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PV modelling coursework

PV modelling coursework

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SIMULATION OF A PV MODULE

{USlNG M/IL/8)
{ELEC55ó4 - CCUFSEWCFK)




WRITTEN BY
OLADAPO OpeoIuwa AyokunIe
(200581534)



SUBMITTED TO
Dr. Li ZHANG


SCHOOL OF ELECTRONIC & ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
THE UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS
LEEDS
LS2 9JT




26 October 2010
2

AIMS AND UB)ECTIVES
1he alms of Lhe exerclse lncludeŤ
1o lmprove Lhe undersLandlna of phoLovolLalc (Þv) power module
1o undersLand and descrlbe Lhe meLhods and/or alaorlLhms LhaL are commonlv used Lo
bulld Lhe model of a Þv power module
1o slmulaLe Lhe lŴv characLerlsLlcs and ÞŴv characLerlsLlcs of a Þv module wlLh speclfled
parameLers
1o sLudv Lhe effecLs of varlous parameLers conLalned ln Lhe Þv power module
1o analvze Lhe behavlour of Lhe Þv power module svsLem under dlfferenL aLmospherlc
condlLlons



INCIES UF UEATIUN UF A UTUVUTAIC UWE MUDUE
1he phoLovolLalc (Þv) module converLs solar radlaLlon Lo elecLrlcal enerav dlrecLlvţ wlLhouL anv
processes ln beLween bv explolLlna Lhe advanLaae of Lhe elecLrlcal properLles of doped
semlconducLors pŴn [uncLlon devlces whlch can be Lrlaaered bv llahLŦ
1he baslc sLeps ln Lhe operaLlon of a Þv module areť
1he aeneraLlon and collecLlon of llahLŴaeneraLed carrlers Lo aeneraLe a currenLŤ
1he aeneraLlon of a verv larae volLaae across Lhe Þv moduleŤ and
1he dlsslpaLlon of power ln Lhe load and all assoclaLed reslsLances ln Lhe Þv moduleŦ
Slnce Lhe converslon Lo elecLrlcal enerav lnvolves no movlna parLsţ Lhe Þv module ls advanLaaeous
as verv llLLle malnLenance ls requlredŦ Alsoţ Lhe semlconducLor maLerlals are verv abundanL ln naLure
and renewable sources (especlallv slllcon) and produce no known harmful wasLe producLsŦ ln splLe of
all Lhe ouLllned advanLaaes Lhe mosL slanlflcanL dlsadvanLaae ls Lhe Lvplcal module efflclencv of up
Lo 13Ʒ for commerclal crvsLalllne slllcon Þv modules (alLhouah up Lo 23Ʒ efflclencv has been
recorded ln Lhe laboraLorv)
1
whlch can be aLLrlbuLed Lo semlconducLor maLerlals and varvlna
envlronmenLal condlLlonsŦ
Equival¢nt Circuit mod¢l of a singl¢ pbotovoltaic {V) c¢ll
A Þv module usuallv conslsLs of lndlvldual solar cells elecLrlcallv connecLed (ln parallel Lo lncrease
Lhe currenL and/or serles Lo lncrease volLaae) Lo lncrease Lhelr effecLlve power ouLpuLţ slnce a slnale
solar cell has a volLaae ouLpuL beLween 0Ŧ3v and 0Ŧ7v whlch ls relaLlvelv low for power appllcaLlonsŦ
1he elecLrlcal operaLlon of a Þv cell can be esLlmaLed bv Lhe equlvalenL clrculL shown ln flaure 1Ŧ





llaure 1ť LqulvalenL clrculL model of a slnale phoLovolLalc cell

1
hLLpť//wwwŦleaŴpvpsŦora/pv/maLerlalsŦhLm
l
SC

l
u
l
Sh

8
Þ

8
S
l
8
L

l
SC
Ŷ shorLŴclrculL currenL
l
u
Ŷ dlode dlffuslon currenL
l
Sh
Ŷ shunL currenL (ohmlc losses)
l Ŷ ouLpuL currenL
8
Þ
Ŷ shunL reslsLance
8
S
Ŷ serles reslsLance
8
L
Ŷ load reslsLance



Matb¢matical r¢pr¢s¢ntation of tb¢ V modul¢
1he equaLlons for Lhe operaLlon of Lhe equlvalenL clrculL model shown ln flaure 1 can be derlved as
shown belowť

ulode dlffuslon currenLţ l
u

uslna Lhe Shocklev's dlode equaLlonţ Lhls can be expressed asŤ
I
Ð
= I
S
(exp Ӛ
q(v+IR
S
)
Ak1
C
ӛ -ŵ) ŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴ 1


8everse saLuraLlon currenLţ l
S

1hls ls a facLor of Lhe lnLrlnslc charae carrler concenLraLlon of Lhe semlconducLor and lL ls dlrecLlv
proporLlonaLe Lo LemperaLureŦ 1hls currenL can be descrlbed bv Lhe followlna equaLlonŤ
I
S
= I
0R
Ә
1
C
1
R
ә
3
˥˲p Ӝ
qL
g
kA
Ӛ
1
1
R
-
1
1
C
ӛӝ ŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴ 2


ShorLŴclrculL currenLţ l
SC

1hls ls Lhe currenL measured aL vƹ0 and lL ls dependenL on Lhe lrradlance and cell LemperaLure as
shown ln Lhe equaLlon belowŤ
I
SC
= {I
SCR

ì

C

R
)]˙ ŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴ



1hereforeţ Lhe currenLţ l (l ƹ l
SC
Ŷ l
u
Ŷ l
Sh
) for a slnale Þv cell can be expressed asŤ
I = I
SC
- I
S
ӘexpӚ
q(v+IR
S
)
Ak1
C
ӛ -ŵә -
(v+IR
S
)
R
P
ŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴ
lor a Þv arrav wlLh np cells ln parallel and ns cells ln serlesţ equaLlon ls derlved Lo be a nonŴllnear
and lmpllclL equaLlon (equaLlon 3)Ŧ
I Әŵ +
R
sT
R
sHT
ә = n
P
I
SC
- n
P
I
S
|exp|
q|
v
n
S
+IR
sT
1
Ak1
C
| - ŵ· -
|
v
n
S
1
R
sHT
ŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴ3

l
S
Ŷ 8everse SaLuraLlon CurrenL (A) k Ŷ 8olLzmann's consLanL (!/k)
v Ŷ CuLpuL volLaae (v) A Ŷ !uncLlon ÞerfecLlon lacLor
q Ŷ Charae of one elecLron (Coulombs) 1
C
Ŷ Cell 1emperaLure (k)

l
C8
Ŷ 8everse SaLuraLlon currenL (A) aL reference LemperaLureţ 1
8

L
a
Ŷ 8and aap enerav (ev) 1
8
Ŷ 8eference LemperaLure (k)
1
C
ţ qţ k and A are as deflned ln equaLlon 1
l
SC8 ƹ
ShorLŴclrculL currenL aeneraLed aL reference LemperaLureţ 1
8


k
l
ƹ 1emperaLure coefflclenL of Lhe shorLŴclrculL currenL
C ƹ lrradlance (kW/m
2
)
1
C
and 1
8
are as deflned ln equaLlon 1
˞
sH1
=
n
P
n
S
× ˞
P
(LoLal shunL reslsLance)Ť ˞
s1
=
n
S
n
P
× ˞
S
(LoLal serles reslsLance)
3

METUD UF SUVINC NUN-INEA EQUATIUN
1he maLhemaLlcal represenLaLlon of Lhe Þv arrav derlved ln equaLlon 3 can be reŴarranaed Lo alveŤ
˦(I) = I Әŵ +
R
sT
R
sHT
ә - n
P
I
SC
- n
P
I
S
|exp|
q|
v
n
S
+IR
sT
1
Ak1
C
| - ŵ· -
|
v
n
S
1
R
sHT
ŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴ6
1he above ls a nonŴllnearţ lmpllclL equaLlon whlch has Lo be solved numerlcallv uslna a rooLŴflndlna
alaorlLhm bv equaLlna f(l) Lo zero lŦeŦ f(l) ƹ 0Ŧ 1he rooLŴflndlna alaorlLhm used for Lhls exerclse ls Lhe
newLonŴ8aphson meLhod for solvlna numerlcal equaLlonŦ
Þrlnclple of newLonŴ8aphson approxlmaLlon alaorlLhm
1hls prlnclple ls based on an lnlLlal auess of Lhe rooL of f(l) ƹ 0 aL l
l
ţ Lhen a beLLer auess ls alven aL l
l+1

deflned asŤ
I
I+1
= I -
I(I)
I
|
(I)

1he relaLlve approxlmaLe errorţ L
r
ls calculaLed and compared Lo Lhe preŴdeflned error Loleranceţ L
a

(expressed as a percenLaae of Lhe deslred rooL) and Lhe lLeraLlve process of flndlna Lhe rooL
saLlsfvlna f(l) ƹ 0 ls CnL? sLopped when Lhe L
r
ƹ L
a
Ŧ







llaure 2ť Craphlcal lllusLraLlon of Lhe newLonŴ8aphson meLhod


where f'(l) ls Lhe aradlenL of Lhe
funcLlon f(l) aL Lhe polnL l
l
n l
n+1
(l
n
ţ f(l
n
))
LanaenL

L
r
ƹ STs Ә
I
¡+1
- I
¡
I
¡+1
ә - ŵŴŴ
ln percenLaae
6

UCAM ISTINC FU TE SIMUATIUN UF A V MUDUE
ILCWCnAk1
Start
Set V=0
Ìnitialize Ì as Ìsc
Acquiring all information about PV and
computing any model parameters
While
Ì>0
Evaluate f(Ì), f'(Ì) and Ìnew
if
abs(Ìnew)>Ea Ì=Ìnew
Ìresult=Ìnew
Vresult=V
Ìncrement V
and
iteration count
if
Ìresult==0
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Plot P-V and Ì-V curves
Stop


7

,A1LA8 CCDL
%This program simulates the I-V and P-V characteristics of a PV module
%NJTE: This code should not be reproduced without the permission of the
%code owner: JLADAPJ Jpeoluwa Ayokunle

% All the given data is defined
A=1.72; %Ideality factor
q=1.6e-19; %Electron charge in Coulombs
K=1.380658e-23; %Boltzmann constant in Joules/Kelvin
Eg=1.1; %Band gap energy in eV
Ior=19.9693e-6; %Reverse saturation current at reference temperature in
Amperes
Iscr=3.3; %Short-circuit current at reference temperature in Amperes
Ki=1.7e-3; %Temperature coefficient of the short-circuit current
Ns=40; %Number of cells in series
Np=2; %Number of cells in parallel
Rs=5e-5; %Series resistance in Jhms
Rp=5e5; %Parallel resistance in Jhms
Tr=301.18; %Reference temperature in Kelvin

%To request user input for the ambient temperature and the irradiance level
G = input ('Enter Irradiance (G) in KW/m2: ');
Ta = input ('Enter ambient temperature (Ta) in degree Celsius (oC): ');

%This segment of the program calculates all parameters needed in
calculating f(I) and f'(I)
Ta=Ta+273; %To calculate ambient temperature in Kelvin
RsT=(Ns/Np)·Rs; %To calculate the total series resistance
RshT=(Np/Ns)·Rp; %To calculate the total parallel resistance
Tc=Ta+(0.2·G); %To calculate the cell temperature in Kelvin
Is=(Ior.·((Tc/Tr).^3))·(exp(((q·Eg)/(K·A))·((1/Tr)-(1/Tc)))); %To
calculate the diode reverse saturation current in Amperes
Isc=(Iscr+(Ki·(Tc-Tr)))·(G); %To calculate the short-circuit current in
Amperes

%This segment calculates an element in f(I)and f'(I) to reduce the program
execution time
Kd=(q/(A·K·Tc));
%This segment of the program initializes the current, voltage, relative
error tolerance and the maximum number of iterations
I=Isc; %Initializes I as Isc
V=0; %Initializes V as zero
Ea=0.0005; %Initializes the error tolerance as 0.5 percent (i.e. 0.5%)
Ni=0; %Defines Ni as number of iterations and initializes it as zero
Vi=0.001; %Defines the voltage increment in steps of 0.01
Er=1000; %Initializes the relative approximate error for newton-raphson
loop (second loop) to start
Ipv=Isc·Np; %Initializing the array for storing the values of calculated I
Vpv=V; %Initializing the array for storing the values of calculated V

%The first loop iteratively generates the value of V corresponding to a
value of I
%Since the interesting values of I are positive integers including zero, a
while loop is used
while (I0)
%The second/inner loop for Newton-Raphson method of evaluating the
value of I
while (abs(Er)Ea)
Ni=Ni+1;


%The function f(I), its derivative f'(I) and the relative
approximate error are defined here
fI=(I·(1+(RsT/RshT)))-(Isc·Np)+((Is·Np)·(exp(Kd·((V/Ns)+(I·RsT)))-
1))+((V/Ns)/RshT);
fprimeI=(1+(RsT/RshT)+((Is·Np)·(Kd·RsT)·exp(Kd·(V/Ns)+(I·RsT))));
Inew=I-(fI/fprimeI);
Er=((Inew-I)/Inew)·100;
I=Inew;
if (I<0) %This helps to avoid calculating negative values
of I and P
I=0;
break;
end;
if (Ni==200000) %This is the limit on the number of iterations
possible
break;
end;
end; %This marks the end of the Newton-Raphson iteration loop
(second/inner loop)

Ipv=¯Ipv,I`; %To store the value of I in the Ipv array
Er=1000; %Reset the relative approximate error for subsequent
running of second loop
if (I==0)
Vpv=¯Vpv,V`; %To store the value of V in the Vpv array
break;
else
Vpv=¯Vpv,V`; %To store the value of V in the Vpv array
V=V+Vi;
end;
end; %This marks the end of the first loop for generating values of V

%This segment plots the graph for the P-V and I-V curves
figure(1), plot(Vpv,Ipv);
grid on;
title('I-V Characteristics of a PV array');
xlabel('V - Voltage in Volts');
ylabel('I - Current in Amperes');

figure(2), plot(Vpv,Ipv.·Vpv);
grid on;
title('P-V Characteristics of a PV array');
xlabel('V - Voltage in Volts');
ylabel('P - Power in Watts');




ESUTS AND DISCUSSIUN
1he efflclencv of a Þv module ls measured under sLandard condlLlons sLaLed belowŤ
C ƹ 1kW/m
2
Ŵ lrradlance
AM ƹ 1Ŧ3 Ŵ SpecLral dlsLrlbuLlon
1
C
ƹ 23
o
C Ŵ Cell LemperaLure

1husţ Lhe lŴv and Þv characLerlsLlcs of Lhe slmulaLed Þv module wlLh Lhe alven speclflcaLlons under
sLandard condlLlons ls shown below wlLh Lhe shorLŴclrculL currenL (l
SC
)ţ openŴclrculL volLaae (v
CC

maxlmum power polnL (MÞÞ)ţ volLaae aL maxlmum power polnL (v
MÞÞ
) and currenL aL maxlmum
power polnL (l
MÞÞ


llaure ť lŴv and Þv characLerlsLlcs (Cƹ1kW/m
2
ţ 1
a
ƹ23
o
C)

lrom Lhe above ploLsţ l
SC
ƹ6Ŧ3Aţ v
CC
ƹ21Ŧ76vţ MÞÞƹ10Ŧ3Wţ l
MÞÞ
ƹ3ŦAţ v
MÞÞ
ƹ17Ŧ3vŦ
Lffect of temperature on IŴV and ÞŴV curves
1o show Lhe effecL of LemperaLureţ Lhree ploLs aL Cƹ0ŦkW/m
2
ţ 1aƹ16
o
Cţ 6
o
C and 36
o
C ls slmulaLedŦ
1he effecL of lncreaslna Lhe LemperaLure ls seen bv comparlna Lhe values from flaure ţ 3 and 6 asŤ
O 1he shorLŴclrculL currenL (l
SC
) (Lhus Lhe currenL) s||ght|y |ncreasesŦ
O 1he openŴclrculL volLaae (v
CC
) (Lhus Lhe volLaae) s|gn|f|cant|y decreases accordlna Lo Lhe
equaLlonŦ
ˤˢ

ˤˠ
= -Ŷ.ŷ × ˚

˭ˢÈȐ
0 5 10 15 20 25
0
1
2
3
1
5
ê
Z
X: 1Z.15
Y : 5.93
l-\ Cra(ac le(|s l| c s ol a P\ a((av
\ - \o| lade |r \o|l s
l

-

C
u
(
(
e
r
l

|
r

A
r
p
e
(
e
s
X: 0
Y : ê.59
X: 21.Zê
Y : 0
0 5 10 15 20 25
0
20
10
ê0
80
100
120
X: 1Z.15
Y : 103.5
P-\ Cra(acl e(| sl | cs ol a P\ a((av
\ - \ o| l ade | r \o| ls
P

-

P
o
W
e
(

|r

w
a
l
l
s
10

O 1he maxlmum power polnL (MÞÞ) s|gn|f|cant|y decreases (as power ls Lhe producL of volLaae
and currenL) as Lhe currenL chanae ls lnslanlflcanL compared Lo Lhe volLaae chanaeŦ

llaure ť lŴv and Þv characLerlsLlcs (Cƹ0ŦkW/m
2
ţ 1
a
ƹ16
o
C)

lrom Lhe above ploLsţ l
SC
ƹ3Ŧ27Aţ v
CC
ƹ22Ŧ0vţ MÞÞƹ3Ŧ3Wţ l
MÞÞ
ƹŦ76Aţ v
MÞÞ
ƹ17Ŧ0vŦ

llaure 3ť lŴv and Þv characLerlsLlcs (Cƹ0ŦkW/m
2
ţ 1
a
ƹ6
o
C)

lrom Lhe above ploLsţ l
SC
ƹ3Ŧ02Aţ v
CC
ƹ20Ŧvţ MÞÞƹ73ŦWţ l
MÞÞ
ƹŦ7Aţ v
MÞÞ
ƹ16Ŧ06vŦ
0 5 10 15 20 25
0
1
2
3
1
5
ê
l-\ Cra(ac le(| sl | cs ol a P \ a((av
\ - \o| l ade | r \ o| l s
l

-

C
u
(
(
e
r
l

|
r

A
r
p
e
(
e
s
0 5 10 15 20 25
0
10
20
30
10
50
ê0
Z0
80
90
P-\ Cra(ac l e(|s l |c s ol a P\ a((av
\ - \o|l ade | r \o| l s
P

-

P
o
W
e
(

|r

w
a
l
l
s
0 5 10 15 20 25
0
1
2
3
1
5
ê
l-\ Cra(ac le(|s l | cs ol a P\ a((av
\ - \o| l ade | r \ o| l s
l

-

C
u
(
(
e
r
l

|
r

A
r
p
e
(
e
s
0 5 10 15 20 25
0
10
20
30
10
50
ê0
Z0
80
P-\ Cra(acl e(|s l| cs ol a P\ a((av
\ - \o| l ade | r \o| ls
P

-

P
o
W
e
(

|r

w
a
l
l
s
11


llaure 6ť lŴv and Þv characLerlsLlcs (Cƹ0ŦkW/m
2
ţ 1
a
ƹ36
o
C)

lrom Lhe above ploLsţ l
SC
ƹ3Ŧ36Aţ v
CC
ƹ1Ŧ6vţ MÞÞƹ66Ŧ61Wţ l
MÞÞ
ƹŦ673Aţ v
MÞÞ
ƹ1Ŧ23vŦ
Lffect of |rrad|ance on IŴV and ÞŴV curves
1o show Lhe effecL of lrradlanceţ Lhree ploLs aL Cƹ1kW/m
2
ţ 0ŦkW/m
2
ţ 0Ŧ3kW/m
2
and

1aƹ0
o
C ls
slmulaLedŦ

llaure 7ť lŴv and Þv characLerlsLlcs (Cƹ0Ŧ3kW/m
2
ţ 1
a
ƹ0
o
C)

0 5 10 15 20
0
1
2
3
1
5
ê
l-\ Cra(ac l e(| s l| c s ol a P \ a((av
\ - \o| l ade |r \o| l s
l

-

C
u
(
(
e
r
l

|
r

A
r
p
e
(
e
s
0 5 10 15 20
0
10
20
30
10
50
ê0
Z0
P-\ Cra(ac le(| s l| c s ol a P\ a((av
\ - \o|l ade |r \o| ls
P

-

P
o
W
e
(

|r

w
a
l
l
s
0 5 10 15 20 25
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
l-\ Cra(ac le(| sl | cs ol a P \ a((av
\ - \o| l ade | r \ o| l s
l

-

C
u
(
(
e
r
l

|
r

A
r
p
e
(
e
s
0 5 10 15 20 25
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
10
15
50
P-\ Cra(acle(| sl |c s ol a P\ a((av
\ - \o| lade |r \o| l s
P

-

P
o
W
e
(

|r

w
a
l
l
s
12

lrom Lhe ploLs ln flaure 7ţ l
SC
ƹŦ0Aţ v
CC
ƹ20Ŧ06vţ MÞÞƹ6Ŧ7Wţ l
MÞÞ
ƹ2Ŧ3Aţ v
MÞÞ
ƹ13Ŧ1vŦ

llaure ť lŴv and Þv characLerlsLlcs (Cƹ0ŦkW/m
2
ţ 1
a
ƹ0
o
C)

lrom Lhe above ploLsţ l
SC
ƹ3Ŧ23Aţ v
CC
ƹ20Ŧvţ MÞÞƹ7ŦWţ l
MÞÞ
ƹŦ72Aţ v
MÞÞ
ƹ16Ŧ62vŦ

llaure ť lŴv and Þv characLerlsLlcs (Cƹ1Ŧ0kW/m
2
ţ 1
a
ƹ0
o
C)

lrom Lhe above ploLsţ l
SC
ƹ6Ŧ607Aţ v
CC
ƹ21Ŧvţ MÞÞƹ100Ŧ6Wţ l
MÞÞ
ƹ3Ŧ1Aţ v
MÞÞ
ƹ17Ŧ01vŦ
0 5 10 15 20 25
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1he effecL of lncreaslna Lhe lrradlance ls seen bv comparlna Lhe values from flaure 7ţ and asŤ
O 1here ls a s||ght |ncrease ln Lhe openŴclrculL volLaae (v
CC
) and Lhus Lhe volLaaeŦ
O 1he shorLŴclrculL currenL (l
SC
) (Lhus Lhe currenL) |ncreases s|gn|f|cant|y accordlna Lo Lhe
equaLlon
I
SC
= I
SC
oˮ ŵ |
˫˱
˭

1 × ˙ |
˫˱
˭

1
O 1he maxlmum power polnL (MÞÞ) s|gn|f|cant|y |ncreases (as power ls Lhe producL of volLaae
and currenL)Ŧ


1

CUNCUSIUN
1he meLhod deploved ln solvlna Lhe maLhemaLlcal model of Lhe Þv module ls Lhe newLonŴ8aphson
approxlmaLlon alaorlLhm whlch flnds Lhe rooL(s) of Lhe nonŴllnearţ lmpllclL funcLlon aeneraLed bv Lhe
maLhemaLlcal model of Lhe Þv moduleŦ 1he newLonŴ8aphson approxlmaLlon alaorlLhm was used
because lL has one of Lhe fasLesL converaence raLes Lo Lhe rooL and Lhe funcLlon Lo be lLeraLlvelv
solved has one mlnlmum rooLŦ AlLhouahţ lL also has obvlous dlsadvanLaaes sLaLed as followsŤ
O 1he lnlLlal auess has Lo be close enouah Lo Lhe rooL of Lhe equaLlon else Lhe soluLlon mav noL
converae or mav produce lnvalld resulLsŦ
O 1he funcLlon and Lhe derlvaLlve of Lhe funcLlon have Lo be evaluaLed whlch mlahL be qulLe
LlmeŴconsumlna for laraer svsLemsŦ
1he error Lolerance and Lhe volLaae lncremenL deLermlne Lhe accuracv of resulLs buL Lhe
compromlse ls aL Lhe expense of proaram execuLlon LlmeŦ 1he smaller Lhe error Lolerance and Lhe
volLaae lncremenLţ Lhe areaLer Lhe proaram execuLlon LlmeŦ lor appllcaLlon ln Lhe Lracklna of
maxlmum power polnLţ svsLems wlLh fasLer response are emploved Lo cope wlLh rapldlv chanalna
envlronmenLal condlLlons Lhus lower proaram execuLlon Llme ls deslrableŦ 1he proaram above uses
error Lolerance of 0Ŧ03Ʒ (0Ŧ0003) and volLaae lncremenL of 0Ŧ001 wlLh an approxlmaLe proaram
execuLlon Llme of 2Ŧ06 secondsŦ
1he modelled svsLem wlLh Lhe alven parameLers produces maxlmum power of 10Ŧ3WaLLs under
sLandard condlLlons of lrradlance 1kW/m
2
ţ specLral alr mass AM 1Ŧ3 and cell LemperaLure 23ȐŦ Alsoţ
lncreaslna lrradlance aL consLanL amblenL LemperaLure lncreases Lhe maxlmum power ouLpuL of Lhe
Þv module whlle lncreaslna Lhe amblenL LemperaLure aL consLanL lrradlance decreases Lhe
maxlmum power ouLpuL of Lhe Þv moduleŦ 1hereforeţ lL ls mosL deslrable Lo operaLe Þv modules aL
hlah lrradlance wlLh Lhe amblenL LemperaLure aL Lhe lowesL valueŦ

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