Introduction to Computers

By Heman Lee “Introduction to Computer” has been written solely for use by the Asian Community Center Computer Classes

Table of Contents
WHAT IS A PC? ............................................................................................... 1 Operating System ...................................................................................................... 1 GUI – Graphic User Interface ................................................................................... 2 Multi-tasking ............................................................................................................. 2 What is a bit? or What is a Byte? .............................................................................. 2 How Big is My File? KB, MB, GB ........................................................................... 2 HARDWARE..................................................................................................... 3 THE SYSTEM UNIT ................................................................................................ 3 Basic PC Components ............................................................................................... 4 LCD Monitor or Display ........................................................................................... 8 MEMORY ......................................................................................................... 9 Read-Only Memory (ROM) ...................................................................................... 9 Random-Access Memory (RAM) ............................................................................. 9 PERIPHERALS .............................................................................................. 10 Printers .................................................................................................................... 10 Scanners .................................................................................................................. 10 Modem .................................................................................................................... 11 Flash Drive .............................................................................................................. 11 THE BASICS .................................................................................................. 12 Let Turn if On ......................................................................................................... 12 Do Not Turn it Off! ................................................................................................. 12 THE MOUSE .................................................................................................. 14 Pointing the Mouse.................................................................................................. 15 The Mouse Click ..................................................................................................... 15 Dragging .................................................................................................................. 15 Double-click ............................................................................................................ 16 Right Button ............................................................................................................ 16 Scroll Wheel/Button: ............................................................................................... 16 Are You Left Handed? ............................................................................................ 16 Exercise 1 ................................................................................................................ 17 FIRST LOOK AT WINDOWS.......................................................................... 19 Logon Screen ........................................................................................................... 19 The Desktop ............................................................................................................ 19 The Start Menu ........................................................................................................ 21 Open a Windows ..................................................................................................... 22 Element of a Windows ............................................................................................ 22 Element of a Windows (continue) ........................................................................... 23 Window Controls .................................................................................................... 24 Pointer Shapes ......................................................................................................... 25 The hourglass pointer is gone .................................................................................. 25 Turning off your computer properly ....................................................................... 25 Use the Power button on the Start menu ................................................................. 26

To Move a Windows ............................................................................................... 26 To Move an Icon ..................................................................................................... 26 To Resize a Windows:............................................................................................. 26 Computer ................................................................................................................. 29 My Document (XP) ................................................................................................. 29 Your Personal Folder (Vista) .................................................................................. 29 Exercise 2 ................................................................................................................ 31 Exercise 3 ................................................................................................................ 32 Dialog Box .............................................................................................................. 33 Right-Click .............................................................................................................. 34 Exercise 4 – Right-click .......................................................................................... 34 Exercise 5 ................................................................................................................ 35 GLOSSARY .................................................................................................... 38 FAQ ......................................................................................................................... 39 How do I change pointers? ...................................................................................... 39 Why are there multiple different versions of XP? ................................................... 39 Should I Upgrade to Vista? ..................................................................................... 40 QUIZ ............................................................................................................... 41 Notes........................................................................................................................ 44

What is a PC?
The first mass marketed PC was the IBM-PC which appears way back in 1981. The acronym PC was coined for ―Personal Computer‖. The term PC compatible related to compatible PC’s from other manufactures that made PC’s which ran the same software at the IBM-PC. The first PC’s used an operating system called DOS (Disk Operating System) which was development by Microsoft. Today, Microsoft Windows is the pre-dominate operating system for most PC’s.

Operating System
An operating system (commonly abbreviated OS) is the software component of a computer system that is responsible for the management and coordination of activities and the sharing of the resources of the computer. The operating system acts as a host for application programs that are run on the machine. As a host, one of the purposes of an operating system is to handle the details of the operation of the hardware. This relieves application programs from having to manage these details and makes it easier to write applications. Almost all computers, including hand-held computers, desktop computers, supercomputers, and even modern video game consoles, use an operating system of some type.

 The Windows Operating System lets you talk to the computer through a device called a Mouse and Keyboard.

Intro to Computers

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5/5/2009

In the case of a computer with a single CPU. What is a bit? or What is a Byte? In computer memory terms. and visual indicators as opposed to text-based interfaces. A GUI offers graphical icons. the Macintosh 128K was the first mass produces computer to have a GUI interface and mouse. Prior to that time. household appliances and office equipment. the definition of a byte is a collection of eight bits. very few computers have even seen a mouse. Gaming devices). Multi-tasking Multi-tasking is a method by which multiple tasks. How Big is My File? KB. also known as processes. and when another waiting task gets a turn. the Byte is the small unit of memory. In 1984. Intro to Computers Page 2 5/5/2009 . meaning that the CPU is actively executing instructions for that task. This odd number results from the fact that computers use binary (base two) math. this can easy represent all the numbers and letters in the English alphabet. a byte of memory can hold a value from 0-255. On many computer systems. GB A kilobyte (KB) is 1. typed command labels or text navigation to fully represent the information and actions available to a user. For example: 01100001 binary represent a lower case ―a‖ in the ASCII system.GUI – Graphic User Interface A graphical user interface (GUI) is a type of user interface which allows people to interact with electronic devices like computers. Portable Media Players. share common processing resources such as a CPU. only one task is said to be running at any point in time. The actions are usually performed through direct manipulation of the graphical elements.024 bytes. instead of a decimal (base ten) system. With 0255 combinations to work with. MB. Unlike a bit that can hold the value of zero or one. not one thousand bytes as might be expected. Multitasking solves the problem by scheduling which task may be the one running at any given time. hand-held devices (MP3 Players. The method of coding that is most popular on PC architecture is know as ASCII (American Standard Code of Information Interchange).

024GB. etc. The CPU is the heart of the computer.024 Megabytes 1 text character 1 page of text A novel An encyclopedia Equivalent Terabyte (TB) is 1. sound adapter.610 CDs worth of data. It is the circuit board where all of the computer's components are linked together. It also has the slots for RAM memory and additional PCI slot for upgrading your computer such as graphic adapter.048. Again. HARDWARE THE SYSTEM UNIT Motherboard The motherboard is the most important part of the computer. 1MB is 1. Unit Bit Byte Kilobyte Megabyte Gigabyte K MB GB Abb. 1TB is about the same amount of information as all of the books in a large library. TV card. Size 1 bit 8 bits 1. or roughly 1.025 bytes 1.024 kilobytes. On the motherboard is the CPU or central processor unit.048. or 1. modem.576 (1024x1024) bytes. A medium-sized novel contains about 1MB of information. this number results from the fact that computers use binary math.Computer storage and memory is often measured in megabytes (MB). There is a wide range of device that can be added to the motherboard. firewire for video transfer.576 bytes 1. Intro to Computers Page 3 5/5/2009 . not one million bytes.

send e-mail. a modem. Graphic card. -. AGP (Video Adapter) Accelerated Graphics Port (also called Advanced Graphics Port. CPU Fan. These include. a hard disk.memory. It has lots of different parts -. etc. often shortened to AGP) is a high-speed system for attaching a graphics card to a computer's motherboard. browse the Internet and play games. power supply. PCI bus. Basic PC Components Let's take a look at the main components of a typical desktop computer. primarily used to accelerate 3D graphics. hard drive.A PC is a general purpose tool built around a microprocessor. "General purpose" means that you can do many different things with a PC. you have additional components need to complete the system unit.that work together. Intro to Computers Page 4 5/5/2009 . Beside the motherboard. floppy disk drive and CD/DVD drive. You can use it to type documents.

and it could only do that 4 bits at a time. The only differences are it cannot be removed. Intel 8080 Intro to Computers Page 5 5/5/2009 . A typical storage size for a hard drive is 160GB to 500GB. The Hard Drive stores all of the software on your system. introduced in 1971. PCI uses a series of slots on the motherboard that PCI cards plug into. The 4004 was not very powerful -. Today’s HDD are a sealed unit capable of storing several hundred Gigi-Bytes of data. The HDD should have enough memory to stores all of the programs.The most common way to connect additional components to the computer.. data and files on the computer system. The first microprocessor was the Intel 4004. The hard disk is located inside the CPU and is similar to a floppy disk. PCI BUS Peripheral Component Interconnect Bus . It is a complete computation engine that is fabricated on a single chip.all it could do was add and subtract. CPU or Central Processor Unit A microprocessor -also known as a CPU or central processing unit. But it was amazing that everything was on one chip. The Hard Drive is like a file cabinet.Hard Drive (C: Drive) The HDD (Hard Disk Drive) is a non-volatile memory storage device which store data magnetically on the fast moving rigid platter.

The Pentium 4 can execute any piece of code that ran on the original 8088.25 Page 6 Data width 8 bits 16 bits. 64-bit bus 233 MHz 32 bits. introduced in 1979 and incorporated into the IBM PC (which first appeared around 1982).200. If you are familiar with the PC market and its history.000 3.8 0. 64-bit bus 5/5/2009 . The first microprocessor to make a real splash in the market was the Intel 8088.500.000 9.000 times faster! The following table helps you to understand the differences between the different processors that Intel has introduced over the years.000 1. you know that the PC market moved from the 8088 to the 80286 to the 80386 to the 80486 to the Pentium to the Pentium II to the Pentium III to the Pentium 4.000 7. introduced in 1974.35 0. 64-bit bus 450 MHz 32 bits.5 1.Microprocessor History The first microprocessor to make it into a home computer was the Intel 8080. but it does it about 5.5 1 0.100. 8-bit bus 16 bits 32 bits 32 bits 32 bits. All of these microprocessors are made by Intel and all of them are improvements on the basic design of the 8088.000 6 3 1.000 275. a complete 8-bit computer on one chip. Clock speed 2 MHz 5 MHz 6 MHz 16 MHz 25 MHz 60 MHz Name 8080 8088 80286 80386 80486 Pentium Pentium II Pentium III Intro to Computers Date 1974 1979 1982 1985 1989 1993 1997 1999 Transistors Microns 6.500.000 29.000 134.

000.000 0. 2006 comprising the Solo (single-core).or quad-core CPUs for enthusiasts) branches. Duo (dual-core). The main function of the DVD ROM is you load or run additional program applications on your system. A DVD-R or +R disc can only be burned once. The Core 2 microarchitecture returned to lower clock speeds and improved processors' usage of both available clock cycles and power compared with preceding NetBurst of the Pentium 4/D-branded CPUs.5 GHz 32 bits. a re-recordable DVD format similar to CD-RW or DVD+RW. To be able to write onto a blank CD or DVD. you need a ―Burner‖ drive.18 1. based on the Intel Core microarchitecture. Quad (quad-core).Pentium 4 2000 42. With a burn you can backup your hard drive. and Extreme (dual. during 2007. 64-bit bus INTEL’S CORE 2 The Core 2 brand refers to a range of Intel's consumer 64-bit dual-core and 2x2 MCM quad-core CPUs with the x86-64 instruction set. Intro to Computers Page 7 5/5/2009 .[ The Core 2 brand was introduced on July 27.7GB). which will allow you to burn both CD and DVD format. The ROM is short for Read Only Memory. create picture slide show or even DVD movies. Most computers will come with a DVD/CD burner. This type of drive can only read CD or DVD disc. DVD ROM Drive The DVD also known as "Digital Versatile Disc" or "Digital Video Disc". Most DVDs are of the same dimensions as compact discs (CDs) but store more than six times as much data (4. DVD RW Drive (Burner) Short for DVD-ReWritable. A DVD Burner is able to write (burn) data on a DVD-RW disc which can be erased and recorded over numerous times without damaging the medium.

LCD Monitor or Display (Liquid Crystal Display) monitors are becoming hot items as prices drop and technology improves. A good monitor can last much longer than the Desktop PC. they are less popular for computer use than DVD-R or DVD+R discs. If you haven’t made the leap from your old CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) screen yet. typically 4. In shopping for a monitor.DVD+RW Disc DVD-RW disc is a rewritable optical disc with equal storage capacity to a DVD-R and DVD+R. you should purchase the largest screen you can afford. I would start with a 19‖ screen or larger. because they are not suitable for permanent backup files (because nonrewritable media is significantly cheaper).7 GB. However. Intro to Computers Page 8 5/5/2009 . or you plan on upgrading your monitor anytime soon. this is for you. The format was developed by Pioneer in November 1999 and has been approved by the DVD Forum.

Again when you are finished you must save you work back to the hard disk in order to preserve the changes.MEMORY Memory is the internal storage areas in the computer. The term identifies data storage that comes in the form of chips. Moreover. Most personal computers contain a small amount of ROM that stores critical programs such as the program that boots the computer. and the word storage is used for the memory that exists on tapes or disks.  The Windows Operating System runs faster with more RAM. ROM is used extensively in calculators and peripheral devices such as laser printers. Read-Only Memory (ROM) ROM is computer memory on which data has been prerecorded. ROM retains its contents even when the computer is turned off. Therefore. which refers to the actual chips capable of holding data. Random-Access Memory (RAM) RAM (Random Access Memory) is a type of memory that can be accessed randomly and is the most common type of memory found in computers and other devices. Once data has been written on a ROM chip. This is known as ―Virtual Memory‖ 5/5/2009 Intro to Computers Page 9 . ROM is referred to as being nonvolatile.  When an application doesn’t have enough RAM. In addition. etc. such as printers RAM in the PC is temporary because it forgets everything when the computer is off. the term memory is usually used as shorthand for physical memory. it cannot be removed and can only be read. Programs are transferred here when you want to use a specific program or create or change data files. whose fonts are often stored in ROM. memory is both hardware and software. pictures. it swaps from the Hard Drive.

Printers The two common printer types are Inkjet and Laser. high quality of output. They create high quality color graphics and photos.000. so does your fax. The more expensive option for color printing is a color laser printer. These printers are cheaper than buying separate stand-alone devices. capability of printing in vivid color. Inkjet is the most common type of computer printer for the general consumer due to their low cost ($100 . or an object. scanner or copier. Another popular printer is the All-In-One or Multifunction printer which combine printing. Scanners A scanner is a device that optically scans images.$2. One disadvantage is that if your printer stops working. Common examples found in offices are variations of the desktop (or flatbed) scanner where the document is placed on a glass window for scanning. as well as sharp text. Many scanners also double as a Intro to Computers Page 10 5/5/2009 .PERIPHERALS Any hardware device that is attached to your PC is known as Peripherals. and converts it to a digital image. There's a hefty price attached since color lasers go for $500 . and ease of use. all at significantly faster rates: 25-35 pages per minute (ppm) for text and 5-25 ppm for graphics.$300). handwriting. copying and faxing all in one machine. take up less space and need only one connector cable and one power outlet. scanning. printed text.

Modem Short for modulator-demodulator. fax. Flash Drive A Flash drive is a storage device that uses flash memory rather than conventional spinning platters to store data. for example. Note: For high speed connection. Unlike USB flash drives and memory cards. Some can even act as a printer. whereas information transmitted over telephone lines is transmitted in the form of analog waves. These are called all-in-one printers (scan.copier and fax machine. A modem is a device or program that enables a computer to transmit data over. the name may be seen as a misnomer. and interface so that they may act as a replacement for hard drives. Intro to Computers Page 11 5/5/2009 . With nothing being mechanically driven in a flash drive. email). flash drives tend to physically imitate conventional hard drives in size. telephone or cable lines. Common use of a Modem is to connect to the Internet. your Internet provider will usually install the proper modem that will work will their service. shape. copy. Computer information is stored digitally.

. The operating system is indispensable for the computer. For example. We are going to work with Microsoft’s Windows XP and Vista operating systems. The main function of any operating system is being an intermediary between us and the physical parts of the computer (screen. printer. without it the computer could not work. the operating systems takes care of it. hard disk. Usually these peripheral include monitor.). such as Windows Vista. etc. Windows NT.THE BASICS Nowadays there is great variety of operating systems.. Do Not Turn it Off! NEVER just turn the power switch OFF on base unit. printer. Intro to Computers Page 12 5/5/2009 . You should switch these on first so that the system will recognize them as it progresses through the ―Boot-Up‖ process. scanners. We will cover this in the Windows section. Let Turn if On All computers will have devices (peripherals) attached to it that should be switched on before you switch the Base Unit on. You must do the proper ―Shut-Down‖ from the Windows Start Menu. keyboard.. making it easier to handle. Linux. Windows XP. etc. there is no need for us to know exactly in what part of the hard disk we have saved a certain document we created.

Intro to Computers Page 13 5/5/2009 . PgDn – moves the page down. Confirm entry into a test form. There are two sets of arrows. the keypad move the text cursor. When Num Lock is off. PgUp – moves the page up. Move the cursor down one line to add extra space between paragraphs. According to popular myth. the inventor of the typewriter. The second sets is on the numeric keypad when Num Lock is off. Sholes arranged the keys in their odd fashion to prevent jamming on mechanical typewriters by separating commonly used letter combinations. Shift – Upper case letter or symbols (!@#$%^&*()_+) Arrow Keys Moves the cursor up. Numeric Keypad When Num Lock is on. down. this act as a numeric key pad for inputting numbers. End – move the cursor to the end of line. Space Bar – blank spaces Caps Lock – lock the keyboard in upper case letters. Home move the cursor to the beginning of the line.THE KEYBOARD The arrangement of characters on a QWERTY keyboard was designed in 1868 by Christopher Sholes. Basic Keys Enter – completes and action or creates a new paragraph in text editing. left or right in text editing mode.

Deletes the character to the left of cursor and all hightlighted text. Window Key – Window shortcuts Displays the Start Menu + E – opens Windows Explorer (Computer) + D – toggles between minimize and restore. TAB . Print Screen . THE MOUSE Intro to Computers Page 14 5/5/2009 . Other software may use this key differently.Deletes the character at cursor and/or characters to the right of the cursor and all highlighted (or selected) text.go to the end of the document Alt + F4 – close a windows Function Keys – Shortcut command. Tab moves to the next field in a form or table (Shift-Tab for previous field). ARROW KEYS .Moves the cursor around document without changing text Control Key Ctrl – control key is used in conjunction with other keys to perform a special operation.DEL or DELETE .Moves the cursor five spaces to the right (number of spaces are usually adjustable). Alt key – another command modifiers similar to the Ctrl key.Sends the current screen to the printer. F1 will open a Help menu in most programs. BKSP or BACKSPACE . Ctrl+Prt Scrn – capture the current screen to the clipboard. Ctrl + Home – go to the beginning of the document Ctrl+End .

Typical thing to click on are: command button.The standard mouse for Windows XP is a 3 button mouse. Intro to Computers Page 15 5/5/2009 . the functions of the menu displayed varies. icons. The Mouse Click For a right-handed individual. etc. the left mouse button is the main button to use in the Windows operating system. radio button and hypertext. close programs. you simply hold down left button down while you are move the mouse pointer. For the right-handed person. depending on what you click on. menu. The middle button or the scroll wheel is used to scroll up and down. Dragging Dragging is used to select several objects at the same time. This can be reversed to the for left-handed individuals. This is the most used button to select items from a menu and launch programs. To Drag. The right button is used to open the shortcut or alternate menu. you should always remember that the tip of the arrow is the spot at which you are pointing. Sometimes for it to take effect we need to click on what we want to scroll up and down. open. drag and drop. the left button is the main button. The left button is the most used because with it we select objects. Pointing the Mouse When you point with the mouse.

When you let go of the mouse button. Right Button Additional option menu will appear. Hold the mouse between thumb and ring and little fingers. Slide the mouse cursor to Settings and click once with the left mouse button Intro to Computers Page 16 5/5/2009 . Click on the Start Button 2. Click the Scroll Button the place the anchor on the page. Scroll Wheel/Button The middle scroll button functions in two way. As a wheel you can scroll up and down a page by rolling to button up or down. This is context sensitive which means a different menu will appear based on what you click on. Double-click This is used to execute the desired programs associated with the icons. This will create the Anchor on your page. Move the mouse up or down away from the Anchor will cause the page to scroll up or down. This is an important concept you muse master in performing many Windows task. Use only the thumb and the fourth fingers to move the body of the mouse. Thus the term. “Drag and Drop”. this is called a Drop. Mouse Tip for Seniors Rest the heel of your hand on the table in front of the mouse. Are You Left Handed? 1. The second method is to click on it like a button. Mouse Over: Sometime additional information about the button or icon will appear simply by positioning the mouse over it with no clicking.

Slide the mouse cursor over to Control Panel and click once with the left mouse button 4. Gently and quickly click twice with the left mouse button on the Mouse icon.edu/Avery/activities/mouse/MouseSkills.3. Exercise 1 Selecting and De-Selecting 1. Watch the color change.com/ http://www. Repeat Step 1 to 4 for all icons.mouseprogram. Practice your mouse skills on the Internet http://www.pbclibrary. Select left-handed from the Mouse Properties pop-up window.org/howto/mouseexercises/dragpractice1. Watch the color change back.html http://www.h tm Practice your mouse skills. 5.greenriver.org/mousing/intro. Click on an open area of the desktop 4.seniornet. 3. 1. Intro to Computers Page 17 5/5/2009 .instruction. Insert Student CD. into one of the CD/DVD drive.htm http://www. Click on any desktop icon. 5. 2.

Dragging (Move an Icon) 1. 4. 5. Click on one of the desktop icons and hold the left button. 2.2. 3. Double-Click to launch MouseX program on your student CD. Double. Double-Click on Computer. Intro to Computers Page 18 5/5/2009 . Release the mouse button. Move the mouse to a different location. Go through all 50 mouse exercises.Click on CD Drive (E: or F). 3.

you will be asked to add users to the system. When you first setup your Vista operating system. User picture can be changed Username Password Shutdown Button The Desktop Desktop Icons Sidebar Gadgets Start Button Taskbar Intro to Computers Page 19 System Tray 5/5/2009 . the logon screen will be your first screen. Every user on your computer will have their own logon icon.FIRST LOOK AT WINDOWS Logon Screen After powering on your system.

System Tray – The system tray allows you to set preferences to commonly accessed task and programs on your computer. I found this feature annoying but grew to love it. When you install a new program. the Start Menu is different. they wouldn't be there. Normally. an Icons it created on the desktop. Vista Start Button XP Start Button Start Button – The Start Button is the starting point for launching almost every pr0ogram on your computer. In the illustration below. the System Tray hides unused icons. At first. Besides showing the clock. Firewall. What an interface improver! Icons -= An Icon represent a programs or files. I actually had to add some desktop icons to make them appear. etc) usually shows up in the System Tray. and windows will "stack" similar windows when you start filling up the Taskbar. This concept was first introduce on Windows 95. It can be used to launch and monitor all of applications. utilities type programs (Anti-Virus. Intro to Computers Page 20 5/5/2009 . folders or files. I can have 20 Internet Explorer windows open at once and only have one tab on the Taskbar for Internet Explorer. Taskbar – The bar show all active applications running on your system. In Vista.The first thing you'll notice (if you installed Windows yourself fresh) is the lack of desktop icons. Icons can also be created by the user as a ―Shortcut‖ to programs.

On the left hand side. so if you want to change the icons or the way it looks. You have 2 columns in the new Start Menu. then the "All Programs" menu. some settings. On the right hand side. Special Folders Recent Programs Common Tools Figure 2 – Vista’s New Start Menu The Start Menu is the first place you will see the most dramatic change in the Windows Vista interface. you see icons for the Internet and E-mail (you can change these to your browser or favorite email program).The Start Menu Personal Folder Pinned Programs added by the user. Intro to Computers Page 21 5/5/2009 . and other commands from the former Start Menu. and a list of the most recently used applications. you see the icons which you previously accessed through desktop icons. which used to be your Programs menu. Everything on the Start Menu is customizable. it's possible.

In the top right corner we can find the minimize. the operating systems takes care of it. Element of a Windows The Tltle bar The title bar contains the name of the program you are working on and in some cases the name of the opened document will appears.Open a Windows The main function of any operating system is being an intermediary between us and the physical parts of the computer (screen.... making it easier to handle. and close buttons. hard disk. printer. Please take the time to master this skill. For example. Intro to Computers Page 22 5/5/2009 . keyboard. Tool bar Contain commonly used tools usually in a form of icons or buttons for an application. maximize/restore.). Double-Click = Open Double-Clicking on the Icon is the most popular way to open a window. Menu bar List all of the command category for an application in the form of ―Drop Down Menus‖. there is no need for us to know exactly in what part of the hard disk we have saved a certain document we created.

I may show active information such as page number. Scroll bar When a window is size smaller that what can be display. Intro to Computers Page 23 5/5/2009 . Workspace The workspace is the area of the window where you do your work.Element of a Windows (continue) Title Bar Menu Bar Tool Bar Workspace Status Bar Scroll Bar Status bar It’s the bar at the very bottom of the screen. The workspace in WordPad allows you to type and save your document where as the workspace in Internet Explorer display web pages from the internet. It is different for every application. number lock status or memory size. scroll bar will automatically appear either horizontally or vertically.

the Restore button restores the window to its original state. The program is release from RAM.Window Controls Minimize Maximize/Restore Close The Minimize button shrinks the window it turns it into a button located in the Windows task bar. The Maximize amplifies the size of the window to fill the whole screen. The program still remains in RAM. we are asked if we want to Save the changes before closing. if we've modified the document. Intro to Computers Page 24 5/5/2009 . The Close button closes the window. From the Maximize state. Therefore.

but also to ensure that your data is saved Intro to Computers Page 25 5/5/2009 . it's important to turn it off properly—not only to save energy.Pointer Shapes Normal Select Help Select Working in background Busy Precision Select Text Select Handwriting Unavailable Vertical Resize Horizontal Resize Diagonal Resize 1 Diagonal Resize 2 Move Alternate Select Link Select The hourglass pointer is gone Working in the background Busy Turning off your computer properly When you're done using your computer.

and to help keep your computer more secure. your computer will start quickly the next time you use it. To Move an Icon Position the mouse pointer on the icon and drag and drop to a new location. Best of all. Intro to Computers Page 26 5/5/2009 . To Resize a Windows: Position the mouse pointer on the window border you wish to size. and then click the Power button in the lower right corner of the Start menu. click the Start button. Use the Power button on the Start menu To turn off your computer. Hold down the left button while you drag the window to another location on the desktop. The Power button normally looks like this: XP Shut Down Vista Shut Down To Move a Windows Position the mouse pointer on the windows title bar.

Intro to Computers Page 27 5/5/2009 . drag the border to the desired size.When the mouse pointer changes to a double arrow.

Intro to Computers Page 28 5/5/2009 . Resize Horizontally Drag from either vertical border.Move the Window Drag from the Title bar. Resize Vertically Drag from either horizontal border.

Everything you create. My Document (XP) By Default. spreadsheet. The name of this folder is your logon name. etc. Flash Drive. SD Memory Card. B: C:. video.) Each physical device is assign a Drive letter name (A:. etc). the My Document folder is replaced by your users logon name. folder and devices on the computer. (ie Floppy Disk. Intro to Computers Page 29 5/5/2009 . etc is in this folder. word processing. your My Document folder is on C: drive. Hard Disk. Your Personal Folder (Vista) Vista has renamed the Windows XP ―My Document‖ folder to what they call your personal folder. In Windows Vista. If you logon to the computer as ―Steve‖ then you personal folder is called ―Steve‖. open My Computer or Computer (Vista) Hard Drive (C:) DVD RW (E:) Flash Drive Windows Explorer is the program that allows you to see file.Computer On the Desktop. picture.

Vista Personal Folder Vista has built-in default folders to organize you document. picture and video. These are known as ―Special Folders‖. Intro to Computers Page 30 5/5/2009 .

Exercise 2 Windows Control – Maximize/Restore 1. 2. Intro to Computers Page 31 5/5/2009 . Click My Computer (XP) or Computer (Vista) 3. Windows Control – Resize a Windows Vertically & Horizontally 1. The pointer become a diagonal double arrow. Windows Control – Resize a Windows Diagonally 1. When you release the mouse button the window is resized small. Repeat the exercise until you are comfortable in resizing vertically and horizontally. 2. 5. Windows Control – Close Click on the in the upper right corner of the window. Use the scroll wheel. Move the mouse pointer to a horizontal border and resize it smaller. Drag the scroll box up and down 4. Maximize and Restore the window. Move the mouse pointer to the windows vertical border until the pointer become a double arrow. Move the mouse pointer to the corner border. Scroll a Window 1. Hold down the mouse left button while you drag the mouse to resize smaller or larger. Click on the Start Menu. Hold down the mouse left button while you drag the mouse to the left. Open Internet Explorer 2. 2.. Click the up scroll arrow or down scroll arrow 3. 3. 4.

Click the Start Menu. close all programs. Open Start Menu 2. Exercise 3 Computer Games . 3. Go to Help for instructions Intro to Computers Page 32 5/5/2009 .Shutdown PC 1. 2. Click on Shutdown Off Computer. Click on Games>Solitaire 4.Solitaire 1. Click on All Programs 3. Before you shutdown.

These are either OK. Preview List Box Options Slider control Command Button Command Buttons and Dialog Box When you are done make changes. You click on one of the command buttons after you make the changes. Intro to Computers Page 33 5/5/2009 . Click “Apply” to see changes without have to leave the dialog box. For example the dialog box below allows you the change the default setting for the display screen on your computer. These are typical command on most Properties dialog boxes. Cancel or Apply. you need to confirm this using the command buttons on the bottom of the box. After make the changes the command is either Yes. Cancel or Apply. Press the Command Button “Yes‖ to confirm your changes or ―Cancel” to abort any changes. Some will appear when you want to change the Properties of something.Dialog Box Properties Throughout the Windows operating system you will come around many type of dialog box. In other case we are making changes to the Display Screen.

List Box. Change Desktop Background. Insert your student CD into one of the CD Drives. Watch the icon change in the My Computer windows. Click on the Start Menu. 7. Right-click on an open area of the desktop. Context sensitive mean that the menu is different depend on the object to click. 6. Access a CD 1. View the contents of the CD. tabs and Command Buttons 1. Click OK to save or Cancel to abort. 8.Right-Click The Right-Click launches a context sensitive shortcut menu. 2. 3. Under Screen saver. Right-click on the time/data area of the notification area will launch this menu: Exercise 4 – Right-click Dialog Box. Launch Multiply Programs from Start Menu (Cascading Menu) 1. Change Display setting. Click on the Start menu. 6. 2. 3. Click on Accessories Intro to Computers Page 34 5/5/2009 . Click Screen Saver. Change Screensaver wait time. 5. Double-Click on the CD icon. Select Properties(XP) or Personalize (Vista) from the context menu. 4. 4. click on the  to launch a drop-down list box 5. 2. Click on All Programs. Click My Computer or Computer 3.

8. 2.Cut/Copy & Paste 1. Exercise 5 Let put is all together 1. Resize and arrange window. Intro to Computers Page 35 5/5/2009 . 9. Drag the image to the center of the work area. Arrange the application windows to look like the following: Exercise . 6. Click on Accessories. Click on Paint. Click on the Paint windows. Click on the Edit menu and select Paste. 5. Right-click on the image and select Copy. 7. Click on WordPad. 2.4. 5. so that all are visible. Click on Accessories. Paint and Calculator. Find an image on the internet. Open these four applications: Internet Explorer. 4. WordPad. 3. Click on Calculator.

Practice the following in WordPad: 1. Draw a box around the image. 3. I-Beam – Click in the middle of the sentence to relocate the insertion point (Flashing Cursor). Dragging. 5..Paint 1.Exercise . Word Wrap – Type a paragraph (more than one line). 5. 4. Drag the selection tool around the image. Triple-Click anywhere in the paragraph. Click on Edit menu and select Copy. Intro to Computers Page 36 5/5/2009 . Selecting – Double click on any word. Watch the sentence automatically wrap to the next line. Drag across 2 word. Draw another box surrounding the whole image 3. 2. Drag the whole paragraph. De-selecting – Click on any white area. – Drag across a word to select it. 4. Fill the area inside the box with a color. 2.

Use keyboard arrow to move the I-Beam. 3. Drag the mouse to select more than one word. Calculator and Internet Explorer: Resize and move the windows to look like this: WordPad WordPad Paint Internet Explorer Calculator Intro to Computers Page 37 5/5/2009 . Selecting. Exercise 6 – Launch 4 Windows 1. Inserting Text. Use the Delete key to delete a character. Practice WordPad exercises on the CD. Using arrow on keyboard. 6. Use the Backspace key to delete a character.rtf c.rtf Skill to Work On At Home 1. Launch WordPad. 5.rtf b. 4. a. Paint.WordPad Exercise 1. Double-click to select a word. Continue to Windows Basic course. 2.

Space on a hard disk used to temporarily store data and swap it in and out of RAM as needed Motherboard .(Read-only memory). a sound card can be built into the motherboard or connected through PCI. a RAM of at least 4GB preferred.This is very fast storage used to hold data. Intro to Computers Page 38 5/5/2009 . For Windows Vista. However.The microprocessor "brain" of the computer system is called the central processing unit. for "Disk Operating System".e. or until about 2000 if one includes DOSbased Microsoft Windows versions (Windows 95. There are several specific types of memory in a computer: RAM – (Random-access memory ) Used to temporarily store information that the computer is currently working with.This is the main circuit board that all of the other internal components connect to. Intel’s Core 2 Quad Processor is the latest. It is a technology that is primarily used in memory cards and USB flash drives for general storage and transfer of data between computers and other digital productsVirtual memory .The storing of frequently used data in extremely fast RAM that connects directly to the CPU DOS.A type of ROM that is used by the computer to establish basic communication when the computer is first turned on Caching or Cache .(Basic input/output system) . Random Access Memory). Other systems may be found directly on the motherboard or connected to it through a secondary connection. ROM . The word RAM is mostly associated with volatile types of memory (such as DRAM memory modules). The CPU and memory are usually on the motherboard. is a shorthand term for a family of closely related operating systems that dominated the IBM PC compatible market between 1981 and 1995. many other types of memory are RAM as well (i. and Windows ME). Memory . Everything that a computer does is overseen by the CPU. Flash Memory is non-volatile computer memory that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed. For example. where the information is lost after the power is switched off.Glossary Central processing unit (CPU) . Windows 98. Current CPU Technology uses multiply cores or CPU’s in the same chip. It has to be fast because it connects directly to the microprocessor. including most types of ROM and a kind of flash memory called NOR-Flash. A permanent type of memory storage used by the computer for important data that does not change BIOS .

Hard disk . Often used in the context of user error.An electrical transformer regulates the electricity used by the computer. FAQ How do I change pointers? You can change pointer schemes by opening the Mouse Properties dialog box at the Pointers tab. and then click the Pointers tab. ID 10 T Error . Sound card .) Although the kernel for both operating systems are the same. double-click Mouse. instant messaging. and sharing photos and other digital media on the web. Question: "What is wrong with my phone?" Answer: "It must be the ID 10-T error. the Home Edition is a stripped down version of the Professional version. CD-ROM and floppy disk drive.Popular among cell phone company employees (as the term also sounds similar to a phone model number)." (―IDIOT‖) Operating system . If the person called an ID 10T doesn't understand. they further prove the name caller's point. Graphics card .This is the basic software that allows the user to interface with the computer. e-mail.This translates image data from the computer into a format that can be displayed by the monitor.This is large-capacity permanent storage used to hold information such as programs and documents. Click Start.This is the primary interface for the hard drive. point to Settings.Power Supply . AGP . Much of its interface assumes that you have a full time internet connection and that your primary online activities are browsing. Its main focus is the consumer home PC market. click Control Panel. Why are there multiple different versions of XP? XP will initially be released in two different versions: Windows XP Professional (for businesses) and Windows XP Home Edition (for consumers. IDE – (Integrated Drive Electronics Controller . listening to MP3 and online music. and it is designed to be easier to use.Accelerated Graphics Port is a very high-speed connection used by the graphics card to interface with the computer.This is used by the computer to record and play audio by converting analog sound into digital information and back again. XP Professional is designed for business Intro to Computers Page 39 5/5/2009 .

the short answer is "no. there are critical issues with Vista.and advanced home users who need security and enhanced networking capabilities. Should I Upgrade to Vista? For most people. Buying a new computer with Vista pre-installed should avoid the second problem." unless you're buying a new computer. For starters. and the lack of drivers for many system components is a big problem with making the computer work. Intro to Computers Page 40 5/5/2009 . There your hardware may have to be updated before you can upgrade to Vista. Also. Vista requires a faster CPU and more RAM than XP.

Keyboard c. Mouse d. Windows Vista f. CPU b. Mainframe b. Portable c. Handheld d. Computer Virus 4) Which of these affect the speed of the computer? a. Nortons Anti-Virus f. Microsoft Windows e. Desktop e. Laptop 2) Which of these is Hardware? a. Mouse d. Increase the RAM Intro to Computers Page 41 5/5/2009 . Microsoft Word 3) Which of these is Software? a. CD ROM e.Quiz 1) Which type of computer is the most powerful? a. Larger hard drive b. Keyboard c. CPU b.

It is volatile.c. Wireless Keyboard 5) What happened to RAM memory when the computer is turn off? a. ROM c. Printer c. 16 7) All data you create is stored on permanently your: a. Size of the System Unit d. Keyboard Intro to Computers Page 42 5/5/2009 . Flash Drive e. Hard Drive d. Personal Folder 8) Which of the following are input device? a. b. Mouse b. RAM b. d. Speaker d. Speed of the CPU e. 1 b. It saves your files. 6) How many bits are in a byte? a. c. 8 c. Much faster that the hard drive. Your files are deleted.

the primary button is the: a. Right Button b. Middle Button c. What are they? 13) What is a dialog box? 14) Where do I click to access the CD drive? 15) What is an I-beam? 16) What is an Insertion Point? Intro to Computers Page 43 5/5/2009 . Left Button d. Scroll Button 10) What is the Active Windows? 11) How do I make a window active? 12) Every Windows has 4 bars.e. WebCam 9) On a right-handed mouse. Monitor. f.

Notes Intro to Computers Page 44 5/5/2009 .

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