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21 - Water Resources Engineering

21 - Water Resources Engineering

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04/05/2013

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The following method of determining the pressure
change due to gradual closure of a valve gives a
quick, approximate solution. The pressure rise or
head change is assumed to be in direct proportion
to the closure time:

(21.64)

Fig. 21.32Variation with time of pressure at
three points in a penstock, for water hammer from
instantaneous closure of a valve.

21.34s Section Twenty-One

where ∆h

t

i= time for wave to travel from the
valve to the reservoir and be reflect-
ed back to valve, s

T= actual closure time of valve, s

∆h= head rise due to instantaneous clo-
sure, ft

L= length of pipeline, ft

∆V= change in velocity of water due to
instantaneous closure, ft/s

g= acceleration due to gravity, 32.2 ft/s2

Arithmetic integration is a more exact method
for finding the pressure change due to gradual
movement of a valve. The calculations can be read-
ily programmed for a computer and are available
in software packages. Integration is a direct means
of studying every physical element of the process
of water hammer. The valve is assumed to close in
a series of small movements, each causing an indi-
vidual pressure wave. The magnitude of these
pressure waves is given by Eq. (21.63). The indi-
vidual pressure waves are totaled to give the pres-
sure at any desired point for a certain time.
The first step in this method is to choose the
time interval for each incremental movement of
the valve. (It is convenient to make the time inter-
val some submultiple of L/U, such as L/aU, where a
equals any integer, so that the pressure waves
reflected at the reservoir will be superimposed
upon the new waves being formed at the valve.
The wave formed at the valve will be opposite in
sign to the water reflected from the reservoir, so
there will be a tendency for the waves to cancel
out.) Assuming a valve is fully open and requires T
seconds for closing, the number of incremental
closing movements required is T/∆t, where ∆t, the
increment of time, equals L/aU.
Once the time interval has been determined, an
estimate of the velocity change ∆Vduring each time
interval must be made, to apply Eq. (21.63). A rough
estimate for the velocity following the incremental
change is V

n= V

o(A

n/A

o), where V

nis the velocity

following a certain incremental movement, V

othe

original velocity, A

nthe area of the valve opening
after the corresponding incremental movement,
and A

othe original area of the valve opening.
The change in head can now be calculated
with Eq. (21.63). With the head known, the esti-

mated velocity V

ncan be checked by the following

equation:

(21.65)

whereH

o=head at valve before any movement
of valve, ft

H

o+ Σ ∆h=total pressure at valve after particu-
lar movement; this includes pres-
sure change caused by valve move-
ment plus effect of waves reflected
from reservoir, ft

A

n=area of valve opening after nincre-
mental closings; this area can be
determined from closure character-
istics of valve or by assuming its
characteristics, ft2

If the velocity obtained from Eq. (21.65) differs
greatly from the estimated velocity, then that
obtained from Eq. (21.65) should be used to recal-
culate ∆h.

(V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, “Davis’ Handbook
of Applied Hydraulics,” 4th ed., McGraw-Hill, Inc.,
New York.)

Example 21.8:The following problem illustrates
the use of the preceding methods and compares
the results: Steel penstock, length = 3000 ft, diam-
eter = 10 ft, area = 78.5 ft2

, initial velocity = 10 ft/s,
penstock thickness = 1 in, head at turbine with
valve open = 1000 ft, and modulus of elasticity of
steel = 43.2 ×108

psf.
(For penstocks as shown in Fig. 21.32, thickness
and diameter normally vary with head. Thus, the
velocity of the pressure waves is different in each
section of the penstock. Separate calculations for
the velocity of the pressure wave should be made
for each thickness and diameter of penstock to
obtain the time required for a wave to travel to the
reservoir and back to the valve.)
Velocity of pressure wave, from Eq. (21.61), is

= 3180 ft/s

Water Resources Engineerings 21.35

The time required for the wave to travel to the
reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U
= 6000/3180 = 1.90 s.
If closure time Tof the valve is less than 1.90 s,
the closure is instantaneous, and the pressure rise,
from Eq. (21.63), is

Assuming T= 4.75 s, approximate equation
(21.64) gives the following result:

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