mobile banking conceptual model

In one academic model,[1] mobile banking is defined as:
"Mobile Banking refers to provision and availment of banking- and financial services with the help of mobile telecommunication devices.The scope of offered services may include facilities to conduct bank and stock market transactions, to administer accounts and to access customised information."

According to this model Mobile Banking can be said to consist of three inter-related concepts:
y y y

Mobile Accounting Mobile Brokerage Mobile Financial Information Services

Most services in the categories designated Accounting and Brokerage are transaction-based. The non-transaction-based services of an informational nature are however essential for conducting transactions - for instance, balance inquiries might be needed before committing a money remittance. The accounting and brokerage services are therefore offered invariably in combination with information services. Information services, on the other hand, may be offered as an independent module.

[edit] Trends in mobile banking
The advent of the Internet has enabled new ways to conduct banking business, resulting in the creation of new institutions, such as online banks, online brokers and wealth managers. Such institutions still account for a tiny percentage of the industry.[citation needed] Over the last few years, the mobile and wireless market has been one of the fastest growing markets in the world and it is still growing at a rapid pace. According to the GSM Association and Ovum, the number of mobile subscribers exceeded 2 billion in September 2005, and now[when?] exceeds 2.5 billion (of which more than 2 billion are GSM).[citation needed]

With mobile technology, banks can offer services to their customers such as doing funds transfer while travelling, receiving online updates of stock price or even performing stock trading while being stuck in traffic. Smartphones and 3G connectivity provide some capabilities that older text message-only phones do not. This article appears to contain speculation and unjustified claims. Information must be verifiable and based on reliable published sources. Please remove speculation from the article. According to a study by financial consultancy Celent, 35% of online banking households will be using mobile banking by 2010, up from less than 1% today. Upwards of 70% of bank center call volume is projected to come from mobile phones. Mobile banking will eventually allow users to make payments at the physical point of sale. "Mobile contactless payments´ will make up 10% of the contactless market by 2010.[2] Many believe that mobile users have just started to fully utilize the data capabilities in their mobile phones. In Asian countries like India, China, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Philippines, where mobile infrastructure is comparatively better than the fixed-line infrastructure, and in European countries, where mobile phone penetration is very high (at least 80% of consumers use a mobile phone), mobile banking is likely to appeal even more.

[edit] Mobile banking business models
A wide spectrum of Mobile/branchless banking models is evolving. However, no matter what business model, if mobile banking is being used to attract low-income populations in often rural locations, the business model will depend on banking agents, i.e., retail or postal outlets that process financial transactions on behalf telcos or banks. The banking agent is an important part of the mobile banking business model since customer care, service quality, and cash management will depend on them. Many telcos will work through their local airtime resellers. However, banks in Colombia, Brazil, Peru, and other markets use pharmacies, bakeries, etc. These models differ primarily on the question that who will establish the relationship (account opening, deposit taking, lending etc.) to the end customer, the Bank or the NonBank/Telecommunication Company (Telco). Another difference lies in the nature of agency agreement between bank and the Non-Bank. Models of branchless banking can be classified into three broad categories - Bank Focused, Bank-Led and Nonbank-Led.

[edit] Bank-focused model
The bank-focused model emerges when a traditional bank uses non-traditional low-cost delivery channels to provide banking services to its existing customers. Examples range from use of automatic teller machines (ATMs) to internet banking or mobile phone banking to provide certain limited banking services to banks¶ customers. This model is additive in nature and may be seen as a modest extension of conventional branch-based banking.

[edit] Bank-led model

stolen) cards [edit] Payments. Deposits. Monitoring of term deposits 4. a different trade partner (telco / chain store) having experience and target market distinct from traditional banks. Mini-statements and checking of account history 2. Status on cheque. stop payment on cheque 10. Access to loan statements 5. Insurance policy management 8. Withdrawals. 5. change and deleting of payments) 14. Domestic and international fund transfers Micro-payment handling Mobile recharging Commercial payment processing Bill payment processing Peer to Peer payments . PIN provision. Balance checking in the account 12. and Transfers 1. Pension plan management 9. 2. Recent transactions 13. In this model customer account relationship rests with the bank [edit] Non-bank-led model The non-bank-led model is where a bank does not come into the picture (except possibly as a safe-keeper of surplus funds) and the non-bank (e. Blocking of (lost. and may be significantly cheaper than the bank-based alternatives. 4. Ordering check books 11.The bank-led model offers a distinct alternative to conventional branch-based banking in that customer conducts financial transactions at a whole range of retail agents (or through mobile phone) instead of at bank branches or through bank employees. Mutual funds / equity statements 7. Access to card statements 6. This model promises the potential to substantially increase the financial services outreach by using a different delivery channel (retailers/ mobile phones). Due date of payment (functionality for stop. [edit] Mobile Banking Services Mobile banking can offer services such as the following: [edit] Account Information 1. Change of PIN and reminder over the Internet 15. 6.g. telco) performs all the functions. The bank-led model may be implemented by either using correspondent arrangements or by creating a JV between Bank and Telco/non-bank. Alerts on account activity or passing of set thresholds 3. 3.

mobile banking will be attractive mainly to the younger. the merchant receives cash and the system credits the client's bank account or mobile wallet. more "tech-savvy" customer segment. The feasibility of such banking agents depends on local regulation which enables retail outlets to take deposits or not. In the same way the client can also withdraw money at the merchant: through exchanging sms to provide authorization. When depositing money. the merchant hands the client cash and debits the merchant's account. 3. retail and postal outlets that turn cash into electronic funds and vice versa. and insurance coverage Check (cheque) book and card requests Exchange of data messages and email. news 2. General information such as weather updates. Deposit at banking agent Especially for clients in remote locations. A third of mobile phone users say that they may consider performing some kind of financial transaction through their mobile phone. Portfolio management services Real-time stock quotes Personalized alerts and notifications on security prices mobile banking [edit] Support 1. 2. i. it will be important to help them deposit and withdraw funds at banking agents.. Status of requests for credit. including mortgage approval. Loyalty-related offers 3. A specific sequence of SMS messages will enable the system to verify if the client has sufficient funds in his or her wallet and authorize a deposit or withdrawal transaction at the agent. including complaint submission and tracking ATM Location [edit] Content Services 1. 2.7. Withdrawal at banking agent 8. [edit] Challenges for a Mobile Banking Solution Key challenges in developing a sophisticated mobile banking application are : . 4.e. [edit] Investments 1. But most of the users are interested in performing basic transactions such as querying for account balance and making bill payment. 4. 3. Location-based services Based on a survey conducted by Forrester.

Some of these devices support J2ME and others support SIM Application Toolkit. with countries like India using portals like R-World to enable the limitations of low end java based phones. the hacker should require at least an ID/Password to access the application. while focus on areas such as South Africa have defaulted to the USSD as a basis of communication achievable with any phone. or only SMS. In practice it is too early in the service lifecycle for interoperability to be addressed within an individual country. where installed applications(Java based or native) provide better security. a WAP browser. User ID / Password authentication of bank¶s customer. Encryption of the data being transmitted over the air. Security of any thick-client application running on the device. banking interfaces are well defined and money movements between banks follow the IS0-8583 standard. being executed from some remote location and transmission of financial information over the air. Initial interoperability issues however have been localized. [edit] Security Security of financial transactions. the physical security of the device is more important. Encryption of the data that will be stored in device for later / off-line analysis by the customer. The following aspects need to be addressed to offer a secure infrastructure for financial transaction over wireless network : 1. 6. In case the device is stolen.[edit] Handset operability There are a large number of different mobile phone devices and it is a big challenge for banks to offer mobile banking solution on any type of device. Authentication of the device with service provider before initiating a transaction. are easier to use and allow development of more complex capabilities similar to those of internet banking while SMS can provide the basics but becomes difficult to operate with more complex transactions. money movements between service providers will naturally adopt the same standards as in the banking world. The desire for interoperability is largely dependent on the banks themselves. . 2. In practice. are the most complicated challenges that need to be addressed jointly by mobile application developers. wireless network service providers and the banks' IT departments. Physical part of the hand-held device. as very few countries have more than one mobile banking service provider. If the bank is offering smart-card based security. This would ensure that unauthorized devices are not connected to perform financial transactions. 4. As mobile banking matures. 3. 5. There is a myth that there is a challenge of interoperability between mobile banking applications due to perceived lack of common technology standards for mobile banking.

there could be many issues to implement this approach such as upgrade / synchronization of other dependent components. 4. 3. their expectations from the solution will increase. Banks unable to meet the performance and reliability expectations may lose customer confidence. anywhere banking) and hence banks need to ensure that the systems are up and running in a true 24 x 7 fashion. 6. With mobile banking. it would be impractical to expect customers to regularly visit banks or connect to a web site for regular upgrade of their mobile banking application. There are systems such as Mobile Transaction Platform which allow quick and secure mobile enabling of various banking services.[edit] Scalability & Reliability Another challenge for the CIOs and CTOs of the banks is to scale-up the mobile banking infrastructure to handle exponential growth of the customer base. the customer may be sitting in any part of the world (true anytime. with leading banks adopting Mobile Transaction Platform and the Central Bank publishing guidelines for mobile banking operations. Preferred Language Date / Time format Amount format Default transactions Standard Beneficiary list Alerts . [edit] Application distribution Due to the nature of the connectivity between bank and its customers. It will be expected that the mobile application itself check the upgrades and updates and download necessary patches (so called "Over The Air" updates). However. [edit] Personalization It would be expected from the mobile application to support personalization such as : 1. 5. 2. Recently in India there has been a phenomenal growth in the use of Mobile Banking applications. As customers will find mobile banking more and more useful.

and accessories. radio and GPS.A mobile phone or mobile (also called cellphone and handphone[1]) is an electronic device used for mobile telecommunications (mobile telephone. email. The International Telecommunication Union estimated that mobile cellular subscriptions worldwide would reach approximately 4. current mobile phones may support many additional services. As opposed to a radio telephone.6 billion by the end of 2009. Mobile phones differ from cordless telephones. automates calling to and paging from a public land mobile network (PLMN). Mobile phones have gained increased importance in the sector of Information and communication technologies for development in the 2000s and have effectively started to reach the bottom of the economic pyramid.g. and handoff (handover) during a phone call when the user moves from one cell (base station coverage area) to another. packet switching for access to the Internet. within a home or an office. Bluetooth. camera with video recorder and MMS for sending and receiving photos and video. In addition to the standard voice function. such as SMS for text messaging. a cell phone offers full duplex communication. e. . through a fixed line and a base station owned by the subscriber and also from satellite phones and radio telephones. infrared. MP3 player. which only offer telephone service within limited range. text messaging or data transmission) over a cellular network of specialized base stations known as cell sites. Most current cell phones connect to a cellular network consisting of switching points and base stations (cell sites) owned by a mobile network operator. gaming.

each providing service to a small area (a cell). Parelman Patent). and is considered as the father of the NMT system and some consider him also the father of the cellular phone. to a large extent. In a cellular system. In 1984. the NTT network had been expanded to cover the whole population of Japan and became the first nationwide 2G network. so the same channel can be used simultaneously for separate conversations in different cells. Mexico and Canada. The initial launch network covered the full metropolitan area of Tokyo's over 20 million inhabitants with a cellular network of 23 base stations. Finland. which employed multiple. centrally controlled base stations (cell sites).[13][14] Personal Handy-phone System mobiles and modems used in Japan around 1997±2003 Several countries were among the earliest to launch 1G networks in the early 1980s including the UK. Bell Labs developed modern commercial cellular technology (based. . a signal between a base station (cell site) and a terminal (phone) only need be strong enough to reach between the two. The cell sites would be set up such that cells partially overlapped.[12]. NMT was the first mobile phone network featuring international roaming. Within five years. The second launch of 1G networks was the simultaneous launch of the Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) system in Denmark. on the Gladden. Norway and Sweden in 1981. The first 1G network launched in the USA was Chicago based Ameritech in 1983 using the famous first hand-held mobile phone Motorola DynaTAC.Analog cellular telephony (1G) Main article: 1G The first commercially automated cellular network (the 1G generation) was launched in Japan by NTT in 1979. The Swedish electrical engineer Östen Mäkitalo started to work on this vision in 1966.

The first data services appeared on mobile phones starting with person-to-person SMS text messaging in Finland in 1993. resulting in more. and 2. The evidence of this growth can still be seen in the many older. The first full internet service on mobile phones was introduced by NTT DoCoMo in Japan in 1999. The first commercial payment system to mimic banks and credit cards was launched in the Philippines in 1999 simultaneously by mobile operators Globe and Smart.The first NMT installations as well as the First AMPS installations were based on the Ericsson AXE digital exchange nodes. which allowed range and cell size to vary. As the system expanded and neared capacity. A 1991 GSM mobile phone Digital mobile communication (2G) Main articles: 2G. the ability to reduce transmission power allowed new cells to be added. tall cell site towers with no antennae on the upper parts of their towers. This system included variable transmission power in both the base stations and the telephones (controlled by the base stations). Cellular systems required several leaps of technology. Wideband mobile communication (3G) . including handover. smaller cells and thus more capacity.75G The first "modern" network technology on digital 2G (second generation) cellular technology was launched by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Group) in 1991 in Finland on the GSM standard which also marked the introduction of competition in mobile telecoms when Radiolinja challenged incumbent Telecom Finland (now part of TeliaSonera) who ran a 1G NMT network.5G. and so had their antennae mounted atop high towers. These sites originally created large cells. The first commercial payments were mobile parking trialled in Sweden but first commercially launched in Norway in 1999. the towers were designed so that as the system expanded²and cell sizes shrank²the antennae could be lowered on their original masts to reduce range. first launched in 1998 in Finland. 2. which allowed a conversation to continue as a mobile phone traveled from cell to cell. First trial payments using a mobile phone to pay for a Coca Cola vending machine were set in Finland in 1998. The first content sold to mobile phones was the ringing tone.

5G. It is an enhanced 3G (third generation) mobile telephony communications protocol in the High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) family. Current HSDPA deployments support down-link speeds of 1. 7.[17] Uses Mobile phones are used for a variety of purposes. data.2 and 14. conducting business.8. It may perhaps also be based on WiMax or Flash-OFDM wireless metropolitan area network technologies that promise broadband wireless access with speeds that reaches 233 Mbit/s for mobile users. Anywhere" basis.45 Mbit/s to 3. MIMO diversity. and at much higher data rates than previous generations.4 Mbit/s. Broadband Fourth generation (4G) Main article: 4G The next evolution that recently was released is the 4th generation. which provides speeds of up to 42 Mbit/s downlink and 84 Mbit/s with Release 9 of the 3GPP standards. The radio interface in these systems is based on all-IP packet switching. and having access to a telephone in the event of an emergency. and streamed multimedia can be given to users on a "Anytime. Revision A of EV-DO makes several additions to the protocol while keeping it completely backwards compatible with older versions of EV-DO. multi-carrier modulation schemes. 3.Main article: 3G In 2001 the first commercial launch of 3G (Third Generation) was again in Japan by NTT DoCoMo on the WCDMA standard. Sprint has a 4G network in select areas. 3G+ or turbo 3G. All these were put in place to allow for low latency.0 Mbit/s. also coined 3. which allows networks based on Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity.[16] One of the newest 3G technologies to implemented is High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA). offering peak bit rates of 326.1 Mbit/s. By 2011 it is expected that more wireless companies will launch 4G Broadband networks. low bit rate communications such as VoIP. These changes included the introduction of several new forward link data rates that increase the maximum burst rate from 2. including keeping in touch with family members. Some individuals keep multiple cell phones in some cases for legitimate reasons such as having . and 1 Gbit/s to stationary devices defined by the ITU-R[17] 4G systems may be based on the 3GPP LTE (Long Term Evolution) cellular standard. dynamic channel assignment (DCA) and channel-dependent scheduling. also known as Beyond 3G in the literature. the ability for more than one mobile to share the same time slot (multi-user packets) and the introduction of QoS flags. with the aim to offer broadband wireless access with nominal data rates of 100 Mbit/s to fast moving devices. A 4G system should be a complete replacement for current network infrastructure and is expected to be able to provide a comprehensive and secure IP solution where voice. Also included were protocols that would decrease connection establishment time (called enhanced access channel MAC). Further speed increases are available with HSPA+.6.[15] The standard 2G CDMA networks became 3G compliant with the adoption of Revision A to EV-DO.

The victim can then have the phone handy when necessary and without the abuser knowing. says ". one plan could come with cheap local calls. Although the cell phone is the sole property of one individual. but it also often occurs due to familial customs and traditional gender roles. another would be for cheap long distance. and yet another for cheap international calls or cheap roaming (more universal in regions where pay-asyou-go plans without contracts or monthly fees are the norm).[19] Cell phone sharing is a phenomenon which exists around the world. Phone sharing does not only take place because of its economic benefits. Two types of sharing which exist are conspicuous and stealthy sharing.. This type of cell phone sharing is an important for the small villages in Burkina Faso because it allows them to keep up with the expectations of the globalizing world. as a reader can read" and they are "not only personal but portable".one phone for business and another for personal use. For example.. it can actually be an opportunity to engage in reciprocal obligations.[21] A study by Motorola found that one in ten cell phone subscribers have a second phone that often is kept secret from other family members.[20] Another example of cell phone sharing occurs in Burkina Faso. It is very prevalent in urban India. while an example of the latter type of sharing happens when a boy takes his father's cell phone without his knowledge. such as a teacher or missionary. though a second cell phone may also be used to covertly conduct an affair or illicit business transaction.[23] Paul Levinson. the first literary genre to emerge from the cellular age via text messaging to a website that collects the novels as a whole. as families and groups of friends often share one or more mobiles among their members. These devices are often old phones that are donated and refurbished to meet the victim's emergency needs. which has raised concerns. This cell phone is typically owned by a person who is not natively from the village. There it is not uncommon for a village to only have access to one cell phone. These phones are used to engage in activities including extramarital affairs or clandestine business dealings.[18] Organizations that aid victims of domestic violence offer a secret cell phone to potential victims. a writer can write just about as easily. Multiple mobile phones (or just multiple SIM cards to be swapped out or used together in a phone like the Samsung Duos series) are also commonly kept to take advantage of different calling plans' benefits.nowadays. Although some may consider this a burden. An example of conspicuous sharing takes place when someone calls the friend of the person they are trying to reach in hopes of being able to talk to that individual. Child predators are able to take advantage of cell phones to secretly communicate with children without the knowledge of their parents or teachers.[22] The advent of widespread text messaging has resulted in the cell phone novel. it is the expectation that other members of the village are allowed to use the cell phone to make necessary calls. anywhere. Handsets . in Information on the Move (2004).

built-in cameras (1.0+ Mpx) and camcorders (video recording). A printed circuit board inside a mobile phone There are several categories of mobile phones. As miniaturisation and increased processing power of microchips has enabled ever more features to be added to phones. video calling. ability to watch streaming video or download video for later viewing. and soon will also serve as a console of sorts to online games and other high quality games. from basic phones to feature phones such as musicphones and cameraphones. music (MP3) and video (MP4) playback. the first smartphone was the Nokia 9000 Communicator in 1996 which incorporated PDA functionality to the basic mobile phone at the time. Bluetooth (2. is a standard phone today. Internet e-mail and browsing and serving as a wireless modem for a PC. Features Mobile phones often have beyond sending text messages and making voice calls. the SonyEricsson Walkman series of musicphones and Cybershot series of cameraphones. personal organiser and personal digital assistant functions. GPS navigation. games. ringtones. alarms. memo and document recording. RDS radio receiver. including call registers. instant messaging. memory card reader (SD). PTT.[24] See also: Videophone. the Nokia Nseries of multimedia phones. with autofocus and flash.0) and WiFi connectivity.0). such as the RIM BlackBerry focusing on enterprise/corporate customer email needs. infrared. Several phone series have been introduced to address a given market segment. the concept of the smartphone has evolved. USB (2. There are also smartphones.A Nokia phone with box. Nokia and the University of Cambridge are demonstrating a bendable cell phone called the Morph. Some phones also include a touchscreen. for UMTS-type mobile phones employing simultaneous video and audio . the Palm Pre the HTC Dream and the Apple iPhone. and what was a high-end smartphone five years ago.

4 billion out of 3. gambling.Software and applications A phone with touchscreen feature. The other non-SMS data services used by mobile phones were worth 31 billion dollars in 2007. SMS text messaging was worth over 100 billion dollars in annual revenues in 2007 and the worldwide average of messaging use is 2. when Radiolinja (now Elisa) introduced the .6 SMS sent per day per person across the whole mobile phone subscriber base (source Informa 2007). The first downloadable mobile content was sold to a mobile phone in Finland in 1998. downloadable logos and pictures. while the first person-to-person SMS from phone to phone was sent in Finland in 1993. adult entertainment and advertising (source: Informa 2007). Mobile phone subscribers per 100 inhabitants 1997±2007 The most commonly used data application on mobile phones is SMS text messaging.3 billion total subscribers at the end of 2007). gaming. and were led by mobile music. with 74% of all mobile phone users as active users (over 2. The first SMS text message was sent from a computer to a mobile phone in 1992 in the UK.

Consumer applications are on the rise and include everything from information guides on local activities and events to mobile coupons and discount offers one can use to save money on purchases. In 1999 Japanese mobile operator NTT DoCoMo introduced its mobile internet service. Mobile payments were first trialled in Finland in 1998 when two Coca-Cola vending machines in Espoo were enabled to work with SMS payments. delivered via SMS. including USB. and in selected European markets. was launched in Finland in 2000. In India paying utility bills with mobile gains a 5% discount. cigarette lighters (using an adapter). In 2009. There are a variety of ways used to charge cell phones. Even tools for creating websites for mobile phones are increasingly becoming available. In Kenya the limit of money transfers from one mobile banking account to another is one million US dollars. For example in the Philippines it is not unusual to have one's entire paycheck paid to the mobile account. Mobile telephony also facilitates activism and public journalism being explored by Reuters and Yahoo![25] and small independent news companies such as Jasmine News in Sri Lanka. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Eventually the idea spread and in 1999 the Philippines launched the first commercial mobile payments systems. i-Mode. Some also provide "instant" news pushed out by SMS. portable batteries. The first mobile news service. or a dynamo. Today mobile payments ranging from mobile banking to mobile credit cards to mobile commerce are very widely used in Asia and Africa.[26] Standardization of Micro-USB connector for charging .downloadable ringing tone service. and the first wireless charger was released for consumer use. Power supply This section needs additional citations for verification. Mobile news services are expanding with many organisations providing "on-demand" news services by SMS. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. wireless charging became a reality. In Estonia mobile phones are the most popular method of paying for public parking. Companies are starting to offer mobile services such as job search and career advice. on the mobile operators Globe and Smart. which today is the world's largest mobile internet service and roughly the same size as Google in annual revenues. mains power (using an AC adapter). (September 2009) Mobile phone charging service in Uganda Mobile phones generally obtain power from rechargeable batteries.

when the mobile phone is not connected but the charger has been left plugged in and using power. the GSM Association announced[28] that they had agreed on a standard charger for mobile phones. . on 22 October 2009 the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) announced that it had embraced micro-USB as the Universal Charger Solution its "energy-efficient onecharger-fits-all new mobile phone solution".Starting from 2010. Starting at zero stars for >0. Motorola and Samsung is to be the micro-USB connector (several media reports erroneously reported this as the mini-USB). Having a standard charger for all phones. many mobile phone manufacturers have agreed to use the Micro-USB connector for charging their phones. Sony Ericsson and Motorola set up a star rating system to rate the efficiency of their chargers in the no-load condition. and added: "Based on the Micro-USB interface. means that manufacturers will no longer have to supply a charger with every new phone.03 W (30 mW) no load power. LG Electronics. In addition. The new chargers will be much more efficient than existing chargers. To combat this in November 2008 the top five mobile phone manufacturers Nokia. Samsung. UCS chargers will also include a 4-star or higher efficiency rating ² up to three times more energy-efficient than an unrated charger.5 W and going up to the top five star rating for <0."[29] Charger efficiency The world's five largest handset makers introduced a new rating system in November 2008 to help consumers more easily identify the most energy-efficient chargers The majority of energy lost in a mobile phone charger is in its no load condition. The standard connector to be adopted by 17 manufacturers in the Open Mobile Terminal Platform including Nokia.[27] The mobile phone manufacturers who have agreed to this standard include: y y y y y y y Apple LG Motorola Nokia Research In Motion Samsung Sony Ericsson On 17 February 2009.

When the subscriber removes the SIM Card. the SIM Card is usually placed underneath the battery in the rear of the unit. to function. and (when properly activated) stores the phone's configuration data. once activated. Approximately the size of a small postage stamp. most retailers refuse to accept the return of an activated SIM Card.[30] SIM card This section needs additional citations for verification. For this reason. (September 2009) Main article: Subscriber Identity Module Typical mobile phone SIM card In addition to the battery. Many mobile phone manufacturers have now switched to using lithium-polymer batteries as opposed to the older Lithium-Ion. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. now claim that the five star standard can be achieved with use of their product. the identifier is locked down and the card is permanently locked in to the activating network. such as Power Integrations and CamSemi. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. and information about the phone itself. lithium ion batteries are sometimes used. Mobile phone manufacturers have been experimenting with alternative power sources.A number of semiconductor companies offering flyback controllers. . the main advantages of this being even lower weight and the possibility to make the battery a shape other than strict cuboid. it can be re-inserted into another phone that is configured to accept the SIM card[31] and used as normal. Battery Formerly. as they have a low size and weight. such as which calling plan the subscriber is using. Each SIM Card is activated by use of a unique numerical identifier. including solar cells and Coca Cola. called a Subscriber Identity Module or SIM Card. the most common form of mobile phone batteries were nickel metal-hydride. as they are lighter and do not have the voltage depression that nickel metal-hydride batteries do. GSM mobile phones require a small microchip.

The MSL also ensures that the Service Provider gets payment for the phone that was purchased or "leased".Those cell phones that do not use a SIM Card have the data programmed in to their memory. one can add information such as a new number for the phone. since some customers would cancel their service and take the phone to another carrier. Verizon provide one. the same B-Mobile customer might pay more for local calls but less for international calls than a subscriber to the Jamaican national phone C&W (Cable & Wireless) company. the Service Provider puts a lock on this data called a Master Subsidiary Lock or MSL. The world's largest mobile operator group by subscribers is UK based . such a phone may be available for as little as $200. Most phones purchased outside the US are unlocked phones because there are numerous Service Providers in close proximity to one another or have overlapping coverage. However. to prevent someone from accidentally disabling their phone or removing it from the network. change their Authentication Key or A-Key code. This data is accessed by using a special digit sequence to access the "NAM" as in "Name" or number programming menu. [Needs Pay-As-You-Go references. The phone however. For example. AT&T does not as of 12/2008] Market Mobile phone manufacturers' market share in Q3/2008 The world's largest individual mobile operator is China Mobile with over 500 million mobile phone subcribers. an AT&T subscriber might pay in excess of US$1. This lock may be disabled so that the phone can use other Service Providers SIM cards. rumored T-Mobile. For example. For example. this type of service competition does not exist because some of the major Service Providers do not offer Pay-AsYou-Go services. the Motorola RAZR V9C costs upwards of CAD $500. and update their Preferred Roaming List or PRL. If the carrier did not use an MSL. It can cost sometimes up to 10 times as much to use a locked phone overseas as in the normal service area. new Service Provider numbers. then they may lose the $300±$400 difference that is paid in the monthly bill. even with discounted rates. Some Service Providers focus sales on international sales while others focus on regional sales. is also initially locked by the manufacturer into the Service Providers MSL. In the US. Depending on the carrier. The MSL applies to the SIM only so once the contract has been completed the MSL still applies to the SIM. The cost to unlock a phone varies but is usually very cheap and is sometimes provided by independent phone vendors. new emergency numbers. These rate differences are mainly due to currency variations because SIM purchases are made in the local currency.65 per minute for discounted international service while a B-Mobile (Jamaican) customer would pay US$0. in Jamaica. Having an unlocked phone is extremely useful for travelers due to the high cost of using the MSL Service Providers access when outside the normal coverage areas. From here. T-Mobile will provide a SIM unlock code to account holders in good standing after 90 days according to their FAQ. The difference is paid by the customer in the form of a monthly bill.20 per minute for the same international service.

BenQ-Siemens. Sharp. Audiovox (now UTStarcom). The advent of media on the mobile phone has also produced the opportunity to identify and track Alpha Users or Hubs. (RIM). Sanyo. such as the banner advertisement or the TV news highlight video clip. HTC Corporation.. Sierra Wireless. Philips. and over 150 mobile operators have at least one million subscribers by the end of 2008 (source wireless intelligence).3%). TV and Internet the first six). Matsushita. CECT. There are over 600 mobile operators and carriers in commercial production worldwide.7%). Panasonic. TV content and advertising. Trium. .4%. jokes.5%) and LG Electronics (7. Sagem.3 Billion dollars in 2007 and gaming was worth over 5 billion dollars in 2007. Cinema. and found that audience measures on mobile were nine times more accurate than on the internet and 90 times more accurate than on TV. with a global device market share of 39.. horoscopes." video content that has been produced exclusively for mobile phones. Motorola (8. followed by Samsung (17. Huawei. Research In Motion Ltd. videogames. In mobile phone handsets. Over 50 mobile operators have over 10 million subscribers each. Kyocera. SK Teletech. NEC. Sony Ericsson (8. Most early content for mobile tended to be copies of legacy media. AMF Ventures measured in 2007 the relative accuracy of three mass media. from the ringing tones and ringback tones in music to "mobisodes.[33] The mobile phone is often called the Fourth Screen (if counting cinema. Media The mobile phone became a mass media channel in 1998 when the first ringtones were sold to mobile phones by Radiolinja in Finland. There are also specialist communication systems related to (but distinct from) mobile phones. These manufacturers accounted for over 80% of all mobile phones sold at that time. Siemens. Fujitsu. Toshiba[citation needed] and Vidalco.[weasel words] It is also called the Seventh of the Mass Media (with Print.Vodafone. Nokia was the world's largest manufacturer of mobile phones. the most influential members of any social community. TV and PC screens as the first three) or Third Screen (counting only TV and PC screens). Palm.[32] Other manufacturers include Apple Inc. Mitsubishi Electric. Benefon. T&A Alcatel.. Soon other media content appeared such as news. Recordings. Radio.[original research?] Privacy Cell phones have numerous privacy issues associated with them.6%). Pantech Wireless Inc. Recently unique content for mobile has been emerging. Qualcomm Inc. and are regularly used by governments to perform surveillance. Sendo. In 2006 the total value of mobile phone paid media content exceeded internet paid media content and was worth 31 Billion dollars (source Informa 2007). in Q3/2008. Neonode. The value of music on phones was worth 9.

as officials cannot easily tell which function of the mobile phone is being used simply by visually looking at the driver. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Due to the increasing complexity of mobile phones ±often more like mobile computers in their available uses± it has introduced additional difficulties for law enforcement officials in being able to tell one usage from another as drivers use their devices. such as the U.[36][37] Restriction on usage This section does not cite any references or sources. when in fact they were not. Israel. This is more apparent in those countries who ban both hand-held and hands-free usage. using a technique known multilateration to calculate the differences in time for a signal to travel from the cell phone to each of several cell towers near the owner of the phone. The very first generation of cell-phone users.S. The geographical location of a mobile phone can be determined easily (whether it is being used or not). Use while driving Main article: Mobile phones and driving safety Mobile phone use while driving is common but controversial. Because of this. while the technology is still new. or monitored closely. however. Studies in Europe. are only now entering middle-age. allowing hands-free use. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Other studies link cell-phone use to child-diabetes. instead using the device for a legal . Portugal and Singapore ban both hand-held and hands-free use of a mobile phone whilst many other countries ±including the UK. long-term 'proof' has been impossible . and many US states± ban hand-held phone use only. are only now emerging which link long-term cell phone use to brain tumours. including France.and use should be restricted. and sleep disorders. France. This can mean that drivers may be stopped for using their device illegally on a phone call.based group "Bioinitiative (see www. particularly to young children. restrict the use and sale of cell phones to minors for this reason. . rather those who have banned hand-held use only. claming there is no proof of long-term adverse health effects.Law enforcement and intelligence services in the UK and the US possess technology to remotely activate the microphones in cell phones in order to listen to conversations that take place nearby the person who holds the phone.[34][35] Mobile phones are also commonly used to collect location data. Egypt. for example. (January 2010) There exists a growing body within the scientific community which believes mobile phone use represents a long-term health risk. concentration difficulty. Being distracted while operating a motor vehicle has been shown to increase the risk of accident. The telecommunications insdustry rejects such claims. Certain countries. Japan. for example. many jurisdictions prohibit the use of mobile phones while driving. Groups of scientists.bioinitiative.org) argue that because mobile phone use is recently-introduced technology.

distractions to the students and facilitating gossip and other social activity in school. public restrooms and swimming pools due to the built-in cameras that most phones now feature. These phones may not be mobile. Many mobile phones are banned in school locker room facilities. Professional Mobile Radio Advanced professional mobile radio systems can be very similar to mobile phone systems. Since satellite phones are costly. The handsets connect wirelessly to a base station. these often have more powerful transmitters. Although in many countries the law enforcement official may have stopped the driver for a differing offence. which are not shared. causing threats to the schools security. Notably. such as mountain climbers. and news reporters at disaster sites. that cannot be disabled. A single satellite can provide coverage to a much greater area than terrestrial base stations. Similar attempts have even been made to use TETRA. Schools set restrictions on the use of mobile phones because of the use of cell phones for cheating on tests. which in turn relays calls to a base station or another satellite phone. to implement public mobile networks. for example. They usually connect to the same networks as regular mobile phones. Cordless telephone (portable phone) Cordless phones are telephones which use one or more radio handsets in place of a wired handset. the European digital PMR standard. which in turn connects to a conventional land line for calling. or they may require the assistance of a human operator to set up a PSTN phone call. for example. Unlike mobile phones. they may require a mains power supply. though some countries and manufacturers have taken steps to protect privacy in such areas by giving their products audible 'shutter noises'. cordless phones use private base stations (belonging to the land-line subscriber). for lack of due care and attention in relation to their driving. the IDEN standard has been used as both a private trunked radio system as well as the technology for several large public providers. Schools Some schools limit or restrict the use of mobile phones. an external antenna and loudspeaker for hands free use. Radio phone This is a term which covers radios which could connect into the telephone network.purpose such as the phones' incorporated controls for car stereo or satnav usage ± either as part of the cars' own device or directly on the mobile phone itself. Satellite phone This type of phone communicates directly with an artificial satellite. IP Phone . their use is typically limited to people in remote areas where no mobile phone coverage exists.[citation needed] Comparison to similar systems Car phone A type of telephone permanently mounted in a vehicle. harassment and bullying. mariners in the open sea. Cases like these can often only be proved otherwise by a check of the mobile operators phone call records to see if a call was taking place during the journey concerned.

the majority of these IP Phones tend to be connected via wired Ethernet.This type of phone delivers or receives calls over internet.[38] . some cellular mobile phones include the ability to place VoIP calls over cellular high speed data networks and/or wireless internet. however wireless varieties do exist. Several vendors have developed standalone WiFi phones. In business. Additionally. LAN or WAN networks using VoIP as opposed to traditional CDMA and GSM networks.

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