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Distillation Column

A Distillation Column is used to separate a mutilcomponent liquid mixture into distillates and bottoms due to differences in their boiling points. They are of following two types based upon construction. Tray Column Packed Column

**Choice b/w Tray & Packed Column
**

Plate column are designed to handle wide range of liquid flow rates without flooding. For large column heights, weight of the packed column is more than plate column. Man holes will be provided for cleaning in tray Columns. In packed columns packing must be removed before cleaning. When large temperature changes are involved as in the distillation operations tray column are often preferred. Random-Packed Column generally not designed with the diameter larger than 1.5 m and diameters of commercial tray column is seldom less than 0.67m.

Selection Of Tray Type

Sieve trays are selected due to following main reasons. High capacity. High Efficiency . Lowest Cost per unit area than all other types with the downcomer. Good flexibility in operation(Turndown ratio).

**Designing Steps Of Distillation Column
**

Calculation Calculation Calculation Calculation Calculation Calculation Calculation Calculation Calculation

of Minimum Reflux Ratio Rm. of optimum reflux ratio. of theoretical number of stages. of actual number of stages. of diameter of the column. of weeping point. of pressure drop. of the height of the column. of thickness of the shell & Head.

Design Calculations:

1. Nature Of Feed

Pressure of feed = P=101.325psi At, Temperature=190oC Light Key (lk) =ODCB Heavy Key (hk) =TDI Check at Temperature =194oC=381.2 oF

Comp COCl2 ODCB TDI Res.

Xf 0.0005 0.8451 0.1362 0.0182

Pv(PSI) 650 16.6 2.43 0.0085

K 44.217 1.13 0.165 0.00578 K*Xf

K*Xf 0.022 0.954 0.0225 1.05*10-5 0.9998

As, Boiling Point (TB) is very close to feed temperature i.e. 190oC it is assumed that feed is saturated liquid at its boiling point so that q = 1

**2.Determination Of Minimum Reflux Ratio
**

Colburn method is used to fine out the minimum reflux ratio i.e. Rm = (1/ ( lk-1)*[(XlkD/XlkR)² lk(XlkD/XlkR)] (1) Where Xlkn= [rF/ (1+rF)*(1+ XhF)] (2) Xhkn= (XlkR/rF) (3) Where Xhf for every component heavier than the heavy key In Our case the component heavier than the heavy key is residues

2«

For that = (0.0011/2.78)=0.0004 So that Xhf = 0 rF=(XlkF/XhkF) =6.22 lk = (17.9/2.8) = 5.85 XlkD=0.9987 and XhkD=0.0016 Then XlkR = [6.22/ (1+6.22)] =0.861 XhkR= (0.862/6.24)=0.138 Rm = 0.22

(By 2) (By 3) (By 1)

**3.Calculation Of Optimum Reflux Ratio
**

Reflux Ratio = R=1.5*Rmin (1.2----1.5) R = 1.5 * 0.22 = 0.33 Ln = R * D Ln = 69.23 Kgmole/hr Vn = Ln+D = 276.6 Kgmole/hr As, the feed is at its boiling point, q = 1 Lw = Ln+qF = 305.41Kgmole/hr Vw = Ln ± B = 276.6 Kgmole/Kgs

**4.Minimum Number Of Stages
**

Using Fenske¶s equation Nm + 1 = Log [(Xl/Xh)d (Xh/Xl)s] / Log ( lk)ave Nm + 1 = Log [(0.9978/0.0016)d (0.879/0.115)s] Log (( 5.29)ave) Nm = 6

**5.Number Of Ideal Stages
**

Ideal number of Stages can be found by Lewis Matheson Method. Average Temperature = 213.61 oC = 416.5 oF Relative Volatilities are

Comp COCl2 ODCB TDI Res

144.34 5.237 1 0.00948

5«

BELOW THE FEED PLATE: The SOL Equations are Y m = Lw*(Xm+1 / Vw) - W*(Xw / Vw) Ym,ODCB = 1.106Xm+1-0.00068 Ym,TDI = 1.106*Xm+1-0.119 Ym,RES = 1.106*Xm+1-0.01564 And other equations are Yi = (ai*Xi)/(ai*Xi) For every component

5«.

comp Xb ODC B TDI Res a*Xb Yb X1 a*X1 Y1

0.005 0.026 0.028 0.026 0.136 0.124 18 0.879 0.879 0.97 0.115 0.96 0.958 0.875

0.001 0.001 0.014 0.000 0.000 09 2 8 14 13 0.999 1.09 1

0.999 0.906 1

5«

----------X5 a*X5 Y5 X6 a*X6 Y6 X7 0.803 4.207 0.182 0.182 0.958 0.844 4.421 0.969 0.8 5 0.041 0.141 0.141 0.030 0.1 3

0.013 0.0003 0.000 0.013 0.000 0.000 0.0 2 1 0.999 4.389 1 0.999 1 1 0.9 9

The plate 7 has composition very close to the feed plate so it is considered as feed plate.

5«

ABOVE THE FEED PLATE: The ROL equations are Y n+1 = Ln*(Xn+1 / Vn) + D *(xD / Vn) Y n,ODCB = (0.248 * X n+1) + 0.748 Y n,TDI = (0.248 * X n+1) + 0.0012 Y n,COCl2 = ( 0.248* X n+1) + 0.00045

5«

Comp X7 COCl2 0.000 5 ODCB 0.853 TDI Res 0.132 0.013 7 0.992 a*X7 Y7 X8 a*X8 0.002 0 4.488 0.142 Y9 0.000 45 0.966 0.030 0.0000 0.000 0.000 15 45 14 0.9244 0.96 0.857 0.0755 0.036 0.142 0.0001 0.000 0.000 3 13 52 1 0.997 1

4.9*10 1.04*0 ^-6 ^-6 4.633 0.997

5«

----Y14 X15 a*X15 Y15 X16 a*X16 Y16 0.0005 2.6*1 0.00 4 3 05 0.992 0.98 5.14 3 8 0.005 0 0.999 0.011 0.01 6 0 0 1 5.16 0.00 3.1*1 0.00 0.00 45 58 05 0^ -5 0.99 0.99 5.19 0.99 4 1 3 7 0.00 3 0 0.99 0.08 3 0 1 0.00 8 0 5.02 0.00 2 0 1.00

---------

The Plate 16 has nearly same composition as that of the top product so it is the last plate from top to bottom.

**6.Efficiency Of The Column
**

The efficiency of the column is given by the following empirical relation Eo = 51 - 32.5 Log (µa * a) Where a = Average viscosity of the feed = 0.1156 a = Average relative volatility of light to heavy key = 5.29 Then, Eo = 65%

**7.Actual Number Of Stages
**

Total Ideal Stages=16-1=15 (Excluding Reboiler) Actual number of stages = Ideal number of stages/Eo = 15/0.65 Actual number of stages = 23 Sieve Trays are used.

**8-Provisional Plate Design:
**

Top Condition Ln =69.23Kgmole/hr Lw =10178.45 Kgs/hr Vn = 276.6 Kgmole/hr Vw =40687.85 Kgs/hr M aver. = 147.01 Kg/Kgmol T = 160oC Liq density = dL = 1306 Kg/m3 Vap density = dV = 4 Kg/m3 Bottom Conditions Lm = 305.41 Kgmol/hr Lw = 59226.02 Kg/hr Vm = 276.6 Kgmol/hr Vw = 53641.04Kg/hr M aver=193.923Kg/Kgmol T = 252.22oC Liquid density = dL = 1202 Kg/m3 Vapor density = dV = 4.5 Kg/cm3

8«

Flooding Velocity: Flv=(Lw/Vw)(dv/dl)^0.5 Flv = 0.0675 From figure11.27, Coulson and Richardson, 6th Ed. At 18 inch spacing or 0.457 m K1 = 0.08 Uc = 0.952 m/s (By above equation) Let, flooding = 80% Uc* = 0.8 * 0.952 = 0.762 m/s

8«

Maximum volumetric flow rate of vapors : qv = Vw /dv = 3.31 m3/s Net area required: An = qv / Uc*== 4.33 m2 Column Cross sectional Area: Column area = Ac = An / 0.88 = 4.92 m2 Diameter: Diameter =Dc = (4*Ac/3.14) 0.5= 2.5m The calculated diameter at the top of column is 2.2 m.

8«

Downcomer Area: Ad = 0.12*Ac = 0.59 m2 Net Area: An = Ac ± Ad= 4.33 m2 Active Area: Aa = Ac-2Ad = 3.74 m2 Hole Area: Ah = 0.11*0.579= 0.41 m2(by trial) Lets take, Weir height = hw = 50mm Plate thickness = 5mm Hole diameter = dh = 5mm

9. Weep Point

Weir Length: Factor (Ad/Ac)*100 = 12 At (Ad / Ac) * 100 = 12 From Graph b/w (Ad/Ac)*100 vs. lw / Dc on page # 572 by ³Coulson and Richardson¶s´, 6th Ed. lw / Dc = 0.77 lw = 1.92 m Weir Liquid Crest: Maximum liquid rate = Lw = 59226.05/3600 = 16.45Kgs/sec Minimum liquid rate)= Lw*=16.45*0.7 (at 70% turn down) =11.5kgs/sec how =750*(Lw/dl*lw)2/3 max how =27.778mm min how = 21.88

At minimum liquid rate, hw + how = 50 + 21.88 =71.88 mm From graph 11.30, page # 571,´Coulson and Richardson´ Vol. 6 At hw + how =71.88 mm K2 =30.6 mm Weep point: Uh(min) = [K2-0.9(25.4-dl)]/dv0.5 = [30.6-0.9(25.4-5)]/4.50.5 =5.76 m/s Actual Uh(min) based on active hole area is given as: Actual Uh(min) = 0.7*(Vw/dv)*A h = (0.7*53641.04)/(4.5*3600*0.41) = 5.65 m/s As, actual minimum velocity is less than Uh(min) , so we change the hole area so that Actual Uh (min) becomes well above Uh(min) .

Another Trial For Hole Area: Aa = 3.74 m2 Ah=0.08*3.74=0.3m2

So, Actual Uh(min) = 7.72 m/sec Since Actual Uh(min) is well above Uh (min) so our new trial is correct

**10.Plate Pressure Drop
**

Dry Plate Pressure Drop: Maximum vapor velocity through holes Uh(max) = Vm / dv*An = 11.037 m/s (Ah / Aa) * 100 = (0.23/2.87)*100 =8.02 From figure 11.34,6th Ed. ³Coulson and Richardson¶s´ At (Ah/Aa)*100=8.02, When Plate thickness to plate dia ratio is 1. Then, Co = 0.83 hd = 51 (Uh / Co)2 (dv/dl) = 33.76 mm liquid

Residual Drop: hr = 12.5*1000/dl = 10.4 mm liquid Total Plate Pressure Drop: ht= hd + hr + (hw +how) = 33.76 + 10.4+ 71.88 = 116.04 mm liquid ¨Pt = 9.81*10-3*(ht)*dl = 9.81*10-3*116.04*1202 =1368.3Pa = 1.36 KPa = 0.1973 psi

**11. Residence Time
**

Downcomer Liquid backup/ Liquid height in downcomer: Let, hap= hw-10 =40 mm = 0.04m Area under apron = hap*lw = 0.04*1.92 = 0.0768m2 As Aap is less than Ad = 0.59m2 hdc=166*(Lw/dl*Aap)2 =166*(59226.02/1202*3600*0.0768)2 =5.27mm

Hb = ht + hdc + (hw + how) = 116.04 + 5.27+ (71.88) =193.2 mm=0.2m Since, Hb < 0.5*(tray spacing +weir height) 0.200<0.253 So, tray spacing is acceptable. Residence Time: tr = Ad * hbc * dl Lw tr = 0.59 * 0.20* 1202 = 8.26 sec 16.45 As residence time is greater than 3 sec, so satisfactory

**12. Entrainment Check
**

Uv = (Un / Uc)* 100 Where Un = Vw/(dv*An) = 0.764 m/s Uv = (0.764/0.952)*100 = 80.3 % (Our Assumption is correct.) Flv = 0.0675 From Graph 11.29, 6th Ed. ³Coulson and Richardson´ Fractional entrainment= = 0.052 As, entrainment is less than 0.1, process is satisfactory

**13.Plate Specification
**

Use Sectional Construction. The Plates are supported on a ring welded around the vessel wall, and on the beams about 50mm wide. Allow 50mm wide claming zones. lw/Dc = 1.92/3.3 = 0.77 = 104o Angle subtended at plate edge by unperforated strip = 180o ± 104o = 76o Length of unperforated edge strips : (2.5 ± 50*10-3) T *76 = 3.25 m 180 Area of unperforated edge strip =Au = 50*10-3*3.25 = 0.162 m2

Mean length of Claming Zone: (2.5-50*10-3)*Sin(76o/2) = 1.508m Area of calming zone = Acz = 2*50*10-3*1.508 = 0.15m2 Total area available for perforations: Ap = Aa ± (Au + Acz) = 3.42 m2 Ah/Ap = 0.3/3.42 = 0.087 From Graph 11.33, 6th Ed., Coulson and Richardson lp/dh = 3.2 (satisfactory i.e. b/w 2.5²4.0) Hole Pitch: lp/dh = 3.2, lp=16mm Triangular Number Of Holes per plate: Number Of Holes = Total hole area = 9307 Area of one hole

**14.Height Of The Column
**

No. of plates = 23 Tray spacing = 0.457 m Distance between 23 plates = 10.5 m Top clearance = 0.5 m Bottom clearance = 0.5 m Tray thickness = 5 mm/plate Total thickness of trays = 0.005* 23= 0.115 m Total height of column = 10.5+ 0.5 + 0.5 + 0.115 Ht = 11.6m

**15.Material Of Construction
**

SHELL: Diameter of the tower =Dc = 2500 mm = 2.5 m Working/Operating Pressure = 1.01325 bar =101325 Pa Design pressure = 1.1×Operating Pressure = 1.1×101325 = 1.11*105Pa Working temperature = 525.22 ºK Design temperature = 1.1*525.22=577.7 ºK Shell material = Stainless steel,Type:317 Permissible tensile stress (ft) = 540 MN/m2 Elastic Modulus (E) = 210000 MN/mm2

Insulation material = Diatomaceous earth Maximum Working Temperature=650oF Insulation thickness = 2´= 50.8 mm Density of insulation = 288 kg/m3 HEAD - TORISPHERICAL DISHED HEAD: Material = Stainless steel,Type:317 Allowable tensile stress = 540 MN/m2 SUPPORT SKIRT: Height of support = 5000 mm = 5 m Material ± Carbon Steel

**16.Minimum Shell Thickness
**

Considering the vessel as an internal pressure vessel. ts = ((P×Rc)/ ((ft×J)- 0.6P)) + C Where ts = thickness of shell, mm P = design pressure, Pa Rc = diameter of shell, m ft = permissible/allowable tensile stress, MN/m2 C = Corrosion allowance,3 mm J = Joint factor ts = 3.26 mm Taking the thickness of the shell = 6 mm (standard)

**17.Head Design
**

Type: Torispherical head: Thickness of head = th = (P×Rc×0.885)/ (ft×J-0.1P) P =internal design pressure, Pa Rc = radius of shell, m th = (111457.5×1.25×0.885)/ (540E+06×10.1*111457.5) = 3.23mm Including corrosion allowance take the thickness of head = 3 mm th = ((111457.5×1.25×0.885)/ (420*106×1.00)) + C = 3.23 mm Thickness of shell=8mm (Standard)

**Specification Sheet Of Distillation Column(D-310)
**

SPECIFICATION SHEET

Identification: Item Distillation column Item No. D-310 No. required 1 Tray type Sieve tray Function: Separation of ODCB from TDI and Reaction Residues. Operation: Continuous

Material handled:

Feed 36453.6Kg/h r 84.51% 194oC Top 30843.8Kg/ hr 99.78% 160oC Bottom 5586Kg/hr 0.5% 252.22oC

Quantity Compositi on of ODCB Temp.

Design data:

No. of tray=27 Pressure = 101.32 KPa Height of column = 13.47m Diameter of column =2.5m Hole size = 5 mm Pressure drop per tray = 1.36 KPa Tray thickness = 5 mm Active holes = 9307 Weir height = 50 mm Weir length = 1.92 m Reflux ratio = 0.33:1 Tray spacing =0.457m Active area = 3.74 m2 Flooding = 80.3 % Entrainment=5.2%

Condenser

A condenser is a two-phase flow heat exchanger in which heat is generated from the conversion of vapor into liquid (condensation) and the heat generated is removed from the system by a coolant. Types of Condensers: Steam Turbine Exhaust Condensers/surface condensers 1. Plate Condensers 2. Air-Cooled Condensers 3. Direct Contact Condensers 4. Shell & tube type

**Selection Of Condenser Configuration
**

Four Condenser Configuration are Possible Horizontal with condensation in shell side and cooling medium in the tubes. Horizontal with condensation in tube side cooling medium in shell side. Vertical with condensation in the shell. Vertical with condensation in the tubes. Horizontal shell side and vertical tube side are the most commonly used types of condensers. In this process we have used the horizontal with condensation in shell side & cooling medium in tube.

**Designing Steps Of Condenser (E-312)
**

Heat Balance. Assumed Calculations. Calculations Of Heat Transfer Coefficients. Calculations Of Pressure Drops.

Heat Balance

T1=160C T2=160C

t2=60C

t1=30C

Vapor: Qvap = mHv Qvap = 11202300KJ/hr Water: Q = wCp( t2- t1) w = 88907.14 Kg/hr LMTD: LMTD = (T2 - t1) - (T1- t2) = 114.34oC Ln (T2 - t1) (T1- t2)

Assumed Calculations:

Assume Design overall coefficient =UD = 850 W/m2 oC Heat Transfer area: A=Q /(UD*LMTD)=32.017m2 Tube Lay out & size: Length = 2.4m , Passes = n=2 OD, BWG, pitch(Pt) = 19mm, 16 BWG, 24mm Triangular pitch. Out side surface area per linear ft =a"t = 0.06m2 No. of tubes = Nt = A/ (a´t.L) = 222 Shell side: From the nearest count on Table 9, ³Process Heat Transfer by Kern´ ID = 0.438m , No. Of Tubes=Nt=224 Suppose Baffle spacing=B = 0.8m and Passes = 1

**Calculation Of Heat Transfer Coefficients
**

Cold Fluid: tube side (water) Flow area: at = Nt*a"t = 0.0224m2 144*n Mass velocity: Gt = w/at= 3969068.75Kg/hr.m2 Velocity : V = Gt/3600* w= 1.1 m/s From Graph 25 On Kern hi = 5678.3W/m2.oC

hio = hi*ID OD hio = 4692 W/m2.oC

Hot fluid: shell side (Vapors) Flow area:as = ID*C*B C=Pt-do =24mm 144*Pt as = 0.073m2 Mass velocity:Gs =W/as =557367.94Kg/hr.m2 Loading: G"=W/L*Nt2/3= 394.2 Kg/hr. m Assume ho = 2000W/m2.oC tw = ta + ho (Tv - ta) =85C (hio + ho) tf = tw + Tv = 122.5C 2 ho = 1750 W/m2.oC Clean Overall Coefficient: UC = hio*ho = 1274.6 W/m2.oC hio+ho Dirt Factor: Rd = (Ud-Uc)/(Ud*Uc) = 0.00039 (Satisfactory)

**Determination Of Pressure Drop
**

Shell Side: De = 0.014 m(Table 10, Kern) Res = De*Gs = 197018.2 u f = 0.1728 (From Graph 26 Kern) s =0.004 No. Of Crosses: N + 1= (L/B) =3 ¨Ps = __f*Gs2*Ds*(N + 1) =24.3KPa 2*5.22*1010*De*s

Tube Side: water Ret = 26226.6 f = 0.037 ¨Pl = _f*Gt2*L*n_______ = 3.2KPa 5.22*1010*D*s*Jt ¨Pr= 4nV2 =4.84KPa s*2g¶ ¨Pt= ¨Pr+ ¨Pl=8.04KPa

**Specification Sheet Of Condenser (E-312)
**

Identification: condenser No. Required = 1 Function: Condense vapor mixture of (COCL2,ODCB,TDI) by removing the latent heat of vaporization Type: 1-2 Horizontal Condenser Shell side condensation Heat Duty =1.12×107 KJ/hr

Tube Side: Fluid handled: cold water Flow rate =88907 Kg/hr Temp. = 30 oC to 60 oC

Shell Side: Fluid handled :ODCB (99.78%) Flow rate= 40687.86 Kg/hr

Tubes: OD:19mm,16BWG 224 tubes each 2.4 m long 2 passes 24 mm triangular pitch pressure drop = 8.04 KPa Shell: 0.438 m diameter 1 pass Baffles spacing 0.8 m Pressure drop = 24.3KPa Temperature= 160oC

**Utilities: Cold water
**

Ud assumed = 850W/m2oC Uc calculated = 1274.6 W/m2oC Allowed dirt factor = Rd = 0.0006 m2oC/W Calculated dirt factor = Rd = 0.00039 m2oC/W

Reboilers

1. 2. 3. 4.

Reboilers are heat exchangers provided at the bottom of the fractionator to generate the stripping vapors stream. Classification: Forced circulation reboiler. Kettle reboiler. Fired reboiler. Thermosiphon reboiler.

Selection of reboiler:

The best choice is the kettle reboiler due to following main reasons. High residence time. Rate of vaporizations is very high (about 90%) of the feed. The viscosity of the system is not very high Comparatively less costly under above conditions .

**Designing Steps Of Reboiler(E113)
**

Heat Balance. Assumed Calculations. Calculation of heat transfer coefficients. Calculation of Pressure Drops.

Heat Balance

Hot Fluid: Thermal fluid (Dimethyle Siloxane) Cold Fluid: Bottoms (87.5%TDI) Vapor load:53641.04Kg/hr Heat duty:1.12*107KJ/hr Flow rate of Dimethyle Siloxane=W= 247422.47Kg/hr LMTD:62.13oC

t1=252.2C T2=304C t2=252.2C T1=326C

Assumed Calculations

Let UD=596 W/m2oC A=Q/(UD*LMTD)=83.8m2 Tube specification:19mm OD, 24mm Triangular Pitch, 16BWG No.Of Tubes=Nt=(83.8/3*0.06)=465 Corrected UD=(Q/a¶1*Nt)=103 Btu/hr.ft2.oF From Table 10(Kern) By the Nearest Count Nt=506 Diameter Of tube Bundle=Db=(OD)*(n/C)1/2.21 Db=0.6m Where C=0.249 Shell Dia.=1.08m (Ratio Of Bundle to Shell Dia is 1.8)

**Calculation Of Heat Transfer Coefficients
**

Tube Side:Dimethyle Siloxane Flow Area=at´=0.0002m2/tube at = (a¶t*Nt/n) = 0.0506 m2 W=Q/Cp* T=247422.47Kg/hr Gt = W/at = 1358.27Kg/m2.hr V= (Gt/3600* )=1.82m/sec hi=1567.2 W/m2.C hio=hi*(ID/OD)=1295 W/m2.C

Shell Side:Bottoms Assume ho=1703.5 W/m2.C tw=ta + (hio/ho+hio)*(Ta-ta) tw= 279.33C tw = 27.11C From graph 11.5(Kern) ho>1703.5 W/m2.C so use ho=1703.5 W/m2.C Uc=ho*(hio/(ho+hio)) = 736 W/m2.C Dirt Resistance=Rd=(Uc-Ud)/(Uc*Ud) = 0.00032m2C/W (Satisfactory)

**Calculation Of Pressure Drops
**

Tube Side: Ret = (Gt*D/ ) Ret= 50000 f=0.0026, s=0.672 Pt = (f*Gt*L*n/5.22*1010 * D*s) Pt = 9.16KPa Pr = (4/s) *( n) * (V2/g´) Pr = 13.5KPa PT = Pt + Pr PT = 22.6KPa Shell Side: Negligible

**Specification Sheet Of Reboiler (E-113)
**

Identification: Item name:Reboiler Item no.:E-113 Type: Kettle Reboiler No. Required = 1 Function: To Vaprize The bottom Product Of Distillation Column Heat Duty = 1.12*107KJ/hr

Tube Side: Fluid handled: Dimethyle Siloxane Flow rate = 247422.47 Kg/hr Pressure = 202 Kpa Temp. = 326 oC to 304 oC Tubes: OD:19mm,16BWG 506 tubes each 3 m long 2 passes 24 mm triangular pitch pressure drop = 22.6 KPa Shell Side: Fluid handled :Bottoms Of Distillation Column Vapor Load= 53641.04Kg/hr Shell: 1.08 m diameter 1 pass Pressure drop = Negligible Temperature= 252.22oC

**Utilities: ThermalFluid (Dimethyle Siloxane)
**

UD assumed = 596 W/m2.oC Uc calculated = 736 W/m2oC Calculated dirt factor = Rd = 0.00032 m2oC/W Allowable dirt factor = Rd = 0.0006 m2oC/W

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