here.

Anaphoric elements are frequently in the third person, and they are
often expressed by personal pronouns.

3. -((r-( ¬(· .·(=( +·-(( ·(· =·-( ·(¤, .·(=( =(=· -(·((
mohan ør uski: patni: s´r karne gaye, usko thokar lagi:
Mohan and his wife walk do-inf-obl went he-dat stumbled
¬(· i·(· ·(·((|
ør gir gaya:
4. SYNTAX
261

and fell
Mohan and his wife went for a walk. He stumbled and fell
down.

Anaphora is expressed by possessive and reflexive pronouns as
given in (4) and (5).

4. .·(-( ¬+-( i-(| ·( +·( .·((· i-(¤|
usne apne mitr se p´se udha:r liye.
he-erg refl friend-from money credit took
He took money from his friend on loan.

5. ¬i-(- ·(· ¬(·(( ¬( · ··(·( +·-(( =( :·((: :(|
amit ghar a:ya: ør svayam patni: ko dava:i: di:
Amit home came and self wife-dat medicine gave
Amit came home and gave medicine to his wife himself.

Certain other devices like the use of ·((·( sa:ra: all, and the use of
ordinals like +r-(( pahla: ‘first’ and :·(·( du:sra: ‘second’, are also
employed to denote anaphora.

6. -(r-( ·((((· ·( ·(·( -((·((| ·((· ·(z r¤ ·(|
mohan ba:za:r se seb la:ya:. sa:re sare hue the.
Mohan market from apples brought all rotten-ptc were
Mohan brought apples from the market. All were rotten.

7. .-(( ¬(· (( ·(( ·(r-( r|+r-(( ·((-((= r,
uma: ør šobha: bahnẽ h´.~ pahli: ca:la:kh h´,
Uma and Shobha: sisters are first clever is
¬(· :·(·( ·((·(( ·((:(|
ør du:sri: si:dhi: sadi:.
and second simple
Uma and Shobha are sisters. The former is clever and the
latter is simple.

The anaphora occurs within the clause with reflexive pronouns.
Personal pronouns are not employed for this purpose.

4. SYNTAX
262

8. ·(=(-( =( ¬+-( +· +·( ·(·(·(( r|
vaki:l ko apne par pu:ra: bharosa: h´.
advocate-dat refl-obl on full confidence is
The advocate has full confidence in himself.

9. ·(r ¬+-(( +·-(( = ·((·( i:--(( ·(·((|
vah apni: patni: ke sa:th dilli: gaya:.
he refl-dat wife with Delhi went
He went to Delhi with his wife.

Anaphora between coordinate structures is usually forward. It is
marked by deletion or pronominalization.

10. -((r-( ·(-(·( +· +r·(( ¬(· Ø ¬+-(( =(-( i=·((|
mohan samay par pahũca: ør Ø apna: ka:m kiya:
Mohan time on reached and Ø refl work did
Mohan reached in time and did his work.

10a. -((r-( (i) ·(-(·( +· +r·(( ¬(· Ø .·(-( (i) ¬+-(( =(-( i=·((|
mohan (i) samay par pahũca: ør Ø usne (i) apna: ka:m kiya:
Mohan time on reached and Ø he-erg self work did
Mohan reached (office) in time and did his work.

It is possible to have an anaphora between superordinate and
subordinate clauses. Usually, subordinate clauses (except for subject
complementation, relative clauses and if … then clauses) follow
superordinate clauses. Deletion indicates anaphora between a
superordinate and a following subordinate clause.

11. -(( -( ·(º (i) =( Ø (i) +| i-(=-( = i-(¤ =r(|
mã: ne bete (i) ko Ø (i) patr likhne ke liye kaha:
mother-erg son-dat Ø letter write-inf-abl for said
The mother asked her son to write a letter.

11a. -(( -( ·(º (i) =( =r( ·(r (i) +| i-(= |
mã: ne bete(i) ko kaha: vah (i) patr likhe.
mother-erg son-dat said he letter write-subj
The mother asked her son to write a letter.

4. SYNTAX
263

Backward deletion is not possible.

11b. *-(( -( =r( i= Ø/·(r (i) ·(º( (i) +| i-(=|
*mã: ne kaha: ki Ø /vah (i) beta:(i) patr likhe.

Backward as well as forward deletion and pronominalization are
used to express anaphora.

12. [(( Ø i=-(·( +c ·r( r ] ·(r -(z=( -(·( ·(ir-( r|
[jo Ø kita:b parh rahi: h´] vah larki: meri: bahan h´.
rel Ø book read-prog is cor girl my sister is
The girl who is reading a book is my sister.

12a. [(( -(z=( i=-(·( +c ·r( r ] ·(r Ø -(·( ·(ir-( r|
[jo larki: kita:b parh rahi: h´] vah Ø meri: bahan h´.
rel girl book read-prog is cor Ø my sister is
The girl who is reading a book is my sister.

Anaphora between different sentences also uses the strategy of
deletion and pronominalization. No other strategy is employed.

4.3.7. Reflexives

A reflexive pronoun occupies the same position within a clause as
any other type of a pronoun. The only restriction is that the
antecedent of a reflexive pronoun must be the subject of its clause.
There is no other change except the selection of a dative case marker
or a postposition in its use as an indirect object. Emphatic possessive
pronouns do not require a co-referential antecedent.

1. ·(r -(z=( .·(=( ¬+-(( ·(º( r|
vah larki: uski: apni: beti: h´.
that girl his emp/*refl
That girl is his/her own.

Emphatic pronouns are sometimes completely homophonous with
possessive pronouns as in (2).

4. SYNTAX
264

2. :-r-( ¬+-( : -r =( +·(: r|
dulhan apne du:lhe ko pasand h´.
bride refl-obl bridegroom-dat like is
The bride is liked by her bridegroom.

Sentence (2) is not passive. The conjunct verb +·(: r(-(( pasand hona:
to like takes a dative subject. Sentence (2), using the emphatic
pronoun, can be interpreted as follows:

2a. :-r-( .·(= ¬+-( : -r =( +·( : r|
dulhan uske apne du:lhe ko pasand h´.
bride her refl-obl bridegroom-dat like is
The bride is liked by her own bridegroom.

Reflexivity is expressed by the use of agentive reflexive pronouns.
This term is used to distinguish between the possessive reflexive
¬+-(( apna: and non-possessive reflexive ¬+-( ¬(+ apne a:p ‘self’. The
reflexive ¬+-( ¬(+ apne a:p represents the main reflexive pronoun,
which when followed by a postposition, has the oblique form ¬+-(
apne. It also functions as an emphatic pronoun as in (1). The
emphatic form is also derived by adding the emphatic suffix -r( -hi:
to it. The result is ¬(+ r( a:p hi:. The reduplicated form ¬+-( ¬(+ apne
a:p also occurs as a reflexive.

3. ¬i-(- ¬(+/ ¬+-( ¬(+/ ¬(+ r( ·(r( ¬(·((|
amit a:p/apne a:p/a:p hi: yahã: a:ya:.
Amit self -emp here came
Amit came here by himself.

4. -( ¬+-( ¬(+ =(-(( ·(-((-( r|
m´~ apne a:p kha:na: bana:ta: hũ:.
I am refl food cook-pr am
I cook my meals myself.

5. r-( ¬+-( ¬(+ =+z ·((- r|
ham apne a:p kapre dhote h´~.
we refl clothes wash-ptc are
We wash our clothes ourselves.

6. ·(-(-( ¬+-( ¬(+ =+z :·|( =·-( r|
suman apne a:p kapre istri: karti: h´.
4. SYNTAX
265

Suman refl clothes iron do-ptc is
Suman irons the clothes herself.

There are no separate pronominal reflexive pronouns for each
pronoun. The person information is obtained from the antecedent
subject.

7. ¬i-(- -( ¬+-( i-(¤ / ·((: = i-(¤ (- =·(:|
amit ne apne liye/bha:i: ke liye ju:te: khari:de:.
Amit-erg refl-obl for/brother for shoes bought
Amit bought a pair of shoes for himself/his brother.

Sentence (7) shows that a non co-referential object does not take a
reflexive form, but selects a non-reflexive form. The reflexivization
is also controlled by dative and ergative subjects.

8. .-(( =( ¬+-( ¬(+ =(-( =·-(( +·(: r|
uma: ko apne a:p ka:m karna: pasand h´.
Uma-dat refl work do-inf like is
Uma likes to do (her) work herself.

9. ¬i-(- -( ¬+-( ¬(+ i:-( ·(· ¬(·(-( i=·((|
amit ne apne a:p din bhar a:ra:m kiya:.
Amit-erg refl day-whole rest did
Amit rested the whole day.

Examples (8-9) can be interpreted as emphatic reflexives as well.
Reflexivization can allow backward movement as well.

10. ¬+-( ¬(+ ¬i-(- -( ¬(·(-( i=·((|
apne a:p amit ne a:ra:m kiya:.
refl Amit-erg rest did
Amit rested himself.

In possessive structures, the possible reflexive form ¬+-(( apna: ‘self’
is used in place of possessive pronouns such as the English my and
your. When the possessive reflexive is used, the possessor is the
same as the agent of the action or the subject. ¬+-(( apna: agrees with
the following head NP in number and gender. Following are its
forms:

4. SYNTAX
266

Masculine Feminine
Sg Pl Sg Pl
¬+-(( apna: ¬+-( apne ¬+-(( apni: ¬+-(( apni:

11. -( ¬+-(( /*-(·( =-(·( ·((= =· ·r( r |
m´~ apna:/*mera: kamra: sa:f kar raha: hũ:.
I-m sefl/*my room clean do-prog am
I am cleaning my room.

12. -( ¬+-( /*-(· +·( i·(-( ·r( r |
m´~ apne/*mere p´se gin raha: hũ:.
I refl /*my money count-prog am
I am counting my money.

13. ¬(+ ¬+-(( /*¬(+=( i=-(·( +c ·r r |
a:p apni:/*a:p ki: kita:b parh rahe h´~.
you refl/*yours book read-prog are
You are reading your book.

14. ·( ¬+-(( /*.-(=( =-((( ·(( ·r r |
ve apni:/*unki: kami:zẽ dho rahe h´~.
he refl/*his shirts wash-prog are
He is washing his shirts.

15. ·(r ¬+-(( /*.·(=( -((·( ((-(-( r|
vah apna:/*uska: la:bh ja:nta: h´.
he refl/*his profit know-ptc is
He is aware of his benefit.

16. ·( ¬+-(( /* .-(=( i=·-(- +· ·( ·r r |
ve apni:/*unki: kismat par ro rahe h´~.
they refl/*selfs luck on cry-prog are
They repent on their own work.

The use of non-reflexive pronouns yield well-formed sentences
provided the subject and possessive pronoun are not co-referential.

17. ·(r (i) .·(=( (j) =-((( ·(( ·r( r |
vah (i) uski: (j) kami:z si: raha: h´.
4. SYNTAX
267

he his shirt stitch-prog is
He (i) is stitching his (j) shirt.

18. ·(r (i) .-(= (j) ·(··( +c( ·r( r |
vah (i) unke (j) bacce parha: raha: h´.
he their children teach-prog is
He(i) is teaching their (j) children.

Similar to nominative and ergative subjects, the dative subject also
controls the possessive reflexive ¬+-(( apna:. The possessive
structure also permits reduplicated reflexives.

19. ·( ¬+-(( ¬+-(( =(-( =· ·r r|
ve apna: apna: ka:m kar rahe h´~.
they refl work do-prog are
They are doing their respective jobs.

The scope of reflexivity is usually restricted to the clause in which it
is used.

20. -((r-( -( =r( i= ·(r /*¬+-( ¬(+ ·(-(·( +· ¬(¤·((|
mohan ne kaha: ki vah/*apne a:p samay par a:yega:.
Mohan-erg said that he/*refl time at come-fut
Mohan (i) said that he (i) would come on time.

21. -((r-( -( +=( i= .·(=(/*¬+-(( +·-(( =·( ¬(¤·((|
mohan ne pu:cha: ki uski:/*apni: patni: kab a:yegi:.
Mohan-erg asked that his/*refl wife when come-fut
Mohan (i) asked when his (i) wife would come.

Sentences (20) and (21) show that reflexivization does not go down
into subordinate clauses. Notice that reflexivization does not always
meet clausemate constraint, as shown in (22).

22. ¬i-(- -((r-( =( ¬+-(( (| -((-(-( r|
amit mohan ko apna: šatru: ma:nta: h´.
Amit Mohan-dat refl enemy consider-ptc is
Amit (i) considers Mohan (j) his (i,j) enemy.
4. SYNTAX
268

Sentence (22) is ambiguous because the reflexive pronoun is co-
referential with the subject of the subordinate as well as with the
subject of the subordinate clause. It has two readings.

22a. ¬i-(- (i) -((-(-( r [i= -(( r-( ¬i-(- (j) =( (| r ]|
amit (i) ma:nta: h´ [ki mohan amit (i) ka: šatru: h´].
Amit consider-ptc is that Mohan Amit of enemy is
Amit considers Mohan Amits enemy.

22b. ¬i-(- -((-(-( r [i= -((r-( (i) -(( r-( (j) =( (| r ]|
amit ma:nta: h´ [ki mohan (i) mohan (i) ka: šatru: h´.
Amit consier-prog that Mohan Mohans enemy is
Amit considers Mohan Mohans enemy.

Here, the reflexive pronoun cannot occur in (22a), but it can occur in
sentence (22b) due to its clause boundaries. It shows that the finite
subordinate clause becomes finite and is raised to the object position
of the matrix sentence.

Reflexive relations occur within nominalized clauses.

23. .·(=( ··(·( =( -((·-(( =(= -(r( ·((|
uska: svayam ko ma:rna: thi:kh nahĩ: tha:.
his self kill-inf proper neg was
His killing himself was not proper.

Reflexive relations cannot exist within an ordinary noun phrase. It is
possible to have reflexive antecedents under two conditions: (i)
when the logical antecedent is deleted at the surface level and (ii)
when the antecedent is either generic or contextually implied.

(i) Deletion of an underlying antecedent

24. --( ¬+-(( =-(·( ·((= =·(|
tum apna: kamra: sa:f karo.
you refl room clean do
Clean your room.

24a. ¬+-(( =-(·( ·((= =·(|
apna: kamra: sa:f karo.
refl room clean do
Clean your room.
4. SYNTAX
269

(ii) Generic/implied antecedent

25. ¬+-(( ·(-(·( -(º =·-(( =(= -(r( r |
apna: samay našt karna: thi:k nahĩ: h´.
refl time waste do-inf good neg is
It is not proper (for someone) to waste ones time.

Notice that in (25) the generic antecedent someone is implied.

4.3.8. Reciprocals

The primary way of expressing a reciprocal relationship is the
expression ¤= :·(· =( ek du:sre ko ‘to one another’. It is the
combination of the cardinal ¤= ek ‘one’ and the oblique case form of
the ordinal :·(·( du:sra: followed by =( ko. Reciprocals can also be
formed with ¬(+·( -( a:pas mẽ ‘mutual’. The scope of reciprocity is
restricted to the clause.

1. r-(-( ¤= :·(· = ·((·( ·((- =(|
hamne ek du:sre ke sa:th ba:t ki:.
we-erg one another-obl with talk did
We talked to each other.

2. .-r(-( ¤= :·(· =( ·(r- ·(r(·(-( =(|
unhõne ek du:sre ki: bahut saha:yta: ki:.
they-erg one another-obl very help did
They helped each other very much.

In these sentences, the scope of the reciprocal expression does not
extend to the matrix subject.

Reciprocals usually require an antecedent subject. They may be used
as a direct object, an indirect object, an adverb, or a possessive
adjective in different types of constructions.

Direct object
3. ·( ¤= :·(· ·( =: ·((· i-(-(|
ve ek du:sre se kai: ba:r mile.
they one another-obl many times lot-abl met
They met each other many times.

4. SYNTAX
270

Indirect object
4. .-r(-( ¤= :·(· =( .+r(· i:¤|
unhõne ek du:sre ko upha:r diye.
they-erg one another-obl presents gave
They gave presents to each other.

Adverb
5. ·( ¤= :·(· +· (( · ·( i·(--(( ·r r|
ve ek du:sre par zor se cilla: rahe h´~.
they one another-obl with shout-prog are
They are shouting at each other.

Possessive adjective
6. r-( ¤= :·(· = ·(· -(r( ((-|
ham ek du:sre ke ghar nahĩ: ja:te.
we one another-poss home neg go-ptc
We don’t visit each others houses.

7. ·( ¬(+·( -( ·((- -(r( =·- +r }|
ve a:pas mẽ ba:t nahĩ: karte (h´~).
they among themselves talk neg do-pre (are)
They do not talk to each other.

The same range of reciprocals occur in nominalized clauses.

8. .-(=( ¤= :·(· = ·(· -( ((-(( =(= -(r( r|
unka: ek du:sre ke ghar na ja:na: thi:k nahĩ: h´.
their one another-gen house not go-inf good neg is
Their not visiting each others homes is not right.

9. .-(=( ¤= :·(· =( º(i+·(( ·(·(·(· -(r( r|
unki: ek du:sre ki: topiyã: bara:bar nahĩ: h´~.
their one another-poss caps equal/fit neg are
Each others caps do not fit them.

It is possible to have reciprocal structures without antecedent, if the
antecedent is understood either syntactically, as in the case of
imperative constructions, or contextually.

4. SYNTAX
271

10. ¤= :·(· = ·((·( ·((- -(- =·(|
ek du:sre ke sa:th ba:tẽ mat karo.
one another-obl with talk don’t do
Don’t talk to each other.

11. ¬i-(- = :( ·(º r | ·( ¤= :·(· = ·((·( r-((( -(z- r|
amit ke do bete h´~. ve ek du:sre ke sa:th hameša: larte h´~.
Amit-gen two sons are they one-another-gen with always
fight-pr
Amit has two sons. (They) always quarrel with each other.

4.3.9. Equatives

Like comparatives, there are two types of equatives: (i) syntactic and
(ii) phrasal. The former type is composed of two clauses called as
:--(( itna: ‘this much’ and .--(( utna: ‘that much’ clauses. The main
difference between these clauses and the comparative clause is that
in equative clauses, an equative adjective or adverb is used with the
subject and the standard of comparison. A comparative sentence can
be transformed into an equative sentence by the deletion of the
negative particle.

1. ¬(·( .--(( ·((-((= r i(--(( .·(=( ·((: +r}|
ajay utna: ca:la:k h´ jitna: uska: bha:i: (h´).
Ajay that much-cor clever as much-rel his brother
Ajay is as clever as his brother.

Equative structures can also be formed by using the clause (·(( j´sa:
as/which way and ·(·(( v´sa: like/that way.

2. (·(( ¬(·( ·((-((= r, .--(( .·(=( ·((: +·((}r|
j´sa: ajay ca:la:k h´, utna: uska: bha:i: (bhi:) h´.
as-rel Ajay clever is that much his brother (also) is
Ajay is as clever as his brother.

Phrasal type equatives are formed using adjectives such as ·(·(·(·
bara:bar/·(-((-( sama:n ‘equal’, and (·(( j´sa: ‘like’. The forms agree
with the standard of comparison in number and gender.

4. SYNTAX
272

3. i·((·( ¬+-( i+-((( = ·(·(·(·/ ·(-((-( -( ·(( r|
vijay apne pita:ji: ke bara:bar/sama:n lamba: h´.
Vijay selfs father-gen like tall is
Vijay is as tall as his father.

4. ·( :( ·((: ¬+-(( -(( (·( ·((·( r|
ye do bha:i: apni: mã: j´se si:dhe h´~.
these two brothers selfs mother like simple are
These two brothers are as simple as their mother.

5. ·(r -(z=( ¬+-(( ·(ir-( (·(( ·(:· r|
yeh larki: apni: bahan j´si: sundar h´.
this girl selfs sister like beautiful is
This girl is as beautiful as her sister.

6. ·( :( ·(ir-( ¬+-(( -(( =( -·r ·(:· r |
ye do bahnẽ apni: mã: ki: tarah sundar h´~.
these two sisters selfs mother like beautiful is
These two sisters are as beautiful as their mother.

7. i·((·( ·(··( = ·(-((-( r|
vijay bacce ke sama:n h´.
Vijay child-gen equal is
Vijay is like a child.

8. .-(( ¬-( = ·(·(·(· -(·(( r|
uma: anu ke bara:bar lambi: h´.
Uma Anu-gen equal tall is
Uma is as tall as Anu.

Notice that a copular/equational sentence employs only the plural
adjectival forms of ¤= (·( ek j´se/¤= (·(( ek jaisi: that agree with the
number and gender of the subject of comparison.

9. ¬(·( ¬(· i·((·( ¤= (·( r( r |
ajay ør vijay ek j´se hi: h´~.
Ajay and Vijay alike emp are
Ajay and Vijay are alike.

4. SYNTAX
273

10. .-(( ¬(· ¬-( ¤= (·(( r|
uma: ør anu ek j´si: h´~.
Uma and Anu alike are
Uma and Anu are alike.

Equative adjectives may be modified by adding the particle –r( -hi:
to these forms: (·( r( j´se hi:, (·(( r( j´si: hi: ‘alike’. The particle –r( -
hi: is also added to singular forms for emphasis as well.

11. i·((·( ¬(·( (·(( r( r|
vijay ajay j´sa: hi: h´.
Vijay Ajay like emp is
Vijay is like Ajay.

12. .-(( ¬-( (·(( r( r |
uma: anu j´si: hi: h´.
Uma Anu alike emp is
Uma is like Anu.

A number of fixed adjectival phrases are used in Hindi.

13. =-( ·((/ (·(( =(-(-(
phu:l sa:/j´sa: komal
flower like delicate
as delicate as a flower

14. +··(· ·(( i:-(
patthar sa: dil
stone like heart
a stone-hearted (person)

It is possible to delete the identical elements in equative structures.
Deletion is always forward and not backward.

15. .-(( .--(( -(·(( r i(--(( +-(·((} ¬-( +r}|
uma: utni: lambi: h´ jitni: (lambi:) anu (h´).
Uma cor tall is rel (tall) Uma (is)
Uma is as tall as Anu.

4. SYNTAX
274

The bracketed elements can be deleted to yield (15a).

15a. .-(( .--(( -(·(( r i(--(( ¬-( |
uma utni: lambi: h´ jitni: anu.
Uma is as tall as Anu.

The backward deletion generates ungrammatical sentences, as (15b).

15b. *.-(( .--(( Ø Ø i(--(( -(·(( r|
*uma: utni: Ø Ø jitni: lambi: anu h´.

Correlative equatives are formed by syntactic strategy only. They
are formed by using the correlative marker .--(( utna:.

4.3.10. Comparison

Comparison is usually expressed by sentential, phrasal, and
morphological strategies. Two types of comparative structures are
very common, phrasal comparative structures and non-phrasal ones.
Both use postpositions followed by the standards of comparison.
Sentential comparison is carried out by the use of two finite clauses
introduced by the relative marker .--(( utna: ‘as much as’ and the
correlative marker i(--(( jitna: ‘that much’.

1. ·(r .--(( ·((·(( -(r( r [i(--(( ·((·(( .·(=( ·((: r ]|
vah utna: si:dha: nahĩ: h´[jitna: si:dha: uska: bha:i: h´]
he is not that-cor simple as much as-rel simple his brother is
He is not as simple as his brother.

The relative clause can be placed at the sentence initial position as
well.

1a. [i(--(( ·((·(( .·(=( ·((: r ] ·(r .--(( ·((·(( -(r( r|
[jitna: si:dha: uska: bha:i: h´] vah utna: si:dha: nahĩ: h´

2. ·(r i(--(( +i·>(-( =·-( r .--(( +·(( -(r( =-((-(|
vah jitna: parišram karta: h´ utna: p´sa: nahĩ: kama:ta:
he as much hard work do-ptc is that much money earn-ptc neg
is
He doesn’t earn as much as he works.

4. SYNTAX
275

The relative clause can follow the correlative clause.

2a. ·(r .--(( +·(( -(r( =-((-(, i(--(( +i·>(-( =·-( r|
vah utna: p´sa: nahĩ: kama:ta:, jitna: parišram karta: h´

Most of the morphological markers of comparison are borrowed
from Perso-Arabic sources. They are not very productive in Hindi.

3. .·(=( ·(r( ((-(( ·(r-· ·r·((|
uska: vahã: ja:na: behtar rahega:
his there go-inf better remain-fut
It is better for him to go there.

4. ·(r .·(= i-(¤ ·(:-·(-( ·((- r|
yah uske liye badtari:n ba:t h´.
this is he-for worst matter is
This is the worst thing for him.

Phrasal comparison is expressed by a postposition associated with
the standard of comparison. The postposition ·( se is added to the
standard of comparison.

5. ¬i-(- ¬-( ·( -(·(( r|
amit anu: se lamba: h´.
Amit Anu than tall is
Amit is taller than Anu.

6. ¬-( .-(( ·( ·(( ·( r|
anu uma: se gori: h´.
Anu Uma than fair-complexioned is
Anu is more fair-complexioned than Anu.

The phrasal comparison is also expressed by the use of the phrase =
-(=(·(-( -( ke muka:ble mẽ ‘in comparison with’ following the standard
of comparison.

7. i·((·( = -(=(·(-( -( ·(( +c -( -( =-((( · r|
vjay ke muka:ble mẽ ra:j parhne mẽ kamzor h´.
Vijay-gen comarison in Raj studies-obl in weak is
Raj is weak in his studies in comparison to Vijay.

4. SYNTAX
276

8. ·(r +z :·( +z = -(=(·(-( -( -(·(( -(r( r|
vah per is per ke muka:ble mẽ lamba: nahĩ: h´.
that tree this tree-gen comparison in tall neg is
That tree is not taller than this tree.

9. .·( -(z=( = -(=(·(-( -( ·(r -(z=( ·(i=-((-( r |
us larki: ke muka:ble mẽ yah larki: buddhima:n h´.
that girl-gen comparison-obl in this girl wise is
This girl is wiser than that girl.

Adjectives used in a comparison can be modified by the adverb of
degree ¬i·(= adhik more.

10. ·(r ·(· .·( ·(· ·( ¬i·(= ·(z( r|
yeh ghar us ghar se adhik bara: h´.
this house that-obl house comparison more big is
This house is bigger than that one.

11. ·(r +·-= :·( +·-= ·( ¬i·(= ¬·=( r|
vah pustak is pustak se adhik acchi: h´.
that book this book comparison more good is
That book is better than this one.

When two sentences are joined, the identical elements in the second
conjunct are usually deleted. Whereas forward deletion is possible,
backward deletion is not.

12. ¬i-(- .--(( ·((-((= -(r( r i(--(( +·((-((=} .·(=( ·((: r |
amit utna: ca:la:k nahĩ: h´ jitna: (ca:la:k) uska: bha:i: h´.
Amit that much clever neg is as much (clever) his brother is
Amit is not as clever as his brother.

12a. *¬i-(- .--(( -(r( r i(--(( .·(=( ·((: ·((-((= r |
*amit utna: nahĩ: h´ jitna: uska: bha:i: ca:la:k h´

The deletion of the first occurrence of ·((-((= ca:la:k in sentence (12a)
results in the sentence being grammatically incorrect. The relative
correlative markers i(--(( jitna: .--(( utna: cannot be deleted under
any circumstance.

4. SYNTAX
277

4.3.11. Superlatives

Superlatives are usually expressed by substituting ·(·( ·( ¬i·(= sab se
adhik ‘most’, ·(·((--( sarvotam ‘best’, or r· ¤= -( ·( har ek mẽ se ‘out of
all’ for the standard of comparison. Superlative constructions are
also formed by the use of =(: :·(·( koi: du:sra: ‘anyone else’ plus the
negative particle.

1. ¬i-(- =-(( -( ·(·( ·( ¬i·(= ·(i=-((-( r |
amit kakša: mẽ sab se adhik buddhima:n h´.
Amit class in out of all more wise is
Amit is wisest of all in his class.

2. .-(( ·(·( ·( ¬i·(= -( :(z-( r |
uma: sab se adhik tez dørti: h´.
Uma out of all more fast run-pr is
Uma runs faster than everyone else.

3. i·((·( ·( ·(- · ¬( · =(: :·(·( -(r( r |
vijay se catur ør koi: du:sra: nahĩ: h´.
Vijay than clever anyone else neg is
No one else is more clever than Vijay.

Superlative constructions are also formed by substituting an
adjective of comparison for ·(·( ·( ¬i·(= sab se adhik.. It also serves as
the standard of comparison.

4. ·(r ·(z( ·( ·(z( ·(-(··(( ¬(·(-(( ·( r-( =·-( r|
vah bari: se bari: samasya: a:sa:ni: se hal karta: h´.
he big-f more big-f problem easy with solve do-ptc is
He solves the biggest problems easily.

5. r-((· +(·( ¬·= ·( ¬·=( =+z( ·(r( r |
hama:re pa:s acche se accha: kapra: yahi: h´.
we-obl with good-obl than good cloth this is
This is the best cloth we have.

Notice that in these constructions, the first part of the phrase is put in
the oblique case as it is followed by ·( se.

4. SYNTAX
278

4.3.12. Coordination

Sentence coordination is marked mainly by the use of the
conjunction morphemes ¬(· ør ‘and’ ·(( ya: ‘or’, and -(·(· magar/+·
par/i=- kintu ‘but’.

1. -( i:--(( ·(·(( ¬( · -(·( ·((: ¬(·(·( +·(·((}|
m´~ dilli: gaya: aur mera: bha:i: agra: (gaya:).
I Delhi went and my brother Agra went
I went to Delhi and my brother went to Agra.

2. ·((r-( -((r-( = ·(· ·(·(( -(·(·/ +·/ i=- -((r-(
sohan mohan ke ghar gaya: magar/par/kintu mohan
Sohan Mohan gen home went but Mohan
·(· +· -(r( ·((|
ghar par nahĩ: tha:.
home at neg was
Sohan went to Mohans home, but Mohan was not there.

The conjunction morpheme ¬( · ør ‘and’ can be followed by another
particle, ·(( bhi: ‘also’.

3. -((r-( =-( ·(-((··( ((¤·(( ¬(· ·((r-( ·(( +((¤·((}|
mohan kal bana:ras ja:yega: ør sohan bhi: (ja:yega:).
Mohan tomorrow Banaras go-fut and Sohan also go-fut
Mohan will go to Banaras tomorrow and Mohan will also go.

The conjunction compound morphemes ·(( ya: -·(( -ya: ‘either – or’
are also used in sentence conjunctions.

4. ·(( ¬(( ·((( r(·(( ·(( ir-(+(- r(·((|
ya: a:j varša: hogi: ya: himpa:t hoga:.
either today rain fall-fut or snowfall be-fut
Either it rains today or it will snow.

Notice that the word order of the constituent sentences undergo a
change when conjoined by the use of the conjunction morphemes ·((
- ·(( ya: - ya:. Sentence (4) is obtained by conjoining (4a) and (4b).

4. SYNTAX
279

4a. ¬(( ·((( r(·((|
a:j varša: hogi:.
It will rain today.

4b. ¬(( ir-(+(- r(·((|
a:j himpa:t hoga:.
It will snow today.

And coordination is commonly expressed by the conjunction marker
¬(· ør. It can join two or more sentences or phrases. This conjunction
morpheme occurs before the last conjunct.

5. ((-(( i=-(·( +c ·r( r ¬(· .-(( i·(º=( i-(= ·r( r|
ši:la: kita:b parh rahi: h´ ør uma: citthi: likh rahi: h´.
Shiela book read-prog is and Uma letter write write-prog is
Shiela is reading a book and Uma is writing a letter.

6. ¬-(· = -( ·r( r, -(( r-( ·((-( ·(-( ·r( r ¬(·
amar khel raha: h´, mohan ga:ne sun raha: h´, ør
Amar play-prog is Mohan songs listen-prog is and
((-( º( ·(( := ·r( r|
ša:m ti:vi: dekh raha: h´.
Sham TV see-prog is
Amar is playing, Mohan is listening to songs, and Sham is
watching television.

5a. *¬(· ((-(( i=-(·( +c ·r( r .-(( +| i-(= ·r( r|
*ør ši:la: kita:b parh rahi: h´, uma: patr likh rahi: h´.

6a. *¬-(· =-( ·r( r ¬(· -(( r-( ·((-( ·(-( ·r( r, ((-( º( ·(( : = ·r( r |
*amar khel raha: h´ ør mohan ga:ne sun raha: h´, ša:m ti:vi:
dekh raha: h´.

The misplacement of the coordination conjunction morpheme ¬( · ør
renders the sentences (5a) and (6a) ungrammatical.

Coordination does not merely involve juxtaposition of two or more
independent sentences. There are various syntactic and semantic
constraints on the construction of coordinate structures. In general,
coordinate sentences express contrast, cumulative effect, cause and
effect, sequential action, and contingency. Again, the order of the
4. SYNTAX
280

conjuncts is interchangeable if a coordinate sentence expresses
contrast or cumulative effect. Consider the following examples of
various types of coordinate structures as listed above.

Contrast
7. ·(r -(z=( -(( º( r ¬(· ·(r -(z=( :·(-((|
yeh larka: mota: h´ ør vah larka: dubla:.
this boy fat is and that boy slim
This boy is fat and that boy is slim.

7a. ·(r -(z=( :·(-(( r ¬(· ·((r -(z=( -(( º(|
vah larka: dubla: h´ ør yah larka: mota:.
That boy is slim and this boy is fat.

Cumulative effect
8. ·(r ·(( ··((·((-( =·-( r ¬(· ·( · =·-( r|
vah roz vya:ya:m karta: h´ aur s´r karta: h´.
he daily exercise do-ptc is and walk do-ptc is
He exercises daily and goes for a walk (daily).

8a. ·(r ·(( ··((·((-( =·-( r ¬(· ·( · ·((|
vah roz vya:ya:m karta: h´ ør s´r bhi:.
he daily exercise do-ptc is and walk also
He exercises daily and goes for a walk, too.

9. ·(r :·((: =(-( r ¬(· ¬(·(-( =·-( r |
vah dava:i: kha:ta: h´ ør a:ra:m karta: h´.
he medicine eat-ptc is and rest do-ptc is
He is taking medicine and relaxing.

9a. ·(r ¬(·(-( =·-( r ¬(· :·((: =(-( r |
vah a:ra:m karta: h´ ør dava:i: kha:ta: h´.
He is relaxing and taking medicine.

Cause and effect
10. .·(-( :·((: =(: ¬( · ·(r ··(··( r¬(|
usne dava:i: kha:i: ør vah svasth hua:.
he-erg medicine ate and he healthy became
He took medicine and recovered from the illness.

4. SYNTAX
281

10a. *·(r ··(··( r¬( ¬( · .·(-( :·((: =(:|
*vah svasth hua: ør usne dava:i: kha:i:.

11. ·((· =( ·(( -(( -(·(( ¬(· ·(r ¬(r- r¬(|
cor ko goli: lagi: ør vah a:hat hua:.
thief-dat bullet struck and he injured was
The thief was hit by a bullet and he was injured.

11a. *·((· ¬(r- r¬( ¬(· .·(=( ·(( -(( -(·((|
*cor a:hat hua: aur usko goli: lagi:.

Sequential action
12. ·(r ¬(·(( ¬( · r-( ·(· ¬(-( = i-(¤ -·(( -( i:·((|
vah a:ya: ør hamẽ ghar a:ne ke liye nyota: diya:.
he came and we-obl home come-inf-obl invitation gave
He came and invited us to visit his home.

12a. *.·(-( r-( ·(· ¬(-( = i-(¤ -·((-( i:·(( ¬(· ¬(·((|
*usne hamẽ ghar a:ne ke liye nyota: diya: ør a:ya:.

13. -((r-( ·(· ¬(·(( ¬( · .·(-( :··((( =( -(-(( =(-((|
mohan ghar a:ya: ør usne darva:ze ka: tala: khola:.
Mohan home came and he-erg door-gen lock opened
Mohan came home and unlocked the door.

13a. *-((r-( -( :··((( =( -(-(( =(-(( ¬( · ·(· ¬(·((|
*mohan ne darva:ze ka: ta:la: khola: ør ghar a:ya:.

14. --( ¤= ¬·=( -(z =( c c( ¬( · i·(·((r =·(|
tum ek acchi: larki: dhũ:dho ør viva:h karo.
you-fem one good girl search and marriage perform
You find a good girl and get married.

14a. --( i·(·((r =·( ¬( · ¤= ¬·=( -(z=( c c(|
*tum viva:h karo ør ek acchi: larki: dhũ:dho.

Notice that sentences (7), (8), and (9) permit the reverse order of
(7a), (8a), and (9a) respectively. In sentences (10), (11), (12), (13)
and (14), the reverse order of the conjuncts results in ungrammatical
sentences as shown above because of the constraints on cause and
4. SYNTAX
282

effect, sequential action, and contingency the conjoined structures
are marked for. The coordinate sentences (10-14) can be
paraphrased to indicate that they are related with the subordination
process as well. Consider the following sentences.

10b. ·(r :·(( =(=· ··(··( r¬(|
vah dava: kha:kar swasth hua:.
he medicine take-cp healthy became
He recovered (from illness) after taking the medicine.

11b. ·((· ·(( -(( -(·(-( ·( ¬(r- r¬(|
cor goli: lagne se a:hat hua:.
thief bullet hit-inf-obl with injured became
The thief was injured by a bullet.

12b. .·(-( ¬(=· r-( ·(· ¬(-( =( -·((-( i:·((|
usne a:kar hamẽ ghar a:ne ka: nyota: diya:.
he-erg come-cp us-dat home go-inf-gen invitation gave
On arrival, he invited us to his home.

13b. -((r-( -( ·(· ¬(=· :··((( =( -(-(( =( -((|
mohan ne a:kar darva:ze ka: ta:la: khola:.
Mohan-erg came-cp door-gen lock opened
On arrival, Mohan unlocked the door.

14b. ¤= ¬·=( -(z=( c c=· --( i·(·((r =·(|
ek acchi: larki: dhũ:dhkar tum viva:h karo.
a good girl find-cp you marriage do-imp
Find a good girl and get married.

In the above sentences, cause and effect, sequential action, and
contingency are expressed without using conjunction morphemes.
The paraphrases indicate that the first conjuncts of the sentences
represent the adverbial complements of the second conjuncts.

Besides conjoining sentences, the coordinating conjunction marker
ør can be used to coordinate nouns (subjects, direct and indirect
objects), verbs, adjectives, and adverbs.

4. SYNTAX
283

Coordinate nominal subjects
15. -(z=( ¬( · -(z=( =-( ·r r|
larka: ør larki: khel rahe h´~.
boy and girl play-prog are
A boy and a girl are playing.

Coordinate verbs
16. ((-(( -( =+z ·((¤ ¬(· =(-(( +=(·((|
ši:la: ne kapre dhoye ør kha:na: paka:ya:.
Shiela-erg clothes washed and food cooked
Shiela washed clothes and cooked meals.

Coordinate adjectives
17. ((-(( -(·(( ¬( · ·((·( r|
ši:la: lambi: aur gori: h´.
Shiela tall and fair complexioned is
Shiela is tall and fair-complexioned.

Coordinate adverbials
18. -( =-( ¬( · +··(( ·(· -(r( ((=·((|
m´~ kal ør parsõ ghar nahĩ: ja:ũ:ga:.
I tomorrow and day after tomorrow home neg go-fut
I will not go home tomorrow nor the day after tomorrow.

The coordination of two noun phrases yields a plural noun phrase
and therefore, verb agreement is affected. In the case of coordinate
subjects, the verb takes a masculine plural concord, whereas, in the
case of coordinate objects, the verb agrees with the nearest object.

19. -((r-( ¬(· ((-(( ·((((· ·(¤|
mohan ør ši:la: ba:za:r gaye.
Mohan and Shiela market went-mp
Mohan and Shiela went to the market.

20. -(-( ·(·( ¬( · =(·((i-(·(( =·(:( |
m´~ne seb ør xoba:niyã: xari:di:
I-erg apples-mp and apricots-fp bought-fs
I bought apples and apricots.

4. SYNTAX
284

But coordination is expressed by the conjunction marker +· par/-(·(·
magar/i=- kintu ‘but’. This marker is placed in the beginning of the
second conjunct.

21. -((r-( ¬··((+= r, -(·(· ·(r +c(-( -(r( |
mohan adhya:pak h´, magar vah parha:ta: nahĩ:.
Mohan is a teacher, but he teaches neg
Mohan is a teacher, but he does not teach.

22. .-(( ¬-(+c r, +· ·(r ·(z( ·(i=-((-( r |
uma: anparh h´, par vah bari: budhima:n h´.
Uma is illiterate, but she very wise is
Uma is illiterate, but she is very wise.

In sentence coordination, as mentioned earlier, the conjunct marker
¬(· ør occurs before the second or the last conjunct. The conjunct
marker +· par precedes the second or subsequent coordinated
sentences. Among the disjunctive markers, ·(( ya: can precede the
first as well as subsequent disjuncts.

23. ·(( ·(r i:--(( ((¤·((, ·(( ¬(·(·(|
ya: vah dilli: ja:yega:, ya: a:gra:.
either he Delhi go-fut or Agra
Either he will go to Delhi or Agra.

But coordination is usually used with adjectives and adverbials.

24. -((·( ·(i=-((-( r +· ·(·- r|
mi:ra: budhima:n h´ par sust h´.
Mira is intelligent but lazy is
Mira is intelligent but lazy.

25. ·(r ·(· =·-( r +· =·(-( ((-( =(|
vah s´r karta: h´ par keval ša:m ko.
she walk do-ptc is but only evening-loc at
He goes for a walk, but only in the evenings.

But coordination of nouns and verbs may involve a negative particle
preceding or following the adversative conjuncts.

4. SYNTAX
285

26. ¬-(· ·((-((= -(z=( r +· ·(( r-( -(r( r |
amar ca:la:k larka: h´ par sohan nahĩ: h´.
Amar clever boy is but Sohan neg is
Amar is a clever boy but Sohan is not.

27. r-(-( .·(=( ·(:·-( = ·((· -( ·(-(( r +·
hamne uski: sundarta: ke ba:re mẽ suna: h´ par
we-erg his beauty about heard but
=·(( :=( -(r( r|
kabhi: dekha: nahĩ: h´.
but never use him saw neg is
We have heard about her beauty, but have never seen her.

28. ·(r +| -(r( i-(=·(( +· º -((=(-( (=· =··((|
vah patr nahĩ: likhega: par teliphon zaru:r karega:.
He letter neg write-fut but telephone certainly do-fut
He will not write a letter but hell certainly call.

Or coordination uses the disjunctive markers ya: or and ·(·-(( varna:/
¬i+- apitu ‘or’ to conjoin nouns, adjectives, adverbs, and verbs.

29. -((r-( ·(( ·(( r-( =+z i·(¤·((|
mohan ya: sohan kapre siyega:.
Mohan or Sohan clothes stitch-fut
Mohan or Sohan will stitch the clothes.

30. .-(( ¬(( ·((((· ((¤·(( ·(( =-(|
uma: a:j ba:za:r ja:yegi: ya: kal.
Uma today market go-fut or tomorrow
Uma will go to the market today or tomorrow.

31. =-((( = i-(¤ -((-(( ·(( -((-( =+z( =·(i:¤|
kami:z ke liye ni:la: ya: la:l kapra: xari:diye.
shirt for blue or red cloth buy
Buy blue or red cloth for the shirt.

32. +¬(+} ·(·( =(¤·( ·(( =-((¨
(a:p) seb kha:yẽge ya: kela:?
(you-p) apple eat-fut or banana
Would you like to take an apple or a banana?

4. SYNTAX
286

4.3.12.1. Coordination and Accompaniment

Accompaniment is expressed by the postposition ·((·( sa:th with or in
the company of. It can also be expressed by the conjunction
morpheme ¬( · ør and.

33. ·((r-( ¬( · -((r-( ¬(¤|
sohan ør mohan a:ye.
Sohan and Mohan came
Sohan and Mohan came.

33a. ·((r-( -((r-( = ·((·( ¬(·((|
sohan mohan ke sa:th a:ya:
Sohan Mohan with came
Sohan came with Mohan.

Sentence (33) is an example of coordination, whereas sentence (33a)
denotes accompaniment. Notice that the accompaniment uses a
singular verb as in (33a). A single unit cannot be formed using
accompaniment, but can be formed by using coordination. The term
:(-(( donõ ‘both’ can, therefore, be used with coordination, but not
with accompaniment.

33b. ·((r-( ¬( · -((r-( :( -(( ¬(¤|
sohan ør mohan donõ a:ye.
Sohan and Mohan both came
Sohan and Mohan both came.

33c. *·((r-( -((r-( = ·((·( ¬(·(( :(-((|
*sohan mohan ke sa:th a:ya: donõ.

The unity of the conjoined phrase cannot be distorted, and this unity
is expressed only by coordination and not by accompaniment.

33d. ·(º( i+-( = ·((·( ¬(·((|
beta: pita: ke sa:th a:ya:.
son father-obl with came
The son came with the father.

4. SYNTAX
287

33e. ·(º( ¬(· i+-( ·(· ¬(¤|
beta: ør pita: ghar a:ye.
The son and father came home.

33f. *·(º( ·(· ¬(· i+-( ¬(¤|
*beta: ghar ør pita: a:ye.

33g. *·(º( ¬(· ·(· i+-( ¬(¤|
*beta: ør ghar pita: a:ye.

This explains the ungrammaticalness of sentences (33f) and (33g).
The commutative postposition = ·((·( ke sa:th follows the noun of
accompaniment. It is possible to form coordinate sentences using the
co-ordinate conjunction ¬(· ør the comitative postposition ·((·( sa:th
in one of the conjuncts.

34. ¬((- ¬( · -(( r-( ¬-(· = ·((·( ((¤·(|
aji:t ør mohan amar ke sa:th ja:yẽge.
Ajit and Mohan Amar-obl with go-fut
Ajit and Mohan will accompany Amar.

34a. ¬-(· = ·((·( ¬((- ¬(· -(( r-( ((¤·(|
amar ke sa:th aji:t ør mohan ja:yẽge.
Ajit and Mohan will accompany Amar.

4.3.12.2. Structural Constraints

There are various structural constraints in coordination. In general,
members in the same class can be conjoined but not those that
belong to different classes.

Adjective and noun
35. *·(r ·(:· ¬( · -(z =( r|
*vah sundar r larki: h´.
she is beautiful and girl.

35a. ·(r ·(:· ¬( · ·(i=-((-( -(z=( r |
vah sundar ør budhima:n larki: h´.
she beautiful and intelligent girl is
She is a beautiful and an intelligent girl.
4. SYNTAX
288

Adjective and adverb
36. *·(r =+z( ¬·=( ¬(· =-( r|
*yeh kapra: accha: ør kal h´.
this cloth good and yesterday is

36a. ·(r =+z( ¬·=( ¬(· ·(·-( r|
yeh kapra: accha: ør sasta: h´.
this cloth good and inexpensive is
This cloth is good and inexpensive.

As exemplified above in sentences (35) and (36), it is not possible to
conjoin adjectives and nouns, nor adjectives and adverbs. Other
types of constraints are indicated below.

Present and past participles and adjectives can be conjoined using
coordinate conjunction morphemes.

37. ¬i-(- +c(-i-(=( ¬(· (·(= -(z=( r |
Amit parha: - likha: ør šari:ph larka: h´.
Amit educated and gentle boy is
Amit is an educated and a gentle boy.

Similarly, it is possible to conjoin the conjuncts with adverbial
construction and an adjective phrase.

38. -(·( i-(| (r· -( ·r-( r ¬(· ·(r- ·((-((= r|
mera: mitr šahar mẽ rahta: h´ ør bahut ca:la:k h´.
my friend city in live-ptc is and very clever is
My friend lives in the city and is clever.

A relative clause and an adjective phrase cannot be conjoined.

38a. *(( (r· -( ·r-( r ¬(· ·(r- ·((-((= i-(| r|
*jo šahar mẽ rahta: h´ aur bahut ca:la:k mitr h´.
who city-abl is live-pr is and clever friend tomorrow

Nouns and nominalized constructions can be conjoined, provided
the semantic and pragmatic conditions are met.

39. .·( .+-·((·( +c-(( ¬(· -((º= :=-(( +·(: r|
use upanya:s parhna: ør na:tak dekhna: pasand h´.
4. SYNTAX
289

he-dat novel read-inf and play watch-inf like is
He likes to read novels and watch plays.

40. -(-( .·( ¬( · .·(= ·(· =( ·(+-( -( :=(|
m´~ne use ør uske ghar ko sapne mẽ dekha:.
I-erg he-obl and his house-dat dream-obl in saw
I saw him and his house in the dream.

It is possible to coordinate related adverbials in a coordinated
structure.

41. ·(r r·(- - r·(- ¬( · (-:( r· ¤= =(-( =·-( r|
vah hãste - hãste ør jaldi: har ek ka:m karta: h´.
he laugh-ptc and quickly every work do-ptc is
He gives his opinion smilingly and quickly.

Time adverbials and manner adverbials cannot be conjoined.

42. *·(r =-( ·(·(( ¬(· (( ·-((· ·( |
*vah kal roya: ør zor - zor se
he yesterday wept and loudly

Active and passive verbs can be coordinated provided they are
appropriate in a pragmatic situation. In Hindi, passive constructions
can mean capability as well.

43. ¬-( -( ·(·( =·(: ¬(· .·(·( =(¤ -(r( ·(¤|
anu ne seb xari:de aur usse kha:ye nahĩ: gaye.
Anu-erg apples bought and she-pass eat-pass neg aux-pass
Anu bought apples and she was not able to eat.

44. -(-( ·(r =(-( i=·(( ¬(· .·(·( -(r( i=·(( ·(·((|
m´~ne yeh ka:m kiya: ør usse nahĩ: kiya: gaya:.
I-erg this work did and he-pass neg do-pa went-pass
I did this work and it could not be done by him.

Simple verbs can be conjoined with infinitives in a coordinate
structure.

45. -(-( ·(r -((·(-( +c( ¬(· :·( +c-(( ¬(·((-( r -(r( |
m´~ne yeh na:val parha: ør ise parhna: a:sa:n h´ nahĩ:.
4. SYNTAX
290

I-erg this novel read and this-obl read-inf easy neg is
I read this novel and it is not easy to read.

It is also possible to conjoin different types of verbs.

46. -(·( r·(-(( ¬( · r·((-(( i=·(( =( +·(: -(r( ¬(·((|
mera: hãsna: ør hãsa:na: kisi: ko pasand nahĩ: a:ya:.
my laugh-inf and laugh-caus anyone-dat like neg came
My laughing and making others laugh was not liked by
anyone.

47. ·(··(( ¬(-(( ¬( · ·(··(( +=º =·-(( ¬·=( -(r(|
gussa: a:na: ør gussa: prakat karna: accha: nahĩ:.
anger come-inf and anger express do-inf good neg
It is not good to be angry nor to express ones anger.

When two sentences are conjoined, any number of elements,
including verbs, can be deleted under identity. The deletion can be
both forward as well as backward. However, backward deletion is
less frequent than forward deletion.

48. ¬i-(- -( i=-(·( =·(:( ¬(· ·(- -( =-(((|
amit ne kita:b xari:di: ør rajat ne kami:z.
Amit-erg book bought and Rajat-erg shirt
Amit bought a book and Rajat a shirt.

48a. ¬i-(- -( i=-(·( Ø ¬(· ·(- -( =-((( =·(:(|
amit-ne kita:b Ø ør rajat ne kami:z xari:di:.
Amit-erg book Ø and Rajat-erg shirt bought
Amit bought a book and Rajat bought a shirt.

The coordinating morpheme ¬( · ør conjoins sentences and parts of
sentences of similar syntactic and semantic structure. Due to such
constraints, the following pairs of sentences cannot be conjoined by
merely deleting the identical elements.

49a. -(:( ·((·( +·( : r|
mujhe ca:y pasand h´.
I-obl tea like is
I like tea.
4. SYNTAX
291

49b. -(:( =(-( =·-(( +·(: r|
mujhe ka:m karna: pasand h´.
I-obl work do-inf like is
I like to do work.

49c. *-(:( ·((·( ¬( · =(-( =·-(( +·( : r|
*mujhe ca:y ør ka:m karna: pasand h´.

50a. ¬i-(- ¬·(·( ¬(¤·((|
amit avašy a:yega:
Amit definitely come-fut
Amit will definitely come.

50b. ¬i-(- -((r-( = ·((·( ¬(¤·((|
amit mohan ke sa:th a:yega:.
Amit Mohan with come-fut
Amit will come with Mohan.

50c. *¬i-(- ¬·(·( ¬(¤·(( ¬(· -((r-( = ·((·(|
*amit avašy a:yega: aur mohan ke sa:th

51a. ((-(( ·((-((· r|
ši:la: bi:ma:r h´.
Shiela sick is
Shiela is sick.

51b. ((-(( ·(· +· r|
ši:la: ghar par h´.
Shiela home at is
Shiela is at home.

51c. *((-(( ·((-((· r ¬( · ·(· +·|
*ši:la: bi:ma:r h´ ør ghar par.

4. SYNTAX
292

All major sentence constituents, including nouns, adjectives, and
adverbs, can be omitted under identity.

Omission of subject/object
52. ¬i-(- -( i=-(·( =·(:( ¬(· Ø +c (|
amit-ne kita:b xari:di: r Ø parhi:.
Amit-erg book bought and Ø read
Amit brought a book and read.

Omission of adjective/verb
53. .·(= +(·( -((-(( =-((( r ¬(· -( · +(·( Ø º(+(|
uske pa:s ni:li: kami:z h´ ør mere pass Ø topi:.
he-obl blue shirt is and I-poss-obl Ø cap
He has a blue shirt and I have a blue cap.

Omission of adverb/verb
54. ·((r-( =-( ¬+-( ·(· ·(·(( ¬(· -(( r-( Ø (r· Ø|
sohan kal apne ghar gaya: ør mohan Ø šahar Ø
Sohan yesterday own village went and Mohan city
Sohan went to his village yesterday and Amar went to the city.

5. LEXICON
293


5. Lexicon

Here we list useful classified English-Hindi vocabulary for quick
reference. The vocabulary is listed under different sections: (1)
animals, birds, and insects; (2) flowers, fruits, and vegetables; (3)
jewels, metals, and minerals; (4) miscellaneous items; (5) body
parts; (6) occupations; (7) kinship terms; (8) adjectives; (9) verbs;
(10) adverbs; (11) conjunctions; and (12) pronouns.

5.1. Animals, Birds, and Insects

animal ((-(·(· ja:nvar / pašu
ant ·((º( cĩ:ti:
bear ·((-( bha:lu:
bedbug =º-(-( khatmal
bird i·(iz·(( / +-(( ciriya: / pakši:
buffalo ·(·( bhε~s
bullock ·(-( bεl
butterfly i---(( titli:
camel =º ũ:t
cat i·(--(( billi:
cock / rooster -(·(( murga:
cockroach i--(·(ºº( tilcatta:
cow ·((·( ga:y
crow =(¬( køa:
cuckoo =(·(-( ko:yal
deer ir·ª( hiran
dog =-(( kutta:
donkey ·(·(( gadha:
eagle ·((( ba:j
elephant r(·(( ha:thi:
fish -(=-(( machli:
fly -(+=( makkhi:
fox -((-(z( lo:mri:
frog -(c= mẽdhak
goat ·(=·( bakri:
hare =··((( xargoš
hen -(·(( murgi:
horse ·((z( gho:ra:
insect =(z( ki:ra:
5. LEXICON
294

jackal ·((:z gi:dar
kite ·((-( ci:l
leopard -:¬( tendua:
lion (· šer
lizard i=+=-(( chipkali:
mare ·((z( ghori:
monkey ·(:· bandar
mule =··(· khaccar
owl .--( ullu:
peacock -((· mo:r
pig ·(¬· suar
pigeon =·(-· kabu:tar
rat ·(r( cu:ha:
scorpion i·(·= bicchu:
sheep ·(z bhe:r
snake ·((+ sã:p
sparrow ·((i··(( gørεya:
squirrel i·(-(r·( gilhari:
swan r·( hans
tiger ·((·( ba:gh
wolf ·(iz·(( bheriya:
worm =(z( ki:ra:

5.2. Flowers, Fruits, and Vegetables

almond ·((:(-( ba:da:m
apple ·(·( se:b
apricot =(·((-(( xo:ba:ni:
banana =-(( ke:la:
beet root ·(=:· cukandar
betel leaf +(-( pa:n
betel nut ·(+(·( supa:ri:
bitter gourd =·-(( kare:la:
black plum ¬(-( ·(=(·( a:lu: buxa:ra:
brinjal / eggplant ·(·(-( bε~gan
cabbage ·(:·((·(( bandgo:bi:
carrot ·(((· ga:jar
cashew nut =(( ka:ju:
cauliflower =-(·((·(( phu:lgo:bi:
coconut -((i··(-( na:riyal
5. LEXICON
295

coriander ·(i-(·(( dhaniya:
cucumber (small) =(·( khi:ra:
custard apple (·(=( šari:pha:
date =(· khaju:r
fig ¬((· anji:r
garlic -(r·(-( lahsun
ginger ¬:·= adrak
gourd -((=( løki:
grape ¬·(· angu:r
green chilie r·( i-(·( hari: mirc
groundnut -(·(=-(( mu~:gphali:
guava ¬-(=: amru:d
jackfruit =ºr-( kathal
jasmine ·(-(-(( came:li:
lady’s finger i·(z( bindi:
lemon -((·( ni:bu:
lichee -((·(( li:ci:
lotus =-(-( kamal
mango ¬(-( a:m
marigold ·(:( gẽda:
(musk)melon =··((( kharbu:za:
mint +:(-(( pudi:na:
mulberry (r-- šahtu:t
onion ·((( pya:z
orange -((··(( na:rangi:
papaya ++(-( papi:ta:
pea -(º· matar
peanut -(·(=-(( mũ:gphali:
pear -(((+(-( na:špa:ti:
pineapple ¬-((-((·( ananna:s
pistachio nut i+·-( pista:
plum ¬(-( ·(=(·( a:lu: buxa:ra:
pumpkin =:: kaddu:
pomegranate ¬-((· ana:r
potato ¬(-( a:lu:
raisin (small) i=(i-(( kišmiš
raisin (large) -(-(=( munakka:
radish -(-(( mu:li:
raspberry ··(·(·( rasbhari:
spinach +(-(= pa:lak
sugar cane ·(--(( ganna:
5. LEXICON
296

sweet lime -((·(-(( møsami:
sweet potato (=·=: šakarkand
tomato º-((º· tama:t ar
turnip (-(·(-( šalgam
walnut ¬=·( º akhro:t
watermelon -··((( tarbu:za:

5.3. Jewels, Metals, and Minerals

aluminum ¬-(-(i-(·(-( almu:niyam
brass +(--( pi:tal
bronze =(·(( kã:sa:
copper -(·(( tã:ba:
diamond r(·( hi:ra:
emerald +--(( panna:
gem -(iª( / ··-( mani / ratn
glass =(·( kã:c
gold ·((-(( so:na:
iron -((r( lo:ha:
jewel (·((r· java:har
mercury +(·( pa:ra:
nickel i-(=-( nikal
pearl -((-( mo:ti:
sapphire -((-(-( ni:lam
silver ·((:( cã:di:
steel :·+(- ispa:t
sulfur ·(·(= gandhak
tin º(-( ti:n
topaz +=·(( pukhra:j
zinc (·-( jasta:

5.4. Miscellaneous Items

accident :·(º-(( durghatna:
acquaintance +i··(·( paricay
admiration +(·(( / -(·(= prašansa: / ta:ri:f
age ¬(·( / .-( a:yu:/umar
air r·(( hava:
answer .·-· uttar / java:b
application +(·(-(( +| pra:rthana: patr
area :-((=( ila:ka:
5. LEXICON
297

ashes ·(= ra:kh
autumn +-:(z patjhar
baking pan -·(( tava:
bark (of tree) i=-=( chilka:
barley (( jø
basket º(=·( to:kri:
bath ·-((-( sna:n
behavior ·(-(·( barta:v
bell ·(º( ghanta:
birthday (--( i:-( janm-din
boat -((·( na:v
bread ·(º( roti:
bridge +-( pul
center =: kendr
charcoal =(·(-(( koyla:
child ·(··(( bacca:
church i·(·(( girja:
city (r· šahar
class :(( darja:
cleanliness ·(=(: safa:i:
cloud ·((:-( ba:dal
cold ·(:( / (=(-( sardi: / zuka:m
comfort ¬(·(-( a:ra:m
committee =-(º( kameti:
community ·(-((( sama:j
complaint i(=(·(- šika:yat
cooked rice ·((- bha:t
corn -(+=( makki:
cough =(·(( khã:si:
country :( deš
court of law ¬:(-(- ada:lat
cup ·((-(( pya:la:
dance -((·( na:c
day i:-( din
difficulty -(i=-( muškil
dispensary i·(i=··((-(·( cikitsa:lay
district i(-(( zila:
dust ·(-( dhu:l
earth +··(( prathvi:
earthen oven ·(-r( cuhla:
education i(-(( / -(-((-( šikša: / ta:li:m
5. LEXICON
298

egg ¬z( ãda:
entertainment -(-((· (-( manoranjan
enquiry +=-(= pu:chta:ch
evening ((-( ša:m
exhibition +:(-(( / -(-((:( pradaršani: / numa:iš
fare i=·(·(( / ·((z( kira:ya: / bha:ra:
fatigue ·(=(-( thaka:n
favor =+( kripa:
fear z· dar
feast :(·(- da:vat
feather += pankh
fever ·(· / ·(=(· jvar / buxa:r
frying pan =z(: kara:i:
fire ¬(·( a:g
flag :(z( jhãda:
fog =r·(/·( ·( kuhra: / dhũdh
foreigner i·(:(( videši:
forest (·(-( / ·(-( jangal / van
fountain =··((·( favva:ra:
fun -(((= / --(((( maza:k / tama:ša:
gift .+r(· upha:r
grass ·((·( gha:s
harbor ·(:··((r bandarga:h
health ··((···( swasthy
heat ·(-(( garmi:
help -(:: / ·(r(·(-( madad / saha:yita:
hobby ((= šøk
holiday =:( chutti:
horn ·((·( sĩ:g
hospital ¬·+-(-( aspata:l
hunger ·(= bhu:kh
ice ·(= barf
information ·(·(-(( su:cna:
intoxication -((( naša:
introduction +i··(·( paricay
island º(+ / »(+ ta:pu: / dvi:p
joke -(((= maza:k
journey ·((|( ·(=· ya:tra: / safar
kidney beans ·((-((r ra:jma:h
kindness =+( / -(r··((-(( meharba:ni: / kripa:
ladle =-(=( kalchi:
5. LEXICON
299

lane ·(-(( gali:
language ·(((( / (·((-( bha:ša: / zaba:n
leaf +-(( patta:
leave =:( chutti:
lentil :(-( da:l
lid c+=-( dhakkan
lie :(= jhu: th
literature ·((ir··( / ¬:·( sa:hity / adab
love ·((· pya:r
man ¬(:-(( a:dmi:
marriage i·(·((r / ((:( viva:h / ša:di:
meat -((·( mã:s
message ·(:( sandeš
memorial ·-((·= sma:rak
memory ·((: ya:d
mile -((-( mi:l
mistake ·(--( galti:
month -(r(-(( mahi:na:
mortar ¬(=-(( okhli:
moon ·((: cã:d
moonlight ·((:-(( cã:dni:
morning ·(·(r subah
mosque -(·(i(: masjid
mountain +r(z paha:r
museum ¬((·(·(·(· aja:yabghar
music ·(·((- sangi:t
name -((-( na:m
news ·(-((·((· / =·(· sama:ca:r / xabar
newspaper ·(-((·((·+| / ¬=·((· sama:ca:rpatr / axba:r
night ·(- ra:t
noon :(+r· dopahar
north .-(· uttar
paddy ·((-(, ((-(( dha:n / ša:li:
pain :: dard
person ··(i+- vyakti:
pitcher -(º=( matka:
pity :·(( daya:
plate -(º palet
place (·(r jagah
potato ¬(-( a:lu:
police +i-(·( pulis
5. LEXICON
300

police station ·((-(( tha:na:
praise +(·(( / -(·(= prašansa: / ta:ri:f
prayer +(·(-(( / : ¬( pra:rthana: / dua:
present .+r(· upha:r
price =(-(- ki:mat
procession (-(·( jalu:s
program =(·(=-( ka:ryakram
port ·(:··((r bandarga:h
quarrel :(·(z( jhagra:
question +-( / ·(·((-( prašan / sava:l
rain ·((( / ·((i·( varša: / ba:riš
rainy season ·(··((- barsa:t
regret =: / ¬=·((·( khed / afsos
religion ·(-( dharm
rent i=·(·(( kira:ya:
repair -(·--(- marmmat
reply .-(· / (·((·( uttar / java:b
request i-(·(:-( / +(·(-(( pra:rthana:
rest ¬(·(-( a:ra:m
rice ·((·(-( ca:val
rice pudding =(· khi:r
river :i··(( dariya:
road +·( / ·(·-( path / ra:sta:
rock ·(:(-( catta:n
root (z jar
rope ··(( rasi:
salt -(-(= namak
sand ·- ret
sandal ·(:-( candan
sea ·(-(: /·(-(:· samudr / samandar
seed ·((( bi:j
ship (r(( jaha:z
show --(((( tama:ša:
sickle :(-( drã:ti:
sky ¬(=(( / ¬(·(-((-( a:ka:š / a:sma:n
smoke ·(¬( dhuã:
snow ·(= barf
society ·(-((( sama:j
sorrow =: / := khed / dukh
south :i-(ª( dakšin
spit ·(= thu:k
5. LEXICON
301

spoon ·(--(·( cammac
spring ·(·(- / ·(r(· vasant / baha:r
star -(·( tara:
stick ·((º( so:ti:
stone +··(· patthar
storm ¬(·(( ã:dhi:
sugar ·((-(( ci:ni:
summer ·(-(( garmi:
sun ·(·( / ·(·( su:ry / su:raj
sunshine ·(+ dhu:p
tail :-( dum
temple -(i:· mandir
tent --·( tambu:
thanks ·(-·(·((: / (i=·(( dhanyava:d / šukriya:
thief ·((· cor
thirst ·((·( pya:s
time ·(-(·( samay
tobacco --·((= tamba:ku:
town -(·(· nagar / šahar
translation ¬-(·((: anuva:d
travel ·((|( ya:tra: / safar
traveler ·((|( / -(·((i=· ya:tri: / musa:fir
treatment :-((( ila:j
trouble =º / -=-((= kašt / takli:f
truth ·(·( sac
valley ·((:( va:di:
value -(-·( / =(-(- mu:ly / ki:mat
vessel ·(--( bartan
village ·((-( / ·((·( gra:m / ga:ũ
visitor :(= daršak
vomit .-º( ulti:
wash ·(-((: dhula:i:
water +(-(( pa:ni:
waterfall :(·-(( jharna:
week ·(-(r / r+-( sapta:h / hafta:
wealth ·(-(+i- / :(-(- sampati / dølat
weight ·((· / ·((-( bha:r / vazan
west +i·(-( pašcim
wheat ·(r gehũ:
wind r·(( hava:
winter ·(:( / ((z( sardi: / ja:ra:
5. LEXICON
302

woman ¬(·- ørat
world ·(·((· sansa:r / duniya:
worship +(( pu:ja:
wood -(=z( lakri:
year ·((-( sal
zoo i·(iz·((·(· ciriya:ghar

5.5. Body Parts

arm ·((r bã:h
armpit ·(·(-( bagal
beard :(c( da:rhi:
body (·(· šari:r
bone rzz( haddi:
brain i:-((·( / -(i·-(= dima:g / mastišk
breast ·--( stan
cheek ·((-( ga:l
chest =((-( cha:ti:
chin =(z( thori:
ear =(-( ka:n
elbow =(r-(( kohni:
eye ¬(= ã:kh
eyeball +--(( putli:
eyebrow ·((
bhø)
eyelid +-(= palak
face ·(r·( cehra:
finger .·(-(( ũgli:
fist -(º=( mutthi:
flesh -((·( / ·((- mã:s / go:sht
foot +· pεr
forehead -((·(( ma:tha:
gum (·(z( jabra:
hand r(·( ha:th
(left) hand ·((·(( r(·( ba:yã: ha:th
(right) hand :(·(( r(·( da:yã: ha:th
hair ·((-( ba:l
head i·(· sir
heart ÷:·( / i:-( hriday / dil
heel ¤z( eri:
intestines ¬--iz·(( antariyã:
5. LEXICON
303

knee ·(º-(( ghutna:
leg º(·( tã:g
lips ¬(= õth
liver =-((( kale:ji:
lung ==z( phe:phra:
mouth -(r mũh
mustaches -(= mu:ch
nail -((=-( na:khu:n
navel -((·(( na:bhi:
neck ·(:-( gardan
nose -((= na:k
palate -(-( ta:lu:
palm r·(-(( hathe:li:
rib +·(-(( pasli:
shoulder =·(( kandha:
skin ·(-( carm
sole of foot --(·(( talva:
stomach +º pet
teeth :(- dã:t
thigh ((·( jã:gh
throat ·(-(( gala:
thumb ¬·(=( ãgu:tha:
tongue ((·( / (·((-( ji:b / zaba:n
vein -(·( nas
waist =-(· kamar
wrist =-((: kala:i:

5.6. Occupations

accountant -(=(=(· le:kha:ka:r
advocate ·(=(-( vaki:l
actor ¬i·(-(-( abhine:ta:
actress ¬i·(-(|( abhine:tri:
artist =-((=(· / ¬:(=(· kala:ka:r / ada:ka:r
artisan =(·(·(· ka:ri:gar
barber -((: na:i:
blacksmith -(r(· luha:r
boatman -(--((r malla:h
carpenter ·(c: barhai:
cartman ·((z(·((-( ga:ri:va:n
clerk i-(i+= lipik / klark
5. LEXICON
304

cobbler -((·(( mo:chi:
confectioner r-(·((: halwa:i:
contractor ==:(· the:keda:r
cook ··((:·(( raso:iya:
craftsman =(·(·(· ka:ri:gar
dentist :- i·(i=··(= dant-chikitsak
doctor z(+º· da:ktar
driver z(:·(· drεvar
editor ·(-+(:= sampa:dak
employee =-(·((·( karamca:ri:
engineer :((i-(·(· inji:niyar
farmer i=·((-( kisa:n
gatekeeper :··((-( darba:n
gardener -((-(( ma:li:
goldsmith ·(-((· suna:r
grocer +·((·( pansa:ri:
hawker =·(·((-(( phe:ri:va:la:
journalist +|=(· patraka:r
judge -·((·((·((( nya:ya:dhi:š:
laborer -((: · mazdu:r
lawyer ·(=(-( vaki:l
maidservant -((=·(-(( nøkara:ni:
mason ·(( ra:j
merchant ··((+(·( vya:pa:ri:
minister -(|( mantri:
musician ·((·(= / ·((i·(=( ga:yak / ga:yika:
nurse -(·( nars
officer ¬i·(=(·( adhika:ri:
optician ¤-(=·((( εnaksa:z
peon ·(+·(·(( capra:si:
photographer =(º(·((=· pho:to:gra:phar
poet =i·( kavi
police sub-inspector ·((-(:(· tha:ne:da:r
postman z(i=·(( da:kiya:
prime minister +·((-( -(|( pradha:n mantri:
printer -(:= mudrak
porter =-(( kuli:
proprietor -((i-(= ma:lik
publisher +=((= praka:šak
salesman i·(=-( vikre:ta:
scientist ·(n(i-(= vεgya:nik
5. LEXICON
305

sculptor i(-+( šilpi:
servant -((=· nøkar
shopkeeper :=(-(:(· duka:nda:r
singer ·((·(= /·((i·(=( ga:yak / ga:yika:
soldier i·(+(r( sipa:hi:
student i·(¤(·(( vidya:rthi:
supervisor +i··( -(= paryave:kšak:
sweet-seller r-(·((: halva:i:
tailor :(( darzi:
teacher ¬¤(+= / i(-(= adhya:pak / šikšak
translator ¬-(·((:= anuva:dak
washerman ·((·(( dho:bi:
watchmaker ·(z(·((( ghari:sa:z:
watchman ·((=(:(· cøki:da:r
writer -(== le:khak
(petition) writer ¬(( -(·((·( arzi: navi:s

5.7. Kinship Terms

adopted son :-= + | dattak putr
adopted daughter :-= + |( dattak putri:
brother ·((: bha:i:
brother, elder ·(z( ·((: ba:ra: bha:i:
brother, younger =(º( ·((: cho:ta bha:i:
brother’s daughter ·(-((( bhati:ji:
brother’s son ·(-((( bati:ja:
brother’s wife ·((·(( bha:bhi:
daughter ·(º( be:ti:
daughter’s husband (·((: javã:i:
father i+-( pita:
father’s brother ·((·(( ca:ca:
father’s brother’s wife ·((·(( ca:ci:
father’s father :(:( da:da:
father’s father’s brother ·(·( ·( :(:( cacera: da:da:
father’s father’s brother’s wife ·(·( ·( :(:( cace:ri: da:di:
father’s mother :(:( da:di:
father’s sister ==( phu:phi:
father’s sister’s husband ==( phu:pha:
father’s brother’s son ·(·( ·( ·((: ca:cera: bha:i:
father’s sister’s son ==·( ·((: phuphera: bha:i:
father’s brother’s daughter ·(·( ·( ·(r-( ca:ceri: bahan:
5. LEXICON
306

father’s sister’s daughter ==·( ·(r-( phupheri: bahan
husband +i- pa:ti
husband’s brother :·(· de:var:
husband’s brother’s wife :·(·(-(( dev:ra:ni:
husband’s father ·(·(· sasur
husband’s mother ·((·( sa:s
husband’s sister -(-(: nanad
mother -((-( / -(( ma:ta: / mã:
mother’s brother -((-(( ma:ma:
mother’s sister -((·(( ma:si:
mother’s sister’s husband -((·(( mø:sa:
mother’s father’s brother ·(·( ·( -((-(( cacera: na:na:
mother’s father’s brother’s wife ·(·( ·( -((-(( caceri: na:ni:
mother’s father -((-(( na:na:
mother’s mother -((-(( na:ni:
father’s father’s father +z:(:( par da:da:
father’s father’s mother +z:(:( par da:di:
mother’s father’s father +z-((-(( par na:na:
mother’s brother’s son -(-(·( ·((: mam:era: bha:i:
mother’s brother’s daughter -(-(·( ·(r-( mam:eri: bahan:
mother’s sister’s daughter -((·(·( ·(r-( møs:eri: bahan
mother’s sister’s son -((·(·( ·((: møsera: bha:i:
sister ·(r-( bahan
sister, elder ·(z( ·(r-( bari: bahan
sister, younger =(º( ·(r-( choti: ba:han
son ·(º( / +| be:ta: / putr
sister’s son ·(( (( bhã:ja:
sister’s daughter ·(( (( bhã:ji:
sister’s husband (((( / ·(r-((: ji:ja: / bahno:i:
son’s son +(-( pota:
son’s daughter +(-( poti:
wife +·-(( pat:ni: / bi:vi:
wife’s brother ·((-(( sa:la:
wife’s father ·(·(· sasur
wife’s mother ·((·( sa:s
wife’s sister ·((-(( sa:li:
son’s wife ·(r ba:hu:
stepfather ·((--(( ·((+ søtela: ba:p
stepmother ·((--(( -(( søteli: mã:
stepbrother ·((--(( ·((: søtela: bha:i:
5. LEXICON
307

stepsister ·((--(( ·(r-( søteli: bahan

5.8. Adjectives

accurate ·(r( / =(= sahi: / thi:k
airy r·(:(· hava:da:r
ancient ¬-(= / +·(-(( ati:k / pura:na:
bad ·(·( / =·(·( bura: / xara:b
beautiful ·(:· / =·(·(·- sundar / khu:bsu:rat
big ·(z( / i·(((-( bara: / visha:l
bitter =z·(( karva:
black =(-(( ka:la:
blue -((-(( ni:la:
broad ·((z( cør a:
brown ·(·( bhu:ra:
cheap ·(·-( saasta:
clean ·((= sa:f
clear ·+º spašt
clever r(i(·((· ho:šiya:r / catur
closed ·(: band
coarse -((º( mo:ta:
cold =z( thãda:
complete +·( pu:ra:
correct ·(r( sahi:
costly -(r·(( mahãga:
cunning ·((-((= ca:la:k
dear ·((·( pya:ra:
defective =·(·( xara:b
dense ·(-(( ghana:
difficult =i=-( / -(i=-( kathin / muškil
direct ·((·(( si:dha:
dirty ·(:( gãda:
dry ·(=( su:kha:
each r· ¤= / +··(= har ek / pratyek
easy ¬(·((-( a:sa:n
educated +c( i-(=( parha:-likha:
elder ·(º / ·(z( jye: št / bara:
empty =(-(( xa:li:
entire ·((·( sa:ra:
every +··(= pratye:k
5. LEXICON
308

fast -( / -(·( te:z / ti:vr
fat -((º( mo:ta:
few =-( / == kam / kuch
filthy ·(:( gãda:
fine ·((·(= / =(= ba:ri:k / thi:k
final ¬i---( / ¬(= ·( antim / a:xiri:
foolish -(= mu:rkh / be:vaku:f
foreign i·(:(( vide:ši
free ··(-| / ¬(((: svatantr / a:za:d
fresh -((( ta:za:
golden ·(-(r-(( / ·(-(r·( sunhala: / sunhari:
good ¬·=( acchha:
greasy i·(=-(( cikna:
great ·(z( / -(r(-( bara: / maha:n
green r·( hara:
handsome ·(:· / =·(·(·- sũdar / khu:bsu:rat
hard ·(r- / -((i=-( saxt: / muškil
heavy ·((·( bha:ri:
high =·(( ũ:ca:
hot ·(·-( garam
important ¬(·(·(= / (=·( xa:však / zaru:ri:
incomplete ¬·(·( adhu:ra:
independent ··(-| / ¬(((: savatantr / a:za:d
inferior ·(iº·(( ghatiya:
intelligent r(i(·((· / :(-(( hošiya:r / da:na:
large ·(z( bara:
last ¬i---( / ¬(=·( antim / a:xiri:
left ·((·(( ba:ya~:
lengthy -(·(( lamba:
less =-( kam
light r-=( halka:
little (·( / ·((z( zara: / thora:
lonely ¬=-(( ake:la:
long -(·(( lamba:
loose c(-(( dhi:la:
low -((·(( ni:ca:
many =: / ¬-(= kai: / ane:k
modern ¬(·(i-(= a:dhunik
more ¬(· /¬i·(=
r / adhik
much ·(r- /¬i·(= / ·((:( bahut / adhik / zya:da
5. LEXICON
309

new -(·(( naya:
old +·(-(( pura:na:
open =-(( khula:
opposite .-º( ulta:
orange -((··(( na:rangi:
peculiar ¬((·( / i·(i·(| aji:b / vicitr
permanent ++=( / ··((: pakka: / stha:i:
pink ·(-((·(( gula:bi:
poor ·(·(·( gari:b
proper .i·(- ucit
pungent -(=( ti:kha:
pure (:·( šuddh
raw =··(( kacca:
red -((-( la:l
remaining ·((=( ba:ki:
rich ¬-((· ami:r
right ·(r( / =(= sahi: / thi:k
ripe ++=( pakka:
robust -·(z( tagra:
round ·((-( go:l
salty -(-(=(-( namki:n
several =: / ¬-(= kai: / ane:k
sharp -( te:z
short =(º( cho:ta:
simple ·((·(( / ¬(·((-( si:dha: / a:sa:n
single ¬=-(( ake:la
slow ·((-(( dhi:ma:
small =(º( chota:
smart r(i(·((· ho:šiya:r
smooth i·(=-(( cikna:
soft -(-((·(-( / -(-( mula:yam / naram
sour =:( khatta:
special i·((( / =(·( višeš / xa:s
spicy ·(º+º( catpata:
stale ·((·(( ba:si:
stopped ·(: band
straight ·((·(( si:dha:
strange ¬((·( / i·(i·(| aji:b / vicitr
strong -·(z( / -((·(- tagra: / mazbu:t
stupid -(= / ·(·(== mu:rkh / bevaku:f
suitable .i·(- ucit
5. LEXICON
310

sweet -((=( mi:tha:
tall -(·(( lamba:
tasteless =(=( phi:ka:
temporary ¬··((: astha:i:
tender =(-(-( ko:mal
thick -((º( mo:ta:
thin +--(( patla:
total =-( kul
true ·(r( / ·(··(( sahi: / sacca:
unripe =··(( kacca:
vacant =(-(( xa:li:
violet ·(·(-(( bε~gani:
warm ·(-(·(-(( gunguna:
weak =-((( · kamzor
wet ·((-(( gi:la:
wide ·((z( cør a:
white ·(=: / ·(- safe:d / švet
whole ·((·( sa:ra:
wounded ¬(r- / ·((·(-( a:hat / gha:yal
wrong ·(-(- galat
yellow +(-(( pi:la:
young(er) =(º( cho:ta:

5.9. Verbs

to accept ··(((=(· =·-(( svi:ka:r karna:
to admit -((-(-(( / :(i= -( =·-(( ma:nna: / da:xil karna:
to (be) alive ((-(( ji:na:
to ask for -((·(-(( mã:gna:
to bathe -((r-(( naha:na:
to be r(-(( ho:na:
to bear ·(r-(( sahna:
to beat +(º-(( pi:tna:
to become ·(-(-(( banna:
to bite =(º-(( ka:tna:
to boil .·((-(-(( uba:lna:
to (be) born +:( r( -(( p´da: ho:na:
to break -(z-(( to:rna
to bring -((-(( la:na:
to bring up +((-(-(( pa:lna
to (be) broken ºº-(( tu:tna:
5. LEXICON
311

to build ·(-((-(( / i-(-((ª( =·-(( bana:na: / nirma:n karna:
to burn (-((-(( jala:na:
to buy =·(:-(( xari:dna:
to call ·(-((-(( bula:na:
to catch +=z-(( pakarna:
to celebrate -(-((-(( mana:na:
to chew ·(·((-(( caba:na:
to cleanse ·((= =·-(( sa:f karna:
to climb ·(c-(( carhna:
to come ¬(-(( a:na:
to come out i-(=-(-(( nikalna:
to conceal i=+(-(( chipa:na:
to conquer ((--(( ji:tna:
to cook +=((-(( / =(-(( ·(-((-(( paka:na: / kha:na: bana:na:
to cool =z( =·-(( thãda: karna:
to cough =(·(-(( khã:sna
to count i·(-(-(( ginna:
to cover c=-(( dhakna:
to cry ·(-(( ro:na:
to cry out i·(--((-(( cilla:na:
to cut =(º-(( ka:tna:
to decorate ·(((-(( saja:na:
to defeat r·(-(( hara:na
to deposit (-(( =·-(( jama: karna:
to desire ·((r-(( ca:hna:
to die -(·-(( marna:
to distribute ·((º-(( bã:tna:
to divide ·((·( =·-(( / ·((º-(( bha:g karna: / bã:tna:
to do =·-(( karna:
to drag ·(·((º-(( ghasi:tna:
to draw =(·(-(( khĩ:cna:
to drink +(-(( pi:na:
to drive ·(-((-(( cala:na:
to drive away i-(=-(-(( nika:lna:
to earn =-((-(( kama:na:
to eat =(-(( kha:na:
to endure ·(r-(( / ·(·:(- =·-(( sahna: / barda:št karna:
to enquire +=-(= =·-(( pu:chta:ch karna:
to entrust ·((+-(( sø~pna:
to envy :(( =·-(( i:rša: karna:
to escape ·(·(-(( bacna:
5. LEXICON
312

to examine ((·(-(( jã:cna:
to expect +-(-(( =·-(( prati:kša:
to expel i-(=(-(-(( nika:lna:
to fall i·(·-(( girna:
to fight -(z-(( larna:
to flee ·((·(-(( bha:gna:
to flow ·(r-(( bahna:
to fly .z-(( / .z(-(( urna: (int) / ura:na: (tr)
to fry --(-(( talna:
to forget ·(-(-(( bhu:lna:
to get +(-(( pa:na:
to get down .-·-(( utarna:
to get out i-(=-(-(( nikalna:
to get up .=-(( uthna:
to give :-(( de:na:
to grind +(·(-(( pi:sna:
to grow .·+(:-( =·-(( / ·(c-(( utpa:dan karna: / barhna:
to halt =r·-(( / ==-(( thaharna: / rukna:
to happen r(-(( ho:na:
to hear ·(-(-(( sunna:
to heat ·(-( =·-(( garm karna:
to help -(:: / ·(r(·(-( =·-(( madad / saha:yta: karna:
to hide i=+(-(( chipa:na:
to hold +=z-(( ·(-r(-(-(( pakarna: / samha:lna:
to increase ·(c(-(( barha:na:
to inform ·(-(-(( / ·(i·(- =·-(( bata:na: / su:cit karna:
to join i-(-(-(( milna:
to jump =:-(( ku:dna:
to keep ·=-(( rakhna:
to kill -((·-(( ma:rna:
to kiss ·(-(-(( cu:mna:
to knead ·(:-(( gũ:dna:
to know ((-(-(( ja:nna:
to laugh r·(-(( hãsna:
to learn ·((=-(( si:khna:
to leave =(z-(( chorna:
to lie :(= ·((-(-(( jhu:th bo:lna:
to lie down -(º-(( le:tna:
to lift .=(-(( utha:na
to like ·((r-(( / +·(: =·-(( ca:hna: / pasand karna:
5. LEXICON
313

to listen ·(-(-(( sunna:
to live ((-(( / ·r-(( ji:na: / rahna:
to look :=-(( de:khna:
to lose =(-(( kho:na:
to make ·(-((-(( / -·((· =·-(( bana:na: / tεya:r karna:
to meet i-(-(-(( milna:
to mix i-(-((-(( mila:na:
to occur r(-(( ho:na:
to open =(-(-(( kho:lna:
to (be) perturbed ·(·(z(-(( ghabra:na:
to place ·=-(( rakhna:
to play =-(-(( khe:lna:
to pluck -(z-(( torna:
to plunder -(º-(( lu:tna:
to possess ·=-(( rakhna:
to prepare ·(-((-(( bana:na: / tεyar karna:
to print =(+-(( cha:pna:
to protect ·(·((-(( baca:na: / rakša: karna:
to pull =(·(-(( khĩ:cna:
to purchase =·(:-(( xari:dna
to put on +r-(-(( pahanna:
to quarrel :(·(z-(( jhagarna:
to raise .=(-(( utha:na:
to reach +r·(-(( pahũcna:
to read +c-(( parhna:
to reap =(º-(( ka:tna:
to receive +(-(( pa:na:
to recognize +r·((-(-(( pahca:nna:
to refund -((º(-(( / ·((i+·( =·-(( løta:na: / va:pas karna:
to release =(z-(( chorna:
to relax ¬(·(-( =·-(( a:ra:m karna:
to remit ¬:( =·-(( ada: karna:
to reside ·r-(( / i-(·((·( =·-(( rahna: / niva:s karna:
to return -((º-(( løtna: / løta:na:
to resolve ·(-(-(( ghu:mna:
to rise .=-(( / ((·(-(( uthna: / ja:gna:
to roast ·(-(-(( bunna:
to run :(z-(( dørna:
to save ·(·((-(( baca:na:
to say =r-(( kahna:
5. LEXICON
314

to search c c-(( / =( (-(( dhũ:dhna: / khojna:
to see :=-(( de:khna
to sell ·(·(-(( be:cna:
to send ·((-(( bhe:jna:
to set (as sun) z·(-(( du:bna:
to settle down ·(·(-( basna:
to shine ·(-(=-(( camakna:
to shiver =(+-(( kã:pna:
to sink z·(-(( du:bna:
to sing ·((-(( ga:na:
to sit ·(=-(( bε:thna:
to sleep ·((-(( sona:
to smile -(·=·(-(( muskara:na:
to speak ·((-(-(( bo:lna: / bha:šan de:na:
to spend i·(-(-(( / =·( =·-(( bita:na: / kharc karna:
to start i-(=-(-(( / ¬(· ·( =·-(( nikalna: / a:rambh karna:
to stay =r·-(( thahrna:
to steal ·(·(-(( cura:na:
to stir ir-((-(( hila:na:
to stitch ·((-(( si:na:
to stop ==-(( rukna:
to stroll ºr-(-(( tahalna:
to study +c-(( parhna:
to support ·(-·((-(-(( / ·(r(·( :-(( sambha:lna: / saha:ra: dena:
to suppress :·((-(( daba:na:
to swim -·-( t´rna:
to take -(-(( le:na:
to take out i-(=(-(-(( nika:lna:
to teach i·(=(-(( / +c (-(( sikha:na: / parha:na:
to tear off =(z-(( pha:rna:
to tell ·(-(-(( / =r-(( bata:na: / kahna:
to test ((·(-(( jã:cna:
to think ·((·(-(( socna:
to throw ==-(( phẽ:kna:
to tolerate ·(r-(( sahna:
to touch =-(( chu:na:
to travel ·((|( =·-(( ya:tra: / safar karna:
to tremble =(+-(( kã:pna:
to twinkle ·(-(=-(( camakna:
to understand ·(-(:(-(( samajhna:
5. LEXICON
315

to violate -(z-(( torna:
to wait +-(-(( =·-(( prati:kša: karna:
to wake up ((·(-(( ja:gna:
to walk ·(-(-(( calna:
to wander ·(-(-(( ghu:mna:
to wash ·((-(( dho:na:
to wear +r-(-(( pahanna:
to weep ·(-(( ro:na:
to weigh -(-(-(( to:lna:
to welcome ··((·(- =·-(( sva:gat karna:
to win ((--(( ji:tna:
to wish ·((r-(( ca:hna: / iccha: karna:
to work =(-( =·-(( ka:m karna:
to worship +(( =·-(( pu:ja: karna: / iba:dat karna:
to write i-(=-(( likhna:

5.10. Adverbs

above =+· u:par
abundantly =·( xu:b
after ·((: / +(= ba:d / pi:che:
after all ¬(i=· a:xir
afterwards ·((: -( ba:d: mẽ
ahead ¬(·( a:ge:
alone ¬=-( ake:le:
also ·(( bhi:
always r-((( / ·(:( hameša: / sada:
among ·((·( bi:c
anytime =·(( ·(( kabhi: bhi:
anywhere =r( kahĩ:
at last ¬(i=· / ¬- -( a:xir / ant mẽ
away :· du:r
because +·((i= kyõ:ki
before +r-( / ¬(·( pahle: / a:ge:
behind +(= pi:che:
below -((·( ni:ce:
between ·((·( / -(··( bi:c / madhy
certainly ¬·(·( / (=· avašy / zaru:r
constantly ·(·(·(· bara:bar
continuously -(·((-(· laga:ta:r
day after tomorrow +··(( parsõ:
5. LEXICON
316

distant :· du:r
down -((·( ni:ce:
ever r-((( hame:ša:
everywhere r· (·(r har jagah
far off ·(r- :· bahut du:r
generally +(·(: / ¬+·(· pra:yah / aksar
here ·(r( yahã:
how =·( kεse:
immediately -·- / =(·-( turant / føran
in front of = ¬(·( ke a:ge
in the presence of = ·((-(-( ke sa:mne
just now ¬·(( abhi:
near +(·( / ·(-((+ pa:s / sami:p
no -( / -(r( na / nahĩ:
not -(r( nahĩ:
now ¬·( ab
nowadays ¬((=-( a:jkal
often +(·( / ¬+·(· pra:yah / aksar
of course ·((= be:šak
only =·(-( / i·(= ke:val / sirf
out ·((r· ba:har
outside ·((r· ba:har
perhaps ((·(: ša:yad
probably ((·(: ša:yad
quickly (-:( jaldi:
quite i·(-=-( bilkul
silently ·(+·((+ cupca:p
slowly ·((· dhi:re:
sometimes =·(( =·(( kabhi:-kabhi:
somewhere =r( kahĩ:
suddenly ¬·((-(= aca:nak / eka:ek
today ¬(( a:j
tomorrow =-( kal
(in) that direction .·(· udhar
then -·( tab
(in) this direction :·(· idhar
thus ·(( yõ:
under -((·( ni:ce
undoubtedly ·((= be:šak
unexpectedly ¬·((-(= aca:nak
upward =+· u:par
5. LEXICON
317

very ·(r- bahut
well =·( xu:b
(at) which direction i=·(· kidhar
when (interrogative) =·( kab
when (relative) (·( jab
where (interrogative) =r( kahã:
where (relative) (r( jahã:
whether ·((r ca:he
wholly i·(-=-( bilkul
yesterday =-( kal

5.11. Conjunctions

although ·(¤i+ / r(-((i= yadyapi / ha:lã:ki
again i=· phir
and ¬(· / -·(( ør / tatha:
but -(i=-( / i=- / +·- / ·(i-= lekin / kintu / parantu / balki
hence :·(i-(¤ isliye
or ·(( ya:
since ·(i= cũ:ki
so :·(i-(¤ isliye:
so that -(i= ta:ki
that i= ki
though ·(¤i+ / r(-((i= yadyapi / ha:lã:ki

5.12. Pronouns

any / anybody =(: ko:i: / kisi:
he ·(r ·(r .·( :·( vah / yah / us / is
I -( / -(:( mε∫ / mujh
it ·(r / :·( yah / is
my -(·( me:ra:
one’s own ¬+-(( apna:
our r-((·( hama:ra:
she ·(r ·(r .·( :·( vah / yah / us / is
some == kuch
somebody =(: ko:i: / kisi:
something == kuch
these ·( / :-( ye / in
they ·( / .-( ve / un
this ·(r / :·( yah / is
5. LEXICON
318

those ·( / .-( ve / un
thou - / -:( tu: / tujh
thy -·( te:ra:
you (familiar) --( tum
you (polite) ¬(+ a:p
your (faniliar) --r(·( tumha:ra:
your (polite) ¬(+=( a:pka:
we r-( ham
what +·(( kya:
who (interrogative) =(-( / i=·( / i=-( køn / kis / kin
who (relative) (( / i(·( / i(-( jo / jis / jin

Modern Hindi Grammar

Omkar N. Koul

Modern Hindi Grammar

Omkar N. Koul

2008 Dunwoody Press

Modern Hindi Grammar
Copyright © 2008 by McNeil Technologies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without the prior written permission of McNeil Technologies, Inc. All inquiries should be directed to: Dunwoody Press 6564 Loisdale Ct., Suite 800 Springfield, VA 22150, USA ISBN: 978-1-931546-06-5 Library of Congress Control Number: 2004113175 Printed and bound in the United States of America

ISBN: 978-1-931546-06-5

9 781931 546065

Table of Contents Preface ..........................................................................................i Abbreviations............................................................................ iii References ..................................................................................iv 1. Introduction 1.1. Area and Its Speakers......................................................... 1 1.2. Dialects and Classification ................................................. 1 1.3. Hindi - Urdu ....................................................................... 2 1.4. Linguistic Characteristics................................................... 4 1.5. Status .................................................................................. 4 1.6. Grammars in Hindi ............................................................ 7 2. Phonology 2.1. Phonological Units (Segmental) ...................................... 11 2.1.1. Distinctive Segments .................................................. 11 Vowels ................................................................................ 11 Consonants .......................................................................... 12 2.1.2. Description of Phonemes ............................................ 12 2.1.2.1. Vowels ................................................................... 12 2.1.2.2. Consonants ............................................................. 14 2.1.2.3. Distribution of Phonemes and Allophones ............ 19 2.2. Phonotactics ..................................................................... 20 2.2.1. Vowel Sequences ........................................................ 20 2.2.2. Consonant Clusters ..................................................... 20 2.2.2.1. Word-initial Cosonant Clusters .............................. 20 2.2.2.2. Word-medial Consonant Clusters .......................... 21 2.2.2.3. Word-final Consonant Clusters .............................. 23 2.2.3. Syllable Structure ........................................................ 24 2.3. Supersegmental Features ................................................. 25 2.3.1. Nasalization................................................................. 25 2.3.2. Length ......................................................................... 26 2.3.3. Stress ........................................................................... 26 2.3.4. Intonation .................................................................... 27 2.3.5. Juncture ....................................................................... 29 2.4. Morphophonemics ........................................................... 30 2.4.1. Loss of Phoneme ......................................................... 30 2.4.2. Addition of Phoneme .................................................. 30 2.4.3. Alternations ................................................................. 31

................................ Reflexive Pronouns ....................... Pronouns ..1................. 73 3.... 37 3.......... The Postposition pr par ... Gender ...3....3..............................2....1.............7................5....... The Postposition sao se ............ Nouns from Adjectives ..................................3....1....9................1..1................ The Postposition nao ne .....2................. 73 3........ 72 3.........2.......................2..........1. Case ................. 84 .............5.......................................................................... 79 3.............. Indefinite Pronouns .......................................2..................................3............................1........6..... Demonstrative Pronouns ...3........ Modifier-Noun Compounds . Oblique Forms of Pronouns ..........1..... 74 3......... 82 3.......................3.......................1.... The Postposition ka ka ........ Copulative Compounds ...4...........2.....1..4..........2... 55 3.. 77 3................................1...........................4.................. Noun Derivation... Interrogative Pronouns ......... 70 3....2.....4.......... Morphology 3.....2. 73 3.......3..........2. Noun Compounds ....... 68 3..... 74 3..................6...3.... 37 3... 47 3.........7. 74 3.....2. The Postposition maoM mẽ .........1... 79 3....3...................2.1............................................... 35 3...... Relative Pronouns .................................................. 33 3......... Personal Pronouns .2...... Adjective-Noun Compounds................................1................2................1....................... Degree of Adjectives.8........ Reduplicated Compounds .4.. Uninflected ......1.3...................1........1.. 73 3...........4.... 75 3....1.....2..............1....2................. 77 3......7...................1.............................1............1........ Complex Compounds..............1........................ Inflected .1.... 33 3.............................4...2.....................6..................3.....1.......4..........1.1........... Nouns .....................................2...2............................4.......................2.............2...... Noun-Noun Compounds ...... 33 3.............1..4....5........... 77 3.............................. Nouns from Nouns ........................ 41 3............. Hybrid Compounds .... 52 3.................. 36 3.......1...... 80 3.4................3................... Compound Pronouns ......... Adjectives .......................1... 78 3..........4................. Nouns from Verbs .......................3...1.......4........1.......................... 75 3......... 81 3.................... 71 3.. Postpositions ................... 82 3.................. 53 3..1............ Number ..2............ Noun Inflection ............ 68 3........ 74 3......... 57 3..................... Partially Duplicated Compounds ................................ 82 3................. Compound Postpositions..1..........1.................................... Types of Adjectives .....8.........3..................... 75 3..............3...............4..........................3........ Superordinate Compounds .1........ The Postposition kao ko ............2...............

..2............... 98 3.............. 133 3.......................................... Mood ......6................2........... Causative Verbs ......................................................................... Intransitive Verbs ......... 122 3.......2...........4....4..............3.5.............. Verbs ........ 103 3................ Period of Day .3....... 91 3........... Voice ..3....................1...........7............4...4....... 102 3....4.......2.......................................3...3.............................................................. Imperative Mood ............ 85 3.......... 111 3..... 98 3...... General Time Expressions ..............................5. Derivation of Adjectives ..........5......................2. Numerals ...........................2..4........ 133 3........ Types of Adverbs .............................6.2.1..1....... Compound Verbs ........ 133 3...............................................6.....5. 116 3......2.........................................6.......7...................... 107 3.... 96 3................................. 124 3.....3......................................................... 92 3...2.......................4....3.........2...... 100 3...... 93 3..........................5. 135 ................3. 116 3............ Infinitives .6.............. Multiplicatives ... 88 3......... Main Verbs...............4....... 93 3. 126 3.............................. Approximation ...... Transitive Verbs .4......... Perfective Participles..2.6.....................................4....................2...............5...............4.4........................... 95 3....................5..1... 95 3. 90 3.... Perfective Aspect ...........4....4....................................... 135 3............................................... Aspect ..........4...5......5............6................ 125 3..........4.......................3..................4. 88 3....5............................ 121 3..........6.......5........ Participles ................... Conjunct Verbs ...3.............. Dative Verbs .............................6....5.........4..2.................4..... Ordinals ...6........ 113 3... 128 3.............1.................3. 119 3. 93 3................... Aggregation..............................5......... 105 3...................4..4.............1............... Habitual Aspect ...1............................ 107 3.2..........5...... Cardinals ......... Months of the Year ..... Subjuntive Mood .................4...5.... 92 3.....................1... Fractions ..........4..........7................ Indicative Mood .............. Adverbs .....3.....4..... 130 3....... 135 3.....2....................7.. 122 3.....2..................................................2.......2...................1.4................ 129 3...................................2..........3................. Ditransitive Verbs ......................7.............7........4.............. Expressions of Time .........2.2....2.............3........................... Imperfective Participles ....... Progressive Aspect ..3...................7..........4.........................3....................4....... Tense ......... Time of Day ......4.. Conjunctive Participles ..4...............................................4............................................5........2.. Days of the Week ....... 116 3.......4..................... Non-finite Verb Forms . The Verb hona: ....................4.......2...

.....6...... 205 4... Mono-morphemic ............... Interjections............2... Adverbial Phrases ................ 204 4.4........1... Relative Clauses .................1.. Connectives ............... Restrictive and Non-restrictive Clauses ..................................................3.8....1................ 179 4. 160 3..... Seasons ..............3.......1........1...........4........................5.. The Particle Bar bhi: ‘also’ .............. 173 4.......2................2......................... Structure of Phrases .. 165 4.6..... 158 3.............. Frequentative...... 137 3........................7.............2....... Adverbial Clauses of Time . Noun Phrase .6................................................2....... 184 4...4................................5....3...............2.....3............................ 161 3.............................. 136 3........ Adverbial Clauses ..................7.......... 206 ................................ The Particle Bar bhar ....................................... Result Clauses ..........................2.....................6............ 136 3.................7.......1.........6..................5..............4...1..................2...................... Structure of Clauses ........2................6........1......... 180 4................ Cause Clauses .. Adjectival Phrases .... Syntax 4.......2... Non-finite Relative Clauses ..............................3. 200 4..... 161 3........ Manner Clauses .........2......... 202 4............. 137 3....... 162 4........1..2............................2....2.....2.......................2.................2...2............................... 157 3........2................4......2.5....................................7.............. 198 4..2..3......................1.......... The Particle hI hi: ......... The ik ki Complement Clauses..................... 179 4...................................... Condition Clauses ............4.............................................. The Particle tao to........................ 181 4. Year ............................... 181 4..4.....3.6........3.. 150 3..................1..................2........... 194 4...........2............6............ Purpose Clauses ....... 165 4...................... Concession Clauses .............. 187 4............ 155 3. 189 4..................................... The Particle tk tak ‘up to’..............1. Noun Clauses .....................3........................ Direct and Indirect Speech ...2.............1................... Phrasal .... Subordinate Clauses ......................6.3.................... 182 4......4....2............5.......4.. Poly-morphemic .................................7............... 203 4..............2.... Postpositional Phrases ..3.................... 198 4..3................................... 161 3...... 176 4........... Finite Relative Clauses...................... 159 3........................... Particles . Non-finite Noun Clause ......... 171 4..2...... 137 3........... 195 4....2..................... Finite Noun Clauses ........1.......6...4........7.4........1..........2................... The Particle maa~ ma:tr .......1.........2....2..........2...

........... Reciprocals ...... and Minerals ...3........... Direct Object . Flowers.........1............................... 222 4................................................ 269 4........... and Vegetables .............. 226 4... Jewels. 216 4..................1.................................... 221 4..............3...4....... Reflexives ..........8... 254 4............ Metals........3..... 216 4..............1..................................3................ 257 4.........3...................................... Question-Word Questions ............. Equatives ..... 246 4.............................4..... Negation and Subordination... Degrees of Imperatives ........................... Echo-Questions ................... Neutral Yes-No Questions .... 296 5..............5............... 217 4...... 286 4............................... 250 4......... 220 4......................2......1............. 302 5.. Miscellaneous Items.............12.......................7.....1...........................3........ Yes-No Echo-Questions .3.2............ Imperatives . Superlatives ...3...5.......................... Comparison .3.......................3.3..........1.............. Negation and Coordination ...............3......4.4....5......3.........3.................. Coordination and Accompaniment ............ Other Types of Verb Argument ........ 293 5.3.....3.............................. Sentential Negation ..............3..3..2.............3.2....................................3.... 215 4.................................. 220 4......4.....3... 260 4.. Unmarked or True Imperatives ...................... 255 4..............................2................................... 303 ............4..... Anaphora .. 294 5..... Occupations..4...9......3...........3............3.............2...3... Answers.......3. Yes-No Questions ........... Negation ......3................3... 225 4...... Leading Questions......4.............. 222 4. 263 4..........1....... Interrogative .. 278 4......... 254 4.............3........................3............. Coordination ..................3..........................................3.....11..........1................... 248 4...3......3.5.. Sentence Construction .... 213 4......4...................... Verbal Sentences ...................3....... Body Parts ........... Question-Word Echo-Questions .. 271 4.2.3..........................1.5......12............. Structural Constraints.................. 214 4.... 274 4............. 222 4......5... 277 4........3....1............... 211 4...........6.............................6.3....................4. Indirect Object ..................................3............... 246 4...... Lexicon 5...3.................12. Double/Multiple Negation ....... Animals.....2............... 207 4.....3.................. Copular Sentences ................................3. 207 4.........3.................4.............. 287 5....1.....................4................10................ Fruits.............................. Prohibitive Imperatives .............2..............3...2.....3................2.....2................. Constituent Negation .....3............... Birds and Insects......... 296 5...4.....3.......

..............................10.. 307 5.................................... Conjunctions .......................................................... Kinship Terms ...... Verbs ... 317 ...............................................8......................................................... 305 5................... Adverbs .................................................. 317 5............... 310 5......... Adjectives ...5......... 315 5........................7.......... Pronouns .........12.11..............................9.............

Hindi is taught as a foreign language in a large number of countries throughout the world. and syntax along with their unique features or characteristics.Preface Modern Hindi Grammar aims at providing basic information on various aspects of Hindi phonology. They are looking for suitable language learning materials including pedagogically oriented grammars for maintaining the language among their children. there is a need for a pedagogically oriented grammar of this language. If a child’s mother tongue is Hindi. It will also be of interest to linguists and researchers working in the area of language typology. It will be of special interest to Hindi language learners and teachers in different situations. This grammar is pedagogically oriented. or have migrated and settled abroad. a child is supposed to learn his mother tongue. Hindi. including Delhi. i . The second generation of these migrants is fast losing contact with their mother tongue in the absence of its use in various domains of their day-to-day life in alien surroundings. It is spoken by the largest population in India. (s)he is expected to learn an additional modern Indian language or a foreign language. and to general readers as well. They do not fulfill the needs of second and/or foreign language learners or those native speakers who want to maintain the language in an alien atmosphere. The existing grammars mentioned in the introduction as well as in references are either too old and do not describe modern spoken and written Hindi. Hindi has a special status in India. Hindi has a long tradition of grammars and grammatical literature. morphology. Under this formula. Besides needbased language learning materials. It is the official language of the Union of India and eleven state governments. or they are sketchy or too scholarly or detailed. A large number of Hindi speakers have settled in non-Hindi speaking states in India. The present grammar aims to fulfill the need of second/foreign language learners of Hindi in India as well as other countries. and English. It is taught as a second language in all the non-Hindi speaking states under the threelanguage formula.

I would like to thank my colleagues at the Indian Institute of Language Studies for providing their assistance. and other intricate syntactic features. teachers. Finally. adverbs. phrases. The lexicon presents a list of useful classified vocabulary which is useful for students and teachers of Hindi as well as general readers. suprasegmentals. and Prof. and morphophonology. I would like to take this opportunity to thank Mr. Director. education and mass media. it will fulfill the needs of the basic language learner as well as provide useful information for the linguist and the general reader. The introduction gives a survey of the Hindi speaking area and the number of its speakers. In short. and interjections. I hope students. The phonology section describes segmental phonemes. the status of Hindi and its use in administration. Anjani Kumar Sinha. Omkar N. This grammar emphasizes special features of Hindi that set it apart from other Indo-Aryan languages. Hindi grammars. particles. It deals with inflectional as well as derivational morphology. Thomas Creamer.In Modern Hindi Grammar we have utilized simple terminology and provided suitable descriptions with tables for grammatical categories. Kashi Wali for going through the first draft of it and for offering useful comments and suggestions. I would like to thank Prof. pronouns. and sentence types. and the objectives of the present grammar. Hindi-Urdu relationship. its classification and dialects. numerals. adjectives. special word order variations. connectives. The morphology provides a description of different word classes: nouns. The syntax describes the structure of phrases. Language Research Center (a division of McNeil Technologies) for asking me to write this grammar and for deciding to publish it. Koul ii . sentence types. researchers. and linguists will find this book useful. complex and compound constructions.

2.Abbreviations 1. abl adv asp aux caus cond cor cp dat emp erg fut gen hon imp impf inf indef ms neg nom non hon first person second person third person ablative case adverb aspirated auxiliary causative conditional correlative conjunctive participle dative emphatic ergative future genitive case honorific imperative imperfective infinitive indefinite masculine singular negative nominative non honorific NP obl part pass pl pol poss postp pre prox psp ptc q refl rel rem sbj sg unas VP vd vl * noun phrase oblique particle passive plural polite possessive postposition presumptive proximate past participle participle question particle reflexive relative remote subjunctive mood singular unaspirated verb phrase voiced voiceless ungrammatical iii . 3.

Agnihotri.New Delhi: Bahri Publications. Lexical anaphors and pronouns in Hindi/Urdu. ( ed. Conversational HindiUrdu. A History of the Hindi Grammatical Tradition: Hindi-Hindustani Grammar. Davison.Consonant Sequences in Standard Hindi. Hindi vya:karan. Anvita 1980. 25: 206-12. Gumperz. Jaiswal. Pradeep Kumar 2006. Center for South Asian Studies. Brill. ___. 1984. Das. and Bal Govind Misra 1966. Patiala: Indian Institute of Language Studies. Spoken Hindi-Urdu 1978. Semantic Grammar of Hindi: A Study in Reduplication. Smith 1977. Bhatia. Chicago: University of Chicago (mimeographed).S. In Indian Linguistics. Studies in the Semantic Structure of Hindi. ___. Rama Kant 2007. Negation in South Asian Languages. Topics in Hindi Linguistics. Devanagri edition by Ripley Moore and S. Madison: University of Wisconsin. Comrie. 1995. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. Surendra K. ___. U. The conjuctive participle in Hindi-Urdu. John J. Barbara C.1: 1-71. B. 13: 252-63.) Lexical Anaphors and Pronouns in Selected South Asian Languages. Fairbanks. (1962 edition). 2 Volumes. Lingua 42. Guru. Alice 2000. Pandit 1965. History and Problems. London: Routledge. Hindi: A Spoken Approach. Hindi: An Essential Grammar. Gambhir. Punjabi: A Cognitive-Descriptive Grammar.References Abbi. Kashi: Lakshmi Narayan Press.) 1981. Tej K. and P. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. vol. 1993. New Delhi: Bahri Publications. Gordon H. Poona: Deccan College. and June Rumery 1967.B. (eds. Kali Charan 1967. and N. Kamta Prasad 1920. Bahl. In International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Bhatia. Grammatical Agreement in Hindi-Urdu and its Major Variations. Delhi: Radhakrishna Prakashan. Kailash Chandra 1964. et. In Lust. A Reference Grammar of Hindi.al. J.1987. 1974. Bahri. Leiden: E. 1. Spoken and Written Hindi. ___. Munich: Lincom Europa. ___. Lingua Descriptive Series Questionnaire. London: Routledge. Grammarians. Special Issue.M. iv .

4. Koul. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. An Introduction to Hindi Syntax. A Grammar of the Hindi Language. Use of Indian Languages in Administration. ___. V. New Delhi: Bahari Publications. 2006. ___. 1982. On relative clause formation in Hindi-Urdu. ___. Introductory Course in Spoken Hindi: A Microwave Approach To Language Teaching Chandigarh. 1978. Bahri Publications. In Indian Linguistics. ___. In Koul. R. v . New Delhi: Creative. 109-17. New Delhi: Manohar. (ed. Studies in Hindi-Urdu I: Introduction and Word Phonology. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul ( 3rd edition 1963).) Topics in Hindi Linguistics Vol 2. Topics in Hindi Linguistics Vol 3. Kachru. Motilal Banarsidass. New Delhi: Bahri Publications. Intermediate Hindi. ___. 1999b. Delhi. Topics in Hindi Linguistics Vol 2. Interrogative Questions in Hindi. Jagannathan. Amsterdam: John Benjamin. The Use of Particles in Hindi. (ed. In Gaveshna Vol.R. (ed. 61-75. H. Aspects of Hindi Grammar.1968. The Compound Verb in Hindi. Patiala: Indian Institute of Language Studies. ___. Yamuna and Rajeshwari Pandharipande 1983. Topics in Hindi Linguistics. 1876. Common Bases of Hindi and Urdu. Vol. Ashok R.4. Kachru. Hindi. 207: 5-26.) Topics in Hindi Linguistics. Klaiman. 1999c. (Mimeographed) ___. 63-64: 267-78. Omkar N. 1981. 1994b. Vol.) 1999a. Omkar N. Kelkar. Linguistics.). Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan. 1970.) 1994. Topicalization and Relativization in Hindi.Hook.) 1982. Hindi Structures: An Intermediate Level. 1980. Urbana: The University of Illinois. ___. Omkar N. In Koul. H. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan. Topics in Hindi Linguistics Vol 4. Kellog. ___. Omkar N.) Language Development and Administration. ___. ___. 1994a. (ed. Jagananathan. Yamuna 1966. (ed. S. 165-187. Omkar N. In Koul. (ed. 1994c. and Ujjal Singh Bahri 1973. Coordinating Conjunctions in Hindi. 1976. Hindi Phonetic Reader. Poona: Deccan College. In Koul. New Delhi: Bahri Publications. (ed. M. ___. Peter Edwin 1974. 37: 315-33. V. parayog aur prayog.

vi . V. Shapiro. 1969. (3rd edition).R. A. Terms of Address and Pronominal Usage in Hindi. R. Pray. In Sebeok (ed. Mitner. Berkeley: Center for South Asian Studies. Montaut. 1976. Aspects of Hindi Phonology. London.) Current Trends in Linguistics. In Koul. 1977.) 1982. New Delhi: Bahri Publications. New York: Routledge. Michael C.S. Shapiro. McGregor. Hindi. A House Divided: The Origin and Development of Hindi/Hindavi. In Cardona. The Hague: Mouton. Hindi ka bhashavaigyanik vya:karan. In Bulletin de la society Linguistique de Paris. Statni pedagogicke nakladatelstvi (Revised edition 1972). Hindi. 89: 83-120. Oxford: Oxford University Press. University of California. Hindi Language Course. Ruth Laila 2003. Colin P. Reflexivisation et focalisation en hinid/oordou. R. Misra. 1963.V. S. Rajgopalan. Prague. and Kashi Wali 2006. London. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. Annie 1994. C. Defining a Linguistic Area: South Asia. Michael C. George and Dhanesh Jain (eds. Ohala. In Cardona. 1973. Rai. A Study in Anthropological Linguistics. Urdu. Ruth Laila 1999. Schmidt. Outline of Hindi Grammar. 1984.) The Indo-Aryan Languages. New York: Routledge. Schmidt. Omkar N (ed. Topics in Hindi-Urdu Grammar.) The Indo-Aryan Languages. Manjri 1983. 2005. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. 1981. 1977.___. 2003. A Primer of Modern Standard Hindi. Delhi: Oxford University Press. George and Dhanesh Jain (eds. N. Agra: Kendriya Hindi Sansthan. Modern Kashmiri Grammar. Mehrotra. Hindi Phonology: A Synchronic Description of the Contemporary Standard. R. A Sociolinguistic Study. Identified object marking in Hindi and other languages. Munich: Lincom Europa. An Essential Grammar of Urdu. Modes of Address and Reference in Hindi. ___. ___. 1980. 250-285. Bruce 1970. 1989. Springfield: Dunwoody Press. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. 1995. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Vol 5 Linguistics in South Asia. K. Raipur: Bhashika Prakashan. 286-350. Terms of Kinship. A Grammar of Hindi. Porizka. Masica. Mehrotra. London: Routledge. Vincenc.

S. Vajpeyi. Shukla. Kashmiri: A CognitiveDescriptive Grammar. Aryendra 1958. Hindi shabdanushasan. 143-63. Omkar N. Kashi: Nagri Pracharni Sabha. Munich: Lincom Europa. Srivastava. Factivity and relations between main and subordinate clauses in Hindi. In Koul. Wali. 351-58.Vol 4. Sinha. Hindi me pratyay vica:r.V. 1971. K. ___. K. Theory of monophonematics of aspirated phonemes of Hindi. Agra: Vinod Book House. Singh. 1958. Hindi Morphology. A Basic Grammar of Modern Hindi. In Papers from the Ninth Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. ___. Complementation in Hindi Syntax. New Delhi: National Publishing House. 1973. Delhi: Prabhat Prakashan. (ed. Munich: Lincom Europa. Concept of Semantic Field and Collocation in Hindi/Urdu Lexicography. Singh. New Delhi: Academic Publications. 363-73. Anjani Kumar. Upreti. N. Verma. angrezi-hindi anuva:d vya:karan (English – Hindi Translation Grammar). (ed. Rajendra and Rama Kant Agnihotri 1997. L. K. 1964. 1968.) Topics in Hindi Linguistics. Hindi Morphology: A Word-Based Description. Department of Linguistics. Hindi Phonology. Chicago: University of Chicago. 1984. Singh.Sharma. 2003. 2001.K. Shaligram 2000. Subbarao. vii . The Structure of Noun Phrase in English and Hindi. M. Delhi: Motilal Bnarsidass. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. M. London: Routledge. R.) 1978. Suraj Bhan 1999. Acta Linguistica. Kashi and Omkar N Koul 1997. New Delhi: Central Hindi Directorate (Fifth Edition 1994). Readings in Hindi-Urdu Linguistics.

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Rajasthan. and Apabhramsas as the literary language. Area and Its Speakers Hindi is an Indo-Aryan language (a branch of the-Indo-European family of languages). It is also spoken by a large number of people of Indian origin settled abroad. it is spoken by 422. began only in the eighteenth century. however.” As Urdu gained patronage in the Muslim courts and developed into a literature language. and Uttar Pradesh in India. literary Prakrits. and Turks as a common language of interaction with the local population during the period of Islamic invasions and the establishment of Muslim rule in the north of India between the eighth and tenth centuries AD. This latter variety looked to Sanskrit for linguistic borrowings and Sanskrit. Besides being the official language of these states it is also the official language of government of India along with English.048. INTRODUCTION 1. the variety used by the general population gradually replaced Sanskrit. This was the variety that was adopted by Indian leaders as a symbol of national identity during the struggle for freedom. Dialects and Classification Hindi and Urdu languages have their origins in Khariboli spoken in areas around Delhi. It is this variety that became known as Hindi. 1. According to the 2001census. Hindi and Urdu have a common form known as Hindustani which is essentially a Hindi-Urdu mixed language. 1 . Jharkhand. Chattisgarh. Madhya Pradesh. Introduction 1. spoken primarily in the states of Bihar. which marks the emergence of Hindi as a full-fledged literary language. Prakrits. it developed a variety called Urdu with significant borrowings from Arabic and Persian and that uses a Persian script. It was also known as rexta “mixed language. Haryana.642 speakers which include the speakers of its various dialects and variations of speech grouped under Hindi. In time.1.2. The development of prose. Persians. Uttarakhand.1. Hindi has been used as a literary language since the twelfth century. Khariboli was adopted by the Afghans. Himachal Pradesh. Delhi. and Apabhramsas for literary conventions.

Bhundeli. The dialects spoken in the regions of Bihar (i. It is intelligible throughout the broad Hindi language region. Urdu. Bagheli. The standard Hindi developed from the Khariboli has borrowed lexical items from Sanskrit and is the vehicle of all official literary and commercial communication. the languages of administration. Hindi – Urdu Historical and cultural processes and the linguistic affinity which exists in Indian languages led to the emergence of Hindi-Urdu or socalled Hindustani as the lingua-franca of major areas of India long before its freedom.) in Rajasthan (i. has also developed from Khariboli and it uses the Perso-Arabic script and borrows from Perso-Arabic sources. Kanauji. The Western Hindi dialects are Haryanvi.1.3. have mostly remained confined to the elite. Eastern Hindi is bounded on the north by the language of the Nepal Himalaya and on the west by various dialects of Western Hindi.e. On the east. it is bounded by the Bhojpuri dialect of Bihari and by Oriya. south to the Jamna valley. Another literary style. Malvi etc. The main dialects of Eastern Hindi are Avadhi. and English in the case of the British regime. Persian in the case of the Muslim dynasties.. Bhojpuri. all of these dialects are also covered under the term Hindi. INTRODUCTION Grierson (1906) has divided Hindi into two groups: Eastern Hindi and Western Hindi. and Bhojpuri. and Himachal Pradesh were kept away from the earlier classification. In an earlier period. Between the Eastern and the Western Prakrits there was an intermediate Prakrit called Ardhamagadhi. Western Hindi extends to the foot of the Himalayas on the north. Braj Bhasha. In the Eastern group Grierson discusses three dialects: Awadhi. and occupies most of Bundelkhand and a part of central provinces on the east side. 1. Maithili. Sanskrit in the case of the earliest Hindu kingdoms. Now.e. On the South it meets forms of the Marathi language. 2 . The Hindi region is traditionally divided into two: Eastern Hindi and Western Hindi. Jaipuri.) and some dialects spoken in the northwestern areas of Uttar Pradesh. The modern representative of the corresponding Apabhamsa is Eastern Hindi and the Shaurasena Apabhramsa of the middle Doab is the parent of Western Hindi. Braj Bhasha. Bagheli and Chattisgarhi.. of which the principal are Kanauji and Bundeli. Bundeli. In the Western group he discusses five dialects: Hindustani. Maghi etc. and Chattisgarhi. Marwari. Kanuji and Khariboli.

the foreign invaders settled down in India to rule. though he used the Perso-Arabic script for writing it. best known as Dakhini. Mirza Ghalib called his language “Hindi” on several occasions. During British rule. but they used the local language spoken in and around Delhi for communicating with the people for their day-today needs. Tughluq. The processes continue today. Hindi-Urdu became the medium of communication between the Muslim rulers and the local people.” This variety was distinguished on the basis of Perso-Arabic influence at the lexical level and was written in the Perso-Arabic script. which eventually became Khariboli. The Slave. Primarily in the domain of different genres of literature. The mutual conflicts intensified at the beginning 3 .a language belonging to Hind. This was followed by the recognition accorded to Hindi in certain areas. Urdu was recognized by the British in the Northwest and Oudh. In the first instance. they called this language Hindi . when English was adopted as the official language. the word “Urdu” was derived from the Turkish word “Yurt” or “ordu” that meant “military encampment. Hindi and Urdu continued to be treated as synonymous for centuries at least up to the period of Mirza Ghalib. Thus. but also in literary styles and vocabulary. and Urdu from Persian and Arabic. Due to a common structural basis. This variety is influenced by Dravidian languages as a result of language contact. also became the medium of literature and socio-religious discourse. He named one of his works “ode-e-Hindi” (perfume of Hindi). and Mughal dynasties used Persian in their administration. Hindi and Urdu were involved in controversy and mutual competition for their recognition in various domains of education and administration. Hindi started drawing more and more from Sanskrit. Hindi and Urdu started drifting away from each other not only in the use of two different scripts. A competition started between the proponents or supporters of Hindi and those of Urdu for official recognition of their languages. Lodi. During the Mughal period. Bihar.1. the Hindi language derived its name from the Persian towards the end of the 12th century or beginning of the 13th century. The southern variety of the speech. INTRODUCTION Beginning with the invasion of Mohammed Ghori in the late 12th century AD. local languages were assigned roles for certain functions at lower levels of administration. This local language was a form of Apbhramsha. and the Central Provinces in 1830 AD as the language of the courts.

1. Status As stated above. Verbs are inflected for person. gender. mood. Pronouns are inflected for number and case. It has ten vowels. Nouns are assigned one of the two genders. 1. two genders: masculine and feminine. followed or preceded by consonants. All vowels can be nasalized and nasalization is phonemic. on the other hand. Hindi is written in the Devanagari script which originated from Brahmi. but certain minor variations still exist. The Hindi syllable contains a vowel as its nucleus. whereas the second type is not. gender.4. past. It is spoken by the largest number of people in India. There are two numbers: singular and plural. The first type is uninflected for number.5. number. indicative. It is widely used in administration. and two cases: direct and oblique. education. There are some serious gaps in the Official Language Policy (OLP). three moods: imperative. and aspect. 4 . gender and case. Words usually have two or three syllables. and mass media. and subjective. Hindi is a verb-final language. INTRODUCTION of the 20th century. and. On the one hand. Linguistic Characteristics Hindi shares major linguistic characteristics with other Indo-Aryan languages. The use of Hindi in administration at the Union level as well as in the Hindi speaking states is not free from problems (Koul 1994a). In this grammar we are using Devanagari and Roman scripts for the data from the language. The gender of inanimate objects is not predictable from the form or meaning. There are three tenses: present. tense. The length of vowels is phonemic. there were proponents of Hindi and Urdu who were eager to maintain separate linguistic identities. 1. The Devanagari script for Hindi is standardized. two aspects: imperfective and perfective. some national leaders wanted to develop Hindustani as a combined linguist identity on the basis of its use by the general population. Hindi is the official language of the Union of India and ten states. Adjectives are of two types: declinable and indeclinable. Nouns are inflected for number. and case. and future.

to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment by assimilating without interfering with its genius. and the lack of adherence to the rules and regulations set up for it. Article 351 provides a directive for the development of Hindi as follows: It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language. The form of numerals to be used for the official purpose of the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals. (ii) lack of standardization. whenever necessary or desirable. fifteen years after the adoption of the Constitution of India. The Constitution of India adopted in 1950 provides for the use of Hindi in Devanagari script as the official language of the Union. There is a need to review the OLP. The early sixties witnessed resentment and agitation. the attitude of its protagonists. primarily in the southern 5 . the lack of will of the monitoring agencies. its development is still questioned by critics. INTRODUCTION and the rules and procedures which are being followed in its implementation. Problems related to its practical use include the lack of proper monitoring. There are problems related to the development of its administrative register.1. and the rules and procedures of its implemenation to identify its problems and resolve them. style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule. The main problems related to the development of the administrative register are: (i) an artificial coinage of terminology. Article 343 states: The official language of the Union shall be Hindi in the Devanagari script. and (iii) lack of coordination between various agencies and duplication of efforts. Even after its continuous use in administration for more than sixty years. lack of encouragement. The implementation of the OLP at the Union level has become the victim of political indecision. and absence of strong political will. and by drawing. its vocabulary primarily from Sanskrit and secondarily from other languages. the forms. The Hindi language was supposed to replace English in 1965.

The development of Hindi has become a complex concern for the Government of India. It is the duty of the Government of India to promote the spread of the Hindi language. It was not followed by an action plan for the promotion or the spread of the Hindi language in a sustainable manner. 4. Compulsory knowledge of Hindi or English should be essential for the public service of the Union. in the absence of proper monitoring of its 6 . 3. The development of Hindi is often linked to the development of other regional languages. the Official Language Act (OLA) was passed in 1963 providing for the continuation of English as an associate official language in the Union and also for its use in parliament for an indefinite period of time. The Resolution adopted by the Ministry of Home Affairs has turned out to be merely a political policy statement. The passing of the OLA was successful in achieving timely political gains. Efforts should be made to implement the Three-Language Formula.1. 2. Efforts were made to implement the Three-Language Formula. 5. etc. The Act dealt with the setting-up of the Committee on Official Language. Languages of the Eighth Schedule should be used as alternative media for examinations for all-India and higher Central services. It was argued that Hindi was not developed enough to replace English in its administrative domain. authorization of the Hindi translation of Central and State acts. No clear-cut strategies were framed for encouraging their use in education. It did not stop the mushrooming of competing English-medium private schools. The development of Hindi as well as other regional languages is in the interest of the educational and cultural advancement of the country. but. INTRODUCTION states of India. regarding the replacement of English by Hindi. but it has not been in the interest of the development of Hindi and its use as the sole official language of the Union in the years to come. The Ministry of Home Affairs (Government of India) Resolution (1968) made some important recommendations in this regard: 1. although it was rightly realized that the development of Hindi and regional languages is necessary for the educational and cultural advancement of the country. optional use of Hindi in judgments of High courts. Thus.

Hindi is widely used in programs on radio and television and in films.1. A large number of newspapers. in the absence of adequate study materials in Hindi and regional languages. and (c) modern linguistic grammars. Grammars in Hindi Beginning in the eighteenth century. Various organizations at the Union and state levels are engaged in the preparation of textbooks and supplementary instructional materials in Hindi. English continues to reign supreme as the only viable medium of examinations. Traditional grammars describe the language using the traditional framework of Sanskrit 7 . which resulted in its several versions. The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) has made a provision for the use of languages of the Eighth Schedule as alternative media for competitive examinations. Hindi has a significant role in education. The language style of Hindi used in electronic media is close to the spoken variety of so-called Hindustani. but. Hindi is taught to the officers and staff of the Central service during their in-service training. (b) comparative and historical grammars. English continues to be a preferred medium of instruction for science and technology at the higher levels. periodicals.6. The Resolution makes important recommendations. and journals are published in Hindi. but there is no urgency for its use as long as English continues as an associate official language. others prefer to use the Urdu vocabulary. It is also used as a medium for technical education at the lower levels. Hindi has a prominent role in both electronic and print media. but in the absence of an effective action plan and a sense of urgency on the part of the agencies involved. the Formula itself was diluted by different states. It is used as a subject of study as well as a medium of education in India from the primary level to the university level in all the Hindi-speaking states in India. INTRODUCTION implementation. Bhatia (1987) provides a critical survey of the Hindi grammatical tradition. Hindi has a long tradition of grammatical literature which falls under the categories of (a) traditional grammars. In the print media. Whereas a few newspapers and periodicals prefer high Hindi or the Sanskritized style. 1. these recommendations are not implemented properly. styles vary from high Hindi to that commonly understood by the HindiUrdu speech community.

I will specially mention three recent works: Mountaut (2005). rules of phrases. and sentence constructions and conventions and practices of language use in spoken and written texts keeping in view recent linguistic theories. She also deals with the information and 8 . She presents review of the earlier works on the subject and uses examples from various written texts.1. its various dialects with special reference to other neighboring Indo-Aryan languages. an analysis of simple clauses and complex sentences. Different linguistic aspects of Hindi have been described in various dissertations and independent grammatical studies lately. devices of word formation. It has been revised and printed several times. INTRODUCTION grammars. especially phonology and morphology. They are useful for historical linguists and those interested in the comparative linguistics of Indo-Aryan languages. and Agnihotri (2007) written with different objectives. Moutaut (2005) provides a functional description of Hindi from a typological perspective. It is a first linguistic grammar of Hindi written from a typological point of view and is useful for linguists working in the area of linguistic typology with special reference to Indo-Aryan languages. Kachru (2006) describes the structure of modern Hindi keeping in view primarily the sociolinguistic context of language use. Aryendra Sharma (1958) prepared first detailed descriptive grammar of modern Hindi in English. It is important to mention a few grammars here. Comparative and historical grammars are mostly concerned with presenting the diachronic description of the grammatical features at different linguistic levels. She provides description of sounds. Most of the modern linguistic grammars deal with some aspects of syntax at length and tend to apply the western theoretical models and raise theoretical issues. They are useful for linguists interested in theoretical discussions and are of little use to the language learners and teachers of Hindi or to general readers. Kachru (2006). Though written in a traditional format it presents a good description of Hindi. its morphological analysis. Modern linguistic grammars in Hindi have been written with various objectives. The final section provides representative features of standard Hindi. She provides a brief phonological outline of standard Hindi.

tense. gender. postpositions. teachers of Hindi at various levels. consonants). pronouns. and issues related to Devanagari script are dealt with adequate examples. allomorphs). Word morphology. This is quite useful for linguists and language learners of Hindi in various situations. mood. It is followed by Index. INTRODUCTION discourse structure of the current use of Hindi. He provides brief description of various simple. The Phonology describes segmental phonemes (vowels. aspect. The Lexicon presents a classified vocabulary of Hindi under 12 sub-sections. compound and complex structures of Hindi. complex and compound constructions. and morphophonology (alternations. It is pedagogically oriented. suprasegmentals (length. The Morphology provides descriptions of nominal morphology (noun inflection. and adverbs. The Syntax describes the structure of phrases. and sentence types designed for the use of language learners. The present Modern Hindi Grammar is an effort in this direction. case. 9 . sentence types. other syntactic constructions among other items. It is useful for linguists and students of Hindi for reference. adjectives). There is a scope for a pedagogically oriented grammar which provides essential information for the use of Hindi language learners as well as teachers. deletion and insertion. voice. verb morphology (types of verbs. number. Agnihotri (2007) is a practical reference guide to the core structures and linguistic features of Hindi.1. non-finite verb forms). utilizing simpler terminology and authentic data from standard spoken and written Hindi. phonology. intonation). verb inflections. providing useful descriptions and tables of grammatical categories as well as simple descriptions of phrases. stress.

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1. 2.1.2. It is represented by the nasal sign ˜ written above the vowel signs as given below: High Lower High Mid Lower Mid Low Front ĩ: ĩ ẽ ´~ Central Back ũ: ũ õ ø~ ã ã: 11 . Distinctive Segments The inventory of the distinctive segments of Hindi is as follows: Vowels High Lower High Mid Lower Mid Low Front i: i e ´ Central Back u: u o ø a a: The nasalization is phonemic in Hindi. Phonological Units (Segmental) The pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism is involved in the production of all phonetic segments of the language. PHONOLOGY 2.1. Phonology 2.

2.asp vd.unas vd.asp Affricates vl.asp Nasal Trill Flap unasp asp Lateral Fricative vl vd Semivowel p ph b bh t th d dh t th d dh k kh g gh r rh l f v s z x 2. Description of Phonemes 2. and the rounding of the lips in the articulation of vowels.1. PHONOLOGY Consonants Retroflex Alveolar Bilabial Glottal Stops h y Palatal c ch j jh m n r n η š Labiodental Dental vl.unasp vl. the height of the tongue.2.unsap vd. /i:/ (high front unrounded long vowel): [-d i:d Eid naIr ni:r water jaldI jaldi: hurry 12 velar .2.1.asp Vd.unas vl.1. Vowels Oral Vowels There is a contrast in the position of the tongue.

PHONOLOGY /i/ (high front unrounded short vowel): [maart ima:rat building igarnaa girna: to fall pit pati husband (mid front unrounded long vowel): ek ek one rot ret sand jaUto ju:te shoes (low central unrounded short vowel): Agar agar if pr par but na na no (low central unrounded long vowel): Aama a:m mango Aarama a:ra:m rest AcCa accha: good (high back rounded short vowel): ]znaa uthna: to rise pu~ putr son ikMtu kintu but (high back rounded long vowel): }na u:n wool saUd su:d interest BaalaU bha:lu: bear (mid back rounded long vowel): Aaosa os dew raoTI bread roti: dao do two (lower mid unrounded front vowel) eonak mirror ´nak gaOr stranger g´r laO tune l´ (lower mid rounded back vowel) AaOrt woman ørat daOlat wealth dølat saaO hundred sø /e/ /a/ /a:/ /u/ /u:/ /o/ /´/ /ø/ 13 .2.

1.2.2. /ĩ/ /ĩ:/ /ẽ/ /ã/ /ã:/ /ũ/ /ũ:/ /õ/ /´~/ [Mca ipMjara [IMT saIMcanaa nahIM BaoMT maoM MAÐgaUza zMD AaMÐgana maaÐga maaÐ ]MÐsa mauMÐh }ÐT saUMÐGanaa jaUMÐ AaoMz gaaoMd sarsaaoM eoMznaa BaOMsa maOM AaOMQaa caaOMtIsa BaaOM ĩc pĩjra: ĩ:t sĩ:cna: nahĩ: bhẽt mẽ ãgu:tha: thãd ã:gan mã:g mã: ũs mũh ũ:t sũ:ghna: jũ: õth gõd sarsõ ´~thna: bh´~s m´~ ø~dha: cø~ti:s bhø~ inch cage brick to irrigate no meeting in thumb cold courtyard demand mother ounce face camel to smell louse lip gum mustard to tighten buffalo I upside down thiry-four eyebrow /ø~/ 2. Non-phonemic phonetic segments are also exemplified. The examples given below represent their phonetic transcription. PHONOLOGY Nasal Vowels Nasalization is phonemic in Hindi. 14 . Consonants Consonants are classified into different groups on the basis of their manner and place of articulation. All the vowels can be nasalized. Examples of phonemic consonantal segments of Hindi are presented in minimal or near minimal pairs.2.

medial. and final positions of words.a darva:za: door vadIvardi: uniform baMd band closed (voiced aspirated dental stop): Qana dhan wealth AaQaa a:dha: half dUQa du:dh milk (voiceless unaspirated retroflex stop): TaokrI tokri: basket 15 /ph/ /b/ /bh/ /t/ /th/ /d/ /dh/ /t/ .2. PHONOLOGY Stops and Affricates In the production of stops. /p/ (voiceless unaspirated bilabial stop): pla pal moment kpD. air coming out of the lungs is stopped at the point of articulation and then released with plosion.a kapra: cloth saaÐp sã:p snake (voiceless aspirated bilabial stop): fla phal fruit safla saphal successful saaf sa:ph clean (voiced unaspirated bilabial stop): bala bal strength AMbar ambar sky saba sab all (voiced aspirated bilabial stop): BaalaU bha:lu: bear saBaa sabha: meeting laaBa la:bh profit (voiceless unaspirated dental stop): tar ta:r wire katnaa ka:tna: to spin rat ra:t night (voiceless aspirated dental stop): qaalaI tha:li: palate haqaI ha:thi: elephant haqa ha:th hand (voiced unaspirated dental stop): drvaaja. Stops occur at initial.

alaI da:li: branch inaDr nidar fearless saaMÐD sã:d bull (voiced aspirated retroflex stop): Zaola dhol drum gaZa gadha: ditch (voiceless unaspirated velar stop): kana ka:n ear lakD.2. PHONOLOGY kaTnaa ka:tna: to cut kaoT kot coat (voiceless aspirated retroflex stop): zga thag cheat imaza[mitha:i: sweets Aaz a:th eight (voiced unaspirated retroflex stop): D. Affricates occur in the initial.I lakri: wood naak na:k nose (voiceless aspirated velar stop): Kaodnaa khodna: to dig doKnaa dekhna: to see raK ra:kh ashes (voiced unaspirated velar stop): gad-na gardan neck Agar agar if Aaga a:g fire (voiced aspirated velar stop): Gar ghar home saUMÐGanaa sũ:ghna: to smell baaGa ba:gh tiger /th/ /d/ /dh/ /k/ /kh/ /g/ /gh/ In the production of affricates. air coming out of the lungs passes with friction when the articulator is released gradually. /c/ (voiceless unaspirated palatal stop): caar ca:r four baccaa bacca: child kaMca kã:c glass (voiceless aspirated palatal affricate): Co che six 16 /ch/ . medial and final positions of words.

rt nafrat dislike isaf.baana zaba:n language baaja.ar ba:za:r market gaja. They occur at all positions.sirf only (voiceless alveolar fricative): saat sa:t seven sasta sasta: cheap dsa das ten (voiced alveolar fricative): ja.bar xabar news AK. /f/ (voiceless labio-dental fricative) f. gaz yard (voiceless alveolar fricative): Sak šak suspicion AaSaa a:ša: hope naaSa na:š destruction (voiceless velar fricative): K.farz duty naf. ša:x branch (voiceless glottal fricative): haqaI ha:thi: elephant bahar baha:r spring rah ra:h way 17 /s/ /z/ /š/ /x/ /h/ . PHONOLOGY maClaI machli: fish kuC kuch some (voiced unaspirated palatal affricate): jaana ja:n life gaajar ga:jar carrot taja ta:j crown (voiced aspirated palatal affricate): JaMDa jhãda: flag sauJaava sujha:v suggestion saaÐJa sã:jh evening /j/ /jh/ Fricatives There are alveolar and glottal fricatives.baar axba:r newspaper SaaK.ja.2.

2. /r/ (voiced alveolar trill): rssaI rassi: rope namanarm soft tar ta:r wire Flaps /r/ /rh/ (voiced unaspirated retroflex flap): saD.naa parhna: to read QaaZ. alveolar. dha:rh jaw 18 . bhi:r crowd (voiced aspirated retroflex flap): pZ. The velar nasal occurs in medial and final positions only. PHONOLOGY Nasals There are bilabial. and velar nasals. /m/ (voiced bilabial nasal): maaqaa ma:tha: forehead kmara kamra: room Aarama a:ra:m rest (voiced alveolar nasal): naak na:k nose laanaa la:na: to bring Qaana dha:n paddy (voiced retroflex nasal) ANau anu atom p`aNa pra:n life (voiced velar nasal): rMganaa to dye raηna: rMga color raη /n/ /n/ /η/ Trill There is a voiced alveolar trill which occurs in all positions.k sarak road BaID.

and the retroflex flaps D. /r/and Z. They occur before homorganic voiced consonants. PHONOLOGY Lateral There is a voiced alveolar lateral which occurs in all positions. palatal. The nasal phoneme na /n/ has dental. The velar nasal = /η/. /l/ (voiced alveolar lateral): laaoga log people klaa kala: art jaala ja:l net Semi-vowels /v/ (voiced labio-dental semi-vowel): vaada va:da: promise dvaa[dava:i: medicine naava na:v boat (voiced palatal semi-vowel): yaad ya:d memory saayaa sa:ya: shade raya ra:y opinion /y/ 2. Na [n].1.3. /rh/ do not occur in the word-initial positions. and = [η]. Phonetically they are pronounced in the speech only when they are followed by palatal and velar voiced consonant phonemes.2. retroflex. 19 . Distribution of Phonemes and Allophones The retroflex voiced aspirated stop Z /dh/ does not occur in the final position of words. and velar allophones: na [n].2. Palatal and velar nasals are not assigned any phonemic status in Hindi.

Consonant Clusters 2.2. Phonotactics 2.2.2. Vowel Sequences In Hindi only two vowel sequences are permissible. Word-initial Consonant Clusters Word-initial consonant clusters are not as frequent as the wordmedial consonant clusters.1.2. PHONOLOGY 2.2.2.2. ky kr gy gr jy jv tr dy dr ty tv dhy py pr br by šy šr sv @yaa k`ma gyaarh ga`Mqa jyaoYz jvar T/ona D\yaaoDa D/amaa %yaaga %vacaa Qyaana Pyaar pRqvaI ba`h\maa byaah Syaama Eama Svaasa kya: kram gya:rah granth jyešth jvar tren dyoda: dra:ma: tya:g tvaca: dhya:n pya:r prithvi: bramha: bya:h šya:m šram šva:s what order eleven book elder fever train two and a half times drama sacrifice skin attention love earth Brahma marriage Shyam labor breath 20 .1. ai: ia: ie ui: uã: oi: oe naa[idAa cailae sau[kuÐAa rao[Kaoe nai: dia: calie sui: kuã: roi: khoe new lamp let’s go needle well wept lost 2.

I Aa%maa bad\tr badmaaSa ma@baUla ma@tba A@Tr h@. Most of these clusters are formed across syllable or morpheme boundaries.2.vaa Sabnama sabja. Examples of the consonant clusters are given below.2.lat naF. (ii) /ch/ is not combined to form a consonant cluster.rar kapta:n va:psi: afsos gaflat nafrat afva: šabnam sabzi: a:tma: badtar badma:š makbu:l maktab aktar hakda:r ikra:r captain return sorry mistake hate rumor dew vegetable soul very bad rouge popular school actor rightful owner/entitled acceptance 21 . (iii) /d/ does not occur as the second member of a consonant cluster. There are some restrictions in the formation of consonant clusters as follows: (i) two aspirated consonants do not combine to form a consonant cluster.rt AF.yaada naR%ya nyaaya maRga vyai@t )dya sya:r zya:da: nraty nya:y mrig vyakti hriday jackal more dance justice deer person heart Initial three-consonant clusters str skr smr s~I sk``Ina smaRit stri: skri:n smriti: woman screen remembrance 2.dar [k. pt ps fs fl fr fv bn bz tm dt dm kb kt kt kd kr kPtana vaapsaI Afsaaosa gaF. Word-medial Consonant Clusters Consonant clusters occur frequently in the medial position. PHONOLOGY sy zy nr ny mr vy hr syaar j.2.2.

lmaI AalsaI mauilja.a pMKa rMijaSa [Msaaf maMija.Isarhd drvaaja.maanaa rhbar maaohtaja thsaIla maaohllaa nuksa:n bhagva:n ackan ambar namda: samjhna: hamva:r andar ganti: thãda: pãkha: rãjiš insa:ph manzil ja:nvar aspata:l kasba: sasta: hasdi: tasvi:r kušti: dušman rišvat galti: ulta: halka: filmi: a:lsi: mulzim gurbat gardan ka:rxa:na: marzi: sarhad darva:za: a:zma:na: rahbar mohta:j tahsi:l mohlla: loss God a long button-up coat sky a carpet to understand smooth inside a bell cold fan anger justice destination bird hospital town cheap jealous picture wrestling enemy bribe mistake opposite light in weight related to film lethargic accused poverty neck factory consent frontier door to try guide dependent tehsil ( subdivision) mohalla (dwelling ward) 22 .anaa maja.ma gauba-t gad-na karK.a Aaja.la jaanavar Asptala ksbaa sasta hsdI tsvaIr kuStI duSmana irSvat galtI ]lTa hlka if.2. PHONOLOGY ks gv ck mb md mjh mv nd nt nd nkh nj ns nz nv sp sb st sd sv št šm šv lt lt lk lm ls lz rb rd rx rz rh rv zm hb ht hs hl nau@saana Bagavaana Acakna AMbar namda samJanaa hmvaar AMdr gaMTI zMD.

2.2. pp pn tm tn gaPp svaPna K. PHONOLOGY yd yv paayadar pyavaMd pa:yda:r payvand strong grafting Medial three consonant clusters mjhn pgr tpr tthr cct kšp jjv ndr ndhk ndg nsk ndn nyv rtk rkht rmc ršn rvj syt stm štr samaJanaa ]pga`h ]%p`aoxa p%qarIlaa ]ccata pxapat ]jjala And$naI AMQakar baMdgaI saMskar vaMdnaa Qanyavaad nat-kI maUK-ta kma-caaarI dSa-naIya saava-jainak sadsyata Asqamaa raYT/Iya samjhna: upgrah utprokš patthri:la: uccta: pakšpa:t ujjval andru:ni: andhka:r bandgi: sanska:r vandna: dhanyva:d nartki: mu:rkhta: karmca:ri daršni:y sa:rvjanik sadasyta: asthma: ra:štri:y to understand satellite metaphor stony height partiality bright internal darkness worship rites prayer thanks dancer (f) foolishness worker worth seeing public membership breathing problem national Medial four-consonant clusters ntrt ndrv svatM~ta pMd`hvaaÐ svatantrta: pandhrva: independence fifteenth 2.2.%ma ya%na gapp svapn xatm yatn gossip dream finish try 23 .3. Word-final Consonant Clusters Consonant clusters occur less frequently in the word-final position.

PHONOLOGY tth cc cch kt mp nt nk nkh st št št rth rkh laT\z ]cca svacC r@t lamp sant baMk SaMK mast gaSt kYT AqamaUKlatth ucc svacch rakt lamp sant bank šankh mast gašt kašt arth mu:rkh stick high clean blood lamp saint bank conch carefree take a round trouble meaning fool Final three-consonant clusters ntr ndr str maM~ [Md` As~ mantr indr astr hymn name of God weapon 2. The first consonant of the medial cluster is assigned to the preceding syllable and the remaining elements of the unit to the following syllable.2. In the following examples. AakaSa AmaRt [maart [laaja a:ka:š amrit ima:rat ila:j sky nectar building treatment 24 . nak\ + Saa sauna\ + dr iksa\ + mat na@Saa sauMdr iksmat nak+ša: sun+dar kis+mat nakša: sundar kismat map beautiful fate The vowel-initial syllables are found only in the initial position of words. The assignment of the medial units to syllables does not depend on morphological structure.2. the syllable boundary is marked with [+] sign.3. Syllable Structure Hindi has a (C)(C)V(C)(C) syllable structure.

1. suprasegmental features. PHONOLOGY There are different types of syllables. Suprasegmental Features Nasalization. length. 2. Nasalization is distinctive so it has phonemic status. Monosyllable: maaÐ mã: caaya ca:y Gar ghar Di-syllable: fa. and juncture are 25 . Nasalization Nasalization is an important suprasegmental feature in Hindi.3. All the vowels can be nasalized. ka:gaz Tri-syllable: nasaIyat nasi:hat ihrasat hira:sat hkIkt haki:kat Quadra-syllable: ihMdustanaI hindusta:ni: maukabalaa muka:bila: [Msaainayat insa:niyat mother tea house profit flame paper advice arrest fact Indian competition humanity 2.yada fa:ida: Saaolaa šola: kagaja. stress.2.3. saasa kaTa pUC gaaod qaI sa:s ka:ta: pu:ch god thi: mother-in-law cut ask lap was saaÐsa kaMÐTa pUMÐC gaaoMd qaIM sã:s kã:ta: pũ:ch gõd thĩ: breath thorn tail gum were intonation.

/a/ and /a:/. the first syllable is stressed. the syllable preceding the consonant cluster gets stress. it is not in phonemic contrast. A@sar AMdr Aakar Aasamaana aksar andar a:ka:r a:sma:n always inside figure sky In di-syllable words wherein the first syllable contains low front or back vowels. Usually. Stress Stress is not a distinctive feature of Hindi. f.3. Length Length is phonemic in Hindi.3.2. bauiw sa%ya buddhi saty intelligence truth The initial cluster of the word also gets stress. There are three pairs of short and long vowels: /i/ and /i:/. PHONOLOGY 2. /u/ and /u:/. the first syllable is stressed.3. p`oma spYTta prem spaštta: love clarity In di-syllabic words where both syllables have long or short vowels.aOjaI kOdI føji: k´di: soldier prisoner 26 . The following minimal pairs illustrate the contrast in the length of these vowels. sometimes individual words are stressed for emphasis only.2. imala dsa ]na mil das un mix ten they (obl) maIla dasa }na mi:l da:s u:n mile servant wool 2. Hindi is a syllable-timed language.

AlamaarI maoM nahIM hMO. kagaja.2. 1. ihMdustana banajaara hindusta:n banja:ra: India nomad In words of more than three syllables. Statements have a high-fall intonation pattern. rha hO. 27 2. PHONOLOGY The second syllable is stressed when the first syllable has a short vowel and the second has a long vowel. and the third has a long vowel. Intonation peaks are generally positioned on the penultimate word or on the negative particle if there is one. samaJadarI samajhda:ri: understanding 2. (4) mid-level. (2) high-rise. Intonations have syntactic rather than emotional content. vah kita:b parh raha: h´. the second has a short vowel. .4. the stress is always on the penultimate syllable. ka:gaz alma:ri: mẽ nahĩ: h´~ papers almirah in neg are The papers are not in the almirah. the first syllable is stressed if the first syllable has a long vowel. Intonation There are four major types of intonational patterns: (1) high-fall. vah iktaba pZ. (3) rise-and-fall. he book read-pr is He is reading a book.3. baohyaa baovakUf behaya: bevaku:ph shameless stupid The last syllable is stressed if the first syllable has a short vowel and the last two have long vowels. nasaIba iktaba nasi:b kita:b fate book In tri-syllable words.

28 . @yaa vah kla Aayaa? kya: vah kal a:ya:? Q he yesterday came-Q Did he come yesterday? Information questions have a rise-and-fall intonation.2. any of the elements can be emphasized in the following sentence depending on the degree of emphasis. 6. PHONOLOGY Yes-no questions and tag questions have a high-rise intonation. The rise in intonation is registered on the question word and the fall is attained gradually. Contrastive and Emphatic Intonation The contrastive and emphatic intonations are the same as they employ more than the average stress on the constituents of a sentence. The emphasis is indicated by bolding different elements. The element to be contrasted carries a slightly higher stress than the emphasized segment. 4. door close do-imp Close the door. Commands generally follow the mid-level intonational pattern.ar gae? a:p kab ba:za:r gaye? you when market went When did you go to the market? maaohna iksasao imalaa? mohan kisse mila:? Mohan who-dat met-3s Who did Mohan meet? 5. Aap kba baaja. For example. darva:za: band karo. drvaaja. 3.a baMd krao.

Aap idllaI jaa[e.5. 2. Aap idllaI jaa[e. Internal juncture may be considered as phonemic juncture. a:p dilli: ja:ie. The internal juncture (+) reduces words into phrases or compound words in the sentences. a:p dilli: ja:ie. 29 . 7b. mauiSkla Anajaana kutabadmaaSa muškil anja:n kurta: badma:š difficult ignorant shirt rogue The following minimal pairs indicate the phonemic status of internal juncture: Kanaa Ka + naa klaa[kla + Aa[isakaisar + ka kha:na: kha: + na: kala:i: kal + a:i: sirka: sir + ka: food to eat wrist came yesterday vinegar of the head There are two types of juncture: (i) internal juncture and (ii) external juncture. you Delhi go-fu-2p You go to Delhi. a:p dilli: ja:ie. Juncture Juncture is functional in Hindi. the medial clusters have juncture because those sequences of sounds do not occur in the same syllable.2. Mostly. PHONOLOGY 7a. Aap idllaI jaa[e. 7c. You go to Delhi.3. You go to Delhi.

r r-. tIna ti:n three + rh rah ten marker = torh terah thirteen 2.1. ija.4. Addition of Phoneme The vowel e /-e/ is added to the root before the suffixes are added to it. AaOrt AaOrtaoM pagala pagalaaoM ørat øratõ pa:gal pa:glõ woman women (obl) mad mad persons (obl) The consonant na /n/ of a numeral system is lost before any numeral suffix beginning with /t t-.2.4. 2.2. h h-/ is added. ija. 8b. PHONOLOGY 8a. and replacement of phonemes.4. itr tir itr tir + + pna pan saz sath = = itropna tirepan fifty-three itrosaz tiresath sixty-three 30 . 2. External juncture (#) occurs between each word and the words joined by this juncture retain their separate identity.MdgaI # maaOt ka @yaa Baraosaa zindagi: # møt ka: kya: bharosa: There is no guarantee of life or death. Loss of Phoneme The vowel /a/ in the last syllable is dropped when the suffix /-õ/ is added to the word. Morphophonemics Various morphological processes can be marked as loss.MdgaI + maaOt ka @yaa Baraosaa zindagi: + møt ka: kya: bharosa: life death-gen what guarantee There is no guarantee of life or death. addition.

3./i:/ of the verb root becomes the short [ /i/ when the suffix A -a: is added to the verb root. saUya. caMd`aodya candroday moonrise . PHONOLOGY When different suffixes are added to the root. ]dya uday rise 31 = = saUya-aid su:rya:di sun and the like. They usually takes place in compound words.i: = = batIsa batti:s thirty-two SakI šaki: one who doubts 2. ba ba Sak šak + + tIsa ti:s [. the an addition of a consonant takes place.4. do de give Ka kha: eat doK dekh see + + + laa la: laa la: Aa a: = = = idlaa dila: cause to give iKlaa khila: cause to eat idKa dikha: cause to see In certain morphophonemic changes. Alternations The long vowel Aao /o/ of the verb root changes to a short vowel ] /u/ when the suffix -laa /-la:/ is added to the verb roots. Kaola khol open rao ro weep + + laa la: laa la: = = Kulaa khula: opened Élaa rula: to make weep? The long vowel [. pI pi: drink saIK si:kh learn + + laa la: Aa a: = = ipla pila: make drink isaKa sikha: teach When the suffixes laa /-la:/ or Aa /-a:/ are attached to the monosyllabic verbal stems their vowels e /e/ and Aa /a:/ change into [ /i/. some consonants are replaced by others.su:rya sun caMd` candr moon + + Aaid a:di etc. tIna ti:n three [k ik one + + pna pan caalaIsa ca:li:s = = itropna trepan fifty-three [ktalaIsa ikta:li:s forty-one Morphophonemic changes at junctural points or sandhi are very common in Hindi.2.

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Nouns 3. adverbs. The gender formation involves (a) suffixation. there are no hard and fast rules for assigning the genders. describing their inflectional and derivational forms.3. We can make some general observations as follows. connectives. verbs.ka caacaa iballaa baccaa dada naanaa saalaa pgalaa larka: ca:ca: billa: bacca: da:da: na:na: sa:la: pagla: boy uncle he cat child (m) father’s father mother’s father wife’s brother a mad man laD. Declension I includes Aa /a:/ ending masculine nouns. number. every inanimate noun is assigned a gender. There are three declensions of nouns. Noun Inflection Nouns in Hindi are inflected for gender. and (c) suppletion.1.1. Declension II includes all other masculine nouns. 3. laD. (i) Most of the Aa /a:/ ending masculine nouns have their feminine forms ending in [. Gender There are two genders in Hindi: masculine and feminine.1. adjectives. particles. and interjections. Morphology This chapter deals with the morphological structure of different word classes. and case. and Declension III includes all feminine nouns. Word classes described include nouns. 3.kI caacaI iballaI baccaI dadI naanaI saalaI pgalaI larki: ca:ci: billi: bacci: da:di: na:ni: sa:li: pagli: girl aunt she cat child (f) father’s mother mother’s mother wife’s sister a mad woman 33 .1. Though the gender of a large number of inanimate nouns can be predicted by their endings. pronouns. Masculine forms are traditionally taken as basic.1. MORPHOLOGY 3. (b) phonological changes.1./i:/. Besides the natural gender of animate nouns.

[yaa /-iya:/./i:/.Aa /-a:/ form their feminine (diminutive) by replacing -Aa /-a:/ with . MORPHOLOGY In the above examples. the final -Aa /a:/ in the masculine forms is replaced by the suffix -[./-i:/ in their feminine forms.[. Masculine QaaobaI dhobi: tolaI teli: maalaI ma:li: jaaogaI jogi: washerman oilman gardener (m) saint (m) Feminine Qaaobana dhoban tolana telan maalana ma:lan jaaogana jogan washerwoman oilwoman gardener (f) saint (f) (iii) Some nouns ending in .[. Masculine pMKa pankha: saaoTa sota: kTaora katora: kaoza kotha: fan a big stick a bowl a room Feminine pMKI pankhi: saaoTI soti: kTaorI katori: kaozrI kothri: a small fan a small stick a small bowl a small room In the above examples. (v) The suffix -naI /-ni:/ is added to the masculine nouns to form the feminine. (ii) Most of the . the final -Aa /-a:/ in the masculine nouns is replaced by ./-i:/ ending animate masculine nouns have their feminine forms ending in -Ana /-an/. Dbaa daba: box iDibayaa dibiya: a small box (iv) Most of the -Aa /-a:/ ending inanimate nouns are masculine and [.3./-i:/ ending inanimate nouns are feminine. Masculine Saor šer maaor mor maasTr ma:star }ÐT ũ:t naaOkr nøkar lion peacock teacher (m) camel servant (m) Feminine SaornaI šerni: maaornaI morni: maasTrnaI ma:starni: }ÐTnaI ũ:tni: naaOkranaI nøkra:ni: 34 lioness peahen teacher (f) she-camel servant (f) .

Number There are two numbers: singular and plural.ko larke GaaoD.2. Masculine dasa da:s servant pu~ putr son sauMdr sundar beautiful 3. MORPHOLOGY (vi) The suffix -[.1.o ghore maoro mere kalao ka:le boys horses my black Feminine dasaI da:si: maid pu~I putri: daughter sauMdrI sundri: beautiful woman The following -Aa /-a:/ ending masculine nouns do not change in their plural form.a gho:ra: maora mera: kalaa ka:la: boy horse my black Plural laD.1. (i) The -Aa /-a:/ ending masculine nouns (including pronouns and adjectives). ipta pita: father/fathers naota neta: leader/leaders diryaa dariya: river/rivers (ii) All other consonant and/or other vowel-ending nouns do not change in their plural forms.ka larka: GaaoD./-i:/ is added to the masculine nouns to form the feminine. with a few exceptions change into -e /-e/ ending forms in the plural. maaor kaoT ga`ama haqaI Émaala QaaoobaI mor kot gra:m ha:thi: ruma:l dhobi: peacock(s) coat(s) village(s) elephant(s) handkerchief/handkerchiefs laundry man/ laundry men 35 . Singular laD.3.

There are two cases: direct and oblique.3.kI larki: girl girls + [yaaÐ -iyã: = laD. which do not occur independently as words and are added only to the noun phrases.1. Case suffixes added to the oblique forms of nouns agreeing in number and gender. mez table maoja.kI larki: ‘girl’ given below. iktaba kita:b book iktabaoM kita:bẽ books maoja.kursi: chair + [yaaÐ -iyã: = kuisa-yaaÐ kursiyã: chairs khanaI kaha:ni: story + [yaaÐ -iyã: = khainayaaÐ kaha:niyã: stories Notice that when the suffix is added the final vowel of the stem is deleted.oM mezẽ tables gaaya ga:y cow gaayaoM ga:yẽ cows (iv) The plural suffix -[yaaÐ -iyã: is added to the -[-M -i: ending feminine nouns. The role of case-suffixes and postpositions is explained in the paradigms of laD.ikyaaÐ larkiyã: kusaI. 36 .1.ka larka: ‘boy’ and laD.3. laD. Case Masculine Sg Pl Direct Ø Ø Oblique -e -e -AaoM -õ Vocative -e -e -Aao -o Feminine Sg Pl Ø Ø -[ -i -AaoM -õ -[ -i -Aao -o The vocative address forms may be preceded by the vocative morphemes Aao o/ ho he/ Aro are. postpositions and derivational processes. Case suffixes are defined as bound suffixes. Case The syntactic and semantic functions of noun phrases are expressed by case-suffixes. Case-suffixes and postpositions are used to express syntactic and semantic functions. 3. MORPHOLOGY (iii) The feminine plurals are formed by adding the suffix -eM /ẽ/ to the consonant-ending singular forms.

*maOMnao p~ ilaKa. The verb agrees with the object. or location. kao ko ‘to’.ikyaaÐ Direct larka: larke larki: larkiyã: laD. but they are tagged to pronouns (maOMnao m´~ne ]sakao usko. ]maa kao uma: ko).kaoM laD. m´~ne patr likha: I-erg letter wrote I wrote a letter.kI laD.1. maOMnao p~ ilaKa.ko Aao o/ ho he/ Aro are laD. ko ilae ke liye ‘for’. 3. ka /ko /kI ka/ke/ki: ‘of’. pr par ‘on’. They express the semantic dimensions of a noun such as benefaction.kI e e/ ho he/ Aro are laD. iksaka kiska:).ikyaaoM Oblique laD. manner.’ The postpositions are written as separate words with nouns (Aimat nao amit ne. 3. . 1.kao e e/ ho he/ Aro are laD. sao se ‘from’.ka laD. sao se ‘with’. maoM mẽ ‘in’.kI laD. *m´~ patr likha: 37 1a.2. MORPHOLOGY Noun + Marker Masculine Feminine Sg Pl Sg Pl laD.3.ikyaao larke larko larki: larkiyo Oh boy Oh boys Oh girl Oh girls Case Case-suffixes followed by postpositions indicate various relationships between the noun phrases and the verb phrases.ko larke larkõ larki: larkiyõ Vocative Aao o/ ho he/ Aro are laD. Postpositions Postpositions have specific semantic functions.1. The Postposition nao ne The postposition nao ne is used with subject noun phrases usually with the transitive verbs in the past tense.2.1.ko laD. The main postpositions are: nao ne ‘ergative marker’.

usne kapre dhoye he-erg clothes washed He washed clothes.o Qaaoe. larka: bola: boy said The boy said.3. laa[-. ]maa kmaIja. The nao ne postposition is not used with the subjects of the following transitive verbs: laanaa la:na: ‘to bring.o Qaaoyaa.’ 5. *vah kapre dhoya: 2a.’ BaUlanaa bhu:lna: ‘to forget. .kI /laD.’ baaolanaa bolna: ‘to speak. *]maa nao kmaIja. maaohna nao baihna /bahnaaoM kao baulaayaa. 6. 4.kaoM / laD. 3. hmanao laD.’ Kolanaa khelna: ‘to play. hamne larke/larkõ/larki:/ larkiyõ ko parha:ya: we-erg boy/boys/girl/girls-dat taught We taught the boy/boys/girl/girls. *uma: ne kami:z la:i: laD.ka baaolaa. mohan ne bahin/bahnõ ko bula:ya: Mohan-erg sister/sisters-dat called Mohan called (his) sister/sisters. the verb remains in masculine singular form. vah kpD. ]sanao kpD.ko / laD. *larke ne bola: 38 5a. 6a.’ and baknaa bakna: ‘to chatter. MORPHOLOGY 2.ikyaaoM kao pZ. *laD. laa[-. uma: kami:z la:i: Uma-nom shirt brought Uma brought a shirt. Whenever the objects are followed by the dative postposition kao ko.ko nao baaolaa.ayaa.

baImaar vyai@t ³nao´o ja. KaÐsanaa khã:sna: ‘to cough’. voh ra:sta: bhu:la: he way forgot He forgot/lost the way. 8a. vah ka:phi: de:r baka: he-nom lot duration chattered He chattered for a long time.3. ]sanao Gar sao inaklato samaya CIMka.aor sao KaÐsaa. The postposition nao ne is used with the following intransitive verbs: CIMknaa chĩ:kna: ‘to sneeze’. usne ghar se nikalte samay chĩ:ka: he-erg house-abl from set out-ptc time sneezed He sneezed as he was leaving the house. *usne ka:phi de:r baka: 7a.k pr @yaaoM qaUka? tumne sarak par kyõ thu:ka:? you-erg road on why spit-past Why did you spit on the road? 10. *]sanao rasta BaUlaa. *usne ra:sta: bhu:la: vah kafI dor baka. 8. 39 . maOMnao garma panaI sao nahayaa. bi:ma:r vyakti (ne) zo:r se khã:sa: ill person-erg loudly coughed The ill person coughed loudly. 11. 12. m´~ne garm pa:ni: se naha:ya: I-erg hot water with bathed I took a bath in hot water. and qaUknaa thu:kna: ‘to spit’. tumanao saD. MORPHOLOGY 7. 9. *]sanao kafI dor baka. vah rasta BaUlaa. nahanaa naha:na: ‘to take a bath’.

MORPHOLOGY It is not used in constructions using the modal verbs laganaa lagna:. *maOMnao yah kama kr cauka. vah icaT\zI ilaK saka. *usne seb kha:ne laga: 14. *m´~ne yah ka:m kar cuka: 15. *]sanao saoba Kanao lagaa.: I his/her matter understood I understood what he said. 14a. 40 . *usne citthi: likh saka: In the case of a few transitive verbs like samaJanaa samjhna: ‘to understand’ and Kolanaa khelna: ‘to play. 16a. vah saoba Kanao lagaa.3. m´~ yah ka:m kar cuka: I this work do completed I finished this work. and saknaa sakna:: 13. cauknaa cukna:. maOM yah kama kr cauka. *]sanoa icaT\zI ilaK saka.’ the use of this postposition is optional. 13a. m´~ uski: ba:t samjha. vah citthi: likh saka: he letter write could He could write a letter. 15a. vah seb kha:ne laga: he apple eat-inf-obl started He started eating apples. 16. maOM ]sakI baat samaJaa. m´~ne uski: ba:t samjhi: I-erg his/her matter understood I understood what he said. maOMnao ]sakI baat samaJaI.

maOM samaJaa vah baImaar hO. 41 . ]sanao hakI KolaI. 1. m´~ne ba:t samajh li: I-erg matter understand took I understood the matter. The Postposition kao ko The postposition kao ko is used in different types of sentences and is placed after nouns. he hockey played He played hockey.2. *maOM baat samaJa laI. m´~ samjha: voh bi:ma:r h´.2. 17a. mez (ko) sa:f karo table (dat) clean do-imp Clean the table. MORPHOLOGY 17. usne haki: khe:li:. *m´~ ba:t samajh li: 3. vah hakI Kolaa. (kao) saaf krao. It is optional when used with object nouns which are followed by conjunct verbs with an adjective or adverb and the verb. vah ha:ki: khe:la:. he-erg hockey played He played hockey. maoja. 18.3.1. 19. m´~ne samjha: voh bi:ma:r h´. 18a. maOMnao baat samaJa laI. The use of the postposition nao ne is invariably found in compound verb constructions with the verb samaJanaa samjhna: ‘to understand’ as the main verb. maOMnao samaJaa vah baImaar hO. I understood he sick is I thought he was sick. 19a.

5. m´~ne patr (ko) parha: I-erg letter (dat) read I read the letter. usne bacce ko sula:ya: he-erg child-dat sleep-caus He made the child sleep. krao. In the object +kao ko+verb construction. maOMnao p~ (kao) pZ. saMdUk (kao) [Qar/ ]Qar/ }pr/ naIcao rKaoo. . the verb may be transitive or causative.kama (kao) K%ma krao. sandu:k (ko) idhar/udhar/upar/ni:ce rakho box (dat) here/there/up/down do-imp Keep the box here/there/up/down. usne kita:b beci: He sold the book. 8. paper (dat) away do-imp Keep the paper away. . (kao) dUr rKaoo. ]sanao iktaba kao baocaa. ka:m (ko) xatm karo work (dat) finish do-imp Finish the work. kar (kao) toja. 6. MORPHOLOGY 2. ]sanao baccao kao saulaayaa. car (dat) fast do-imp Speed up the car. ka:gaz (ko) du:r rakho.3.a. 4. 42 7. 7a. ka:r (ko) tez karo. kagaja. usne kita:b ko beca: he-erg book-dat sold He sold the book. 3. ]sanao iktaba baocaI.

kao p~ ilaK rha hUM. Amar kao duK huAa. MORPHOLOGY 8a. the verbs express the state of mind. baccao kao Dr lagaa. obligations. feelings. and emotions (9-12). suni:ta ko bhukha:r h´ Sunita-dat fever is Sunita has fever. saunaIta kao bauKar hO. m´~ apne bha:i: ko patr likh raha: hũ: I self-obl brother-dat letter write-prog am I am writing a letter to my brother. 10. involuntarily actions. amar ko dukh hua: Amar-dat pain felt Amar felt pain. Pronouns + kao ko have alternate forms as follows: vah yah [na ]na vah yah in un + + + + kao ko kao ko kao ko kao ko = = = = 43 ]sakao/ ]sao usko/use [sakao/ [sao isko/ise [nakao/ [nhoM inko/inhẽ ]nakao/ ]nhoM unko/unhẽ . physical experience. 12. 9. maaohna kao KaÐsaI Aa[-. maOM Apnao Baa[. bacce ko dar laga: child-dat fear struck The child was afraid. mohan ko hãsĩ: a:i: Mohan-dat laugh came Mohan laughed. ]sanao baccaa saulaayaa. usne bacca: sula:ya: In the subject + kao ko + complement + verb constructions. 13.3. 11. The postposition kao ko is used in the secondary object + kao ko + main object + verb constructions.

there is an inherent kao ko. 14. kao ko can be used with kla kal.3. *vah kla kao jaaegaa. he tomorrow go-fut He will go tomorrow. *vah Aaja kao Aaegaa. vah kla jaaegaa.’ but to denote an indefinite time in the future. 18. not to indicate ‘tomorrow. this-dat take-imp Take this. who know-obl tomorrow-obl what happen-fut Who knows what will happen tomorrow? 44 . But in certain contexts. [sao lao jaaAao. that/those-dat Mohan-dat give-imp Give that/those to Mohan. use/unhẽ mohan ko de do. vah a:j a:ega:. vah kal ja:ega:. The postposition kao ko is not normally used with time adverbials. *vah a:j ko a:ega: 17. It is possible to use these forms along with nouns + kao ko. vah Aaja Aaegaa. 15. 16a. 16. 17a. kaOna jaanao kla kao @yaa haogaa. køn ja:ne kal ko kya: hoga:. *vah kal ko ja:ega:. he today come-fut He will come today. ]sao/]nhoM maaohna kao do dao. ise le ja:o. MORPHOLOGY In the ]sao use/[sao ise/[nhoM inhẽ/]nhoM unhẽ forms.

’ 21. today evening/-dat you mine house come-imp. maOM yahaÐM Aa}Ðgaa. The postposition kao ko is not used with place adverbs like yahaÐ yahã: ‘here’. a:j ša:m/ša:m ko a:p mere ghar a:iye. Aaja Saama/Saama kao Aap maoro Gar Aa[e. *ve u:par ko pahũce The postposition kao ko is added to the subject noun/pronoun if it is followed by an object and the verb caaihe ca:hiye ‘need/want’ or the modal ‘should’ (i.3. *vao }pr kao phuMÐcao. *m´~ yahã: ko a:ũ:ga: 22.’and duphr dupahar ‘afternoon. like rat ra:t ‘night. 22a. }pr upar ‘above’. *maOM yahaÐ kao Aa}Ðgaa. vahaÐ vahã: ‘there’. ve u:par pahũce they top reached They reached up (the stairs). usko yeh akhba:r ca:hiye he-obl this newspaper wants He wants this newspaper.e. 23. 45 .pol Please come to my house today in the evening. vao }pr phuÐMcao. naIcao ni:ce ‘under’.. and pICo pi:che ‘behind. 21a. ]sakao yah AKbaar caaihe. Aagao a:ge ‘in front’. m´~ yahã: a:ũ:ga: I here come-fut I will come here. subject + kao ko + object + caaihe ca:hiya). MORPHOLOGY 19.’ Saama ša:m ‘evening. Agar kla kao ]nhoM kuC hao gayaa tao… agar kal ko unhẽ kuch ho gaya: to… if tomorrow-obl he-obl something happenened then … If anything happens to him tomorrow then … The postposition kao ko can be used optionally with time adverbs.’ 20.

go-inf-obl dat what. 29. kao ko can also be used to denote an object of a verb requiring a predicate. maOM kBaI BaI jaa sakta hUÐ. amit gari:bi: ko pa:p samajhta: h´. uthne ko dil karta: h´ rise-inf-obl pp heart want-ptc be One would like to get up. hma dF. MORPHOLOGY 24. Aapko pasa pInao kao @yaa hO? a:pke pa:s pi:ne ko kya: h´? you-gen-obl near drink-inf-obl pp what is What do you have to drink? 26. The verbal noun + kao ko (as complementizer) construction shows purpose.tr jaanao kao tOyaar hMO. 46 .~ we office go-inf-obl pp ready are We are ready to go to the office. he-dat come-inf-obl tell-imp Tell him to come. 30. I anytime go can be What is there. Aimat garIbaI kao pap samaJata hO. ]sao Aanao kao khao. ]sakao yah kama krnaa caaihe. jaanao kao @yaa.3. use a:ne ko kaho. ja:ne ko kya:. usko yah ka:m karna: ca:hiye he-obl this work do-inf should He should do this work. I can go anytime. 28. ]znao kao idla krta hO. 25. ham daftar ja:ne ko t´ya:r h´. m´~ kabhi: bhi: ja: sakta: hũ:. 27. The postposition kao ko can be used for emphasis as well.

I he-obl-with talk do-ptc am I talk with him. nehru: baccõ se pya:r karte the. maOM maMgalavaar kao idllaI jaa}Ðgaa. kpD.aoM kao gaMda mat krao. m´~ us-se ba:t kar-ta: hũ:. 32. vah dopahar ko a:yega:. 31. When it is used with time adverbials it denotes specificity like daophr kao dopahar ko or maMgalavaar kao maηalva:r ko but not janavarI kao janva:ri ko or Aaja kao a:j ko. kaprõ: ko ganda: mat karo. m´~ maηalva:r ko dilli: ja:ũ:ga:. clothes dirty neg do-imp Don’t dirty your clothes. vah pD.a. he noon come-fut He will come at noon. vah parosi: se lara:.aosaI sao laD. MORPHOLOGY Amit poverty sin consider-ptc is Amit considers poverty a sin. .2. Nehru children-obl with love do-ptc was Nehru used to love children. It is used to denote time.1. The Postposition sao se The postposition sao se is used to indicate association or mutual dealing.3.3. 47 2. vah daophr kao Aaegaa. 1. naohÉ baccaaoM sao Pyaar krto qao. kla kao kal ko. maOM ]sasao baat krta hUÐ. he neighbor with quarreled He quarreled with his neighbor. 33. I Tuesday Delhi go-fut I’ll go to Delhi on Tuesday. 3. 3.

vah dF.aosaI sao nafrt krta hO. sarka:r se mã:g ki: ja:ti: h´. mauJasao JaUz na baaolaao. mujh-se jhu:th na bolo. ]sasao maja. 48 11. maOM eosao laaogaaoM sao dUr rhnaa psaMd krta hUÐ . dil se krodh nika:lo heart from anger remove-imp Remove anger from your mind.3. vah pD. m´~ a:pse pra:rthna: karta: hũ:.ak na krao. maOM Aapsao p`aqa-naa krta hUÐ. he neighbor with hate do-ptc is He hates his neighbor. vah daftar se nikla:. he-obl-post joke don’t do-imp Don’t joke with him. sarkar sao maaÐga kI jaatI hO. vah parosi: se nafrat karta: h´. me-obl-with lie neg say-imp Don’t lie to me. It is used to indicate a sense of separation or keeping away from something. I you-post request do-ptc am I request you. government with request do aux is The government is requested. idla sao k`aoQa inakalaao. . m´~ ´se logũ: se du:r rahna: pasand karta: hũ:. 7. 6. usse maza:k na karo. I this type people from far remain-inf like do-ptc am I like to be away from this kind of people.tr sao inaklaa. 8. 5. 10. 9. MORPHOLOGY 4.

49 18. ba:t se ba:t nikalti: h´. time. imaT\TI sao bat-na banato hOM. It represents cause. MORPHOLOGY he office from came out He set out from the office. and direction. reason and origin. 13. yahaÐ sao Sahr bahut dUr hO. 14.3. . he fever from weak became He became weak by fever. talk from talk comes out One thing comes out of the other. seed from plant comes out The plant grows out of a seed. place. 15.I sao maojaoM. baIja sao paOQaa inaklata hO.~ clay from pots make-ptc are Pots are made of clay. 17. 12. mujhe daftar se ta:r mila:.aor huAa. It indicates the starting point. wood from tables make-ptc are The tables are made of wood. baat sao baat inaklatI hO. mitti: se bartan bante h´. banatI hOM. bi:j se pødha: nikalta: h´. lakD. yahã: se šahar bahut du:r h´. mauJao dF. lakri: se meze~ banti: h´~~. vah bukha:r se kamzor hua:. vah bauKar sao kmaja.tr sao tar imalaa . 16. here from city very far is The city is far away from here. I-obl office from telegram got I got a telegram from the office.

or agency. It is used to indicate the difference or comparison in quality and quantity. pi:che se a:va:z a:yi:. instrument. pen with letter write-imp Write a letter with the pen.: he late went He went late. caakU sao sabja. .I kaTao. ca:ku: se sabzi: ka:to. 23. there from here more heat fall-ptc is This place is hotter than that place. kalam se patr likho. 22. vah dor sao gayaa. kla sao Aaja AcCI QUp hO. vah der se gaya. 24. It is used to indicate means. 21. Aa[-. he two year from sick is He has been sick for the last two years. knife with vegetable cut-imp Cut vegetables with the knife. behind from call came Someone called from behind. vah do sa:l se bi:ma:r h´. yesterday from today good sunshine is It is more sunny today than yesterday. 20. vah dao saala sao baImaar hO. kal se a:j acchi: dhu:p h´.tI hO. MORPHOLOGY 19. pICo sao Aavaja. vahã: se yahã: adhik garmi: parti: h´. 50 25.3. klama sao p~ ilaKao. vahaÐ sao yahaÐ AiQak garmaI pD. It indicates time.

3. MORPHOLOGY 26. hma haqa sao Kanaa Kato hOM. ham ha:th se kha:na: khate h´~~. we hand with food eat-ptc are We eat our meals with our hands. paOQaaoM kao panaI sao Qaao laao. pødhõ: ko pa:ni: se dho lo. plants-obl to water with wash-imp Wash the plants with water. vah baairSa sao BaIga gayaa. vah ba:riš se bhi:g gaya: he rain with wet became He was drenched in the rain. ]sanao A@la sao kama ikyaa. usne akl se ka:m kiya: he-erg wit with work did He worked with wit.

27.

28.

29.

It indicates manner. 30. maorI baat Qyaana sao saunaao. meri: ba:t dhya:n se suno. my talk attention with listen-imp Listen to what I say with attention. vah toja,I sao Aayaa. vah tezi: se a:ya:. he fast came He came fast. hma kiznaa[- sao sToSana phuÐcaoo. ham kathina:yi: se stešan pahũce. we difficulty with station reached We reached the station with difficulty.

31.

32.

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3. MORPHOLOGY 3.1.2.4. The Postposition maoM mẽ The postposition maoM mẽ is used to denote location or presence of something in or within; duration; price; comparison with reference to more than two; or difference. Location maora dF,tr idllaI maoM hO. 1. mera: daftar dilli: mẽ h´. my office Delhi in is My office is in Delhi. 2. maora baoTa kalaoja maoM pZ,ta hO. mera: beta: ka:lej mẽ parhta: h´. my son college in study-ptc is My son studies in college. [sa iktaba maoM tIna saaO pRYT hMO. is kita:b mẽ ti:n sø prašth h´.~ this book in three hundred pages are There are three hundred pages in this book.

3.

Duration 4. yah laoK maOOMnao caar idna maoM ilaKa. yah lekh m´~ne ca:r din mẽ likha:. this article I-erg four days in wrote I wrote this article in four days. 5. yah [maart dao saala maoM banaI. yeh ima:rat do sa:l mẽ bani:. this building two years in constructed This building was constructed in two years.

Price 6. yah maoja, dao hja,ar ÉpyaaoM maoM imalaa. yah mez do haza:r rupyõ mẽ mila:. this table two thousand rupees-obl in obtained This table cost two thousand rupees. 7. maOMnao yah kmaIja, tIna saaO ÉpyaaoM maoM laI. m´~ne yah kami:z ti:n sø rupyõ mẽ li:.
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3. MORPHOLOGY I-erg this shirt three hundred rupees in got I got this shirt for three hundred rupees. Comparison 8. [na laD,kaoM maoM Aimat sabasao caust hO. in larkõ mẽ amit sa:bse cust h´. these boys-obl in Amit all from active Amit is the most active out of all these boys. 3.1.2.5. The Postposition pr par The postposition pr par is used to denote location or position, point of time of an action, sequence of actions, cause or reason, and the object of verbs. Location kagaja, maoja, pr hO. 1. ka:gaz mez par h´. paper table on is The paper is on table. 2. maoro kpD,o Ct pr hOM. mere kapre chat par h´~. my clothes roof on are My clothes are on the roof. ]saka dF,tr yahaÐ sao kuC dUrI pr hO. uska: daftar yahã: se kuch du:ri: par h´. his office here from some distance at is His office is some distance from here.

3.

Point of time 4. vah samaya pr nahIM phuÐcaa. vah samay par nahĩ: pahũca:. he time at not reached He didn’t arrive in time. 5. basa caar bajakr dsa imanaT pr AaegaI. bas ca:r bajkar das minat par a:yegi: bus four stuck-cp ten minutes at come-fut-f The bus will arrive at ten minutes past four.
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3. MORPHOLOGY Sequence of actions 6. vahaÐ phuÐMcanao pr hmanao doKa ik kao[- nahIM Aayaa. vahã: pahũcne par hamne dekha: ki koi: nahĩ: a:ya:. there reach-inf-obl on we-erg saw that no one neg came On reaching there, we found that no one had come. 7. naota ko Aanao pr sabanao tailayaaÐ bajaa[-M. neta: ke a:ne par sabne ta:liyã: baja:ĩ:. leader-gen come-inf-obl on all-erg clapped hands Upon the arrival of the leader, all clapped their hands.

Cause or reason 8. QaaooKa donao pr ]sao saja,a hu[-M. dhokha: dene par use saza: hui:. deceive give-inf-obl on he-obl punishment given He was punished for deceiving (someone). 9. JaUz baaolanao pr maaÐ nao baccao kao DaÐMTa. jhu:th bolne par mã:ne bacce ko dã:ta:. lie tell-inf-obl on mother-erg child-dat scolded The mother scolded the child for telling a lie. Object of verbs 10. garIbaaoM pr dyaa krao. gari:bõ par daya: karo. poor-obl on mercy do-imp Be kind to the poor. 11. vah iksaI pr k`aoQa nahIM krta. vah kisi: par krodh nahĩ: karta:. he someone on anger neg do-pr is He doesn’t get angry at anyone. mauJapr ivaSvaasa krao. mujhpar višva:s karo. me on faith do-imp Have faith in me.

12.

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3. MORPHOLOGY 3.1.2.6. The Postposition ka ka The postposition ka ka: is used to denote the relationship between a noun or pronoun and another noun that follows it. It is used to denote possession and relationship, material or composition, worth and measure, source, origin, cause, subject or object of an act, part of a whole, purpose or characteristics or trait. The form of this postposition agrees with the gender and number of the noun as follows. Masculine Feminine Sg Pl Sg Pl ka ka: ko ke kI ki kI ki Possession and relationship 1. Aimat ka Baa[- Aaja Aaegaa. amit ka: bha:i: a:j a:yega:. Amit of brother today come-fut Amit’s brother will come today. 2. Aimat kI baihna/ baihnaoM kla AaegaI/ AaeÐgao. amit ki: bahn/bahnẽ kal a:yegi:/a:yẽgi:. Amit of sister/sisters tomorrow come-fut-fs/-fp Amit’s sister/sisters will come tomorrow. Aimat ko dao daost prsaaoM AaeMgao. amit ke do dost parsõ a:ẽge. Amit of two friends day after tomorrow come-fut Amit’s two friends will come day after tomorrow.

3.

Material or composition 4. SaISao kI AlamaarI TUT ga[-. ši:še ki: alma:ri: tu:t gayi:. glass-obl of almirah broke went The glass almirah broke. 5. imaT\TI ko bat-na AcCo hOM. mitti: ke bartan acche h´~. clay of pots good are The earthen pots are good.
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3. MORPHOLOGY Measure or worth 6. ek iklaao caavala iktnao ka hOÆ ek kilo ca:val kitne ka: h´? one kilogram rice how much-obl of is What is the price of one kilogram of rice? 7. yao dsa Épe ko kolao hOM. ye das rupye ke kele h´~. these ten rupees of bananas are These bananas cost ten rupees.

Source, origin, or cause p`omacaMd ko ]pnyaasa yahaÐ nahIM hOM. 8. premcand ke upnya:s yahã: nahĩ: h´~. Premchand’s novels here neg are The novels of Premchand are not available here. 9. [sa poD, ko fla maIzo hOM. is per ke phal mi:the h´~. this tree gen fruit sweet are The fruit of this tree is delicious.

Subject (doer of an act) 10. QaaobaI ka kama AcCa hO. dhobi: ka: ka:m accha: h´. washerman gen work good is The washerman’s work is good. Object (of an activity) 11. ]sako baccaaoM kI iSaxaa AcCI hO. uske baccõ ki: šikša: acchi: h´. his children-obl of education good is The education of the children is good. 12. ]sako pasa dvaa[- ka Kcaa- nahIM hO. uske pa:s dava:i: ka: kharca: nahĩ: h´. he-gen near medicine-gen expenses neg is He doesn’t have money to pay for medicine.

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3. MORPHOLOGY Part of a whole 13. yah kagaja, ka TukD,a hO. yeh ka:gaz ka: tukra: h´. this paper gen piece is This is a piece of paper. 14. yah [sa poD, kI SaaK hO. yeh is per ki: ša:kh h´. it this tree-gen branch-fs is It is the branch of this tree.

Purpose 14. pInao ka panaI saaf, hO. pi:ne ka: pa:ni: sa:f h´. drink-obl gen water clean is The drinking water is clean. Characteristics 15. dUQa kI imazasa AcCI hO. du:dh ki: mitha:s acchi: h´. milk gen sweetness good is The milk is sweet. 3.1.2.7. Compound Postpositions Compound postpositions are formed by combining the postpositions ko ke, kI ki:, and saose with other words in certain set phrases as follows. (i) ko ke ko Alaavaa/Aitir@t ko Anausaar ko AMdr ko Aagao ko Aarpar ko Aasapasa ko baad/]praMt/pScaat ko par ko karNa ko d\vaara/haqa ke ala:va:/atirikt ke anusa:r ke andar ke a:ge ke a:rpa:r ke a:spa:s ke ba:d/uprã:nt/pašca:t ke pa:r ke ka:ran ke dwa:ra:/ha:th
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in addition to according to inside in front of through near about afterwards across because of through

3. MORPHOLOGY ko pasa/inakT/naja,dIk/samaIp ko }pr ko pUvako p`it ko p`itkUla/ivaÉw/ivaprIt ko ibanaa isavaa/bagaOr ko badlao ko barabar/samaana ko baahr ko baIca/maQya ko lagaBaga ko ilae/vaasto ko yaaogya/laayak ko samaot/saaqa ko saamanao ko maukabalao (maoM) ko yahaÐ/haÐ (ii) kI ki: kI Aaor/trf kI Apoxaa kI trh/BaaÐit kI jagah (iii) sao se sao baahr se ba:har out of sao phlao se pahle before The compound postpositions are employed to express various semantic expressions in combination with other elements. There are, however, alternate ways of expression possible where postpositions are not used. Examples of the usage of various semantic expressions are given below. Cause is expressed either by the (i) postposition sao se; or by the (ii) compound forms ko karNa ke ka:ran ‘for the reason of,’ and rkI Aaor ki: or ‘side.’
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ke pa:s/nikat/nazdi:k/sami:p ke upar ke pu:rv ke prati ke pratiku:l/virudh/vipri:t ke bina:/siva:/bag´r ke badle ke bara:bar/sama:n ke ba:har ke bi:c/madhya ke lagbhag ke liye/va:ste ke yogya/la:yak ke samet/sa:th ke sa:mne ke muka:ble (mẽ) ke yahã:/hã:

near above before for, toward against without in place of equal outside of inside of about for appropriate along with in front of comparison to at some place

ki: or/taraf ki: apekša: ki: tarah/bhã:ti ki: jagah

towards in comparison with like in place of

3. MORPHOLOGY 1. baaZ, sao makana igar gayaa. ba:rh se maka:n gir gaya:. flood with house fell The house fell down because of the flood. ]sako karNa mauJaoo nau@saana huAa. uske ka:ran mujhe nuksa:n hua: he-gen-obl reason I-obl loss occurred I had to suffer loss because of him. ]sakI Aaor sao mauJaoo kBaI sauK nahIM imalaa. uski: or se mujhe kabhi: sukh nahĩ: mila:. he-gen-obl side I-dat ever comfort neg got He has never provided comfort to me.

2.

3.

Purpose is expressed by the use of the oblique infinitive verb optionally followed by the postposition ko ilae ke liye ‘for.’ 4. vah sabja,I laonao (ko ilae) baaja,ar gayaa. vah sabzi: lene (ke liye) ba:za:r gaya:. he vegetables bring-inf-obl for market went He went to the market to buy vegetables.

Function is expressed by the genitive postpositional phrase - kI trh ki: tarah ‘like.’ 5. vah Cato kao saaoTI kI trh [istmaala krta hO. vah cha:te ko soti: ki: tarah istima:l karta: h´. he is umbrella-obl dat stick-gen like use do-pr is He uses an umbrella like a stick.

Reference is denoted by the postpositional expression ko baaro maoM ke ba:re mẽ ‘about.’ 6. ]sanao mauJao Apnao baccaaoM ko baaro maoM kha. usne mujhe apne baccõ ke ba:re mẽ kaha:. he-erg me self’s children-dat about said He told me about his children.

59

’ Numerals and quantifiers occur after the noun marked maoM sao mẽ se. Value is expressed by the genitive or it can be denoted by the expressions kI kImat ki: ki:mat. [sa kmaIja. four are in Kashmir.3. ra:ja: ek bhikha:ri: ke bhes/ru:p mẽ nikla:. tumho [sako baaro maoM kaoiSaSa krnaI caaihe. uske vidya:rthiyõ mẽ se ca:r kašmi:r mẽ h´~. or ka maUlya ka: mu:ly ‘the price of X’ which precedes the value expression. 9.’ 60 . king one beggar-gen-obl in set out The king went out in the disguise of a beggar. you-obl this-gen-obl for effort do-inf-fs should You should make efforts in this regard. baImaar haonao ko baavajaUd vah kaya-alaya Aayaa. 10. The compound postposition ko $p/Baosa maoM ke ru:p/bhes mẽ expresses the meaning ‘in the form of. The compound postposition maoM sao mẽ se is used to express the sense of ‘among/out of’. The compound postposition ko baavajaUd ke ba:vaju:d is used to express the meaning of ‘despite of. this shirt-gen price three hundred rupees is The price of this shirt is three hundred rupees.’ 8. ]sako ivaQyaaiqa-yaaoM maoM sao caar kSmaIr maoM hOM. he-gen-obl students-obl from four Kashmir-abl in are Among his students.’ 11. raajaa ek iBaKarI ko Baosa / $p maoM inaklaa. tumhe iske ba:re mẽ košiš karni: ca:hiye. MORPHOLOGY 7. Inclusion is expressed by the compound postposition ko samaot ke samet/saaqa sa:th ‘including. is kami:z ki: ki:mat ti:n sø rupye h´~. bi:ma:r hone ke ba:vaju:d vah ka:rya:lay a:ya: sick be-inf-obl despite he office came He came to the office despite being sick. kI kImat tIna saaO Épe hOM.

basa gaaÐva (ko baIca) maoM sao gauja.r qao. maaohna ko saaqa ³saaqa´/Alaavaa ]maa BaI Aa[-.’ 16.’ 14. bas ga:ũ: (ke bi:c) mẽ se guzarti: h´ bus village-abl through passes-pr is The bus passes through the village. Aapkao imalaakr hma dsa sadsya hOM.’ 15. 13.3.r qao.’ (ko baIca ke bi:c) maoM sao mẽ se ‘motion through. Amar ko ibanaa/ bagaOr saaro ]pisqat /haija.rtI hO. mohan ke sa:th (sa:th)/ala:va: uma: bhi: a:yi: Mohan-gen with /besides Uma too came In addition to Mohan.’ or by ko Aitir@t ke atirikt/ Alaavaa ala:va: ‘in addition to. including you. were absent. . a:pko mila:kar ham das sadasy h´~. Aapko samaot saaro Anaupisqat/ gaOrhaija. including you. a:pke samet sa:re anupasthit/g´rha:zir the. vah ga:ũ: ki: or cala: he village towards set out He set out towards the village. you-dat include-cp we ten members are We are ten members. vah gaaÐva kI Aaor calaa. Addition is expressed either by the use of the comitative compound postposition ko saaqa ke sa:th ‘with/ along with. you-gen including all absent were All. amar ke bina:/bag´r sa:re upasthit/ha:zir the Amar-gen without all present were All. excluding/except Amar. Uma came too. MORPHOLOGY 12. Exclusion is expressed by the dative postpositions ko ibanaa ke bina:/ bagaOr bag´r ‘without. Locational semantic functions are generally marked by the postpositions kI Aaor ki: or ‘motion to. 61 17. were present.

bacca: kamre ke bi:c mẽ se nikla:. vah daphtar ke nazdi:k tak pahũca:. 21. baccaa kmaro ko baIca maoM sao inaklaa.nahIM rhta hO. [sa makana maoM/ko AMdr kao[. Exterior location is denoted by the postposition ko ke/ sao se baahr ba:har ‘outside of. 19.dIk nazdi:k/ krIba kari:b ‘near.’ 23.dIk tk phuÐcaa.’ 18. this house inside anyone neg live-pr is No one lives inside this house. bacce ki: a:va:z ghar ke kari:b se a:yi:.3. he office near up to reached He reached up to/ near the house. Interior location is expressed by ko AMdr ke andar/ maoM mẽ ‘inside of. house near shop is The shop is near the house. he village outside live-pr is He lives outside the village. vah gaaÐva ko baahr rhta hO. 62 . child-obl gen voice house-gen near from came The child’s voice came from near the house. makana ko inakT/naja. child room-abl from came out The child came out of the house. 20. 22. baccao kI Aavaaja. is maka:n mẽ/ke andar koi: nahĩ: rahta: h´.tr ko naja.dIk dukana hO. vah ga:ũ: ke ba:har rahta: h´. vah dF. Gar ko krIba sao Aa[-.’or ko baIca maoM sao ke bi:c mẽ se ‘from inside’ preceded by the oblique case suffixes. maka:n ke nikat /nazdi:k duka:n h´. MORPHOLOGY The approximate location is expressed by ko inakT ke nikat/ naja.

school-gen behind one shop is There is a shop behind the school. . ivaQyaalaya ko pICo ek dukana hO. dukana ko saamanao tk saD. ivaQyaalaya ko saamanao ek baaga hO. vidhya:lay ke sa:mne ek ba:g h´. 63 29. duka:n ke sa:mne se bas nikalti: h´.’ dukana ko saamanao sao basa inaklatI hO. aspata:l ke pi:che tak bas a:ti: h´ hospital-gen behind-obl up to bus come-ptc is The bus comes up to the back side of the hospital. Posterior location is denoted by ko pICo ke pi:che ‘behind. bas aspata:l ke pi:che se ja:ti: h´ bus hospital-gen behind-obl from go-ptc is A bus runs at the back of the hospital. 26. vah kamre se ba:har nikla:. basa Asptala ko pIC sao jaatI hO.3. 28. vah kmaro sao baahr inaklaa. shop-gen in front-obl up to road is A road is built up to the front of the shop. duka:n ke sa:mne tak sarak h´. 30. Anterior location is expressed by the postposition ko saamanao ke sa:mne ‘in front of. Asptala ko pIC tk basa AatI hO.’ It may also be followed by other postpositions like sao se ‘from.k hO. MORPHOLOGY 24. vidhya:lay ke pi:che ek duka:n h´.’ 25. 27.’or tk tak ‘up to. shop-gen front-obl from bus start-ptc is A bus starts in front of the shop. he room-obl outside set out He came out of the room. school in front of a garden is There is a garden in front of the school.

dIvaar ko naIcao tk panaI hO. They are indicated by the postposition naIcao ni:ce ‘under. zami:n ke ni:ce pa:ni: nikla:.’ preceded by the oblique case suffixes added to the nouns.to hOM.maIna ko naIcao sao panaI calata hO.3. 32. Lateral and lateral-contact locations are expressed by the postpositions ko pasa ke pa:s/ko saaqa sa:th ‘in the company of/besides. maka:n ke u:par se pakši: urte h´~.’ 35. below. Amar ]maa ko pasaÀsaaqa baOza. zami:n ke ni:ce se pa:ni: calta: h´. 64 .’ naIcao sao ni:ce se ‘from under’and naIcao tk ni:ce tak ‘up to under’ preceded by the case suffixes added to nouns. makana ko }pr sao pxaI ]D. amar uma: ke pa:s/sa:th b´tha: Amar Uma near sat Amar sat near Uma.maIna ko naIcao panaI inaklaa. ground-obl under water came out Water appeared from under the ground. ‘above. 33. MORPHOLOGY Superior location is denoted by the use of the postpositions }pr (sao) u:par (se). house-gen above from birds fly-ptc are The birds fly above the (top of the) house. wall-obl under upto water is Water is underneath the wall. ja. ground-obl under from water flow-pr is Water is passing through under the ground. Citerior location is expressed by kI Aaor ki: or ‘towards’ preceded by the proximate demonstrative [sa is ‘this’in the oblique case. di:va:r ke ni:ce tak pa:ni: h´. It is also denoted by the term [sa Aaor is or ‘this side’ which does not take a separate proximate demonstrative. 34. 31. Interior and interior-contact locations are not distinguished. ja.

’ ko baIca sao ke bi:c se ‘through the middle. uski: duka:n sarak ke is or h´. maora Gar baaja. 41.k ko [sa Aaor hO.ar ko baIca maoM hO. yah duka:n do sarkõ ke bi:c mẽ h´. 39.kaoM ko baIca maoM hO. sarak ke us or naye maka:n bane h´~. road that side abundant population is There is a large population on the other side of the road.’ It can also be denoted by the use of ]sa par us pa:r ‘on the other side. this shop two roads-obl middle is This shop is between the two roads. road-obl that-obl side new houses constructed are New houses are constructed on that side of the road. saD. his shop road-obl this side His house is on this side of the road.k ko ]sa par kafI AabaadI hO.’ 38. mera: ghar ba:za:r ke bi:c mẽ h´. Medial location is expressed by the terms ko baIca maoM ke bi:c mẽ ‘in the middle. nadI ko [sa Aaor iktnao baccao hOM? nadi: ke is or kitne bacce h´? river this side how many children are How many children are there on this side of the river? 37.’ 40.’ ko BaItr ke bhi:tar ‘inside.3. sarak ke us pa:r kaphi: a:ba:di: h´. ]sakI dukana saD. MORPHOLOGY 36.’ or ko drimayaana/maQya maoM ke darmia:n/madhy mẽ ‘in the middle. my house market middle in is My house is in the middle of the market. Ulterior location is expressed by kI Aaor ki: or ‘side’ preceded by the remote demonstrative ]sa us ‘that.k ko ]sa Aaor nae makana banao hOM. 65 . saD. yah dukana dao saD.’ ko baIca tk ke bi:c tak ‘up to the middle of.

46. Circumferential location is denoted by adding ko [d. police bank all sides standing is The police are standing on all the sides of the bank. village middle is one mosque is There is a mosque in the middle of the village. village middle through one stream flow-ptc is A stream passes through the village. Amar caaor ko saamanao KD.I hO. Amar thief-gen front-obl standing was Amar was standing in front of the thief. 66 . gaaÐva ko baIca tk panaI phuÐcata hO.ke ird gird ‘around. 43. Citerior-anterior location is expressed by saamanao sa:mne ‘in front of’preceded by the subject nouns in oblique case. pulaIsa baOMk ko caaraoM trf KD. this-obl garden around/four sides one wall is There is a wall around this garden. 44.3.igad-ÀcaaraoM Aaor ek dIvaar hO. village center up to water reach-ptc is Water reaches up to the center of the village. gaaÐva ko drimayaana ek maisjad hO.’ 47. gaaÐva ko baIca maoM sao ek nadI bahtI hO. ga:ũ: ke bi:c tak pa:ni: pahũcta: h´.’ ko caaraoM Aaor ke ca:rõ or ‘on all sides’ preceded by the oblique forms of subject nouns. amar cor ke sa:mne khara: tha:. 45.a hO. ga:ũ: ke bi:c mẽ se ek nadi: bahti: h´. puli:s bank ke ca:rõ tarph khari: h´. ga:ũ: ke darmiya:n ek masjid h´. is ba:g ke ird gird/ca:rõ or ek di:va:r h´.igad. The expression ko saamanao sao ke sa:mne se is used to denote ‘in the opposite direction. [sa baaga ko [d. MORPHOLOGY 42.

he policeman-gen front-obl from passed He passed in front of the policeman.’ The expression naak ko saIQa maoM na:k ke si:dh mẽ ‘straight in the direction of nose’ is used to denote the directional locative ‘straight ahead. tola laMbaI pa[p sao karKanao tk phuÐcata hO. sarak ke a:khir par si:dhe da:ĩ: or niklo. The directional postposition kI Aaor ki: or ‘towards’ is added to the above terms of directional locatives to indicate the meaning of ‘toward north/south/east/west. tel lambi: payip se ka:rxa:ne tak pahũcta: h´. vah pulisva:la: ke sa:mne se guzra:. 49.ra.’ 67 . 52. MORPHOLOGY 48. go straight towards the right. oil long-fs pipe through factory-obl up to reach-ptc is Oil reaches the factory through the long pipe. go straight towards the left.k ko AaiKr pr saIQao da[-M Aaor inaklaao. saD. bridge cross-cp left towards go-imp After crossing the bridge. pul pa:r karke ba:ĩ: or ja:na:. Motion past an object at right and left angles to it is expressed using phrases such as da[-M Aaor da:ĩ: or ‘on the right-hand side’ and baa[-M Aaor baĩ: or ‘on the left-hand side.3. Motion past an object at some distance is expressed by ko baIca maoM saoo ke bi:c mẽ se ‘past/through in(side)’ preceded by the noun in the oblique case. bha:rat ke uttar/dakšin/pu:rv/pascim mẽ møsim thi:kh h´ India-gen north/south/east/west in climate good is The climate is good in the north/south/east/west of India. pula par krko baa[-M Aaor jaanaa. vah puilasavaalaa ko saamanao sao gauja. Baart ko ]<arÀdixaNaÀpUva-ÀpiScama maoM maaOsama zIk hOo. Other directional locatives are exemplified as follows. road-gen end at straight right hand side go-imp At the end of this road. 51.’ 50.

MORPHOLOGY 53. 3. vah ghar mẽ hi: raha:.3. and inar nir-.1.Ap ap-. Noun Derivation A large number of nouns in Hindi are derived from nouns.o pr hI dI. bar bar-. you nose-gen straight in walk Walk straight ahead. Directional/locational precision is expressed by adding the emphatic particle . ]sanao mauJao saUcanaa drvaaja. The most common prefixes are: bao be-. 55. naa na:.(Persian) without SamabaoSamašarm shame bešarm shameless [-maana i:ma:n faith bao[-maana bei:ma:n dishonest matlaba matlab meaning baomatlaba bematlab meaningless 68 . ku ku-. dur dur-. he home inside-emp remained He stayed right inside the house. adjectives.1. tum na:k ke si:dh mẽ calo.3. In this process certain morphophonemic changes take place. and verbs by using prefixes and suffixes. Nouns from Nouns Mostly Persian and Sanskrit prefixes and suffixes are used with the nouns of Persian and Sanskrit origin respectively. bao be.1. 54.hI hi: to the locative expression.3. 3. tuma naak ko saIQa maoM calaao. usne mujhe su:cna: darva:ze par hi: di: he-erg me message door-at-emp gave He conveyed the message to me right at the door. bad bad-. Some of these are used with native words. vah Gar maoM hI rha.

-gar -gar.at za:t character badza:t bad character bar bar. and -dana -da:n.(Persian) bad tmaIja.dar da:r (Persian) owner dukana duka:n shop dukanadar duka:nda:r shopkeeper ja. -bMad -band.maInadar zami:nda:r landlord gar -gar (Persian) with saaoda soda: items saaodagar soda:gar merchant jaadU ja:du: magic jaadUgar ja:du:gar magician 69 . badtami:z mannerless imaja.(Sanskrit) bad kmakarm deed bad deed kukma.(Sanskrit) opposite maana ma:n honor Apmaana apma:n dishonor Sabd šabd word ApSabd apšabd bad words dur dur.3.kukarm paoSana pošan nutrition kupaoSana kupošan malnutrition inar nir. tami:z manner badtmaIja.(Sanskrit) without Aadr a:dar respect inaradr nira:dar disrespect daoSa doš fault innocent inadao-Sa nirdoš The most common suffixes are -dar -da:r.aja badmiza:j bad temperament ja.aja miza:j temperament badimaja. .(Persian) on va@t vakt time barva@t barvakt on time naa na:.at badja.(Sanskrit) bad dSaa daša: condition dud-Saa durdaša: bad condition gait gati: position duga-it durgati: bad position ku ku. MORPHOLOGY bad bad.maIna zami:n land dja.(Persian) not psaMd pasand like naapsaMd na:pasand dislike Ap ap.

mota:i: K.uSaI xuši: garmaI garmi: garIbaI gari:bi: sadI.a[. MORPHOLOGY -baMd band (Persian) bound kmar kamar waist kmarbaMd kamarband belt ibastr bistar bed ibastrbaMd bistarband hold-all -dcaI ci: (Persian) with K. -pan. -ta -ta:.ja.cøra:i: naokI neki: saccaa[.-i: kmaja. Nouns from Adjectives The most productive suffixes used for deriving abstract nouns from adjectives are -[.aorI kamzori: K.raba xara:b saaf sa:f }Ðcaa ũ:ca: caaOD.anaa kha:na: (Persian) house work karK.uSa xuš garma garam garIba gari:b sad. -[yat -iyat.-a:i:.sardi: maaoTa[.3.safa:i: }Ðcaa[.-i:.Ima afi:m -dana da:n (Persian) container klama kalam pen klamadana kalamda:n penholder raoSana rošan light raoSanadana rošanda:n window -K.anaa xaza:na: treasure K.aor kamzor K. -Aa[.1.2.ja.sacca:i: imaza[.anacaI xaza:anci: cashier Af.ũ:ca:i: caaOD.a cøra: naok nek saccaa sacca: maIza mi:tha: weak happy hot poor cold fat bad clean high wide noble true sweet weakness happiness heat poverty coldness thickness defect cleanliness height width nobility truth sweets kmaja.rabaI xara:bi: safa[.sard maaoTa mota: K.mitha:i: 70 .ImacaI afi:mci: opium opium addict Af. -Aasa -a:s.anaa ka:rxa:na: factory kar ka:r Saraba šara:b liquor SarabaKanaa šara:bxa:na: bar 3.3. -[.

parha:i: kmaa[.3.kama:i: saunaa[. parh kmaa kama: sauna sun climb study earn listen caZ.naa parhna: coming bringing writing reading 71 . MORPHOLOGY -ta -ta: maUK.Aasa -a:s maIzaa mi:tha: sweet imazasa mitha:s sweetness 3.-a:i: caZ.-i:. Nouns from Verbs The suffix -naa -na: is used to derive gerundive nouns from verb stems.suna:i: climbing studies earning hearing -[yat -iyat AsalaI asli: real Asailayat asliyat reality special Kaisayat xa:siyat specialty Kasa xa:s .3.1. The suffixes -Asa -as.a[.a[. and -2 are also used to derive abstract nouns from verb stems. parh come bring write read Aanaa a:na: laanaa la:na: ilaKnaa likhna: pZ.carha:i: pZ. -vat -vat. carh pZ. -[. -Ana -an.3. -naa -na: Aa a: laa la: ilaK likh pZ.mu:rkh piva~ pavitr ivaSaoYa višeš ivaSaala viša:l sauMdr sundar samaana sama:n gaMBaIr gambhi:r stupid pure special large beauty equal serious maUK-ta mu:rkhta: piva~ta pavitarta: ivaSaoYata višešta: ivaSaalata viša:lta: sauMdrta sundarta: samaanata sama:nta: gaMBaIrta gambhi:rta: stupidity purity specialty largeness beautiful equality seriousness -pna -pan raw rawness kccaa kacca: kccaapna kacca:pan kmaInaa kami:na: mean kmaInaapna kami:na:pan meanness mad pagalapna pa:galpan madness pagala pa:gal -Aa[.

kharc Kola khel samaJa samajh saaoca soc print cheat run beat turn produce be defeated spend play understand think Caap cha:p zga thag daOD.-i: jaaoD. dør maar ma:r maaoD.likha:i: pZa[.kharc Kola khel samaJa samajh saaoca soc printing cheat race beating turning point product defeat expenditure play understanding thinking 3. A postposition is attached to the final member of the compound.3. mor ]pja upaj har ha:r Kca. The first member may be a noun.Ana -an QaD. parh add quarrel write read jaaoD. dør maar ma:r maaoD. MORPHOLOGY .parha:i: a pair dispute writing studies -vaT -vat banaa bana: make banaavaT bana:vat shape decoration sajaa saja: decorate sajaavaT saja:vat qak thak be tired qakavaT thaka:vat tiredness -2 Cap cha:p zga thag daOD. which is a final member of the group.k dharak throb QaD.lara:i: ilaKa[. an adjective.I jori: laD. Noun Compounds Compounds belonging to the noun category are headed by a noun. mor ]pja upaj har ha:r Kca. 72 .[. gender and case.kna dharhkan throbbing attach plagana lagan devotion plaga lag .a[.1. jor laD. or a participle and may be declined for number. lar ilaK likh pZ.4.

4.1. maata ipta ma:ta: pita: Baa[.4. complex compounds. Members of some compounds occur in a fixed order.4. Reduplicated Compounds Reduplicated compounds express exhaustive meaning.1. also known as an echo-compound. Noun-Noun Compounds Noun-noun compounds can be divided into several subgroups based on semantic criteria: copulative compounds. The compounds usually represent the meaning of similar or associative things. the second member is formed by changing the initial letter of the first member. hybrid compounds.4. also known as co-compounds.3. all other initial consonants or vowels are replaced by va /v/ or Sa /š/. partial duplicated compounds. (house-house) every house Gar Gar ghar ghar every child baccaa baccaa bacca: bacca: (child-child) (penny-penny) every penny pOsaa pOsaa p´sa: p´sa: 3. 73 . Each noun behaves as an independent constituent in the sense that each may be separately inflected for gender and number. genitive-noun compound.1. and participial compounds. An initial va /v/ is changed into Sa /š/ or pa /p/. MORPHOLOGY 3.1. Copulative Compounds Copulative compounds.3. superordinate compounds. Partially Duplicated Compounds In a partial duplicated compound.1.baihna bha:i: bahan sauK duK sukh dukh pap punya pa:p puny }Ðca naIca ũ:c ni:c mother and father brother and sister happiness and sorrow sin and good deeds high and low *pita: ma:ta: ?bahan bha:i: dukh sukh *puny pa:p *ni:c ũ:c 3. are composed of semantically-related nouns. 3.2. though not for a postposition.4. The meaning of the ompound extends beyond the meaning of their members.

tna mana Qana tan man dhan (body-mind-money) devotion 3. Hybrid Compounds In hybrid compounds. MORPHOLOGY vaanar Saanar va:nar ša:nar vaada Saada va:da: ša:da: vaaoT SaaoT vot šot kama Saama/vaama ka:m ša:m/va:m khanaI vaanaI/SaanaI kaha:ni: va:ni:/šahni: dUQa SaUQa du:dh šu:dh panaI vaanaI/SaanaI pa:ni: va:ni:/ša:ni: monkey and the like promise and the like vote and the like work and the like story and the like milk and the like water and the like 3. Complex Compounds Complex compounds involving three or more nouns are not very common in Hindi.1.1.5.3.4.4.4.4.1.7.8. There are no single terms for them. Dbala raoTI dabal roti: (double-bread ) bread (tracks-vehicle) train rola gaaD. Superordinate Compounds In this type of compound. the meaning projected by the members does not in any way relate to the meaning of the compound as a whole. haqa paMva ha:th pa:ũ: Kanaa pInaa kha:na: pi:na: jala vaayaU jal va:yu caaya panaI ca:y pa:ni: (hand-feet) (eating-drinking) (water-air) (tea-water) body lifestyle climate refreshment 3.6.1. Adjective-Noun Compounds A large number of compounds are composed of an adjective followed by a noun. one member is usually borrowed from another language and the second member is a Hindi noun. 74 .I rel ga:ri: 3.

3.ka:li: mirc CaoTI [laayacaI choti: ila:yci: (small cardamom) cardamom 3. Broadly.2. vao laaoga ve log. possessive. demonstrative.4.9. bullock cart baOla gaaD. 75 .I b´l ga:ri: (bull-vehicle) gaMgaa jala gaηa: jal (Ganges-water) water of Ganges 3.3. In the polite speech. Pronouns in the direct and oblique cases are presented below. relative. Modifier-Noun Compounds In modifier-noun compounds. tuma laaoga tum log. interrogative. The term laaoga log may be attached to a plural pronoun for defining or emphasizing plurality: Aap laaoga a:p log. it is occasionally used for a person spoken about in place of yao ye.1.1. and indefinite. yao laaoga ye log. Personal Pronouns Case Person Direct 1st 2nd (sg) (hon sg/pl) 3rd prox rem Sg maOM tU Aap yah vah mẽ tu a:p yah vah Pl hma tuma Aap yao vao ham tum a:p ye ve Note that the personal pronoun Aap a:p is used as an honorific form of address for both singular and plural subjects. Pronouns Pronouns are inflected for number and case. reflexive. hma laaoga ham log. MORPHOLOGY (black-pepper) pepper kalaI imaca. the first member acts like a modifier or source and the second member is a noun. there are seven classes of pronouns in Hindi: personal.2.

MORPHOLOGY Case Person Dative kao ko 1st 2nd 3rd prox rem Ergative nao ne 1st 2nd 3rd prox rem Locative pr par 1st 2nd 3rd prox rem Ablative sao se 1st 2nd 3rd prox rem Sg mauJao mujhe/ mauJakao mujhko tumho tumhe/tumakao tumko Aapkaoo a:pko [sao ise/[sakao isko ]sao use/]nakao unko Pl hmaoM hamẽ/ hmakao hamko tumhoM tumhẽ/tumakao tumko Aapkaoo a:pko [nhoM inhẽ/[nakao inko ]nhoMunhẽ/]nakao unko maOMnao m´~ne tUnao tu:ne Aapnao a:pne [sanao isne ]sanao usne hmanao hamne tumanao tumne Aapnao a:pne [nhaoMnao inhõne ]nhaoMnao unhõne mauJapr mujhpar tuJapr tujhpar Aappr a:ppar [sapr ispar ]sapr uspar hmapr hampar tumapr tumpar Aappr a:ppar [napr inpar ]napr unpar mauJasao mujhse tumasao tum se Aapsao a:pse [sasao isse ]sasao usse hmasao hamse tumasao tumse Aapsao a:pse [nasao inse ]nasao un se Possessive / Genitive ka ka:/ ko ke/kI ki 1st maora mera: nd 2 tora tera: Aapka a:pka: 3rd prox [saka iska: rem ]saka uska: hmaara hama:ra: tumhara tumha:ra: Aapka a:pka: ]saka uska: ]naka unka: 76 .3.

2.laanaa fala:na:. MORPHOLOGY 3. The oblique form 77 .2. There are two additional pronouns which are used in the sense of ‘so and so’ to refer to third person subjects: Amauk amuk and f. The oblique forms of the relative pronoun used along with the case-signs are as follows. which.3. Relative Pronouns Hindi has one relative pronoun: jaao jo ‘who. it is used in proverbs and sayings.laaM falã:/ f. 3. and a compound form of these two.2. Reflexive Pronouns Reflexive pronouns substitute and refer to a noun or pronoun which is the logical subject of the sentence.2. Singular ijasa jis/ijasanao jisne ijasakao jisko/ijasao jise ijasasao jis se Plural ijana jin/ijaMhaoMnao jinhõne ijanakao jinko/ijaMhoM jinhẽ ijanasao jin se 3. The term laaoga log may be added to jaao jo to indicate or emphasize plurality: jaao laaoga jo log. Hindi has three reflexive pronouns: Aap a:p. that. The correlative form saao so ‘he. they’ is now obsolete. Apnao Aap apne-a:p. It is accompanied with vah vah in the main sentence called correlative of jaao jo.3. its oblique forms Apnaa apna: and Apnao apne. Demonstrative Pronouns Direct/Nominative Case Sg Pl prox yah yeh yao ye rem vah vah vao ve Oblique Case kao ko/maOM mẽ/pr par/ka ka:/ko ke/kI ki:/ Asao se Sg Pl prox [sa is [na in rem ]sa us ]na un Note that the demonstrative pronouns are also used as personal pronouns of the third person. what’ in both the singular and plural.4.

and pr par. there are two basic interrogative pronouns: kaOna køn ‘who’(referring to person) and @yaa kya: ‘what’(referring to things). køn a:ya:. MORPHOLOGY Aapsa a:pas means ‘each other’ or ‘one another. It is also used for denoting the interrogative nature of the sentence. kaOna Aayaa¸ kao[. vah Aap hIÀApnao Aap Gar gayaa. 2.’ 1. The interrogative pronoun @yaa kya: is a neutral form.2.’ The reflexive pronoun Aap a:p is also substituted by the Sanskrit borrowed term svayaM svayam or Persian-borrowed term K. Apnao Aap apne-a:p can either be used in an emphatic sense or in the adverbial meaning of ‘of one’s own accord. sao se. maoM mẽ. 3.nahIM jaanata. @yaa sauMdr baaga hO! kya: sundar ba:g h´! what beautiful garden is What a beautiful garden! 78 . Note that kaOna køn and @yaa kya: can be used as relative pronouns too.’ Similarly.5. It can also be used as an adverb in the meaning ‘of one’s own accord. Note that the oblique forms of Apnao apne and Apnao Aap apne-a:p (except when adverbial) mean ‘oneself’ with the casesigns/postpositions kaoo ko. The reflexive pronoun Aap a:p optionally followed by the emphatic form hI hi: has an adjectival meaning. Interrogative Pronouns In both singular and plural. 3.3.ud khud in Sanskritized and Persianized styles respectively. koyi: nahĩ: ja:nta: who came no one neg knows Nobody knows who came. spontaneously. vah a:p hi: / apne-a:p ghar gaya: he himself emp home went He himself went home. The interrogative pronoun @yaa kya: is also used as an exclamatory adjective.

partly.’ 3. and saao so change to [sa is. (What a girl! Just like a delicate flower. a few.koi: Pl yao ye vao ve jaao jo saao so kao[. Oblique Forms of Pronouns Whereas the same case-signs namely nao ne.7. kaOna køn and @yaa kya: change to iksa kis. Indefinite Pronouns There are two indefinite pronouns in Hindi: kao[.koi: may also be used as the plural form to indicate ‘some people.kI @yaa hO¸ naaja.’ kOsaa kaisa: ‘how. kao ko.3. MORPHOLOGY It is also used as an emphatic negation. except before nao ne. kao[. a little. about. 4.’ Similarly. somebody’and kuC kuch ‘something.’ 3. it is a delicate flower. and kuC kuch changes to iksaI kisi:. in some cases the oblique forms of pronouns are formed differently.’ iktnaa kitna: ‘how much.2. larki: kya: h´. na:zuk phu:l h´. kao[. laD.’ It can refer to ‘something’ if used with -saa -sa:/-saI -si: = kao[. pr par and ka ka: are attached to pronouns as they are attached to nouns.’ kuC kuch is also used as an adjective (numeral and quantitative) and as an adverb meaning ‘some.saa koi: sa:/ kao[. these 79 . k sao se.6.’ kaOnasaa kønsa: ‘which one.uk fUla hO.koi: Oblique Sg [sa is ]sa us ijasa jis itsa tis iksaI kisi: Pl [na in ]na un ijana jin itna tin ikMhIM kinhĩ: Note that (i) when the case-signs are added the singular forms yah yeh.2. ]sa us.koi: ‘someone. jaao jo. girl what is delicate flower is It is not a girl.) Interrogative adverbial forms related to these pronouns are: kba kab ‘when. (ii) In the plural.saI koi: si:.koi: can be used as an adverb in the sense of ‘some. vah vah. Direct Sg yah yeh vah vah jaao jo saao so kao[. maOM mẽ. ijasa jis and itsa tis respectively.

8. [nhoM inhẽ /[nakao inko. maoM mẽ. (vi) The pronouns hma ham and tuma tum remain unchanged before all case-signs: hmakao hamko. They change to the following forms agreeing with the object noun in gender and number. ]na un. MORPHOLOGY change to [na in. tUnao tu:ne). (iv) maOM m´~ and tU tu: remain unchanged before nao ne: (maOMnao m´~ne. (vii) The postposition ka ka: is not attached to maOM m´~. As pointed out earlier. 3. v) Followed by other case-signs. ]sao se. Note that eoM ẽ or hoM hẽ is not attached to the indefinite pronouns kao[. The following are some important compound pronouns. Compound Pronouns Two. not hoM hẽ. the plural oblique forms are: [nhUM inhũ:. or more than two pronouns may be compounded or the same pronoun may be repeated to convey various shades of meanings. nao ne is not added to the reflexive Aap a:p but only to the subject to which Aap a:p refers.jo koi: jaao kuC jo kuch jaao jaao jo jo by oneself by oneself. eoM ẽ is added. tumhoM tumhẽ/tuJao tujhe. tU tu:. ]sao use/]nakao unko. ]nhaoM unhũ:. the reflexive pronoun ]Aap a:p changes to ]Apnao apne before the case signs kao ko.3. In the case of ham. Apnao Aap apne a:p Aap hI Aap a:p hi: a:p jaao kao[.2. For denoting various senses of ka ka:. to oneself who(so)ever what(so)ever whoever/whatever 80 . (iii) Before nao ne. and pr par. Aap a:p changes to Apnaa apna:. ]nhoM unhẽ/]nakao unko. and ikMhIM kinhĩ:. and ApnaI apni:. ijana jin. Apnao apne. iknhaMo kinhũ:. all oblique forms attach an e e in singular and hoM hẽ in plural: [sao ise/[sakao isko.koi: and kuC kuch. itna tin. hmaoM hamẽ/hmakao hamko. Masculine Sg maora mera: tora tera: tumhara tumha:ra: Feminine Pl Sg/Pl maoro maorI meri: toro tere torI teri: tumharo tumha:re tumharI tumha:ri: (viii) As an alternative to kao ko. tuJakao tujhko). and iknhIM kinhĩ:. tumhoM tumhẽ. maOM m´~ and tU tu: change to mauJa mujh and tUJa tujh (mauJakao mujhko. ijanhaMo jinhũ:. ikna kin. and tuma tum.

’ Note that most of these compounds are affected by Sandhi and are modified: mauJa mujh + hI hi: = mauJaI mujhi:. ikna kin + hI hi: = iknhI kinhi:. [sa is + hI hi: = [saI isi:.saa køn sa: kaOna kaOna køn køn @yaa @yaa kya: kya: @yaa sao @yaa kya: se kya: @yaa @yaa kya: … kya: Aapsa maoM kI a:pas mẽ/ki: some.sab koi: hr kao[.3.har koi: kao[.koi: … koi: kuC na kuC kuch na kuch kuC ka kuC kuch ka: kuch saba kuC sab kuch bahut kuC bahut kuch kuC kuC kuch kuch kao[. one another All the pronouns can be combined with the emphatic particle hI hi: like maOM hI m´~ hi: ‘I myself.3. ]na un + hI hi: = ]nhI unhi:. hma ham + hI hi: = hmhI hamhi: .’ kao[. 3. 81 .’ Aap hI a:p hi: ‘you yourself. a little someone else someone else someone else something else. MORPHOLOGY kao[.dUsara koi: du:sra: kuC AaOr kuch ør AaOr kuC ør kuch kuC … kuC kuch … kuch kao[. without difference each other.’ tU hI tu: hi: ‘thou thyself.hI koi: hi: ‘hardly any one. vah vah +hI hi: = vahI vahi:. ]sa us + hI hi: = ]saI usi:.koi: na koi: kao[. everybody someone or the other some … others or one … another something or the other something different from expected everything a great deal somewhat. a little more something else some … some (Conjunctive) anything. something which one which persons. a few (archaic) all. everybody (archaic) all.koi: koi: saba kao[.kao[. ijana jin + hI hi: + ijanhI jinhi:.’ and kuC hI kuch hi: ‘hardly a few.AaOr koi: ør AaOr kao[. tuma tum + hI hi: = tumhI atumhi:. [na in +hI hi: = [nhI inhi:. iksa kis + hI hi: = iksaI kisi:.kao[. tuJa tujh + hI hi: = tuJaI tujhi:.saa koi: sa: kao[. yah yeh + hI hi: = yahI yahi:. which ones which things something contrary to expectations equally. Adjectives Adjectives in Hindi can be classified into two groups: (i) inflected and (ii) uninflected.ør koi: kao[.

I bari: CaoTo chote CaoTI choti: laMbao lambe laMbaI lambi: kalao kale kalaI ka:li: hro hare hrI hari: AcCo acche AcCI acchi: big small tall black green good 3. Masculine Sg baD. Types of Adjectives There are two broad types of adjectives: (i) those that describe a quality or quantity.o bare baD.laD.ka šarmi:la: larka: a bashful boy The adjective SamaI-laa šarmi:la: is derived by adding the suffix . Negative qualities are expressed by a separate set of adjectives and also by adding negative prefixes.a /kmaIja.3. badsaUrt AaOrt bad-su:rat ørat an ugly woman a shameless boy baoSama.3. Uninflected These adjectives are not inflected for number and gender.ka be-šarm larka: 82 .3.a bara: CaoTa chota: laMbaa lamba: kalaa ka:la: hra hara: AcCa accha: Feminine Pl Sg / Pl baD.3. and (ii) those that distinguish one person or thing from another.ka/laD.kI sundar larka: /laṛki: sad man/woman duKI AadmaI /aAaOrt dukhi: admi:/ ørat safod kpD.1.2. Inflected These adjectives are inflected for gender and number. MORPHOLOGY 3. (i) Quality is expressed either by a basic adjective or by an adjective derived from a noun.3.[--laa i:la: to the noun stem. a beautiful girl sauMdr laD. saphed kapra: /kami:z white cloth/shirt 3. beautiful boy/girl sauMdr laD.kI sundar larki: SamaI-laa laD.

’ kma kam ‘less. AiQak sao AiQak kma sao kma AcCo sao AcCa bauro sao baura maIzo sao maIza adhik se adhik kam se kam acche se accha: bure se bura: mi:the se mi: tha: at most at least the best of all worst of all very sweet Almost all pronouns can function as adjectives. dao saaO gaja.are used in the initial position.a thora: ‘a little.’ ve ‘those’ .’ ye ‘these’ vah vah ‘that.’ qaaoD.I ka:fi: ‘sufficient.na vaalaa p%qar. MORPHOLOGY Quantity may be expressed either by numerals or by the adjectives of quantity like bahut bahut / AiQak adhik ‘a lot. laMbaI ³vaalaI´ rssaI. The demonstrative adjectives that point out persons or things yah .’ Co iktabaoM che kita:bẽ six books many people bahut laoga bahut log qaaoD. do sø gaz lambi: (va:li:) rassi: two hundred yards long (gen.ka vao baccao yeh ghar ye kita:bẽ vah larka: ve bacce this house these books that boy those children 83 .a dUQa thora: du:dh a little milk Adjectives of quantity may also be formed by the combination of numeral + unit of measure + (classifier (terms of weight. do kilo vazan va:la: patthar two kilo weight-gen stone the stone weighing two kilograms The postposition sao se is used in the formation of reduplicated adjectival phrases.yeh ‘this.’ kaf. yah Gar yao iktabaoM vah laD.3.) rope the two-hundred-yard long rope dao iklaao vaja. length))/genitive postposition) (+ the particle vaalaa va:la:) + noun.

function as adjectives. For example. kaOna laD. mera:/tera: dost my/your friend maora / tora daost maorI / AapkI baihna meri:/a:pki: bahan my/your sister ]saka / ]naka Baa[. kao[.kI sab se sundar larki: the most beautiful girl Comparative involves comparison between two. Apnao daost sao laMbaa apne dost se lamba: taller than his friend Minimal involves no comparison. Degree of Adjectives There are three varieties of adjectival degrees: superlative. saba sao baD. 84 . Superlative involves comparison with all. comparative and minimal. maora AcCa daost mera: accha: dost my good friend The postposition maoM mẽ is also alternately used to denote the superiority of one out of two or more.3. Superlative and comparative degrees of qualities are denoted with the help of the postposition sao se attached to the noun or pronoun (in oblique form) with which the comparison is made.3.I [maart sab se bari: ima:rat the biggest building saba sao sauMdr laD.AKbaar koi: akhba:r some newspaper kuC saibja. too.4. MORPHOLOGY Interrogative pronouns are used to ask questions.ka? køn laṛka:? which boy? what work? @yaa kama? kya: ka:m? The possessive pronouns particularize or show relation.uska:/unka: bha:i: his/their brother Indefinite and relative pronouns.yaaÐ kuch sabziyã: some vegetables jaao baccaa jo bacca: the child who 3.

3. MORPHOLOGY

daonaaoM maoM baD,a donõ: mẽ bara: bigger of the two saba maoM }Ðcaa sab mẽ ũ:ca: the tallest Sometimes, the phrase kI Apoxaa ki: apekša: ‘in comparison to’ is substituted for sao se. ]maa kI Apoxaa laMbaI uma: ki: apekša: lambi: taller than Uma Notice that words AiQak/j,yaada adhik/zya:da: ‘more’ and kma kam ‘less’ may be prefixed to adjectives for denoting comparison. saaonao sao AiQak camakIlaa fUla sao j,yaada kaomala baIsa sao kma sone se adhik brighter than gold camki:la: phu:l se zya:da: komal more delicate than a flower bi:s se kam less than twenty

3.3.5. Derivation of Adjectives A large number of adjectives are derived from nouns by adding the suffixes -Aa -a:, -[- -i:, -]-u:, -[laa -i:la:, -laU -lu:, -[k -ik, -janak -janak, da[--da:i:, -maya -mai:, -vana -van, -Aanaa -a:na: , -naak -na:k, -[-na -i:n, -maMd mand, and -dar -da:r. -Aa -a: Noun truth saca sac lie JaUz jhu:th BaUK bhu:kh hunger -[- -i: kImat ki:mat sauK sukh naok nek phaD, paha:r Adjective truthful saccaa sacca: liar JaUza jhu:tha: BaUKa bhu:kha: hungry

price comfort good mountain

kImatI ki:mti: sauKI sukhi: naokI neki: phaDI paha:ri:

expensive happy goodness mountainous

-}U -u: stomach poTU petu: voracious poT pet baaja,ar ba:za:r market baaja,a$ ba:za:ru: common
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3. MORPHOLOGY

-[-laa -i:la: rsa ras ja,hr zahar Kca- kharc p%qar patthar

juice poison expense stone

rsaIlaa rasi:la: ja,hrIlaa zahri:la: KcaI-laa kharci:la: p%qarIlaa patthri:la:

juicy poisonous expensive stony

-laU -lu: Eawa šradha: faith EawalaU šradha:lu: devotee kindness dyaalaU daya:lu: kind dyaa daya: -[k -ik society samaaijak sama:jik social samaaja sama:j iva&ana vigya:n science iva&ainak vigya:nik scientific year yearly vaYa- varš vaaiYa-k va:ršik -janak -janak AaSaa a:ša: hope AaSaajanak a:ša:janak hopeful icaMta cinta: worry icaMtajanak cinta:janak worried -da[- -da:i: sauK sukh comfort sauKda[- sukhda:i: comfortable duK dukh pain duKda[- dukhda:i: painful -ma[- -mai: AaSaa a:ša: hope AaSaama[- a:ša:mai: hopeful -vaana -va:n Qana dhan wealth Qanavaana dhanva:n wealthy strength balavaana balva:n strong bala bal -Aanaa -a:na: saala sa:l year saalaanaa sa:la:na: yearly day raoja,anaa roza:na: daily raoja, roz mad- mard man mada-naa marda:na: manly -naak -na:k dd- dard K,aOf, xøf

pain fear

dd-naak dardna:k K,aOf,naak xøfna:k
86

painful frightful

3. MORPHOLOGY K,tra xatra: danger K,trnaak xatarna:k dangerous -[-na -i:n color rMgaIna rangi:n colorful rMga rang namak namak salt namakIna namki:n salty liking SaaOkIna šøki:n fond SaaOk šøk -maMd -mand wisdom A@lamaMd aklmand wise A@la akl daOlat dølat wealth daOlatmaMd dølatmand wealthy -dar -da:r maala ma:l maaladar ma:lda:r ja,maIna zami:n ja,maInadar zami:nda:r dukana duka:n dukanadar duka:nda:r

property wealthy land landlord shop shopkeeper

When saa sa: ‘like’ is attached to the oblique forms of nouns or pronouns, they function as adjectives. flower-like fUla saa phu:l sa: mauJasaa mujh sa:/ tumasaa tum sa: me-like/you-like saa sa: is also attached to adjectives to denote ‘looking, seeming.’ When added to quantitative adjectives, it intensifies the meaning. laala saa la:l sa: baD,a saa bara: sa: dubalaa saa dubla: sa: kmaja,aor saa kamzor sa: }Ðcaa saa ũ:ca: sa: bahut saa bahut sa: qaaoD,a saa thora: sa: red-looking big-looking slim-looking weak-looking high-looking a great deal just a little

The forms of saa sa: (agreeing in number and gender with the noun) are also added to the genitive/possessive forms to denote a similarity of quality, or possession.
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3. MORPHOLOGY

a face like that of a cow gaaya ka saa mauMh ga:y ka: sa: mũh clothes similar to his ]nako sao kpD,o unke se kapre maorI meri:/ torI saI naak teteri: si: na:k a nose like mine/yours saa sa: may be replaced by jaOsaa j´sa: with nouns and pronouns (other than indefinite or interrogative ones.) baMdr saa/jaOsaa bandar sa:/j´sa: similar to a monkey like you tuma saa/jaOsaa tum sa:/j´sa: The forms of saa sa: can be added to kao[- koi: and kaOna køn to indicate ‘any one,’ and ‘which one’ respectively. kao[- saa rMga koi:-sa: raη kao[- saI kmaIja, koi:-si: kami:z kaOna saa kaoT køn-sa: kot kaOna saI kmaIja, køn-si: kami:z 3.3.6. Numerals Numerals are adjectives indicating number. They may by divided into cardinals, ordinals, or multiplicatives. 3.3.6.1. Cardinals Cardinal numeral forms in Hindi are given below. ek tIna paÐca saat naaO gyaarh torh pMd`h sa~h ]nnaIsa [@kIsa ek ti:n pã:c sa:t nav gia:rah terah pandrah satrah unni:s ikki:s 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 dao caar Co Aaz dsa baarh caaOdh saaolah Azarh baIsa baa[-sa
88

any color any shirt which coat which shirt

do ca:r che a:th das ba:rah cødah solah atha:rah bi:s ba:i:s

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22

3. MORPHOLOGY to[-sa pccaIsa sa<aa[-sa ]na<aIsa [k<aIsa tOMtIsa pOMtIsa saOMtIsa ]natalaIsa [ktalaIsa MtOMtaalaIsa pOMtalaIsa saOMtalaIsa ]nacaasa [@yaavana itrpna pcapna satavana ]nasaz [ksaz itrsaz pOMsaz sarsaz ]nah<ar [kh<ar ith<ar pcah<ar sath<ar ]naasaI [@yaasaI itrasaI pcaasaI satasaI navaasaI [@yaanavao itranavao pcaanavao satanavao tei:s pacci:s satta:i:s untti:s ikatti:s t´~nti:s p´~ti:s s´~ti:s unta:li:s ikta:li:s t´~ta:li:s p´~ta:li:s s´~ta:li:s unca:s ikya:van tirpan pacpan sata:van unsath iksath tirsath p´~sath sarsath unahttar ikahttar tehttar pacahttar satahttar una:si: ikya:si: tira:si: paca:si: sata:si: nava:si: ikya:nave tira:nave paca:nave sata:nave 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 caaObaIsa CbbaIsa AT\za[-sa tIsa ba<aIsa caaOMtIsa C<aIsa AD,tIsa caalaIsa bayaalaIsa cavaalaIsa iCyaalaIsa AD,talaIsa pcaasa baavana caaOvana CPpna Azavana saaz baasaz caaOMsaz iCyaasaz AD,saz sa<ar bah<ar caaOh<ar iCh<ar Azh<ar AssaI bayaasaI caaOrasaI iCyaasaI AzasaI nabbao bayaanavao caaOranavao iCyaanavao Azanavao
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cøbi:s chabbi:s attha:i:s ti:s batti:s cønti:s chatti:s arti:s ca:li:s baya:li:s cava:li:s chiya:li:s arta:li:s paca:s ba:van cøvan chappan atha:van sa:th ba:sath cøsath chiya:sath arsath sattar bahttar cøhttar chihttar athahttar assi: baya:si: cøra:si: chiya:si: atha:si: nabbe baya:nave cøra:nave chiya:nave atha:nave

24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98

3. MORPHOLOGY inanyaanavao SaUnya saaO ninya:nave 99 šu:ny zero hja,ar sø haza:r 100 1,000

Starting with one hundred, the numerals proceed regularly. (ek) saaO ek saaO ek ek saaO dao dao saaO dao saaO ek hja,ar dao hja,ar tIna dao hja,ar saat (ek) sø ek sø ek ek sø do do sø do sø ek ek haza:r do haza:r ti:n do haza:r sa:t 100 101 102 200 201 1000 2003 2007

The numerals one thousand and above are as follows. (ek) hja,ar dsa hja,ar laaK dsa laaK kraoD, Arba Krba (ek) haza:r das haza:r la:kh das la:kh karor arab kharab one thousand ten thousand hundred thousand million ten million thousand million (billion) hundred billion

3.3.6.2. Ordinals The first six ordinals are phlaa pahla: ‘first,’ dUsara du:stra: ‘second’; tIsara ti:sra: ‘third’; caaOqaa cøtha: ‘fourth’; paMcavaa pã:cva: ‘fifth’; Cza chatha: ‘sixth.’ The suffix - AaM -ã is added to the cardinals from seven onwards to make ordinals: saatvaaM sa:tvã: ‘seventh’; AazvaaM a:thvã: ‘eighth’; naaOvaaM navã: ‘ninth’; dsavaaM dasvã: ‘tenth’; baIsavaaM bi:svã: ‘twentieth’; tIsavaaM ti:svã: ‘thirteenth’; saaOvaaM søvã: ‘hundredth’; hja,arvaaM haza:rvã: ‘thousandth’ etc. Adjectives of Quantity Nouns denoting measure, and weight preceded by a numeral or by an adjective denoting an indefinite number, such as kao[- koi: or kuC kuch, are used as adjectives of quantity.
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’ C@ka chakka: ‘six.o kpD.I kori: ‘score.’ pMjaa panja: ‘five.o do jore kapre two pairs of clothes tIna dja-na saoba ti:n darjan seb three dozens of apples The saOMkD.a bi:s rupye s´~kra: twenty rupees per hundred 3.o tIna sa:rhe ti:n one quarter one-third half three quarters one and a quarter one and a half two and a half two less by a quarter three less by a quarter three and a half 91 .’ dja-na darjan ‘dozen.’ saOMkD.’ baIsa Épe saOMkD.’ caaOkD.a jora: ‘pair. dao jaaoD.’ baIsaI bi:si:/ kaoD.3.a s´~kra: is also used in the sense of ‘per hundred. ek sahi: ek bate do/derh dao sahI ek baTo dao Z.a cøkra: ‘four.’ They are treated as nouns and may be qualified by the regular numerals.a[do sahi: ek bate do/dha:i: paOnao dao pøne do paOnao tIna pøne ti:n saaZ. Fractions Fractions are expressed as follows: ek bate ca:r/pa:v ek baTo caar/pava (pa:v is used mainly for denoting weights) ek bate ti:n/tiha:i: ek baTo tIna/itha[ek bate do/a:dha: ek baTo dao/AaQaa tIna baTo caar/paOna ti:n bate ca:r/pøn ek sahI ek baTo ek sahi: ek bate caar/saaOvaa ca:r/sava: ek sahI ek baTo dao DoZ. MORPHOLOGY tIna iklaao caavala dao Pyaalao caaya kuC baaotla Sahd k[.iklaao dUQa ti:n kilo ca:val do pya:le ca:y kuch botal šahad kai: kilo du:dh three kilograms of rice two cups of tea some bottles of honey several kilos of milk Collective Adjectives Some regular numerals can be replaced by collective adjectives like jaaoD.a s´~kra: ‘hundred.6.3.3.

’ After this the forms are regular: navagaunaa navguna: ‘ninefold. duganaa dugna: or dUnaa du:na: ‘double.ar savaa dao laaK sava: sø derh sø dha:i: sø derh haza:r sava: do la:kh 125 150 250 1.’ baIsagaunaa bi:sguna: ‘twentyfold.6.’ itgaunaa tiguna: ‘threefold.o paMca sa:rhe pã:c ‘five and half.000 3.’ tIsagaunaa ti:sguna: ‘thirtyfold. The system of denoting fractions is also used to denote fractions of hundred.3.’ saaOgaunaa søguna: ‘hundredfold. thousand.’ Azgaunaa athguna: ‘eightfold.25. kao[.a[. MORPHOLOGY Note that saaZ. etc. hja. or p`aya: pra:ya: before the numeral.’ etc.oZ.3.gaunaa dha:i: guna: 2 ½ times as much.saaO D.’ saaZ.oZ gaunaa derh guna: 1½ times as much.a[.’ satgaunaa satguna: ‘sevenfold.argaunaa haza:rguna: ‘thousandfold.4.’ pMcaguanaa pancguna: ‘fivefold. Multiplicatives Multiplicatives are formed by attaching gaunaa guna:‘multiplied by’ to the numerals.koi:. saaO sZ.’ hja. D.’ Cgaunaa chaguna ‘sixfold.baIsa AadmaI lagaBaga paÐca saaO laaoga p`aya: dao saaO vaYapihlao koi: bi:s a:dmi: lagbhag pã:c sø log pra:ya: do sø varš pahle about twenty persons about five hundred people about two hundred years ago 92 .5.6. 3.’ caaOganaa cøguna: ‘fourfold. Z.o caar sa:rhe ca:r ‘four and half. savaa saaO DoZ. Approximation Approximation is expressed by placing kao[. ten thousand.o sa:rhe denoting ‘half’ is attached to the numerals beginning with three: saaZ.’ dsagaunaa dasguna: ‘tenfold.3. The gaunaa guna: can be attached to fractions too: savaa gaunaa sava: guna: 1¼ times as much.500 2. The numerals 2 to 8 are slightly modified. lagaBaga lagbhag.

-naaoM -nõ is added.’ etc. measures.g. Notice that -[yaaoM -iyõ is added to numerals dsa das or baIsa bi:s to indicate an indefinite large number (e.’ do-do larke two boys at a time dao-dao laD.6.).’ etc.6.’ baaoiryaaoM Anaaja boriyõ ana:j ‘sackfulls of grains.’ barsaaoM barsõ ‘a number of years.’ or ‘…per piece.’ tInaaoM ti:nõ ‘all the three. 3.. dao-ek dao-tIna dsa-paMca saaO-savaa saaO do-ek do-ti:n das-pã:c sø. MORPHOLOGY It is also expressed by certain pairs of numerals. The verb haonaa hona: has four sets of verbal forms: present. disayaaoM dasiyõ ‘several tens.) The suffix -AaoM -õ is also added to the nouns signifying duration. mahInaaoM mahi:nõ ‘a number of months.3. 93 . as well as an auxiliary in different types of verbal constructions.’ baIisayaaoM bi:siyõ ‘several scores.1.’ etc.sava: sø one or two about two or three about ten about 125 Reduplication of a numeral denotes ‘… at a time. 3. Aggregation Aggregation is expressed by adding . Verbs There are two types of verbs: main and auxiliary. 3. presumptive. In the case of dao do..AaoM -õ to a numeral.’ dsaaoM dasõ ‘all the ten. (e. kita:bẽ do each boy.g.4. weight to indicate large and indefinite number or quantity..3.’ caaraoM ca:rõ ‘all the four. The Verb hona: The verb haonaa hona: ‘to be’ is used as a copula in simple predicative sentences.4.g.’ baIsaaoM bi:sõ ‘all the twenty. and subjunctive.ko ek-ek laD. daonaaoM donõ ‘both.ko kao tIna-tIna ek-ek larke ko ti:n-ti:n Give three books to iktabaoM dao. (e. past.

Masculine Feminine Sg Pl Sg Pl qaa tha: qao the qaI thi: qaIM thĩ: maOM qaa/qaI vah qaa/qaI tU qaa/qaI hma/ tuma/ Aap/ yao/ vao qao. and number. MORPHOLOGY (a) The present tense forms of haonaa hona: agree with their subjects in number and person. hma/ tuma/ Aap/ yao/ vao qaIM. m´~ tha:/thi: vah tha:/thi: tu: tha:/thi: ham/tum/a:p/ye/ve the. Person 1st 2nd (intimate) 2nd (polite) 3rd maOM hUÐ tU hO Aap hOM vao hOM m´~ hũ: tu: h´ a:p h´~ ve h´~ Singular hUÐM hũ: hO h´ hOM h´~ hO h´ Plural hOM h´~ hao ho hOM h´~ hOM h´~ hma hOM ham h´~ we are I am you are tuma hao tum ho you are you are vah hO vah h´ he/she is (s)he is/ they are (b) The past tense forms of haonaa hona: agree with their subjects in gender and number. Person 1st 2nd (intimate) 2nd (hon sg/pl) 3rd Masculine Sg hUÐgaa hũ:ga: haogaa hoga: haoMgao hõge haogaa hoga: Pl haoMgao hõge haogao hoge haoMgao hõge haoMgao hõge Feminine Sg hUÐgaI hũ:gi: haogaI hogi: haoMgaI hõgi: haogaI hogi: Pl haoMgaI hõgi: haogaI hogi: haoMgaI hõgi: haoMgaI hõgi: 94 . ham/tum/a:p/ye/ve thĩ: I was he/she was you were we/you/she/they were we/you/she/they were (c) The presumptive forms of the verb haonaa hona: agree with their subjects in person.3. gender.

conjunct verbs. tense. We will classify the verbal constructions as intransitive. the person. transitive. causative. hypothetical. ditransitive. A simple verb may consist of one main verb and person. gender. 1. In the compound verb construction. he go-ptc is He goes.’ and baOz b´th ’sit. number. number. and aspect markers are taken by the explicators/operators.4.2.’ do not take a direct object and are not marked by any postposition in the present or future tense.3. and compound. and compound verbs. or desired nature. MORPHOLOGY (d) The subjunctive forms of haonaa hona: are used to indicate the situations of speculative. 95 2.4. 3. They agree with their subjects in person and number. Amit home go-fut Amit will go home. Intransitive Verbs Intransitive verbs like Aa a: ‘come.2. and in the conjunct verbal construction they are taken by the verb element. Subjects in such cases are controlled by the verb agreement. gender. amit ghar ja:ega:. Main Verbs There are three types of main verbs: simple verbs.1. vah jaata hO. . dative. Aimat Gar jaaegaa. Person 1st 2nd (intimate) 2nd (hon sg/pl) 3rd maOM hao}Ð tU hao Aap haoM yao/vao haoM Singular hao}Ð hoũ: hao ho haoM hõ hao ho Plural haoM hõ hao ho haoM hõ haoM hõ ham hõ m´~ hoũ: hma haoM tuma hao tu: ho tum ho/ho a:p hõ yah/vah hao yeh/vah ho ye/ve hõ 3. contingent. and aspect markers. vah ja:ta: h´. conjunct.’ jaa ja: ‘go’ ]z uth ‘get up.

Transitive Verbs Transitive verbs. such as pZ. 4. MORPHOLOGY Besides verb agreement.’ lao le ‘take.’ laa la: ‘bring. maaohna Kola Kolaa. lar ‘fight. Amit time at came Amit came on time. vah bahut qak ga[-. and in the past tense they require their subjects must be marked with the ergative case markers agreeing with the object in gender and number. vah bahut thak gai:. Mohan played a game.2.naa lara:i: larna: fight a battle 5. Intransitive Transitive Kolanaa khelna: to play Kola Kolanaa khel khelna: to play a game fight laD.2. Aimat samaya pr Aayaa.a[.4. Some intransitive verbs.lara:i: laD. amit samay par a:ya:. maaohna Kolaa. Mohan played.’ ilaK likh ‘write.’ and kr kar ‘do.’ may sometimes be used as transitives when they take abstract nouns as objects. mohan ne khel khela:. Intransitive verbs in the past tense take their subjects in the direct case. 3. she very tired aux She was dead tired. mohan khela:.’ take direct objects. 96 . such as Kola khel ‘play’ and laD. parh ‘read.a[. subjects demonstrate a number of other properties which are explained below.laD.’ do de ‘give. 5a.3. 3.

3.I. Intransitive break TUT tu:t ibak bik be sold fT phat be torn be asleep saao so: bana ban be made Transitive taoD.a døra: kill print cut fell grind tie open raise awaken spread see make turn round make x race In certain cases besides vocalic changes. Uma-erg book-fs read-fs Uma read a book. amar ne axba:r xari:da:.rIda. Some transitive verbs are derived from intransitives by certain vocalic changes to the verb roots. pha:r saulaa sula: banaa bana: break sell tear to make x to sleep to make 97 .baar K. MORPHOLOGY 6. some consonantal changes also take place. dør Transitive maar ma:r Cap cha:p kaT ka:t igara gira: pIsa pi:s baaMd ba:ndh Kaola khol ]za utha: jagaa jaga: fOlaa ph´la: doK dekh banaa bana: GaUmanaa ghuma: daOD. uma: ne kita:b parhi:. Amar-erg newspaper-ms bought-ms Amar bought a newspaper. 7. Amar nao AK. tor baoca bec faD. ]maa nao iktaba pZ. Intransitive die mar mar be printed Cp chap be cut kT kat fall igar gir be ground ipsa pis baMd bandh be tied Kula khul be open rise ]z uth wake up jaga jag stretch fOla ph´l idK dikh be able to see be made bana ban GaUma ghu:m go round run daOD.

4. Indirect objects are always marked in the dative. As a result of adding this suffix. uma: ne bacce ko kaha:ni: suna:i:. 3. amar ne uma: ko kita:b di:. ]maa nao baccao kao khanaI saunaa[-.3. invariably transitive and take the same forms as other transitive verbs. object. 9. 10. There are two types of causative forms: causal I and causal II. Causative verbs are. 98 . I said/ understood/ forgot.’ saunaa suna: ‘to tell. therefore.4. m´~ bola: / samjha: / bhu:la:. Causative Verbs Casuative verbs may be derived from transitive verbs by adding causative suffixes. subject. Causal I forms Causal I verbs are formed by adding the causal suffix -a: to the transitive verb form. namely. 8. MORPHOLOGY A few transitive verbs like baaola bol ‘to speak. maOM baaolaa/ samaJaa/ BaUlaa. Amar nao ]maa kao iktaba dI.2. Uma-erg child-dat story-fs told-fs Uma told a story to the child.’ samaJa samjh ‘to understand’ and BaUla bhu:l ‘to forget’ are sometimes used as intransitives and do not take an ergative case marker. and indirect objects.4.3. They include the transitive verbs derived from intransitives. 3.’ baocanaa becna: ‘to sell’ are called ditransitives. Ditransitives take three arguments. Ditransitive Verbs Some verbs like donaa dena: ‘to give.2. certain morphophonemic changes take place. Other arguments follow the transitive pattern noted above. Amar-erg Uma-dat book-fs gave-fs Amar gave a book to Uma.

and Aao /o/ changes to /u/. parh study Causal I kra kara: make x do saunaa suna: make x tell pZ. Transitive kr kar do sauna sun listen pZ. The vowels e /e/ and [. Transitive drink pI pi: stitch saI si: Ka kha: eat give do de Qaao dho wash Causal II Causal II or extended causatives are formed by adding the causal II suffix -vaa -va: to the verb roots.a parha: teach x (b) The long vowels of the verb roots are shortened. Transitive Causal I doK dekh see idKa dikha: show saIK si:kh learn isaKa sikha: make x learn (c) The long vowel ending verb roots are shortened and the suffix -laa -la: instead of -Aa-a:. is added to derive the first causal forms.a parha: ]za utha: iplaa pila: jagaa jaga: Gaumaa ghuma: daOD. the vowels e /e/ and Aa /a:/ change to [/i/.vaa parhva: ]zvaa uthva: iplavaa pilva: jagavaa jagva: Gaumavaa ghumva: daOD.3.a døra: idlaa dila: tell teach lift make x drink awaken move make x run cause x give Causal II saunavaa sunva: pZ.vaa dørva: idlavaa dilva: 99 Causal I iplaa pila: isalaa sila: iKlaa khila: idlaa dila: Qaulaa dhula: make x drink make x stitch feed x make x give make x wash cause x to tell cause x to teach y make x to lift cause x to drink cause to awaken cause x to move cause x to run cause x to give y . Causal I saunaa suna: pZ./i:/ change to [ /i/. MORPHOLOGY (a) Consonant ending roots with short vowels remain unchanged. As a result of adding the causative suffix to the verb root.

They represent a small class of verbs but are very frequently used. Dative Verbs Most dative verbs fall into the stative-inchoative category of verbs.2. mã: ne bacce ko du:dh pila:ya:. In the following example. mã: ne bacce ko nars se du:dh pilva:ya:. MORPHOLOGY iKlaa khila: banaa bana: kr kar Qaulaa dhula: feed make get done make x wash iKlavaa khilva: banavaanaa banva:na krvaa karva: Qaulavaa dhulva: cause x to feed y cause x to make cause x to do cause x to wash (a) As a result of adding the causal II suffix to the transitive verb root. Stative Inchoative Active psaMd haonaa psaMd Aanaa psaMd krnaa pasand hona: pasand a:na: pasand karna: to like 100 . the causal suffix -vaa -va is added to the intransitive verb root ibak bik ‘sell’ instead of its transitive verb form baoca be:c: baoca bec sell ibakvaa bikva: cause x to sell (c) In certain cases. mother-erg child to milk drink-caus-past The mother made the child drink milk.vaa turva: cause x to break (b) There are few irregular forms. 3. maaÐ nao baccao kao dUQa iplaayaa.’ 11.sao dUQa iplavaayaa. maaÐ nao baccao kao nasa. the vowel Aao /o/ changes to ] /u/. They can be derived by substituting the intransitive verbs haonaa hona: ‘to be.’ and Aanaa a:na: ‘to come’ in place of krnaa karna: ‘to do’ in active/conjunct verbs as given below. mother-er child to nurse by milk drink-cause The mother caused the child to drink milk from the nurse.3. taoD. the meanings of the first and second causals are the same as in kranaa kara:na:/ krvaanaa karva:na: ‘to get done’ or Qaulaanaa dhula:na:/ Qaulavaanaa dhulva:na: ‘to get washed.5. 11a. tor break tuD.4.

]sakao yah iktaba psaMd Aa[-. ]sakaoo yah baat pta hO. ]sanao saarI baat yaad kI. 13. yaad Aanaa ya:d a:na: … yaad krnaa ya:d karna: pta krnaa pata: karna: to remember to find out ]sakao yah iktaba psaMd hO. he-dat this matter know be He knows this matter. 14. usko yeh kita:b pasand h´. he-dat all matter remember is He remembers the whole matter. ]sakao saarI baat yaad Aa[-. 13a. he-dat this book like came He liked this book. usne sa:ri: ba:t ya:d ki:. 12b. he-erg all matter remember did He remembered the whole matter. 101 . ]sanao yah iktaba psaMd kI. usko yah ba:t pata: h´. 13b. he-erg this book like did He liked this book. usko sa:ri: ba:t ya:d a:i:.3. usko yeh kita:b pasand a:i:. he-dat this book like is He likes this book. MORPHOLOGY yaad haonaa ya:d hona: pta haonaa pata: hona: 12. usne yeh kita:b pasand ki:. he-dat all matter remember came He remembered the whole matter. 12a. usko sa:ri: ba:t ya:d h´. ]sakao saarI baat yaad hOO.

16a.’ Pyaasa laganaa pya:s lagna:.’ and laganaa lagna: ‘to feel.3. 16. door close do-imp Close the door. darva:za: band karo. which takes all the verbal inflections.4. ]sanao yah baat pta kI. 15a. he-dat this matter find did He found out this thing. The verbs may be transitive or intransitive.6. door close be-past The door was closed.’ BaUK laganaa bhu:kh lagna:’to be hungry.’ 15.a baMd krao.’ 102 .’ Other verbs used are donaa dena: ‘to give.’ It also includes non-volitional verbs such as idKa[. yeh ka:m sama:pt hua:. darva:za: band hua:.2. usne yah ba:t pata: ki:.donaa dikha:i: dena: ‘to be seen. this work finish be-past This work is done. ‘to be thirsty.’ trsa Aanaa taras a:na: ‘to have pity. maOMnao Apnaa kama samaaPt ikyaa. Conjunct Verbs A conjunct verb consists of a noun or an adjective and a verb.a baMd huAa. This class includes psychological predicates such as gaussaa Aanaa gussa: a:na: ‘to be angry. I-erg self’s work finish did I finished my work. 3. which requires the subject to be marked in the oblique case. drvaaja. yah kama samaaPt huAa. m´~ne apna: ka:m sama:pt kiya:. drvaaja. The most frequent verbs used in conjunct verbal const+ructions are krnaa karna: ‘to do’ and haonaa hona: ‘to be.’ Aanaa a:na: ‘to come. MORPHOLOGY 14a. One class of conjunct verbs is formed by the combination of a noun and an intransitive verb.

relief 103 . The most frequent explicators are listed below with their actual meaning and the aspectual meanings they add to main verbs. amar ko gussa: a:ya:. usko antar dikhta: nahĩ:. The original meaning of the explicator is lost. benefaction. relief. such as completion of an action. The explicators belong to a small group of verbs. saunaIta kao BaUK/ Pyaasa lagaI.2. Compound Verbs Compound verbs in Hindi are combination of Verb 1 + Verb 2 (+ inflections). 20.3. MORPHOLOGY 17. takes all the inflections.4. or intensification. Amar-dat anger came Amar was angry. suni:ta ko bhu:kh/pya:s lagi:. par do de jaa ja: Dala da:l CaoD. Sunita-dat hunger/thirst struck Sunita was hungry/thirsty. maaohna kao garIba pr trsa Aayaa. Explicators Aa a: jaa ja: lao le pD. 3. 19. which is called an explicator/operator. mohan ko gari:b par taras a:ya:. completion psychological separation. Amar kao gaussaa Aayaa. They add certain aspectual values. he-dat difference see-ptc neg He is not able to see the difference. verb 2. Whereas Verb 1 (also called main verb) expresses general meaning and occurs in its stem form. ]sakao AMtr idKta nahIM. to the main verb. 18. chor come go take fall give go throw release Aspectual Values change of state from within change of state action for or toward others action for or towards self change of state. suddenness direction away.7. simple completion speed. Mohan-dat poor on pity came Mohan took pity on the poor. recklessness.

he-erg new car buy took-fs He bought a new car. bacce ne seb kha: liya:. MORPHOLOGY rK rakh baOz b´th ]z uth phuMca pahũc cala cal mar mar maar ma:r put/keep sit rise reach walk die kill proactiveness. the first.’ pI laonaa pi: lena: ‘to drink. all children time on came went All the children came on time. 23. an explicator/operator which is conjugated for different inflections. vah sa:re p´se le gaya:.kar K. lack of control change of state. direction direction away. he all money take went He took all the money. 104 22.naa kar chorna: ‘to do. Examples of such verbs are: Aa jaanaa a: ja:na: ‘to come.3. the second. usne nai: ka:r xari:d li:.’ kr baOznaa kar b´thna: ‘to do. suddenness Thus. vah saaro pOsao lao gayaa.’ lao Aanaa le a:na: ‘to bring.’ KrId laonaa xari:d lena: ‘to buy. the main verb which expresses its general meaning and.’ do donaa de dena: ‘to give. . future use in view action for or towards self action for or towards self action for completion. a compound verb is made of two verbs. child-erg apple eat took The child ate an apple.’ Ka laonaa kha: lena: ‘to eat. ]sanao na[.’ cala donaa cal dena: ‘to leave.’ kr CaoD. 24. baccao nao saoba Ka ilayaa.’ 21.’ kr Dalanaa kar da:lna: ‘to do. A large number of compound verbs are formed by the combination of verbs in which the first verb represents the meaning and the explicator takes all the grammatical inflections.rId laI. saBaI baccao samaya pr Aa gae.’ imala jaanaa mil ja:na: ‘to get. sabhi: bacce samay par a: gaye. completion completion.

a habitual.4. m´~ne apna: ka:m kar da:la:. repeated or characteristic action. 1.a rha soya: para: raha: ‘remained sleeping. habitual past. Hindi has six tenses: present.’ saunata rha sunta: raha: ‘kept on listing. Each of them is expressed by marking the verbal stems.a rha. progressive. Tense Tense and aspect are major grammatical categories of the verbal system in Hindi. vah maorI baat Qyaana sao saunata rha. or simply expresses a fact. amar ghar ja: raha: h´.’ 26. he whole day slept fell remained-ms He kept on sleeping for the whole day. vah saarI rat caaya pIta gayaa. and perfective. maOMnao Apnaa kama kr Dalaa. 28. vah meri: ba:t dhya:n se sunta: raha:. The present tense represents an ongoing action. There are three grammatical aspects: habitual.3. vah saara idna saaoyaa pD. he all night tea drink-ptc went-ms He kept on drinking tea throughout the night. 3. 27. past. he my talk attention with listened-ptc remained-ms He kept on listening to my story with attention. MORPHOLOGY 25. There are verbal phrases in which there are two or more inflexible verbs.3. vah sa:ri: ra:t ca:y pi:ta: gaya:. such as pIta gayaa pi:ta gaya: ‘went on drinking. vah sa:ra: din soya: para: raha:. Amar Gar jaa rha hO. present perfect. future.’ calaa gayaa cala: gaya: ‘gone. I-erg self’s work do threw I completed my work. and past perfect. 105 .’ saaoyaa pD. Amar home go-prog is Amar is going home.

usne yah jagah dekhi: h´. ]maa kla idllaI jaaegaI. Uma tomorrow Delhi-obl go-fut Uma will go to Delhi tomorrow. Amar Delhi-obl go-prog was Amar was going to Delhi.baar pZ. he-erg this place see-perf be He has seen this place. vah kailaja maoM pZ. The present perfect tense represents a completed act the effect of which is still present. Amar idllaI jaa rha qaa. he college in study-pre-hab.3. amar dilli: ja: raha: tha:. The verb in (1) is in the progressive aspect and in (2) in the habitual aspect. The past tense represents an ongoing action or an action completed in the past. uma: kal dilli: ja:egi:. usne axba:r parha:. ]sanao yah jagah doKI hO. 6. ]sanao AK.ta hO. 106 . 4. be He studies in college.a. MORPHOLOGY 2. 3. The future tense represents an action yet to take place or a state yet to come into being. 5. he-erg newspaper read-perf He read the newspaper. The verb in (3) is in the progressive aspect and in (4) is in the perfect aspect. vah ka:lej mẽ parhta: h´.

subjunctive-habitual. Amar day before yesterday morning-obl came be-past Amar had come the day before yesterday in the morning.4. The combination of one of the three aspects with the four different tenses results in the production of various aspectual-tenses: presenthabitual.4. some non-aspectual verb forms of Hindi are the future.4. present-progressive. MORPHOLOGY The habitual past tense represents an act habitually done in the past. 7. It also permits the simple-perfective form. presumptive-perfective. and the imperative and infinitive forms. 3. Habitual Aspect The habitual aspectual-tenses are formed by adding the following suffixes to the verb stems agreeing with the subject in gender and number: Masculine Feminine Sg Pl Sg / Pl -ta -ta: -to -te -tI -ti: 107 . vah hmaoSaa maohnat krtaa qaa. presumptive. subjunctive-progressive. presumptive-habitual. 3. he always hard work do-hab be-past He always used to work hard.4. past-habitual. past-progressive. presumptive-progressive. Besides these aspectual verb forms. root subjunctive. Aspect Verbal forms indicating one of these aspects are specified for one of the four tenses: present. 8. and subjunctive-perfective. vah hameša: mehnat karta: tha:. Amar prsaaoM savaoro Aayaa qaa. They will be discussed separately. past-perfective.1.3. amar parsõ savere a:ya: tha:. and subjunctive. The past perfect tense represents an action completed in the past or before a certain past time. past. present-perfective.

. m´~ ghar roz a:ta:/a:ti: hũ:. a:p ghar roz ja:te/ja:ti: h´~. 108 3. Present-habitual 1. jaato/ jaatI hao. vao Sahr jaato/ jaatI hOM. we home daily come-ptc-mp/-fp be We come home daily. you home daily go-ptc-ms/go-fs be You go home daily. Present and past habitual forms are used to express habitual actions or the state of affairs viewed from the perspective of the present and the past respectively. 4. ham ghar roz a:te/a:ti: h´~. (s)he city go-ptc-ms/go-fs be He/she goes to the city. they city go-ptc-mp/go-f be He/she/they goes/goes/go to the city. Aap Gar raoja. jaato/ jaatI hOM. 2. tuma Gar raoja. Aata/ AatI hUÐM. I home daily come-ptc-ms/-fs be I come home daily. Aato / AatI hOM. you home daily go-m/go-f be You go home daily. ve šahar ja:te/ja:ti: h´~.3. yah/ vah Sahr jaata/ jaatI hO. you home daily go-ptc-mp/go-fs be You go home daily. tum ghar roz ja:te/ja:ti: ho. tu: ghar roz ja:ta:/ja:ti: h´. 5. maOM Gar raoja. 7. MORPHOLOGY They are followed by appropriate forms of the auxiliary verb haonaa hona:. tU Gar raoja. yah/vah šahar ja:ta:/ja:ti: h´. hma Gar raoja. 6. jaata/ jaatI hO.

tU raoja. MORPHOLOGY Past-habitual 8.tr jaato qao/jaatI qaIM. vao Saama kao gaaÐva jaato qao / jaatI qaIM. tu: roz ba:za:r ja:ta: tha:/ja:ti: thi:.ar jaata qaa/ jaatI qaI. the present form of the verb haonaa hona: is usually deleted. vah savere ga:ũ: ja:ta: tha:/ja:ti: thi:. m´~ abhi: ja:ta: hũ:. he/she morning-abl village go-ptc-ms was/go-ptc-fs was He/She used to go to the village in the morning.aar jaata qaa /jaatI qaI. tuma/ Aap raoja. tum/a:p roz daftar ja:te the/ja:ti: thĩ:. vah subah ca:y nahĩ: pi:ta:. Present-habitual in conjunction with the adverb ABaI abhi: ‘right away’indicates that an action is to be carried out in the near future. 10. you-fam/you-hon daily office go-ptc-ms were/go-ptc-fs were You used to go to the office daily. you daily market go-ptc-ms was/go-ptc-fs was You used to go to the market daily.ms He doesn’t drink tea in the morning. I right away go-ptc. vah saubah caaya nahIM pIta. 11. dF. baaja. he morning-abl tea neg drink-ptc.ms am I’ll go right away. 14. maOM ABaI jaata hUÐ. m´~ roz ba:za:r ja:ta: tha:/ja:ti: thi:. vah savaoro gaaÐva jaata qaa/ jaatI qaI. I daily market go-ptc-ms was /go-fs was I used to go to the market daily. ve ša:m ko ga:ũ: ja:te the/ja:ti: thĩ:. 13. 12.a baaj. 109 .3. 9. maOM raoj. they evening-dat at village go-ptc-ms was/go-ptc-fs was They used to go to the village in the evening. In the negative construction of the present-habitual form.

We would be coming. 110 . 15.3. 16. 17. tU/ vah Aata haogaa/ AatI haogaI. tum/a:p/ve a:te hõge/ a:ti: hõgi:. maOM Aata hao}Ðgaa/ AatI hao}ÐgaI. m´~ a:ta: hoũ:ga: /a:ti: hoũ:gi:.hab/ go-fs be-pre.hab. Presumptive-habitual Presumptive-habitual forms are used to indicate that an action or state of affairs is both habitual and presumed. or speculative. Uma hotel in song sing-ptc was Uma used to sing at the hotel. contingent. I would be coming. 20. 19. ham a:te hõge/a:ti: hõgĩ:. hma Aato haoMga/o AatI haoMgaIM. maOM caahta hUÐ vah AaeÐ. but not directly guaranteed to take place. I want him/her to come. You/he would be coming. ]maa haoTla maoM gaanaa gaatI qaI. m´~ ca:hta: hũ: vah a:yẽ. uma: hotal mẽ ga:na: ga:ti: thi:. tu:/vah a:ta: hoga:/a:ti: hogi:. I come-ms be-pre. You/they would be coming. Subjunctive-habitual Subjunctive-habitual forms are used to indicate actions that are both habitual and hypothetical. but not known definitely. tuma/ Aap/ vao Aato haMogao / AatI haoMgaI. MORPHOLOGY Past-habitual also indicates that an action has taken place in remote past. 18.

maOM Gar jaa rha/ jaa rhI hUÐ. we/they home go-prog-mpl/-prog-fpl be-pl We/they are going home. he/she home at work do-ms/do-fs was He/she used to work at home. maOM/ hma/ vao Gar jaa rho/ jaa rhI hOM. 22. tu: ka:lej se a: raha: h´ / rahi: h´.4. vah ghar par ka:m karta: tha: /karti: thi:. MORPHOLOGY 21. tU kailaja sao Aa rha hO/ rhI hO.oM. 111 25. meri: iccha: h´ a:p yeh kita:b parhẽ. There are two primary categories: present-progressive and past-progressive. Progressive Aspect Progressive aspect verbs are formed by adding the following auxiliary forms immediately after the verb stems and appropriate forms of the verb hona: ’to be’ and they agree with the person.3.4. 24. maorI [cCa hO Aap yah iktaba pZ. . I want you to read this book. Present-progressive 23. I home go-prog-ms/ go-prog-fs am I am going home. ham/ve ghar ja: rahe/ ja rahi: h´~. 3. vah Gar pr kama krta qaa/ krtI qaI. m´~ ghar ja: raha:/ja: rahi: hũ:. you-fam/he/she college from come-prog-ms /-prog-fs be-sg You are coming from the college.2. gender. and number of the subject of the verb: Masculine Feminine Sg Pl Sg / Pl rha raha: rho rahe rhI rahi: The progressive aspect is used to indicate actions or states of affairs of a continuous nature or extended through time.

Uma Delhi from come-prog be-presumptive Uma must be coming from Delhi. maOM gaa rha qaa/ rhI qaI. tuma Kanaa Ka rho/ rhI hao. tu: seb kha: raha: tha:/ rahi: thi:. 32. a:p patr likh rahe the. tuma iktaba pZ. tum kha:na: kha: rahe/rahi: ho. 31. MORPHOLOGY 26. you-fam. apple eat-prog-ms was/ -prog-fs was You were eating an apple. you-non. tU saoba Ka rha qaa/ rhI qaI. Presumptive-progressive Presumptive-progressive forms are used to indicate that an action or state of affairs is extended in time and presumed to be occuring. you-hon letter write-prog be You were writing a letter. m´~ ga: raha: tha:/ rahi: thi:. 27. uma: dilli: se a: rahi: hogi:.3. Aap p~ ilaK rho qao. rho qao / rhI qaI. tum kita:b parh rahe/rahi: ho. ]maa idllaI sao Aa rhI haogaI. 112 . 29. Past-progressive 28. you book read-prog-mp/ -fp be You are reading a book. you/they tea drink-prog are You /they are drinking tea. Aap/ vao caaya pI rho hOM.hon pl food eat-prog-mpl/-fpl be You are eating food. I sing-prog was-ms/sing-prog was-fs I was singing. a:p/ve ca:y pi: rahe h´~. 30.

-i: -[-M -ĩ: These suffixes are added to both intransitive and transitive verbs. Masculine Feminine Sg Pl Sg Pl -Aa -a: -e -e -[. 34. presumptiveperfective and subjunctive-perfective. parh read pZ. they agree with the subject in gender and number.a parha: ilaK likh write ilaKa likha: Pl igaro gire calao cale pZ. possible is he go-prog be-subj It is possible he would be going. possible is they come-prog be-subj It is possible they would be coming. samBava hO vah jaa rha hao. sambhav h´ vah ja: raha: ho.o parhe ilaKo likhe Feminine Sg igarI giri: calaI cali: pZ.IM parhĩ: ilaKIM likhĩ: In vowel-ending verb stems. 3.I parhi: ilaKI likhi: Pl igarIM girĩ: calaI calĩ:M pZ. In constructions with intransitive verbs. present-perfective.4. the glide -ya -y is inserted before the masculine singular ending -Aa -a: is added to the verb stem. mumkin h´ ve a: rahe hõ.3.4. Verb Masculine Sg fall igar gir igara gira: walk calaa cala: cala cal pZ. The following perfect participle suffixes are added to the main verb stems.3. maumaikna hO vao Aa rho haMo. In constructions with transitive verbs. Perfective Aspect Perfective aspect indicates an action or state of affairs that has been completed. 113 . There are five sets of perfective forms in Hindi: simpleperfective. they agree with the object’s gender and number. past-perfective. MORPHOLOGY Subjunctive-progressive 33.

m´ne~ /hamne/usne/unhõne tasvi:r dekhi:. 114 .khei: ga[.kI Gar gayaa/ ga[-.soi: saI si: Ko[. Masculine Sg kr kar do ikyaa kiya: take ilayaa liya: lao le pI pi: drink ipyaa piya: give idyaa diya: do de Verb Feminine Pl Sg Pl ike kiye kI ki: kIM kĩ: ilae liye laI li: laIM lĩ: ipyao piye pI pi: pIM pĩ: idyao diye dI di: dIM dĩ: Simple-perfective The simple-perfective form appears without verbal auxiliaries. the verb Ko khe ‘row’ has the feminine plural form with inserted ya y glide.a:i: saao[. maOMnao /]sanao/ ]nhaoMnao tsvaIr doKI. MORPHOLOGY Masculine Sg come Aayaa a:ya: Aa a: sleep saaoyaa soya: saao so sew saI si: isayaa siya: Ko khe row Koyaa kheya: go jaa ja: gayaa gaya: Ka kha: eat Kayaa kha:ya: Verb Pl Aae a:e saaoe soe isae sie Koyao kheye gae gae Kae kha:e Feminine Sg Aa[. m´~ kolkata: gaya: hũ:. maOM kaolakta gayaa hUÐ. Present-perfective 37. I-erg/we-erg/(s)he-erg/they-erg picture-fs saw-fs I/we/(s)he/they saw the picture. boy/girl home went-ms/went-fs The boy/girl went home. 35.kha:i: Pl Aa[-M a:ĩ: saao[-M soĩ: saIM sĩ: Ko[-M kheĩ: ga[-M gaĩ: Ka[-M kha:ĩ: Notice that the verbs saao so ‘sleep’ and saI si: ‘sew’ have alternate feminine plural forms. laD.gai: Ka[. larka:/larki: ghar ga:ya:/ ga:yi:. the verb jaa ja: ‘go’ has an irregular past perfective form. 36.ka/laD.3. Some transitive verbs have irregular perfective participle forms.

leaves tree from fell be-subj.ar gayaa qaa. vah kal dilli: gaya: hoga:. ]sanao kla yah iktaba pZ. maOM/ tU /vah baaja. maOMnao/ tumanao /]nhaoMnao/ Kanaa Kayaa qaa.perf He would have gone to Delhi tomorrow. p%to poD. I-erg/we-erg/thy-erg Kolkata see-perf be-pre I/we/they have seen Kolkata. vah Aayaa hao.perf The leaves may have fallen from the tree.perf He might have come.perf He would have read this book tomorrow. vah a:ya: ho. Past-perfective 39. Presumptive-perfective 41. m´~ne/tumne/unhõne kha:na: kha:ya: tha: I-erg/you-erg/(s)he-erg/they-erg food eat-perf be-past I/ you/(s)he/they had eaten the food. m´~ne/hamne/unhõne kolkata: dekha: h´. he came be-subj. 38. MORPHOLOGY I Kolkata went be-pre I have gone to Kolkata. 115 . maOMnao/ hmanao /]nhaoMnao kaolakta doKa hO. Subjunctive-perfective 43. usne kal yah kita:b parhi: hogi:. vah kla idllaI gayaa haogaa. 40. 42. 44. he-erg tomorrow this book read-fs be-pre.I haogaI. sao igaro haoM.3. he tomorrow Delhi went be-pre. patte per se gire hõ. m´~/tu:/vah ba:za:r gaya: tha: I/you/(s)he market went-perf be-past I/you/(s)he had gone to the market.

Since the imperative denotes a command. The following aspectual marks are added to the verb stem bol ‘say’ in the indicative mood. Indirect commands or requests made to a third person are expressed by the subjunctive form. The intimate imperative forms are used in issuing orders/commands for those who are usually addressed with the intimate second person pronoun tU tu: ‘you. and optative. a prohibition.. Masculine Sg baaolata Habitual bolta: Progressive baaola rha bol raha: baaolaa Perfective bola: Pl baaolato bolte baaola rho bol rahe baaolao bole Feminine Sg baaolatI bolti: baaola rhI bol rahi: baaolaI boli: Pl baaolatIM boltĩ: baaola rhIM bol rahĩ: baaolaIM bolĩ: The above paradigm shows the agreement of indicative mood with gender and number. or perfective (perf) aspects.4.4. a warning. etc. Indicative Mood The indicative represents the action as a fact or makes a query about it. the subject is omitted and can be guessed from both the context and the form of the verb.4.5. 3. etc. and (iii) polite.1.’ The familiar imperatives are used in issuing commands to all those who are normally addressed by the familiar 116 . Mood In Hindi there are three moods: indicative.5.5. imperative. request. The present and past participle forms of these verbs have been explained above. MORPHOLOGY 3. The verb agrees with the second person subject which has three second person pronominal forms: (i) intimate. its proper domain is the second person. The imperative is restricted to the future and cannot refer to the present or past tenses. 3.3. a request. The verb can be used in habitual (hab). In imperative constructions. Imperative Mood The imperative expresses an action as a command.2. (ii) familiar. progressive (prog).

A few verbs have irregular familiar and polite forms. the intimate forms are the same as the verb stem forms. (a:p) a:iye/ja:iye/ kha:iye/prhiye/likhiye/khari:diye. /ilaiKe /K. (tu:) a:/ ja:/kha: / parh /likh/xari:d you-intimate come/go/eat/read/write/buy Come/go/eat/read/write/buy. parh ilaK likh K.likh K. -Aao -o is added to the verb stem form and in polite forms -[e -iye is added. 1.rIdao xari:do Polite Aa[e a:iye jaa[e ja:iye Ka[e kha:iye piZ. (tuma) AaAao /jaaAao /KaAao /pZao.rId xari:d buy Intimate Aa a: jaa ja: Ka kha: pZ.Aao -o is added to the vowel-ending verb stems in the intimate form and the stem vowel is elided.rId.’ Second Person Verb come Aa a: go jaa ja: eat Ka kha: read pZ. .rIdao.’ Polite imperatives are used for making requests to those who are normally addressed by the second person pronoun Aap a:p ‘you. (tum) a:o/ja:o/kha:o/ parho/likho/xari:do you-familiar come/go/eat/read/write/buy (Aap) Aa[e/ jaa[e/ Ka[e /piZe. MORPHOLOGY second-person pronoun tuma tum ‘you. in familiar forms.rIide. /ilaK /K. The 117 . The suffix -[-ijae i:jiye is added in the polite form and the stem vowel is elided. (you-polite) come/go/read/write/ buy Please come/go/eat/read/write/buy 1a. parh write ilaK .ao parho ilaKao likho K.rId xari:d Familiar AaAao a:o jaaAao ja:o KaAao kha:o pZ.e parhiye ilaiKe likhiye K.rIide xari:diye In the above. / ilaKao /K. give do de do de dao do dIijae di:jiye take lao le lao le laao lo laIijae li:jiye kr kar do kr kar krao karo kire kariye/kIijae ki:jiye In the above forms. 1b.3. (tU ) Aa /jaa /Ka /pZ.

118 .pl) give/take/do (Aap ) dIijae / laIijae / kIijae (a:p) di:jiye/li:jiye/ki:jiye (polite) give/take/do 2a. 4. 2.sg) give/take/do (tuma) dao / laao / krao (tum) do/lo/karo (you-familiar. In negative or prohibitive imperative constructions. yah iktaba lao laao. The operators take the same imperative forms in the compound verb constructions. yah kita:b le li:jiye. door close do take-explicator-polite Please close the door. (tU ) do / lao / kr (tu:) de/le/kar (you-familiar. 4a. 3a. darva:za: band kar li:jiye. 2b. MORPHOLOGY verb kr kar ‘do’ has an alternate form kire kariye ‘do’ in its polite form.3. the negative markers na /nahĩĩ ‘no’ may precede the verb in the infinitive form. drvaaja. door close do take-explicator-familiar Close the door. 3. this book take explicator-polite Please take this book. as well. darva:za: band kar lo.a baMd kr laaoo. yah kita:b le lo. this book take-explicator Take this book. drvaaja.a baMd kr laIijae. yah iktaba lao laIijae.

MORPHOLOGY However. 3. 6. dava:i: mat/na/nahĩ: kha:na:/kha: lena:.4.o.UÐ. 5a. medicine neg eat-inf.(d). 6b. medicine neg eat take-inf. Subjunctive Mood The subjunctive forms are formed by adding certain suffixes to the verb stems that agree with the subjects in person and number. dvaa[.3. Here we will illustrate the subjunctive forms of a few other verbs./eat take-inf Don’t take medicine. tu: ja:e/kare/ parhe you go-subj /do-subj /read-subj 6a. it is optional with the use of prohibitive morpheme mat ‘don’t. dvaa[. maOM jaa}Ð / k$Ð / pZ. e. 119 .4. Don’t take medicine. dava:i: mat kha: li:jiye..mat / na / nahIM Kanaa / Ka laonaa.3.mat Ka laIijae. 1st person 2nd person (familiar) 2nd person (polite) 3rd person Sg -}Ð -ũ: -e -e -eÐ -ẽ -e -e Pl -eÐ -ẽ -Aao -o -eÐ -ẽ -eÐ -ẽ The subjunctive forms of the verb haonaa hona: ‘to be’ have been given in 3.oM.g. m´~ ja:ũ:/karũ:/ parhũ: I go-subj /do-subj /read-subj hma jaaeÐ / kroM / pZ.1. ham ja:ẽ/karẽ/ parhẽ we go-subj /do-subj /read-subj tU jaae / kro / pZ.’ 5.5.

a:p piẽ/chuẽ yiu drink-subj/touch-subj 7a.oM. are shortened in length as -[ -i and -] -u before the subjunctive verb suffixes are added to them.oM. ham piẽ/chuẽ we drink-subj/touch-subj tU ipe /Cue. 7d. tuma jaaAao / krao /pZ. 7c. tum ja:o/karo/ parho you go-subj /do-subj /read-subj Aap jaaeÐ / kroM / pZ. 6f. ve a:ẽ/karẽ/ parhẽ they come-subj/do-subj /read-subj 6d.ao. tum pio/chuo you drink-subj/touch-subj Aap ipeÐM / CueÐ.3. 7b. m´~ piũ:/chuũ: I drink-subj /touch-subj hma ipeÐM /CueÐM. 6e.’ and CU chu: ‘touch’.-i: and -} -u:. 7.o. a:p ja:ẽ/karẽ/ parhẽ you go-subj /do-subj /read-subj vah Aae / kro / pZ. vah a:e/kare/ parhe he come-subj /do-subj /read-subj vaoo AaeÐ /kro/M pZ. MORPHOLOGY 6c. maOM ip}Ð /Cu}Ð. 120 . tu: pie/chue you drink-subj/touch-subj tuma ipAao /CuAao. The stem final vowels -[. as in pI pi: ‘drink.

mujh-se kita:b gir gayi:. us-se yah ka:m nahĩ: ho sakta: she-by this work neg be able-model She would not be able to do this work. ]sasao Aa[-naa TUT gayaa. me-by book fell down The book fell from my hands. 5.4. mauJasao iktaba igar ga[-.3. MORPHOLOGY 7e. 3. vah ipe / Cue. 1. 3. she-by mirror break explicator The mirror was broken by her.6. Uma by letter neg write-pass Uma couldn’t write a letter. and gender. uma: se patr na likha: gaya:. ]sasao calaa na gayaa. Voice The verbal stem can also be used to indicate the passive voice. she-by walk neg be able She couldn’t walk. ve piẽ/chuẽ they drink-subj/touch-subj 7f. 4. us-se a:yi:na: tu:t gaya:. ]maa sao p~ na ilaKa gayaa. person. ]sasao yah kama nahIM hao sakta. It indicates the subject of a verb in the passive voice and it has agreement of number. us-se cala: na gaya:. 121 . vah pie/chue he drink-subj/touch-subj vao ipeÐ /CueÐ. 2.

laao.’ etc.’ krnaa karna: ‘to do. say. Amit-erg him/her request made Amit requested him/her. 10. beg. Infinitives Infinitives are formed by adding the suffix -naa -na: to the verb stems: Aanaa a:na: ‘to come. 9. We will now discuss the non-finite forms of verbs which include infinitives and participles.’ ilaKnaa likhna: ‘to write. mood. old newspapers-obl dat thrown explicator The old newspapers were thrown away.’ jaanaa ja:na: ‘to go. claim. It can also be used to express ‘from’or ‘through’ 7. 3. mujh-se ãgrezi: parh lo. pura:ne akhba:rõ ko phẽka: gaya:.4. muaJasao AMga`oja. ask. puranao AKbaaraoM kao fOMka gayaa. demand.7.’ 8.1. ]sanao ]maa sao kha ik … usne uma: se kaha: ki … he-erg Uma said that He told Uma that … ]maa nao mauJasao pUCa ik … uma: ne mujh se pu:cha: … Uma er me-obl from asked Uma asked me … Aimat nao ]sasao p`aqa-naa kI amit ne us-se pra:rthana: ki:. and voice above. It is used with the indirect objects of verbs meaning ‘to tell. Non-finite Verb Forms We have discussed various finite verbal forms under tense.I pZ. Infinitives are used both as nouns and as 122 . ask for. request. MORPHOLOGY 6.7.4. me-from English learn explicator Learn English from me. aspect.3. 3.

uske a:ne mẽ der hui:. or compulsion like caah ca:h ‘want. it is not used in the plural. 3. vah iktaba laanaa BaUla gayaa. An infinitive is usually an abstract noun and. he-gen-obl come-inf-obl in late be-fsg He/she arrived late. being an abstract noun. jaldI saaonaa zIk hO. jaldi: sona: thi:kh h´. the infinite can take an object. m´~ use milne ja:ũ:ga:. MORPHOLOGY adjectives. necessity. 6. Infinitives are frequently used as adjectives in combination with verbs denoting obligation. 2. vah ka:m karne mẽ tez h´. I him-obl meet-inf-obl go-fut I will go to see him. maOMnao ]sao jaanao sao raoka. vah kama krnao maoM toja. The 123 . 1. ]sako Aanao maoM dor hu[-. early sleep-inf good is It is good to go to sleep early. requirement. The postposition kao ko ‘to’ is not added when the infinitive is used as an object. 5. he work do-inf-obl in fast is He is prompt in (his) work. hO.’ hao ho ‘be. 4. maOM ]sao imalanao jaa}Ðgaa.’ and pD. he book bring-inf forget go-operator-pst He forgot to bring the book. m´~ne use ja:ne se roka:. Despite being a noun. I-erg he-dat go-inf-obl from stop-pst I stopped him from going. par ‘compulsion.3. vah kita:b la:na: bhu:l gaya:.

Whereas imperfective participles represent incomplete or unfinished activities. mujhe dilli: ja:na: para:.2. m´~ ca:y pi:na: cahta: hũ: I tea drink-inf want-ptc am I want to drink tea. Participles Participles in Hindi are largely verbal in nature and function as adjectives and adverbs. mauJao idllaI jaanaa pD. maOM caaya pInaa caahta hUÐM. use p´se la:ne h´~. 8. 12. 9. ]sao kama Saama tk samaaPt krnaa qaa. I-erg his/her help-f. maOMnao ]sakI madd krnaI caahI. ]sao / ]sakao dvaa[. ]sao pOsao laanao hMO.ogaI.3. use/usko dava:i: pi:ni: paregi:. it is used as an adjective for its object and changes its ending -naa -na: to -naI -ni: or -nao -ne. do-inf.pInaI pD. use ka:m ša:m tak sama:pt karna: tha: he-obl work evening up to finish do-inf be-past-obligatory He had to finish the work by evening. I-dat Delhi go-inf fell(explicator) I had to go to Delhi. 7.4. he-obl tea medicine drink-inf-fs necessary-fut He has to drink medicine. They are of two types: imperfective and perfective. um´~ne uski: madad karni: ca:hi:.a. 3.7. 10. perfective participles designate completed 124 .fs want-fs I wanted to help him/her. he-obl money bring-inf-obl-pl be-obligatory He has to bring money. 11. MORPHOLOGY compounds made are passive in meaning. When an infinitive is transitive.

office from return-while I-erg fruit bought I bought fruit while returning from the office.asp were The children were singing songs while going to school. children school go-while sing-prog. calatI hu[. daOD.tr sao laaOTto hue maOMnao fla KrIdo. the suffix -to -te is added to the verb stem and is followed by hue hue.hui: (fs).ta huAa AadmaI Ék gayaa. -tI -ti (fs). daftar se løtte hue m´~ne phal khari:de. dørta: hua: a:dmi: ruk gaya:.to hue baccao Saaor kr rho hOM. bacce sku:l ja:tee hue ga: rahe the.basa Ék ga[-.2.4.ptc be-mp children noise do-prog. calti: hui: bas ruk gai:. 2. dF. move-imp. 3. 5. and hu[.asp are The running children are making noise. imperfective participles are formed by adding the suffixes -ta -ta: (ms).ptc be-ms man stop went The running man stopped. Imperfective Participles When used adjectivally. 125 . and -tIM -tĩ: (fp) that are made to agree with the noun in gender and number. daOD. Adjectival imperfective participles are expanded with one of the simple perfective forms of haonaa hona: ‘to be. When used adverbially.ptc-fs bus stop went The moving bus stopped.’ like huAa hua: (ms). 3. -to -te (mp).7. 4. run-imp. and hue hue (p). 1.1. baccao skUla jaato hue gaa rho qaoo. MORPHOLOGY verbal activities.~ run-imp.3. dørte hue bacce šor kar rahe h´.

vah pOdla calato . 9.igarto baca gayaa. MORPHOLOGY Adverbial imperfective participles may be reduplicated. and hu[.ka b´tha: (hua:) larka: the sitting (i. vah Ct sao igarto . gender.4.2.-i: to verb stems agreeing with the noun in person. 7.7.3. 3. hue hue. baOza (huAa ) laD.e.. vah p´dal calte-calte thak gaya:. 8.calato qak gayaa. 6.hui: that agree with the modified noun in person. seated) boy baOzo (hue ) laD. gender.2. -e -e. Perfective participles may be employed either adjectivally or adverbially. and number. Perfective Participles Perfective participles are formed by adding the adjectival suffixes Aa -a:. The adjectival participles are expanded with the forms of huAa hua:. and -[. vah chat se girte-girte bac gaya: he roof from fall-ptc-fall-ptc save went He almost fell from the roof. vah ghar ja:te samay ma:yu:s tha: he home go-ptc time sad was He was sad when it was time to go home. Perfective participles represent a verbal activity carried through to completion. and number. he on foot walk-ptc walk-ptc tired went He was tired of walking on foot. Adverbial imperfective participles are used with different time expressions. A few perfective stems are irregular. vah Gar jaato samaya maayaUsa qaa.ko b´the (hue) larke the sitting boys 9a. 126 .

washed (ptc) shirt almirah in is The washed shirt is in almirah. In the other type.. vah Gar pr baOzo . 10a.kI laD. shirt washed (perf-ptc) is The shirt is washed. phnaI hu[.ptc he sing-prog was He was singing while sitting on the roof. baOzI (hu[-) laD. the invariable suffix –e -e is employed.ptc tired went(explicator) He was tired of sitting at home. kami:z dhuli: (hui:) h´. Ct pr baOzo hue vah gaa rha qaa.-i:. QaulaI (hu[-) hO. kmaIja. chat par b´the hue vah ga: raha: tha:. 13.ar jaa rhI qaI. MORPHOLOGY 9b. In one type. 10b.rmaa baaja.3. 12. and –[. The perfective adverbial participles are frequently reduplicated. There are two types of adverbial participles.ptc Rama market go-prog was Wearing a new shirt. Rama was going to market. dhuli: (hui:) kami:z alma:ri: mẽ h´. 11.kmaIja.e -e. na[.baOzo qak gayaa. 127 . AlamaarI maoM hO. roof at siting-perf.ikyaaÐ b´thi (hui:) larki:/larkiyã: the sitting girl/girls The adjectival participles may precede or follow the noun they qualify. new shirt wear-perf. vah ghar par b´the-b´the thak gaya: he home at sitting-perf. QaulaI (hu[-) kmaIja. the adverbial participle uses the adjectival suffixes –Aa -a:. nai: kami:z pahni: hui: rama: baza:r ja: rahi: thi:.

daftar ka: ka:m sama:pt karke vah ghar gaya: office of work finish do-cp he home went He went home after finishing the office work. Amar-dat America from came-perf. he home reach after-cp market went He went to the market after coming home.kr Aayaa. 16. vah ghar pahũckar ba:za:r gaya:. usne axba:r parh kar citthi: likhi:.baar pZ. 15. 17.tr ka kama samaaPt krko vah Gar gayaa. ]sanao AK. Amar kao AmarIka sao Aae hue dao saala hao gae hOM.7. 14.3. he-erg neewspaper read after-cp letter-fs wrote-fs He wrote a letter after reading the newspaper. Sometimes the conjunctive clauses are used in the adverbial sense. In this construction. Amar run do-cp came Amar came running. while the verb of the subsequent clause takes all the conjugation markers. amar dør kar a:ya:. If the verb krnaa karna: ‘to do’ appears in the main clause either independently or as a part of a compound. .3. the form ke is used in place of kr kar. Conjunctive Participles Conjunctive participles are used to form sentences in which two verbal activities share the same subject and one of the activities is a temporal antecedent of the other. 128 18.2.4. vah Gar phuÐcakr baaja.ptc two years elapsed are It has been two years since Amar came from America. the verb of the first clause is used in the verb stem form and is immediately followed by kar.ar gayaa. MORPHOLOGY The perfective participles are used to indicate the passing of time. Amar daOD. dF.kr icaT\zI ilaKI. amar ko amri:ka: se a:ye hue do sa:l ho gaye h´~. 3.

asa krko Amar sao imalaa. Preceding a verb 2. 3. He my very good friend is He is my very good friend. vah dilli: ho kar a:ya:. ek . one one do-cp all students came All the students came one by one. I especially do-cp Amar with met I especially met Amar. Aata hO. vah idllaI haokr Aayaa. 20. and sometimes another adverb as a qualifier or modifier. Preceding an adjective 1. vah mera: bahut accha: dost h´.Aae. vah maora bahut AcCa daost hO. 129 . maora daost raoja.ek krko saBaI ivaQyaaqaI. Adverbs An adverb may precede an adjective. a verb. m´~ višeš/xa:s karke amar se mila:. he Delhi be do-cp came He came via Delhi. 22. ]maa mauskrakr baaolaI … uma: muskara kar boli: … Uma smile do-cp said Uma said smilingly … The conjunctive participle marker kar is also used in certain fixed expressions. 21. ek .3. MORPHOLOGY 19.ek karke sabhhi: vidhya:rthi: a:ye.5. mera: dost roz a:ta: h´. my friend daily come-ptc is My friend comes daily. maOM ivaSaoYa/ K.

’ saubah subah ‘morning.a.’ (f) Adverbs of purpose: pZ.5.nao ko ilae parhne ke liye ‘for reading. adverbs can be grouped into the following subclasses.3.aorI ko karNa kamzori: ke ka:ran ‘for the reason of weakness.virla: hi: koyi: ‘hardly any. and (e) particles.’ kama ko ilae ka:m ke liye ‘for work.’ (c) Adverbs of manner: AasaanaI sao a:sa:ni: se ‘easily. daOD. (d) reduplicated adverbs.’ kmaja.’ baahr ba:har ‘out/outside. he yesterday very fast ran He ran very fast yesterday.’ By form. (a) Adverbs of time/duration: Aaja a:j ‘today.’ (g) Comitative: X -ko saaqa -ke sa:th ‘with/ in the company of X.1.’ QaIro-QaIro dhi:redhi:re ‘slowly. Types of Adverbs Adverbs can be classified by form or function. MORPHOLOGY Preceding another adverb 3.’ caakU sao ca:ku: se ‘with knife.’ (e) Adverbs of instrument: klama sao kalam se ‘with pen. vah kla bahut toja.’ (d) Adverbs of reason: garIbaI ko karNa gari:bi: ke ka:ran ‘for the reason of poverty.’ ivarlaa hI kao[. vah kal bahut tez dørha:. (b) derived adverbs.’ (b) Adverbs of place or direction: AMdr andar ‘in/inside. 130 .’ and (h) Adverbs of degree/intensity: bahut bahut ‘very.’ kafI ka:phi: ‘enough. 3.’ kla kal ‘yesterday.’ lagaBaga lagbhag ‘approximately. adverbs can be classified into the following subgroups: (a) basic or non-derived adverbs. By function. (c) phrasal adverbs.

9.’ vahaÐ vah-ã:/ vahIM vahĩ:/ vahaÐ hI vahã: hi: ‘there. 8.’ Directional adverbs are formed by adding the suffix -sao -se/-kI -ki: or 131 . Locative adverbs are formed by adding the -[-M -ĩ:/ -AaM pr ã: par suffixes: yahaÐ yahã:/ yahIM pr yahĩ:(par) ‘here. she-erg own work happiness with did She did her work very happily.’ sada sada:/ hmaoSaa hameša: ‘always. ni:ce se u:par accha: dikhta: h´. ]sanao Apnaa kama KuSaI sao ikyaa. 5. baahr sao AMdr AiQak zMD. (b) Derived adverbs are formed by adding adverbial suffixes to the base form of demonstrative. vah hameša: acchi: mehnat karta: h´. he always good hard work do-ptc is He always works very hard. I-erg at once his talk agreed I agreed with what he said immediately. or adverbs. below from top good appear is It looks better at the top than at the bottom. and interrogative pronouns. outside from inside more cold is It is colder inside than outside. MORPHOLOGY (a) The basic or non-derived adverbs may be either pure adverbs like Aaja a:j ‘today. usne apna: ka:m khuši: se kiya:. vah hmaoSaa AcCI maohnat krta hO. relative. m´~ne jhat se uski: ba:t ma:n li:.’ or may be formed by adding the postposition se to nouns.a. adjectives.3. correlative. 6.’ khaÐ kahã:/ khIM kahĩ: ‘where. maOMnao JaT sao ]sakI baat maana laI. naIcao sao }pr AcCa idKta hO. 4. ]sanao ekdma sao maora haqa pkD.a hO. ba:har se andar adhik thãda: h´. usne ekdam se mera: ha:th pakra: he-erg at once my hand caught He caught hold of my hand at once. 7.

’ toja.kabhi: ‘sometimes. 132 .kBaI kabhi: .khaÐ kahã: kahã: ‘where’.kahã: gaya:.toja. calata hO.’ ]sa trh us tarah/ ]sa p`kar us praka:r ‘in that manner. 11. vah tIna idna ko baad/pScaat Aayaa. khaÐ. he slowly/fast walk-ptc is He walks slowly/quickly. vah QaIro. hama:re ghar ke pi:che ek bara: pa:rk h´. vah dhi:re. hmaaro Gar ko pICo ek baD. behind a big park is There is a big park behind our house. 10.’ iksa trh kis tarah ‘in which manner.3. kI.QaIro dhi:re-dhi:re ‘slowly.’ 13.a pak. MORPHOLOGY as in yahaÐ sao yahã: se/[Qar sao idhar se ‘in this direction. . usne patr parhne se pahle apnii ´nak sa:f ki:.toja. after came He came after three days. our house post.QaIro/ toja. ]sanao pZ.’ (c) Phrasal adverbs are formed by adding a simple or a compound postposition to a noun. he-erg letter read-inf-obl post before self’s glasses clean did He cleaned his glasses before reading the letter. 12.dhi:re/tez. tez.’ Manner adverbs are formed by adding the suffixes -trh tarah/p`kar praka:r as in [sa trh is tarah/ [sa p`kar is praka:r ‘in this manner. .hO. vah ti:n din ke ba:d/pašca:t a:ya:. aware neg he where where went One doesn’t know which places did he go to? 14. he three days post. kBaI.’ vahaÐ sao vahã: se/ vahaÐ kI Aaor vahã: ki: or/ ]Qar sao udhar se ‘in that direction’. (d) Adverbs can be reduplicated to show intensity and distribution: QaIro. khaÐ sao kahã: se/ khaÐ kI Aaor kahã: ki: or ‘in which direction.’ pta nahIM vah khaÐ. pata: nahĩ: vah kahã: .nao sao phlao ApnaI eonak saaf.tez calta: h´.khaÐ gayaa.tez ‘fast’.

night dat more hot neg remain-ptc It is not very hot during the night. Aap duphr kao Aa[e.’ 1. kabhi: na kabhi: vah apni: galti: ma:nega:. It is used in reporting time and not in expressions such as ek GaMTo ko baad ek ghante ke ba:d ‘after one hour.’ rat ra:t ‘night.’ kla kal ‘tomorrow/yesterday. vah dF. 3.5.2.2. GaMTa ghanta: ‘hour’ is used in the oblique case with a postposition. 3. General Time Expressions General time expressions employ nouns in the direct and oblique cases. you noon dat come-pol Please come at noon.3.5. MORPHOLOGY Reduplicated adverbs may be separated by the negative particle na to express indefiniteness: kBaI na kBaI kabhi: na kabhi: ‘sometime or other. The dative sufix kao ko is added to adverbs of time. a:p duphar ko a:yiye. kBaI na kBaI vah ApnaI galtI maanaogaI.2. Time of Day Time of day is expressed by bajao baje. rat kao AiQak gamaI. such as duphr duphar ‘noon.nahIM rhtI.2. she office from ten o’clock came-fs She came from the office at ten o’clock.’ In such cases. 133 .tr sao dsa bajao Aa[-. vah daftar se das baje a:yi:.’ idna din ‘day. 2. ra:t ko adhik garmi: nahĩ: rahti:. 3.1. sometime neg sometime he self’s mistake accept-fut He will realize his mistake some day.’ Saama ša:m ‘evening.’ 15.5. Expressions of Time 3.

o caar bajao gayaa. 134 . vah Co bajanao maoM dsa imanaT pr Aayaa. vah das minat kam che baje a:ya:. he ten minutes less six o’clock came He came at ten minutes to six. vah savaa/ paOna/o saaD. vah dsa imanaT kma Co bajao Aayaa. MORPHOLOGY 4. 6.’ The expressions ‘quarter. vah do ghante ke ba:d a:yi:. he quarter past/quarter to/half past four o’clock went He went at quarter past/quarter to/half past four. Two types of expressions are used to ask for the time. she two hour-obl post came-fs She came after two hours. vah che bajne me das minat par a:ya:. sanaya @yaa huAa/ hO? samay k’a: hua:/h´? time what happened/is What time is it? iktnao baja gae? kitne baj gaye? how much strike went What time is it? 7a. 5.3. vah søa:/pøne/sa:re ca:r baje: gaya:. vah dao GaMTo ko baad Aa[-. 7. he six o’clock-inf-obl in ten minute at came He came at ten minutes to six. 6a.’ ‘three-quarters.’ and ‘half an hour’ precede the numerals. The expression kma kam ‘less’ also is used. Expressons indicating minutes before the hour add the dative suffix to the infinitive of the verb followed by the postposition maoM me ‘in’.

ma:rg paOYa pøš maaGa ma:gh falgauna pha:lgun caOt` caitra April-May May-June June-July July-August August-September September-October October-November November-December December-January January-February February-March March-April 135 Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday .’ 3.’ saMQyaa sandhya: ‘dusk/evening. Period of Day Periods of day are usually expressed by various nouns in the direct or oblique case with or without postpositions: savaoro. daophr ko baad dophar ke ba:d ‘afternoon.’ dor sao der se ‘late.5.2. 1. MORPHOLOGY 3.3.’ Other frequent expressions are: p`at: kala pra:ta: ka:l ‘eary in the morning.4.’ daophr dophar ‘noon’.5. Days of the Week The days of the week are: saaomavaar somva:r maMgalavaar mangalva:r bauQavaar budhva:r gauÉvaar guruva:r Sauk`vaar šukrva:r Sainavaar šaniva:r/šani:car va:r rivavaar/[tvaar raviva:r/itva:r 3. Hindi months baOsaaK vaiša:kh jyaoYz jyešth AYaaZ.5.3. Months of the Year Months are expressed in both indigenous and English forms.2.’ rat kao ra:t ko ‘during the night’.5.2. aša:rh Eaavana šra:van Baad` bha:dr AaiSvana a:švin kait-k ka:rtik maaga.savaoro savere (savere) ‘early in the morning. idna maoM din me ‘during the day.

2. English nativized versions: janavarI janvari:. navaMbar navambar. isatmbar sitambar. idsaMbar disambar. 136 . 8.Co saaO vaYa-M i:sa: pu:rv che sø varš Christ before six hundred years six hundred years before Christ 3.mai:. Agast agast. is optionally followed by [-svaI i:svi:. Aip`la april. Similarly.’ and SaItkala ši:tka:l ‘winter.’ barsaat barsa:t ‘rainy season’.i:sa: pu:rv ‘before Christ’ are used to denote BC.julay. Hindus refer to their indigenous calendar as ibak`maI bikrami or Saak ša:k and Muslims as ihjarI hijiri:.7. frvarI pharvari:.6. Sard sharad ‘autumn.5. Seasons There are five major seasons: vasaMt vasant ‘spring.ar saaz ibak`maI maoM samvat do haza:r sa:th bikrami: me year two thousand sixty Bikrami in in the year 2060 Bikrami 9.3. 10. [-saa pUva.’ These terms can be followed by?tu ritu/ maaOsama møsim ‘season’ in both the direct and oblique cases with or without a postposition. The terms [-saa pUva. a reference to a year is usually to the year AD called [-svaI i:svi:.’ ga`ISma gri:šm ‘summer. 3.2. maacama:rc. jaUna ju:n. MORPHOLOGY 2. A@taobar akto:bar. The term sana\ san used before the Christian year.5. Year In Hindi. sana\ ]naIsa saaO saaz [-svaI maoM san uni:s sø sa:th i:svi: me year nineteen hundred sixty Christian era in in the year 1960 AD saMvat\ dao hja. jaula[. ma[. an indigenous year starts with saMvat\ samvat before the year and ends with ibak`maI bikrami.

3. spring (season) in flowers bloom-ptc are Flowers bloom during spring. tao to. vasant (ritu) me phu:l khilte h´. raoja. 1.6. 3.. The use of these particles with different word classes covers a wide range of shades of meaning and semantic interpretations. p`it idna hr GaMTo rat Bar vahr pla 12. raoja. 3. or p`it prati/ hr har ‘every’ before a time expression. raoja. Frequentative Frequentative expressions employ reduplication. Amar part went Amar also went. and maa~ ma:tra. vasaMt ³?tu´maoM fUla iKlato hOM. roz roz prati din har gante ra:t bhar har pal every day every day every hour whole night every moment vah raoja. an emphatic particle. amar bhi: gaya:. vah roz roz/ prati din p´se mã:gta: h´. Bar bhar. MORPHOLOGY 11. Particles Particles are generally attached to a particular word in a sentences to mark emphasis. or contrast. The Particle Bar bhi: ‘also’ The particle BaI bhi: is used with different types of nouns in the direct or oblique case. hI hi:. tk tak. The main particles used in Hindi are: BaI bhi:.5. / p`it idna pOsao maaÐgata hO. Amar BaI gayaa.1. 3.3. It immediately follows a noun in the direct case and the postposition in the oblique case.6. 137 . Here we will illustrate the use of these particles with detailed reference to the prominent particles BaI bhi: and hI hi:. he daily/every day money demand-ptc is He asks for money daily.

It is to be noted that BaI bhi: cannot be used between a noun and a postposition. house in part hot is It is hot in the house as well. MORPHOLOGY 2. committed a mistake. ate his meals.BaI hO. gamaI. larka: bhi: a:ya:. too. Amar kao BaI jaanaa hO. too. radha: se bhi: galti: hui:. Gar maoM BaI gamaI. hot part is It is hot. 5.hO.3. laD. Amar-dat part go-inf is Amar. 3. Radha-abl part mistake happened Radha. mohan ne bhi: roti: kha:yi:.hO. amar ko bhi: ja:na: h´. 4. But not 7a. *Gar BaI maoM gamaI.’ raQaa saoo BaI galtI hu[-.ka BaI Aayaa. garmi: bhi: h´. maaohna nao BaI raoTI Ka[-. will have to go. 138 . too. too. 6. ghar mẽ bhi: garmi: h´. In the oblique case. Mohan-erg part bread ate-fem Mohan. 7. BaI bhi: is placed immediately after the postposition following the noun. boy part came The boy also came. *ghar bhi: mẽ garmi: h´.

mauJao / tuJao BaI jaanaa hO. hmaoM/ Aapkao / ]nhMo BaI jaanaa hO. I/you/he-obl part go-inf aux I/you/he. relative. 139 . 8. I/you/he-obl part go-inf aux I/you. hamẽ/a:pko/unhẽ bhi: ja:na: h´. m´~/tu:/vah bhi: a:ya:. 14. indefinite.3. too. have to go. too. MORPHOLOGY It is also not used in vocative constructions. hma/ tuma / vao BaI Aae. maOM/ tU/ vah BaI Aayaa. we/you/they-obl part go-inf aux We/you/they. we/you/they part came We/you/they came too. The particle BaI bhi: can be used with all types of direct and oblique personal. have to go. demonstrative. will have to return. ham/tum/ve bhi: a:ye. I/you/he part came I/you/he came too.ko BaI *he! larke bhi: oh! boy-voc part 9. and reflexive pronouns. 11. mujhko/tujhko/usko bhi: va:pas a:na: h´. 10. too. 12. mujhe/tujhe bhi: ja:na: h´. 13. *saaohna BaI AaAao! *sohan bhi: ao! Sohan part come-voc *ho laD.’ mauJakao / tuJakao / ]sakao BaI vaapsa Aanaa hO.

MORPHOLOGY 15. vah maora /tumhara/ Aapka/ ]saka/ ]naka BaI daost hO. a:p mujhe koyi: bhi: kita:b de di:jiye. Aap mauJao kao[. saphal nahĩ: hõge.3. too. you won’t succeed. he/they part call bring. the particle BaI bhi: is placed after the postpositions. vah mujhse/tuma:hre se/a:pse/usse/unse bhi: bara: h´. he me/you/him/they also elder is He is older than me/you/him/her. a:p kitni: bhi: košiš ki:jiye. Aap iksaI kao BaI baulaa[e. 17. 140 . you me-dat any part book give-pl Please give me any book. ]sao/]sakaoo/ ]nhoM/]nakaoo BaI baulaa laa[e. Aap [sako baaro maoM BaI kuC kIijae. 20. vah mauJasao /tumharo sao/ Aapsao/]sasao/ ]nasao BaI baD. he my/your/his/their friend is part friend is He is my/your/his/their friend. a:p iske ba:re mẽ bhi: kuch ki:jiye. 18. In the oblique form of the indefinite pronouns. Please call him/her/them also. 21. 19. a:p kisi: ko bhi: bula:iye. you any-dat part call-pl Please call anyone. 16. you this-gen about part something do-pl Please do something for it. Aap iktnaI BaI kaoiSaSa kIijae safla nahIM haoMgao.BaI iktaba do dIijae. you how much part try do success neg be No matter how much you try. vah mera:/tumha:ra:/a:pka:/uska:/unka: bhi: dost h´. use/usko/unhẽ/unko bhi: bula: la:yie.a hO.

24. who-dat part go-inf.’ ijatnaa BaI jitna: bhi: ‘whatever. *a:p kisi: bhi: ko bula:yie. 25. vah Aaap jaOsaa BaI nahIM hO. The use of the particle BaI bhi: with relative pronouns represents different meanings: jaao BaI jo bhi: ‘whosoever’ or ‘whatsoever. jisko/jinko bhi: ja:na h´. you any part work want is do take Whatever work you want to do. 23. when part you come are book with bring past aux Whenever you come. 26. a:p jitna: bhi: p´sa: de sakte h´~.’ 22. kar li:jiye. a:p jo bhi: ka:m karna: cahte h´~. please give it. The use of the particle BaI bhi: with the indefinite pronouns kao[.’ jaba BaI jab bhi: ‘whenever.3. In the oblique case. represent different meanings: kao[.BaI koyi: bhi: ‘anyone. go ahead. ijasakao/ijanakao BaI jaanaa h¸O jaaAao/ calao jaaeÐ.koyi: and kuC kuch. ja:o/cale ja:yẽ. de di:jiye. the particle BaI bhi: is placed after the postpositions.’ Aap ijatnaa BaI pOsaa do sakto hOM¸ do dIijae. you as much part money give can give-pl Whatever money you can give. jab bhi: a:p a:te h´~. Aap jaao BaI kama krnaa caahto hOM¸ kr laIijae. is go go-subj Whosoever has to go may leave. he you like part neg is ‘He is not even like you. jaba BaI Aap Aato hOM¸ iktaba saaqa lao Aato hOM.’ 141 . bring your book with you.’ kuC BaI kuch bhi: ‘anything. *Aap iksaI BaI kao baulaa[e. MORPHOLOGY Not 21a. kita:b sa:th le a:te h´~. vah a:p j´sa: bhi: nahĩ: h´~.

is duka:n par kilo bhar bhi: ci:ni: nahĩ: h´. this work cannot be finished today. MORPHOLOGY 27. iktnao BaI maja. he would be able to do it. (30). 32. kitne bhi: mazdu:r kyõ na a:yẽ. the particle BaI bhi: is merely an emphatic marker. the expression kOsaa BaI k´sa: bhi: is a combined phrase meaning ‘any type of. vah larki: sundar bhi: h´ ør buddhima:n bhi:. In (32). vah a:p bhi: mehnat karta: h´.dUr @yaaoM na Aaeи yah kama Aaja nahIM hao sakta. he self part hard work do is others-obl dat part do-caus is He works hard himself and makes others work hard too. how much part laborers neg come-subj this work today neg possible No matter how many laborers come. vah kar lega:.3. Aap Apnao Aap/ svayaM / svat: BaI yah kama kr sakto hOM. 28. In the case of oblique forms. 29. [sa dukana pr iklaao Bar BaI caInaI nahIM hO. vah laD. du:srõko bhi: karva:ta: h´. k´sa: bhi: ka:m ho. In (29). you self part this work do-abl are You can do this work yourself. kOsaa BaI kama hao¸ vah kr laogaa. the 142 . yah ka:m a:j nahĩ: ho sakta:. and (31). The particle BaI bhi: is used with different types of adjectives. a:p apne a:p/svayam/ svatah bhi: yah ka:m kar sakte h´~. not between the pronoun and the postposition. the particle BaI bhi: is placed after the postposition. however.’ If BaI bhi: is deleted. It always follows the adjectives.kI sauMdr BaI hO AaOr bauiwmaana BaI. 31. vah Aap BaI maohnat krta hO¸ dUsaraoM kao BaI krvaata hO. 30. what type part work be he do explicator-fut No matter what type of work it is. that girl beautiful part is and intelligent part That girl is beautiful as well as intelligent. this shop at kilogram about part sugar neg is There is not even a kilogram of sugar in this shop.

vah krnao vaalaa BaI hO AaOr krvaanao vaalaa BaI. MORPHOLOGY sentence will be ungrammatical.3. too. ]saka Gar jaanaa BaI zIk nahI. he shop at go part is or neg Does he go to the shop or not? 37. his home go-ing part right neg was His going home was not good. the particle BaI bhi: is used for emphasis only. 36. 143 . he do-ing-obl part is and do-caus part He can do it himself and get it done. vah karne va:la: bhi: h´ ør karva:ne va:la: bhi:. vah duka:n par ja:ta: bhi: h´ ki nahĩ:.M qaa. The particle BaI bhi: is used with different forms of the verb hao ho ‘be’ and the auxiliary verb. uska: ghar ja:na: bhi: thi:k nahĩ: tha:. In the above examples. vah dukana pr jaata BaI hO ik nahIM. 38. 35. Barring the progressive forms. the particle BaI bhi: is used with different types of verbs. 33. maaohna hO (BaI) ik nahIM? mohan h´ (bhi:) ki nahĩ:? Mohan be (part) or neg Is Mohan there or not? vah haogaa BaI ik nahIM? vah hoga: bhi: ki nahĩ:? he be-fut part or neg Will he be there or not? Aap AaeÐgao BaI ik nahIM? a:p a:yẽge bhi: ki nahĩ:? you come-fut part or neg Will you come or not? 34.

he-abl being-inf-obl part let Let him bring (it). The particle BaI bhi: can be used with conjunct verbs. he-erg saw part was He had seen it. a:p a:ye bhi: ør cale bhi: gaye. vah kha: bhi: raha: h´. *vah kha: raha: bhi: h´. vah Ka BaI rha hO AaOr baatoM BaI kr rha hO. he eat part prog is He has been eating. vah Ka BaI rha hO. usne dekha: bhi: tha:. ]sao laanao BaI dao. 40. you-dat there went-obl part many days passed It is a long time since you have gone over there. . It is to be noted that the particle BaI bhi: cannot follow the progressive aspect marker rha raha:. Not 42a. Aapkao vahaÐ gae BaI bahut idna hao gae. 41. 42.3. 43. use la:ne bhi: do. *vah Ka rha BaI hO. ]sanao doKa BaI qaa. 144 44. you came part and go-obl part went You came and have left. too. a:p ko vahã: gaye bhi: bahut din ho gaye. MORPHOLOGY 39. he eat part prog is and talk part do-prog is He is eating as well as talking. vah kha: bhi: raha: h´ ør ba:tẽ bhi: kar raha: h´. It is used either between the main verb and the operator (auxiliary verb) or following the main verb and the operator as follows. Aap Aae BaI AaOr calao BaI gae.

he came part neg He did not even go there. 49. he his home went part but he-dat met part neg able He did go to his house. but could not meet him. m´~ne citthi: likh bhi: di: h´. maOMnao icaT\zI ilaK BaI dI hO. The particle BaI bhi: is also used between the main verb and the negative marker. MORPHOLOGY 45. I-erg letter write part gave (explicator) is I have written a letter. too.3. vah a:ya: bhi: nahĩ:. now go-inf-obl part let Now let it go. . vah vahã: gaya: bhi: nahĩ:. rmaoSa BaI Aayaa nahIM. vah Aayaa BaI nahIM. he came part neg He did not even come. rameš bhi: a:ya: nahĩ:. 145 50. vah ]sako Gar gayaa BaI magar ]sao imala BaI na saka. Notice the change of meaning in the use of the particle BaI bhi: different from the lexical meaning ‘also’ in the following examples. vah jaaegaa BaI yaa baOza hI rhogaa. vah ja:yega: bhi: ya: b´tha: hi: rahega:. Ramesh part came neg Even Ramesh did not come. Aba jaanao BaI dao. 47. vah uske ghar gaya: bhi:. 48. he go-fut part or sit part remain-fut Will he go or keep on sitting? vah vahaÐ gayaa BaI nahIM. magar use mil bhi: na saka:. 51. 46. ab ja:ne bhi: do.

go-inf-obl part let-imp Let it go. paÐca BaI baja gae¸ vah Aayaa nahIM. too. 53. 56. there part See-imp Please look over there. baar baar BaI jaanaa zIk nahIM hO. ja:ne bhi: do. din bhar bhi: yahã: ka:m na hua:. pã:c bhi: baj gaye. again part go-inf right neg is It is not good to go time and again. vah a:ya: nahĩ:. idna Bar BaI yahaÐ kama na huAa. day part here work neg be-part The work could not be done for the whole day over here. rahne bhi: do. 146 .3. MORPHOLOGY 52. yahã: bhi: thãd h´. ba:r ba:r bhi: ja:na thi:k nahĩ: h´. jaanao BaI dao. vahaÐ BaI doKao. 55. yahaÐ BaI zMD. too. 54. vahã: bhi: dekho. The particle BaI bhi: can be used with different types of adverbs. five part struck went he came neg It is now five o’clock and he has not come. hO. remain-inf-obl part let-imp Let it be. here part cold is It is cold over here. 57. 58. rhnao BaI dao.

he for this part went perhaps money get-subj He went in the hope of getting money. somehow part be he com-fut He will come somehow.’ jahaÐ BaI jahã: bhi: ‘where ever’ khIM BaI kahĩ: bhi: ‘anywhere. 147 . uske pa:s bhi: ka:m nahĩ: h´. 63.’ jahaÐ khIM BaI jahã: kahĩ: bhi: ‘in any place whatsoever. he-gen-abl near part work neg is He. 62.3.’ The particle BaI bhi: is used after certain case markers and /or postpositions as well.’ ifr BaI phir bhi: ‘yet’ ‘even so. even if I don’t. j´se bhi: ho vah a: ja:yega:. I neg part go-subj you definitely go-inf-imp You should go. kBaI haÐ BaI kraogao? kabhi: hã: bhi: karoge? sometime yes part do-fut Will you ever say yes? yah BaI nahIM kraogao tao @yaa kraogaoo? yeh bhi: nahĩ: karoge to kya: karoge? this part neg do-fut part what do-fut If you are not able to do this much. jaOsao BaI hao vah Aa jaaegaa. 61.’ ‘even so. what else will you do? 60.’ jaba BaI jab bhi: ‘whenever. too. vah isliye bhi: gaya: ša:yad p´se milẽ. MORPHOLOGY 59. The use of the particle BaI bhi: with different adverbs represents different meanings: Aba BaI ab bhi: ‘even now’ tba BaI tab bhi: ‘even then. 64. m´~ na bhi: ja:ũ: tum zaru:r ja:na:. doesn’t have work. ]sako pasa BaI kama nahIM hO. maOM na BaI jaa}Ð tuma ja.$r jaanaa. vah [sailae gayaa Saayad pOsao imalao.

148 . vah mere sa:th bolta: bhi: nahĩ:. ør bhi: accha: hua:. The meanings are represented in the following examples. blue saree in she more beautiful appear-ptc-is She appears more beautiful in a blue sari. work easy part is and interesting part The work is easy and interesting. [sako ibanaa BaI kama haogaa.I maoM vah AaOr BaI sauMdr lagatI hO. he I-poss-obl with speak-ptc part neg He doesn’t even talk with me.nahIM Aayaa. ni:li: sa:ri: mẽ vah ør bhi: sundar lagti: h´. ]sako badlao BaI kao[. ka:m a:sa:n bhi: h´ ør dilcasp bhi:. he-gen-obl place part someone neg came No one came in his place.3. MORPHOLOGY 65. From the semantic point of view. uske badle bhi: koyi: nahĩ: a:ya:. AaOr BaI AcCa huAa.’ 67. The particle BaI bhi: used with AaOr ør ‘and’ indicates the meaning of ‘more. 66. more good happened It is better still. this-gen-obl without part work be-fut The work can be done even without it. vah maoro saaqa baaolata BaI nahIM. too. 68. 70. 69. kama Aasaana BaI hO AaOr idlacasp BaI. iske bina: bhi: ka:m hoga:. naIlaI saaD. BaI bhi: represents different meanings depending on its use in different contexts.

73. BaI bhi: represents the general meaning of ‘too. maaÐ kao doKkr baccaa AaOr BaI ja. it cannot be interchanged with hI hi:. AaOr BaI ør bhi: represents the meaning of ‘more. ]sao maora sauJaava ibalkula BaI / hI psaMd na Aayaa. and (71) respectively. mã: ko dekh kar bacca: ør bhi: zor se cila:ya:. apple small is even then part sweet is Despite of being small.’ The particle BaI bhi: can be used interchangeably with hI hi: in certain examples with no change in the meaning. seb chota: h´ phir bhi: mi:tha: h´. In such cases. 72. kuC BaI kuch bhi: represents the meaning of ‘anything. In (72). mother-dat see-cp child more part loudly cried On seeing the mother. saoba CaoTa hO ifr BaI maIza hO. ifr BaI phir bhi: represents the meaning of ‘even then. ]sao kuC BaI samaJa maoM nahIM Aayaa. In the above sentences.3. 74. the apple is sweet. use kuch bhi: samajh mẽ nahĩ: a:ya:. 149 .’ In (73).’ ‘even’ and ‘let’ in the sentences (69). MORPHOLOGY 71. 75. Wherever BaI bhi: adds meaning to the sentence.aor sao raoyaa.’ and in (74). he-dat my suggestion exact part like neg came He did not like my suggestion at all. (70). he-dat anything understand in neg came He was not able to understand anything. use mera: sujha:v bilkul bhi:/hi: pasand na a:ya:. jaanao BaI dao. go-inf-obl part let-imp Let it go. ja:ne bhi: do. the child cried more loudly. the use of the particle BaI bhi: or hI hi: is meant to emphasize only.

’ kao[.’ tU hI tu: hi: ‘thou thyself. naIlaI saaD. a:p hi: bata:yiye.’ 1. 3.3. the particle hI hi: can be used as an emphatic marker with nouns. maOM hI Aa}Ðgaa.2. koyi: hi: yah ka:m kar sakta: h´. kao[.I maoM vah AaOr BaI sauMdr lagatI hO. ni:li: sa:ri: mẽ vah ør bhi: sundar lagti: h´. kuC hI laaoga Aae qao. MORPHOLOGY 76. some part people came aux Hardly a few people had come. any part this work do able-ptc aux Hardly anyone can do this work. It can also be used with different types of pronouns in both the direct and the oblique cases: maOM hI m´~ hi: ‘I myself. *naIlaI saaD. Aap hI bata[e. kuch hi: log a:ye the.hI koi: hi: ‘hardly anyone. 2. 4. m´~ hi: a:ũ:ga:.6. Adding the emphatic particle hI hi: to certain words results in certain phonological changes. The particle hI hi: The particle hI hi: is generally used for emphasis and also in the sense of ‘exclusiveness’ or ‘alone. 150 .’ kuC hI kuch hi: ‘hardly anything.’ ‘hardly a few. I past come-fut I will come myself. blue sari in she more part beautiful appear is She looks more beautiful in the blue sari.’ As indicated above.hI yah kama kr sakta hO. you part say You say (it) yourself. 76a. *ni:li: sa:ri: mẽ vah ør hi: sundar lagti: h´.’ Aap hI a:p hi: ‘you yourself. 3.I maoM vah AaOr hI sauMdr lagatI hO.

everybody When hI hi: is preceded by pronouns in the oblique case.’ or ‘one another. (c) mauJa mujh + hI hi: = mauJaI mujhi: tuJa tujh + hI hi: = tuJaI tujhi: yah yah + hI hi: = yahI yahi: vah vah + hI hi: = vahI vahi: hma ham + hI hi: = hmaIM hamĩ: me myself you yourself this itself he himself we ourselves In certain cases.’ When Aap a:p is followed by hI hi:. or hma ham.3. and a compound of these two Apnao Aap apne-a:p ‘by oneself’. ]sa us. Aapsa a:pas meaning ‘each other. tuJa tujh. Hindi has only four reflexive pronouns: Aap a:p. is the logical subject of the sentences. Its use with reflexive pronouns is quite interesting. vah vah. exclusiveness is dropped in the preceding word and the final vowel is nasalized. as a rule. 151 . MORPHOLOGY (a) Aba ab + hI hi: = ABaI abhi: tba tab + hI hi: = tBaI tabhi: saba sab + hI hi: = saBaI sabhi: just now just then all. it has an adjectival intensifying force and qualifies a noun or a pronoun which. yah yah. yahaÐ yahã: + hI hi: = yahIM yahĩ: jahaÐ jahã: + hI hi: = hI jahIM jahĩ: vahaÐ vahã: + hI hi: = vahIM vahĩ: khaÐ kahã: + hI hi: = khIM kahĩ: at this very place wherever at that very place somewhere The emphatic particle hI hi: is frequently used with different types of pronouns. the h h is elided. and ijasa jis. iksa kis. (b) [sa is ]sa us iksa kis hI jis + hI hi: = [saI isi: + hI hi: = ]saI usi: + hI hi: = iksaI kisi: + hI hi: = ijasaI jisi: this very that same someone the very one which The h h is dropped when preceded by mauJa mujh. its oblique forms Apnaa apna: and Apnao apne. such as [sa is.

they self part come-fut They themselves will come. Aap hI a:p hi: can be used as an adverb to mean ‘of one’s own accord. 8. mujhe a:p hi: ja:na: parega:. Syaama nao Aap hI yah icaT\zI ilaKI hO. Mohan self part there went Mohan went there on his own. maaohna Aap hI vahaÐ gayaa. mauJao Aap hI jaanaa pD. he in self part courage neg is He himself has no courage. 152 . 7. uska: a:p hi: diva:la: nikal ja:yega: he -gen self part bankrupt come go-fut He will himself become bankrupt. ve a:p hi: a:yẽge. 6.ogaa. mohan a:p hi: vahã: gaya:. vah Aap hI Asptala gayaa. me-dat self part go-inf fall-fut I shall have to go myself. he self part hospital went He went to the hospital on his own. 9.3. ]samaoM Aap hI saahsa nahIM hO. Shyam-erg self part this letter wrote is Shyam has himself written this letter. vao Aap hI AaeÐgao. šya:m ne a:p hi: yah citthi: likhi: h´. ]saka Aap hI idvaalaa inakla jaaegaa. MORPHOLOGY 5. Aap hI a:p hi: sometimes qualifies nouns or pronouns which are not the logical subjects of the sentences. vah a:p hi: aspata:l gaya:.’ 11. usmẽ a:p hi: sa:has nahĩ: h´. 10.

ra:dha: a: hi: rahi: thi:. Amar ko Aato hI maaohna calaa gayaa. amar ke a:te hi: mohan cala: gaya:. Radha come-prog was-f Radha was coming. maaohna jaaegaa. 13b. mohan ja:yega:. Mohan left. 14a. ra:dha: a: rahi: thi:. raQaa Aa hI rhI qaI. 153 . 16a. m´~ gaya: nahĩ:. mohan ja:yega: hi:. 15a. raQaa Aa rhI qaI. vah a:j gaya: hoga:. he today went be-presumptive He might have gone today. MORPHOLOGY It is interesting to note the different shades of the meanings of the particle hI hi: in the following sentences. 14b.3. Radha was come-part-prog was-f Radha was just coming. 12. Amar-gen-come-ptc part mohan went As soon as Amar came. maaohna jaaegaa hI. I went part neg I did not go. 15b. maOM gayaa hI nahIM. 13a. Mohan go-fut part Mohan will certainly go. Mohan go-fut Mohan will go. m´~ gaya: hi: nahĩ:. vah Aaja gayaa haogaa. maOM gayaa nahIM. I went part neg I did not go at all.

accha: hũ: good am I am fine. he today part went be-presumptive He might have gone just today. bacce ne tasvi:r kya: dekhi:. the child has torn off the picture. baccao nao tsvaIr @yaa doKI¸ tsvaIr hI faD. 18a. AcCa hI hUÐ. this good happened It is good. kuC AaOr hI maja. tasvi:r (hi:) pha:r da:li: child-erg picture what saw picture (emp) tear explicator-past Instead of seeing it. DalaI.3. kuch ør hi: maza: a:ya: some more part enjoyment came It was quite a different kind of enjoyment. kuC AaOr maja. accha: hi: hũ:.a Aayaa. 20. MORPHOLOGY 16b. vah a:j hi: gaya: hoga:. yah AcCa huAa. 154 . good part am I am fine (emphatic). yeh accha: hua:. 18b. yah AcCa hI huAa. 17b. vah Aaja hI gayaa haogaa. 17a. yeh accha: hi: hua:. this good part happened It is good (emphatic). 19b.a Aayaa. 19a. kuch ør maza: a:ya:. some more enjoyment came It was an extra enjoyment. AcCa hUÐ.

1. the particle hI hi: adds different shades of meaning depending on its use. 2. 3. he he-gen+obl near part went but said neg He did go near him. candle part found match-box neg The candle was found. maaomabatI tao imalaI¸ idyaasalaa[. MORPHOLOGY In sentence (12). besides its use for emphasis.’ In (13b). The particle to is also added to the negative marker nahIM nahĩ:. use andar a:ne to do. it adds the meaning ‘at all. par bola: nahĩ:. The Particle tao to The particle tao to is mostly used as an emphatic marker and also denotes contrast. it makes the adjectives emphatic. 3. vah Aayaa tao hO. diya:sala:yi: nahĩ:. he-dat inside come-inf+obl part let Let him come inside. vah ]sako pasa tao gayaa¸ pr baaolaa nahIM. but did not speak.6.nahIM.3.’ In (16b) and (17b). 4.’ In (14b). vah uske pa:s to gaya:.’ In (15b).’ Thus. the particle hI hi: adds the meaning ‘certainly. the particle hI hi: adds the meaning of ‘just. he came part is He has come indeed. vah a:ya: to h´. mombati: to mili:. (but) not the matchbox.’ 155 . ]sao AMdr Aanao tao dao.3. By adding the particle hI hi: to kuC AaOr kuch ør in sentence (19b). it gives the meaning ‘different kind of. the particle hI hi: becomes part of the verb adding the meaning ‘as soon as. The phrase nahIM tao nahĩ: to has several uses including as an emphatic negative reply denoting ‘surprise’ or ‘disapproval.

In sentence (7). 156 . yaid tuma Gar gae tao pCtaAaogao. yadi tum ghar gaye to pachta:oge. toja. MORPHOLOGY 5. 5a. when he-dat know be-past part he cry-inf-obl starts When he came to know. Fast walk neg part train miss-fut Walk fast. jab use ma:lu:m hua. to bhi: m´~ uske sa:th nahĩ: ja:ũ:ga:. (then) he began to cry. nahĩ: to ga:ri: chu:t ja:yegi:. calaao¸ nahIM tao gaaD. nahIM tao nahĩ: to means ‘otherwise.’ 8.3.’ In its adverbial use.I CUT jaaegaI. tez calo. 8a.’ 6.’ 7. As a coordinate conjunction. Agar vah khogaa BaI¸ tao BaI maOM ]sako saaqa nahIM jaa}Ðgaa. tao BaI to bhi: can be replaced by ifr BaI phir bhi: ‘even so. tao to is a correlative of jaba jab ‘when’ or of yaid yadi ‘if’ and it signifies ‘then. to vah rone laga:. yet. neg part Not really/Not at all. nahĩ: to. If he say-fut part part ĩ he-gen-obl with neg go-fut Even if he says so. Another use in combination with the particle BaI bhi: indicates ‘yet. (then) you will repent. jaba ]sao maalaUma huAa¸ tao vah raonao lagaa. otherwise you will miss the train. Aap Aagara gae qao? a:p a:gra: gaye the? you Agra went were Did you go to Agra? nahIM tao. agar vah kahega: bhi:. I will not go with him. even so. if you home went part repent-fut If you go to your home.

4. jaba tk Aap Aa&a nahIM doMgao. there reach-inf-obl part two days take-fut It will take two days to reach there. tk tak is used in the sense of ‘up to’ or ‘until. usne meri: ba:t tak nahĩ: suni:. he-erg wire part neg sent He did not even send a telegram. The Particle tk tak ‘up to’ The particle tk tak has two primary meanings: as the limited particle ‘even’ and as the postposition ‘up to. I will not go. m´~ nahĩ: ja:ũ:ga:. vah kla tk ja. vahã: pahũcne tak do din lagẽge.4. when part you permission neg give-fut I neg go-fut Until you permit me.’ 1. he tomorrow part money return-fut He will return the money by tomorrow. vah kal tak p´sa: løta:yega:. 157 . vahaÐ phuÐcanao tk dao idna lagaoMgao.6. vah kla tk pOsaa laaOTaegaa. usne ta:r tak nahĩ: bheja:. 5. vah kal tak zaru:r a:yega:.3. As a postposition. jab tak a:p a:gya: nahĩ: dẽge. 6. 2.’ 3. he-erg my talk part neg listened He did not even listen to what I said. maOM nahIM jaa}Ðgaa. he tomorrow part definitely come-fut He will come by tomorrow definitely. MORPHOLOGY 3.$r Aaegaa. ]sanao maorI baat tk nahIM saunaI. ]sanao tar tk nahIM Baojaa.

maITr Bar kpD. he day part slept remained He slept for the whole day. he kilogram part milk one time drink able-ptc aux He can drink a kilogram of milk at a time. Bar bhar denotes the meanings ‘the entire…. country part in election be prog are The elections are being held throughout the entire country. deš bhar mẽ cuna:v ho rahe h´~.’ and ‘just. and other parts of speech. it acts like a suffix.’ ‘weighing a…. In this meaning.’ 4.’ ‘a…ful. mi:tar bhar kapra: de di:jiye. MORPHOLOGY 3. home in handful part rice neg is There is not even a handful of rice in the house.a do dIoijae. he-erg moment part rest neg did He did not rest even for a moment. ghar mẽ mutthi: bhar ca:val nahĩ: h´. usne pal bhar bhi: a:ra:m nah´~ kiya:. ‘only. 1. 158 5. Unlike the English suffix -full.6.’ ‘the whole…. vah kilo bhar du:dh ek ba:r pi: sakta: h´. doSa Bar maoM caunaava hao rho hOMO. The Particle Bar bhar The particle Bar bhar denotes the meaning of ‘measuring a …. it is a separate word which can be attached to nouns. meter part cloth give-fut Please give (a piece of ) cloth measuring a meter. 2. adjectives. vah iklaao Bar dUQa ek baar pI sakta hO. 6. vah idna Bar saaoyaa rha. As a particle. 3. Gar maoM mauT\zI Bar caavala nahIM hO.5.’ etc. vah din bhar soya: raha:. forming the adjectives from nouns. verbs. ]sanao pla Bar BaI Aarama nahIM ikyaa.3. .

ghar bhar mẽ bacce šor karte rahe. home part in children noise do-pr remained The children made noise throughout the entire house.’ In Sanskrit. The Particle maa~ ma:tr The particle maa~ ma:tr is borrowed from Sanskrit and means ‘only’ or ‘whole. khari:dte nahĩ:. 3. mujhe sø rupaye ma:tr di:jiye. 2. 8.’ It is also used as a separate word. Notice that in sentence (8). Aap kovala iktaba dIijae. the particle maa~ ma:tr is an equivalent of kovala keval or hI hi: ‘only.’ Aap doKto Bar hao¸ KrIdto nahIM. Aap iktaba maa~ dIijae. a:p dekhte bhar ho. 1b. Bar bhar can be replaced by the particle hI hi:.6. You book part give-fut Please give only the book. a:p kita:b ma:tr di:jiye. Please give just the book. me hundred rupees part give-fut Please give me a hundred rupees only. a:p keval kita:b di:jiye. a:p kita:b hi: di:jiye. 1. 159 1a.’ ‘alone. MORPHOLOGY 7. ivaQyaa vidhya: + maa~ ma:tr = ivaQyaamaa~ vidhya:ma:tr only learning only a moment pla pal + maa~ ma:tr = plamaa~ palma:tr maanava ma:nav + maa~ ma:tr = maanavamaa~ ma:navma:tr all of humanity In Hindi. Aap iktaba hI dIijae. mauJao saaO Épe maa~ dIijae. .3. it is used as a suffix and is attached to nouns. you see-pr part be purchase-pr neg You only look but do not purchase. Gar Bar maoM baccao Saaor krto rho.6. Please give only the book.

kovala ]sanao yah kama nahIM ikyaa. (ii) poly-morphemic. and (iii) phrasal.varna: @yaaoMik kyõki Agar agar and but but otherwise because ‘if’ yaa ik bailk [sa ilae taik halaaMik ya: ki balki isi: liye ta:ki ha:lã:ki or that rather that is why. It can be replaced by Bar keval as in (3a). maa~ ]sanao yah kama nahIM ikyaa.7. keval usne yah ka:m nahĩ: kiya:.3. part he-erg this work neg did He was the only one not to do this work. connectives are divided into three classes: (i) monomorphemic. 2b. mauJao kovala saaO Épe dIijae. the use of various particles in Hindi is important from a semantic point of view. mujhe keval sø rupaye di:jiye. ma:tra usne yah ka:m nahĩ: kiya:. AaOr ør laoikna lekin magar magar vanaa. 3a. The particle Bar ma:tr can also be used in the initial position in sentences. mujhe ma:tr sø rupaye di:jiye. Connectives Connectives are words that join two elements. mauJao maa~ saaO Épe dIijae. To sum up. 3. 3. therefore so that ‘though’ Structurally. Besides their use as emphatic markers. 160 . They are frequently used in different dialects and styles of speech in Hindi. MORPHOLOGY 2a. they cover a wide range of meanings and further shades of meanings when used in combination with various word classes.

2. 3. If you say-fut then I come-fut If you say so then I will come. 1.1. I house went and Amar market went I went home and Amar went to the market. is liye m´~ne bhi: nahĩ: kha:ya:. therefore I also didn’t eat. such as Agar agar … tao to ‘if … then. 3. maOM Aaja kalaoja nahIM gayaa¸ @yaaoMik maorI tbaIyat zIk nahIM hO.2.3.7. I today college neg went because my health right neg be Today I didn’t go to college because I am not well.aar gayaa. Agar tuma khao tao maOM Aa}Ðgaa. you here come-fut or I there come-fut You will come here or I will come there. 161 . 4. MORPHOLOGY 3.’ 5.7. maOM Gar gayaa AaOr Amar baaj. usne kha:na: nahĩ: kha:ya:. m´~ a:j ka:lej nahĩ: gaya: kyũki meri: tabiyat thi:k nahĩ:h´.3. m´~ ghar gaya: ør amar ba:za:r gaya:. 3. He food neg ate for that I part neg eat He did’t eat the food. Mono-morphemic Mono-morphemic is composed of only one morpheme.7. agar tum kaho to m´~ a:ũga:. tum idhar a:oge ya: m´~ udhar a:ũ:ga:. tuma [Qar AaAaogao yaa maOM ]Qar Aa}Ðgaa. Phrasal Phrasals consist of two elements interrupted by intervening words. ]sanao Kanaa nahIM Kayaa¸ [sailae maOMnao BaI nahIM Kayaa. Poly-morphemic Poly-morphemics are composed of two or more morphemes.

In Hindi. surprise. and disgust.3. Aaha / Aha / vaah . An interjection is in the vocative case and has no grammatical relation with any other word in the sentence. anger. ho Bagavaana! he bhagva:n! O God! O boy! Aao laD. vaah / KUba / SaabaaSa baoTo tumanao AcCa kama ikyaa! va:h/khu:b/ša:ba:š bete tumne accha: ka:m kiya:! oh son-voc you-erg good work did Oh (my) son. interjections are used as independent words or they can be prefixed to nouns. you have done good work! Sorrow or grief is expressed by: haya ha:y! ha ha:! Aha a:h! ]f uph! Afsaaosa afsos! 3.va:h! 4. pleasure. Aaoh / Aroo / Aaohao / @yaa tuma Aa gae! oh/are/oho/kya: tum a: gaye! o/what you came O you came! Applause is expressed by: vaah va:h! KUba khu:b! SaabaaSa ša:ba:š! 2. haya / ha / Aah /]f /Afsaaosa yah @yaa huAa! ha:y/ha:/a:h/uph/afsos yah kya: hua:! alas this what happened Alas what happened! Joy is expressed by: Aaha a:ha:! Aha aha:! vaah vaah va:h .ko! o larke! Surprise is expressed by: Aaoh oh! Aroo are! Aaohao oho! @yaa kya:! 1.8.vaah @yaa sauMdr jagah hO! a:ha:/aha:/va:h-va:h kya: sundar jaga:h h´! oh what beautiful place is Oh what a beautiful place! 162 . Interjections Interjections express some emotions such as pain. MORPHOLOGY 3.

8. 11. 7. haya ro maOM lauT gayaa! ha:y re m´~ lut gaya: oh I rob went(explicator) Oh I am robbed (of everything)! Certain nouns. @yaaoM haya haya kr rho hao? kyõ ha:y ha:y kar rahe ho? why expression of ditress do-prp be Why are you raising the hue and cry? 163 . pronouns. adjectives and verbs are used as interjections. CI ( CI )/ qaU / iQa@kar iktnaa gaMda hO! chi: (chi:)/thu:/dikka:r kitna: ganda: h´! shame. 9. 10.3. MORPHOLOGY Disgust or disapproval is expressed by: CI chi: (CI chi:)! qaU thu:! iQa@kar dhikka:r! 5. rama rama ra:m ra:m! (expresses sympathy or disapproval) baap ro baap ba:p re ba:p! (expresses surprise or distress) AcCa accha:! (expresses surprise) @yaa kya:! (expresses surprise) jaa mar ja: mar! (expresses rebuke) Some interjections can be used as nouns. how dirty is Shame. 12. how dirty it is! Distress is expressed by: haya ro ha:y re! 6.

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Noun Phrase A noun phrase is defined as a nominal head preceded by one or more modifiers. limiters and comparative. 1. Attributive adjectives immediately precede a nominal head as a modifier. A noun or a pronoun can be the minimum constituent of a noun phrase. maaohna kI CaoTI baoTI sauMdr hO. Mohan-gen-fpl small daughters go-prog are Mohan’s younger daughters are going. It also serves as a nucleus of a postpositional phrase.1. mohan ki: choti: betiyã: ja rahi: h´~. 165 2.g. aji:t ke do mitr a:ye Ajit-gen-mpl two friends came Ajit’s two friends came.kI sundar larki: ‘beautiful girl. aji:t ka: bara: beta: a:ya:. . Ajit-gen-ms elder son came Ajit’s elder son came. maaohna kI CaoTI baoiTyaaÐ jaa rhI hOM. SYNTAX 4. Mohan-gen-f younger daughter beautiful is Mohan’s younger daughter is beautiful. and superlative markers.a baoTa Aayaa.4. emphatic markers. mohan ki: choti: beti: sundar h´.’ Possessive adjectives precede the head noun as modifiers in noun phrases. equative. quantifiers. 3. 4. They may or may not also be preceded by an appropriate form of the genitive postposition ka ka:/ ko ke/ kI ki: agreeing in gender and number with the object noun. Syntax 4. numerals. nayaa kaoT naya: kot ‘new coat’ and sauMdr laD.. e. AjaIt ko dao ima~ Aae. It may function as a subject or object (indirect or direct) predicative complement or as a direct object of a postposition. Structure of Phrases 4.. AjaIt ka baD.1.1. A nominal may be modified by a variety of modifiers such as adjectives.

’ phlaa pahla: ‘first’.. 166 . caaOqaa cautha: ‘fourth’). A definite determiner involves either a demonstrative/personal pronoun or a zero marking as given in (6). Besides determiners. lagaBaga lagbhag ‘about. and the numeral ek ek ‘one. (ii) cardinal/ multiplicative/fraction (e. dUsara du:sra: ‘second’.koi: ‘some(one)’ are used in place of an indefinite article. pahla: bacca: hameša: lajji:la: hota: h´.. Definite + Cardinal + Noun 7.’ dao do ‘two.’ AaQaa iklaao a:dha: kilo ‘half a kilogram’). a noun may be preceded by quantifiers and numerals in the form of (i) approximate/ordinal (e. ek ek ‘one.. caaOqaa Baaga cøtha: bha:g/ihsaa hisa: ‘one-fourth. tIsara Baaga ti:sra: bha:g/ ihsaa hisa: ‘one-third’.’). The numeral ek ek and the indefinite pronoun kao[. ye ca:r kami:zẽ acchi: h´~ these four shirts good are These four shirts are good.’ duganaa dugna: ‘twice.ek laD. It is only the context which disambiguates the potential ambiguity present in the above two sentences.’ iklaao kilo ‘kilogram.g.’ AaQaa a:dha: ‘half’.ka koi:/ek larka: some /a/one boy yah/vah baccaa yah/vah bacca: this/that child 6.4. kao[. tIsara ti:sra: ‘third’.’ kovala keval ‘only.g.I jori: ‘pair’.’ itganaa tigna: ‘three-fold. yao caar kmaIja. The concept of definiteness and indefiniteness is expressed indirectly by means of pronouns.oM AcCI hOM.g. phlaa baccaa hmaoSaa lajaIlaa haota hO. Definite + Ordinal + Noun 8.’ 5. dja-na darjan ‘dozen. and (iii) collective/measure (e. jaaoD.’ krIba kari:b ‘almost. SYNTAX There is no distinct category of articles used in Hindi.

~ these first two essays print-inf-obl suitable are These first two essays are worth publishing. vao paÐca baaoiryaaÐ caavala ipClao saala kI hOM. yah dUsara vaalaa AaQaa iklaao caavala zIk nahIM hO. Definite + Cardinal + Collective 10. yao saBaI iktabaoM maOMnao pZ. these all books I-erg read-past-fp are I have read all these books.I hOM. Notice that quantifiers such as saaro sa:re/ tmaama tama:m ‘all’ follow a head noun when the head noun is a pronoun. ye pahle do lekh chapne yogya h´. this second half kilogram rice good not is This second half kilogram of rice is not good. Definite + Cardinal + Measure 11. SYNTAX first child always shy be-ptc The first child is always shy. Definite + Ordinal + Cardinal + Noun 9. 167 . ye sabhi: kita:bẽ m´~ne parhi: h´~.o taja. yah du:sra:(va:la:) a:dha: kilo ca:val thi:k nahĩ: h´. yao tIna dja-na AMD. those five sacks rice last year gen-fp are Those five sacks of rice are last year’s.4.o hOM. 13. ye ti:n darjan ãde ta:ze h´. ve pã:c boriyã: ca:val pichle sa:l ki: h´~. yao phlao dao laoK Cpnao yaaogya hOM.~ these three dozen eggs fresh are These three dozen eggs are fresh. Definite + Ordinal + Fractional + Measure 12.

17. superlative and equative structures are formed by adding certain morphological forms after the head noun. ham sa:re niša:t ba:g s´r karne ja:yẽge. hma saaro inaSaat baaga saOr krnao jaaeÐgao. Limiters such as isaf. mother also came and child too The mother came and so did the child. kovala yao phlao dao baccao [imthana maoM baOzo.AaOr baccaa BaI. 19.4. naIrja saunaIla sao bauiwmaana hO. 168 . vah mere se mota: h´. 15. keval ye pahle do bacce imtiha:n mẽ b´the. 18. maaÐ BaI Aa[. he is me-gen-abl than fat is He is fatter than me. Comparative. whereas emphatic particles -hI -hi: ‘only’ and BaI bhi: ‘also’ follow the head noun. Neeraj Sunil than intelligent is Neeraj is more intelligent than Sunil. vah maoro sao maaoTa hO. mã: bhi: a:yi: ør bacca: bhi:. keval bacca: hi: ba:za:r a:ya:. kovala baccaa hI baaja.ar Aayaa. only these first two children exam in sat Only these two children appeared in the examination. only child-limiter market came Only the child came to the market. we all Nishat Bagh walk do-inf-abl go-fut All of us will go for a walk to Nishat Bagh.sirf/ kovala keval/ ‘only’ precede the head noun. 16. neeraj suni:l se buddhima:n h´. SYNTAX 14. The comparatives are formed by adding se after adding the ablative case markers to the genitive forms of the head noun.

22. Ajit class in superlative young is Ajit is the youngest of all in the class.ka kaOna hO? sabse lamba: larka: køn h´? superlative tall boy who is Who is the tallest boy? AjaIt @laasa maoM sabasao CaoTa hO. Ajit Amar like clever is Ajit is as clever as Amar. these apples those apples like delicious are These apples are as delicious as those ones are. hma ]na jaOsao caalaak nahIM hOM. SYNTAX Superlatives are formed by adding sabasao sab se before the head noun. sabasao laMbaa laD. 25. 169 . SaIlaa ]maa jaOsaI gaaorI nahIM hO.4. AjaIt Amar jaOsaa caalaak hO. yao saoba ]na saobaaoM jaOsao maIzo hOM. 21. 23. 20. 24. aji:t amar j´sa: ca:la:k h´. Shiela Uma like fair complexioned neg is Shiela is not as fair-complexioned as Uma. we they like clever not are We are not as clever as they are. ham un j´se ca:la:k nahĩ: h´~. aji:t kala:s mẽ sab se chota: h´. Equative structures are formed by adding a form of jaOsaa j´sa:/ jaOsao j´se/jaOsaI j´si: ‘like’ that agrees with the head noun in gender and number. ši:la: uma: j´si: gori: nahĩ: h´. ye seb un sebõ j´se mi:the h´~.

170 . koi: bacca: yah ka:m nahĩ: kar sakta:. ye do bha:i: ek j´se h´~. 29. *koi: vah bacca: yah ka:m nahĩ: kar sakta:. the combination of indefinite determiners and cardinal quantifiers is possible. Similarly. the combination of multiplicative and collective quantifiers do not yield well-formed sentences. the multiplicatives do not co-occur with collective or measure quantifiers. 27. *kao[. There are other usage constraints on modifiers.4. ye bahnẽ ek j´si: h´~. 26.a dstanaa *dugna: jori: dasta:na: twice pair gloves As mentioned above.baccaa yah kama nahIM kr sakta. these two brothers alike are These two brothers are alike. 28. Similarly. Indefinite determiners do not co-occur with ordinals. There are certain co-occurrence restrictions. *duganaa jaaoD. these sisters alike are These sisters are alike. emphatic particles and limiters follow head nouns. 28a.vah baccaa yah kama nahIM kr sakta. the combination of an indefinite determiner and a demonstrative pronoun in not allowed. There is a flexibility in the word order of the preceding modifiers as illustrated below. All other constituents precede the head noun they modify.ek jaOsao hOM. yao bahnaoM ek jaOsaI hOM. yao dao Baa[. SYNTAX The terms ek jaOsao ek j´se/ jaOsaI j´si: ‘as good as/alike’ are also used in equative expressions. For example. kao[. some/any(one) child this work neg do can-ptc No child can do this work.

Postpositional Phrases A postpositional phrase is defined as a noun phrase followed by an oblique case marker and a postposition.quantifier .adjective . saaro yao maoro bahut AcCo ima~ sa:re ye mere bahut acche mitr The word order constraint for adverbs and adjective is quite strict.noun 30d. maoro yao saaro bahut AcCo ima~ mere ye sa:re bahut acche mitr my these all very good friends all these very good friends of mine Demonstrative .demonstrative .adverbial -adjective . yao saaro maoro bahut AcCo ima~ ye sa:re mere bahut acche mitr these all my very good friends Possessive .quantifier .noun 30c. The word order of the constituents of demonstrative.4.demonstrative .1.possessive .quantifier . Time adverbials take case markers as well as postpositions.adverbial -adjective . maoro saaro yao bahut AcCo ima~ mere sa:re ye bahut acche mitr my all these very good friends Quantifier . 171 .adverbial -adjective .adjective .head noun 30. 4. SYNTAX Demonstrative .demonstrative . yao maoro saaro AcCo ima~ ye mere sa:re acche mitr these my all good friends all these good friends of mine Possessive .possessive . possessive and quantifier appear quite flexible.noun 30b.noun 30a.quantifier .2.possessive .adverbial .

usne din ko kuch nahĩ: kha:ya:. he morning-obl from evening up to work do-ptc is He works from morning till evening.tr sao hama:re daftar se our-obl office from from our office 172 . *aji:t ša:m ka:m karta: h´. vah savaoro sao Saama tk kama krta hO. ]sanao idna Bar kuC nahIM Kayaa. vah savere se ša:m tak ka:m karta: h´. *AjaIt Saama kama krta hO. SYNTAX 1. 1a. he-erg day-obl for nothing neg ate He didn’t eat anything during the day. 6. he-erg day for nothing neg ate He didn’t eat anything for the whole day. hmaaro dF. he morning-obl home from came He came in the morning from home. 4. vah savere ghar se a:ya:. A postposition may be added to simple or compound noun phrases that consist of more than one element. ]sanao idna kao kuC nahIM Kayaa. 2. usne din bhar kuch nahĩ: kha:ya:. *vah savaora Aayaa ³Gar sao´o *vah savera: a:ya: (ghar se). vah savaoro Gar sao Aayaa. aji:t ša:m ko ka:m karta: h´. 2a. AjaIt Saama kao kama krta hO. 3. Ajit is evening-obl work do-ptc is Ajit works in the evening.4. The use of the direct forms of the time adverbials savaora savera: and Saama ša:m in sentences (1a) and (2a) make them ungrammatical. 5.

vah Saama tk phuÐcaogaa. 4. They are always used after the oblique noun.o sao maka:n ke darva:ze se house of door-obl from from the door of the house Notice that the presence of a postposition changes all the elements of the compound noun phrase from direct to oblique by adding the oblique case markers. and da[-M da:ĩ:/ baa[-M Aaor ba:ĩ: or ‘towards right/left’. Derived adjectives are derived from nouns: 173 .’ or a particle hI hi: ‘only. sa:f ‘clean. It is possible to modify postpositions by using a limiter tk tak ‘up to/till. pr hI rKao. tum kita:b mez par hi: rakho.’ etc. The examples of basic adjectives are: AcCa accha: ‘good. you book table on emp keep You just keep the book on the table. There are a limited number of compound postpositions used in Hindi such as Aagao a:ge/ pICo kI Aaor pi:che ki: or ‘in front/back of’. Notice that a free postposition without an argument functions as an adverb.’ 8. The derived adjectives are derived from other word classes such as nouns.’ laMbaa lamba: ‘long.1. and is followed by the postpositional form kI Aaor ki: or ‘toward’. tuma iktaba maoja. SYNTAX 7. vah ša:m tak pahũcega:.3. 9.’ saaf. Adjectival Phrases Adjective phrases are of two types: simple and complex. All these are directional. he evening up to reach-m He will reach by evening. The first element indicates the direction. makana ko drvaaja.4. Simple adjectives may also be divided into basic and derived adjectives.

(3) 174 .dIk nazdi:k near + [.i = naja. Their forms agree with the following noun in number and and gender as follows: Masculine Feminine Sg Pl Sg Pl vaalaa va:la: vaalao va:le vaalaI va:li: vaalaI va:li: -ka ka: -ko ke -kI ki: -kI ki: 1.i: + vaalaa va:la: = maohnatI mehnati: hard worker = ihmmatI himmati: courageous = daZ. idllaI vaalaa dukanadar dilli: va:la: duka:nda:r Delhi of shopkeeper the shopkeeper from Delhi dUr ka irSatodar du:r ka: rišteda:r distance of relative a distant relative 2. (2) an adjective phrase functions as a modifier for a substantive. Complex adjectives are finite (full relative clauses) as well as nonfinite (participle used as adjectives). It is difficult to define adjective phrases because adjectives are not distinguished morphologically from nouns.I vaalaa da:rhi: va:la: bearded Adjectives may also be derived from adverbs: pICo pi:che behind + laa la: = ipClaa pichla: last naja.i: + [.4. However.dIkI nazdi:ki: close one The use of the forms of vaalaa va:la: and genitive markers ka ka:/ ko ke/ kI ki: are frequently employed in the derivation of adjectives. Adjectives usually precede the nouns they modify.I da:rhi: beard + [. SYNTAX maohnat mehnat hard work ihmmat himmat courage daZ. it is possible to distinguish an adjectival phrase from a noun phrase because: (1) the semantics of adjectives is quite distinct from that of nouns.

5a. hO. 175 . The word order of adjectives with respect to other constituents of an adjective phrase is as follows: determiner . yeh bahut bara:/chota: per h´. 4.ka kapre dhone ke liye t´ya:r larka: clothes wash-inf-obl for ready boy the boy who is ready to wash clothes *tOyaar laD. yah bahut baD.o Qaaonao ko ilae tOyaar laD. (4) adjectives usually precede a head noun and occur in the attributive position.quantifier . whereas adjectives like tOyaar taya:r ready do take it. The boy is ready.oM ye do lambi: kami:zẽ these-f two long-fp shirts these two long shirts There are two types of adjectives: those which do not take a complement.ka tOyaar hO. sauMdr sundar beautiful) or non-stative (p`sanna prasann ‘happy’. naaraja. 3. yao dao laMbaI kmaIja. The adverbs of degree in their basic form can serve as modifiers of adjectives.4.a/CaoTa poD. 4b. kpD.adjective . In nouns the gender is marked inherently. Adjectives can be either stative (AcCa accha: good. na:ra:z ‘angry’). 4a.noun.ka *t´ya:r larka: laD. SYNTAX some adjectives are bound forms and their surface form is determined by the number and gender of a following noun. this very big/ small tree is This is a very big/small tree. Adjectives like maOlaa m´la: dirty do not take a complement. and those which do take a complement. The latter type of adjectives with their complements occurs attributively. larka: t´ya:r h´.

4. yah bahut hI baD. tIna mahInao ko baad ti:n mahi:ne ke ba:d three month-obl after after three months pZ.1. yeh bahut hi: bara:/chota: per h´ This is a very big/small tree. 4. 1. 4. Aap khaÐ khaÐ gae? a:p kahã: kahã: gaye? you-p where where went Which places did you visit? vah kba kba Anaupisqat rhI? vah kab kab anupasthit rahi:? she when absent remained-fs On which dates did she remain absent? 5. 3. 176 . hO. 5b.nao sao phlao parhne se pahle read-inf-obl before before reading dukana ko pICo duka:n ke pi:che shop-obl back side in the back of the shop 2.a/CaoTa poD.4. Adverbial Phrases Phrasal adverbs are formed by adding a simple or a compound postposition to a noun. Adverbs are reduplicated to show intensity and distribution. SYNTAX The marker –hI -hi: can be added to adverbs of degree for intensification of meaning.

not Mohan. yeh tasvi:r di:va:r par tã:go. . savaoro savere ‘in the morning’. 8. he is only time-emp waste do-ptc is He merely wastes time. vah savere jaldi: daftar ja:ta: h´ he morning-obl early office go-ptc is He goes to his office early in the morning. vah keval samay hi: našt karta: h´. This category of adverbials expresses indefiniteness. dIvaar pr di:va:r par ‘on the wall’. Gar sao ghar se ‘from the house’. vah kovala samaya hI naYT krta hO. he sometimes here come-ptc is He comes here sometimes. Various case markers and postpositions are employed with a noun to render an adverbial reading. for example. amar hi: a:yega: mohan nahĩ: a:yega:.4. 10. vah kabhi: na kabhi: zaru:r a:yega:. vah kabhi: kabhi: yahã: a:ta: h´. Amar-emp come-fut Mohan neg come-fut Only Amar will come. vah savaoro jaldI dF. vah kBaI na kBaI ja. Amar hI Aaegaa maaohna nahIM Aaegaa. 9. 7. SYNTAX 6. vah kBaI kBaI yahaÐ Aata hO. yah tsvaIr dIvaar pr TaÐgaao. Reduplicated adverbs may be separated by the negative particle na na as in the phrases kBaI na kBaI kabhi: na kabhi: ‘sometime or other’.tr jaata hO. The emphatic particle hI hi: can occur with an adverb or a noun to render an adverbial reading.$r Aaegaa. this picture wall on hang Hang this picture on the wall. 177 11. he sometime neg sometime definitely come-fut He will come sometime or other. and caakU sao ca:ku: se ‘with the knife’.

Adverbials may precede or follow the direct object depending on the emphasis given to it in the sentence. 10a. dIvaar pr yah tsvaIr TaMÐgaao. 14a. baccõ j´si: tez dør children-obl like fast run as fast as children run 178 . toja.4. apple knife with cut Cut the apple with the knife. 11a. I tomorrow home from come-fut I’ll come from home tomorrow. maOM kla Gar sao Aa}MÐgaa. 12a. ca:ku: se seb ka:to. m´~ kal ghar se a:ũ:ga:. Gar sao maOM kla Aa}Ðgaa. Certain adverbs of degree and derived adverbs with j´sa: like can sometimes serve as adverbial modifiers of an adverb. Compare the examples (10-13) with (10a-13a). saoba caakU sao kaTao. savaoro vah jaldI dF. baccaaoM jaOsaI toja. caakU sao saoba kaTao. 14. ghar se m´~ kal aũ:ga:. di:va:r par yeh tasvi:r tã:go. seb ca:ku: se ka:to. SYNTAX 12. tez dør fast run Run fast.tr jaata hO. daOD. 13a.. daOD. 13. savere vah jaldi: daftar ja:ta: h´.

vah a:yega:. 4. Subordinate Clauses Subordinate clauses are of two types: finite and non-finite. the complimentizer is dropped and the element yah yeh this is added in the initial position of the main clause. main clauses (or noun clauses). he come-fut. SYNTAX Adverbials are always optional and not obligatory in any construction. mujhe a:ša: h´ ki vah a:yega:. yeh meri: a:ša: h´. *ik vah Aaegaa mauJao AaSaa hO *ki vah a:yega: mujhe a:ša: h´ In case non-finite clause precedes the main clause due to the consideration of focus. Subordinate clause 1a. 1c. he come-fu He’ll come. Consider the following examples: Main clause 1.2. Structure of Clauses In this section major constituents of a sentence namely subordinate clauses. this my hope is I hope that he will come.4. 4. vah Aaegaa. 179 . I-obl hope that he come-fut I hope that he will come. mauJao AaSaa hO ik vah Aaegaa. Sometimes they may precede the main clause due to the consideration of focus.1. relative clauses. vah Aaegaa yah maorI AaSaa hO. vah a:yega:. adverbial clauses are discussed.2. 1b. Finite clauses normally have the same sentence structure as main clauses.

he shriek-ptc left He left shrieking.2. *vah maSaIna cala rhI qaI doK rha qaa *vah maši:n cal rahi: thi: dekh raha: tha:.2. and (iii) word order.4. vah cilla:te hue nikla:. 4b. 180 . The infinitive subordinate clause with an adverbial phrase can be put in the initial position. 3. 4. he running machine-dat see-prog was He was watching the running machine. (ii) lack of agreement. mera: va:pas a:na: mumkin nahĩ:. 4. vah calti: maši:n (ko) dekh raha: tha:. my return come-inf possible neg It is not possible for me to come back. Noun Clauses Noun clauses are of two types: finite and non-finite. vah calatI maSaIna kao doK rha qaa. maši:n cal rahi: thi:. maora vaaipsa Aanaa maumaikna nahIM. machine move prog was The machine was working. vah icallaato hue inaklaa. Participle subordinate verb 2. They are marked by (i) verb modification. The subordinate verb does not agree with subject and/or object in number and gender and is not marked for tense. The subordinate verb undergoes a process of verbal participation or infinitivization/gerundivization. SYNTAX Non-finite subordinate clauses are structurally quite distinct from the main clauses. maSaIna cala rhI qaI. 4a.

doKnaa dekhna: ‘to see’.1.1. Finite Noun Clauses Finite noun clauses are introduced by the subordinator / complementizer ki that and follow the main clause verb.2. The ik ki Complement Clauses ki that complement clauses are usually governed by verbs like jaananaa ja:nna: ‘to know’. m´~ ja:nta: tha: ki barf giregi:.2.2. direct objects. They function as subjects.. mujhe laga: ki vah bi:ma:r h´. / spYT qaa ik maaohna baImaar qaa. maOM jaanata qaa ik baf. 1. 2.igarogaI. pta haonaa pata: hona: ‘to know’. 181 . yah saaf. I-obl felt that he sick is It seemed to me that he was sick. The verb caahnaa cahna: ‘to wish. and maumaikna mumkin/ saMBava sambhav ‘possible’. saaf. desire’ in the matrix clause selects a conditional verb form in its complement clause. or complements of the main predicate. yah saca hO ik maaohna baImaar hO. khnaa kahna: ‘to say’. 3. sa:f/ spYT spašt ‘clear’. Consider the following examples.2. I know-ptc was that snow fall-fut I knew that it would snow. yeh sac h´ ki mohan bi:ma:r h´. Finite subject clauses usually occur as subjects of adjectival predicates such as saca sac ‘true’. 1a.4. yeh sa:f/spašt tha: ki mohan bi:ma:r tha:. it clear was that Mohan sick was It was clear that Mohan was sick. and laganaa lagna: ‘to appear/seem’. it true is that Mohan sick is It is true that Mohan is sick. SYNTAX 4. 4.1. mauJao lagaa ik vah baImaar hO.

caah ca:h ‘desire/want’. m´~ne soca: ki vah nahĩ: a:yega:.2.2. usne kaha: ki dava: xari:do. I-erg thought that he neg come-fut I thought that he would not come. mohan ne likha: ki tum yah kita:b parho. Read this book. }Yaa nao pUCa ik maOM @yaaoM gaaMÐva jaa}Ðgaa? u:ša: ne pu:cha: ki m´~ kyõ ga:ũ: ja:ũ:ga:? Usha-erg asked that I why village go-fut Usha asked.‘write’. pUC pu:ch.1. such as a quotative marker or particle. sauna sun. he-erg said that medicine buy He said..‘hear’. 4. buy medicine. maOM caahta hUÐ ik vah [imthana do.2. I desire-ptc am that he exam give I wish that he appears in examination.‘say’.4. 7. saaoca soc ‘think’. hmanao saunaa ik vah Da^@Tr hO. 182 6.ao. we-erg heard that he doctor is We heard that he is a doctor. . 5. SYNTAX 4.rIdao. m´~ ca:hta: hũ: ki vah imtiha:n de. 8. ilaK likh. such as kh kah. why should I go to the village? maaohna nao ilaKa ik tuma yah iktaba pZ. Mohan-erg wrote that you this book read Mohan wrote. maOMnao saaocaa ik vah nahIM Aaegaa.‘ask’. both quoted and reported material may be preceded by the complementizer ik ki that which is subordinate to the higher verb of communication in the matrix sentence. hamne suna: ki vah da:ktar h´. 9. Direct and Indirect Speech Direct and indirect speech are not distinguished by the use of any syntactic device. However. ]sanao kha ik dvaa K.

In this sentence. ra:mne kaha: (ki) m´~ patr likh raha: hũ: Ram-erg said (that) I letter write-prog am Ram (i) said. he(j) will read the book. the first or direct speech reading is preferred to the second or indirect speech reading.fs am Ram(i) said that I(j) am writing a letter.UÐgaa. rama nao kha (ik) maOM p~ ilaK rha hUÐ. rama nao kha (ik) maOM p~ ilaK rhI hUÐ. 11. rama nao kha (ik) maOM iktaba pZ. ra:m ne kaha: (ki) m´~ kita:b parũ:ga: Ram-erg said (that) I book read-1s-fut Ram said.4. 183 . In Hindi. it precedes the reported material. the gender discrepancy between the matrix verb and the embedded verb may indicate an indirect quotation. (b) Ram(i) said that he(i) will read the book. I’ll read a book. 10. it would be more natural to use direct speech in the second meaning as in (11). The complementizer is frequently omitted. ra:mne kaha: (ki) m´~ patr likh rahi: hũ: Ram-erg said (that) I letter write-prog. the complementizer ik ki precedes quoted material and in sentences (10-11). saaoca soc. Instead of using indirect speech. In sentences (7-9). Sometimes direct and indirect speech can be differentiated with the help of number and gender markers.ogaa. SYNTAX Verbs like sauna sun-. In (a) Ram and the noun and pronoun are not co-referential. Ram (i) said that I (j) am writing a letter. ra:mne kaha: (ki) vah kita:b parhega:. I(i)m writing a letter. 12. Sentence (12) may appear ambiguous. For instance. 12a. direct speech is preferred to indirect speech. rama nao kha (ik) vah iktaba pZ.are ‘hear/say’ type verbs. and they usually occur as higher verbs in reported speech. *Ram(i) said that I(i) am writing a letter. Ram-erg said (that) he bookread-3s-fut (a) Ram(i) said. and in (b) they are.

ms am Ram (i) said. Im (i) writing a letter myself.naa parhna: to read 184 . Infinitive gerundive forms can precede or follow the matrix clause and are inflected for case like other types of noun clauses.1. therefore it cannot be co-referential with Ram. SYNTAX In (12a) the auxiliary verb of the embedded sentence is feminine. Thus.2. 13. aspectual suffixes are lost. Similarly. Non-finite noun clauses change the embedded verb into its infinitival form (stem + naa na:) which lacks subject . 12b. Ram-erg my/he-refl letter write-inf-obl about said Ram told about my/his writing the letter. rama nao maoro/Apnao Aap p~ ilaKnao ko baaro maoM kha. rama nao kha (ik) maOM svayaM Apnao Aap p~ ilaK rha hUÐ.3.4. Ram-erg said (that) I self letter write-prog. Direct speech is preferred over indirect speech. The infinitival form is like a derived noun which can take case markers and postpositions.verb agreement and tense information. parh read pZ. the nominalization of an embedded sentence may also result in a reported speech interpretation. tense. The oblique form of the infinitival ends in -naa -na:. there are no quotative markers to distinguish between direct and indirect speech. Whereas in (12). certain morphological markers like person.2. When changing finite noun clauses into nonfinite clauses. the verb of the embedded sentence is co-referential with the verb of the matrix sentence. ra:m ne mere/apne a:p patr likhne ke ba:re mẽ kaha:. Finite verb Infinitival form pZ. Non-finite Noun Clause A non-finite noun clause may consist of an infinitive (or gerundive) verb form. number. 4. ra:m ne kaha: (ki) m´~ svayam/apne a:p patrlikh raha: hũ:. Sentence (12) can be disambiguated by adding a reflexive pronoun svayaM svayam/ Apnao Aap apne a:p ‘self’.

14c. The present participle indicates ongoing action or process. mujhe parhna: pasand h´. kBaI doKa nahIM hO. (ham) parhẽge. (we) read-1p-fut We’ll read. There are three groups of participial constructions: (i) present participle. and adverbials. Noun clauses can function as subjects. 15. mauJao pZ.oMgao. 16. and (iii) agentive participle. and the agentive participle indicates a habitual or potential action or process. postpositional objects.naa psaMd hO.4. SYNTAX 14a. my read-inf he-dat like neg came He did not like me to read.naa ]sao psaMd nahIM Aayaa. maOM pZ. (ve) parhẽge. (m´~) parhũ:ga:. (they) read-3p-fut They’ll read. (I)read-1s-fut I’ll read. Verbs are made non-finite by the processes of infinitivization and participialization. I-obl read-Inf like is I like to read. maora pZ. 14b. hma pZ. the past participle indicates completed action or process.UÐgaa. direct objects. 185 . mera: parhna: use pasand nahĩ: a:ya:. Notice that -naa -na: is added to the verb stem in the formation of the infinitive form. (ii) past participle. Infinitivizaton is the result of adding the suffix –naa -na: to the verbal stem.

number.likha: larka: h´.4. parhne likhne va:la: larka: samay barba:d nahĩ: karta:. 17b. read-inf-obl write-inf-obl gen boy time waste neg do-ptc The boy who studies does not waste time. 17a. vah parhi: .a . gender. vah parha: .past-fs girl was She was a literate girl. It is the auxiliary which takes person.ka samaya baba-ad nahIM krta.nao ilaKnao vaalaa laD.ilaKI laD. and tense markers. she read-past-fs write. vah pZ. he read-past-ms write-past-ms boy is He is a literate boy. ]maa kao ]saka kla yah khnaa AcCa nahIM qaa. Uma-dat his yesterday this say-inf good neg was His telling this to Uma yesterday was not proper. SYNTAX 17. The focus-related movements to the left of the non-finite verb yield wellformed sentences. 186 . The participial forms agree with the following nouns in number and gender.kI hO. Examples of various movements of non-finite noun clauses are given as follows: Leftward movements of indirect objects 18a. ]saka ]maa kao kla yah khnaa AcCa nahIM qaa. pZ. Masculine Feminine Sg Pl Sg Pl ka ka: ko ke kI ki: kI ki: 18. The word order of non-finite noun clauses remains unchanged. uma: ko uska: kal yah kahna: accha: nahĩ: tha:. he-gen Uma-dat yesterday this say-inf good neg was His telling this to Uma yesterday was not proper.ilaKa laD.ka hO. uska: uma: ko kal yeh kahna: accha: nahĩ: tha:.likhi: larki: thi:. vah pZI . Notice that participial forms remain unaltered in the present and past participles.

Relative Clauses There are two types of relative clause constructions: finite and nonfinite participial relative clauses. SYNTAX Leftward movement of the time adverb 18b. *]saka kla yah khnaa AcCa nahIM qaa ]maa kao. Rightward movement of time adverb 18d. The forms of relative and correlative markers are given below. *]saka ]maa kao yah khnaa AcCa nahIM qaa kla. Rightward movement of indirect object 18c. The former type is also labeled as the real relative clause.4.2. The former is more explicit than the latter. uska: kal yah kahna: accha: nahĩ: tha: uma: ko. kal uska: uma: ko yah kahna: accha: nahĩ: tha:. the correlative marker vah vah ‘that’ is placed at the beginning of the head noun. Participial relative clauses exhibit the non-finite form of the verb. Relative markers Direct Oblique Sg Pl Sg Pl jaao jo jaao jo ijasa jis ijana jin 187 . 4. Notice that no constituent of the non-finite noun clauses can be moved to a position following the non-finite verb khnaa kahna: ‘to say’ as below. uska: uma: ko yah kahna: accha: nahĩ: tha: kal. The finite relative clauses maintain full sentence structures with subject verb agreement and are very common. In the formation of finite relative clauses. which is placed in front of the relativized element. the relative marker jaao jo ‘who’. kla ]saka ]maa kao yah khnaa AcCa nahIM qaa.3. and the second identical or co-referential noun phrase may be deleted.

jaao laD. is my brother. The boy is my brother. 1. it is in the oblique case.4. larka: mera: bha:i: h´. Main clause: laD. the noun is not followed by a postposition and when it is.hO. Direct Relative Pronouns Correlative Pronouns Sg Pl Sg Pl jaao jo jaao jo vah vah vao ve Oblique ijasa jis ijasao jise ijasakao jisko ijasasao jisse ijasanao jisne ijana jin ijanhoM jinhẽ ijanakao jinko ijanasao jinse ijanhaoMnao jinhõne ]sa us ]sao use ]sakao usko ]sasao usse ]sanao usne ]na un ]nhoM unhẽ ]nakao unko ]nasao unse ]nhaoMnao unhõne In the examples given below. The relative and correlative markers change for the number and case of the noun. the symbol Ø indicates the presumed site of relativized and head NP prior to deletion. In the direct case. whereas correlative markers begin with va / v/ and ] /u/ sounds. Sentence (1) consists of two clauses which share an identical and coreferential noun phrase.ka maora Baa[. who lives in Delhi. SYNTAX Correlative markers vah vah vao ve ]sa us ]na un The relative marker begins with a ja /j/ sound. rel boy Delhi-loc live-ptc is cor -Ø my brother is The boy.ka idllaI maoM rhta hO vah Ø maora Baa[. 188 . The forms are as follows.hO. jo larka: dilli mẽ rahta: h´ vah Ø mera: bha:i: h´.

hO [jaao idllaI maoM rhta hO]. 4. They allow only one word order in which the additional information follows the head noun.1. vah laD. and (ii) changing the verb into a participial form by adding the suffix -ta -ta: for the present participle and -nao vaalaa -ne va:la: for the agentive participle. naoh$ [jaao Baart ko phlao p`QaanamaM~I qao] nehru: [jo bha:rat ke pradha:n mantri: the] Nehru who India-gen first prime minister was 189 .3. 1b. When the relative clause precedes the main clause it results in the sentence (1a): 1a. vah larka: [jo dilli: mẽ rahta: h´] mera: bha:i: h´. The non-restrictive relative clauses are those where some extra but relevant information is provided about the antecedent head noun. and (ii) the relative clause may follow the correlative clause (1c). Restrictive and Non-restrictive Clauses The restrictive relative clauses allow three possible word orders as given above (1a-1c). [jo larka: dilli mẽ rahta: h´] vah larka: mera: bha:i: h´. The second occurrence of laD. [jaao laD.ka larka: is deleted to yield sentence (1b). whereas the correlative clause takes the correlative pronoun vah vah.ka [jaao idllaI maoM rhta hO] maora Baa[. vah larka: mera: bha:i: h´ [jo dilli: mẽ rahta: h´].hO.hO. The boy lives in Delhi.ka maora Baa[.2. larka: dilli: mẽ rahta: h´. Notice that the participial relative clause is formed by (i) deleting the relativized noun phrase.ka maora Baa[. SYNTAX Relative clause: laD. 1c. There are two other possibilities for relative clauses: (i) the relative clause may follow the head noun phrase (1b).ka idllaI maoM rhta hO] vah laD.ka idllaI maoM rhta hOO. vah laD.4. 2. Here the relative clause takes the relative pronoun jaao jo.

ilha:ba:d mẽ janme. The relative clause may precede or follow the head noun.4. Alternately. He who hard work do-pr is progress do-pr is He who works hard progresses. There are no word order differences between a restrictive and a non-restrictive participial relative clause. vah [jo mehnat karta: h´ ] unnati: karta: h´. Delhi in live-inf-obl gen boy my brother is The boy who lives in Delhi is my brother.hO. The form of the relativized element in the relative clause corresponding to the head noun (i. 5. vah [jaao maohnat krta hO ] ]nnait krta hO. SYNTAX [lhabaad maoM janmao. 4. who was the first prime minister of India.. [Ø dilli: mẽ rahne va:la: larka:] mera: bha:i: h´. Allahabad in born Nehru. 2a. it is deleted. The nonrestrictive relative clause always follows the head noun. 3. *[jo bha:rat ke pahle pradha:n mantri: the] ve nehru: illha:ba:d mẽ janme. [lhabaad maoM janma laonao vaalao naoh$ Baart ko phlao p`QaanamaM~I qao. 2b. the relativized element) is usually preserved in full when the relative clause precedes the main clause. [Ø idllaI maoM rhnao vaalaa laD.e. *[jaao Baart ko phlao p`QaanamaM~I qao] vao naoh$ [lahabad maoM janmao. Born at Allahabad. Nehru was the first prime minister of India. 190 . was born at Allahabad. *naoh$ janmao [lhabaad maoM [jaao Baart ko phlao p`QaanamaM~I qao] *nehru: janme ilha:ba:d mẽ [jo bha:rat ke pahle pradha:n mantri: the]. In general. ilha:ba:d mẽ janm lene va:le nehru: bha:rat ke pahle pradha:n mantri: the. It is pronominalized when the head is a pronoun. the participial relative clauses precede the head noun.ka] maora Baa[.

The relativized adverbials and indirect objects can undergo similar movement. [jaao idllaI maoM rhta hO] vah laD. as in sentence (6).a vah. [m´~ne vah lekh parha:] jo sarita: ne likha: h´. maOMnao vah laoK pZ. Who Delhi in stay is he boy my brother is The boy who lives in Delhi is my brother. The original position of the relativized element usually remains unchanged.a] jaao sairta nao ilaKa hO.] m´~ne vah lekh parha: [jo sarita: ne likha: h´]. 7.4. the effect is that of contrastive focus. The antecedent noun phrase may undergo deletion too. In case the relative constituent is placed in the beginning of the clause. I-erg that essay read which Sarita-erg write is I read the essay which was written by Salim. [maOMnao vah laoK pZ. The placement of the relativized object NP to the relative clause initial position indicates focus on the relativized NP. I-erg that essay read which Salim-erg wrote is I read the essay which Sarita wrote. 7a. 6. SYNTAX Here the second occurrence of the identical noun phrase is nominalized.hO. 7b. [jo lekh sarita: ne likha: h´] m´~ne parha: vah. which essay sarita-erg wrote I read that I read the essay which was written by Sarita. If the relative clause occurs to the left of the main clause. The place of the relativized direct object is usually in the preverbal position. [jaao laoK sairta nao ilaKa hO] maOMnao pZ. 191 . the relativized element can be placed in the sentence initial position.ka maora Baa[. [jo dilli: mẽ rahta: h´] vah larka: mera: bha:i: h´.a [jaao sairta nao ilaKa hO. In the third order. the relative clause follows immediately after the head NP.

a vah laoK jaao sairta nao ilaKa hO. vah AadmaI [ijasao Ø maOM yahaM laayaa:] vah a:dmi: [jise Ø m´~ yahã: la:ya:] cor person rel I here brought the person whom I brought here Relativization of indirect object 11. I read that write which Sarita-erg wrote is I read the essay written by Sarita. maOMnao pZ.] m´~ne suna: nahĩ: [jo ra:j ne suna:. Relativization of subject 9. vah AadmaI [jaao Ø Aayaa:] vah a:dmi: [jo Ø a:ya:] cor person rel came the person who came Relativization of direct object 10. the relative clause cannot be placed immediately after the head NP. vah AadmaI [ijasao Ø maOMnao iktaba dI] vah a:dmi: [jise Ø m´~ne kita:b di:] cor person rel I-erg watch gave the person who I gave the book 192 . Raj-erg rel heard I-erg hear not I didnt hear what Raj heard. All the constituents of a main clause except the verb can be relativized in a finite relative clause. 8a. However.4. I didnt hear what Raj heard.]. maOMnao saunaa nahIM [jaao raja nao saunaa. m´~ne parha: vah lekh jo sarita: ne likha: h´. [ra:j ne jo suna:] m´~ne suna: nahĩ:. In a headless relative clause. 8. [raja nao jaao saunaa] maOMnao saunaa nahIM. it is possible to place the relative clause to the right of the main clause. SYNTAX 7c.

vah laD. vah larka: [jo Ø uma: ne kaha: ha:ki: khelta: h´] gaya:.4. vah dF. rel boy cor Uma-erg said play-ptc hockey is went The boy that Uma said plays hockey has gone. mere pass h´. Relativization of a subordinate direct object 17. vah TaopI [jaao Ø [rajaa nao kha []maa nao baunaI hO]] vah topi: [jo Ø [ra:ja: ne kaha: [uma: ne buni: h´]] rel cap that Raja-erg said Uma-erg has knitted maoro pasa hO.ka [jaao Ø ]maa nao kha hakI Kolata hO] gayaa.tr [ijasamaoM Ø maOM kama krta hUÐ] vah daftar [jis Ø mẽ m´~ ka:m karta: hũ:] cor office rel in I work do-ptc am the office in which I work Relativization of possessor noun 14. vah makana [ijasasao Ø yah makana baD. vah AadmaI [ijasako Ø saaqa maOM idllaI gayaa] vah a:dmi: [jiske Ø sa:th m´~ dilli: gaya:] cor person rel with I Delhi went the person with whom I went to Delhi Relativization of adjunct (object of a locative postposition) 13. SYNTAX Relativization of adjunct (object of associative postposition) 12.a hO] vah maka:n [jisse Ø yeh maka:n bara: h´] cor house rel than this house big is the house which is smaller than this house Relativization of a subordinate subject 16. vah AadmaI [ijasaka Ø yah makana hO] vah a:dmi: [jiska: Ø yeh maka:n h´ ] cor person rel-poss this house is the man whose house this is Relativization of object of comparison 15. 193 . me-poss is The cap that Raja said Uma knitted is with me.

vah kalaoja [ ijasa Ø maoM [AjaIt nao kha [ik ]maa vah ka:lej [jis Ø mẽ [aji:t ne kaha: [ki uma: rel college cor in Ajit-erg said that kama kr rhI hO]]] CaoTa hO.2. bara: h´]]] du:r nahĩ: h´. [ Ø baZ.a hO]]] dUr nahIM hO.ka [ ijasao Ø [maaohna nao kha ik rajaa nao iktaba dI]] Aayaa. Relativization of subject 21. Non-finite Relative Clauses Participial/non-finite relative clauses allow the subject and the direct object constituent to undergo the process of relativization.) child the growing child 194 . rel boy cor Mohan-erg said that Raja-erg book gave The boy that Mohan said Raja gave a book to came. Uma work do-ing is small is The college that Ajit said Uma works at is small. Relativization of object of a postpositional adverbial phrase 19. the indirect object etc.3. However. cannot undergo relativization. ka:m kar rahi: h´]]] chota: h´.2. vah larka:[jiseØ[mohan ne kaha: ki ra:ja: ne kita:b di:]a:ya:. vah makana [ ijasa Ø sao [AjaIt nao kha [ik maora makana vah maka:n [jis Ø se [aji:t ne kaha: [ki mera: maka:n rel house cor than Ajit-erg said that baD.ta (huAa) ] baccaa [Ø barhta: (hua:)] bacca: grow-pst-ms (part.4. 4. Relativization of object of comparison in subordinate clause 20. vah laD. my office is big is far not is The house that Ajit said that my house is bigger than it is not far way. SYNTAX Relativization of subordinate indirect object 18.

the studying boy) Relativization of direct object 23. vah Da@Tr [ijasaka maaohna dvaa[.] iktaba [uski: xari:di: hui:] kita:b his buy-pst-fs book the book bought by him Indirect object 24. the possessor elements of the noun phrase can be subjected to further relativization. Also any constituent of a relative clause can be subjected to further relativization.2.3. SYNTAX 22.3.] laD.ka [Ø parhne likhne va:la:] larka: read-inf-obl write-inf-obl gen boy the boy who is studying (Lit.nao ilaKnao vaalaa ] laD. Finite Relative Clauses In finite relative clause modifiers.nahIM hO ijatnaa (gama-) maOM caahta qaa. 4. *[ Ø iktaba dI hu[. []sakI K.rIdI hu[. Relativization of modifier 26. except the verbs. Relativization of possessor 25. can be relativized. vah da:ktar [jiska: mohan dava:i: kha:ta: h´] accha: nahĩ: h´.4. 195 .kI *[Ø kita:b di: hui:] larki: the girl to whom the book is given Any constituent of a subordinate relative clause. yeh du:dh utna: garm nahĩ: h´ jitna: (garm) m´~ ca:hta: tha:. this milk rel hot neg is cor hot I wanted This milk is not as hot as I wanted.Kata hO] AcCa nahIM hO. rel doctor cor-poss Mohan medicine eating is good neg is The doctor whose (prescribed) medicine Mohan is taking is not good. yah dUQa ]tnaa gama. [ Ø pZ.

In (30) an element of the second conjunct of a coordinate verb phrase is relativized. however. vah laoK [ jaao Ø maOMnao pZ. 30. In (29) an element of the first conjunct of a coordinate verb phrase is conjoined. m´~ne lekh parha: ør jo patr likha: vah accha: h´. vah larka: [jo Ø mere bha:i: ka: dost h´] ca:la:k h´. 28. vah laD. cor boy rel my brother of friend is clever is The boy who is a friend of my brother is clever. maOMnao laoK pZ. SYNTAX Relativization of a constituent of a relative clause 27. rel big neg is cor mine is The table that I know you bought is not as big as mine. This sentence can be interpreted as the joining of two actions in which the first stimulates the second one. cor article rel I-erg read and letter wrote good is The article which I read and wrote a letter about is good. vah lekh [jo Ø ´~ne parha: r patr likha:] accha: h´. thus joined.rIda] vah mez [jo Ø [mujhe pata: tha: [ki a:pne xari:da:] that table cor I know was that you-erg bought ]tnaa baD. does not allow relativization of any constituent of a relative clause. are not independent of each other. The two actions. Elements within coordinate verb phrases and coordinate sentences can also be relativized. 29.a AaOr jaao p~ ilaKa vah AcCa hO.4. vah maoja.ka daost hO] caalaak hO.ka [ jaao Ø maoro Baa[.a nahIM hO ijatnaa maora hO. The participialization. utna: bara: nahĩ: h´ jitna: mera: h´. The noun phrases in postpositional phrases can be relativized by the finite relativization strategy. 196 . The constituents within coordinate noun phrases can be relativized.a AaOr p~ ilaKa] AcCa hO. [ jaao Ø [mauJao pta qaa [ik Aapnao K. I-erg article read and cor letter wrote rel good is I read an article and the wrote a good letter about it.

a AaOr maaohna nao p~ ilaKa] AcCa hO. 31. lekh parhkar jo patr m´~ne likha: vah accha: h´. [jo Ø m´~ne parha: ør patr likha:] vah lekh accha: h´. *m´~ne lekh parha: ør mohan ne jo patr likha: vah accha: h´.] vah lekh accha: h´ [jo Ø m´~ne parha: ør patr likha:].a AaOr p~ ilaKa. 30a. *vah laoK [ jaao maOMnao pZ. [ jaao Ø maOMnao pZ. vah laoK AcCa hO [jaao Ø maOMnao pZ.a AaOr p~ ilaKa] vah laoK AcCa hO. The order of pre-sentential and post-sentential positions of relative with reference to a correlative clause. 32a.a AaOr maaohna nao jaao p~ ilaKa vah AcCa hO. The preferred version will be (30a). 32. 31a. The relativized element can be moved within the constituents and sometimes to the initial position for the consideration of focus. *maOMnaO laoK pZ. he write good is which I read and letter write That essay is good which I read and wrote a letter about.4. which I-erg read and letter wrote rel essay good is The essay which I read. laoK pZ. SYNTAX This sentence can be interpreted as the joining of two actions in which the meaning after doing one thing the second one is done is implied. The relativization of the first or second conjunct elements of a coordinate sentence result in ill-formed sentences. Therefore it appears like a participial construction. *vah lekh jo m´~ne parha: ør mohan ne patr likha: accha: h´. Notice that a conjunct intervening between a relative and a correlative clause is less preferred. *I read the essay and the letter which Mohan wrote is good. sentence (32a) more preferred than (32). I wrote a good letter about it.kr jaao p~ maOMnao ilaKa vah AcCa hO. article read-cp cor letter I-erg wrote rel good is After reading the article. 197 . *The essay which I read and Mohan wrote a letter is good. also yield well-formed sentences. and wrote a letter about is good. Therefore.

(a) Finite clauses with relative clause time markers Some of the adverbial markers in this category are jaba jab ‘when’. concession. and jyaaoMhI jyõhi: ‘as soon as’. jaba sao jab se ‘since’. manner.4. and degree adverbial clauses. (then) he goes too. cause. which is non-finite in nature. jaba maOM jaata hUÐ (tba) vah BaI jaata hO. There are time.1. 4.2. (b) participial (non-finite) adverbial constructions. jab vah a:yega: m´~ bhi: a:ũ:ga:.4. 1. jab m´~ ja:ta: hũ: (tab) vah bhi: ja:ta: h´. jabse vah yahã: a:ya: (tabse) ham sa:th-sa:th ka:m karte h´~. . when he come-fut I too come-fut When he comes. cor-from he came here rel-from we together work do-ptc are Weve worked together since he came here. Finite adverbial clauses can be placed in pre-sentential as well as post-sentential position. I’ll come too. Adverbial Clauses Adverbial clauses are marked by (a) the finite form of the verb. jabasao vah yahaM Aayaa (tbasao) hma saaqa saaqa kama krto hOM. 198 2.4. Adverbial Clauses of Time There are three kinds of the adverbial clauses: (a) finite clauses with relative clauses like time markers such as yaid yedi ‘if’. purpose.2. SYNTAX Mostly the relative clauses favor the finite relativization strategy. when I go-ptc am (then) he too go-ptc is When I go. jaba vah Aaegaa maOMo BaI Aa}Ðgaa. 3. and (c) the infinitival constructions. The unmarked order of a nonfinite adverbial clause is at the pre-verbal or post-verbal position. condition. The participilization strategy. 4. or (b) the non-finite form of the verb. is subject to various syntactic and semantic constraints as pointed out above.

they distinguish themselves from question words which begin with k k. mohan dørta: a:ya:. (b) Participial (non-finite) constructions Four participial constructions. 199 . A present participle expresses an ongoing action or process. he asked this question.pr baOzkr pUCa afsar ne kursi: par b´thkar pu:cha: officer chair on sit-cp asked the officer asked. come-emp he-erg this question asked As soon as he came. absolutive and the as soon as participle. time adverbial clauses are introduced by the markers jaba jab and jaba sao jab se respectively. 5. ghar pahũckar usne teliphon kiya:. 6. The time marker jaba jab denotes a sequence of events (2) and simultaneous events (3) respectively. Like relative clauses. present participle. The time clause contains a finite verb with tense aspect information. It takes the progressive aspect in the subordinate clause. Aato hI ]sanao yah savaala pUCa. Mohan run-ptc came Mohan came running. maaohna daOD. The present and past participles agree in gender and number with the subject of the main clause.sar nao kusaI.ta Aayaa. It is important to note that the relative clause time markers jaba jab or jaba sao jab se do not undergo deletion as do the correlative markers tba tab and tba sao tab se. a:te hi: usne yah sava:l pu:cha:. past participle. also act as time adverbials. SYNTAX In sentences (2) and (3).4. 4. AF. sitting on the chair Gar phuÐcakr ]sanao TolaIfaona ikyaa. home reach-pp she-erg telephone did She telephoned after reaching home. 7. whereas the last two do not undergo any agreement changes.

They are not expressed by infinitival or gerundive constructions. 200 . ]sako jaanao ko baad maOM jaa}Ðgaa. ]sako Aanao sao phlao kao[. The relative clause-like manner markers jaOsao vaOsao j´se v´se ‘as/which way’ indicates the manner reading. The participle forms can be reduplicated as in (8b). uske ja:ne ke ba:d m´~ ja:ũ:ga:. rha qaa. Mohan at that time came when he run-prog was Mohan came at the time when he was running. ]sako Aanao pr saaro KuSa hue.4. Mohan run-ptc run-ptc came Mohan came running.2. he-gen-obl come-inf-obl on all happy became All were happy on his coming. maaohna ]sa samaya Aayaa ijasa samaya vah daOD.ta . he-gen-obl go-inf-obl after I go-fut I’ll go after his departure.nahIM Aaegaa.daOD. uske a:ne par sa:re khuš hue. Manner Clauses Manner clauses also employ relative-like and participial constructions.ta Aayaa. 9. he-gen-obl come-inf-obl before none neg come-fut No one will come before he comes. 11.2. uske a:ne se pahle koi: nahĩ: a:yega:. baad maoM ba:d mẽ ‘after’.4. mohan dørta: . maaohna daOD. or pr par ‘on’ results in a time adverbial. SYNTAX 8a. 4. 10. 8b. (c) Infinitival construction A verbal noun followed by phlao pahle ‘before’.dørta: a:ya:. mohan us samay a:ya: jis samay vah dør raha: tha:.

he weep-ptc weep-ptc came He came (while) crying. vaOsao krao jaOsao maOM khUÐgaa. (s)he-gen dance-inf me-dat like is I like his/her manner of dancing. uska: na:cna: mujhe pasand h´. vah raoto . SYNTAX 12. 12a. 15. v´se karo j´se m´~ kahũ:ga: The following participial constructions express manner rather than tme. The word order of the relative manner clause and correlative manner clause can be altered. j´se m´~ kahũ:ga: v´se hi: karo. vah hÐsao ibanaa baaolaa. 13. jaOsao maOM khUÐgaa vaOsao hI krao. ]saka naacanaa mauJao psaMd hO. vah fSa. vah šara:rat ke sa:th bola:.rote a:ya:. he laugh-obl without said He said without laughing. The negativized participial form is formed by adding -e ibanaa -e bina:.pr baOzkr raoyaa. he anger-gen with said He said with anger. he floor on sit-cp wept He cried sitting on the floor. vah hãse bina: bola:. 14. Infinitival constructions also express manner. 201 . vah faraš par b´thkar roya:.4. as-rel I tell-you the same way-cor emp do Do as I tell you.raoto Aayaa. vah Sarart ko saaqa baaolaa. 16. vah rote . 17.

m´~ne use kita:b parhne ke liye kaha:.4. *m´~ne use kita:b parhne kaha:. In the above construction. SYNTAX 17a.2. vah naaTk doKnao ko ilae gayaa. (s)he-gen-obl dance-inf-gen manner I-dat like is I like his/her manner of dancing. vah naaTk doKnao gayaa. he play see-inf-obl for went He went to see a play. 19a. 4. which expresses the meaning for. *maOMnao ]sao iktaba pZ.nao kha.nao ko ilae kha. 202 . Notice that in (18) the oblique case marker e is added to the infinitive form of the verb. In (18a). the oblique case marker -e -e is added before the postposition ko ilae ke liye ‘for’. 19. 18a. ]sako naacanao ka trIka mauJao psaMd hO. I-erg he-dat book read-inf-obl for said I told him to read the book. Purpose Clauses Purpose clauses are formed in two ways: (a) infinitival form followed by e e or the oblique form plus the postposition ko ilae ke liye ‘for’. uske na:cne ka: tari:ka: mujhe pasand h´.3. 18. If the verb is not a motion verb the oblique form and postposition must be used. he play see-inf-obl for He went to see a play. there is an option between the two alternatives. vah na:tak dekhne gaya:.4. vah na:tak dekhne ke liye gaya:. maOMnao ]sao iktaba pZ. and (b) the @yaaoMik kyõki ‘because/ as’ clause modifying [sa ilae is liye ‘therefore’.

he cannot read. 4. The elements of co-referential phrases @yaaoMik kyõki and [sailae is liye can be deleted. vah parh nahĩ: sakta: kyõki vah anparh h´. vah parh nahĩ: sakta:. 203 . 20. nahIM sakta @yaaoMik vah AnapZ. Today hot was therefore ar nahIM I market neg go-past It was hot. 20b. Aaja gamaI. a:j garmi: thi: isliye m´~ ba:za:r nahĩ: gaya:.qaI maOM baaja. SYNTAX The co-referential phrases kyõki because and is liye ‘therefore’ can also be used.4. @yaaoMik vah AnapZ. vah pZ. he read not able because he illiterate is He cannot read because he is illiterate. (a) Finite clauses 21. and (c) infinitival plus sao se from. @yaaoMik Aaja gamaI. because today hot was therefore I market neg went Because it was hot. hO vah pZ. Cause Clauses Cause is expressed by using these constructions: (a) finite clauses marked by @yaaoMik kyõki ‘because’. 21a. kyõki vah anparh h´.2. because today hot was I market neg go-past Because it was hot.qaI [sailae maOM baaja. @yaaoMik Aaja gamaI.4.qaI [sailae maOM baaja. nahIM sakta.ar nahIM gayaa. The word order undergoes a change as in (20a) and (20b) below. (b) participles. kyõki a:j garmi: thi: m´~ ba:za:r nahĩ: gaya:. kyõki a:j garmi: thi: isliye m´~ ba:za:r nahĩ: gaya:. therefore.ar nahIM gayaa.ar nahIM gayaa.4. I couldnt go to market. hO. 20a. Because he is illiterate. I didnt go to market. I didnt go to market.

all were happy. he was tired and sat down. m´~ prati:kša: karte karte thak gaya:. 23.4. (then) I won’t go. he was sick. SYNTAX (b) Participles 22.2. baccao ko Aanao sao saBaI KuSa hue. medicine eat-ptc emp he alright became Immediately upon taking the medicine. adhik šara:b pi:kar vah bi:ma:r hua:. more liquor drink-cp he sick was Because he drank a lot (of liquor). 27. if he market go-fut-ms then I neg go-fut. AiQak Saraba pIkr vah baImaar huAa. walk-ptc he tired and sat aux Because of walking (constantly). bacce ke a:ne se sabhi: khuš hue. 204 . 4. 25. dvaa[. child-obl-gen come-inf-obl with all happy were Because of the arrival of the child.ar jaaegaa ifr maOM nahIM jaa}Ðgaa.4. 24.Kato hI vah zIk huAa. maOM p`tIxaa krto krto qak gayaa. The cause is expressed in (22) and (23) by reduplicated present and past participles respectively. (c) Infinitive plus se with 26. phir m´~ nahĩ: ja:ũ:ga:. dava:i: kha:te hi: vah thi:kh hua:. he recovered (from illness). Agar/yaid vah baaja.1s If he goes to market. I wait do-ptc tired aux I got tired of waiting. agar/yadi vah ba:za:r ja:yega:. Condition Clauses Condition clauses are marked by the conjunction agar/yadi ‘if’. calte calte vah thaka: r b´th gaya:.5. Cause can be expressed by other participles. too. calato calato vah qaka AaOr baOz gayaa.

sala haogaI. kal jaldi: a: ja:na: varna: m´~ akele: ja:ũ:ga:. SYNTAX 28. ifr AcCI fsala haogaI Agar baairSa haogaI. ifr maOM baaja. Agar/yaid baairSa haogaI ifr AcCI f. The same tense reference is marked in both constituents conjoined by the markers Agar agar and vanaa. again good harvest will if rain comes The crop will be good if it rains. yaQyaip/ halaMik vah bahut AmaIr hO ifr BaI vah kMjaUsa hO. whereas its co-referential marker ifr phir can be deleted. agar/yadi ba:riš hogi:. 29. phir acchi: fasl hogi: agar ba:riš hogi:.6. The conjunction marker vana-a varna: ‘otherwise’ also is used in condition clauses.ifr BaI agar . 28a.varna:. Concession Clauses A concession clause is marked by subordinate conjunction markers such as yaQyaip yadhypi/ halaaMik ha:lã:ki/ caaho ca:he ‘although’.then clause can be reversed. tomorrow soon come otherwise I alone-obl go-fut Come early tomorrow. otherwise I will go alone.4. 205 .4. then the crops will be good. phir m´~ ba:za:r nahĩ: ja:ũ:ga: agar vah ja:yega:. The sequence of if . kla jaldI Aa jaanaa vana-a maOM Akolao jaa}Ðgaa. phir acchi: fasal hogi:. It is to be noted that the condition marker Agar agar is not deleted. 4. Agar . although he very rich is still he miser is Although he is very rich.phir bhi: ‘even if’.ar nahIM jaa}Ðgaa Agar vah jaaegaa. he is a miser. yadhypi/ha:lã:ki vah bahut ami:r h´ phir bhi: vah kanju:s h´. again I market neg go-fut if he go-fut I will not go to the market if he goes. 30. 27a.2. and @yaaoM nahIM kyõ nahĩ: ‘why not’. if rain fall-fut then good crop be-fut If it rains.

2. even then he/she won’t do this work. rain fall-inf-obl reason I market neg go able I could not go to market because of the rain. the main clause contains a cause marked by an oblique infinitive followed by the postposition ko karNa ke ka:ran / kI vajah ki: vajah ‘because of the reason’. vah phir bhi: yah ka:m even if you he-dat beat-fut too even then this work nahIM krogaa. vah @yaaoM na kafI AnauraoQa kro ifr BaI maOM ]sako saaqa vah kyõ na ka:phi: anurodh kare phir bhi: m´~ uske sa:th he why do much insist do even then I he-gen with idllaI nahIM jaa}Ðgaa. dilli: nahĩ: ja:ũ:ga:. kal accha: møsam tha: isliye m´~ ghu:mne gaya:. 33. Delhi not go-fut Even if he insists. I’ll not go to Delhi with him.7. yesterday good weather was therefore I walk-inf-obl went-1s The weather was good yesterday. I went for a walk. caaho Aap ]sakao pITaogao BaI vah yah kama nahIM krogaa. . 206 34. In a sentence sequence. Result Clauses In result clauses. not do-fut Even if you’ll beat him/her up. 4. he/she won’t do this work. nahĩ: karega:.4. The second sentence usually contains the phrase [sa ilae is liye ‘therefore’.4. the cause is usually given in the first sentence. even if you he-dat beat-fut too he this work not do-fut Even if you beat him/her up. followed by another sentence giving the result of it.ar na jaa saka. 31a. caaho Aap ]sakao pITaogao BaI vah ifr BaI yah kama ca:he a:p usko pi:toge bhi:. This expresses the result of a sentence. therefore. ba:riš hone ke ka:ran/ki: vajah m´~ ba:za:r na ja: saka:. vah yah ka:m nahĩ: karega:. 32. baairSa haonao ko karNa / kI vajah sao maOM baaja. SYNTAX 31. kla AcCa maaOsama qaa [sailae maOM GaUmanao gayaa. ca:he a:p usko pi:toge bhi:.

vah vaki:l h´. Predicate noun 1. and coordination. Predicate adjective sauYamaa laMbaI hO. or a predicate adverb as a complement.4. SYNTAX 4. mohan khara: h´. comparison. verbal. anaphora.1. reciprocals. ]sakI Aavaaja. participle. The copula may take a predicate noun. Mohan stand is Mohan is standing. negation. 3. imperatives. interrogatives.copula.a hO. superlatives. Sushma tall is Sushma is tall. equatives. Predicate adverbial 4. 207 . Predicate adverbial (participle) maaohna KD. his/her voice sweet is His/her voice is sweet. predicate adjective. maIzI hO. reflexives. vah vakIla hO.complement . The unmarked order of constituents in the examples given above is subject . Copular Sentences The verb haonaa hona: ‘to be’ is employed in copular sentences. 4.3. 2. sušma: lambi: h´. he lawyer is He is a lawyer.3. uski: a:va:z mi:thi: h´. Sentence Construction Here we will discuss the different types of sentence constructions: copular.

these white flowers are These are white flowers.4. . 208 5a. 5. this white shirt is This is a white shirt. ye lambi: larkiyã: h´~. ye safed phu:l h´~. 6. 5b. 5c. yao laMbao laD. yah lamba: larka: h´. this white flower is This is a white flower.ikyaaÐ hOM. yao laMMbaI laD. yah laMbaa laD. these tall girls are These are tall girls. yah safod kmaIja. and the adjective safod safed ‘white’ falls into the second.ko hOM. yah laMMbaI laD. yao safod fUla hOM. these tall boys are These are tall boys. ye lambe larke h´~. this tall boy is This is a tall boy. yah safod fUla hO. 6b.ka hO. SYNTAX There are two types of predicate adjectival copular sentences: (a) those which change for gender and number of the nouns they modify and (b) those which do not. The adjective laMbaa lamba: ‘tall’ falls into the first category. 6a.kI hO. yeh lambi: larki: h´. hO. this tall girl is This is a tall girl. yeh safed phu:l h´. yeh safed kami:z h´.

Mohan doctor is Mohan is a doctor.jaldI caZ. hOM. maaohna Da^@Tr hO. these white shirts are These are white shirts. mohan da:ktar h´. The copular verb must be retained in both affirmative (positive) as well as negative sentences.4. mohan da:ktar h´ ør aji:t bhi:. Mohan doctor is and Ajit too Mohan is a doctor and so is Ajit. mohan aur aji:t da:ktar h´~. maaohna AaOr AjaIt Da^@Tr hOM. na maaohna vakIla hO AaOr na AjaIt. Sohan lawyer not is Sohan is not a lawyer. Aajakla saUya. 10. 7. and role functions. It is also used as a second member (explicator) in the compound verb sequences. na mohan vaki:l h´ ør na aji:t. neg Mohan lawyer is and neg Ajit Neither Mohan nor Ajit is a lawyer. Mohan and Ajit doctors are Mohan and Ajit are doctors. The copular verb is used for definition. existence. 209 . 9a. 9b. a:jkal su:rya jaldi: carhta: h´. SYNTAX 6c. ye safed kami:zẽ h´~. identity. In the case of co-ordinate structures. 9. maaohna Da^@Tr hO AaOr AjaIt BaI.ta hO. nowadays sun quick rise-ptc is The sun rises early these days. 8. it is optionally deleted. sohan vaki:l nahĩ: h´. yao safod kmaIjaoM. saaohna vakIla nahIM hO.

day after day situation improve-prog are The situation is improving day by day. bha:gya apna: apna: h´. i:švar h´. Aajakla jaldI AMQaora haota hO. samaya balavaana hO. In sentence (13) the complement does not appear at the surface and is understood as ivaQyamaana vidhyma:n/ maaOjaUd møju:d ‘exists/omnipresent’ and/or hr sqaana har stha:n/ kNa kNa maoM kan kan mẽ ‘everywhere’. din prati din ha:la:t sudhar rahe h´~. a:jkal jaldi: andhera: hota: h´. 14. i:švar vidhyma:n/mauju:d /har stha:n par/kan kan mẽ h´. idna p`it idna halaat sauQar rho hOM. [-Svar hO. sa%ya iCpta nahIM. 12. nowadays early dark be-ptc is It becomes dark early (in the evening) these days. 16. [-Svar ivaQyamaana/maaOjaUd /hr sqaana pr/ kNa kNa maoM hO. satya chipta: nahĩ:. truth hidden neg The truth (eventually) comes out. Or God is present everywhere. samay balva:n h´. Or The truth cannot be hidden. luck self self is One is born with his/her own luck. 13. 16a. 15. SYNTAX 11. God present/every where particles in is God exists. The copular verb always takes a complement.4. time strong is Time is strong. 210 . God is Bagavaana Apnaa Apnaa hO.

maohnat krnaa mehnat karna: ‘to work hard’. Verbal Sentences Verbal phrases can be grouped into three categories based on the classification of their verbs as simple. or haonaa hona: ‘to be’.2. 19. der hui:/ho gai:. I-erg book read I read a book. 17. This meaning is expressed by using the verb haonaa hona: or hao jaanaa ho ja:na: ‘to become’. mauJaoo kama krnaa hO. (i. m´~ne kita:b parhi:. 18. 211 . conjunct. The first category has only one verbal root as in (1). maOMnao iktaba pZ. ba:tci:t hui:. baatcaIt hu[-. I-dat work do-inf be I have to work. 4. conversation be-pst-fs The conversation took place. 1.3.4.e. saaf haonaa sa:ph hona: ‘to be clear’ takt haonaa ta:kat hona: ‘to be strong/healthy’. kama huAa. mujhe ka:m karna: h´. SYNTAX In Hindi the copula verb haonaa hona: ‘to be’ is used as a non-stative verb and is translated as to become/happen/take/occur. work be-pst-ms The work was done. or compound. late be-pst-fs/be aux-fs It became late. kama krnaa ka:m karna: ‘to work’. The second category is formed by combining a noun/adjective plus the verb krnaa karna: ‘to do’. dor hu[. ka:m hua:.) 2./hao ga[-.I.

kI nao p~ ilaKa. ]sanao maohnat kI. 8. larki: ne patr likha:. girl-erg letter-ms wrote-ms The girl wrote a letter. laD. yah maamalaa saaf hO. ]sanao AKbaar pZ.4. The third category employs a sequence of verbs like pZ. and ilaK donaa likh dena: ‘to write’. m´~ne citthi: likh di:. usne axba:r parh liya:. 4. or It is clear. this matter clear is This matter is clear. The subject of a transitive verb in the past tense is in the oblique case. 7. boy-erg essay-ms wrote-ms The boy wrote an essay. larke ne lekh likha:. or (S)he has strength. yeh ma:mla: sa:f h´. 212 . I-erg letter write gave-explicator-fs I wrote the letter. usne mehnat ki:. 9. he-obl-loc strength be (S)he is strong/healthy. ]samaoM takt hO. 6. followed by the case sign or the postposition nao ne. SYNTAX 3. he-erg hard work did He worked hard.ko nao laoK ilaKa. laonaa parh lena: ‘to read’. 5. he-erg newspaper read took-explicator-ms He read the newspaper. maOMnao icaT\zI ilaK dI. usmẽ ta:kat h´. laD. ilayaa.

SYNTAX 10. and laganaa lagna: ‘seem’ always take a dative subject using a dative case marker and the postposition kao ko. maOMnao/hmanao iflma doKI. tumanaoo/Aapnaoo kusaI. 13. Psychological predicates such as gaussaa Aanaa gussa: a:na: ‘to be angry or irritated’. boys-/girls-erg newspaper read The boys/girls read the newspaper. tumne/a:pne kursi: dekhi:. tu:ne/tumne/a:pne kita:b parhi:. I-erg/we-erg film-fs saw-fs I/we saw a film.ikyaaoM nao AKbaar pZ. larke ko gussa: a:ya:.3. he-dat injury struck He got injured. you-erg chair saw-fs You saw a chair. you-erg book-fs read-fs You read a book. 11.4. laD. laD.ko kao gaussaa Aayaa. use cot lagi:.I. tUnaoo/tumanaoo/Aapnaoo iktaba pZ. Direct Object Verbs are conventionally divided into intransitive and transitive on the basis of whether they take a noun phrase as an object.2. ]sao caaoT lagaI. 15. 4. Transitive 213 .1. 14. The plural forms of personal pronouns are used as honorific singular/plural subjects as well.doKI.a. 12. m´~ne/hamne film dekhi:.kaoM/laD. larkõ/larkiyõ ne axba:r parha:. boy-obl to anger came The boy was angry.

The order of the direct and indirect object in a sentence mainly depends on the emphasis given to these constituents in a given sentence. For example. 16a. he-erg asked-fs He asked (it to) him/her. Indirect Object Whenever direct and indirect objects occur in a sentence. 17a. m´~ne usse apni: ba:t kahi:. in (17). the objects are understood and they do not appear at the surface level. they get extra emphasis. he/she-erg welfare-ms asked-ms He/she asked (him/her) welfare. see the use of the transitive verbs khnaa kahna: ‘to say’ and pUCnaa pu:chna: ‘to ask’ in sentences (16) and (17) below. maOMnao khI. the indirect object receives the dative case markings. These sentences can be completed as follows. I-erg said-fs I said (it) to him/her.2. 214 . maOMnao ]sasao ApnaI baat khI. In (16). Notice the following examples of sentences using indirect objects in the dative case. In certain cases. 4. 16. 17. Similarly.4. I-erg him/her selfs matter-fs told-fs I told him/her my story. ]sanao pUCa. the verb khnaa kahna: is inflected for an implied generic feminine object. usne pu:cha:.2. usne ha:lca:l pu:cha:. When animate indirect objects precede direct objects. m´~ne kahi:. ]sanao halacaala pUCa. the verb pUCnaa pu:chna: is inflected for an implied generic masculine object.3. SYNTAX verbs take noun phrases as their object and intransitive verbs do not.

Other Types of Verb Argument Other types of verb arguments appear in the form of various postpositional phrases. Uma-erg I-obl food feed-fs Uma offered the food to me. of course. maOMnao iktaba AjaIt kao dI. direct/indirect object. mauJao ]maa nao Kanaa iKlaayaa.rIda.3.3. certain semantic restrictions. instruments. and comitatives.4. (19a) and (20a). I-erg Ajit-dat book-fs gave-fs I gave Ajit a book. AjaIt nao ApnaI p%naI ko ilae Saala K. ]maa nao mauJao Kanaa iKlaayaa. They include locatives. maOMnao AjaIt kao iktaba dI. imposed by the choice of verbs and tense. 18a. 20. benefactives. and optional arguments) put together in a sentence. In (18). AjaIt nao Saala ApnaI p%naI ko ilae K. 19. uma: ne mujhe kha:na: khila:ya:. (19) and (20) the indirect objects receive more emphasis than in (18a). including the selection of their cases (nominative. mujhe uma ne kha:na: khila:ya:. There are no restrictions regarding the number of arguments (subject. aji:t ne ša:l apni: patni: ke liye xari:da:. SYNTAX 18. There are.rIda. 20a. m´~ne kita:b aji:t ko di:. m´~ne aji:t ko kita:b di:. 19a. aji:t ne apni: patni: ke liye ša:l xari:da:. I-obl Uma-erg food feed-fs Uma offered the food to me. dative. and ergative subjects). 4. Ajit-erg shawl selfs wife for bought Ajit bought a shawl for his wife. 215 . Ajit-erg selfs wife for shawl bought Ajit bought his wife a shawl.2.

direct object. locative). SYNTAX In Hindi. and verb. maaohna nao pITr kao AjaIt ko ilae kla Gar pr iktaba dI. the verb occurs in the final position. mat mat don’t. 216 .3. The unmarked word order is subject. In sentence (21).4.3. maaohna nao pITr kao AjaIt ko ilae Gar pr kla iktaba dI.3. Sentential Negation Sentential negation is expressed by the negative particles nahIM nahĩ: not. Consider sentences (21). Similarly. indirect object. Negation 4. 4. The direct object may occur before the indirect object depending on the emphasis given to it. and na na no. The order of emphasis is reversed in sentence (21a). mohan ne pi:tar ko aji:t ke liye kal ghar par kita:b di:.1.tr nahIM jaata hO. The negative particle nahIM nahĩ: is added before the main verb.(21c) below. maaohna nao AjaIt ko ilae pITr kao kla Gar pr iktaba dI. the adverbial phrase can also precede the direct or indirect object for emphasis. vah Aajakla dF. vah a:jkal daftar nahĩ: ja:ta: h´. he nowadays office neg go-ptc is He doesn’t go to the office nowadays. 1. Mohan-erg Peter to Ajit for yesterday home at book gave Mohan gave Peter a book for Ajit yesterday at home. maaohna nao kla pITr kao AjaIt ko ilae Gar pr iktaba dI. the direct object gets more emphasis than the indirect object. mohan ne pi:tar ko aji:t ke liye ghar par kal kita:b di:. 21. 21a. which may or may not be followed by an auxiliary verb. 21b. adverbial (time.3. mohan ne kal pi:tar ko aji:t ke liye ghar par kita:b di:. 21c. mohan ne aji:t ke liye pi:tar ko kal ghar par kita:b di:.

use kal patni: se larna: nahĩ: ca:hiye tha:. 3a. Aaja Gar mat jaa[e. AKbaar na pZ.4. 217 . AKbaar mat pZ. but it is not used frequently.3.ao. The negative particle mat mat can be replaced by na na ‘no’. I-erg this book neg read (have) I have not read this book. a:j ghar mat ja:iye. 4a. 4. 5. he-dat yesterday wife with quarrel neg should was He should not have quarreled with his wife yesterday. a:j ghar na ja:iye. SYNTAX 2. today home neg go-pl Please don’t go home today.2. 4.I (hO). axba:r na parho.3. Don’t read the newspaper. ]sao kla p%naI sao laD.naa nahIM caaihe qaa. The main constituents are the stress and the use of a negative particle after the negated constituent. maOMnao yah iktaba nahIM pZ. Aaja Gar na jaa[e. Constituent Negation A number of devices are employed to mark constituent negation. m´~ne yeh kita:b nahĩ: parhi: (h´).ao. Please don’t go home today. Sometimes stress is used to negate the constituent. It is added in the preverbal position. axba:r mat parho. 3. The particle mat mat ‘don’t’ is used with imperative constructions. newspaper neg read Don’t read the newspaper.

he went to the hospital. aspata:l gaya:. vah ghar nahĩ: gaya:. vah kha:na: kha:ye bina: ka:lej gaya:. the negated constituents are stressed by stressing the adverbs.4. 8. the negative markers cannot be replaced by nahIM nahĩ:. uma: ke siva: sa:re samay par a:ye. 218 . vah Kanaa Kae ibanaa kalaoja gayaa. ]sao hr raoja. he every day liquor neg drink should He should not drink (liquor) daily. Uma gen without all time on came All came on time except Uma. In sentences (7) and (8). 9. In sentences (5) and (6). he home neg went he hospital went He did not go home. Saraba nahIM pInaI caaihe. 7. The indefinite markers kao[. vah ghar nahĩ: gaya:. use har roz šara:b nahĩ: pi:ni: ca:hiye.koi: ‘someone’ and kuC kuch ‘something’ and the question words khIM BaI kahĩ: bhi: ‘anywhere’ and kBaI BaI kabhi: bhi: ‘ever’ are also used with negative constituents. The negative marker follows the negated constituent. 7a. SYNTAX 6. he food eat without college went He went to college without eating. ]maa ko isavaa saaro samaya pr Aae. The negative constituent is also expressed by the use of the negative markers isavaa siva: except and ibanaa bina: without added after the main verbs as given below. vah aspata:l gaya:. vah Gar nahIM gayaa vah Asptala gayaa. vah Gar nahIM gayaa Asptala gayaa.

usne kal se koi: ka:m nahĩ: kiya:. this work ever waste neg be-fut This work will never go waste. 12.4.ka skUla nahIM gayaa. Participles are also used along with negated constituents. 14. 16. kao[.to nahIM Aayaa. ]sanao kla sao kao[. The negative prefixes be. vah beraham h´. itne p´se se kuch nahĩ: hoga:. [tnao pOsao sao kuC nahIM haogaa. vah baorhma hO. yeh ka:m kabhi: bhi: vyarth nahĩ: hoga:. Aimat daOD. 219 . yah kama kBaI BaI vyaqa. he-erg yesterday from any work neg did He has done no work since yesterday. 15. borrowed from Persian (morphological negation) negate the constituent to which they are prefixed. 11. someone student school neg went No child went to school. amit dørte . Amit run-ptc neg came Amit did not come running.and an-. Amit anywhere neg went Amit went nowhere.nahIM haogaa. he without-mercy is He is merciless.kama nahIM ikyaa. SYNTAX 10. amit kahĩ: nahĩ: gaya:. Aimat khIM nahIM gayaa. 13.to .laD.dørte nahĩ: a:ya:. koi: larka: sku:l nahĩ: gaya:. this-obl money with something neg be-fut This money is not sufficient.daOD.

3. I Moscow neg neg went be Have I ever gone to Moscow? Or I have never gone to Moscow. however. Amit job neg do-pr is Amit is not doing a job. maOM hOdrabaad nahIM gayaa hUÐ. na amit nøkri: karta: h´ ør na karoba:r.3.3. possible to use double negation markers for emphasis. 20a. SYNTAX 17.3. vah baoidla kama krta hO.3. It is only in the na na … na na ‘neither … nor’ situation that negative elements are used sentence initially.4.4. neg Amit service do-prt is and neg business Amit has neither a job nor a business. I Hyderabad neg went be I have not gone to Hyderabad. Aimat naaOkrI nahIM krta hO. amit nøkri: nahĩ: karta: h´. 4. Double or multiple negation markers are not used. Negation and Coordination Negation occurs in coordinate structures as it does in simple sentences. m´~ h´dara:ba:d nahĩ: gaya: hũ:. 20. na Aimat naaOkrI krta hO AaOr na karaobaar. 19. 4. m´~ ma:sko nahĩ: na gaya: hũ:. 18. maOM maaskao nahIM na gayaa hUÐ. The negative element is not moved to the co-ordinate position unless the identical element is deleted from the second negative conjunct. he without-heart work do-ptc is He works uninterestingly. 220 . It is. Double/Multiple Negation Hindi allows only one negative particle per clause. vah bedil ka:m karta: h´.

mauJao lagata hO ik Aaja baairSa nahIM haogaI. mauJao pta hO ik vah nahIM Aaegaa. Thus. SYNTAX 20b. mauJao nahIM pta ik vah Aaegaa (ik nahIM). 21a. 4. laganaa lagna: and caahnaa ca:hna: but not before ivacaar haonaa vica:r hona:. maOM caahta hUÐ ik vah karaobaar nahIM kro.3. the matrix verb can be negated to express subordinate negation. 22. he should not take this job. Amit business neg do-ptc is Amit is not doing a business. 21. I-dat seem-ptc is that today rain neg be-fut It seems to me that it won’t rain today. m´~ ca:hta: hũ: ki vah karoba:r nahĩ: kare. Aimat karaobaar nahIM krta hO.4. mujhe lagta: h´ ki a:j ba:riš nahĩ: hogi:. I-obl know is that he neg come-fut I know that he will not come. mujhe pata: h´ ki vah nahĩ: a:yega:.3. 221 . mera: vica:r h´ ki use vah nøkri: nahĩ: karni: ca:hiye. amit ka:roba:r nahĩ: karta: h´. maora ivacaar hO ik ]sao vah naaOkrI nahIM krnaI caaihe.5. or perception (laganaa lagna: ‘to seem’ and ivacaar haonaa vica:r hona: ‘to have an opinion/to think’). 23. expectation/ intention (caahnaa ca:hna: ‘to want’). my opinion is that he-obl this job neg do-inf should In my opinion. Negation and Subordination With predicates expressing opinion (pta haonaa pata: hona: ‘to know’. sentences (21-23) can be rephrased as (21a-23a) but not as (24a). 24. The negative particle nahIM nahĩ: can occur before the modal verbs pta haonaa pata: hona:. mujhe nahĩ: pata: ki vah a:yega: (ki nahĩ:). I want-ptc am that he business neg do-subjunctive I don’t want him to do business.

tum kal dilli: ja:oge.4. *mauJao nahIM ivacaar hO ik *mujhe nahĩ: vica:r h´ ki.4. . yes-no questions can be put into two categories: (a) neutral yes-no questions (where a definite answer is not expected) and (b) leading yes-no questions (where either an affirmative or a negative answer is expected). 4.4. These questions are marked by certain intonation characteristics. m´~ nahĩ: cahta: ki vah ka:roba:r kare. Neutral Yes-No Questions Neutral yes-no questions are formed by the optional placement of the question word @yaa kya: what in the sentence initial position of a declarative sentence. @yaa kya: usually occurs in the second position. Note that the use of the question marker @yaa kya: in neutral questions is different from its use in the questionword questions. mujhe nahĩ: lagta: h´ ki a:j ba:riš hogi:.4.1. Yes-No Questions On the basis of the expected answer. tuma kla idllaI jaaAaogao.1. mauJao nahIM lagata hO ik Aaja baairSa haogaI. and in yes-no questions it occurs only in the initial position. maOM nahIM caahta ik vah karaobaar kro. 24a. In question-word questions.1. SYNTAX 22a.3. 23a. you tomorrow Delhi go-fut tomorrow You will go to Delhi tomorrow. 4. 4.3. 1.3. Interrogative There are two types of interrogative sentences: yes-no questions and information questions using question-words. (@yaa) tuma kla idllaI jaaAaogao? (kya:) tum kal dilli: ja:oge? (Q-word) you tomorrow Delhi go Will you go to Delhi tomorrow? 222 1a.

m´~ dekhũ:ga: nahĩ: (yeh film). . hã:. Yes. A negativized yes-no question invokes multiple answers. A negative declarative sentence is changed to a yes-no question by adding the negative morpheme before the verb. SYNTAX 1b. 223 3a.4. tuma @yaa kla idllaI jaaAaogao? tum kya: kal dilli: ja:oge? A declarative sentence can be converted to a neutral yes-no question without adding any question marker by raising the intonation at the end of the verb. (@yaa) tuma kla idllaI nahIM jaaAaogao? (kya:) tum kal dilli: nahĩ: ja:oge? (Q) you tomorrow Delhi neg go-fut Won’t you go to Delhi tomorrow? tuma @yaa kla idllaI nahIM jaaAaogao? tum kya: kal dilli nahĩ: ja:oge? Aren’t you going to Delhi tomorrow? 2a. tum kal dilli: nahĩ: ja:oge. yes I watch-1s-fut (this film). 2. nahIM¸ maOM doKUÐgaa nahIM (yah if. tuma kla idllaI jaaAaogao. 2b. neg I see-fut neg (this film) No. 3b.lma). you tomorrow Delhi neg go-fut You won’t go to Delhi tomorrow. m´~ dekhũ:ga: (yeh film).lma nahIM doKaoogao? tum yah film nahĩ: dekhoge? you this picture neg watch-fut Won’t you watch this film? haи maOM doKUÐgaa (yah if. I’ll see (this film). I won’t watch (this film).lma). Consider the answers to questions (3) and (4): 3. nahĩ:. tuma yah if.

haи Aaja sadI. 4b. a:j sardi: nahĩ: h´.hO. 4. m´~ dekhũ:ga: nahĩ:. 4d. Neg today cold neg is No.nahIM hO. it isn’t cold today. nahĩ:. a:j sardi: h´. m´~ dekhũ:ga:. 3d. yes today cold is Yes. a:j sardi: nahĩ: h´. neg I watch-fut No. nahI¸M Aaja sadI. hã:. 4a. I watch-1s-fut neg Yes. it isn’t cold today. yes today cold neg is Yes. 224 .4. nahĩ:. it isn’t cold today.hO naa? a:j sardi: h´ na:? today cold is neg-Q Isn’t it cold today? haи Aaja sadI. hã:. haи maOM doKUÐMgaa nahIM. neg today cold neg is No. The agreement-disagreement answering systems are less frequently used than the positive-negative ones. nahIM¸ maOM doKUÐMgaa. it is cold today. yes. 4c. nahĩ:. In these examples. SYNTAX 3c. nahIM¸ Aaja sadI. hã:. Aaja sadI. a:j sardi: nahĩ: h´.nahIM hO. I won’t watch. I’ll watch. the (a-b) answers indicate positive-negative and the (c-d) indicate agreement-disagreement answering systems.nahIM hO.

3. isn’t it? vah iktaba pZ. na:? today hot neg is neg-q It isn’t hot today. Note that the occurrence of certain negative polarity markers such as phlao pahle. The tag question comprising of the verb + naa na: is preceded by a positive proposition and the tag question of the verb + haÐ hã: is preceded by the negative proposition. parhega:? he letter neg read-3s-fut read-3s-fut-q He won’t read a letter.o thore ‘ever’ in the interrogative sentence also invoke a negative answer. hO naa? a:j garmi: h´.ogaa. The expectation of a positive answer is expressed by an affirmative proposition preceding the verb + naa na: as a tag question. is it? vah p~ nahIM pZ.1. SYNTAX 4. pZ. parhega: na:? he book read-3s-fut read-3s-fut neg-q He will read a letter.ogaa.4.4. pZ. 7. Aaja gamaI.2. naa? a:j garmi: nahĩ: h´.ogaa naa? vah kita:b parhega:. Aaja gamaI. qaaoD. The expectation of a negative answer is expressed by a negative proposition preceding the verb + naa na: or the repetition of the verb form as a tag question. Leading Questions Leading questions are formed by adding the repetitive form of the verb negative or positive question markers nahIM nahĩ: and haÐ hã: respectively at the end of a declarative sentence to serve as tag questions. h´ na:? today hot is is neg-q It is hot today.ogaa? vah patr nahĩ: parhega:. will he? 8.hO. won’t he? 6. 5. 225 .nahIM hO.

o kama krta hO? vah pahle/thore ka:m karta: h´? he ever work do-ptc. 226 .question words are referred to as kk-questions in Hindi because question words begin with the k. Question-Word Questions Interrogative sentences with wh. kba kab ‘when’ and ikQar kidhar ‘in what direction’. vah phlao/qaaoD. tuma p~ ilaKaogao ik nahIM? tum patr likhoge ki nahĩ:? you letter write-3s or not Will you write a letter or not? An alternative form of this question will be: 10a. kOsaa k´sa: how. khaÐ kahã: ‘where’. 10. iktnaa kitna: ‘how much’. yah @yaa hO? yeh kya: h´? this what is What is this? maaohna khaÐ hO? mohan kahã: h´? Mohan where is Where is Mohan? 12. The question word is always stressed. 11. kaOna køn ‘who’. The main question words are @yaa kya: what.3.4. @yaaoM kyõ ‘why’. Question words always occur in the second position of interrogative sentences.ksound. tuma p~ ilaKaogao ik nahIM ilaKaogao? tum patr likhoge ki nahĩ: likhoge? you letter write-fut or neg write-fut Will you write the letter or not? 4. SYNTAX 9.4.2.ms is Does he ever work? Alternative questions are formed by adding the expression ik nahIM ki nahĩ: ‘or not’ at the end of an interrogative yes-no question.

Feminine Sg / Pl how kOsaI k´si: iktnaI kitni: how much yah laD. tuma @yaaoM Aae? tum kyõ a:ye? you why come-2pl Why did you come? tuma kba AaAaogao? tum kab a:oge? you when come-2s-fut When will you come? vah ikQar jaaegaa? vah kidhar ja:yega:? he where go-3s-fut Where will he go? 14. The question words kOsaa kaisa: and iktnaa kitna: agree with the following or preceding noun in number and gender.4. They have the following three forms. SYNTAX 13. Masculine Sg Pl kOsaa k´sa: kOsao k´se iktnaa kitna: iktnao kitne 16.ko kOsao hOM? ye larke k´se h´~? these boys how are How are these boys? yah GaD.I kOsaI hO? yeh ghari: k´si: h´? this watch-f how is How is this watch? 17. 15. 227 .ka kOsaa hO? yeh larka: k´sa: h´? this boy how is How is this boy? yao laD. 18.

4. yao GaiD.yaaÐ kOsaI hOM? ye ghariyã: k´si: h´~? these watches how are How are these watches? yah pula iktnaa laMbaa hO? yeh pul kitna: lamba: h´? this bridge how much long is How long is this bridge? yao iktnao baccao hOM? ye kitne bacce h´~? these how many children are How many children are there? vah iktnaI baD. The oblique forms of postpositions are inflected for number as follows. Masculine/Feminine Sg iksao kise iksa kao kis ko iksa sao kis se iksa nao kis ne iksa ko saaqa kis ke sa:th iksa pr kis par iksa ka kis ka: Pl iknhoM kinhẽ ikna kao kin ko ikna sao kin se iknahaoMnao kinhõne ikna ko saaqa kin ke sa:th ikna pr kin par ikna ka kin ka: 228 to what/whom to whom by what/whom who with whom on whose .I iktaba hO? vah kitni: bari: kita:b h´? that how big-fs book-f is How big is that book? vao kuisa-yaaÐ iktnaI CaoTI hOM? ve kursiyã: kitni: choti: h´~? those chairs how small are How small are those chairs? 20. 22. 23. 21. The question words @yaa kya: what and kaOna køn who have the oblique forms iksa kis (Sg) and ikna kin (Pl) which are followed by case suffixes and postpositions. SYNTAX 19.

kyaaoM kao Aanaa hO? kin larkõ/larkiyõ ko a:na: h´? who.kI kao jaanaa hO? kis larke/larki: ko jana: h´? who-obl boy-dat/girl-dat go-Inf aux Which boy/girl has to go? ikna laD. SYNTAX 24. 27.ko/laD.kaoMo/laDi. 26.4. 29. yah iktaba iksao/iksa kao donaI hO? yeh kita:b kise/kis ko deni: h´? this book who give-inf-f aux To whom is this book to be given? Or Who is this book to be given to? iksa laD. 30. 28.pl-dat boys-dat/girls-dat come-inf is Which boys/girls have to come? vah iksa Sahr/ikna SahraoM sao Aaegaa? vah kis šahar/kin šahrõ se a:yega:? he which-abl city-abl/cities-abl from come-3s-fut Which city/cities will he come from? yah iksanao /iknhaoMnao saoba Kayaa? yeh kisne/kinhõne seb kha:ya:? this who-erg-ms/-fs/-p apple ate-ms Who ate this apple? yah iksaka banaa hO? yeh kiska: bana: h´? this what-of made is What is it made of? yao iksako banao hOM? ye kiske bane h´~? these which-gen-ms made-mp are What are these made of? yah iksakI banaI hOM? ye kiski: bani: h´~? these which-gen-fp are Which are these made of? 229 25. 31. .

and khaÐ kahã:/ khaÐ pr kahã: par ‘wherein’. vah where go-fut Where will he go? vah iksa trh Aaegaa? vah kis tarah a:yega:. 34. yah iksaka/iknaka makana hO? yeh kiska:/kinka: maka:n h´? this who-s-gen-ms/-p-gen-ms house is Whose house is this? yah iksa kI/ikna kI iktaba hO? yeh kiski:/kinki: kita:b h´? this who-s-gen-fs/-p-gen-fs book is Whose book is this? yao iksako/iknako pdo.oM hOM? ye kiski:/kinki: kami:zẽ h´~? these who-gen-fp shirts are Whose shirts are these? 33. he what manner come-fut How will he come? Aap khaÐ sao jaaeÐgao? a:p kahã: se ja:ẽge? you-p which direction go-2p-fut Where will you go from? Or In which direction will you go? 230 37. 35. When question words are combined with postpositions they create adverbials like khaÐ sao kahã: se ‘in which direction’. kOsao k´se/ iksa trh kis tarah ‘in what manner’. . 38. 36.hOM? ye kiske/kinke parde h´~? these who-s-gen-mp/-p-gen-mp curtains are Whose curtains are these? yao iksakI/iknakI kmaIja. vah khaÐ jaaegaa? vah kaha~: ja:yega:. SYNTAX 32.4.

Amar nao kla SaIlaa kao Apnao Gar ek kmaIja. 43.4. Subject 43a.). event. etc. Amar-erg yesterday Shiela to selfs house a shirt showed-fs Amar showed a shirt to Shiela at his home yesterday. Aap kOsao AaeÐgao? a:p k´se a:ẽge? you how (manner) come-2p-fut How will you come? vah khaÐ (pr) baOza haogaa? vah kahã: (par) b´tha: hoga:? He where (at) sit-PP be-fut Where will he be sitting? 40. The masculine plural forms of pronouns are used for honorific singular subjects as well. The question words are reduplicated when the expected answer provide a list (of more that one thing. iksanao kla SaIlaa kao Apnao Gar ek kmaIja. Aapnao @yaa @yaa doKa? a:pne kya: kya: dekha:? you-p-erg what what saw-2p-Pa What items did you see? vah khaÐ khaÐ gayaa? vah kahã: kahã: gaya:? he where where went Which places did he visit? 42. SYNTAX 39. Different constituents of the main clause can be questioned as may be seen in sentence (43) below. idKa[-. idKa[-? kisne kal ši:la: ko apne ghar ek kami:z dikha:i:? Who showed a shirt to Shiela at his home yesterday? 231 . 41. person. Reduplication is obligatory with plural nouns. amar ne kal ši:la: ko apne ghar ek kami:z dikha:i:.

the accompanier. 43f. Usually the verb phrase @yaa ikyaa kya: kiya: ‘do what’ is used for transitive verbs and @yaa huAa kya: hua: ‘what happened’ is used for intransitive verbs. idKa[-? amar ne kahã: kal ši:la: ko ek kami:z dikha:i:? Where did Amar show a new shirt to Shiela? It is not possible to use simple questions word for questioning a constituent of a verb. Amar nao kba SaIlaa kao Apnao Gar ek kmaIja. and time adverbial have been questioned. all the elements except the verb may be questioned. In examples (44-47) the subject. SYNTAX Direct object 43b. idKa[-? amar ne kisko kal apne ghar ek kami:z dikha:i? To whom did Amar show a shirt at his home yesterday? Time adverbial 43d. Amar nao khaÐ kla SaIlaa kao ek kmaIja. Amar nao iksakao kla Apnao Gar ek kmaIja. Amar nao kla SaIlaa kao Apnao Gar @yaa idKayaa? amar ne kal ši:la: ko apne ghar kya: dikha:ya:? What did Amar show Shiela at his home yesterday? Indirect object 43c. locative.4. Amar ko Gar kla @yaa huAa? amar ke ghar kal kya: hua:? Amar-gen home yesterday what happened What happened at Amars house yesterday? In non-equational copular interrogative sentences. The copular verb cannot be deleted as shown in in (44a-47a). 232 . idKa[-? amar ne kab ši:la: ko apne ghar ek kami:z dikha:i:? When did Amar show Shiela a shirt at his home? Location adverbial 43e. Amar nao kla Apnao Gar @yaa ikyaa? amar ne kal apne ghar kya: kiya:? Amar-erg yesterday self-obl-home what did What did Amar do at his home yesterday? 43g.

The demonstrative pronoun used as a subject cannot be questioned. *iktaba khaÐ? *kita:b kahã:? 47.hO. kaOna hO? køn h´? who is-3s Who is (there)? 44a. 233 . either the subject noun phrase or the predicate nominal can be questioned. Consider the following examples. CuT\TI kba hO? chutti: kab h´? holiday when is When is the holiday? 47a. yeh parda: h´. *CuT\TI kba? *chutti: kab? In equational copular interrogative sentences. tuma iksako saaqa? *tum kiske sa:th? 46. iktaba khaÐ hO? kita:b kahã: h´? book-fs where-abl is Where is the book? 46a. SYNTAX 44.4. 48. yah pda. it curtain is It is a curtain. tuma iksako saaqa hao? tum kiske sa:th ho? you who-gen with are-2s Who are you with? 45a. *kaOna? *køn? 45.

all elements of these clauses can be questioned. As is the case with matrix sentences. There are two types of subordinate clauses: finite and non-finite. yah iktaba hO. This supports the argument that the question formation rule applies after the rules for non-finitization of the subordinate clauses take place. 50. yeh kita:b h´. however.4. (@yaa) Aapkao pta hO maaohna nao Amar kao kla kya: a:pko pata: h´ mohan ne amar ko kal Q you-dat knowledge is Mohan-erg Amar-dat yesterday iktaba dIÆ kita:b di:? book gave-f Do you know that Mohan gave a book to Amar yesterday? 234 .hO? *kya: parda: h´? 49. cannot be questioned. SYNTAX 48a. this book is This is a book. *@yaa pda. 49a. yah @yaa hO? yeh kya: h´? it what is-3s What is it? 48b. *@yaa iktaba hO? *kya: kita:b h´? Different constituents of subordinate clauses can be questioned. Constituents. which undergo deletion in the process of non-finitization. yah @yaa hO? yeh kya: h´? this what is-f What is this? 49b.

SYNTAX Subject 50a. rha qaa. 235 . *rmaoSa sao kaOna daost Aaja imalaa caalaak hO? *rameš ka: køn dost a:j mila: ca:la:k h´? Constituents of non-finite subordinate clauses which comprise infinitival and participial phrases can be questioned. (@yaa) Aapkao pta hO ik maaohna nao kba Amar kao iktaba dI? (kya:) a:pko pata: h´ ki mohan ne kab amar ko kita:b di? You know when Mohan gave the book to Amar? The questioning of the constituent clauses may also involve questioning of the matrix clause. rmaoSa sao jaao daost Aaja imalaa vah caalaak hO.4. vah kha:na: kha:te hue akhba:r parh raha: tha:. (@yaa) Aapkao pta hO ik maaohna nao iksakao kla iktaba dI? (kya:)a:pko pata: h´ mohan ne kisko kal kita:b di:? You know to whom Mohan gave a book yesterday? Time adverbial 50d.baar pZ. Ramesh-abl rel friend today met he clever is The friend who met Ramesh is clever. Note that no constituent of a finite relative clause can be questioned. rameš se jo dost a:j mila: vah ca:la:k h´. vah Kanaa Kato hue AK. he food eating-part newspaper read-prog was He was reading a newspaper while eating his meal. 51. (@yaa) Aapkao pta hO Amar kao iksanao kla iktaba dI? (kya:) a:pko pata: h´ amar ko kisne kal kita:b di:? You know who gave a book to Amar yesterday? Direct object 50b. 52. 51a. (@yaa) Aapkao pta hO ik maaohna nao kla Amar kao @yaa idyaa? (kya:) a:pko pata: h´ ki mohan ne kal amar ko kya: diya:? Do you know what Mohan gave to Amar yesterday? Indirect object 50c.

vah @yaa krnao idllaI gayaa? vah kya: karne dilli: gaya:? he what do-inf-obl Delhi went Why did he go to Delhi? maasTr nao laD. rha qaa? vah kis ko ca:y pi:te hue parha: raha: tha:? Who was he teaching while drinking his tea? 54. rha qaa? vah kya: kha:te hue akhba:r parh raha: tha:? What was he eating while reading a newspaper? 53. vah ca:y pi:te hue bacce ko parha: raha: tha:. he Raj with talk do-ptc go-prog was He was talking to Raj while going. vah kyaa Kato hue AK. vah caaya pIto hue baccao kao pZ. teacher-erg student-dat letter write-inf-obl for told The teacher asked the student to write a letter? 236 56.4. ma:star ne larke ko patr likhne ke liye kaha:.ko kao p~ ilaKnao ko ilae kha. vah iksa kao caaya pIto hue pZa. 55. . he tea drinking-part child-dat teach-prog was He was teaching the child while drinking his tea? Indirect object 53a. SYNTAX Direct object 52a.baar pZ. vah ra:j ke sa:th ba:tẽ karte hue ja: raha: tha:. Object of a postposition 54a.a rha qaa. vah iksako saaqa baatoM krto hue jaa rha qaa? vah kiske sa:th ba:tẽ karte hue ja: raha: tha:? Who was he talking to while going? The subject of the subordinate clauses undergoes deletion in sentences (52a-54a) because it is co-referential to the subject of the matrix sentence. All the constituents of gerundive and infinitival clause can be questioned. vah raja ko saaqa baatoM krto hue jaa rha qaa.

Mohan-gen three friends tomorrow come-3p-fut Mohans three friends will come tomorrow. 57b. ]saka tIsara baoTa idllaI maoM hO. 237 . yah CaoTI laD. maasTr nao laD. (h) particle and a noun.4. maasTr nao laD. yeh choti: larki: ghar ja:yegi:. Demonstrative pronoun 57a. (c) intensifier. (g) possessor. (d) descriptive adjective. (f) possessive adjective. SYNTAX 56a. this little girl home go-3s-fut This little girl will go home. mohan ke ti:n dost kal a:yẽge.kI Gar jaaegaI? køn si: choti: larki: ghar ja:yegi:? Which little girl will go home? Quantifier (cardinal number) 58a. Nouns may also modify relative clauses and objects of comparison.ko kao @yaa ilaKnao ko ilae kha? ma:star ne larke ko kya: likhne ke liye kaha:? What did the father ask his son to write? Different constituents of a noun phrase can be questioned.ko kao @yaa krnao ko ilae kha? ma:star ne larke ko kya: karne ke liye kaha:? What did the teacher ask his student to do? 56b. A noun phrase may be made up of any of the following: (a) demonstrative pronoun. 58b. (b) quantifier. (e) classifier/specifier. maaohna ko tIna daost kla AaeÐgao? mohan ke kitne dost kal a:yẽge? How many friends of Mohan will come tomorrow? Quantifier (ordinal number) 59a. maaohna ko tIna daost kla AaeÐgao. he-gen third son Delhi in is His third son is in Delhi. kaOna saI CaoTI laD. uska: ti:sra: beta: dilli: mẽ h´.kI Gar jaaegaI.

rama: bahut hi: lambi: larki: h´.krta hO? vah kitne guna: kharc karta: h´? How many times the expenditure of everyone else does he incur? Descriptive adjective 61a. 62b. 61b. Mohan-gen college is Delhi-loc is in Mohan’s college is in Delhi. ptlaa laD. patla: larka: ghore par nahĩ: carh sakta:.kI kar nahIM calaa saktI? køn si: larki: ka:r nahĩ: cala: sakti:? Which girl cannot drive the car? Intensifier 62a. maaohna ka kalaoja idllaI maoM hO. SYNTAX 59b. rmaa bahut hI laMbaI laD. he always four times expenditure do-pr is He always incurs four times the expenses of everyone else. rmaa iktnaI laMbaI laD. kaOna saI laD. Rama very (intensifier) tall-fs girl is Rama is a very tall girl.krta hO.4. 238 .kI hO? rama: kitni: lambi: larki: h´? How tall a girl is Rama? Possessive adjective 63a.ka GaaoD. vah hmaoSaa caaOgaunaa Kca. sakta. vah iktnao gaunaa Kca. vah hameša: cguna: kharc karta: h´. ]saka kaOna saa baoTa idllaI maoM hO? uska: køn sa: beta: dilli: mẽ h´? Which son of his is in Delhi? Quantifier (proportional number) 60a. 60b.o pr nahIM caZ.kI hO. slim boy horse on neg ride can-ptc The slim boy cannot ride the horse. mohan ka: ka:lej dilli: mẽ h´.

239 . tum hi: ja:o.4. A comparative phrase can also modify a noun phrase. I-erg Rajni-abl than tall-fs girl saw-fs I saw a girl taller than Rajni. maaohna ka baD. 66. vah BaI Aapko saaqa Aaegaa. SYNTAX 63b. Mohan-gen elder (specifier) son sick is Mohan’s elder son is sick. 66a. iksaka kalaoja idllaI maoM hO? kiska: ka:lej dilli: mẽ h´? Whose college is in Delhi? Specifier/classifier 64a. *kaOna hI jaaAao. 65a. maOMnao rjanaI sao laMbaI laD.a vaalaa baoTa baImaar hO. m´~ne rajini se lambi: larki: dekhi:. you-par go-3s-fut Only you go. 65b. vah bhi: a:pke sa:th a:ega:. he-part you-gen with come-3s-fut Hell also come with you.kI doKI. *køn bhi: a:pke sa:th a:ega:. *køn hi: ja:o. Object of comparison 67a. 64b. maaohna ka kaOna saa baoTa baImaar hO? mohan ka: køn sa: beta: bi:ma:r h´? Which of Mohans sons is sick? Particles hI hi: and BaI bhi: cannot be questioned. mohan ka: bara: va:la: beta: bi:ma:r h´. tuma hI jaaAao. *kaOna BaI Aapko saaqa Aaegaa.

4. [sa maoja. this-obl table on paper is There is paper on this table. m´~ne kis-se lambi: larki: dekhi:? I-erg who-abl tall girl saw-fut I saw a girl taller than whom? There are two types of relative clauses: non-finite and finite. is mez par ka:kaz h´. is in the oblique case. yah iknakao pOsao donao vaalaa hO? yeh kinko p´se dene va:la: h´? Who he is going to give money to? Elements of a postpositional phrase can also be questioned. The noun phrase elements of a postpositional phrase can be questioned. can be questioned. iksa maoja. pr kakja. maOMnao iksasao laMbaI laD. A postpositional phrase consists of a head noun followed by a postposition.kI doKI. yah baccaaoM kao @yaa donao vaalaa hO? yeh baccõ ko kya: dene va:la: h´? What is he going to give to the children? Indirect object of a non-finite relative clause 68b. Direct object of a non-finite relative clause 68a. The postposition assigns the case to the head noun. The noun phrase. 69. except the subject. hO? kis mez par ka:kaz h´? Which table is the paper on? 240 . 69a. No constituent of a finite relative clause can be questioned. hO. pr kakja. yah baccaaoM kao pOsao donao vaalaa hO. SYNTAX 67b. Any element of a non-finite relative clause. yeh baccõ ko p´se dene va:la: h´. he children-dat money give-inf aux He is going to give money to the children. which is followed by a postposition. 68.

klama laa[-. Mohan-poss house near shop is There is a shop near Mohans house. Shiela letter write-inf for paper pen brought Shiela brought paper and pen for writing a letter. SaIlaa icaT\zI ilaKnao ko ilae @yaa laa[-? ši:la: citthi: likhne ke liye kya: la:i:? Conjunction 72. not the postpositions. Mohan and Ajit Delhi went Mohan and Ajit went to Delhi. SaIlaa icaT\zI ilaKnao ko ilae kakja. iksa pr hO? ka:kaz kis par h´? What is the paper (placed) on? 70. ši:la: citthi: likhne ke liye ka:kaz kalam la:i:. Elements of a coordinate structure can be questioned. SYNTAX 69b. SaIlaa kakja. The coordinate structures are formed either by juxtaposition or by the use of a conjunction. maaohna AaOr AjaIt idllaI gae. klama @yaa ilaKnao ko ilae laa[-? ši:la: ka:kaz kalam kya: likhne ke liye la:i:? 71b. 241 . kakja. mohan r aji:t dilli: gae.4. iksako pasa dukana hO? kiske pa:s duka:n h´? Near which place is a shop? It is only the noun phrase elements of a postpositional phrase which can be questioned. iksako Gar ko pasa dukana hO? kiske ghar ke pa:s duka:n h´? Near whose house is there a shop? 70b. mohan ke ghar ke pa:s duka:n h´. Juxtaposition 71. 71a. 70a. maaohna ko Gar ko pasa dukana hO.

]sanao icaT\zI ilaKI AaOr iktaba pZ. *]sanao icaT\zI ilaKI AaOr @yaa pZ. *kaOna AaOr AjaIt idllaI gae? *køn ør aji:t dilli: gae? Who and Ajit went to Delhi? 72c. SaaIlaa AaOr iksanao Apnaa kama samaaPt ikyaa? ši:la: r kisne apna: apna: ka:m sama:pt kiya:? Shiela and who finished their work? 73b.I? *usne citthi: likhi: ør kya: parhi:? 74b. he-erg letter wrote-fs and book read-fs He wrote a letter and read a book. maaohna AaOr kaOna gae? mohan r kn gae? Mohan and who went? (Mohan went with whom?) 72b. *iksanao AaOr SaIlaa nao Apnaa kama samaaPt ikyaa? *kisne ør ši:la: ne apna: ka:m sama:pt kiya:? Who and Shiela finished their work? 73c. iksa iksa nao kama samaaPt ikyaa? kis kis ne ka:m sama:pt kiya:? Who (are the ones who) finished their work? 74. SaaIlaa AaOr maaohna nao Apnaa Apnaa kama samaaPt ikyaa. ši:la: ør mohan ne apna: ka:m sama:pt kiya:.I? *usne kya: likhi: ør kita:b parhi:? 242 . 74a. *]sanao @yaa ilaKI AaOr iktaba pZ.4. kaOna kaOna idllaI gae? køn køn dilli: gae? Who (are the ones who) went to Delhi? 73. Shiela and Mohan-erg self’s work finish did Shiela and Mohan finished their work.I. usne citthi: likhi: ør kita:b parhi:. SYNTAX 72a. 73a.

especially a folk tale. There is no constraint on the number of constituents of a sentence that can be questioned at one time.AaOr dUQa ipyaa. ]sanao icaT\zI ilaKI AaOr @yaa ikyaa? usne citthi: likhi: ør kya: kiya:? He wrote a letter and what else did he do? 74d. Mohan yesterday Amar with garden see-inf-obl went Mohan went to see the garden with Amar yesterday. mohan kal amar ke sa:th ba:g dekhne gaya:. *]sanao @yaa Kayaa AaOr dUQa ipyaa? usne kya: kha:ya: ør du:dh piya:? No part of the juxtaposition phrase can be questioned. for checking the comprehension of the listeners.4.AaOr @yaa ipyaa? usne roti: kha:i: ør kya: piya:? He ate bread and what did he drink? 75b. Similarly. in the coordinate verb phrases. The questioning of the first element of a coordinate noun phrase results in the formation of ill-formed sentences as in (73b) and (75b). maaohna kla @yaa doKnao gayaa Amar ko saaqa? mohan kal kya: dekhne gaya: amar ke sa:th? What did Mohan go to see with Amar yesterday? 243 . The multiple question-word questions are normally used at the end of the narration of a story. 76. the object of the first verb phrase cannot be questioned. ]sanao @yaa @yaa ikyaa? usne kya: kya: kiya:? What are the things he did? 75. 75a. 76a. He-erg bread ate-fs and milk drank-ms He ate bread and drank milk. maaohna kla Amar ko saaqa baaga doKnao gayaa. SYNTAX 74c. ]sanao raoTI Ka[. usne roti: kha:i: ør du:dh piya:. ]sanao raoTI Ka[.

Multi-question-word questions are used when information about different things is wanted all at the same time in one answer. the question word kyõ why cannot be used in its reduplicated form. who-obl opinion in who where who-obl near go-ptc is Who thinks that who (which individual) goes (near) to whom (which individual) and where (what place)? 244 . items. For example. 79. 78. maaohna kba @yaa doKnao gayaa Amar ko saaqa? mohan kab kya: dekhne gaya: amar ke sa:th? What did Mohan go to see with Amar and when? 76c. kaOna kaOna kba kba ikna ikna ko pasa jaata hO? køn køn kab kab kin kin ke pa:s ja:ta: h´? who when whom near go-ptc is Who (which individual) goes with whom (which individual) where/what places (and) when? This sentence can be used by an employer seeking information regarding his/her employees. or events. *kaOna kaOna kba kba @yaaoM @yaaoM jaata hO? *køn køn kab kab kyõ kyõ ja:ta: h´? The constituents of both the main and subordinate clauses can be questioned at the same time and the question words can be reduplicated. maaohna iksako saaqa @yaa doKnao kla gayaa? mohan kiske sa:th kya: dekhne kal gaya:? Who did Mohan go with to see what yesterday? 76d. 77. maaohna kba iksako saaqa @yaa doKnao gayaa? mohan kab kiske sa:th kya: dekhne gaya:? When did Mohan go with whom (and) for seeing what? Question-words are reduplicated when the expected answer is a listing of persons. Question-words which are not used in plural cannot be reduplicated.4. iksakI raya maoM kaOna kaOna khaÐ khaÐ iksa iksa ko pasa jaata hO? kiski: ra:y mẽ køn køn kahã: kahã: kis kis ke pa:s ja:ta: h´. SYNTAX 76b.

sarlaa jaaegaI khaÐ? sarla: ja:yegi: kahã:? 81b. jaaegaI khaÐ sarlaa? ja:yegi: kahã: sarla:? The question-word in the sentence initial position carries a stronger focus than when it is in the second position. Consider the following examples: 80. 245 . Aaegaa kba rmaoSa? a:yega: kab rameš? 81. rmaoSa Aaegaa kba? rameš a:yega: kab? 80c. kba Aaegaa rmaoSa? kab a:yega: rameš? 80b. and in (80c) and (81c) the verb is stressed. Interrogative sentences (80) and (81) are in natural word order. In other words. SYNTAX There is a flexibility as far as the placement of the questioned constituent is concerned.4. in (80b) and (81b) the question words are stressed. sarlaa khaÐ jaaegaI? sarla: kahã: ja:yegi? Sarla where go-fs Where will Sarla go? 81a. The movement of the questioned elements is related to their focus. In (80a) and (81a). rmaoSa kba Aaegaa? rameš kab a:yega:? Ramesh when come-3s-fut When will Ramesh come? 80a. khaÐ jaaegaI sarlaa? kahã: ja:yegi: sarla:? 81c. it is marked by more stress in the sentence initial position than in other positions. the subject is stressed. The interrogative sentences (80c) and (81c) do not necessarily invoke an answer.

3. but it does not necessarily invoke an answer. the response to a statement made in (83) can be in different forms (83a-83e) in yes-no echoquestions.4.1. in (82b) the stress is on the question-word. and in (82c) the stress is on the verb and the indirect object.word influences the meaning of the sentence.4. 246 . The placement of this question word in the post-verbal position is possible. dI iktaba @yaaoM? di: kyõ kita:b? In (82a) there is stress on the direct object. The movement of this question.3. For example.3. Aapnao ]sao iktaba @yaaoM dI? a:pne use kita:b kyõ di:? you-erg book he-dat why gave? Why did you give him a book? 82a. iktaba @yaaoM dI? kita:b kyõ di:? 82b. and (b) question-word echo-questions.4. Echo-Questions There are two types of echo-questions: (a) yes-no echo-questions. 82. @yaaoM iktaba dI? kyõ di: kita:b? 82c.3. It follows the verb within the sentence. Yes-No Echo-Questions A yes-no echo-question usually repeats one or more elements of the statement uttered by the previous speaker. 4. The element/elements chosen for clarification is/are retained with a rising intonation and other elements are deleted. 4. SYNTAX Usually the question-word @yaaoM kyõ why occurs in the pre-verbal position.

vah kal dilli: se a:yega:? Is it so that he’ll come from Delhi tomorrow? Using the same intonational patterns as in yes-no questions echoing a statement. mohan kal ba:za:r ja:yega: Mohan tomorrow market go-3s-fut Mohan will go to market tomorrow. AcCa¸ vah kla idllaI sao Aaegaa? accha:. yes-no question echo-questions are formed either by asking the previous speaker whether he/she asked the question or by replacing the constituent under focus. 84. 84a. 83a.ar jaaegaa? mohan kal ba:za:r ja:yega:? Will Mohan go to market tomorrow? 83b. maaohna jaaegaa? mohan ja:yega:? Will Mohan go (to the market tomorrow)? 83e.4. maaohna kla baaja. SYNTAX 83. he tomorrow Delhi-abl from come-fut He will come from Delhi tomorrow. vah kla idllaI sao Aaegaa? vah kal dilli: se a:yega:.ar jaaegaa? ba:za:r ja:yega:? Will (Mohan) go to market? 83c. baaja. maaohna kla baaja. Yes-no questions are prompted by the previous speakers question and they do not merely 247 . maaohna kla jaaegaa? mohan kal ja:yega:? Will Mohan go tomorrow? 83d.ar jaaegaa. maaohna? mohan? (Will) Mohan (go to market tomorrow)? The yes-no echo-questions may be preceded by the term accha: ‘it is so’.

4. SYNTAX seek clarification of the previous speakers statement. 85. Aapnao iktaba pZ,I? a:pne kita:b parhi:? you-erg book read-fs-pst book Did you read the book?

85a. maOMnao iktaba pZ,I? m´~ne kita:b parhi:? Did I read the book? 85b. Aap pUC rho hOM ik maOMnao iktaba pZ,I? a:p pu:ch rahe h´~ (ki) m´~ne kita:b parhi:? You are asking if I read the book? The focused constituent receives stress if the speaker chooses to retain unfocused elements. 4.3.4.3.2. Question-Word Echo-Questions A question-word may also be used in echo questions and elements of the statement may be repeated depending on the clarification sought. 86. vah p~ ilaK rha hO. vah patr likh raha: h´. he letter write-pr is He is writing a letter.

86a. @yaa ilaK rha hO? kya: likh raha: h´? What is he writing? 86b. @yaa? kya:? What (is he writing)? 86c. p~. patr (He is writing a) letter.
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4. SYNTAX Question-word echo-questions are uttered with a slightly rising intonation at the end of the phrase or sentence in yes-no questions. It is not so in question-word questions. The questioner may also use the expected answer in his/her question with a rising intonation. 86d. @yaa ilaK rha hO, p~? kya: likh raha: h´, patr? What is he writing, a letter? 86e. haÐ haÐ, p~. hã: hã:, patr. Yes, a letter. In (86d), a pause (indicated by a comma) separates the two rising intonation patterns. A statement containing more than one constituent permits the use of more than one echo-question. 87. haÐ, ]sanao kla iktaba pZ,I. hã:, usne kal kita:b parhi:. yes he-erg yesterday book read-fs Yes, he read a book yesterday.

87a. iksanao (kla) iktaba pZ,I. kisne (kal kita:b) parhi:? Who read (a book yesterday)? 87b. iksanao @yaa pZ,I? kisne kya: parhi:? Who read what? 87c. iksanao @yaa ikyaa? kisne kya: kiya:? Who did what? Question-word echo-questions follow the same pattern. 88. Aap @yaa kr rho hOM? a:p kya: kar rahe h´~? you what are-2s doing What are you doing?
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4. SYNTAX 88a. maOM @yaa kr rha hUÐ? m´~ kya: kar raha: hũ:? I what am-ms doing What am I doing? All elements in a sentence, including the verb and any possible combination thereof, can be questioned. 89. maOM pUC rha hUÐ iksanao iksaoo AaOr kba kmaIja, dI? m´~ pu:ch raha: hũ: kisne kisko ør kab kami:z di:? I ask-pr am who-erg who-dat and when shirt gave Im asking you who gave a shirt to whom and when?

89a. iksanao iksaoo AaOr kba kmaIja, dI? kisne kise kab kami:z di:? Who gave a shirt to whom and when? 89b. iksanao iksaoo kba @yaa idyaa? kisne kise kab kya: diya:? Who gave what to whom and when? In (89b), the verb is echo-questioned. 4.3.4.4. Answers Not all types of answers can be formally distinguished from other declarative statements. Answers to yes-no questions require the use of the agreement and disagreement markers haÐ hã ‘yes’ and nahIMM nahĩ: ‘no’ respectively in the sentence initial position, which may be followed with certain honorific markers. Answers to question-word questions involve the stating of the constituent required by the question. The rest of the elements of the sentence are usually deleted. 90. vah kba Aagara jaaegaa? vah kab a:gra: ja:yega:? When will he go to Agra?

90a. prsaaoM jaaegaa. parsõ ja:yega:. (He) will go day after tomorrow.
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4. SYNTAX 90b. prsaaoM. parsõ. Day after tomorrow. The minimum answers to a yes-no question include haÐ hã: ‘yes’, nahIMM nahĩ: ‘no’ Saayad ša:yad ‘perhaps’, maalaUma ma:lu:m/ pta nahIMM pata: nahĩ: ‘it is not known’. The short answers may optionally be followed by polite or honorific particles or terms. The polite particle jaI ji: can be added to both positive and negative short answers. It usually precedes the answers. In speech under the influence of Punjabi, it follows the affirmative or negative short answers. It is added to indicate politeness for any questioner older or younger than the respondent. Other formal honorific markers used are ijanaaba jina:b or saahba sa:hab ‘sir/madam’ for addressing people of all communities. The English honorific terms, sir and madam are also frequently used by the educated community. 91. vah Aaja Aaegaa Aagara sao? vah a:j a:yega a:gra: se? he come-fut today Agra-abl from Will he come from Agra today?

91a. haÐ /jaI haÐ /haÐ ijanaaba/ haÐ saahba/ haÐ sar/ haÐ maOD,ma hã:/ji: hã:/hã: jina:b/hã: sa:hab/hã: sar/ hã: m´dam Yes/ yes sir/madam. 91b. nahIM / jaI nahIM /nahIM ijanaaba/ nahIM saahba/ nahIM sar/ nahIM maOD,ma nahĩ:/ji: nahĩ:/nahĩ: jina:b/nahĩ: sa:hab/nahĩ: sar/ nahĩ: m´dam No/no sir/madam. 91c. Saayad. ša:yad. Perhaps. 91d. @yaa maalaUma /@yaa ptaa/ jaI @yaa pta? kya: ma:lu:m/kya: pata:/ ji: kya: pata:? Who knows?

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4. SYNTAX

91e. pta nahIM /maalaUma nahIM / jaI maalaUma nahIM . pata: nahĩ: /ma:lu:m nahĩ:/ ji: ma:lu:m nahĩ:. It is not known. 91f. pta nahIM /maalaUma nahIM. pata:/ma:lu:m nahĩ:. I don’t know. The honorific terms ijanaaba jina:b and saahba sa:hab can also be added in the sentence initial position. 91dd. ijanaaba / saahba @yaa pta? jina:b/sa:hab kya: pata:? Sir, who knows? 91ee. ijanaaba / saahba @yaa pta? jina:b/sa:hab kya: pata:? Sir, it is not known. 91ff. ijanaaba / saahba pta/maalaUma nahIM. jina:b/sa:hab pata:/ma:lu:m nahĩ:. Sir, I don’t know. The agreement or affirmative response is sometimes indicated merely by using the honorific terms ijanaaba jina:b and saahba sa:hab as in the following examples: 92. vah caalaak nahIM hO? vah ca:la:k nahĩ: h´? he clever neg-Q is Isn’t he clever?

92a. jaI /jaI hO/ haи vah caalaak nahIM hO? ji:/ ji: h´/ hã:, jina:b/hã: sa:hab h´. Yes, he is. As shown above, answers to yes-no questions may be yes, or no, or other response terms or expressions. The positive and negative response particles haÐ hã: yes and nahIM anahĩ: no can be reduplicated for
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4. SYNTAX emphasis. They may be followed by certain expressions for greater emphasis. 93. Aap maora yah kama kroMgao? a:p mera: yeh ka:m karẽge? you my this work-ms do fut-q Will you do this work for me?

93a. haÐ haÐ, ja,$r/ AvaSya. hã: hã:, zaru:r/avašya. yes yes definitely. Yes, I’ll do it, definitely. 93b. haÐ haÐ, @yaaoM nahIM? hã: hã:, kyõ nahĩ:? yes yes why not Yes, why not? 94. Aap Aagara nahIM AaeÐgao? a:p a:gra: nahĩ: a:yẽge? you Agra neg come-2p-fut Won’t you come to Agra?

94a. nahIM nahIMM, ibalkula nahIM. nahĩ: nahĩ:, bilkul nahĩ: no no absolutely not No, not at all. The expression ibalkula bilkul is followed by the negative marker. It is to be noted that affirmative and negative particles only are reduplicated, not other response terms and expressions. 94b. *nahIM (nahIM), Saayad Saayad nahIM. *nahĩ: (nahĩ:) ša:yad ša:yad nahĩ:. 94c. *nahIM (nahIM), @yaa pta @yaa pta. *nahĩ: (nahĩ:) kya: pata:, kya: pata: Answers to positive and negative leading questions are determined by the proposition underlying the question and not by the tag question.
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1. nahIM (maOM nahIM k$Ðgaa). Imperatives Imperative sentences are marked for number. 4. do-fut neg-q You will do this work.5. 4. Notice that the honorific plural and the honorific singular forms are the same. kroMgao? a:p yah ka:m nahĩ: karẽge.5. 254 . There are three types of imperative constructions: (a) unmarked or true imperatives. SYNTAX 95. karẽge? You won’t do this work. Whereas the singular non-honorific form remains unchanged. The singular imperative consists of the verbal stem. haи k$Ðgaa. (b) prohibitive imperatives and (c) obligative imperatives. hã:. nahĩ: (m´~ nahĩ: karũ:ga). kroMgao naa? a:p yah ka:m karẽgẽ. 96. won’t you? 95a. Aap yah kama nahIM kroMgao. If the verb stems end in the vowels [. karũ:ga:. gender. the suffix -Aao -o is added to derive the plural non-honorific forms and the suffix – [e -iye is added to derive the singular/plural honorific forms. person. Unmarked or True Imperatives The unmarked imperative takes the second person subjects tU tu: ‘you’ (non honorific intimate singular). tuma tum ‘you’ (nonhonorific/plural). Aap yah kama kroMgao. and degree of politeness./i:/ and e /e/ are dropped before the imperative suffixes or the plural non-honorific -Aao -o and singular/plural honorific suffix – [-ijae -i:jiye are added. the suffix – [ijae -i:jiye is added to the honorific singular and plural forms.3. The stem final vowels [. and Aap a:p ‘you’ (honorific plural/singular). will you? 96a./i:/ or e /e/. yes do-1s-fut Yes. No (I will not do it). karẽge na:? you this work do-fut.3. I’ll do it.4.

Polite pl. The polite markers jaI ji:.5. Please write. Please eat. sg. Prohibitive Imperatives Prohibitive imperatives are formed by adding the negative particle mat don’t in the pre verbal position. Please eat. 255 ./hon. Please bring. Sg non hon (tU tu:) pZ. the order will be as follows: 1b.4. 1a. piZe jaI parhiye ji:/ saahba sa:hab/ ijanaaba jina:b ilaiKe jaI likhiye ji:/ saahba sa:hab/ ijanaaba jina:b laa[e jaI la:iye ji:/ saahba sa:hab/ ijanaaba jina:b Ka[e jaI kha:iye ji:/ saahba sa:hab/ ijanaaba jina:b pIijae jaI pi:jiye ji:/ saahba sa:hab/ ijanaaba jina:b laIijae jaI li:jiye ji:/ saahba sa:hab/ ijanaaba jina:b Please read. Please write. Please take. Please drink. parhiye ilaiKe likhiye laa[e la:iye Ka[e kha:iye pIijae pi:jiye laIijae li:jiye Please read. parh ilaK likh laa la: Ka kha: pI pi: lao le Pl non-hon (tuma tum) pZ.ao read parho ilaKao write likho laaAao bring la:o KaAao eat kha:o ipAao drink piyo laao take lo Pl/hon (Aap a:p) piZe. Please take.2. SYNTAX 1. you book read-pl Please read the book. Please drink.3. Please bring. With an object. a:p kita:b parhiye. saahba sa:hab. and ijanaaba jina:b can be added to the honorific imperative forms. 4. Aap iktaba piZe.

bardar xabarda:r/ saavaQaana sa:vadha:n are followed by conditional clauses. Don’t read a book. p~ ilaK/ilaKaoo/ ilaiKe. liquor drink-Inf prohibited is Drinking (of liquor) is prohibited. don’t come late.ao/ piZ.e. beware late-abl neg come-inf Beware. 3a. sigret pi:na: mana: h´. patr likh/likho/likhiye. šara:b pi:na: mana:/varjit h´. Read a book. kita:b mat parh / parho/ parhiye. (You better not come late. isagaroT pInaa manaa hO. 256 .) The expressions K. Don’t write a letter. 4a.bardar xabarda:r/saavaQaana sa:vadha:n ‘beware’. patr mat likh/likho/likhiye. 4.bardar / saavaQaana dor sao na Aanaa. Prohibitive imperatives are also constructed from expressions like K. Write a letter. Saraba pInaa manaa /vaija-t hO. cigarette smoke-inf prohibited is Smoking is prohibited. kita:b parh / parho / parhiye.ao/ piZ. iktaba pZ/pZ. iktaba mat pZ/pZ. xabarda:r/sa:vadha:n der se na a:na:. K. 3. Prohibitive imperatives can also be formed by using the verb form manaa mana:/ vaija-t haonaa varjit hona: to be prohibitive as in (4-4a). 2a. 5. p~ mat ilaK/ilaKaoo/ ilaiKe.4.e. SYNTAX 2.

4. Degrees of Imperatives The unmarked ordinary imperative is stronger than the polite imperative. SYNTAX 4. Masculine Sg Pl Aao o Aao o Aro are Aro are Feminine Sg Pl Aao o Aao o ArI ari: Aro are 257 . such as kRpyaa krapaya: kindly kRpa kripa:/ maohrbaanaI krko meharba:ni: karke ‘after being kind’. kindly home go-pol-fut Kindly go home. God-abl sake/for time waste neg do-pol-fut For Gods sake. A soft tone of persuasion weakens and a hard authoritative tone strengthens the degree of the imperative. kRpyaa Gar jaa[e. Certain lexical items or phrases. 8. They weaken the imperative. Intonation and tone play an important role in the degree of the imperative. and Bagavaana saavaQaana Kuda ko ilae bhagva:n/xuda: ke liye ‘for God’s sake’ are added to imperative sentences to add politeness.3. Bagavaana ko ilae samaya barbaad mat kIijae. krapaya: ghar ja:yiye. 6. The obligatives of compulsion are stronger than the obligatives of prescription and the polite imperatives. kRpa / maohrbaanaI krko pOsao dIijae.5. The vocative forms are as follows. bhagva:n ke liye samay barba:d mat ki:jiye. kindness do-cp money give-pol-fut Kindly give money. don’t waste time. The vocative forms may also be used in the sentence initial position to strengthen and weaken the degree of imperative.3. Certain devices are used to strengthen or weaken the force of the imperative. 7. krapa:/meharba:ni: karke p´se di:jiye.

Aro Baa[-ÀyaarÀdaostÀima~ÀPyaaro dUQa laaAao. close the door.ma:i: ‘mother’. The vocative address forms may be followed by kinship terms like Baa[-bha:i: ‘brother’. what are you saying? 258 . The use of such derogative terms and abusive kinship terms strengthen the imperative. oh-hon brother hon this newspaper read-pol Oh brother. Aro¸ drvaaja. Pyaaro pya:re ‘dear one’ biahna bahin ‘sister’. are bha:i:/ya:r/dost/mitr/pya:re du:dh la:o. 10. please read this newspaper. ArI baihna¸ Apnaa kama kr. bring the milk. listen to me.e. ho Baa[. kya: bolta: h´? hey-mas brother-in-law what say-ptc be Hey (my) brother-in-law. hey-f sister selfs work do-2s-imp Hey sister. Aro saalao¸ @yaa baaolata hOÆ are sa:le. yaar ya:r/daost dost/ima~ mitr ‘friend’. 10a. my talk emp listen-2p-imp Hey. ari: bahan. apna: ka:m kar. and sausaro susre ‘father-in-law’ or other derogative expressions of address. 11.baar piZ.saahba yah AK. The vocatives may also be followed by derogative terms like pagala pa:gal ‘mad’. O. SYNTAX 9. abusive terms like saalao sa:le ‘brother-in-law’. and maa[.4. hey door do-2s-fut close-2s-imp Hey.a baMd krao. are darva:za: band karo. meri: ba:t to suniye. do your work. Aro¸ maorI baat tao sauinae. 10b. he bha:i: sa:hab yah akhba:r parhiye. 9a. hey brother/friend/dear one milk bring-2s-imp Hey brother/friend/dear one. are.

The use of reduplicated forms of imperatives reinforces the impolite force. Yes-no positive and negative questions in the future tense may also convey the force of imperative form. I hands fold-cp request do-ptc am me-dat on kindness do I humbly request you to be kind to me. go go listened Go. o pa:gal. come here. and (haaqa jaaoD.4. I have listened. 13. jaa jaa¸ sauna ilayaa. ³Aap´tsvaIr doMgaoÆ (a:p) tasvi:r dẽge? you picture give-fut-q Would you give the picture? 13a. 14. Aap doMgao @yaa tsvaIrÆ a:p dẽge kya: tasvi:r? you give-fut-q picture 13b.kr p`aqa-naa krta hUÐ mauJapr kRpa krao. yahã: a:o hey mad person here come-2s-imp O mad one. maOM haqa jaaoD.kr ha:th jor kar) p`aqa-naa krnaa pra:rthana: karna: ‘to make a request (with folded hands’) also render imperative force in their complement clause. m´∫ ha:th jorkar pra:rthana: karta: hũ: mujhpar kripa: karo. Aao pagala¸ yahaÐ AaAao. sun liya:. SYNTAX 11a. 12. ja: ja:. tsvaIr doMgao @yaaÆ tasvi:r dẽge kya:? Would you give (me) the picture? Performative verbs such as inavaodna krnaa nivedan karna: ‘to make a request’. 259 .

one day I-erg one child-dat road-obl on weep-ptc saw pUCa tuma kaOna haoÆ pu:cha: tum køn ho? asked you who are One day I saw a child crying on the road. 3. and they are often expressed by personal pronouns.o badlao AaOr Aayaa. maaohna AaOr ]sakI p%naI saOr krnao gae¸ ]sakao zaokr lagaI mohan ør uski: patni: s´r karne gaye. usko thokar lagi: Mohan and his wife walk do-inf-obl went he-dat stumbled AaOr igar gayaa. maaohna Co bajao Gar phuÐcaa¸ kpD. ør gir gaya: 260 . In a narrative text or natural discourse. 2. e.e. Since the verb agrees with the subject and/or object in gender. ek idna maOMnao ek baccao kao rasto pr raoto doKa¸ ek din m´~ne ek bacce ko ra:ste par rote hue dekha:. the subject and object can be deleted. Anaphora Here we will discuss (i) the means of expressing anaphora and (ii) the domains of anaphora. reflexives. Anaphora in Hindi may be personal pronouns. Who are you? In the above example. zero pronouns (i. null elements PRO or pro) or quasi-pronouns.6.3.. SYNTAX 4. number.. Mohan che baje ghar pahũca:.4. depending on various kinds of constructions. 1. deletion is a prominent device in expressing the anaphora. Mohan reached home six-abl hour clothes changed and came Mohan reached home at six oclock. kapre badle ør a:ya:. They are recoverable from the first sentence. (he) changed his clothes and he came here. I asked (him). Anaphoric elements are frequently in the third person.g. and person. the anaphoric subject and object (the child) become accessible by means of deletion or zero anaphora in the second sentence.

4.~ pahli: ca:la:kh h´. Anaphora is expressed by possessive and reflexive pronouns as given in (4) and (5). are also employed to denote anaphora. amit ghar a:ya: ør svayam patni: ko dava:i: di: Amit home came and self wife-dat medicine gave Amit came home and gave medicine to his wife himself. The former is clever and the latter is simple. 6. saaro saD. Aimat Gar Aayaa AaOr svayaM p%naI kao dvaa[. ør du:sri: si:dhi: sadi:. ]maa AaOr SaaoBaa bahnaoM hOM. usne apne mitr se p´se udha:r liye. The anaphora occurs within the clause with reflexive pronouns. Personal pronouns are not employed for this purpose. 261 . he-erg refl friend-from money credit took He took money from his friend on loan. 7. and the use of ordinals like phlaa pahla: ‘first’ and dUsara du:sra: ‘second’. Uma and Shobha: sisters are first clever is AaOr dUsarI saIQaI saadI.phlaI caalaak h¸O uma: ør šobha: bahnẽ h´. SYNTAX and fell Mohan and his wife went for a walk. He stumbled and fell down. mohan ba:za:r se seb la:ya:. and second simple Uma and Shobha are sisters.dI. All were rotten. ]sanao Apnao ima~ sao pOsao ]Qaar ilae. Certain other devices like the use of saara sa:ra: all. 5.ar sao saoba laayaa.o hue qao. Mohan market from apples brought all rotten-ptc were Mohan brought apples from the market. sa:re sare hue the. 4. maohna baaja.

he refl-dat wife with Delhi went He went to Delhi with his wife. mohan samay par pahũca: ør Ø apna: ka:m kiya: Mohan time on reached and Ø refl work did Mohan reached in time and did his work. mother-erg son-dat said he letter write-subj The mother asked her son to write a letter. maaÐ nao baoTo (i) kao kha vah (i) p~ ilaKo.4. 262 . 10a. vaki:l ko apne par pu:ra: bharosa: h´. maaohna (i) samaya pr phuÐcaa AaOr Ø ]sanao (i) Apnaa kama ikyaa. 11. mã: ne bete (i) ko Ø (i) patr likhne ke liye kaha: mother-erg son-dat Ø letter write-inf-abl for said The mother asked her son to write a letter. maaohna samaya pr phuÐcaa AaOr Ø Apnaa kama ikyaa. Usually. 10. mã: ne bete(i) ko kaha: vah (i) patr likhe. It is possible to have an anaphora between superordinate and subordinate clauses. vah apni: patni: ke sa:th dilli: gaya:. Deletion indicates anaphora between a superordinate and a following subordinate clause. subordinate clauses (except for subject complementation. relative clauses and if … then clauses) follow superordinate clauses. Anaphora between coordinate structures is usually forward. 9. 11a. mohan (i) samay par pahũca: ør Ø usne (i) apna: ka:m kiya: Mohan time on reached and Ø he-erg self work did Mohan reached (office) in time and did his work. maaÐ nao baoTo (i) kao Ø (i) p~ ilaKnao ko ilae kha. advocate-dat refl-obl on full confidence is The advocate has full confidence in himself. vakIla kao Apnao pr pUra Baraosaa hO. It is marked by deletion or pronominalization. SYNTAX 8. vah ApnaI p%naI ko saaqa idllaI gayaa.

3. [jo Ø kita:b parh rahi: h´] vah larki: meri: bahan h´. No other strategy is employed. [jaao laD. There is no other change except the selection of a dative case marker or a postposition in its use as an indirect object. *maaÐ nao kha ik Ø/vah (i) baoTa (i) p~ ilaKo.kI iktaba pZ. Backward as well as forward deletion and pronominalization are used to express anaphora. vah larki: uski: apni: beti: h´. rel Ø book read-prog is cor girl my sister is The girl who is reading a book is my sister.kI maorI baihna hO. Emphatic pronouns are sometimes completely homophonous with possessive pronouns as in (2). [jo larki: kita:b parh rahi: h´] vah Ø meri: bahan h´. Reflexives A reflexive pronoun occupies the same position within a clause as any other type of a pronoun.7. 1. rhI hO ] vah laD. *mã: ne kaha: ki Ø /vah (i) beta:(i) patr likhe. 4. that girl his emp/*refl That girl is his/her own. rhI hO ] vah Ø maorI baihna hO. rel girl book read-prog is cor Ø my sister is The girl who is reading a book is my sister.kI ]sakI ApnaI baoTI hO. 11b. SYNTAX Backward deletion is not possible. Emphatic possessive pronouns do not require a co-referential antecedent. vah laD. The only restriction is that the antecedent of a reflexive pronoun must be the subject of its clause. 12a. [jaao Ø iktaba pZ. Anaphora between different sentences also uses the strategy of deletion and pronominalization.4. 263 . 12.

dulhan apne du:lhe ko pasand h´. 5. dulhna Apnao dUlho kao psaMd hO. Amit self -emp here came Amit came here by himself. I am refl food cook-pr am I cook my meals myself. can be interpreted as follows: 2a. The reflexive Apnao Aap apne a:p represents the main reflexive pronoun. m´~ apne a:p kha:na: bana:ta: hũ:. The result is Aap hIo a:p hi:. dulhna ]sako Apnao dUlho kao psaMd hO. . Reflexivity is expressed by the use of agentive reflexive pronouns. amit a:p/apne a:p/a:p hi: yahã: a:ya:. SYNTAX 2. Aimat Aap/ Apnao Aap/ Aap hI yahaÐ Aayaa. using the emphatic pronoun. dulhan uske apne du:lhe ko pasand h´.o [s~I krtI hO. 3. which when followed by a postposition. Sentence (2). suman apne a:p kapre istri: karti: h´. It also functions as an emphatic pronoun as in (1). maOM Apnao Aap Kanaa banaata hUÐ. saumana Apnao Aap kpD. The reduplicated form Apnao Aap apne a:p also occurs as a reflexive.4. bride her refl-obl bridegroom-dat like is The bride is liked by her own bridegroom. hma Apnao Aap kpD. 6. bride refl-obl bridegroom-dat like is The bride is liked by her bridegroom. ham apne a:p kapre dhote h´~. The conjunct verb psaMd haonaa pasand hona: to like takes a dative subject. Sentence (2) is not passive. The emphatic form is also derived by adding the emphatic suffix -hIo -hi: to it. we refl clothes wash-ptc are We wash our clothes ourselves. This term is used to distinguish between the possessive reflexive Apnaa apna: and non-possessive reflexive Apnao Aap apne a:p ‘self’. 264 4. has the oblique form Apnao apne.o Qaaoto hOM.

amit ne apne a:p din bhar a:ra:m kiya:. In possessive structures. Amit-erg refl-obl for/brother for shoes bought Amit bought a pair of shoes for himself/his brother. Following are its forms: 265 . 8. 9. SYNTAX Suman refl clothes iron do-ptc is Suman irons the clothes herself.ko ilae jaUto KrIdo. amit ne apne liye/bha:i: ke liye ju:te: khari:de:. the possible reflexive form Apnaa apna: ‘self’ is used in place of possessive pronouns such as the English my and your. Reflexivization can allow backward movement as well. apne a:p amit ne a:ra:m kiya:. but selects a non-reflexive form. Apnaa apna: agrees with the following head NP in number and gender. When the possessive reflexive is used. Sentence (7) shows that a non co-referential object does not take a reflexive form. The reflexivization is also controlled by dative and ergative subjects.4. 10. Apnao Aap Aimat nao Aarama ikyaa. Aimat nao Apnao Aap idna Bar Aarama ikyaa. The person information is obtained from the antecedent subject. the possessor is the same as the agent of the action or the subject. ]maa kao Apnao Aap kama krnaa psaMd hO. 7. Amit-erg refl day-whole rest did Amit rested the whole day. Aimat nao Apnao ilae / Baa[. uma: ko apne a:p ka:m karna: pasand h´. Uma-dat refl work do-inf like is Uma likes to do (her) work herself. There are no separate pronominal reflexive pronouns for each pronoun. Examples (8-9) can be interpreted as emphatic reflexives as well. refl Amit-erg rest did Amit rested himself.

SYNTAX Masculine Feminine Sg Pl Sg Pl Apnaa apna: Apnao apne ApnaI apni: ApnaI apni: 11. saI rha hO. maOM Apnao /*maoro pOsao igana rha hUÐ. rho hOM. vah Apnaa /*]saka laaBa jaanata hOMO. you refl/*yours book read-prog are You are reading your book. 266 . 14. he refl/*his profit know-ptc is He is aware of his benefit. vah (i) uski: (j) kami:z si: raha: h´. ve apni:/*unki: kami:zẽ dho rahe h´~. vao ApnaI /* ]nakI iksmat pr rao rho hOM. 17. vao ApnaI /*]nakI kmaIja. a:p apni:/*a:p ki: kita:b parh rahe h´~. maOM Apnaa /*maora kmara saaf kr rha hUÐ. he refl/*his shirts wash-prog are He is washing his shirts. vah (i) ]sakI (j) kmaIja. m´~ apne/*mere p´se gin raha: hũ:.4. 15. I-m sefl/*my room clean do-prog am I am cleaning my room.oM Qaao rho hOMO. 12. 13. ve apni:/*unki: kismat par ro rahe h´~. The use of non-reflexive pronouns yield well-formed sentences provided the subject and possessive pronoun are not co-referential. vah apna:/*uska: la:bh ja:nta: h´. they refl/*selfs luck on cry-prog are They repent on their own work. I refl /*my money count-prog am I am counting my money. Aap ApnaI /*AapkI iktaba pZ. 16. m´~ apna:/*mera: kamra: sa:f kar raha: hũ:.

amit mohan ko apna: šatru: ma:nta: h´. 20. The scope of reflexivity is usually restricted to the clause in which it is used. ve apna: apna: ka:m kar rahe h´~. 21. they refl work do-prog are They are doing their respective jobs. The possessive structure also permits reduplicated reflexives.4. as shown in (22). Similar to nominative and ergative subjects.j) enemy. maaohna nao kha ik vah /*Apnao Aap samaya pr Aaegaa. the dative subject also controls the possessive reflexive Apnaa apna:.a rha hO. SYNTAX he his shirt stitch-prog is He (i) is stitching his (j) shirt. Notice that reflexivization does not always meet clausemate constraint. he their children teach-prog is He(i) is teaching their (j) children. Mohan-erg asked that his/*refl wife when come-fut Mohan (i) asked when his (i) wife would come. 22. maaohna nao pUCa ik ]sakI/*ApnaI p%naI kba AaegaI. vah (i) ]nako (j) baccao pZ. Mohan-erg said that he/*refl time at come-fut Mohan (i) said that he (i) would come on time. 267 . vah (i) unke (j) bacce parha: raha: h´. mohan ne pu:cha: ki uski:/*apni: patni: kab a:yegi:. vao Apnaa Apnaa kama kr rho hOM. 19. mohan ne kaha: ki vah/*apne a:p samay par a:yega:. Aimat maaohna kao Apnaa Sa~u maanata hO. Amit Mohan-dat refl enemy consider-ptc is Amit (i) considers Mohan (j) his (i. 18. Sentences (20) and (21) show that reflexivization does not go down into subordinate clauses.

Aimat (i) maanata hO [ik maaohna Aimat (j) ka Sa~u hO]. tum apna: kamra: sa:f karo. krao. you refl room clean do Clean your room. Apnaa kmara saaf. the reflexive pronoun cannot occur in (22a). his self kill-inf proper neg was His killing himself was not proper. Reflexive relations cannot exist within an ordinary noun phrase.4. uska: svayam ko ma:rna: thi:kh nahĩ: tha:. Amit consider-ptc is that Mohan Amit of enemy is Amit considers Mohan Amits enemy. amit (i) ma:nta: h´ [ki mohan amit (i) ka: šatru: h´]. tuma Apnaa kmara saaf. apna: kamra: sa:f karo. Reflexive relations occur within nominalized clauses. refl room clean do Clean your room. ]saka svayaM kao maarnaa zIk nahIM qaa. It is possible to have reflexive antecedents under two conditions: (i) when the logical antecedent is deleted at the surface level and (ii) when the antecedent is either generic or contextually implied. 22b. Amit consier-prog that Mohan Mohans enemy is Amit considers Mohan Mohans enemy. but it can occur in sentence (22b) due to its clause boundaries. 268 . (i) Deletion of an underlying antecedent 24. amit ma:nta: h´ [ki mohan (i) mohan (i) ka: šatru: h´. krao. Here. SYNTAX Sentence (22) is ambiguous because the reflexive pronoun is coreferential with the subject of the subordinate as well as with the subject of the subordinate clause. It shows that the finite subordinate clause becomes finite and is raised to the object position of the matrix sentence. Aimat maanata hO [ik maaohna (i) maaohna (j) ka Sa~u hO]. 22a. It has two readings. 23. 24a.

they one another-obl many times lot-abl met They met each other many times. or a possessive adjective in different types of constructions. an indirect object. the scope of the reciprocal expression does not extend to the matrix subject. In these sentences. hmanao ek dUsaro ko saaqa baat kI. 4. ]nhaoMnao ek dUsaro kI bahut sahayata kI. 2. 269 . 1. refl time waste do-inf good neg is It is not proper (for someone) to waste ones time. they-erg one another-obl very help did They helped each other very much. ve ek du:sre se kai: ba:r mile. Notice that in (25) the generic antecedent someone is implied. The scope of reciprocity is restricted to the clause. apna: samay našt karna: thi:k nahĩ: h´. Reciprocals usually require an antecedent subject.3. Reciprocals The primary way of expressing a reciprocal relationship is the expression ek dUsaro kao ek du:sre ko ‘to one another’. unhõne ek du:sre ki: bahut saha:yta: ki:.8. hamne ek du:sre ke sa:th ba:t ki:. Reciprocals can also be formed with Aapsa maoM a:pas mẽ ‘mutual’. SYNTAX (ii) Generic/implied antecedent 25.4. It is the combination of the cardinal ek ek ‘one’ and the oblique case form of the ordinal dUsara du:sra: followed by kaoo ko. we-erg one another-obl with talk did We talked to each other. vao ek dUsaro sao k[. Apnaa samaya naYT krnaa zIk nahIM hOOo. Direct object 3. They may be used as a direct object.baar imalao. an adverb.

ve ek du:sre par zor se cilla: rahe h´~. we one another-poss home neg go-ptc We don’t visit each others houses. vao Aapsa maoM baat nahIM krto ³hOM´. they among themselves talk neg do-pre (are) They do not talk to each other. 5. they-erg one another-obl presents gave They gave presents to each other. ham ek du:sre ke ghar nahĩ: ja:te. The same range of reciprocals occur in nominalized clauses.4. It is possible to have reciprocal structures without antecedent. as in the case of imperative constructions. ]nakI ek dUsaro kI TaoipyaaÐ barabar nahIM hOM. 270 . unhõne ek du:sre ko upha:r diye.aor sao icallaa rho hOM. Possessive adjective 6. their one another-poss caps equal/fit neg are Each others caps do not fit them. 7. 9. hma ek dUsaro ko Gar nahIM jaato. or contextually. ]nhaoMnao ek dUsaro kao ]phar ide. ve a:pas mẽ ba:t nahĩ: karte (h´~). if the antecedent is understood either syntactically. unki: ek du:sre ki: topiyã: bara:bar nahĩ: h´~. 8. SYNTAX Indirect object 4. they one another-obl with shout-prog are They are shouting at each other. ]naka ek dUsaro ko Gar na jaanaa zIk nahIM hO. their one another-gen house not go-inf good neg is Their not visiting each others homes is not right. Adverb vao ek dUsaro pr ja. unka: ek du:sre ke ghar na ja:na: thi:k nahĩ: h´.

Ajay that much-cor clever as much-rel his brother Ajay is as clever as his brother. ek du:sre ke sa:th ba:tẽ mat karo. Amit-gen two sons are they one-another-gen with always fight-pr Amit has two sons. jaOsaa Ajaya caalaak hO¸ ]tnaa ]saka Baa[.³BaI´hO. 11. (They) always quarrel with each other.4. 271 .³hO´. ve ek du:sre ke sa:th hameša: larte h´~. The main difference between these clauses and the comparative clause is that in equative clauses. Equatives Like comparatives. Aimat ko dao baoTo hOM. A comparative sentence can be transformed into an equative sentence by the deletion of the negative particle. vao ek dUsaro ko saaqa hmaoSaa laD.3. Ajaya ]tnaa caalaak hO ijatnaa ]saka Baa[. Equative structures can also be formed by using the clause jaOsaa j´sa: as/which way and vaOsaa v´sa: like/that way. amit ke do bete h´~. an equative adjective or adverb is used with the subject and the standard of comparison. 1. The forms agree with the standard of comparison in number and gender. and jaOsaa j´sa: ‘like’. The former type is composed of two clauses called as [tnaa itna: ‘this much’ and ]tnaa utna: ‘that much’ clauses. one another-obl with talk don’t do Don’t talk to each other. ajay utna: ca:la:k h´ jitna: uska: bha:i: (h´). as-rel Ajay clever is that much his brother (also) is Ajay is as clever as his brother. SYNTAX 10. ek dUsaro ko saaqa baatoM mat krao. 2. j´sa: ajay ca:la:k h´.to hOM. Phrasal type equatives are formed using adjectives such as barabar bara:bar/samaana sama:n ‘equal’. utna: uska: bha:i: (bhi:) h´. there are two types of equatives: (i) syntactic and (ii) phrasal. 4.9.

yao dao baihnaoM ApnaI maaÐ kI trh sauMdr hOMO. these two sisters selfs mother like beautiful is These two sisters are as beautiful as their mother. Vijay selfs father-gen like tall is Vijay is as tall as his father. 8. ivajaya Apnao iptajaI ko barabar/ samaana laMbaa hOO. this girl selfs sister like beautiful is This girl is as beautiful as her sister. SYNTAX 3. 5. ivajaya baccao ko samaana hOO. 272 . vijay bacce ke sama:n h´. ajay ør vijay ek j´se hi: h´~. 4.kI ApnaI baihna jaOsaI sauMdr hO. yao dao Baa[. Ajay and Vijay alike emp are Ajay and Vijay are alike. yeh larki: apni: bahan j´si: sundar h´. 6. 9.ApnaI maaÐ jaOsao saIQao hOMO.4. uma: anu ke bara:bar lambi: h´. Vijay child-gen equal is Vijay is like a child. ye do bha:i: apni: mã: j´se si:dhe h´~. Uma Anu-gen equal tall is Uma is as tall as Anu. vijay apne pita:ji: ke bara:bar/sama:n lamba: h´. ye do bahnẽ apni: mã: ki: tarah sundar h´~. ]maa Anau ko barabar laMbaI hOO. 7. Notice that a copular/equational sentence employs only the plural adjectival forms of ek jaOsao ek j´se/ek jaOsaI ek jaisi: that agree with the number and gender of the subject of comparison. yah laD. these two brothers selfs mother like simple are These two brothers are as simple as their mother. Ajaya AaOr ivajaya ek jaOsao hI hOM.

A number of fixed adjectival phrases are used in Hindi. uma: utni: lambi: h´ jitni: (lambi:) anu (h´).4. It is possible to delete the identical elements in equative structures. Equative adjectives may be modified by adding the particle –hI -hi: to these forms: jaOsao hI j´se hi:. 11. jaOsaI hI j´si: hi: ‘alike’. ivajaya Ajaya jaOsaa hI hO. vijay ajay j´sa: hi: h´. Uma and Anu alike are Uma and Anu are alike. The particle –hI hi: is also added to singular forms for emphasis as well. ]maa ]tnaI laMbaI hO ijatnaI ³laMbaI´ Anau ³hO´. 15. uma: anu j´si: hi: h´. 273 . uma: ør anu ek j´si: h´~. fUla saa/ jaOsaa kaomala phu:l sa:/j´sa: komal flower like delicate as delicate as a flower p%qar saa idla patthar sa: dil stone like heart a stone-hearted (person) 14. 12. ]maa Anau jaOsaI hI hO. Uma Anu alike emp is Uma is like Anu. Vijay Ajay like emp is Vijay is like Ajay. 13. Uma cor tall is rel (tall) Uma (is) Uma is as tall as Anu. ]maa AaOr Anau ek jaOsaI hOM. SYNTAX 10. Deletion is always forward and not backward.

and morphological strategies. vah utna: si:dha: nahĩ: h´[jitna: si:dha: uska: bha:i: h´] he is not that-cor simple as much as-rel simple his brother is He is not as simple as his brother. [ijatnaa saIQaa ]saka Baa[. 1a. vah ijatnaa pirEama krta hO ]tnaa pOsaa nahIM kmaata. Correlative equatives are formed by syntactic strategy only.hO]. 4. uma utni: lambi: h´ jitni: anu. 1. as (15b).hO] vah ]tnaa saIQaa nahIM hOO. The backward deletion generates ungrammatical sentences. Two types of comparative structures are very common. ]maa ]tnaI laMbaI hO ijatnaI Anau. vah ]tnaa saIQaa nahIM hOO [ijatnaa saIQaa ]saka Baa[. 15b. Sentential comparison is carried out by the use of two finite clauses introduced by the relative marker ]tnaa utna: ‘as much as’ and the correlative marker ijatnaa jitna: ‘that much’. vah jitna: parišram karta: h´ utna: p´sa: nahĩ: kama:ta: he as much hard work do-ptc is that much money earn-ptc neg is He doesn’t earn as much as he works. Comparison Comparison is usually expressed by sentential.10. *uma: utni: Ø Ø jitni: lambi: anu h´. Both use postpositions followed by the standards of comparison. Uma is as tall as Anu. *]maa ]tnaI Ø Ø ijatnaI laMbaI hO. phrasal. 274 . They are formed by using the correlative marker ]tnaa utna:. SYNTAX The bracketed elements can be deleted to yield (15a). phrasal comparative structures and non-phrasal ones.4. The relative clause can be placed at the sentence initial position as well. [jitna: si:dha: uska: bha:i: h´] vah utna: si:dha: nahĩ: h´ 2.3. 15a.

3. 5. Phrasal comparison is expressed by a postposition associated with the standard of comparison. anu uma: se gori: h´. ]saka vahaÐ jaanaa baohtr rhogaa. vah utna: p´sa: nahĩ: kama:ta:. Anu Uma than fair-complexioned is Anu is more fair-complexioned than Anu. Aimat Anau sao laMbaa hO.¸ ijatnaa pirEama krta hO. The phrasal comparison is also expressed by the use of the phrase ko maukabalao maoM ke muka:ble mẽ ‘in comparison with’ following the standard of comparison.aor hO.4.nao maoM kmaja. uska: vahã: ja:na: behtar rahega: his there go-inf better remain-fut It is better for him to go there. jitna: parišram karta: h´ Most of the morphological markers of comparison are borrowed from Perso-Arabic sources. Vijay-gen comarison in Raj studies-obl in weak is Raj is weak in his studies in comparison to Vijay. vjay ke muka:ble mẽ ra:j parhne mẽ kamzor h´. vah ]tnaa pOsaa nahIM kmaata. yah ]sako ilae badtrIna baat hO. yah uske liye badtari:n ba:t h´. Amit Anu than tall is Amit is taller than Anu. ivajaya ko maukabalao maoM raja pZ. 275 . The postposition sao se is added to the standard of comparison. this is he-for worst matter is This is the worst thing for him. They are not very productive in Hindi. Anau ]maa sao gaaorI hO. amit anu: se lamba: h´. SYNTAX The relative clause can follow the correlative clause. 7. 2a. 4. 6.

276 . yah Gar ]sa Gar sao AiQak baD. amit utna: ca:la:k nahĩ: h´ jitna: (ca:la:k) uska: bha:i: h´.a hOO. The relative correlative markers ijatnaa jitna: ]tnaa utna: cannot be deleted under any circumstance. Aimat ]tnaa caalaak nahIM hO ijatnaa ³caalaak´ ]saka Baa[. the identical elements in the second conjunct are usually deleted. SYNTAX 8.caalaak hOO. 10. ko maukabalao maoM laMbaa nahIM hOO. yeh ghar us ghar se adhik bara: h´.hOO. 11. [sa poD. vah pustak is pustak se adhik acchi: h´. 12a. When two sentences are joined. *Aimat ]tnaa nahIM hO ijatnaa ]saka Baa[. that tree this tree-gen comparison in tall neg is That tree is not taller than this tree. that book this book comparison more good is That book is better than this one. backward deletion is not. that girl-gen comparison-obl in this girl wise is This girl is wiser than that girl. Whereas forward deletion is possible. ]sa laD. vah poD. 12. 9. vah pustk [sa pustk sao AiQak AcCI hOO. *amit utna: nahĩ: h´ jitna: uska: bha:i: ca:la:k h´ The deletion of the first occurrence of caalaak ca:la:k in sentence (12a) results in the sentence being grammatically incorrect. this house that-obl house comparison more big is This house is bigger than that one.kI ko maukabalao maoM yah laD. Adjectives used in a comparison can be modified by the adverb of degree AiQak adhik more.kI bauiwmaana hOO.4. us larki: ke muka:ble mẽ yah larki: buddhima:n h´. vah per is per ke muka:ble mẽ lamba: nahĩ: h´. Amit that much clever neg is as much (clever) his brother is Amit is not as clever as his brother.

Notice that in these constructions.3. 2. daOD.11. hama:re pa:s acche se accha: kapra: yahi: h´. 4.dUsara nahIM hOO.dUsara koi: du:sra: ‘anyone else’ plus the negative particle. Uma out of all more fast run-pr is Uma runs faster than everyone else. vah baD. 3. It also serves as the standard of comparison.. hmaaro pasa AcCo sao AcCa kpD. 5.4. vah bari: se bari: samasya: a:sa:ni: se hal karta: h´. Aimat kxaa maoM saba sao AiQak bauiwmaana hOO. Vijay than clever anyone else neg is No one else is more clever than Vijay. 1. Superlative constructions are also formed by substituting an adjective of comparison for saba sao AiQak sab se adhik. the first part of the phrase is put in the oblique case as it is followed by sao se. uma: sab se adhik tez dørti: h´. Superlative constructions are also formed by the use of kao[. or hr ek maoM sao har ek mẽ se ‘out of all’ for the standard of comparison. ivajaya sao catur AaOr kao[.tI hOO. we-obl with good-obl than good cloth this is This is the best cloth we have. he big-f more big-f problem easy with solve do-ptc is He solves the biggest problems easily. savaao-tma sarvotam ‘best’.a yahI hOO. vijay se catur ør koi: du:sra: nahĩ: h´. amit kakša: mẽ sab se adhik buddhima:n h´.I samasyaa AasanaI sao hla krta hOO. ]maa saba sao AiQak toja.I sao baD. Superlatives Superlatives are usually expressed by substituting saba sao AiQak sab se adhik ‘most’. SYNTAX 4. Amit class in out of all more wise is Amit is wisest of all in his class. 277 .

4.12. The conjunction compound morphemes yaa ya: -yaa -ya: ‘either – or’ are also used in sentence conjunctions. SYNTAX 4.ya:. ya: a:j varša: hogi: ya: himpa:t hoga:. BaI bhi: ‘also’. 3. either today rain fall-fut or snowfall be-fut Either it rains today or it will snow.3. saaohna maaohna ko Gar gayaa magar/ pr/ ikMtu maaohna sohan mohan ke ghar gaya: magar/par/kintu mohan Sohan Mohan gen home went but Mohan Gar pr nahIM qaa. mohan kal bana:ras ja:yega: ør sohan bhi: (ja:yega:). 4. yaa Aaja vaYaa.haogaI yaa ihmapat haogaa. Mohan tomorrow Banaras go-fut and Sohan also go-fut Mohan will go to Banaras tomorrow and Mohan will also go. Sentence (4) is obtained by conjoining (4a) and (4b).yaa ya: . home at neg was Sohan went to Mohans home. 1. m´~ dilli: gaya: aur mera: bha:i: agra: (gaya:). Notice that the word order of the constituent sentences undergo a change when conjoined by the use of the conjunction morphemes yaa . maaohna kla banaarsa jaaegaa AaOr saaohna BaI ³jaaegaa´. and magar magar/pr par/ikMtu kintu ‘but’. I Delhi went and my brother Agra went I went to Delhi and my brother went to Agra. 278 . maOM idllaI gayaa AaOr maora Baa[. but Mohan was not there. The conjunction morpheme AaOr ør ‘and’ can be followed by another particle. Coordination Sentence coordination is marked mainly by the use of the conjunction morphemes AaOr ør ‘and’ yaa ya: ‘or’. ghar par nahĩ: tha:.Aagara ³gayaa´. 2.

SYNTAX 4a. Aaja ihmapat haogaa. This conjunction morpheme occurs before the last conjunct. and Sham is watching television.4. cause and effect. a:j himpa:t hoga:. 5. Mohan is listening to songs. Shiela book read-prog is and Uma letter write write-prog is Shiela is reading a book and Uma is writing a letter. Again. the order of the 279 . SaIlaa iktaba pZ. rhI hO AaOr ]maa icaT\zI ilaK rhI hO. ør Amar play-prog is Mohan songs listen-prog is and Saama TI vaI doK rha hO. 6. In general. Coordination does not merely involve juxtaposition of two or more independent sentences. *AaOr SaIlaa iktaba pZ. And coordination is commonly expressed by the conjunction marker AaOr ør. a:j varša: hogi:. 6a.haogaI. coordinate sentences express contrast. *amar khel raha: h´ ør mohan ga:ne sun raha: h´. It will rain today. It can join two or more sentences or phrases. 4b. Amar Kola rha hO¸ maaohna gaanao sauna rha hOO AaOr amar khel raha: h´. ša:m ti:vi: dekh raha: h´. 5a. and contingency. The misplacement of the coordination conjunction morpheme AaOr ør renders the sentences (5a) and (6a) ungrammatical. Sham TV see-prog is Amar is playing. cumulative effect. sequential action. There are various syntactic and semantic constraints on the construction of coordinate structures. ši:la: kita:b parh rahi: h´ ør uma: citthi: likh rahi: h´. uma: patr likh rahi: h´. *ør ši:la: kita:b parh rahi: h´. Aaja vaYaa. It will snow today. ša:m ti:vi: dekh raha: h´. *Amar Kola rha hO AaOr maaohna gaanao sauna rha hO¸ Saama TI vaI doK rha hOO. mohan ga:ne sun raha: h´. rhI hO ]maa p~ ilaK rhI hO.

280 . 7a.ka dubalaa hO AaOr yaah laD. vah dava:i: kha:ta: h´ ør a:ra:m karta: h´.Kata hO AaOr Aarama krta hO. this boy fat is and that boy slim This boy is fat and that boy is slim. he-erg medicine ate and he healthy became He took medicine and recovered from the illness.AaOr vah svasqa huAa. vah a:ra:m karta: h´ ør dava:i: kha:ta: h´. vah Aarama krta hO AaOr dvaa[.Ka[. yah laD. vah raoja. too. 8a. vyaayaama krta hO AaOr saOr krta hO. vah dvaa[. usne dava:i: kha:i: ør vah svasth hua:. Cumulative effect vah raoja. ]sanao dvaa[. vyaayaama krta hO AaOr saOr BaI. he daily exercise do-ptc is and walk do-ptc is He exercises daily and goes for a walk (daily). 9.ka maaoTa.ka dubalaa. vah roz vya:ya:m karta: h´ ør s´r bhi:. he medicine eat-ptc is and rest do-ptc is He is taking medicine and relaxing. Consider the following examples of various types of coordinate structures as listed above.Kata hO. 9a. vah laD. He is relaxing and taking medicine. Cause and effect 10. Contrast 7. vah roz vya:ya:m karta: h´ aur s´r karta: h´. That boy is slim and this boy is fat. 8.ka maaoTa hO AaOr vah laD. vah larka: dubla: h´ ør yah larka: mota:. SYNTAX conjuncts is interchangeable if a coordinate sentence expresses contrast or cumulative effect. yeh larka: mota: h´ ør vah larka: dubla:. he daily exercise do-ptc is and walk also He exercises daily and goes for a walk.4.

tuma ivavaah krao AaOr ek AcCI laD.4. maaohna Gar Aayaa AaOr ]sanao drvaaja. cor ko goli: lagi: ør vah a:hat hua:.Ka[-. *usne hamẽ ghar a:ne ke liye nyota: diya: ør a:ya:. tum ek acchi: larki: dhũ:dho ør viva:h karo.kI Z. he came and we-obl home come-inf-obl invitation gave He came and invited us to visit his home.kI Z. (11). (13) and (14). *vah svasth hua: ør usne dava:i: kha:i:. 11. Sequential action 12. you-fem one good girl search and marriage perform You find a good girl and get married. (8). 12a. *maaohna nao drvaaja. *mohan ne darva:ze ka: ta:la: khola: ør ghar a:ya:.o ka talaa Kaolaa. caaor kao gaaolaI lagaI AaOr vah Aaht huAa. *vah svasqa huAa AaOr ]sanao dvaa[. vah Aayaa AaOr hmaoM Gar Aanao ko ilae nyaaota idyaa. and (9a) respectively. Notice that sentences (7). 13. and (9) permit the reverse order of (7a).UÐZ. the reverse order of the conjuncts results in ungrammatical sentences as shown above because of the constraints on cause and 281 . (8a).ao AaOr ivavaah krao. tuma ek AcCI laD.ao. In sentences (10).UÐZ. SYNTAX 10a. 13a. *tum viva:h karo ør ek acchi: larki: dhũ:dho. *cor a:hat hua: aur usko goli: lagi:. *]sanao hmaoM Gar Aanao ko ilae nyaaota idyaa AaOr Aayaa. Mohan home came and he-erg door-gen lock opened Mohan came home and unlocked the door. vah a:ya: ør hamẽ ghar a:ne ke liye nyota: diya:. thief-dat bullet struck and he injured was The thief was hit by a bullet and he was injured. 14. mohan ghar a:ya: ør usne darva:ze ka: tala: khola:. *caaor Aaht huAa AaOr ]sakao gaaolaI lagaI.o ka talaa Kaolaa AaOr Gar Aayaa. (12). 11a. 14a.

adjectives. ]sanao Aakr hmaoM Gar Aanao ka nyaaota idyaa. 13b.o ka talaa Kaolaa. 282 .UÐZ. a good girl find-cp you marriage do-imp Find a good girl and get married.4. verbs. mohan ne a:kar darva:ze ka: ta:la: khola:. he medicine take-cp healthy became He recovered (from illness) after taking the medicine.kI Z. maaohna nao Gar Aakr drvaaja. 14b. cause and effect. sequential action. Consider the following sentences. The coordinate sentences (10-14) can be paraphrased to indicate that they are related with the subordination process as well. Mohan-erg came-cp door-gen lock opened On arrival. SYNTAX effect. he-erg come-cp us-dat home go-inf-gen invitation gave On arrival. vah dvaa Kakr svasqa huAa. usne a:kar hamẽ ghar a:ne ka: nyota: diya:. he invited us to his home. 11b. In the above sentences. caaor gaaolaI laganao sao Aaht huAa. the coordinating conjunction marker ør can be used to coordinate nouns (subjects.kr tuma ivavaah krao. sequential action. 10b. and contingency are expressed without using conjunction morphemes. and adverbs. Besides conjoining sentences. thief bullet hit-inf-obl with injured became The thief was injured by a bullet. direct and indirect objects). ek acchi: larki: dhũ:dhkar tum viva:h karo. ek AcCI laD. The paraphrases indicate that the first conjuncts of the sentences represent the adverbial complements of the second conjuncts. cor goli: lagne se a:hat hua:. vah dava: kha:kar swasth hua:. 12b. Mohan unlocked the door. and contingency the conjoined structures are marked for.

The coordination of two noun phrases yields a plural noun phrase and therefore.rIdIM. Mohan and Shiela market went-mp Mohan and Shiela went to the market. Coordinate adjectives 17. I tomorrow and day after tomorrow home neg go-fut I will not go home tomorrow nor the day after tomorrow. maaohna AaOr SaIlaa baaja. m´~ kal ør parsõ ghar nahĩ: ja:ũ:ga:. in the case of coordinate objects. verb agreement is affected. ši:la: ne kapre dhoye ør kha:na: paka:ya:.ar gae. Coordinate verbs 16. 19. Coordinate adverbials 18. Shiela-erg clothes washed and food cooked Shiela washed clothes and cooked meals. 20. mohan ør ši:la: ba:za:r gaye.ka AaOr laD. SaIlaa laMbaI AaOr gaaorI hO. 283 . boy and girl play-prog are A boy and a girl are playing. maOMnao saoba AaOr K. maOM kla AaOr prsaaoM Gar nahIM jaa}Ðgaa.kI Kola rho hOM. m´~ne seb ør xoba:niyã: xari:di: I-erg apples-mp and apricots-fp bought-fs I bought apples and apricots. the verb takes a masculine plural concord. larka: ør larki: khel rahe h´~.o Qaaoe AaOr Kanaa pkayaa. the verb agrees with the nearest object.aobaainayaaÐ K. Shiela tall and fair complexioned is Shiela is tall and fair-complexioned. In the case of coordinate subjects.4. SaIlaa nao kpD. whereas. ši:la: lambi: aur gori: h´. laD. SYNTAX Coordinate nominal subjects 15.

vah s´r karta: h´ par keval ša:m ko. par vah bari: budhima:n h´. But coordination of nouns and verbs may involve a negative particle preceding or following the adversative conjuncts. but only in the evenings. In sentence coordination. she walk do-ptc is but only evening-loc at He goes for a walk. mohan adhya:pak h´. but she is very wise. hO¸ pr vah baD. But coordination is usually used with adjectives and adverbials. mi:ra: budhima:n h´ par sust h´. 21. uma: anparh h´. Mira is intelligent but lazy is Mira is intelligent but lazy. but he teaches neg Mohan is a teacher. vah saOr krta hO pr kovala Saama kao. ya: vah dilli: ja:yega:.I bauiwmaana hO. yaa ya: can precede the first as well as subsequent disjuncts. as mentioned earlier. either he Delhi go-fut or Agra Either he will go to Delhi or Agra. ]maa AnapZ. yaa vah idllaI jaaegaa¸ yaa Aagara. 25. Mohan is a teacher. The conjunct marker pr par precedes the second or subsequent coordinated sentences. 284 . maaohna AQyaapk hO¸ magar vah pZ. ya: a:gra:. 24. the conjunct marker AaOr ør occurs before the second or the last conjunct. SYNTAX But coordination is expressed by the conjunction marker pr par/magar magar/ikMtu kintu ‘but’. magar vah parha:ta: nahĩ:. but she very wise is Uma is illiterate. maIra bauiwmaana hO pr saust hO. Uma is illiterate. Among the disjunctive markers.4. This marker is placed in the beginning of the second conjunct.ata nahIM. but he does not teach. 22. 23.

SYNTAX 26. mohan ya: sohan kapre siyega:. shirt for blue or red cloth buy Buy blue or red cloth for the shirt. Amar clever boy is but Sohan neg is Amar is a clever boy but Sohan is not. kami:z ke liye ni:la: ya: la:l kapra: xari:diye. hmanao ]sakI sauMdrta ko baaro maoM saunaa hO pr hamne uski: sundarta: ke ba:re mẽ suna: h´ par we-erg his beauty about heard but kBaI doKa nahIM hO. but never use him saw neg is We have heard about her beauty. Or coordination uses the disjunctive markers ya: or and varnaa varna:/ Aiptu apitu ‘or’ to conjoin nouns. amar ca:la:k larka: h´ par sohan nahĩ: h´.a K. Mohan or Sohan clothes stitch-fut Mohan or Sohan will stitch the clothes.rIide.o isaegaa. and verbs. adverbs. He letter neg write-fut but telephone certainly do-fut He will not write a letter but hell certainly call. Amar caalaak laD. ]maa Aaja baaja.ka hO pr saaohna nahIM hO. . but have never seen her.$r krogaa. 28. Uma today market go-fut or tomorrow Uma will go to the market today or tomorrow. kmaIja. uma: a:j ba:za:r ja:yegi: ya: kal. 32. 29. ³Aap´ saoba KaeÐgao yaa kolaaÆ (a:p) seb kha:yẽge ya: kela:? (you-p) apple eat-fut or banana Would you like to take an apple or a banana? 285 30. maaohna yaa saaohna kpD. 31. vah patr nahĩ: likhega: par teliphon zaru:r karega:.aona ja.ar jaaegaI yaa kla. kabhi: dekha: nahĩ: h´. ko ilae naIlaa yaa laala kpD. 27. adjectives. vah p~ nahIM ilaKogaa pr TolaIf.4.

be used with coordination.1. son father-obl with came The son came with the father. sohan mohan ke sa:th a:ya: Sohan Mohan with came Sohan came with Mohan. saaohna AaOr maaohna Aae. SYNTAX 4. whereas sentence (33a) denotes accompaniment. Sohan and Mohan came Sohan and Mohan came. The term daonaaoM donõ ‘both’ can.4. saaohna AaOr maaohna daonaaoM Aae. saaohna maaohna ko saaqa Aayaa. 286 . 33a. sohan ør mohan a:ye. therefore. 33d. 33c. Sentence (33) is an example of coordination. 33b.12. beta: pita: ke sa:th a:ya:. baoTa ipta ko saaqa Aayaa. A single unit cannot be formed using accompaniment. *sohan mohan ke sa:th a:ya: donõ. sohan ør mohan donõ a:ye. and this unity is expressed only by coordination and not by accompaniment. *saaohna maaohna ko saaqa Aayaa daonaaoM. but can be formed by using coordination. Notice that the accompaniment uses a singular verb as in (33a). Coordination and Accompaniment Accompaniment is expressed by the postposition saaqa sa:th with or in the company of.3. 33. Sohan and Mohan both came Sohan and Mohan both came. It can also be expressed by the conjunction morpheme AaOr ør and. but not with accompaniment. The unity of the conjoined phrase cannot be distorted.

The commutative postposition ko saaqa ke sa:th follows the noun of accompaniment. amar ke sa:th aji:t ør mohan ja:yẽge. members in the same class can be conjoined but not those that belong to different classes.kI hO. beta: ør pita: ghar a:ye. she beautiful and intelligent girl is She is a beautiful and an intelligent girl.3.4. baoTa AaOr ipta Gar Aae.12. *beta: ør ghar pita: a:ye. The son and father came home. AjaIt AaOr maaohna Amar ko saaqa jaaeÐgao. 34a. vah sundar ør budhima:n larki: h´.kI hO. aji:t ør mohan amar ke sa:th ja:yẽge. SYNTAX 33e. 4. This explains the ungrammaticalness of sentences (33f) and (33g). she is beautiful and girl. 287 . *beta: ghar ør pita: a:ye.2. vah sauMdr AaOr bauiwmaana laD. 33f. In general. *baoTa AaOr Gar ipta Aae. *vah sauMdr AaOr laD. It is possible to form coordinate sentences using the co-ordinate conjunction AaOr ør the comitative postposition saaqa sa:th in one of the conjuncts. 33g. Structural Constraints There are various structural constraints in coordination. Adjective and noun 35. Ajit and Mohan Amar-obl with go-fut Ajit and Mohan will accompany Amar. 35a. *baoTa Gar AaOr ipta Aae. 34. Am. *vah sundar r larki: h´.ar ko saaqa AjaIt AaOr maaohna jaaeÐgao. Ajit and Mohan will accompany Amar.

yah kpD. 37. *yah kpD. this cloth good and yesterday is 36a. Other types of constraints are indicated below. *yeh kapra: accha: ør kal h´. SYNTAX Adjective and adverb 36.likha: ør šari:ph larka: h´.a AcCa AaOr kla hO. As exemplified above in sentences (35) and (36). it is not possible to conjoin adjectives and nouns. mera: mitr šahar mẽ rahta: h´ ør bahut ca:la:k h´. A relative clause and an adjective phrase cannot be conjoined. Amit parha: .a-ilaKa AaOr SarIf laD. use upanya:s parhna: ør na:tak dekhna: pasand h´. 38. nor adjectives and adverbs.ka hO. it is possible to conjoin the conjuncts with adverbial construction and an adjective phrase. 288 . who city-abl is live-pr is and clever friend tomorrow Nouns and nominalized constructions can be conjoined. Aimat pZ. Similarly. this cloth good and inexpensive is This cloth is good and inexpensive. Present and past participles and adjectives can be conjoined using coordinate conjunction morphemes. 38a. *jo šahar mẽ rahta: h´ aur bahut ca:la:k mitr h´. *jaao Sahr maoM rhta hO AaOr bahut caalaak ima~ hO. 39. yeh kapra: accha: ør sasta: h´.a AcCa AaOr sasta hO. Amit educated and gentle boy is Amit is an educated and a gentle boy. ]sao ]pnyaasa pZ. my friend city in live-ptc is and very clever is My friend lives in the city and is clever. provided the semantic and pragmatic conditions are met. maora ima~ Sahr maoM rhta hO AaOr bahut caalaak hO.naa AaOr naaTk doKnaa psaMd hO.4.

45. Anu-erg apples bought and she-pass eat-pass neg aux-pass Anu bought apples and she was not able to eat.naa Aasaana hO nahIM. maOMnao yah naavala pZ. passive constructions can mean capability as well. vah hãste . m´~ne yeh na:val parha: ør ise parhna: a:sa:n h´ nahĩ:.hÐsato AaOr jaldI hr ek kama krta hO. I-erg he-obl and his house-dat dream-obl in saw I saw him and his house in the dream. he laugh-ptc and quickly every work do-ptc is He gives his opinion smilingly and quickly. It is possible to coordinate related adverbials in a coordinated structure. *vah kla raoyaa AaOr ja.aor-ja. 41. 289 . m´~ne yeh ka:m kiya: ør usse nahĩ: kiya: gaya:. anu ne seb xari:de aur usse kha:ye nahĩ: gaye. SYNTAX he-dat novel read-inf and play watch-inf like is He likes to read novels and watch plays. maOMnao yah kama ikyaa AaOr ]sasao nahIM ikyaa gayaa. Simple verbs can be conjoined with infinitives in a coordinate structure.a AaOr [saoo pZ. 42. 40. 44.4. I-erg this work did and he-pass neg do-pa went-pass I did this work and it could not be done by him. *vah kal roya: ør zor . maOMnao ]sao AaOr ]sako Gar kao sapnao maoM doKa. 43.zor se he yesterday wept and loudly Active and passive verbs can be coordinated provided they are appropriate in a pragmatic situation. Anau nao saoba KrIdo AaOr ]sasao Kae nahIM gae. Time adverbials and manner adverbials cannot be conjoined.aor sao. In Hindi. vah hÐsato .hãste ør jaldi: har ek ka:m karta: h´. m´~ne use ør uske ghar ko sapne mẽ dekha:.

maora hÐsanaa AaOr hÐsaanaa iksaI kao psaMd nahIM Aayaa. Aimat nao iktaba Ø AaOr rjat nao kmaIja. When two sentences are conjoined.4. Amit-erg book bought and Rajat-erg shirt Amit bought a book and Rajat a shirt. can be deleted under identity. Aimat nao iktaba KrIdI AaOr rjat nao kmaIja. gussa: a:na: ør gussa: prakat karna: accha: nahĩ:.. The coordinating morpheme AaOr ør conjoins sentences and parts of sentences of similar syntactic and semantic structure. the following pairs of sentences cannot be conjoined by merely deleting the identical elements. my laugh-inf and laugh-caus anyone-dat like neg came My laughing and making others laugh was not liked by anyone. SYNTAX I-erg this novel read and this-obl read-inf easy neg is I read this novel and it is not easy to read. 49a. 48. 290 . amit-ne kita:b Ø ør rajat ne kami:z xari:di:. including verbs. any number of elements. 48a. gaussaa Aanaa AaOr gaussaa p`kT krnaa AcCa nahIM. It is also possible to conjoin different types of verbs. backward deletion is less frequent than forward deletion. The deletion can be both forward as well as backward. 47. amit ne kita:b xari:di: ør rajat ne kami:z. However. I-obl tea like is I like tea. mera: hãsna: ør hãsa:na: kisi: ko pasand nahĩ: a:ya:. anger come-inf and anger express do-inf good neg It is not good to be angry nor to express ones anger. mujhe ca:y pasand h´. KrIdI. Due to such constraints. mauJao caaya psaMd hO. Amit-erg book Ø and Rajat-erg shirt bought Amit bought a book and Rajat bought a shirt. 46.

50a. amit mohan ke sa:th a:yega:. 50b. ši:la: ghar par h´. 291 . I-obl work do-inf like is I like to do work. Amit Mohan with come-fut Amit will come with Mohan. *amit avašy a:yega: aur mohan ke sa:th 51a. Aimat maaohna ko saaqa Aaegaa.4. mujhe ka:m karna: pasand h´. Shiela home at is Shiela is at home. *Aimat AvaSya Aaegaa AaOr maaohna ko saaqa. 50c. Aimat AvaSya Aaegaa. 51c. *SaIlaa baImaar hO AaOr Gar pr. *ši:la: bi:ma:r h´ ør ghar par. SaIlaa baImaar hO. *mauJao caaya AaOr kama krnaa psaMd hO. SaIlaa Gar pr hO. *mujhe ca:y ør ka:m karna: pasand h´. amit avašy a:yega: Amit definitely come-fut Amit will definitely come. SYNTAX 49b. mauJao kama krnaa psaMd hO. ši:la: bi:ma:r h´. 49c. 51b. Shiela sick is Shiela is sick.

Aimat nao iktaba KrIdI AaOr Ø pZ. hO AaOr maoro pasa Ø TaopI. Omission of adjective/verb 53. uske pa:s ni:li: kami:z h´ ør mere pass Ø topi:. SYNTAX All major sentence constituents. can be omitted under identity. he-obl blue shirt is and I-poss-obl Ø cap He has a blue shirt and I have a blue cap. Omission of adverb/verb 54. amit-ne kita:b xari:di: r Ø parhi:. ]sako pasa naIlaI kmaIja. and adverbs. adjectives. sohan kal apne ghar gaya: ør mohan Ø šahar Ø Sohan yesterday own village went and Mohan city Sohan went to his village yesterday and Amar went to the city. Omission of subject/object 52.4.I. 292 . Amit-erg book bought and Ø read Amit brought a book and read. saaohna kla Apnao Gar gayaa AaOr maaohna Ø Sahr Ø. including nouns.

Lexicon Here we list useful classified English-Hindi vocabulary for quick reference. (10) adverbs. and insects. Animals. 5. (7) kinship terms. (9) verbs. and vegetables. and (12) pronouns.yaa / pxaI BaoOMsa baOla ittlaI }ÐT iballaI maugaaitlacaT\Ta gaaya kaOAa kaoyala ihrNa ku<aa gaQaa baaja haqaI maClaI ma@KI laaomaD. The vocabulary is listed under different sections: (1) animals.a 293 ja:nvar / pašu cĩ:ti: bha:lu: khatmal ciriya: / pakši: bhε~s bεl titli: ũ:t billi: murga: tilcatta: ga:y køa: ko:yal hiran kutta: gadha: ba:j ha:thi: machli: makkhi: lo:mri: mẽdhak bakri: xargoš murgi: gho:ra: ki:ra: . (2) flowers. fruits.a kID. (5) body parts.rgaaoSa maugaIGaaoD. and Insects animal ant bear bedbug bird buffalo bullock butterfly camel cat cock / rooster cockroach cow crow cuckoo deer dog donkey eagle elephant fish fly fox frog goat hare hen horse insect jaanavar caIMTI BaalaU KTmala icaiD. and minerals. LEXICON 5. (4) miscellaneous items. (6) occupations. birds. (3) jewels.k bakrI K. (11) conjunctions. (8) adjectives.I maoMZ.1. Birds. metals.5.

LEXICON jackal kite leopard lion lizard mare monkey mule owl peacock pig pigeon rat scorpion sheep snake sparrow squirrel swan tiger wolf worm gaIdD. Fruits.yaa kID.5.2.aobaanaI kolaa caukMdr pana sauparI krolaa AalaU bauKara baOMgana baMdgaaobaI gaajar kajaU fUlagaaobaI naairyala 294 ba:da:m se:b xo:ba:ni: ke:la: cukandar pa:n supa:ri: kare:la: a:lu: buxa:ra: bε~gan bandgo:bi: ga:jar ka:ju: phu:lgo:bi: na:riyal .a gi:dar ci:l tendua: šer chipkali: ghori: bandar khaccar ullu: mo:r suar kabu:tar cu:ha: bicchu: bhe:r sã:p gørεya: gilhari: hans ba:gh bheriya: ki:ra: 5. caIla toMduAa Saor iCpklaI GaaoD. and Vegetables almond apple apricot banana beet root betel leaf betel nut bitter gourd black plum brinjal / eggplant cabbage carrot cashew nut cauliflower coconut baadama saoba K.I baMdr Kccar ]llaU maaor sauAr kbaUtr caUha ibacCU BaoD. Flowers. saaÐp gaaOiryaa igalahrI hMsa baaGa BaoiD.

5.aa pudInaa SahtUt Pyaaj.a naarÐgaI ppIta maTr maUÐgaflaI naaSapatI Anaanaasa ipsta AalaU bauKara kd\dU Anaar AalaU ikSaimaSa maunaka maUlaI rsabarI palak gannaa 295 dhaniya: khi:ra: šari:pha: khaju:r anji:r lahsun adrak løki: angu:r hari: mirc mu~:gphali: amru:d kathal came:li: bindi: ni:bu: li:ci: kamal a:m gẽda: kharbu:za: pudi:na: šahtu:t pya:z na:rangi: papi:ta: matar mũ:gphali: na:špa:ti: ananna:s pista: a:lu: buxa:ra: kaddu: ana:r a:lu: kišmiš munakka: mu:li: rasbhari: pa:lak ganna: . LEXICON coriander cucumber (small) custard apple date fig garlic ginger gourd grape green chilie groundnut guava jackfruit jasmine lady’s finger lemon lichee lotus mango marigold (musk)melon mint mulberry onion orange papaya pea peanut pear pineapple pistachio nut plum pumpkin pomegranate potato raisin (small) raisin (large) radish raspberry spinach sugar cane Qainayaa KIra SarIfa KjaUr AMjaIr lahsauna Adrk laaOkI AMgaUr hrI imacamaUÐgaflaI Ama$d kThla camaolaI ibaMDI naIbaU laIcaI kmala Aama gaoMda KrbaUj.

LEXICON sweet lime sweet potato tomato turnip walnut watermelon maaOsamaI SakrkMd TmaaTr Salagama AKraoT trbaUja. AayaU / ]ma` hvaa ]%tr p`aqa-naa p~ [laaka 296 durghatna: paricay prašansa: / ta:ri:f a:yu:/umar hava: uttar / java:b pra:rthana: patr ila:ka: .5.3. Metals. Miscellaneous Items accident acquaintance admiration age air answer application area duGa-Tnaa pircaya p`SaMsaa / tarIf. Jewels. and Minerals aluminum brass bronze copper diamond emerald gem glass gold iron jewel mercury nickel pearl sapphire silver steel sulfur tin topaz zinc AlamaUinayama pItla kaMsaa taÐbaa hIra pnnaa maiNa / r%na kaÐca saaonaa laaoha javaahr para inakla maaotI naIlama caaÐdI [spat gaMQak TIna pUKraja jasta almu:niyam pi:tal kã:sa: tã:ba: hi:ra: panna: mani / ratn kã:c so:na: lo:ha: java:har pa:ra: nikal mo:ti: ni:lam cã:di: ispa:t gandhak ti:n pukhra:j jasta: 5.a møsami: šakarkand tama:tar šalgam akhro:t tarbu:za: 5.4.

5./ ja.laa QaUla pRqvaI caUlha iSaxaa / talaIma 297 ra:kh patjhar tava: chilka: jø to:kri: sna:n barta:v ghanta: janm-din na:v roti: pul kendr koyla: bacca: girja: šahar darja: safa:i: ba:dal sardi: / zuka:m a:ra:m kameti: sama:j šika:yat bha:t makki: khã:si: deš ada:lat pya:la: na:c din muškil cikitsa:lay zila: dhu:l prathvi: cuhla: šikša: / ta:li:m .ukama Aarama kmaoTI samaaja iSakayat Baat ma@kI KaÐsaI doSa Adalat Pyaalaa naaca idna mauiSkla icaik%saalaya ija. tvaa iClka jaaO TaokrI snaana bat-ava GaMTa janma idna naava raoTI pula koMd` kaoyalaa baccaa igarjaa Sahr dja-a safa[baadla sadI. LEXICON ashes autumn baking pan bark (of tree) barley basket bath behavior bell birthday boat bread bridge center charcoal child church city class cleanliness cloud cold comfort committee community complaint cooked rice corn cough country court of law cup dance day difficulty dispensary district dust earth earthen oven education raK ptJaD.

5. LEXICON egg entertainment enquiry evening exhibition fare fatigue favor fear feast feather fever frying pan fire flag fog foreigner forest fountain fun gift grass harbor health heat help hobby holiday horn hospital hunger ice information intoxication introduction island joke journey kidney beans kindness ladle AMD.a[Aaga JaMDa kuhra/QaÐuMQa ivadoSaI jaMgala / vana fvvaara maja.ak / tmaaSaa ]phar Gaasa baMdrgaah svaasqya gamaImadd / sahayata SaaOk Cu+I saIMga Asptala BaUK bafsaUcanaa naSaa pircaya TapU / WIp maja.a qakana kRpa Dr davat pMK jvar / bauKar kD.a manaaorMjana pUCtaC Saama p`dSa-naI / naumaa[Sa ikrayaa / BaaD.ak yaa~a safr rajamaah kRpa / maohrbaanaI klaCI 298 ãda: manoranjan pu:chta:ch ša:m pradaršani: / numa:iš kira:ya: / bha:ra: thaka:n kripa: dar da:vat pankh jvar / buxa:r kara:i: a:g jhãda: kuhra: / dhũdh videši: jangal / van favva:ra: maza:k / tama:ša: upha:r gha:s bandarga:h swasthy garmi: madad / saha:yita: šøk chutti: sĩ:g aspata:l bhu:kh barf su:cna: naša: paricay ta:pu: / dvi:p maza:k ya:tra: / safar ra:jma:h meharba:ni: / kripa: kalchi: .

LEXICON lane language leaf leave lentil lid lie literature love man marriage meat message memorial memory mile mistake month mortar moon moonlight morning mosque mountain museum music name news newspaper night noon north paddy pain person pitcher pity plate place potato police galaI BaaYaa / ja.bar samaacaarp~ / AK.baar rat daophr ]<ar Qaana¸ SaalaI ddvyai@t maTka dyaa PlaoT jagah AalaU puilasa 299 gali: bha:ša: / zaba:n patta: chutti: da:l dhakkan jhu: th sa:hity / adab pya:r a:dmi: viva:h / ša:di: mã:s sandeš sma:rak ya:d mi:l galti: mahi:na: okhli: cã:d cã:dni: subah masjid paha:r aja:yabghar sangi:t na:m sama:ca:r / xabar sama:ca:rpatr / axba:r ra:t dopahar uttar dha:n / ša:li: dard vyakti: matka: daya: palet jagah a:lu: pulis .baana p<aa Cu+I dala Z@kna JaUz saaih%ya / Adba Pyaar AadmaI ivavaah / SaadI maaÐsa saMdoSa smaark yaad maIla galtI mahInaa AaoKlaI caaÐMd caaÐMdnaI saubah masaijad phaD.5. AjaayabaGar saMgaIt naama samaacaar / K.

rsaI namak rot caMdna samaud` /samaMdr baIja jahaja.5./ baairSa barsaat Kod / Afsaaosa Qamaikrayaa marmmat ]<ar / javaaba inavaodna / p`aqa-naa Aarama caavala KIr diryaa pqa / rasta ca+ana jaD. LEXICON police station praise prayer present price procession program port quarrel question rain rainy season regret religion rent repair reply request rest rice rice pudding river road rock root rope salt sand sandal sea seed ship show sickle sky smoke snow society sorrow south spit qaanaa p`SaMsaa / tarIf p`aqa-naa / duAa ]phar kImat jalaUsa kaya-k`ma baMdrgaah JagaD. tmaaSaa d`aMtI AakaSa / Aasamaana QauAaM bafsamaaja Kod / duK dixaNa qaUk 300 tha:na: prašansa: / ta:ri:f pra:rthana: / dua: upha:r ki:mat jalu:s ka:ryakram bandarga:h jhagra: prašan / sava:l varša: / ba:riš barsa:t khed / afsos dharm kira:ya: marmmat uttar / java:b pra:rthana: a:ra:m ca:val khi:r dariya: path / ra:sta: catta:n jar rasi: namak ret candan samudr / samandar bi:j jaha:z tama:ša: drã:ti: a:ka:š / a:sma:n dhuã: barf sama:j khed / dukh dakšin thu:k .a p`Sna / savaala vaYaa.

/ saUrja QaUp duma maMidr tmbaU Qanyavaad / Sauik`yaa caaor Pyaasa samaya tmbaakU nagar Anauvaad yaa~a yaa~I / mausaaifr [laaja kYT / tklaIf saca vaadI maUlya / kImat bat-na ga`ama / gaaÐva dSa-k ]lTI Qaulaa[panaI Jarnaa saPtah / hFta samapit / daOlat Baar / vaja.5.na piScama gaohUÐ hvaa sadI.a 301 cammac vasant / baha:r tara: so:ti: patthar ã:dhi: ci:ni: garmi: su:ry / su:raj dhu:p dum mandir tambu: dhanyava:d / šukriya: cor pya:s samay tamba:ku: nagar / šahar anuva:d ya:tra: / safar ya:tri: / musa:fir ila:j kašt / takli:f sac va:di: mu:ly / ki:mat bartan gra:m / ga:ũ daršak ulti: dhula:i: pa:ni: jharna: sapta:h / hafta: sampati / dølat bha:r / vazan pašcim gehũ: hava: sardi: / ja:ra: . LEXICON spoon spring star stick stone storm sugar summer sun sunshine tail temple tent thanks thief thirst time tobacco town translation travel traveler treatment trouble truth valley value vessel village visitor vomit wash water waterfall week wealth weight west wheat wind winter cammaca vasaMt / bahar tara saaoTI p%qar AaÐQaI caInaI gamaIsaUya./ jaaD.

I saala icaiD. Body Parts arm armpit beard body bone brain breast cheek chest chin ear elbow eye eyeball eyebrow eyelid face finger fist flesh foot forehead gum hand (left) hand (right) hand hair head heart heel intestines baaÐh bagala daZ.5.I SarIr hD\D.a haqa baayaaÐ haqa dayaaMÐ haqa baala isar )dya / idla eD.I AntiDyaaÐ 302 AaOrt saMsaar pUjaa lakD.5. LEXICON woman world worship wood year zoo 5.I idmaaga / maistSak stna gaala CaatI zaoD.yaaGar ørat sansa:r / duniya: pu:ja: lakri: sal ciriya:ghar bã:h bagal da:rhi: šari:r haddi: dima:g / mastišk stan ga:l cha:ti: thori: ka:n kohni: ã:kh putli: bhø) palak cehra: ũgli: mutthi: mã:s / go:sht pεr ma:tha: jabra: ha:th ba:yã: ha:th da:yã: ha:th ba:l sir hriday / dil eri: antariyã: .I kana kaohnaI AaÐK putlaI BaaOM plak caohra ]ÐgalaI mauT\zI maaÐsa / gaaoSt pOr maaqaa jabaD.

Occupations accountant advocate actor actress artist artisan barber blacksmith boatman carpenter cartman clerk laoKakar vakIla AiBanaota AiBanao~I klaakar / Adakar karIgar naa[lauhar mallaah baZ. LEXICON knee leg lips liver lung mouth mustaches nail navel neck nose palate palm rib shoulder skin sole of foot stomach teeth thigh throat thumb tongue vein waist wrist 5.[gaaD.6.baana nasa kmar klaa[- ghutna: tã:g õth kale:ji: phe:phra: mũh mu:ch na:khu:n na:bhi: gardan na:k ta:lu: hathe:li: pasli: kandha: carm talva: pet dã:t jã:gh gala: ãgu:tha: ji:b / zaba:n nas kamar kala:i: le:kha:ka:r vaki:l abhine:ta: abhine:tri: kala:ka:r / ada:ka:r ka:ri:gar na:i: luha:r malla:h barhai: ga:ri:va:n lipik / klark .Ivaana ilaipk 303 GauTnaa TaMÐga AaoMz klaojaI fofD.5.a mauMÐh maUC naaKUna naaBaI gad-na naak talaU hqaolaI psalaI kMQaa camatlavaa poT daÐt jaaÐGa galaa AÐgaUza jaIba / ja.

dUr vakIla naaOkranaI raja vyaaparI maM~I gaayak / gaaiyaka nasaAiQakarI eonaksaaja. caprasaI faoTaoga`afr kiva qaanaodar Daikyaa p`Qaana maM~I maudkkulaI maailak p`kaSak ivak`ota vaO&ainak 304 mo:chi: halwa:i: the:keda:r raso:iya: ka:ri:gar dant-chikitsak da:ktar drεvar sampa:dak karamca:ri: inji:niyar kisa:n darba:n ma:li: suna:r pansa:ri: phe:ri:va:la: patraka:r nya:ya:dhi:š: mazdu:r vaki:l nøkara:ni: ra:j vya:pa:ri: mantri: ga:yak / ga:yika: nars adhika:ri: εnaksa:z capra:si: pho:to:gra:phar kavi tha:ne:da:r da:kiya: pradha:n mantri: mudrak kuli: ma:lik praka:šak vikre:ta: vεgya:nik . LEXICON cobbler confectioner contractor cook craftsman dentist doctor driver editor employee engineer farmer gatekeeper gardener goldsmith grocer hawker journalist judge laborer lawyer maidservant mason merchant minister musician nurse officer optician peon photographer poet police sub-inspector postman prime minister printer porter proprietor publisher salesman scientist maaocaI hlavaa[zokodar rsaao[yaa karIgar dMt icaik%sak Da@Tr D./a[var sampadk kma-caarI [MjaIinayar iksaana drbaana maalaI saunaar pMsaarI forIvaalaa p~kar nyaayaaQaISa maja.5.

navaIsa šilpi: nøkar duka:nda:r ga:yak / ga:yika: sipa:hi: vidya:rthi: paryave:kšak: halva:i: darzi: adhya:pak / šikšak anuva:dak dho:bi: ghari:sa:z: cøki:da:r le:khak arzi: navi:s d<k pu~ d<k pu~I Baa[baD.5. elder brother. cacaora Baa[fufora Baa[cacaorI bahna dattak putr dattak putri: bha:i: ba:ra: bha:i: cho:ta bha:i: bhati:ji: bati:ja: bha:bhi: be:ti: javã:i: pita: ca:ca: ca:ci: da:da: cacera: da:da: cace:ri: da:di: da:di: phu:phi: phu:pha: ca:cera: bha:i: phuphera: bha:i: ca:ceri: bahan: . Kinship Terms adopted son adopted daughter brother brother. younger brother’s daughter brother’s son brother’s wife daughter daughter’s husband father father’s brother father’s brother’s wife father’s father father’s father’s brother father’s father’s brother’s wife father’s mother father’s sister father’s sister’s husband father’s brother’s son father’s sister’s son father’s brother’s daughter 305 iSalpI naaOOkr dukanadar gaayak /gaaiyaka isapahI ivaVaqaIpirvaoxak hlavaa[dja.a Baa[CaoTa Baa[BatIjaI BatIjaa BaaBaI baoTI javaaM[ipta caacaa caacaI dada cacaora dada cacaorI dadI dadI fUfI fUfa.7.I. LEXICON sculptor servant shopkeeper singer soldier student supervisor sweet-seller tailor teacher translator washerman watchmaker watchman writer (petition) writer 5. caaOkIdar laoKk Aja.Isaaja.IAVapk / iSaxak Anauvaadk QaaobaI GaD.

I bahna CaoTI bahna baoTa / pu~ BaaMÐjaa BaaMÐjaI jaIjaa / bahnaao[paota paotI p%naI saalaa sasaur saasa saalaI bahU saaOtolaa baap saaOtolaI maaÐ saaOtolaa Baa[- phupheri: bahan pa:ti de:var: dev:ra:ni: sasur sa:s nanad ma:ta: / mã: ma:ma: ma:si: mø:sa: cacera: na:na: caceri: na:ni: na:na: na:ni: par da:da: par da:di: par na:na: mam:era: bha:i: mam:eri: bahan: møs:eri: bahan møsera: bha:i: bahan bari: bahan choti: ba:han be:ta: / putr bhã:ja: bhã:ji: ji:ja: / bahno:i: pota: poti: pat:ni: / bi:vi: sa:la: sasur sa:s sa:li: ba:hu: søtela: ba:p søteli: mã: søtela: bha:i: . elder sister.5. younger son sister’s son sister’s daughter sister’s husband son’s son son’s daughter wife wife’s brother wife’s father wife’s mother wife’s sister son’s wife stepfather stepmother stepbrother 306 fuforI bahna pit dovar dovaranaI sasaur saasa nanad maata / maaÐ maamaa maasaI maaOsaa cacaora naanaa cacaorI naanaI naanaa naanaI pD.dadI pD.naanaa mamaora Baa[mamaorI bahna maaOsaorI bahna maaOsaora Baa[bahna baD.dada pD. LEXICON father’s sister’s daughter husband husband’s brother husband’s brother’s wife husband’s father husband’s mother husband’s sister mother mother’s brother mother’s sister mother’s sister’s husband mother’s father’s brother mother’s father’s brother’s wife mother’s father mother’s mother father’s father’s father father’s father’s mother mother’s father’s father mother’s brother’s son mother’s brother’s daughter mother’s sister’s daughter mother’s sister’s son sister sister.

5.raba Ganaa kizna / mauiSkla saIQaa gaMda saUKa hr ek / p`%yaok Aasaana pZ.vaa kalaa naIlaa caaOD.a / ivaSaala kD.UbasaUrt baD.8.alaI saara p`%yak 307 saaOtlaI bahna søteli: bahan sahi: / thi:k hava:da:r ati:k / pura:na: bura: / xara:b sundar / khu:bsu:rat bara: / visha:l karva: ka:la: ni:la: cøra: bhu:ra: saasta: sa:f spašt ho:šiya:r / catur band mo:ta: thãda: pu:ra: sahi: mahãga: ca:la:k pya:ra: xara:b ghana: kathin / muškil si:dha: gãda: su:kha: har ek / pratyek a:sa:n parha:-likha: jye: št / bara: xa:li: sa:ra: pratye:k .a BaUra sasta saaf spYT haoiSayaar baMd maaoTa zMD.a K. Adjectives accurate airy ancient bad beautiful big bitter black blue broad brown cheap clean clear clever closed coarse cold complete correct costly cunning dear defective dense difficult direct dirty dry each easy educated elder empty entire every sahI / zIk hvadar AtIk / puranaa baura / K. LEXICON stepsister 5.a pUra sahI mahÐgaa caalaak Pyaara K.raba sauMdr / K.a ilaKa jyaoYT / baD.

a / mahana hra sauMdr / K.5.a Akolaa laMbaa Z.UbasaUrt sa#t / maauiSkla BaarI }Ðcaa garma AavaSyak / ja.a Aintma / AaK.ad GaiTyaa haoiSayaar / danaa baD.a saunahlaa / saunahrI AcCa icaknaa baD.yaada 308 te:z / ti:vr mo:ta: kam / kuch gãda: ba:ri:k / thi:k antim / a:xiri: mu:rkh / be:vaku:f vide:ši svatantr / a:za:d ta:za: sunhala: / sunhari: acchha: cikna: bara: / maha:n hara: sũdar / khu:bsu:rat saxt: / muškil bha:ri: ũ:ca: garam xa:však / zaru:ri: adhu:ra: savatantr / a:za:d ghatiya: hošiya:r / da:na: bara: antim / a:xiri: ba:ya~: lamba: kam halka: zara: / thora: ake:la: lamba: dhi:la: ni:ca: kai: / ane:k a:dhunik r / adhik bahut / adhik / zya:da .Ilaa naIcaa k[.ra / qaaoD.$rI AQaUra svatM~ / Aaja./ Anaok AaQauinak AaOr /AiQak bahut /AiQak / j.rI maUKivadoSaI svatM~ / Aaja. maaoTa kma / kuC gaMda baarIk / zIk Aintma / AaK.ad taja.rI baayaaÐM laMbaa kma hlka ja. LEXICON fast fat few filthy fine final foolish foreign free fresh golden good greasy great green handsome hard heavy high hot important incomplete independent inferior intelligent large last left lengthy less light little lonely long loose low many modern more much toja / tIva`.

CaoTa saIQaa / Aasaana Akolaa QaImaa CaoTa haoiSayaar icaknaa maulaayama / namaK+a ivaSaoYa / K.asa caTpTa baasaI baMd saIQaa AjaIba / ivaica~ tgaD.a gaaola namakIna k[.a / maja.baUt maUK.5. LEXICON new old open opposite orange peculiar permanent pink poor proper pungent pure raw red remaining rich right ripe robust round salty several sharp short simple single slow small smart smooth soft sour special spicy stale stopped straight strange strong stupid suitable nayaa puranaa Kulaa ]lTa naarMgaI AjaIba / ivaica~ p@ka / sqaa[gaulaabaI garIba ]icat tIKa Saud\Qa kccaa laala baakI AmaIr sahI / zIk p@ka tgaD./ Anaok toja. ]icat 309 naya: pura:na: khula: ulta: na:rangi: aji:b / vicitr pakka: / stha:i: gula:bi: gari:b ucit ti:kha: šuddh kacca: la:l ba:ki: ami:r sahi: / thi:k pakka: tagra: go:l namki:n kai: / ane:k te:z cho:ta: si:dha: / a:sa:n ake:la dhi:ma: chota: ho:šiya:r cikna: mula:yam / naram khatta: višeš / xa:s catpata: ba:si: band si:dha: aji:b / vicitr tagra: / mazbu:t mu:rkh / bevaku:f ucit ./ baovakUf.

a saf.od / Svaot saara Aaht / Gaayala galat pIlaa CaoTa mi:tha: lamba: phi:ka: astha:i: ko:mal mo:ta: patla: kul sahi: / sacca: kacca: xa:li: bε~gani: gunguna: kamzor gi:la: cøra: safe:d / švet sa:ra: a:hat / gha:yal galat pi:la: cho:ta: svi:ka:r karna: ma:nna: / da:xil karna: ji:na: mã:gna: naha:na: ho:na: sahna: pi:tna: banna: ka:tna: uba:lna: p´da: ho:na: to:rna la:na: pa:lna tu:tna: . LEXICON sweet tall tasteless temporary tender thick thin total true unripe vacant violet warm weak wet wide white whole wounded wrong yellow young(er) 5.alaI baOMganaI gaunagaunaa kmaja.la krnaa jaInaa maaÐganaa naahnaa haonaa sahnaa pITnaa bananaa kaTnaa ]vaalanaa pOda haonaa taoD.aor gaIlaa caaOD.naa laanaa paalanaa TUTnaa 310 maIza laMbaa fIka Asqaa[kaomala maaoTa ptlaa kula sahI / saccaa kccaa K.5.9. Verbs to accept to admit to (be) alive to ask for to bathe to be to bear to beat to become to bite to boil to (be) born to break to bring to bring up to (be) broken svaaIkar krnaa maananaa / daiK.

LEXICON to build to burn to buy to call to catch to celebrate to chew to cleanse to climb to come to come out to conceal to conquer to cook to cool to cough to count to cover to cry to cry out to cut to decorate to defeat to deposit to desire to die to distribute to divide to do to drag to draw to drink to drive to drive away to earn to eat to endure to enquire to entrust to envy to escape banaanaa / inama-aNa krnaa jalaanaa K.knaa raonaa icallaanaa kaTnaa sajaanaa hranaa jamaa krnaa caahnaa marnaa baaÐTnaa Baaga krnaa / baaÐTnaa krnaa GasaITnaa KIMcanaa pInaa calaanaa inaklanaa kmaanaa Kanaa sahnaa / bardaSt krnaa pUCtaC krnaa saaOMpnaa [-Yaa.a krnaa KaÐsanaa igananaa Z.5.krnaa bacanaa 311 bana:na: / nirma:n karna: jala:na: xari:dna: bula:na: pakarna: mana:na: caba:na: sa:f karna: carhna: a:na: nikalna: chipa:na: ji:tna: paka:na: / kha:na: bana:na: thãda: karna: khã:sna ginna: dhakna: ro:na: cilla:na: ka:tna: saja:na: hara:na jama: karna: ca:hna: marna: bã:tna: bha:g karna: / bã:tna: karna: ghasi:tna: khĩ:cna: pi:na: cala:na: nika:lna: kama:na: kha:na: sahna: / barda:št karna: pu:chta:ch karna: sø~pna: i:rša: karna: bacna: .naa manaanaa cabaanaa saaf krnaa caZ.rIdnaa baulaanaa pkD.naa Aanaa inaklanaa iCpanaa jaItnaa pkaanaa / Kanaa banaanaa zMD.

naa zhrnaa / Éknaa haonaa saunanaa gama.naa Baaganaa bahnaa ]D.anaa batanaa / saUicat krnaa imalanaa kUdnaa rKnaa maarnaa caUmanaa gaÐUMdnaa jaananaa hÐsanaa saIKnaa CaoD.naa JaUz baaolanaa laoTnaa ]zanaa caahnaa / psaMd krnaa 312 jã:cna: prati:kša: nika:lna: girna: larna: bha:gna: bahna: urna: (int) / ura:na: (tr) talna: bhu:lna: pa:na: utarna: nikalna: uthna: de:na: pi:sna: utpa:dan karna: / barhna: thaharna: / rukna: ho:na: sunna: garm karna: madad / saha:yta: karna: chipa:na: pakarna: / samha:lna: barha:na: bata:na: / su:cit karna: milna: ku:dna: rakhna: ma:rna: cu:mna: gũ:dna: ja:nna: hãsna: si:khna: chorna: jhu:th bo:lna: le:tna: utha:na ca:hna: / pasand karna: .naa / ]D.anaa tlanaa BaUlanaa panaa ]trnaa inaklanaa ]znaa donaa pIsanaa ]%padna krnaa / baZ.5.krnaa madd / sahayata krnaa iCpanaa pkD.naa samhalanaa baZ. LEXICON to examine to expect to expel to fall to fight to flee to flow to fly to fry to forget to get to get down to get out to get up to give to grind to grow to halt to happen to hear to heat to help to hide to hold to increase to inform to join to jump to keep to kill to kiss to knead to know to laugh to learn to leave to lie to lie down to lift to like jaaÐcanaa p`tIxaa krnaa inakalanaa igarnaa laD.

naa laUTnaa rKnaa banaanaa Capnaa bacaanaa KIMcanaa K.naa Aarama krnaa Ada krnaa rhnaa / inavaasa krnaa laaOTnaa GaUmanaa ]znaa / jaaganaa baunanaa daOD.rIdnaa phnanaa JagaD.anaa rKnaa Kolanaa taoD. LEXICON to listen to live to look to lose to make to meet to mix to occur to open to (be) perturbed to place to play to pluck to plunder to possess to prepare to print to protect to pull to purchase to put on to quarrel to raise to reach to read to reap to receive to recognize to refund to release to relax to remit to reside to return to resolve to rise to roast to run to save to say saunanaa jaInaa / rhnaa doKnaa Kaonaa banaanaa / tOyaar krnaa imalanaa imalaanaa haonaa Kaolanaa gabaD.naa ]zanaa phuÐcanaa pZ.5.naa kaTnaa panaa phcaananaa laaOTanaa / vaaipsa krnaa CaoD.naa bacaanaa khnaa 313 sunna: ji:na: / rahna: de:khna: kho:na: bana:na: / tεya:r karna: milna: mila:na: ho:na: kho:lna: ghabra:na: rakhna: khe:lna: torna: lu:tna: rakhna: bana:na: / tεyar karna: cha:pna: baca:na: / rakša: karna: khĩ:cna: xari:dna pahanna: jhagarna: utha:na: pahũcna: parhna: ka:tna: pa:na: pahca:nna: løta:na: / va:pas karna: chorna: a:ra:m karna: ada: karna: rahna: / niva:s karna: løtna: / løta:na: ghu:mna: uthna: / ja:gna: bunna: dørna: baca:na: kahna: .

5. LEXICON to search to see to sell to send to set (as sun) to settle down to shine to shiver to sink to sing to sit to sleep to smile to speak to spend to start to stay to steal to stir to stitch to stop to stroll to study to support to suppress to swim to take to take out to teach to tear off to tell to test to think to throw to tolerate to touch to travel to tremble to twinkle to understand Z.krnaa inaklanaa / AarMBa krnaa zhrnaa cauranaa ihlaanaa saInaa Éknaa Thlanaa pZ.UÐZnaa / Kaojanaa doKnaa baocanaa Baojanaa DUbanaa basana camaknaa kaÐpnaa DUbanaa gaanaa baOznaa saaonaa mauskranaa baaolanaa ibatanaa / Kca.anaa faD.naa batanaa / khnaa jaaÐcanaa saaocanaa fOMknaa sahnaa CUnaa yaa~a krnaa kaÐpnaa camaknaa samaJanaa 314 dhũ:dhna: / khojna: de:khna be:cna: bhe:jna: du:bna: basna: camakna: kã:pna: du:bna: ga:na: bε:thna: sona: muskara:na: bo:lna: / bha:šan de:na: bita:na: / kharc karna: nikalna: / a:r