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Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.
com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 1 of 22
MODERN PHYSICS FOR ENGINEERS PHY355
INDEX
3D infinite potential box .13
allowed transitions
1electron atoms..........16
manyelectron atoms ...17
Angstrom........................21
angular frequency............10
appendix.........................21
atomic mass ..................... 2
average momentum.........11
Avogadro's number....18, 21
binding energy ................. 5
binomial expansion .........21
blackbody......................... 6
Bohr magneton................21
Bohr model ...................... 8
Bohr radius ...................... 7
Boltzmann constant .........21
BoseEinstein distribution19
boson ..............................19
Bragg's law...................... 9
bremsstrahlung................. 6
classical physics ............... 1
classical wave equation ...10
Compton effect................. 7
conservation laws............. 1
constants.........................21
coordinate systems ..........22
coordinate transformations22
de Broglie wavelength.....10
degenerate energy levels..13
density of energy states ...19
density of occupied states 20
doppler effect ................... 5
DuaneHunt rule .............. 6
electron
acceleration.................. 8
angular momentum...... 7
filling..........................16
orbit radius .................. 8
scattering..................... 9
velocity........................ 8
energy
binding ........................ 5
density of states ..........19
Fermi..........................19
kinetic ......................... 5
relation to momentum.. 5
relativistic kinetic ........ 5
rest .............................. 5
splitting .......... 16, 17, 18
states ..........................19
total ............................. 5
zeropoint ...................12
energy distribution ..........18
expectation value ............11
radial ..........................15
Fermi energy...................19
Fermi speed ....................19
Fermi temperature...........19
FermiDirac distribution..19
fermion ...........................19
frequency
angular .......................10
fundamental forces........... 2
geometry.........................22
Greek alphabet................21
group velocity .................10
harmonic motion .............12
Heisenberg limit .............12
Heisenberg uncertainty
principle .....................12
Hermite functions............12
impact parameter ............. 7
infinite square well .........12
intensity of light ............... 6
inverse photoelectric effect6
kinetic energy2, 5, 9, 12, 13
Landé factor ....................17
lattice planes.................... 9
laws of thermodynamics ... 2
length contraction............. 3
light wavefront................. 3
lightlike ........................... 4
line spectra ...................... 5
Lorentz force law............. 2
Lorentz transformation ..... 3
magnetic moment ............16
Maxwell speed distribution
...................................18
Maxwell’s equations ........ 2
MaxwellBoltzmann factor18
mean speed .....................18
MichelsonMorley
experiment................... 3
minimum angle ...............17
molecular speeds.............18
momentum....................... 4
relativistic.................... 4
momentum operator ........11
momentumenergy relation5
momentumtemperature
relation ........................ 9
Moseley's equation ........... 9
most probable speed........18
Newton’s laws ................. 2
normalization ..................11
normalization constant ....14
normalizing functions......14
orbital angular momentum15
order of electron filling....16
particle in a box ........12, 13
phase constant.................10
phase space.................2, 19
phase velocity .................10
photoelectric effect ........... 6
photon.............................. 6
momentum................... 4
Planck's constant .............21
Planck's radiation law....... 6
positron............................ 6
potential barrier ..............13
probability ......................11
radial ..........................15
probability density
radial ..........................15
probability of location .....11
proper length.................... 3
proper time ...................... 3
quantum numbers............15
radial acceleration............ 8
radial probability.............15
radial probability density.15
radial wave functions ......14
radiation power ................ 6
relativity .......................... 3
rest energy ....................... 5
root mean square speed ...18
Rutherform scattering....... 8
Rydberg constant.........9, 21
scattering ......................7, 8
electron........................ 9
headon........................ 7
xray............................ 9
Schrödinger wave equation
.............................11, 12
3D rectangular coord...13
3D spherical coord. .....14
simple harmonic motion ..12
spacelike.......................... 4
spacetime diagram........... 4
spacetime distance ........... 3
spacetime interval ............ 4
spectral lines.................... 9
spectroscopic symbols .....16
speed of light ................... 3
spherical coordinates.......22
spin angular momentum..16
spinorbit splitting...........17
splitting due to spin.........17
spring harmonics.............12
statistical physics ............18
StefanBoltzman law........ 6
temperature
Fermi..........................19
temperature and momentum9
thermodynamics ............... 2
time dilation..................... 3
timelike ........................... 4
total angular momentum..16
total energy...................... 5
trig identities...................22
tunneling.........................13
uncertainty of waves........10
uncertainty principle .......12
units................................21
velocity addition............... 3
wave functions ................10
wave number.............10, 11
wave uncertainties...........10
wavelength..................3, 10
spectrum.....................21
waves
envelope .....................10
sum.............................10
Wien's constant ................ 6
work function................... 6
xray
Lalpha waves.............. 9
scattering..................... 9
Young's double slit
experiment................... 5
Zeeman splitting .......16, 18
zeropoint energy.............12
CLASSICAL PHYSICS
CLASSICAL CONSERVATION LAWS
Conservation of Energy: The total sum of energy (in
all its forms) is conserved in all interactions.
Conservation of Linear Momentum: In the absence
of external force, linear momentum is conserved in
all interactions (vector relation). naustalgic
Conservation of Angular Momentum: In the absence
of external torque, angular momentum is conserved
in all interactions (vector relation).
Conservation of Charge: Electric charge is conserved
in all interactions.
Conservation of Mass: (not valid)
Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 2 of 22
MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS
Gauss’s law for electricity
0
q
d ·
ε
∫
E A g
Ñ
Gauss’s law for
magnetism
0 d ·
∫
B A g
Ñ
Faraday’s law
B
d
d
dt
Φ
· −
∫
E s g
Ñ
Generalized Ampere’s law
0 0 0
E
d
d I
dt
Φ
· µ ε + µ
∫
B s g
Ñ
LORENTZ FORCE LAW
Lorentz force law: q q · + × F E v B
NEWTON’S LAWS
Newton’s first law: Law of Inertia An object in motion
with a constant velocity will continue in motion unless
acted upon by some net external force.
Newton’s second law: The acceleration a of a body is
proportional to the net external force F and inversely
proportional to the mass m of the body. F = ma
Newton’s third law: law of action and reaction The
force exerted by body 1 on body 2 is equal and
opposite to the force that body 2 exerts on body 1.
LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS
First law of thermodynamics: The change in the
internal energy ∆U of a system is equal to the heat Q
added to the system minus the work W done by the
system.
Second law of thermodynamics: It is not possible to
convert heat completely into work without some other
change taking place.
Third law of thermodynamics: It is not possible to
achieve an absolute zero temperature.
Zeroth law of thermodynamics: If two thermal
systems are in thermodynamic equilibrium with a
third system, they are in equilibrium with each other.
FUNDAMENTAL FORCES
FORCE
RELATIVE
STRENGTH
RANGE
Strong 1 Short, ~10
15
m
Electroweak
Electromagnetic 10
2
Long, 1/r
2
Weak 10
9
Short, ~10
15
m
Gravitational 10
39
Long, 1/r
2
ATOMIC MASS
The mass of an atom is it's
atomic number divided by the
product of 1000 times
Avogadro's number.
atomic number
1000
a
N ×
KINETIC ENERGY
The kinetic energy of a particle (ideal
gas) in equilibrium with its
surroundings is:
3
2
kT
K ·
PHASE SPACE
A sixdimensional pseudospace populated by
particles described by six position and velocity
parameters:
position: (x, y, z) velocity: (v
x
, v
y
, v
z
)
Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 3 of 22
RELATIVITY
WAVELENGTH λ λ
0 0
1
c · · λν
µ ε
1Å = 10
10
m
c = speed of light 2.998 × 10
8
m/s
λ = wavelength [m]
ν = (nu) radiation frequency [Hz]
Å = (angstrom) unit of wavelength
equal to 10
10
m
m = (meters)
MichelsonMorley Experiment indicated that light was
not influenced by the “flow of ether”.
LORENTZ TRANSFORMATION
Compares position and time in two coordinate
systems moving with respect to each other along axis
x.
2 2
1 /
x vt
x
v c
−
′ ·
−
2
2 2
/
1 /
t vx c
t
v c
−
′ ·
−
v = velocity of (x’,y’,z’) system along the xaxis. [m/s]
t = time [s]
c = speed of light 2.998 × 10
8
m/s
or with
v
c
β · and
2 2
1
1 / v c
γ ·
−
so that ( ) x x vt ′ · γ − and ( ) / t t x c ′ · γ −β
LIGHT WAVEFRONT
Position of the wavefront of a light source located at
the origin, also called the spacetime distance.
2 2 2 2 2
x y z c t + + ·
Proper time T
0
The elapsed time between two events
occurring at the same position in a system as
recorded by a stationary clock in the system (shorter
duration than other times). Objects moving at high
speed age less.
Proper length L
0
a length that is not moving with
respect to the observer. The proper length is longer
than the length as observed outside the system.
Objects moving at high speed become longer in the
direction of motion.
TIME DILATION
Given two systems moving at great speed relative to
each other; the time interval between two events
occurring at the same location as measured within the
same system is the proper time and is shorter than
the time interval as measured outside the system.
0
2 2
1 /
T
T
v c
′
·
−
or
0
2 2
1 /
T
T
v c
′ ·
−
where:
T’
0
, T
0
= the proper time (shorter). [s]
T, T’ = time measured in the other system [m]
v = velocity of (x’,y’,z’) system along the xaxis. [m/s]
c = speed of light 2.998 × 10
8
m/s
LENGTH CONTRACTION
Given an object moving with great speed, the
distance traveled as seen by a stationary observer is
L
0
and the distance seen by the object is L', which is
contracted.
0
2 2
1 /
L
L
v c
′
·
−
where:
L
0
= the proper length (longer). [m]
L' = contracted length [m]
v = velocity of (x’,y’,z’) system along the xaxis. [m/s]
c = speed of light 2.998 × 10
8
m/s
RELATIVISTIC VELOCITY ADDITION
Where frame K' moves along the xaxis of K with
velocity v, and an object moves along the xaxis with
velocity u
x
' with respect of K', the velocity of the
object with respect to K is u
x
.
K
K'
v
u'
( )
2
1 /
x
x
x
u v
u
v c u
′ +
·
′ +
If there is u
y
' or u
z
' within the K' frame then
( )
2
1 /
y
y
x
u
u
v c u
′
·
] ′ γ −
]
and
( )
2
1 /
z
z
x
u
u
v c u
′
·
] ′ γ −
]
u
x
= velocity of an object in the x direction [m/s]
v = velocity of (x’,y’,z’) system along the xaxis. [m/s]
c = speed of light 2.998 × 10
8
m/s
γ =
2 2
1/ 1 / v c −
For the situation where the velocity u with respect to the K
frame is known, the relation may be rewritten exchanging
the primes and changing the sign of v.
Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 4 of 22
SPACETIME DIAGRAM
The diagram is a means of representing events in two
systems. The horizontal x axis represents distance in the K
system and the vertical ct axis represents time multiplied by
the speed of light so that it is in units of distance as well. A
point on the diagram represents an event in terms of its
location in the x direction and the time it takes place. So
points that are equidistant from the x axis represent
simultaneous events.
x
β
ct
c
= 0.25
Worldline
slope =
ct'
v c = 0.25
v
c
β
=
1
x'
slope =
c
=
v
= 4
v
=
A system K’ traveling in the x direction at ¼the speed of
light is represented by the line ct’ in this example, and is
called a worldline. The line represents travel from one
location to another over a period of time. The slope of the
line is proportional to the velocity. A line with a slope of 1
(dashed line in illustration) indicates travel at the speed of
light, so no worldline can have a slope less than 1. A
straight line indicates zero acceleration. Simultaneous
events occurring at t = t’ = 0 in the K’ system may be
represented by points along the x’ axis. Other
simultaneous events in the K’ system will be found on lines
parallel to the x’ axis.
SPACETIME INTERVAL ∆ ∆s
The quantity ∆s
2
is invariant between two frames of
reference with relative movement along the xaxis.
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 2
s x ct x ct ′ ′ · − · −
Two events occurring at different times and locations
in the Kframe may be characterized by their ∆s
2
quantity.
( )
2
2 2
s x c t ∆ · ∆ − ∆
lightlike  ∆ ∆s
2
= 0: In this case, ∆x
2
= c
2
∆t
2
, and the two
events can only be connected by a light signal.
spacelike  ∆ ∆s
2
> 0: In this case, ∆x
2
> c
2
∆t
2
, and there
exists a K'frame in which the two events occur
simultaneously but at different locations.
timelike  ∆ ∆s
2
< 0: In this case, ∆x
2
< c
2
∆t
2
, and there
exists a K'frame in which the two events occur at the
same position but at different times. Events can be
causally connected.
MOMENTUM p
m · p v for a photon:
h
c
ν
· p
p = momentum [kgm/s], convertible to [eV/c] by multiplying
by c/q.
m = mass of the object in motion [kg]
v = velocity of object [m/s]
ν = (nu) the frequency of photon light [Hz]
c = speed of light 2.998 × 10
8
m/s
RELATIVISTIC MOMENTUM p
m · γ p u where:
p = relativistic momentum [kgm/s], convertible to [eV/c] by
multiplying by c/q.
γ =
2 2
1/ 1 / u c −
m = mass [kg]
u = velocity of object [m/s]
Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 5 of 22
DOPPLER EFFECT
Given two systems approaching each other at velocity
v, light emitted by one system at frequency ν
0
(nu,
proper) will be perceived at the higher frequency of ν
(nu) in the other system.
0
1
1
+β
ν · ν
−β
For two systems receeding from
each other, reverse the signs.
ν = (nu) the frequency of emitted light as perceived in the
other system [Hz]
ν
0
= (nu) the proper frequency of the emitted light (lower
for approaching systems) [Hz]. Frequency is related
to wavelength by c = λν.
β = v/c where v is the closing velocity of the systems (Use a
negative number for diverging systems.) and c is the
speed of light 2.998 × 10
8
m/s
v = velocity of (x’,y’,z’) system along the xaxis. [m/s]
RELATIVISTIC KINETIC ENERGY K
Relativistic kinetic energy is the total energy minus
the rest energy. When the textbook speaks of a 50
Mev particle, it is talking about the particle's kinetic
energy.
2 2
K mc mc · γ − where:
K = relativistic kinetic energy [J], convertible to [eV] by
dividing by q.
γ =
2 2
1/ 1 / v c −
m = mass [kg]
c = speed of light 2.998 × 10
8
m/s
REST ENERGY E
0
Rest energy is the energy an object has due to its
mass.
2
0
E mc ·
TOTAL ENERGY E
Total energy is the kinetic energy plus the rest
energy. When the textbook speaks of a 50 Mev
particle, it is talking about the particle's kinetic
energy.
0
E K E · + or
2
E mc · γ where:
E = total energy [J], convertible to [eV] by dividing by q.
K = kinetic energy [J], convertible to [eV] by dividing by q.
E
0
= rest energy [J], convertible to [eV] by dividing by q.
γ =
2 2
1/ 1 / v c −
m = mass [kg]
c = speed of light 2.998 × 10
8
m/s
MOMENTUMENERGY RELATION
(energy)
2
= (kinetic energy)
2
+ (rest energy)
2
2 2 2 2 4
E p c m c · +
where:
E = total energy (Kinetic + Rest energies) [J]
p = momentum [kgm/s]
m = mass [kg]
c = speed of light 2.998 × 10
8
m/s
BINDING ENERGY
• the potential energy associated with holding a system
together, such as the coulomb force between a hydrogen
proton and its electron
• the difference between the rest energies of the individual
particles of a system and the rest energy of a the bound
system
• the work required to pull particles out of a bound system
into free particles at rest.
2 2
bound system B i
i
E mc M c · −
∑
for hydrogen and singleelectron ions, the binding
energy of the electron in the ground state is
( )
2 4
2
2
0
2 4
B
mZ e
E ·
πε h
E
B
= binding energy (can be negative or positive) [J]
m = mass [kg]
Z = atomic number of the element
e = q = electron charge [c]
h = Planck's constant divided by 2π [Js]
ε
0
= permittivity of free space 8.85 × 10
12
F/m
c = speed of light 2.998 × 10
8
m/s
LINE SPECTRA
Light passing through a diffraction grating with
thousands of ruling lines per centimeter is diffracted
by an angle θ.
sin d n θ · λ
The equation also applies to Young's double slit
experiment, where for every integer n, there is a
lighting maxima. The offcenter distance of the
maxima is tan y l · θ
d = distance between rulings [m]
θ = angle of diffraction [degrees]
n = the order number (integer)
λ = wavelength [m]
l = distance from slits to screen [m]
Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 6 of 22
WIEN'S CONSTANT
The product of the wavelength of peak intensity λ [m]
and the temperature T [K] of a blackbody. A
blackbody is an ideal device that absorbs all
radiation falling on it.
3
max
2.898 10 m K T
−
λ · × ⋅
STEFANBOLTZMANN LAW
May be applied to a blackbody or any material for
which the emissivity is known.
4
( ) R T T · εσ where:
R(T) = power per unit area radiated at temperature T
[W/m
2
]
ε = emissivity (ε = 1 for ideal blackbody)
σ = constant 5.6705 × 10
8
W/(m
2
· K
4
)
T = temperature (K)
PLANCK'S RADIATION LAW
2
5 /
2 1
( , )
1
hc kT
c h
I T
e
λ
π
λ ·
λ −
where:
I(λ, T) = light intensity [W/(m
2
· λ)]
λ = wavelength [m]
T = temperature [K]
c = speed of light 2.998 × 10
8
m/s
h = Planck's constant 6.6260755×10
34
Js
k = Boltzmann's constant 1.380658×10
23
J/K
positron – A particle having the same mass as an
electron but with a positive charge
bremsstrahlung – from the German word for braking
radiation, the process of an electron slowing down
and giving up energy in photons as it passes through
matter.
PHOTON
A photon is a massless particle that travels at the
speed of light. A photon is generated when an
electron moves to a lower energy state (orbit).
Photon energy: E h pc · ν · [Joules]
Momentum:
h
p
c
ν
· [kgm/s], convertible to [eV/c] by
multiplying by c/q.
Wavelength:
c
λ ·
ν
[meters]
h = Planck's constant 6.6260755×10
34
Js
ν = (nu) frequency of the electromagnetic wave associated
with the light given off by the photon [Hz]
c = speed of light 2.998 × 10
8
m/s
PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
This is the way the book shows the formula, but it is a
units nightmare.
2
max 0
1
2
mv eV h · · υ−φ where:
2
max
1
2
mv
= energy in Joules, but convert to eV for the
formula by dividing by q.
eV
0
= potential required to stop electrons from leaving the
metal [V]
hν = Planck's constant [6.6260755×10
34
Js] multiplied by
the frequency of light [Hz]. This term will need to be
divided by q to obtain eV.
φ = work function, minimum energy required to get an
electron to leave the metal [eV]
INVERSE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
0 max
min
hc
eV h · υ ·
λ
where:
eV
0
= the kinetic energy of an electron accelerated through
a voltage V0 [eV]
hν = Planck's constant [6.6260755×10
34
Js] multiplied by
the frequency of light [Hz]. This term will need to be
divided by q to obtain eV.
λ
min
= the minimum wavelength of light created when an
electron gives up one photon of light energy [m]
DUANEHUNT RULE
6
min
0
1.2398 10
V
−
×
λ ·
Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 7 of 22
ELECTRON ANGULAR MOMENTUM
from the Bohr model:
L mvr n · · h where:
L = angular momentum [kgm
2
/s?]
m = mass [kg]
v = velocity [m/s]
r = radius [m]
n = principle quantum number
h = Planck's constant divided by 2π [Js]
a
0
BOHR RADIUS [m]
The Bohr radius is the radius of the orbit of the
hydrogen electron in the ground state (n=1):
2
0
0 2
4
e
a
m e
πε
·
h
and for higher
states (n>1):
2
0 n
r a n ·
a
0
, r
n
= Bohr radius 5.29177×10
11
m, quantized radius [m]
ε
0
= permittivity of free space 8.85 × 10
12
F/m
m
e
= electron mass 9.1093897×10
31
[kg]
e = q = electron charge [c]
n = principle quantum number
h = Planck's constant divided by 2π [Js]
IMPACT PARAMETER b
The impact parameter b is the distance that a
bombarding particle deviates from the directhit
approach path, and is related to the angle θ at which it
will be deflected by the target particle.
2
1 2
0
cot
8 2
Z Z e
b
K
θ
·
πε
b = direct path deviation [m]
Z
1
= atomic number of the incident particle
Z
2
= atomic number of the target particle
e = q = electron charge [c]
ε
0
= permittivity of free space 8.85 × 10
12
F/m
K = kinetic energy of the incident particle Z1
θ = angle of particle Z1 deflection or scattering
HEADON SCATTERING
When a particle of kinetic energy K and atomic
number Z
1
is fired directly at the nucleus, it
approaches to r
min
before reversing direction. The
entire kinetic energy is converted to Coulomb
potential energy. Since r
min
is measured to the center
of the particles, they will just touch when r
min
is the
sum of their radii.
2
1 2
min
0
4
Z Z e
r
K
·
πε
r
min
= particle separation (measured center to center) at the
time that the bombarding particle reverses direction
[m]
other variables are previously defined
COMPTON EFFECT
The scattering of a photon due to collision with a
single electron results in a new wavelength λ' and a
directional change of ∠θ and is described by the
following relation:
( ) 1 cos
h
mc
′ ∆λ · λ − λ · − θ
scattered photon
p =
h
l
'
E = hn'
photon
E = hn
p =
h
l
electron at rest
E
i
= mc
2
θ
φ
recoil electron
E
f
= E
e
The φ relations come from the conservation of
momentum:
: cos cos
x e
h h
p p · θ + φ
′ λ λ
: sin sin
y e
h
p p θ · φ
′ λ
Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 8 of 22
RUTHERFORD SCATTERING
A particle of kinetic energy K and atomic number Z
1
when fired at a target film of thickness t and atomic
number Z
2
, will be deflected by an angle θ.
( )
( )
2
2 2 2
1 2
2 2 4
0
16 4 sin / 2
i
N nt e Z Z
N
r K
 `
θ ·
πε θ
. ,
N(θ) = number of particles scattered per unit area [m
2
]
θ = angle of particle Z1 deflection or scattering
N
i
= total number of incident particles [kg]
n = number of atoms per unit volume [m
3
] A M
g
N N
n
M
ρ
·
where ρ is density [g/m
3
], NA is Avogadro's number, NM is the
number of atoms per molecule, and MG is the grammolecular
weight [g/mole].
t = thickness of the target material [m]
e = q = electron charge [c]
ε
0
= permittivity of free space 8.85 × 10
12
F/m
Z
1
= atomic number of the incident particle
Z
2
= atomic number of the target particle
r = the radius at which the angle θ is measured [m]
K = kinetic energy of the incident particle Z1
PROBABILITY OF A PARTICLE
SCATTERING BY AN ANGLE GREATER
THAN θ θ
2
2
2 1 2
0
cot
8 2
Z Z e
f nt
K
 ` θ
· π
πε
. ,
f = the probability (a value between 0 and 1)
n = number of atoms per unit volume [m
3
] A M
g
N N
n
M
ρ
·
where ρ is density [g/m
3
], NA is Avogadro's number, NM is the
number of atoms per molecule, and MG is the grammolecular
weight [g/mole].
t = thickness of the target material [m]
Z
1
= atomic number of the incident particle
Z
2
= atomic number of the target particle
e = q = electron charge [c]
ε
0
= permittivity of free space 8.85 × 10
12
F/m
K = kinetic energy of the incident particle Z1
θ = angle of particle Z1 deflection or scattering
Alpha particle: Z=2
Proton: Z=1
ELECTRON VELOCITY
This comes from the Bohr model and only applies to
atoms and ions having a single electron.
2
0 0
dependent
dependent
1
4 2
n
e
n
r
Ze e Z
v
n m r
· ·
πε πε h
14243
14243
v = electron velocity [m/s]
Z = atomic number or number of protons in the nucleus
e = q = electron charge [c]
n = the electron orbit or shell
ε
0
= permittivity of free space 8.85 × 10
12
F/m
m
e
= mass of an electron 9.1093897×10
31
kg
h = Planck's constant divided by 2π [Js]
r = the radius of the electron's orbit [m]
ELECTRON ORBIT RADIUS
This comes from the Bohr model and only applies to
atoms and ions having a single electron.
2 2
0
2
4
n
e
n
r
m Ze
πε
·
h
r
n
= electron orbit radius in the n shell [m]
other variables are previously defined
a
r
RADIAL ACCELERATION
a
r
= the radial acceleration of an orbiting
electron [m/s
2
]
v = tangential velocity of the electron [m/s]
r = electron orbit radius [m]
2
r
v
a
r
·
Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 9 of 22
R
∞ ∞
RYDBERG CONSTANT
R
∞
is used in the Bohr model and is a close
approximation assuming an infinite nuclear mass. R
is the adjusted value. These values are appropriate
for hydrogen and singleelectron ions.
( )
2 4
2
3
0
4 4
e
Z e
R
c
µ
·
π πε h
where
e
e
e
m M
m M
µ ·
+
R
∞
= Rydberg constant 1.09678×10
7
m
1
(1.096776×10
7
m
1
for hydrogen)
µ
e
= adjusted electron mass
Z = atomic number, or number of protons in the nucleus
ε
0
= permittivity of free space 8.85 × 10
12
F/m
c = speed of light 2.998 × 10
8
m/s
h = Planck's constant divided by 2π [Js]
m
e
= mass of an electron 9.1093897×10
31
kg
M = mass of the nucleus (essentially the same as the
mass of the atom ⇒ atomic number × 1.6605×10
27
) [kg]
L
α α
MOSELEY'S EQUATION
British physicist, Henry Moseley determined this
equation experimentally for the frequency of L
α
x
rays. L
α α
waves are produced by an electron decaying
from the n=3 orbit to the n=2 or L orbit.
( )
2 5
7.4
36
L
cR Z
α
ν · −
ν = (nu) frequency [Hz]
c = speed of light 2.998 × 10
8
m/s
R = Adjusted Rydberg constant (see above) [m
1
]
Z = atomic number or number of protons in the nucleus
SPECTRAL LINES
This formula gives the wavelength of light emitted
when an electron in a singleelectron atom or ion
decays from orbit n
u
to n
l
.
2
2 2
1 1 1
l u
Z R
n n
 `
· −
λ
. ,
λ = wavelength [m]
Z = atomic number or number of protons in the nucleus
R = Rydberg constant (1.096776×10
7
m
1
for hydrogen)
n
l
= the lower electron orbit number
n
u
= the upper electron orbit number
BRAGG'S LAW
Xray Scattering  Xrays reflected from a crystal
experience interference effects since rays reflecting
from the interior of the material take a longer path
than those reflecting from the surface. Compare to
ELECTRON SCATTERING below.
2 sin n d λ · θ
d
θ
sin θ d 2
sin d θ
n = order of reflection (number of lattice planes in depth)
λ = wavelength of the incident wave [m]
d = distance between lattice planes (interatomic spacing
in this case) [m]
θ = angle of incidence; the angle between the incident
wave and the surface of the material
ELECTRON SCATTERING
Electrons directed into a crystalline material are
scattered (reflected) at various angles depending on
the arrangement of lattice planes. There is more
than one set of lattice planes in a crystal. The
technique can be used to explore the characteristics
of a material. Compare to BRAGG'S LAW above.
sin n D λ · φ
α
α
φ
θ
d
D
n = order of reflection (number of lattice planes in depth)
λ = wavelength of the incident wave [m]
D = interatomic spacing [m]
d = distance between lattice planes [m]
φ = angle between the incident and reflected waves
K CLASSICAL KINETIC ENERGY
Two expressions for kinetic energy:
2
3
2 2
p
K kT
m
· ·
lead to a momentumtemperature relation for
particles:
2
3 p mkT ·
p = momentum [kgm/s]
m = particle mass [kg]
K = kinetic energy [J]
k = Boltzmann's constant 1.380658×10
23
J/K
T = temperature in Kelvin (273.15K = 0°C, ∆K = ∆C)
(see page 5 for RELATIVISTIC KINETIC ENERGY)
Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 10 of 22
WAVES
Ψ Ψ WAVE FUNCTIONS
Classical Wave Equation
We did not use this equation:
2 2
2 2 2
1
x v t
∂ Ψ ∂ Ψ
·
∂ ∂
This wave function fits the classical form, but is not
a solution to the Schröedinger equation:
sin(
wave
wave
number
phase
constant
( ) x,t
time
Ψ =A ω
angular
frequency
kx  t + φ)
distance distance time
The negative sign denotes wave
motion in the positive x direction,
assuming omega is positive.
amplitude
More general wave functions which are solutions to
the Schröedinger equation are:
ω kx  t)
+
i sin( ω kx  t)]
wave
number
distance time distance
amplitude The negative sign denotes wave
motion in the positive x direction,
assuming omega is positive.
( ) x,t
wave
Ψ
time
= Ae =
angular
frequency
ω i( kx t)
[cos( A
k WAVE NUMBER
A component of a wave function
representing the wave density relative to
distance, in units of radians per unit
distance [rad/m].
2
k
π
·
λ
ω ω ANGULAR FREQUENCY
A component of a wave function
representing the wave density relative to
time (better known as frequency), in units
of radians per second [rad/s].
2
T
π
ω·
v
ph
PHASE VELOCITY
The velocity of a point on a wave,
e.g. the velocity of a wave peak
[m/s].
ph
v
T k
λ ω
· ·
φ φ PHASE CONSTANT
The angle by which the wave is offset from zero, i.e.
the angle by which the wave's zero amplitude point is
offset from t=0. [radians or degrees].
Ψ Ψ SUM OF TWO WAVES
(see also WaveSummingExample.pdf)
( )
1 2 av av
internal wave
envelope
2 cos cos
2 2
k
A x t k x t
∆ ∆ω  `
Ψ + Ψ · − −ω
. ,
1442443
144424443
A = harmonic amplitude [various units?]
∆k = difference in wave numbers k1  k2 [rad/m]
k
av
= average wave number (k1 + k2)/2 [rad/m]
∆ω = difference in angular
frequencies ω1  ω2
[rad/s]
ω
av
= average angular
frequency (ω1 + ω2)/2
[rad/s]
x = distance [m]
t = time [s]
Phase Velocity:
ph av av
/ v k · ω
[m/s] velocity of a point on a wave
Group Velocity:
gr
/ u k · ∆ω ∆
[m/s] speed of the envelope
λ λ de BROGLIE WAVELENGTH
De Broglie extended the concept of
waves to all matter.
h
p
λ ·
λ = wavelength [m]
h = Planck's constant 6.6260755×10
34
Js
p = momentum [kgm/s], convertible to [eV/c] by multiplying
by c/q.
WAVE UNCERTAINTIES
This has to do with the effects of combining different
waves. In order to know precisely the position of the
wave packet envelope (∆x small), we must have a
large range of wave numbers (∆k large). In order to
know precisely when the wave is at a given point (∆t
small), we must have a large range of frequencies
(∆ω large). Another result of this relationship, is that
an electronic component must have a large bandwidth
∆ω in order for its signal to respond in a short time ∆t.
2 k x ∆ ∆ · π 2 t ∆ω∆ · π
∆k = the range of wave numbers, see WAVE NUMBER
∆x = the width of the wave envelope
∆ω = the range of wave frequencies
∆t = a time interval
Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 11 of 22
SCHRÖDINGER'S WAVE EQUATION
timedependent form:
( )
( )
( )
2 2
2
, ,
,
2
K U E
x t x t
V x t i
m x t
+ ·
∂ Ψ ∂Ψ
− + Ψ ·
∂ ∂
h
h
timeindependent form:
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
d x
V x x E x
m dx
ψ
− + ψ · ψ
h
or
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
d x
E V x
m x dx
ψ
− · −
ψ
h
h = Planck's constant divided by 2π [Js]
Ψ(x,t) = wave function
V = voltage; can be a function of space and time (x,t)
m = mass [kg]
Two separate solutions to the timeindependent
equation have the form:
ikx ikx
Ae Be
−
+ where ( ) 2 / k m E V · − h
or ( ) ( ) sin cos A kx B kx +
Note that the wave number k is consistent in both
solutions, but that the constants A and B are not
consistent from one solution to the other. The values
of constants A and B will be determined from
boundary conditions and will also depend on which
solution is chosen.
PROBABILITY
A probability is a value from zero to one. The
probability may be found by the following steps:
Multiply the function by its complex conjugate and
take the integral from negative infinity to positive
infinity with respect to the variable in question,
multiply all this by the square of a constant c and set
equal to one.
2
* 1 c F F dx
∞
−∞
·
∫
Solve for the probability constant c.
The probability from x
1
to x
1
is:
2
1
2
*
x
x
P c F F dx ·
∫
PROBABILITY OF LOCATION
Given the wave function: ( ) , x t ψ
find the probability that a particle is located between
x
1
and x
2
.
Normalize the wave function:
2 2
0
2 1 A dx
∞
ψ ·
∫
with A known, find the probability:
2
1
2 2
x
x
P A dx · ψ
∫
〈 〈x〉, 〈 〉, 〈x
2
〉 〉 EXPECTATION VALUES
average value:
( ) ( ) * x x x x dx
∞
−∞
· ψ ψ
∫
average x
2
value:
( ) ( )
2 2
* x x x x dx
∞
−∞
· ψ ψ
∫
ˆ p MOMENTUM OPERATOR
An operator transforms one function into another
function. The momentum operator is:
ˆ
d
p i
dx
· − h
For example, to find the average momentum of a
particle described by wave function ψ:
ˆ * *
d
p p dx i dx
dx
∞ ∞
−∞ −∞
 `
· ψ ψ · ψ − ψ
. ,
∫ ∫
h
Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 12 of 22
SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION
Examples of simple harmonic motion include a mass
on a spring and a pendulum. The average potential
energy equals the average kinetic energy equals half
of the total energy. In simple harmonic motion, k is
the spring constant, not the wave number.
spring constant k:
k
m
ω· force: F kx ·
potential energy V:
2
1
2
V kx ·
Schrödinger Wave Equation
for simple harmonic motion:
( )
2
2 2
2
d
x
dx
ψ
· α −β ψ
where
2
2
mk
α ·
h
and
2
2mE
β ·
h
The wave equation solutions
are:
( )
2
/ 2 x
n n
H x e
−α
ψ ·
where Hn(x) are polynomials of order n, where
n = 0,1,2,· · · and x is the variable taken to the power of n.
The functions Hn(x) are related by a constant to the Hermite
polynomial functions.
2
1/ 4
/ 2
0
x
e
−α
α  `
ψ ·
π
. ,
2
1/ 4
/ 2
1
2
x
xe
−α
α  `
ψ · α
π
. ,
( )
2
1/ 4
2 / 2
2
1
2 1
2
x
x e
−α
α  `
ψ · α −
π
. ,
( )( )
2
1/ 4
2 / 2
3
1
2 3
3
x
x x e
−α
α  `
ψ · α α −
π
. ,
…and they call this simple!
quantized energy levels:
1
2
n
E n
 `
· + ω
. ,
h
The zeropoint energy, or Heisenberg
limit is the minimum energy allowed by
the uncertainty principle; the energy at
n=0:
0
1
2
E · ω h
HEISENBERG UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE
These relations apply to Gaussian wave packets.
They describe the limits in determining the factors
below.
/ 2
x
p x ∆ ∆ ≥ h / 2 E t ∆ ∆ ≥ h
∆p
x
= the uncertainty in the momentum along the xaxis
∆x = the uncertainty of location along the xaxis
∆E = the uncertainty of the energy
∆t = the uncertainty of time. This also happens to be the
particle lifetime. Particles you can measure the mass
of (E=mc
2
) have a long lifetime.
INFINITE SQUAREWELL POTENTIAL
or "Particle in a Box"
This is a concept that applies to
many physical situations.
Consider a twodimensional box
in which a particle may be
trapped by an infinite voltage
potential on either side. The
problem is an application of the
Schrödinger Wave Equation.
x
0 L
x ( ) V
The particle may have various energies represented by
waves that must have an amplitude of zero at each
boundary 0 and L. Thus, the energies are quantized. The
probability of the particle's location is also expressed by a
wave function with zero values at the boundaries.
Wave function: ( ) sin
n
n x
x A
L
π  `
ψ ·
. ,
Energy levels:
2 2
2
2
2
n
E n
mL
π
·
h
Probability of a particle being
found between x1 and x2:
2
1
*
x
x x
P dx
·
· Ψ Ψ
∫
A =
2
L
normalization constant
a useful identity:
( )
2
1
sin 1 cos 2
2
θ · − θ
Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 13 of 22
POTENTIAL BARRIER
When a particle of energy E
encounters a barrier of
potential V
0
, there is a
possibility of either a
reflected wave or a
transmitted wave.
x
0 L
Region I Region III Region II
x ( ) V
particle
0
V
for E > V
0
:
kinetic energy:
0
K E V · −
wave number: 2 /
I III
k k mE · · h
( )
0
2 /
II
k m E V · − h
incident wave:
I
ik x
I
Ae ϕ ·
reflected wave:
I
ik x
I
Be
−
ϕ ·
transmitted wave:
I
k x
III
Fe ϕ ·
trans. probability:
( )
( )
1
2 2
0
0
sin
1
4
II
V k L
T
E E V
−
 `
· +
−
. ,
reflection probability: 1 R T · −
for E < V
0
: Classically, it is not possible for a particle
of energy E to cross a greater potential V
0
, but
there is a quantum mechanical possibility for this
to happen called tunneling.
kinetic energy:
0
K V E · −
wave #, region II: ( )
0
2 / m V E κ · − h
trans. probability:
( )
( )
1
2 2
0
0
sinh
1
4
V L
T
E V E
−
 `
κ
· +
−
. ,
when 1 L κ ? :
2
0 0
16 1
L
E E
T e
V V
− κ
 `
· −
. ,
3D INFINITE POTENTIAL BOX
Consider a threedimensional box
with zero voltage potential inside
the box and infinite voltage outside.
A particle trapped in the box is
described by a wave function and
has quantized energy levels.
z
0 L
1
L
3
L
2
y
x
Timeindependent Schrödinger Wave Equation in three
dimensions:
2 2 2 2
2 2 2
2
V E
m x y z
 ` ∂ ψ ∂ ψ ∂ ψ
− + + + ψ · ψ
∂ ∂ ∂
. ,
h
Wave equation for the 3D infinite potential box:
1 2 3
3 1 2
1 2 3
sin sin sin
n n n
n z n x n y
A
L L L
 `  `  ` π π π
ψ ·
. , . , . ,
Energy levels:
1 2 3
2 2 2 2 2
3 1 2
2 2 2
1 2 3
2
n n n
n n n
E
m L L L
 ` π
· + +
. ,
h
Degenerate energy levels may exist—that is, different
combinations of nvalues may produce equal energy
values.
Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 14 of 22
SCHRÖDINGER'S EQUATION – 3D
SPHERICAL
spherical coordinate form:
( )
2
2
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 2
sin 0
sin sin
m
r E V
r r r r r
∂ ∂ψ ∂ ∂ψ ∂ ψ  `  `
+ θ + + − ψ·
∂ ∂ θ∂θ ∂θ θ∂θ
. , . ,
h
separation of variables using:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , , r R r f g Ψ θ φ · θ φ
We can obtain a form with terms of g on one side and
terms of R and f on the other. These are set equal to
the constant m
l
2
. m
l
turns out to be an integer.
Another seperation is performed for R and f and the
constant is l(l+1), where l is an integer. The three
equations are:
Azimuthal equation:
2
2
2
1
0
l
im
l
d g
m g Ae
g d
φ
+ · ⇒ ·
φ
Radial equation:
( )
( )
2
2 2 2
1 1 2
0
l l d dR m
r E V R R
r dr dr r
+
 `
+ − − ·
. ,
h
Angular Equation:
( )
2
2
1
sin 1 0
sin sin
l
m d df
l l f
d d
]
 `
θ + + − ·
]
θ θ θ θ
. ,
]
m
l
= magnetic quantum number; integers ranging from –l
to +l
l = orbital angular momentum quantum number
h = Planck's constant divided by 2π [Js]
E = energy
V = voltage; can be a function of space and time (x,t)
m = mass [kg]
NORMALIZING WAVE FUNCTIONS
To normalize a function, multiply the function by its
complex conjugate and by the square of the
normalization constant A. Integrate the result from
∞ to ∞ and set equal to 1 to find the value of A. The
normalized function is the original function multiplied
by A.
To normalize the wave function Ψ Ψ(x):
2
A dx
∞
−∞
Ψ
∫
→
2 2
A dx
∞
−∞
Ψ
∫
Where Ψ is an even function, we can simplify to:
2 2
0
2A dx
∞
Ψ
∫
and find A:
2 2
0
2 1 A dx
∞
Ψ ·
∫
Some relations for definite integrals will be useful in solving
this equation; see CalculusSummary.pdf page 3.
To normalize the wave function Ψ Ψ(r), where r is the radius
in spherical coordinates:
2
2
0
r A dr
∞
Ψ
∫
→
2 2 2
0
1 A r dr
∞
Ψ ·
∫
Note that we integrate from 0 to ∞ since r has no negative
values.
To normalize the wave function Ψ Ψ(r,θ θ,φ φ):
2
2
2 2
0 0 0
sin 1 A dr r A d d
∞ π π
Ψ θ θ φ ·
∫ ∫ ∫
Note that dr, dθ, and dφ are moved to the front of their
respective integrals for clarity.
R
nl
(r) RADIAL WAVE FUNCTIONS
for the hydrogen atom
n l R
nl
(r)
1 0
0
/
3/ 2
0
2
r a
e
a
−
2 0
( )
0
/ 2
3/ 2
0
0
2
r a
r e
w
a
a
−
 `
−
. ,
2 1
( )
0
/ 2
3/ 2
0
0
3 2
r a
r e
a
a
−
3 0
( )
0
2
/ 3
3/ 2 2
0 0 0
1 2
27 18 2
81 3
r a
r r
e
a a a
−
 `
− +
. ,
3 1
( )
0
/ 3
3/ 2
0 0
0
1 4
6
81 6
r a
r r
e
a a
a
−
 `
−
. ,
3 2
( )
0
2
/ 3
3/ 2 2
0 0
1 4
81 30
r a
r
e
a a
−
a
0
= Bohr radius 5.29177×10
11
m
Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 15 of 22
P(r)dr RADIAL PROBABILITY
The radial probability is a value from 0 to 1 indicating
the probability of a particle occupying a certain area
radially distant from the center of orbit. The value is
found by integrating the righthand side of the
expression over the interval in question:
( )
2
2
( ) P r dr r R r dr ·
r = orbit radius
R(r) = radial wave function, normalized to unity
P(r) RADIAL PROBABILITY DENSITY
The radial probability density depends only on n and l.
( )
2
2
( ) P r r R r ·
r = orbit radius
R(r) = radial wave function, normalized to unity
〈 〈r〉 〉 RADIAL EXPECTATION VALUE
average radius (radial wave function):
( ) ( )
3
0 0 r r
r r P r dr r R r dr
∞ ∞
· ·
· ·
∫ ∫
P(r) = probability distribution function ( ) ( )
2
2
P r r R r dr ·
R(r) = radial wave function, normalized to unity
ATOMS
QUANTUM NUMBERS
n = principal quantum number, shell number, may have
values of 1, 2, 3, …
l = orbital angular momentum quantum number,
subshell number, may have values of 0 to n1. These
values are sometimes expressed as letters: s=0, p=1,
d=2, f=3, g=4, h=5, …
m
l
= magnetic quantum number, may have integer values
from l to +l for each l. (p251)
m
s
= magnetic spin quantum number, may have values
of +½ or ½
Then we introduce these new ones:
s = intrinsic quantum number, s =1/2 (p238)
j = total angular momentum quantum number, j = l t s,
but j is not less than 0. (p257)
m
j
= magnetic angular momentum quantum number,
may have values from j to +j (p257)
Example, for n = 3:
l =
0 1 2
j =
1/2 1/2 3/2 3/2 5/2
m
j
=
1/2 +1/2 1/2 +1/2 3/2 1/2
+1/2 +3/2
3/2 1/2 +1/2 +3/2 5/2 3/2 1/2
+1/2 +3/2 +5/2
m
l
=
0 1 0 +1 2 1 0 +1 +2
m
s
=
1/2
+1/2
1/2
+1/2
1/2
+1/2
1/2
+1/2
1/2
+1/2
1/2
+1/2
1/2
+1/2
1/2
+1/2
1/2
+1/2
L ORBITAL ANGULAR MOMENTUM
Classically, orbital angular momentum is ρ ρr or mvr.
The orbital angular momentum L is a vector quantity.
It components are as follows:
Magnitude: ( ) 1 L l l · + h
Zaxis value:
z l
L m · h
The values of Lx and Ly cannot be determined exactly but
obey the following relation:
2 2 2 2
x y z
L L L L · + +
h = Planck's constant divided by 2π [Js]
l = orbital angular momentum quantum number
m
l
= magnetic quantum number; integers ranging from –l
to +l
The orbital angular momentum quantum
number was originally given letter values
resulting from early visual observations:
sharp, principal, diffuse, fundamental
l = 0 1 2 3 4 5
s p d f g h
Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 16 of 22
S SPIN ANGULAR MOMENTUM
The spin angular momentum is (insert some
illuminating explanation here).
Magnitude:
( ) 1 3/ 4 s s · + · S h h
z component:
/ 2
z s
S m · · t h h
 h
1
2
h
1
+
2
= 3/4 h S
z
J TOTAL ANGULAR MOMENTUM
The vector sum of the orbital angular momentum and
the spin angular momentum. This applies to 1
electron and manyelectron atoms.
· + J L S
J (the magnitude?) is an integer value from LS to L+S.
ALLOWED TRANSITIONS
The allowed energy level transitions for 1electron
atoms are
∆n: any ∆l: t1 ∆m
j
: 0, t1 ∆j: 0, t1
ZEEMAN SPLITTING ("ZAY· mahn")
When a singleelectron atom is under the influence of
an external magnetic field (taken to be in the zaxis
direction), each energy level (n=1,2,3,…) is split into
multiple levels, one for each quantum number m
l
.
The difference in energy is:
B l
E Bm ∆ · µ
∆E = difference in energy between two energy levels [J]
µ
B
= Bohr magneton 9.274078×10
24
J/T
B = magnetic field [T]
m
l
= magnetic quantum number; integers ranging from –l
to +l
µ µ MAGNETIC MOMENT
Both the magnetic moment µ µ and the orbital angular
momentum L are vectors:
2
e
m
· − ì L
m = mass of the orbiting particle [kg]
MANYELECTRON ATOMS
SPECTROSCOPIC SYMBOLS
The energy state of an atom having 1 or 2 electrons
in its outer shell can be represented in the form
2 1 S
j
n L
+
n = shell number
S = intrinsic spin angular momentum quantum number; ½
for a singleelectron shell, 0 or 1 (S1 + S2) for the 2
electron shell
L = angular momentum quantum number; l for single
electron shell, L1 + L2 for a 2electron shell, expressed
as a capital letter: S=0, P=1, D=2, F=3, G=4, H=5, I=6.
j = total angular momentum quantum number j = l t s. I'm
not sure how to tell whether it's plus or minus, but I
think it has to be the lower value of j to be in the
ground state. j is positive only.
ORDER OF ELECTRON FILLING
Here's a way to remember the order in which the
outer shells of atoms are filled by electrons:
Form groups of lnumbers like this. The first
group is just the lowest value for l: s. The next
value of l is p; form a new group of p with s.
The third value of l is d; form the third group
with d, p, and s. You get a list of groups like
this:
s
p s
d p s
f d p s
g f d p s
h g f d p s
Now, in a column, write each group twice
beginning with the single s that is the first
group.
Next number each s beginning with 1, placing
the number in front of the s. This is as far as
I have gone with the list at right.
The next step is to number each p beginning
with the number 2.
Then number each d beginning with the
number 3.
Number each f beginning with 4, and so on.
The result will be the order of filling (there are
a few exceptions) and will look like this:
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d
and so on.
1s
2s
p
3s
p
4s
d
p
5s
f
d
p
6s
f
d
p
7s
and so on.
Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 17 of 22
g LANDÉ g FACTOR
A dimensionless number that helps make physics
complicated. Used in ANOMALOUS ZEEMAN
SPLITTING
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
1 1 1
1
2 1
J J S S L L
g
J J
+ + + − +
· +
+
ALLOWED PHOTON TRANSITIONS
The allowed photon energy level transitions for many
electron atoms are
∆L: t1 ∆J: 0, t1, but J can't transition from 0 to 0.
∆S: 0 ∆m
j
: 0, t1, but can't transition from 0 to 0
when ∆J=0.
Other transitions are possible—just not likely.
θ θ MINIMUM ANGLE BETWEEN J AND
THE ZAXIS
There were exercises where we had to calculate this.
I don't know what the significance is. This is done
similarly for L and S as well.
Example:
5
2
j ·
( )
cos
1
j
j j
×
θ ·
+
h
h
→
( )
2
2
cos
1
j
j j
θ ·
+
→
( )
2
cos
1
j
j
θ ·
+
cos
1
j
j
θ ·
+
h +
2
5
h +
2
h +
2
3
1
h
2
3

h
2

h
2

1
5
z
= j(j+1) h J
θ
SPLITTING DUE TO SPIN
For each state described by
quantum numbers n, l, m
l
, there
are two states defined by the
magnetic spin numbers
m
s
= ±1/2. These two levels
have the same energy except
when the atom is influenced by
an external magnetic field.

h
1
2
h
1
+
2
= 3/4 h S
z
The lower of the two energy levels is aligned with
the magnetic field.
2
hc
E ∆ · ∆λ
λ
∆E = difference in energy between two (split) energy levels
m
s
= ±1/2 [J]
∆λ = difference in wavelengths for the transitions to the
ground state for each energy level [m]
λ = wavelength for the transitions to the ground state for
the lower of the two energy levels (the greater of the
two wavelengths) [m]
h = Planck's constant 6.6260755×10
34
Js
c = speed of light 2.998 × 10
8
m/s
SPINORBIT ENERGY SPLITTING
Spinorbit energy splitting is the splitting of energy
levels caused by an internal magnetic field due to
spin. This produces a greater ∆E than the spin
splitting described above. p265
P.E. due to spin ·
s
V · −ì B
zcomponent
2
z
z s
e
e J
g
m
 `
µ · −
. ,
h
h
energy level difference
s
e
e
E g B
m
∆ ·
h
e = q = electron charge 1.6022×10
19
C
h = Planck's constant divided by 2π [Js]
j
z
= zcomponent of the total angular momentum
∆E = difference in energy between two (split) energy levels
m
s
= ±1/2 [J]
g
s
= 2, the gyromagnetic ratio
m
e
= mass of an electron 9.1093897×10
31
kg
B = internal magnetic field [T]
Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 18 of 22
ANOMALOUS ZEEMAN SPLITTING
("ZAY· mahn")
In addition to the Zeeman splitting of the m
l
energy
levels described previously, and the spinorbit energy
splitting described above, there is a splitting of the m
j
levels when an external magnetic field is present.
The difference in energy between levels is:
ext B j
V B gm · µ
V = difference in energy between two energy levels [J]
µ
B
= Bohr magneton 9.274078×10
24
J/T
B
ext
= external magnetic field [T]
g = Landé factor [no units]
m
j
= magnetic angular momentum quantum number; half
integers ranging from –j to +j
STATISTICAL PHYSICS
v*, v , v
rms
MOLECULAR SPEEDS [m/s]
Maxwell speed
distribution: ( )
2
1
2
2
4
mv
F v dv Ce v dv
− β
· π
v* most probable
speed:
2 2
*
kT
v
m m
· ·
β
v mean speed:
4
2
kT
v
m
·
π
v
rms
root mean
square speed:
1/ 2
2
3
rms
kT
v v
m
]
· ·
]
v = velocity [m/s]
C = normalization constant
k = Boltzmann's constant 1.380658×10
23
J/K
T = temperature [K]
m = mass of the molecule [kg]
β = the parameter 1/kT [J
1
]
ENERGY DISTRIBUTION
Derived from Maxwell's speed distribution:
( )
1/ 2
3/ 2
8
2
E
C
F E e E
m
−β
π
·
F
MB
MAXWELLBOLTZMANN FACTOR
The MaxwellBoltzmann factor is a value between 0
and 1 representing the probability that an energy level
E is occupied by an electron (at temperature T). This
is for classical systems, such as ideal gases. One
way to determine if MaxwellBoltzmann statistics are
valid is to compare the de Broglie wavelength λ = h/p
of a typical particle with the average interparticle
spacing d. If λ<<d then MaxwellBoltzmann statistics
are generally acceptable.
E
MB
F Ae
−β
·
1/ 3
V
d
N
 `
·
. ,
A = normalization constant
β = the parameter 1/kT [J
1
]
d = space between atoms [m]
N = number of particles in volume V. Note that
Avogadro's number, 6.022×10
23
, is the number of
gas molecules in 22.4 liters, or 22.4×10
3
m
3
, at 0°C
and 1 atmosphere. Also, gas volume is proportional
to temperature: V1/T1=V2/T2.
Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 19 of 22
F
FD
FERMIDIRAC DISTRIBUTION
A value between 0 and 1 indicating the probability
than an energy state is occupied by an electron. The
FermiDirac distribution is valid for fermions,
particles with halfinteger spins that obey the Pauli
principle. Atoms and molecules consisting of an even
number of fermions must be considered bosons when
taken as a whole because their total spin will be zero
or an integer.
1
1
1
FD E
F
B e
β
·
+
B
1
= normalization constant
β = the parameter 1/kT [J
1
]
F
BE
BOSEEINSTEIN DISTRIBUTION
The BoseEinstein distribution is valid for bosons,
particles with zero or integer spins that do no obey
the Pauli principle. Photons, pions, and liquid
4
He are
bosons.
2
1
1
BE E
F
B e
β
·
−
B
2
= normalization constant
β = the parameter 1/kT [J
1
]
E
F
FERMI ENERGY [eV]
The Fermi energy depends on the density of electrons
in the material. The FermiDirac distribution is
modified to include the Fermi energy:
( )
1
1
F
FD
E E
F
e
β − ]
]
·
+
The relationship between the Fermi energy and the
number density of particles is:
2/ 3
2
3
3
8
F
h N
E
m L
 `
·
π
. ,
F
FD
= FermiDirac distribution, a value from 0 to 1
indicating the probability that an energy state is
occupied
β = the parameter 1/kT [J
1
]
h = Planck's constant 6.6260755×10
34
Js
m = mass of the particle [kg]
N/L
3
= number density of the particles [m
3
]
T
F
FERMI TEMPERATURE
The Fermi temperature may be quite high, 80,000 K
for copper.
F
F
E
T
k
·
E
F
= Fermi Energy [eV]
k = Boltzmann's constant 1.380658×10
23
J/K
u
F
FERMI SPEED
The Fermi speed,
2
F
F
E
u
m
·
comes from the definition:
2
1
2
F F
E mu ·
E
F
= Fermi Energy [eV]
m = mass (probably of the electron) [kg]
ENERGY STATES IN "PHASE SPACE"
The points in the 1/8 sphere represent the energy
states of a particle in a cube, see 3D INFINITE
POTENTIAL BOX p13.
Energy level at radius r
2
1
E r E ·
where
2 2
1
/ 8 E h mL ·
(a constant equal to 1/3 of
the ground state energy)
and
2 2 2
1 2 3
r n n n · + +
and E is whatever energy
the problem is concerned
with.
∆
energy
states
n
1
3
3
1
1
2
2
1
3
r
2
integer
spacing
3
n
energy
levels
n
r
2
N
r
Number of energy states in a sphere of radius r,
i.e. the number of energy states there are with energy
less than E:
3
1 4
2
8 3
r
N r
 ` `
· π
. ,. ,
or
3/ 2
1
3
r
E
N
E
 ` π
·
. ,
where the factor of 2 is due to spin degeneracy, and the
factor of 1/8 is because the energy states only occupy 1/8
of the sphere where n1, n2, n3 are all positive.
g(E) DENSITY OF ENERGY STATES
Number of states per unit energy
( )
3/ 2 1/ 2
1
2
g E E E
−
π
· ( )
r r
N dN
g E
E dE
∆
· ·
∆
N
r
= number of energy states in a sphere of radius r
E
1
= a constant equal to 1/3 of the ground state energy
Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 20 of 22
n(E) DENSITY OF OCCUPIED STATES
Number of occupied states per unit energy
( ) ( )
FD
n E F g E · ⋅
at T=0, ( )
( ), for
0, for
F
F
g E E E
n E
E E
¹ <
·
'
>
¹
F
FD
= FermiDirac distribution, a value from 0 to 1
indicating the probability that an energy state is
occupied
Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 21 of 22
APPENDIX
CONSTANTS
Avogadro’s number
[molecules/mole]
23
6.0221367 10
A
N · ×
Bohr magneton
24
9.27407836 10
2
B
e
q
m
−
µ · · ×
h
J/T
Boltzmann’s constant
23
1.380658 10 k
−
· × J/K
or
5
10 62 . 8
−
× · K eV/K
Earth to Moon distance
6
384 10 ≈ × m
Elementary charge
19
10 60 . 1
−
× · q C
Electron mass
31
9.1093897 10
e
m
−
· ×
kg
0.51100
e
m ·
MeV/c
2
Neutron mass
27
1.6749 10
neutron
m
−
· ×
kg
939.57
neutron
m ·
MeV/c
2
Proton mass
27
1.6726231 10
p
m
−
· ×
kg
938.27
p
m ·
MeV/c
2
Permittivity of free space
12
0
8.8541878 10
−
ε · × F/m
Planck’s constant
34
6.6260755 10 h
−
· × Js
15
10 14 . 4
−
× · eVs
Rydberg constant
7
1.097373 10 R · × m
1
kT @ room temperature 0259 . 0 · kT eV
Speed of light
8
2.998 10 c · × m/s
Speed of sound (air 0°C) 331.29
s
v · m/s
1 Å (angstrom) 10
8
cm = 10
10
M
1 µm (micron) 10
4
cm
1 nm = 10Å = 10
7
cm 273.15K = 0°C
1 eV = 1.6 × 10
19
J 1 W = 1 J/S = 1 VA
1 V = 1 J/C 1 N/C = 1 V/m 1 J = 1 N· m = 1 C· V
UNITS
Energy: Joules ×
1
q
= eV
Mass: Kg ×
2
c
q
= eV/c
2
Momentum:
kg m
s
⋅
×
c
q
=
eV
c
BINOMIAL EXPANSION
For 1 x < :
( )
2 3
( 1) ( 1)( 2)
1 1
2! 3!
n n n n n n
x nx x x
− − −
t · t + t +L
When x is much less than 1: ( ) 1 1
n
x nx t · t
WAVELENGTH SPECTRUM
BAND METERS ANGSTROMS
Longwave radio
1  100 km 10
13
 10
15
Standard Broadcast
100  1000 m 10
12
 10
13
Shortwave radio
10  100 m 10
11
 10
12
TV, FM
0.1  10 m 10
9
 10
11
Microwave
1  100 mm 10
7
 10
9
Infrared light
0.8  1000 µm 8000  10
7
Visible light
360  690 nm 3600  6900
violet
360 nm 3600
blue
430 nm 4300
green
490 nm 4900
yellow
560 nm 5600
orange
600 nm 6000
Red
690 nm 6900
Ultraviolet light
10  390 nm 100  3900
Xrays
5  10,000 pm 0.05  100
Gamma rays
100  5000 fm 0.001  0.05
Cosmic rays
< 100 fm < 0.001
GREEK ALPHABET
Α α alpha Ι ι iota Ρ ρ rho
Β β beta Κ κ kappa Σ σ sigma
Χ χ chi Λ λ lambda Τ τ tau
∆ δ delta Μ µ mu Υ υ upsilon
Ε ε epsilon Ν ν nu Ω ω omega
Φ φ phi Ο ο omicron Ξ ξ xi
Γ γ gamma Π π pi Ψ ψ psi
Η η eta Θ θ theta Ζ ζ zeta
Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 22 of 22
TRIG IDENTITIES
2sin
ix ix
i x e e
−
· −
2cos
ix ix
x e e
−
· +
2sinh
x x
x e e
−
· −
2cosh
x x
x e e
−
· +
cos sin
ix
e x i x · +
( ) sin sin cos cos sin A B A B A B t · t
( ) cos cos cos sin sin A B A B A B t · m
sin sin 2sin cos
2 2
A B A B
A B
+ −  `  `
+ ·
. , . ,
cos cos 2cos cos
2 2
A B A B
A B
+ −  `  `
+ ·
. , . ,
GEOMETRY
SPHERE
Area
2
4 r A π ·
Volume
3
3
4
r V π ·
ELLIPSE
Area AB A π ·
Circumference
2
2
2 2
b a
L
+
π ≈
COORDINATE SYSTEMS
Cartesian or Rectangular Coordinates:
z y x r ˆ ˆ ˆ ) , , ( z y x z y x + + · xˆ is a unit vector
2 2 2
z y x + + · r
Spherical Coordinates:
) , , ( φ θ r P r is distance from center
θ is angle from vertical
φ is the CCW angle from the xaxis
rˆ , è
ˆ
, and φ φ
ˆ
are functions of position—their
orientation depends on where they are located.
Cylindrical Coordinates:
) , , ( z r φ C r is distance from the vertical (z) axis
φ is the CCW angle from the xaxis
z is the vertical distance from origin
COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS
Rectangular to Cylindrical:
To obtain:
z r
A A A z r z r A ˆ
ˆ
ˆ ) , , ( + + · φ
φ
φ φ
2 2
y x A
r
+ · φ + φ · sin ˆ cos ˆ ˆ y x r
x
y
1
tan
−
· φ φ + φ − · cos ˆ sin ˆ
ˆ
y x φ φ
z z · z z ˆ ˆ ·
Cylindrical to Rectangular:
To obtain: z y x r ˆ ˆ ˆ ) , , ( z y x z y x + + ·
φ · cos r x φ − φ · cos
ˆ
cos ˆ ˆ φ φ r x
φ · sin r y φ + φ · cos ˆ sin ˆ
ˆ
y r φ φ
z z · z z ˆ ˆ ·
Rectangular to Spherical:
To obtain:
φ θ
+ + · φ θ A A A r
r
φ φ
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ) , , ( è r A
2 2 2
z y x A
r
+ + ·
θ + φ θ + φ θ · cos ˆ sin sin ˆ cos sin ˆ ˆ z y x r
2 2 2
1
cos
z y x
z
+ +
· θ
−
θ − φ θ + φ θ · sin ˆ sin cos ˆ cos cos ˆ
ˆ
z y x è
x
y
1
tan
−
· φ φ + φ − · cos ˆ sin ˆ
ˆ
y x φ φ
Spherical to Rectangular:
To obtain: z y x r ˆ ˆ ˆ ) , , ( z y x z y x + + ·
φ θ · cos sin r x
φ − φ θ − φ θ · sin
ˆ
cos cos
ˆ
cos sin ˆ ˆ φ φ è r x
φ θ · sin sin r y
φ + φ θ + φ θ · cos
ˆ
sin cos
ˆ
sin sin ˆ ˆ φ φ è r y
θ · cos r z θ − θ · sin
ˆ
cos ˆ ˆ è r z
FUNDAMENTAL FORCES MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS
Gauss’s law for electricity Gauss’s law for magnetism Faraday’s law Generalized Ampere’s law
FORCE
q Ñ EgdA = ε0 ∫
RELATIVE STRENGTH
RANGE
Ñ B g dA = 0 ∫ Ñ Egds = − ∫
dΦB dt dΦ Ñ Bgds = µ0ε0 dt E + µ0 I ∫
Strong Electroweak Electromagnetic Weak Gravitational
1 102 109 1039
Short, ~1015m Long, 1/r2 Short, ~1015m Long, 1/r2
ATOMIC MASS
The mass of an atom is it's atomic number divided by the product of 1000 times Avogadro's number.
LORENTZ FORCE LAW
Lorentz force law: F = qE + qv × B
atomic number 1000 × N a
KINETIC ENERGY NEWTON’S LAWS
Newton’s first law: Law of Inertia An object in motion with a constant velocity will continue in motion unless acted upon by some net external force. Newton’s second law: The acceleration a of a body is proportional to the net external force F and inversely proportional to the mass m of the body. F = ma Newton’s third law: law of action and reaction The force exerted by body 1 on body 2 is equal and opposite to the force that body 2 exerts on body 1. The kinetic energy of a particle (ideal gas) in equilibrium with its surroundings is:
K=
3kT 2
PHASE SPACE
A sixdimensional pseudospace populated by particles described by six position and velocity parameters: position: (x, y, z) velocity: (vx, vy, vz)
LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS
First law of thermodynamics: The change in the internal energy ∆U of a system is equal to the heat Q added to the system minus the work W done by the system. Second law of thermodynamics: It is not possible to convert heat completely into work without some other change taking place. Third law of thermodynamics: It is not possible to achieve an absolute zero temperature. Zeroth law of thermodynamics: If two thermal systems are in thermodynamic equilibrium with a third system, they are in equilibrium with each other.
Tom Penick
tomzap@eden.com
www.teicontrols.com/notes
12/12/1999 Page 2 of 22
T’ = time measured in the other system [m] v = velocity of (x’.998 × 108 m/s γ = 1/ 1 − v 2 / c 2 For the situation where the velocity u with respect to the K frame is known.y’. the time interval between two events occurring at the same location as measured within the same system is the proper time and is shorter than the time interval as measured outside the system.y’. [m/s] c = speed of light 2. Objects moving at high speed become longer in the direction of motion.998 × 108 m/s LIGHT WAVEFRONT Position of the wavefront of a light source located at the origin.RELATIVITY WAVELENGTH λ 1 c= = λν µ 0ε 0 1Å = 1010m c = speed of light 2. T= T0′ 1− v / c 2 2 or T ′ = T0 1 − v2 / c2 where: MichelsonMorley Experiment indicated that light was not influenced by the “flow of ether”.z’) system along the xaxis.y’. Proper length L0 a length that is not moving with respect to the observer. T0 = the proper time (shorter). [m/s] c = speed of light 2. [m/s] t = time [s] c = speed of light 2.z’) system along the xaxis. Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 3 of 22 .y’.z’) system along the xaxis. [s] T.998 × 108 m/s or with β = so that L0 = L′ 1 − v2 / c2 where: v 1 and γ = c 1 − v2 / c2 and x′ = γ ( x − vt ) t ′ = γ ( t − βx / c ) L0 = the proper length (longer).com www. which is contracted.teicontrols.998 × 108 m/s LENGTH CONTRACTION Given an object moving with great speed. the velocity of the object with respect to K is ux. T’0. RELATIVISTIC VELOCITY ADDITION Where frame K' moves along the xaxis of K with velocity v. the relation may be rewritten exchanging the primes and changing the sign of v. K' K v u' ux = u′ + v x ′ 1 + (v / c 2 ) ux If there is uy' or uz' within the K' frame then uy = γ 1 − ( v / c 2 ) u′ x u′ y and u z = γ 1 − ( v / c 2 ) u′ x u′ z ux = velocity of an object in the x direction [m/s] v = velocity of (x’. Objects moving at high speed age less. [m/s] c = speed of light 2.z’) system along the xaxis.998 × 10 m/s λ = wavelength [m] ν = (nu) radiation frequency [Hz] Å = (angstrom) unit of wavelength equal to 1010 m m = (meters) 8 TIME DILATION Given two systems moving at great speed relative to each other. and an object moves along the xaxis with velocity ux' with respect of K'. LORENTZ TRANSFORMATION Compares position and time in two coordinate systems moving with respect to each other along axis x. x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = c 2t 2 Proper time T0 The elapsed time between two events occurring at the same position in a system as recorded by a stationary clock in the system (shorter duration than other times). x′ = x − vt 2 1− v / c 2 t′ = t − vx / c 2 1 − v2 / c2 v = velocity of (x’. The proper length is longer than the length as observed outside the system. the distance traveled as seen by a stationary observer is L0 and the distance seen by the object is L'. [m] L' = contracted length [m] v = velocity of (x’. also called the spacetime distance.
A line with a slope of 1 (dashed line in illustration) indicates travel at the speed of light. So points that are equidistant from the x axis represent simultaneous events. A point on the diagram represents an event in terms of its location in the x direction and the time it takes place. and there exists a K'frame in which the two events occur simultaneously but at different locations. The line represents travel from one location to another over a period of time. timelike . convertible to [eV/c] by multiplying by c/q. Simultaneous events occurring at t = t’ = 0 in the K’ system may be represented by points along the x’ axis. ∆x2 = c2∆t2.998 × 108 m/s RELATIVISTIC MOMENTUM p p = γmu where: p = relativistic momentum [kgm/s].∆ s2 < 0: In this case. and is called a worldline. γ = 1/ 1 − u 2 / c2 m = mass [kg] u = velocity of object [m/s] Tom Penick tomzap@eden. so no worldline can have a slope less than 1.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 4 of 22 . s 2 = x 2 − ( ct ) = x′2 − ( ct ′ ) 2 2 ct ct' Worldline v = 0. Other simultaneous events in the K’ system will be found on lines parallel to the x’ axis.SPACETIME DIAGRAM The diagram is a means of representing events in two systems.com www. SPACETIME INTERVAL ∆ s The quantity ∆s2 is invariant between two frames of reference with relative movement along the xaxis.25c c 1 slope = v = =4 β Two events occurring at different times and locations in the Kframe may be characterized by their ∆s2 quantity. and there exists a K'frame in which the two events occur at the same position but at different times. A straight line indicates zero acceleration. m = mass of the object in motion [kg] v = velocity of object [m/s] ν = (nu) the frequency of photon light [Hz] c = speed of light 2.25 MOMENTUM p p = mv for a photon: p = x A system K’ traveling in the x direction at ¼the speed of light is represented by the line ct’ in this example. ∆x2 < c2∆t2.teicontrols. v =c ∆s 2 = ∆x 2 − ( c∆t ) 2 lightlike . The horizontal x axis represents distance in the K system and the vertical ct axis represents time multiplied by the speed of light so that it is in units of distance as well. Events can be causally connected. ∆x2 > c2∆t2. and the two events can only be connected by a light signal. convertible to [eV/c] by multiplying by c/q. spacelike .∆ s2 = 0: In this case. The slope of the line is proportional to the velocity. hν c p = momentum [kgm/s]. x' v slope = c = β = 0.∆ s2 > 0: In this case.
LINE SPECTRA Light passing through a diffraction grating with thousands of ruling lines per centimeter is diffracted by an angle θ. When the textbook speaks of a 50 Mev particle. convertible to [eV] by dividing by q. it is talking about the particle's kinetic energy. proper) will be perceived at the higher frequency of ν (nu) in the other system.) and c is the 8 speed of light 2. K = kinetic energy [J]. convertible to [eV] by dividing by q. the binding energy of the electron in the ground state is K = γmc 2 − mc 2 dividing by q.998 × 108 m/s EB = binding energy (can be negative or positive) [J] m = mass [kg] Z = atomic number of the element e = q = electron charge [c] ε0 = permittivity of free space 8. such as the coulomb force between a hydrogen proton and its electron • the difference between the rest energies of the individual particles of a system and the rest energy of a the bound system • the work required to pull particles out of a bound system into free particles at rest. light emitted by one system at frequency ν0 (nu.teicontrols. where for every integer n.85 × 1012 F/m c = speed of light 2.z’) system along the xaxis. E0 = rest energy [J]. γ = 1/ 1 − v 2 / c 2 m = mass [kg] c = speed of light 2. convertible to [eV] by γ = 1/ 1 − v 2 / c 2 m = mass [kg] c = speed of light 2. ν = (nu) the frequency of emitted light as perceived in the ν0 = (nu) the proper frequency of the emitted light (lower for approaching systems) [Hz]. The offcenter distance of the maxima is y = l tan θ E = K + E0 or E = γmc 2 where: E = total energy [J]. there is a lighting maxima. E0 = mc 2 TOTAL ENERGY E Total energy is the kinetic energy plus the rest energy.com www. When the textbook speaks of a 50 Mev particle.998 × 108 m/s BINDING ENERGY • the potential energy associated with holding a system together. it is talking about the particle's kinetic energy. where: EB = mZ 2e 4 2h 2 ( 4 πε0 ) 2 K = relativistic kinetic energy [J]. d sin θ = nλ The equation also applies to Young's double slit experiment. Frequency is related to wavelength by c = λν. β = v/c where v is the closing velocity of the systems (Use a negative number for diverging systems. reverse the signs.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 5 of 22 .998 × 108 m/s d = distance between rulings [m] θ = angle of diffraction [degrees] n = the order number (integer) λ = wavelength [m] l = distance from slits to screen [m] Tom Penick tomzap@eden. convertible to [eV] by dividing by q. [m/s] E = total energy (Kinetic + Rest energies) [J] p = momentum [kgm/s] m = mass [kg] c = speed of light 2. RELATIVISTIC KINETIC ENERGY K Relativistic kinetic energy is the total energy minus the rest energy.998 × 108 m/s h = Planck's constant divided by 2π [Js] REST ENERGY E0 Rest energy is the energy an object has due to its mass.DOPPLER EFFECT Given two systems approaching each other at velocity v. EB = ∑ mi c 2 − M bound system c 2 i for hydrogen and singleelectron ions. MOMENTUMENERGY RELATION (energy) 2 = (kinetic energy) 2 + (rest energy) 2 E 2 = p 2c 2 + m 2c 4 where: 1+ β ν= ν0 1− β other system [Hz] For two systems receeding from each other.y’.998 × 10 m/s v = velocity of (x’.
PHOTON A photon is a massless particle that travels at the speed of light. A blackbody is an ideal device that absorbs all radiation falling on it.6260755×1034 Js] multiplied by λmin the frequency of light [Hz]. T) = light intensity [W/(m2· λ)] λ = wavelength [m] T = temperature [K] c = speed of light 2. Wavelength: λ= c ν [meters] R(T ) = εσT 4 where: h = Planck's constant 6. Photon energy: E = hν = pc [Joules] Momentum: p = λ maxT = 2.6260755×1034 Js k = Boltzmann's constant 1. φ = work function. 1 2 = energy in Joules. minimum energy required to get an electron to leave the metal [eV] INVERSE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT hc eV0 = hυmax = where: λ min eV0 = the kinetic energy of an electron accelerated through a voltage V0 [eV] hν = Planck's constant [6.998 × 10 m/s R(T) = power per unit area radiated at temperature T [W/m2] ε = emissivity (ε = 1 for ideal blackbody) σ = constant 5.6705 × 108 W/(m2· K4) T = temperature (K) PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT This is the way the book shows the formula. the process of an electron slowing down and giving up energy in photons as it passes through matter.6260755×1034 Js ν = (nu) frequency of the electromagnetic wave associated c with the light given off by the photon [Hz] 8 = speed of light 2. This term will need to be divided by q to obtain eV. but it is a units nightmare.2398 × 10−6 = V0 Tom Penick tomzap@eden.teicontrols.com www. A photon is generated when an electron moves to a lower energy state (orbit). PLANCK'S RADIATION LAW 2πc h 1 I (λ .6260755×1034 Js] multiplied by the frequency of light [Hz].WIEN'S CONSTANT The product of the wavelength of peak intensity λ [m] and the temperature T [K] of a blackbody. but convert to eV for the mvmax 2 formula by dividing by q. This term will need to be divided by q to obtain eV.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 6 of 22 .898 ×10 −3 m⋅K hν c [kgm/s]. STEFANBOLTZMANN LAW May be applied to a blackbody or any material for which the emissivity is known. T ) = hc / λkT 5 λ e −1 2 where: 1 2 mvmax = eV0 = hυ − φ 2 where: I(λ.380658×1023 J/K positron – A particle having the same mass as an electron but with a positive charge bremsstrahlung – from the German word for braking radiation.998 × 108 m/s h = Planck's constant 6. convertible to [eV/c] by multiplying by c/q. eV0 = potential required to stop electrons from leaving the metal [V] hν = Planck's constant [6. = the minimum wavelength of light created when an electron gives up one photon of light energy [m] DUANEHUNT RULE λ min 1.
teicontrols.1093897×1031 [kg] e = q = electron charge [c] n = principle quantum number ∆λ = λ′ − λ = h = Planck's constant divided by 2π [Js] h (1 − cos θ) mc E = hn' p= h l' scattered photon IMPACT PARAMETER b The impact parameter b is the distance that a bombarding particle deviates from the directhit approach path. photon θ φ E = hn p= h l electron at rest Ei = mc 2 recoil electron b= Z1 Z2 e θ cot 8πε 0 K 2 2 Ef = Ee b = direct path deviation [m] Z1 = atomic number of the incident particle Z2 = atomic number of the target particle e = q = electron charge [c] ε0 = permittivity of free space 8.com www.ELECTRON ANGULAR MOMENTUM from the Bohr model: HEADON SCATTERING When a particle of kinetic energy K and atomic number Z1 is fired directly at the nucleus. Since rmin is measured to the center of the particles.85 × 1012 F/m me = electron mass 9. they will just touch when rmin is the sum of their radii. L = mvr = nh L = angular momentum [kgm /s?] m = mass [kg] v = velocity [m/s] r = radius [m] n = principle quantum number 2 where: h = Planck's constant divided by 2π [Js] rmin = Z1 Z2 e2 4πε0 K a0 BOHR RADIUS [m] The Bohr radius is the radius of the orbit of the hydrogen electron in the ground state (n=1): rmin = particle separation (measured center to center) at the time that the bombarding particle reverses direction [m] other variables are previously defined a0 = 4πε0h 2 mee 2 and for higher states (n>1): rn = a0 n 2 COMPTON EFFECT The scattering of a photon due to collision with a single electron results in a new wavelength λ' and a directional change of ∠θ and is described by the following relation: a0.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 7 of 22 . quantized radius [m] ε0 = permittivity of free space 8. The entire kinetic energy is converted to Coulomb potential energy. it approaches to rmin before reversing direction. and is related to the angle θ at which it will be deflected by the target particle. rn = Bohr radius 5.29177×1011 m.85 × 1012 F/m K = kinetic energy of the incident particle Z1 θ = angle of particle Z1 deflection or scattering The φ relations come from the conservation of momentum: px : py : h h = cos θ + pe cos φ λ λ′ h sin θ = pe sin φ λ′ Tom Penick tomzap@eden.
4πε0 n 2 h 2 rn = me Ze 2 rn = electron orbit radius in the n shell [m] other variables are previously defined PROBABILITY OF A PARTICLE SCATTERING BY AN ANGLE GREATER THAN θ Z Z e θ f = πnt 1 2 cot 2 2 8πε0 K 2 2 ar RADIAL ACCELERATION ar = the radial acceleration of an orbiting electron [m/s2] f = the probability (a value between 0 and 1) n = number of atoms per unit volume [m3] n = ρN A N M Mg where ρ is density [g/m3].1093897×1031 kg r = the radius of the electron's orbit [m] h = Planck's constant divided by 2π [Js] t = thickness of the target material [m] e = q = electron charge [c] ε0 = permittivity of free space 8. NM is the number of atoms per molecule. v = tangential velocity of the electron [m/s] r = electron orbit radius [m] ar = v2 r t = thickness of the target material [m] Z1 = atomic number of the incident particle Z2 = atomic number of the target particle e = q = electron charge [c] ε0 = permittivity of free space 8. NA is Avogadro's number. NM is the number of atoms per molecule.RUTHERFORD SCATTERING A particle of kinetic energy K and atomic number Z1 when fired at a target film of thickness t and atomic number Z2.85 × 1012 F/m Z1 = atomic number of the incident particle Z2 = atomic number of the target particle r = the radius at which the angle θ is measured [m] K = kinetic energy of the incident particle Z1 ELECTRON ORBIT RADIUS This comes from the Bohr model and only applies to atoms and ions having a single electron.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 8 of 22 . and MG is the grammolecular weight [g/mole]. NA is Avogadro's number.com www.85 × 1012 F/m K = kinetic energy of the incident particle Z1 θ = angle of particle Z1 deflection or scattering Alpha particle: Z=2 Proton: Z=1 Tom Penick tomzap@eden. v = electron velocity [m/s] Z = atomic number or number of protons in the nucleus e = q = electron charge [c] n = the electron orbit or shell ε0 = permittivity of free space 8.teicontrols. N ( θ) = 2 2 N i nt e 2 Z1 Z 2 16 4πε0 r 2 K 2 sin 4 ( θ / 2 ) 2 vn = e Z 1 Ze 2 = n 4πε0 h 2 r 1 3 1 πε0 m3 424 4 e 24 n dependent r dependent N(θ) = number of particles scattered per unit area [m2] θ = angle of particle Z1 deflection or scattering Ni = total number of incident particles [kg] n = number of atoms per unit volume [m3] n = ρN A N M Mg where ρ is density [g/m3].85 × 1012 F/m me = mass of an electron 9. will be deflected by an angle θ. and MG is the grammolecular weight [g/mole]. ELECTRON VELOCITY This comes from the Bohr model and only applies to atoms and ions having a single electron.
Compare to ELECTRON SCATTERING below.096776×107 m1 for hydrogen) µe = adjusted electron mass Z = atomic number. the angle between the incident wave and the surface of the material h ELECTRON SCATTERING Electrons directed into a crystalline material are scattered (reflected) at various angles depending on the arrangement of lattice planes.6605×1027) [kg] n = order of reflection (number of lattice planes in depth) λ = wavelength of the incident wave [m] d = distance between lattice planes (interatomic spacing in this case) [m] θ = angle of incidence. n = order of reflection (number of lattice planes in depth) λ = wavelength of the incident wave [m] D = interatomic spacing [m] d = distance between lattice planes [m] φ = angle between the incident and reflected waves 1 1 1 = Z 2R 2 − 2 λ nl nu λ = wavelength [m] Z = atomic number or number of protons in the nucleus R = Rydberg constant (1. or number of protons in the nucleus nλ = 2d sin θ d 2 d sin θ d sin θ ε0 = permittivity of free space 8. The technique can be used to explore the characteristics of a material.1093897×1031 kg M = mass of the nucleus (essentially the same as the mass of the atom ⇒ atomic number × 1. Henry Moseley determined this equation experimentally for the frequency of Lα xrays.380658×1023 J/K T = temperature in Kelvin (273. ∆K = ∆C) (see page 5 for RELATIVISTIC KINETIC ENERGY) Tom Penick tomzap@eden. θ R= 4πch3 ( 4πε 0 ) µe Z 2e 4 2 where µe = me M me + M R∞ = Rydberg constant 1.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 9 of 22 . Lα waves are produced by an electron decaying from the n=3 orbit to the n=2 or L orbit.85 × 1012 F/m c = speed of light 2.09678×107 m1 (1. BRAGG'S LAW Xray Scattering . ν Lα = ν = (nu) frequency [Hz] c = speed of light 2.998 × 108 m/s R = Adjusted Rydberg constant (see above) [m1] Z = atomic number or number of protons in the nucleus 5 2 cR ( Z − 7.4) 36 nλ = D sin φ D θ φ α α d SPECTRAL LINES This formula gives the wavelength of light emitted when an electron in a singleelectron atom or ion decays from orbit nu to nl.15K = 0°C. Lα MOSELEY'S EQUATION British physicist. R is the adjusted value. There is more than one set of lattice planes in a crystal.com www.096776×107 m1 for hydrogen) nl = the lower electron orbit number nu = the upper electron orbit number K CLASSICAL KINETIC ENERGY Two expressions for kinetic energy: p2 3 = K = kT 2m 2 lead to a momentumtemperature relation for particles: p 2 = 3mkT p = momentum [kgm/s] m = particle mass [kg] K = kinetic energy [J] k = Boltzmann's constant 1. Compare to BRAGG'S LAW above.teicontrols. These values are appropriate for hydrogen and singleelectron ions.998 × 108 m/s = Planck's constant divided by 2π [Js] me = mass of an electron 9.R∞ RYDBERG CONSTANT R∞ is used in the Bohr model and is a close approximation assuming an infinite nuclear mass.Xrays reflected from a crystal experience interference effects since rays reflecting from the interior of the material take a longer path than those reflecting from the surface.
the velocity of a wave peak [m/s]. i.k2 [rad/m] kav = average wave number (k1 + k2)/2 [rad/m] ∆ω = difference in angular More general wave functions which are solutions to the Schröedinger equation are: wave time wave number angular frequency Phase Velocity: vph = ωav / kav Group Velocity: [m/s] velocity of a point on a wave Ψ (x.g.ω t) = A[cos(kx . in units of radians per second [rad/s]. vph = λ ω = T k ∆k ∆x = 2π ∆ω∆t = 2π φ PHASE CONSTANT The angle by which the wave is offset from zero. frequencies ω1 . in units of radians per unit distance [rad/m].t) =A sin( kx . assuming omega is positive.6260755×1034 Js p = momentum [kgm/s]. the angle by which the wave's zero amplitude point is offset from t=0.pdf) ∂ Ψ 1 ∂ Ψ = ∂x 2 v 2 ∂t 2 2 2 ∆ω ∆k x− t cos ( k av x − ωavt ) Ψ1 + Ψ 2 = 2 A cos 3 2 23 42444 144244 144 internal wave envelope This wave function fits the classical form.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 10 of 22 . is that an electronic component must have a large bandwidth ∆ω in order for its signal to respond in a short time ∆t. [radians or degrees]. assuming omega is positive.teicontrols. In order to know precisely when the wave is at a given point (∆t small).ωt) + i sin(kx . ω ANGULAR FREQUENCY A component of a wave function representing the wave density relative to time (better known as frequency). we must have a large range of frequencies (∆ω large).WAVES Ψ WAVE FUNCTIONS Classical Wave Equation We did not use this equation: Ψ SUM OF TWO WAVES (see also WaveSummingExample. we must have a large range of wave numbers (∆k large).ω2 [rad/s] ωav = average angular frequency (ω1 + ω2)/2 [rad/s] x = distance [m] t = time [s] A = harmonic amplitude [various units?] ∆k = difference in wave numbers k1 .ωt + φ) distance amplitude distance time The negative sign denotes wave motion in the positive x direction. Another result of this relationship. ∆k = the range of wave numbers. vph PHASE VELOCITY The velocity of a point on a wave. λ= h p k= 2π λ λ = wavelength [m] h = Planck's constant 6. e.e.t) = Ae i(kx. see WAVE NUMBER ∆x = the width of the wave envelope ∆ω = the range of wave frequencies ∆t = a time interval Tom Penick tomzap@eden. but is not a solution to the Schröedinger equation: wave time wave number angular frequency phase constant Ψ (x. WAVE UNCERTAINTIES 2π ω= T This has to do with the effects of combining different waves. convertible to [eV/c] by multiplying by c/q. In order to know precisely the position of the wave packet envelope (∆x small). ugr = ∆ω / ∆k [m/s] speed of the envelope λ de BROGLIE WAVELENGTH De Broglie extended the concept of waves to all matter.ωt)] distance amplitude distance time The negative sign denotes wave motion in the positive x direction. k WAVE NUMBER A component of a wave function representing the wave density relative to distance.com www.
The probability from x1 to x1 is: P = c 2 ∫ x2 x1 F * F dx Tom Penick tomzap@eden.teicontrols.t) = wave function V = voltage. find the probability: P = ∫ x2 x1 A2 ψ 2 dx or − = Planck's constant divided by 2π [Js] Ψ(x. ˆ p = − ih d dx For example.com www. The values of constants A and B will be determined from boundary conditions and will also depend on which solution is chosen. Normalize the wave function: 2 K 2 + U = E 2 ∂Ψ ( x.t) x 2 = ∫ ψ * ( x ) x 2 ψ ( x ) dx −∞ ∞ Two separate solutions to the timeindependent equation have the form: Aeikx + Be −ikx or where A sin ( kx ) + B cos ( kx ) k = 2m ( E − V ) / h ˆ p MOMENTUM OPERATOR An operator transforms one function into another function. to find the average momentum of a particle described by wave function ψ: ∞ ∞ d ˆ p = ∫ ψ * p ψ dx = ∫ ψ * −ih ψ dx −∞ −∞ dx PROBABILITY A probability is a value from zero to one. The probability may be found by the following steps: Multiply the function by its complex conjugate and take the integral from negative infinity to positive infinity with respect to the variable in question. but that the constants A and B are not consistent from one solution to the other. The momentum operator is: Note that the wave number k is consistent in both solutions. 〈x2〉 EXPECTATION VALUES 〉. multiply all this by the square of a constant c and set equal to one. t ) find the probability that a particle is located between x1 and x2. can be a function of space and time m = mass [kg] h d ψ ( x) h = E −V ( x) 2mψ ( x ) dx 2 2 2 〈 x〉.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 11 of 22 . 〈 average value: x = ∫ ψ * ( x ) x ψ ( x ) dx −∞ ∞ average x2 value: (x. c 2 ∫ F * F dx = 1 −∞ ∞ Solve for the probability constant c. t ) − + V Ψ ( x. t ) h ∂ Ψ ( x. t ) = i h 2 2m ∂x ∂t ∫ ∞ 0 A2 ψ 2 dx = 1 timeindependent form: − h d ψ ( x) + V ( x ) ψ ( x ) = Eψ ( x ) 2m dx 2 2 2 with A known.SCHRÖDINGER'S WAVE EQUATION timedependent form: PROBABILITY OF LOCATION Given the wave function: ψ ( x.
Particles you can measure the mass of (E=mc2) have a long lifetime. This also happens to be the particle lifetime. Wave function: nπx ψ n ( x ) = A sin L π2 h 2 En = n 2mL2 2 The wave equation solutions are: /2 Energy levels: where Hn(x) are polynomials of order n. Consider a twodimensional box in which a particle may be trapped by an infinite voltage potential on either side. where n = 0. Probability of a particle being found between x1 and x2: P=∫ x2 x = x1 Ψ *Ψ dx A= α ψ0 = π 1/4 e −αx 2 /2 α ψ1 = π 1/4 2 L normalization constant 2α xe −αx 2 /2 2 a useful identity: sin θ = 1 (1 − cos 2θ ) 2 α ψ2 = π α ψ3 = π 1/4 2 1 ( 2αx 2 − 1) e−αx / 2 2 2 1 x α ( 2αx 2 − 3) e−αx / 2 3 1/4 ( ) …and they call this simple! quantized energy levels: 1 En = n + hω 2 The zeropoint energy. or Heisenberg limit is the minimum energy allowed by the uncertainty principle. The problem is an application of the Schrödinger Wave Equation. k is the spring constant. ∆px = the uncertainty in the momentum along the xaxis ∆x = the uncertainty of location along the xaxis ∆E = the uncertainty of the energy ∆t = the uncertainty of time.teicontrols. The average potential energy equals the average kinetic energy equals half of the total energy.SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION Examples of simple harmonic motion include a mass on a spring and a pendulum.1. V ( x) ω= V= k m 1 2 kx 2 force: F = kx 0 L x Schrödinger Wave Equation for simple harmonic motion: where α 2 = mk h2 d 2ψ = ( α2 x2 − β) ψ dx 2 2mE and β = h2 ψ n = H n ( x ) e −αx 2 The particle may have various energies represented by waves that must have an amplitude of zero at each boundary 0 and L. spring constant k: potential energy V: INFINITE SQUAREWELL POTENTIAL or "Particle in a Box" This is a concept that applies to many physical situations.· · · and x is the variable taken to the power of n. ∆px ∆x ≥ h / 2 ∆E ∆t ≥ h / 2 Tom Penick tomzap@eden. The probability of the particle's location is also expressed by a wave function with zero values at the boundaries. Thus. The functions Hn(x) are related by a constant to the Hermite polynomial functions. the energy at n=0: E0 = 1 hω 2 HEISENBERG UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE These relations apply to Gaussian wave packets. not the wave number.com www. the energies are quantized. They describe the limits in determining the factors below.2. In simple harmonic motion.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 12 of 22 .
for E < V0: Classically. region II: κ = 2m (V0 − E ) / h −1 V0 2 sinh 2 ( κL ) trans. probability: V sin ( k II L ) T = 1 + 0 4 E ( E − V0 ) reflection probability: R = 1 − T En1 n2 n3 = 2 2 π 2h 2 n12 n2 n3 2+ 2+ 2 2m L1 L2 L3 Degenerate energy levels may exist—that is. but there is a quantum mechanical possibility for this to happen called tunneling.com www. kinetic energy: K = V0 − E wave #.teicontrols.POTENTIAL BARRIER When a particle of energy E encounters a barrier of potential V0. A particle trapped in the box is described by a wave function and has quantized energy levels. different combinations of nvalues may produce equal energy values. z L3 L2 0 L1 x y V (x ) particle V0 0 L x Region I Region II Region III Timeindependent Schrödinger Wave Equation in three dimensions: k I = k III = 2mE / h ik I x − k II = 2m ( E − V0 ) / h incident wave: ϕI = Ae reflected wave: ϕI = Be − ik I x kI x 2 2 −1 h 2 ∂ 2ψ ∂ 2ψ ∂ 2 ψ + + + V ψ = Eψ 2m ∂x 2 ∂y2 ∂z 2 Wave equation for the 3D infinite potential box: n πx n πy n πz ψ n1 n2 n3 = A sin 1 sin 2 sin 3 L1 L2 L3 Energy levels: transmitted wave: ϕIII = Fe trans. it is not possible for a particle of energy E to cross a greater potential V0. for E > V0: kinetic energy: K = E − V0 wave number: 3D INFINITE POTENTIAL BOX Consider a threedimensional box with zero voltage potential inside the box and infinite voltage outside.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 13 of 22 . there is a possibility of either a reflected wave or a transmitted wave. probability: T = 1 + 4 E (V0 − E ) E E −2 κL when κL ? 1 : T = 16 1 − e V0 V0 Tom Penick tomzap@eden.
where l is an integer.SCHRÖDINGER'S EQUATION – 3D SPHERICAL spherical coordinate form: NORMALIZING WAVE FUNCTIONS To normalize a function. φ) = R ( r ) f ( θ) g ( φ) We can obtain a form with terms of g on one side and terms of R and f on the other.29177×1011 m Tom Penick tomzap@eden.θ . The normalized function is the original function multiplied by A. integers ranging from –l to +l Note that dr. dθ. we can simplify to: ∫ ∞ −∞ AΨ dx ∞ 2 → A2 ∫ Ψ 2 dx −∞ ∞ 0 ∞ 2A2 ∫ Ψ 2dx 0 and find A: 2 A2 ∫ Ψ 2 dx = 1 Some relations for definite integrals will be useful in solving this equation. and dφ are moved to the front of their respective integrals for clarity. The three equations are: Azimuthal equation: Where Ψ is an even function. l = orbital angular momentum quantum number h = Planck's constant divided by 2π [Js] E = energy V = voltage. These are set equal to the constant ml2. Another seperation is performed for R and f and the constant is l(l+1). can be a function of space and time (x. To normalize the wave function Ψ(x): 1 ∂ 2 ∂ψ 1 ∂ ∂ψ 1 ∂2ψ 2m r + 2 sinθ + 2 2 + ( E −V) ψ= 0 r2 ∂r ∂r r sin θ∂θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂θ2 h2 separation of variables using: Ψ ( r. θ. ml turns out to be an integer.pdf page 3. where r is the radius in spherical coordinates: 1 d2g 2 + ml = 0 ⇒ g = Aeiml φ 2 g dφ Radial equation: l ( l + 1) 1 d 2 dR 2m R=0 r + 2 (E −V ) R − r 2 dr dr h r2 Note that we integrate from 0 to ∞ since r has no negative values. multiply the function by its complex conjugate and by the square of the normalization constant A.com www. To normalize the wave function Ψ(r.t) m = mass [kg] Rnl(r) RADIAL WAVE FUNCTIONS for the hydrogen atom n 1 l 0 Rnl(r) 2 a0 3/2 e − r / a0 2 0 r e − r / 2 a0 w− a0 ( 2a0 )3 / 2 r a0 1 e − r / 2 a0 3 ( 2a0 ) 3/2 2 1 3 0 ( a0 )3 / 2 1 2 r r 2 − r /3 a0 27 − 18 + 2 2 e a0 a0 81 3 4 r r − r /3 a0 6 − e a0 a0 81 6 4 r 2 − r /3 a0 e 2 81 30 a0 3 1 ( a0 ) 1 3/2 3 2 ( a0 ) 3/2 a0 = Bohr radius 5.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 14 of 22 . Integrate the result from ∞ to ∞ and set equal to 1 to find the value of A. see CalculusSummary. To normalize the wave function Ψ(r).teicontrols.φ): θφ ∫ ∞ 0 r 2 AΨ dr → 2 A2 ∫ r 2 Ψ 2 dr = 1 0 ∞ Angular Equation: 2 df m 1 d sin θ + l ( l + 1) − l2 f = 0 sin θ d θ dθ sin θ A2 ∫ dr r 2 AΨ 0 ∞ 2 ∫ π 0 d θ sin θ ∫ d φ = 1 0 2π ml = magnetic quantum number.
normalized to unity L ORBITAL ANGULAR MOMENTUM Classically. may have values of 0 to n1. fundamental l =0 1 2 3 4 5 s p df gh Tom Penick tomzap@eden. may have values from j to +j (p257) Example. The value is found by integrating the righthand side of the expression over the interval in question: ATOMS QUANTUM NUMBERS n = principal quantum number. diffuse.com www. p=1. shell number. The orbital angular momentum L is a vector quantity. normalized to unity P(r) RADIAL PROBABILITY DENSITY The radial probability density depends only on n and l. (p251) ms = magnetic spin quantum number. subshell number. but j is not less than 0. principal. h=5. 3. g=4. 2. P(r ) = r 2 R ( r ) 2 r = orbit radius R(r) = radial wave function. d=2. for n = 3: r = orbit radius R(r) = radial wave function. … P(r ) dr = r 2 R ( r ) dr 2 l = orbital angular momentum quantum number. orbital angular momentum is ρr or mvr. It components are as follows: Magnitude: Zaxis value: Lz = ml h L = h l ( l + 1) The values of Lx and Ly cannot be determined exactly but obey the following relation: L2 = L2x + L2 + L2 y z h = Planck's constant divided by 2π [Js] l = orbital angular momentum quantum number ml = magnetic quantum number. integers ranging from –l to +l The orbital angular momentum quantum number was originally given letter values resulting from early visual observations: sharp. may have integer values from l to +l for each l. f=3. j = l ± s.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 15 of 22 . … ml = magnetic quantum number. These values are sometimes expressed as letters: s=0.P(r)dr RADIAL PROBABILITY The radial probability is a value from 0 to 1 indicating the probability of a particle occupying a certain area radially distant from the center of orbit. may have values of 1. normalized to unity 〈 r〉 RADIAL EXPECTATION VALUE 〉 average radius (radial wave function): l= j= mj = 0 1/2 1/2 +1/2 1 1/2 1/2 +1/2 2 3/2 3/2 1/2 +1/2 +3/2 r =∫ ∞ r =0 r P ( r ) dr = ∫ ∞ r =0 r R ( r ) dr 3 3/2 3/2 1/2 +1/2 +3/2 5/2 5/2 3/2 1/2 +1/2 +3/2 +5/2 P(r) = probability distribution function P ( r ) = r 2 R ( r ) dr 2 ml = ms = 0 1/2 +1/2 1 1/2 +1/2 0 1/2 +1/2 +1 1/2 +1/2 2 1/2 +1/2 1 1/2 +1/2 0 1/2 +1/2 +1 1/2 +1/2 +2 1/2 +1/2 R(r) = radial wave function. s =1/2 (p238) j = total angular momentum quantum number.teicontrols. (p257) mj = magnetic angular momentum quantum number. may have values of +½ or ½ Then we introduce these new ones: s = intrinsic quantum number.
form the third group with d. L1 + L2 for a 2electron shell.…) is split into multiple levels. F=3. The next step is to number each p beginning with the number 2. in a column. S z = ms h = ± h / 2 . but I think it has to be the lower value of j to be in the ground state. I=6. and so on.3. integers ranging from –l to +l µ MAGNETIC MOMENT Both the magnetic moment µ and the orbital angular momentum L are vectors: The result will be the order of filling (there are a few exceptions) and will look like this: 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d and so on. This applies to 1electron and manyelectron atoms. You get a list of groups like this: Now. ±1 ∆j: 0. form a new group of p with s.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 16 of 22 . Next number each s beginning with 1. D=2. 0 or 1 (S1 + S2) for the 2electron shell L = angular momentum quantum number. The first group is just the lowest value for l: s. write each group twice beginning with the single s that is the first group.S SPIN ANGULAR MOMENTUM The spin angular momentum is (insert some illuminating explanation here). The next value of l is p. J = L+S J (the magnitude?) is an integer value from LS to L+S. ORDER OF ELECTRON FILLING ALLOWED TRANSITIONS The allowed energy level transitions for 1electron atoms are ∆n: any ∆l: ±1 ∆mj: 0.com www. Then number each d beginning with the number 3. expressed as a capital letter: S=0. This is as far as I have gone with the list at right. l for singleelectron shell. ±1 Here's a way to remember the order in which the outer shells of atoms are filled by electrons: Form groups of lnumbers like this.1h 2 J TOTAL ANGULAR MOMENTUM The vector sum of the orbital angular momentum and the spin angular momentum. each energy level (n=1. and s. p. P=1. G=4. ZEEMAN SPLITTING ("ZAY· mahn") When a singleelectron atom is under the influence of an external magnetic field (taken to be in the zaxis direction). placing the number in front of the s. ì =− e L 2m 2s p 3s p 4s d p 5s f d p 6s f d p 7s and so on. one for each quantum number ml.teicontrols. I'm not sure how to tell whether it's plus or minus. The third value of l is d. j = total angular momentum quantum number j = l ± s. m = mass of the orbiting particle [kg] Tom Penick tomzap@eden. j is positive only. Number each f beginning with 4.274078×1024 J/T B = magnetic field [T] ml = magnetic quantum number.2. The difference in energy is: s ps dps fdps gfdps hgfdps 1s ∆E = µ B Bml ∆E = difference in energy between two energy levels [J] µB = Bohr magneton 9. H=5. Magnitude: MANYELECTRON ATOMS SPECTROSCOPIC SYMBOLS The energy state of an atom having 1 or 2 electrons in its outer shell can be represented in the form S = h s ( s + 1) = h 3 / 4 z 1 +2h z component: S=h 3/4 n 2S +1 L j n = shell number S = intrinsic spin angular momentum quantum number. ½ for a singleelectron shell.
1h 2 ALLOWED PHOTON TRANSITIONS The allowed photon energy level transitions for manyelectron atoms are ∆L: ±1 ∆S: 0 ∆J: 0. ∆mj: 0. but J can't transition from 0 to 0. These two levels have the same energy except when the atom is influenced by an external magnetic field. but can't transition from 0 to 0 when ∆J=0. Used in ANOMALOUS ZEEMAN SPLITTING SPLITTING DUE TO SPIN For each state described by quantum numbers n.teicontrols. Example: cos θ = j×h j= 5 2 → z + 5 2 h h h h h h h j ( j + 1) +3 2 + 1 2 1 2 3 2 5 2 θ J = h j(j+1) SPINORBIT ENERGY SPLITTING Spinorbit energy splitting is the splitting of energy levels caused by an internal magnetic field due to spin. there are two states defined by the magnetic spin numbers ms = ±1/2. ∆E = ms = ±1/2 [J] ∆E = difference in energy between two (split) energy levels ∆λ = difference in wavelengths for the transitions to the ground state for each energy level [m] λ = wavelength for the transitions to the ground state for the lower of the two energy levels (the greater of the two wavelengths) [m] h = Planck's constant 6.E.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 17 of 22 . due to spin cos 2 θ = j2 → j cos 2 θ = j ( j + 1) ( j + 1) V = −ì s ·B 2me h cos θ = j j +1 zcomponent µ = − g eh J z z s energy level difference ∆E = g s eh B me e = q = electron charge 1. p265 P.6260755×1034 Js c = speed of light 2.6022×1019 C jz = zcomponent of the total angular momentum ∆E = difference in energy between two (split) energy levels ms = ±1/2 [J] h = Planck's constant divided by 2π [Js] gs = 2. ±1.1093897×1031 kg B = internal magnetic field [T] Tom Penick tomzap@eden. This produces a greater ∆E than the spin splitting described above. Other transitions are possible—just not likely.g LANDÉ g FACTOR A dimensionless number that helps make physics complicated. z 1 +2h g = 1+ J ( J + 1) + S ( S + 1) − L ( L + 1) 2 J ( J + 1) S=h 3/4 . the gyromagnetic ratio me = mass of an electron 9. I don't know what the significance is.998 × 108 m/s hc ∆λ λ2 θ MINIMUM ANGLE BETWEEN J AND THE ZAXIS There were exercises where we had to calculate this. The lower of the two energy levels is aligned with the magnetic field. This is done similarly for L and S as well.com www. ml. l. ±1.
vrms MOLECULAR SPEEDS [m/s] Maxwell speed distribution: In addition to the Zeeman splitting of the ml energy levels described previously. v . This is for classical systems.4×103 m3. at 0°C and 1 atmosphere.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 18 of 22 . 6.4 liters. Tom Penick tomzap@eden. and the spinorbit energy splitting described above. is the number of gas molecules in 22. If λ<<d then MaxwellBoltzmann statistics are generally acceptable. Note that Avogadro's number. gas volume is proportional to temperature: V1/T1=V2/T2. there is a splitting of the mj levels when an external magnetic field is present.274078×1024 J/T Bext = external magnetic field [T] g = Landé factor [no units] mj = magnetic angular momentum quantum number. such as ideal gases. The difference in energy between levels is: F ( v ) dv = 4πCe v* = v= 1 − β mv2 2 v 2 dv V = µ B Bext gm j V = difference in energy between two energy levels [J] µB = Bohr magneton 9. halfintegers ranging from –j to +j v* most probable speed: 2 2kT = m βm 4 2π kT m 1/2 v mean speed: vrms root mean square speed: vrms = v 2 = 3kT m v = velocity [m/s] C = normalization constant k = Boltzmann's constant 1.022×1023. One way to determine if MaxwellBoltzmann statistics are valid is to compare the de Broglie wavelength λ = h/p of a typical particle with the average interparticle spacing d. FMB = Ae −βE V d = N 1/3 A = normalization constant β = the parameter 1/kT [J1] d = space between atoms [m] N = number of particles in volume V.teicontrols.380658×1023 J/K T = temperature [K] m = mass of the molecule [kg] β = the parameter 1/kT [J1] ENERGY DISTRIBUTION Derived from Maxwell's speed distribution: F (E) = 8πC −βE 1 / 2 e E 2m3 / 2 FMB MAXWELLBOLTZMANN FACTOR The MaxwellBoltzmann factor is a value between 0 and 1 representing the probability that an energy level E is occupied by an electron (at temperature T).com www. Also. or 22.ANOMALOUS ZEEMAN SPLITTING ("ZAY· mahn") STATISTICAL PHYSICS v*.
n3 are all positive.000 K for copper. The FermiDirac distribution is valid for fermions. a value from 0 to 1 indicating the probability that an energy state is occupied β = the parameter 1/kT [J1] h = Planck's constant 6. Atoms and molecules consisting of an even number of fermions must be considered bosons when taken as a whole because their total spin will be zero or an integer. and liquid 4He are bosons. TF FERMI TEMPERATURE The Fermi temperature may be quite high.380658×1023 J/K FFD = B1 = normalization constant β = the parameter 1/kT [J1] 1 B1e + 1 βE uF FERMI SPEED The Fermi speed. The FermiDirac distribution is modified to include the Fermi energy: 3 2 1 1 2 1 2 3 r n2 ∆r FFD = 1 e β( E − EF ) +1 n1 The relationship between the Fermi energy and the number density of particles is: Nr Number of energy states in a sphere of radius r. and the factor of 1/8 is because the energy states only occupy 1/8 of the sphere where n1. Photons. EF = Fermi Energy [eV] m = mass (probably of the electron) [kg] ENERGY STATES IN "PHASE SPACE" The points in the 1/8 sphere represent the energy states of a particle in a cube. see 3D INFINITE POTENTIAL BOX p13.e. particles with zero or integer spins that do no obey the Pauli principle.teicontrols. particles with halfinteger spins that obey the Pauli principle.FFD FERMIDIRAC DISTRIBUTION A value between 0 and 1 indicating the probability than an energy state is occupied by an electron. the number of energy states there are with energy less than E: EF = h2 3N 8m πL3 2/3 π E 1 4 N r = 2 πr 3 or N r = 3 E1 8 3 3/2 FFD = FermiDirac distribution. g(E) DENSITY OF ENERGY STATES Number of states per unit energy g (E) = π −3 / 2 1/ 2 E1 E 2 g (E) = ∆N r dN r = ∆E dE Nr = number of energy states in a sphere of radius r E1 = a constant equal to 1/3 of the ground state energy Tom Penick tomzap@eden. TF = EF k EF = Fermi Energy [eV] k = Boltzmann's constant 1. i. n2. 3 n3 spacing energy states energy levels EF FERMI ENERGY [eV] The Fermi energy depends on the density of electrons in the material. pions. uF = 2 EF m 1 2 muF 2 comes from the definition: EF = FBE BOSEEINSTEIN DISTRIBUTION The BoseEinstein distribution is valid for bosons.6260755×1034 Js m = mass of the particle [kg] N/L3 = number density of the particles [m3] where the factor of 2 is due to spin degeneracy. 80.com www.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 19 of 22 . integer Energy level at radius r FBE = B2 = normalization constant β = the parameter 1/kT [J1] 1 B2 e − 1 βE E = r 2 E1 where E1 = h 2 / 8mL2 (a constant equal to 1/3 of the ground state energy) and r = n12 + n22 + n32 and E is whatever energy the problem is concerned with.
teicontrols.n(E) DENSITY OF OCCUPIED STATES Number of occupied states per unit energy n ( E ) = FFD ⋅ g ( E ) at T=0. FFD = FermiDirac distribution. a value from 0 to 1 indicating the probability that an energy state is occupied Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 20 of 22 .com www. for E < EF for E > EF 0. n ( E ) = g ( E ) .
0.6726231×10 −31 WAVELENGTH SPECTRUM BAND METERS ANGSTROMS kg Longwave radio Standard Broadcast me = 0.1 .10 m 1 .109 8000 .29 m/s 7 1 green yellow orange Red Ultraviolet light Xrays Gamma rays Cosmic rays 108 cm = 1010 M 104 cm 273.6900 3600 4300 4900 5600 6000 6900 100 . FM Microwave Infrared light mneutron = 939.107 3600 .6749 ×10 m p = 1.62 × 10 −5 eV/K ≈ 384 ×106 m µB = (1 ± x ) n BINOMIAL EXPANSION For x < 1 : n( n − 1) 2 n(n − 1)(n − 2) 3 = 1 ± nx + x ± x +L 2! 3! Boltzmann’s constant or Earth to Moon distance Elementary charge Electron mass When x is much less than 1: (1 ± x )n = 1 ± nx q = 1.000 pm 100 .100 mm 0.05 .10.8541878 ×10 = 4.14 × 10 −15 eVs F/m Visible light violet blue h = 6.1011 107 .6260755 ×10−34 Js R = 1.0259 eV c = 2.APPENDIX CONSTANTS Avogadro’s number [molecules/mole] Bohr magneton N A = 6.27 MeV/c Permittivity of free space Planck’s constant Rydberg constant kT @ room temperature Speed of light Speed of sound (air 0°C) 1 Å (angstrom) 1 µm (micron) 1 nm = 10Å = 107 cm 1 eV = 1.690 nm 360 nm 430 nm 490 nm 560 nm 600 nm 690 nm 10 .380658 ×10−23 J/K K = 8.1012 109 .1015 1012 .998 × 108 m/s vs = 331.100 km 100 .0221367 ×1023 qh = 9.15K = 0°C 1 W = 1 J/S = 1 VA 1 J = 1 N· m = 1 C· V UNITS Energy: Joules × 2 GREEK ALPHABET Α Β Χ ∆ Ε Φ Γ Η α β χ δ ε φ γ η alpha beta chi delta epsilon phi gamma eta 1 = eV q Mass: Kg × c = eV/c2 q c eV Momentum: kg ⋅ m × = q c s Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ο Π Θ ι κ λ µ ν ο π θ iota kappa lambda mu nu omicron pi theta Ρ Σ Τ Υ Ω Ξ Ψ Ζ ρ σ τ υ ω ξ ψ ζ rho sigma tau upsilon omega xi psi zeta Tom Penick tomzap@eden.6 × 1019 J 1 V = 1 J/C 1 N/C = 1 V/m 2 − 12 1013 .1093897 × 10 mneutron = 1.57 MeV/c Proton mass −27 kg 1 .100 0.1000 µm 360 .teicontrols.51100 MeV/c Neutron mass 2 −27 kg 2 Shortwave radio TV.com www.001 .27407836 × 10−24 J/T 2me k = 1.097373 × 10 m kT = 0.001 ε0 = 8.com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 21 of 22 .1000 m 10 .3900 0.60 × 10 −19 C me = 9.05 < 0.1013 1011 .100 m 0.5000 fm < 100 fm m p = 938.390 nm 5 .8 .
z ) = r A r + φ A φ + z A z ˆ A+ B A−B sin A + sin B = 2 sin cos 2 2 A+ B A−B cos A + cos B = 2 cos cos 2 2 Ar = x 2 + y 2 y φ = tan −1 x z=z ˆ ˆ ˆ r = x cos φ + y sin φ ˆ ˆ ˆ φ = − x sin φ + y cos φ ˆ ˆ z=z Cylindrical to Rectangular: ˆ ˆ ˆ To obtain: r ( x. φ) r is distance from center θ is angle from vertical φ is the CCW angle from the xaxis ˆ ˆ ˆ To obtain: r ( x. θ. z ) r is distance from the vertical (z) axis φ is the CCW angle from the xaxis z is the vertical distance from origin Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www. z ) = xx + yy + zz r = x2 + y2 + z 2 Spherical Coordinates: ˆ x is a unit vector ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ è = x cos θ cos φ + y cos θ sin φ − z sin θ y ˆ ˆ ˆ φ = tan −1 φ = − x sin φ + y cos φ x Spherical to Rectangular: P(r . Cylindrical Coordinates: C(r . z ) = xx + yy + zz x = r cos φ y = r sin φ z=z ˆ ˆ ˆ x = r cos φ − φ cos φ ˆ ˆ ˆ φ = r sin φ + y cos φ ˆ ˆ z=z GEOMETRY SPHERE Area A = 4πr 2 Area A = πAB ELLIPSE Rectangular to Spherical: 4 Volume V = πr 3 3 Circumference L ≈ 2π a2 + b2 2 ˆ ˆ ˆ To obtain: A ( r . φ) = rAr + è Aθ + φAφ Ar = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ r = x sin θ cos φ + y sin θ sin φ + z cos θ θ= z cos −1 x2 + y2 + z2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS Cartesian or Rectangular Coordinates: ˆ ˆ ˆ r ( x. φ . φ. z ) = xx + yy + zz x = r sin θ cos φ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ x = r sin θ cos φ − è cos θ cos φ − φ sin φ y = r sin θ sin φ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ y = r sin θ sin φ + è cos θ sin φ + φ cos φ z = r cos θ ˆ ˆ ˆ z = r cos θ − è sin θ ˆ ˆ ˆ r .com/notes 12/12/1999 Page 22 of 22 . y.TRIG IDENTITIES i 2sin x = e − e 2 cos x = eix + e− ix ix − ix COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS x −x 2 sinh x = e − e 2 cosh x = e x + e − x Rectangular to Cylindrical: eix = cos x + i sin x sin ( A ± B ) = sin A cos B ± cos A sin B cos ( A ± B ) = cos A cos B m sin A sin B ˆ ˆ To obtain: A ( r . θ. y.teicontrols. and φ are functions of position—their orientation depends on where they are located. y. è .