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Well Engineering Module Basic Well Control
IDPT Basic WC
Basic Well Control
• Module Contents
• Objectives and Introduction • Well Control Fundamentals CD (Self Study) • WC Incident root causes and IPM Standards • Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Well Control • Well Control Mathematics and the “U” Tube • Kick Causes and Prevention • Well Control Equipment (HP, LP, BOP, Accumulator, MGS) • Shut In and Well Kill procedures • Well Control reporting (Kick reporting, Kill Sheets, etc..)
IDPT Basic WC
Basic Well Control
• Module Objectives
• At the end of this lecture and completion of the WCF CD YOU will be able to:
• Define the terms “kick” and “Blowout” • Perform basic Well Control calculations • Understand the causes of Well Control incidents • State primary, secondary and tertiary Well Control procedures • Understand Well Control Equipment • Describe the Shut In and Kill methods • Explain the reporting procedures for Well Control incidents
IDPT Basic WC
“A catastrophic well control incident could put IPM out of business”
- Antonio J. Campo IPM President
IDPT Basic WC
Basic Well Control
• In simple terms, a kick can only occur when the formation pressure exceeds the mud hydrostatic pressure • The resultant positive differential pressure is transferred into the wellbore and there is an influx of formation fluids • If the well is shut in after determining that a kick has occurred then the well can be killed under controlled conditions • Blow-outs occur when the kick (influx) can not be controlled and there is an emission of wellbore and/or formation fluids at surface • The rig crew must be fully trained and alert at all times in order to take immediate action to bring the well under control.
IDPT Basic WC
Basic Well Control
• An uncontrolled Kick !
Workover Rig Land Well Russia Cause: >Proper equipment not deployed >Poor practices >Lack of training
IDPT Basic WC
Basic Well Control
Can turn into this: Or this:
IDPT Basic WC
Well Control Incidents - Root Causes
• Lack of knowledge and skills of rig personnel • Improper work practices • Lack of understanding of Well Control from certification training • Lack of application of policies and standards • Poor contractor & supplier management • Inadequate Risk Management & Management of Change
IDPT Basic WC
IPM Standards Standards 3 HSE 4 Quality 28 Engineering IDPT Basic WC IPM IPM Standards Reference IPM-PO-QAS-001 IPM-PO-QAS-002 IPM-ST-QAS-001 IPM-ST-QAS-002 IPM-ST-QAS-003 IPM-ST-QAS-004 IPM-PR-QAS-001 IPM-FO-QAS-001 IPM-CORP-S004 IPM-ST-HSE-001 IPM-ST-HSE-002 IPM-ST-HSE-003 IPM-PR-HSE-004 IPM-PR-HSE-005 IPM-ST-WCI-001 IPM-ST-WCI-002 IPM-ST-WCI-003 IPM-ST-WCI-004 IPM-ST-WCI-005 IPM-ST-WCI-006 IPM-ST-WCI-007 IPM-ST-WCI-008 IPM-ST-WCI-009 IPM-ST-WCI-010 Title Corporate QHSE Policy Engineering Policy Document Formatting Standard Project Bridging Document Glossary of QHSE Definitions Management of Change Document Numbering and Control Procedure Management of Change Form Indemnity and Risk Gas Detection Service and Equipment Life Saving and Evacuation Equipment Simultaneous Operations Hygiene in Camps and Accommodations Preparation of a Simultaneous Operations Manual Well Engineering Management System (WEMS) Information to be Kept on Location Kick Detection Equipment Well Control Equipment Testing Requirements BOP Stack and Diverter Minimum Requirements Well Control Certification Consensus of Well Control Procedures Well Control Drills Casing Liner and Tubing Pressure Testing Minimum Chemical Stocks InTouch # 3286066 3286067 3274817 3286070 3286072 3286073 3274819 3286075 3286076 3286077 3286078 3286079 3286082 3286083 3286084 3286085 3286086 3286087 3286088 3286089 3286090 3286091 3286092 3286093 IDPT Basic WC IPM 5 .
IPM Standards (2) Reference IPM-ST-WCI-011 IPM-ST-WCI-012 IPM-ST-WCI-013 IPM-ST-WCI-014 IPM-ST-WCI-015 IPM-ST-WCI-016 IPM-ST-WCI-017 IPM-ST-WCI-018 IPM-ST-WCI-019 IPM-ST-WCI-020 IPM-ST-WCI-021 IPM-ST-WCI-022 IPM-ST-WCI-023 IPM-ST-WCI-024 IPM-ST-WCI-025 IPM-ST-WCI-026 IPM-ST-WCI-027 IPM-ST-WCI-028 IPM-PR-WCI-002 IPM-PR-WCI-003 IPM-PR-WCI-004 IPM-PR-WCI-005 IPM-PR-WCI-006 IPM-PR-WCI-007 IPM-PR-WCI-008 IPM-REF-WCI-001 Title InTouch # Kick Tolerance 3286095 Barriers 3286096 Authority during Well Operations 3286098 Agreement on Specific Well Control Procedures 3286099 Well Shut-in Method 3286101 Well Control Method 3286103 Kick Detection 3286104 Kick Prevention 3286106 Constant Bottomhole Pressure 3286107 Reporting of Kicks 3286108 Shallow Gas Risk Assessment and Contingencies 3286109 Well Control while Running Casing 3286110 Leak Off Test or Shoe Test 3286111 Procedures for Radioactive Sources 3286112 Casing and Tubing Design 3286113 Temporary and Permanent Abandonment 3286114 Wellbore Surveying and Collision Avoidance 3286115 Well Control Briefing Standard 3286116 Contingency Stripping Procedure 3286117 Testing of Cement Mixing and Pumping Equipment 3286118 Operational Requirements for Cement Slurries 3286119 Cement Placement 3286120 Setting and Verification of Cement Plugs 3286122 Survey Program Preparation Technical and Operational Integrity 3303422 Derivation of Kick Tolerance Calculation 3286124 IDPT Basic WC IPM Basic Well Control • The primary formula for Well Control • U-Tube principles • The calculation of pressures in the Static and Dynamic U-Tube conditions IDPT Basic WC IPM 6 .
052 x MW (psi/ft) (ppg) Ht: 1 ft.052 psi/ft If MW = 10 ppg P = 10 lb.052 psi 19.23 in2 IDPT Basic WC IPM 7 . = 0.52 psi/ft G = 0.23 in2 Gradient = Change = 0. Volume: 1 gallon = 230.23 in2 Gradient = Change = 0.Well Control • Primary Well Control : • The use of the Mud Weight to provide sufficient pressure to prevent an influx of formation fluid into the wellbore • Secondary Well Control: • Control Kick with Mud Weight and BOP Equipment • Tertiary Well Control: • An Underground Blowout – to avoid a surface blowout IDPT Basic WC IPM Well Control Math If MW = 1 ppg P = 1 lb.75 in3 Area: 19.52 psi 19. = 0.
Well Control Math 0 Depth .56 Only TVD is Considered Not MD Pressure -psi G = 0.04 1.ft 1 MW: 10 ppg 2 3 0 0.052 x MW (psi/ft) (ppg) HP = G x (psi) (psi/ft) D (ft) IDPT Basic WC IPM How vs Why Given: • Gas Kick taken while drilling at 6000 ft • Well Shut-In • MW = 10 ppg • Kill MW = ??? SIDPP = 600 psi SICPP = 900 psi IDPT Basic WC IPM 8 .52 1.
923 ppg=12 ppg 0.52 psi/ft x 6000ft HP10 = 3120 psi Pzone = HP10 + SIDPP = 3120 + 600 Pzone = 3720 psi Gkill = Pzone = 3720 = 0.052 x 10 x 6000) + 600 6000 x 0.52 psi/ft HP10 = G x D = 0.052 IDPT Basic WC IPM How vs Why SIDPP = 600 psi What is the significance of the 600 psi SIDPP? Why was the Drill Pipe gauge pressure used in the calculation rather than the SICP gauge pressure? Why do we round up to 12 ppg for the KMW? SICPP = 900 psi IDPT Basic WC IPM 9 .052 KMW = (0.052 0.923 = 12 ppg Why KMW is 12 ppg: G10 = 0.052 KMW = 11.How vs Why How to calculate KMW: KMW = (0.62 psi/ft 6000 D KMW = Gkill = 0.052 x 10 = 0.62 =11.052 x MW x D) + SIDPP D x 0.
The ‘U’-Tube An arrangement of pipes in which the two legs are attached at the bottom A B The Pressure at Point A = Pressure at Point B IDPT Basic WC IPM The Well as a ‘U’-Tube The ‘U’-Tube Can Be Either: • Static • Dynamic What are the Pressure Contributors? Pressure Contributors: • Pump Pressure • DP Friction Loss • Bit Pressure Loss • Annular Pressure Loss (ECD) • Back Pressure from Choke IDPT Basic WC IPM 10 .
000 ft • MW: 10 ppg • BHP: ?? • Avg Grad Ann: ?? • EMW: ?? • How Big was the Kick?? – 8-1/2” Vertical Well – 5 Stands 6-3/4”DC SIDPP = 500 psi SICP = 700 psi P1 = P2 IDPT Basic WC IPM Static ‘U’-Tube BHP = SIDPP + HPDS BHP = 500 + (0.Static ‘U’-Tube Given: • Shut-In after Gas Kick • Depth: 10.000 ft EMWA = GA = 0.5 psi/ft D 10.052 0.052 SICP = 700 psi SIDPP = 500 psi Note that BHP: P1 = P2 P1 = P2 IDPT Basic WC IPM 11 .000) BHP = 5700 psi BHP = SICP + HPA HPA = BHP – SICP HPA = 5700 – 700 = 5000 psi GA = HPA = 5000 psi = 0.052 x 10 x 10.6 ppg 0.5 = 9.
2 ft (TVD) Kick Size = Height of Influx (MD) x Annular Volume (5 Stands of 6-3/4” DC in 8-1/2” Hole) = 476.4 bbls = IDPT Basic WC IPM Dynamic ‘U’-Tube Given: • What does the CDPP measure? • How are DP losses calculated? • How are Annular pressure losses calculated? CDPP psi CCP psi P1 ≥ P2 IDPT Basic WC IPM 12 .Static ‘U’-Tube Height of Influx = SICP .500 psi (10 ppg x 0.4 psi/ft Worst Case: Assume Gas Influx = 0.SIDPP GMud .0259 bbl/ft Kick Size = 12.GInflux Gas Influx: < 0.GInflux = 700 psi .42 psi/ft Height of Influx = 476.1 psi/ft 0.500 = 200 psi 0.1 psi/ft 700 .052) .2 ft x 0.2 psi/ft Water Influx: > 0.52 psi/ft – 0.
DS Pressure Loss • Step 1: Obtain the following dimensional parameters • • • • • • Drill pipe ID ddp – inches Drill pipe Length Ldp – feet Drill collar ID ddc – inches Drill collar Length Ldc – feet Plastic Viscosity PV – centipoise Yield Point YP .448 x ddp2) IDPT Basic WC IPM DS Pressure Loss • Step 3: Calculate the frictional pressure loss: • Drill collars: PLdc = [(PV x Vdc x Ldc)/(1500 xddc2)] + [(YP x Ldc)/(225 x ddc)] • Drill pipe: PLdp = [(PV x Vdp x Ldp)/(1500 xddp2)] + [(YP x Ldp)/(225 x ddp)] • DSPL = PLdc + PLdp IDPT Basic WC IPM 13 .lb/100ft2 • Step 2: Calculate the average fluid velocity (ft/sec): • Drill collars: Vdc = GPM/(2.448 x ddc2) • Drill pipe: Vdp = GPM/(2.
052 x 10 x 10.dPDS = 2000 + (0.Dynamic ‘U’-Tube Given: • Depth: 10.1300 BHP = 5900 CCP = 500 psi P1 ≥ P2 IDPT Basic WC IPM 14 .000) .000 ft • MW: 10 ppg • Circ DPP (CDPP): 2000 psi • Circ CP (CCP): 500 psi • (backpressure) CDPP = 2000 psi CCP = 500 psi • DS Pres Loss (dPDS): 1300 psi • Anl Pres Loss (dPA): 200 psi • BHP: ??? P1 ≥ P2 IDPT Basic WC IPM Dynamic ‘U’-Tube CDPP = 2000 psi BHP = CCP + HPA + dPA = 500 + (0.052 x 10 x 10.000) + 200 BHP = 5900 psi OR BHP = CDPP + HPDS .
7 ppg x 10.052 x 9.052 x 10 ppg x 10.7 SICP = 0 psi (overbalanced U-Tube) BHP = SICP + HPAnn = 0 + (0.000 ft) BHP = 5200 psi SITP = BHP .HPTub = 5200 – (0.000 ft) SITP = 156 psi Zone Overbalance = BHP – Zone Pressure = 5200 – 4850 psi Zone Overbalance = 350 psi +350 IDPT Basic WC IPM 15 .Problem #1 THE ‘U’ –TUBE 1/2 hour IDPT Basic WC IPM Problem #1 156 0 10 9.
02 200 – L x 0.dPT = 0 + (0.1186L = L = 10.7 + HP10 .052 x 10 ppg x 8314 ft) + 300 = 0 + 850 + 4323 + 300 BHP = 5473 psi Zone Overbalance = BHP – Zone Pressure = 5473 – 4850 psi Zone Overbalance = 623 psi IDPT Basic WC IPM 16 .000 – L) x CapacityTub (10.Problem #1 156 370 CTP = 156 psi (Held Constant) CCP = dPAnn+ dPTub = 300 + 70 CCP = 370 psi BHP = CCP + HPAnn .000 – L = Volume of 10 ppg Tub (10.000 – L) x 0.dPAnn = 370 + 5200 – 70 BHP = 5500 psi Zone Overbalance = BHP – Zone Pressure = 5500 – 4850 psi Zone Overbalance = 650 psi ( 300 psi above Shut-In) +650 IDPT Basic WC IPM Problem #1 0 370 L CTP = 0 psi (U-Tube Balanced) (Choke Fully Open) CCP = dPAnn + dPTub = 300 + 70 CCP = 370 psi (Pressure Loss in U-Tube) Volume of 9.052 x 9.7 ppgAnn = L x CapacityAnn = L x 0.02 200 1686 ft 8314 ft +623 BHP = CTP + HP9.0986 = = 0.7 ppg x 1686 ft) + (0.
052 x 10 ppg x 7972 ft) + 70 = 5500 .000 – L = Volume of 10 ppg Tub = 10.000 ft) + 70 = 5500 .000 x CapacityTub = 10.1023 .7 ppg x 2028 ft) + (0.(0.052 x 9.7 ppgAnn L x CapacityAnn L x 0.(0.7 .Problem #1 CTP = 0 psi (HPTub Greater than HPAnn) (Choke Fully Open) 0 402 L BHP = CTP + HPT + dPT = 0 + 5200 + 300 BHP = 5500 psi Zone Overbalance = BHP – Zone Pressure = 5500 – 4850 psi Zone Overbalance = 650 psi Volume of 9.HP10 + dPAnn = 5500 .02 = 2028 ft = 7972 ft +650 BHP = CCP + HP9.HP9.7 ppg x 10.4145 + 70 CCP = 402 psi IDPT Basic WC IPM Problem #1 0 CTP = 0 psi (HPTub Greater than HPAnn) (Choke Fully Open) 526 BHP = 5500 psi (Same as (#4)) Zone Overbalance = 650 psi (Same as (#4)) CCP = BHP – HPAnn + dPAnn = 5500 .052 x 9.5044 + 70 CCP = 526 psi +650 IDPT Basic WC IPM 17 .0986 L 10.dPAnn CCP = BHP .000 x 0.7 + HP10 .
psi 400 402 370 370 300 200 156 100 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Tubing Volumes IDPT Basic WC IPM 18 .Problem #1 0 370 CTP = 0 psi (U-Tube Balanced) (Choke Fully Open) CCP = 370 psi (Pressure Loss in U-Tube) BHP = CTP + HPTub + dPTub = 0 + 5044 + 300 BHP = 5344 psi Zone Overbalance = BHP – Zone Pressure = 5344 – 4850 psi Zone Overbalance = 494 psi +494 IDPT Basic WC IPM Problem #1 600 526 500 CTP/CCP .
psi 700 650 623 650 600 500 494 400 300 200 100 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Tubing Volumes IDPT Basic WC IPM Kicks – Cause There is ONE condition that allows a kick to occur: The pressure in the wellbore becomes less than the pressure in the formation IDPT Basic WC IPM 19 .Problem #1 1000 900 800 Overbalance .
questioning attitude by WSS READ THE PROGRAM Careful engineering. Lost Circulation (Fluid Level. but not to trip Best Prevented By: Careful engineering. Unloading mud by pulling balled assembly 6. Drilling into unexpected. Failure to keep hole full of proper weight fluid 2.Kicks – Causes and Prevention Most Common Cause 1. Drilling into zones of known pressure with mud weight too low Best Prevented By: Measurement of fill-up volume when tripping Trip Tank!! Good engineering & well procedures and an alert. abnormal formation Least Common pressure IDPT Basic WC IPM Kicks – Causes and Prevention Most Common Cause 4. Mud weight high enough to drill. proper well design STUDY OFFSET WELLS 3. proper well design Case off Loss Circ ASAP! Measurement of fill-up volume when pulling drill string – TRIP TANK! Measurement of fill-up volume when pulling drill string – TRIP TANK! Least Common IDPT Basic WC IPM 20 . not rate of loss is critical in well control) 5.
Uncontrolled Kicks = Blowouts Do t Le n’ it H t pen ap IDPT Basic WC IPM Well Control Equipment • Trip Tank • LP and HP Well Control Equipment • BOP Configuration and testing • Accumulator. Manifold and Mud Gas Separator IDPT Basic WC IPM 21 .
Overview LOW Pressure Pump Mud Storage Mud Mixing PVT Trip Tank D HIGH Pressure P Suction Degasser To Pump Gas Buster Choke BOP Stack Well Head CSG Accum IDPT Basic WC IPM Well Control Equipment What is the most important piece of well control equipment on the rig? The Trip Tank IDPT Basic WC IPM 22 .Well Control Equipment .
Surface BOP Stack Configuration ANNULAR TOP RAMS BLIND RAMS Kill Line Replace with Double Gate (Pipe Rams – Blind Rams) in Selected Cases BOTTOM RAMS BOTTOM RAMS Choke Line HCR VR Plug Installed in Casing Head IDPT Basic WC IPM Sub-Sea BOP Stack Arrangement UPPER ANNULAR LMRP CON LOWER ANNULAR SHEAR RAMS BOTTOM RAMS Inner Outer Choke Choke Outer Inner Choke Choke BLIND RAMS BOTTOM RAMS UPPER RAMS BOTTOM RAMS MIDDLE RAMS Inner Outer Choke Choke Outer Inner Choke Choke LOWER RAMS BOTTOM RAMS Stack Connector IDPT Basic WC IPM 23 .
Pressure Test Frequency The pressure tests of all blowout preventers. standpipe manifold. BOP operating unit. choke manifold. wellhead components and their connections. kelly and kelly cocks. a body test to ensure the integrity of the bonnet seals will suffice IDPT Basic WC IPM Accumulator Bottle Bladder Assembly Shell Fluid Port Assembly IDPT Basic WC IPM 24 . safety valves and inside BOPS shall be made: During the first trip after the14-day interval with a maximum interval of 21 days or before as specified by local regulations Prior to installation where possible After installation of wellhead and BOP assembly and prior to drilling When any component change is made Prior to drilling into a suspected high pressure zone At any time requested by the Operator’s Drilling Representative After Repairs Prior to the initial opening of the drill stem test tools When bonnets have been opened solely for the purpose of changing rams prior to running casing. kill and choke lines.
Accumulator Sizing PRECHARGE VOLUME AT ACCUMULATOR OPERATING PRESS 3000 psi 1200 psi MIN OPER PRESS 200 psi ABOVE PRECHARGE PRESS 1000 psi Non-Flammable Gas Accumulator Fluid USABLE VOLUME .MOST ALL MODERN ACCULULATORS ARE 3000 psi WORKING PRESSURE IDPT Basic WC IPM Accumulator Sizing SLB STANDARD SPECIFICATION: The accumulator volume of the BOP systems should be sized to keep a remaining stored accumulator pressure of 1380 kPa (200 psi) or more above the minimum recommended precharge pressure after conducting the following operations (with pumps inoperative): • • • • Close all (rams and annular) functions and Open all HCRs valves Open all (rams and annular) functions and Close all HCRs valves Close Annular Open choke line remote operated valve IDPT Basic WC IPM 25 .
67 1200 8.67 UV = 6.33 10.Accumulator Sizing SLB STANDARD EXAMPLE: BOP Equipment: 1 Annular + 3 Rams + HCR Valve Closing Volume (CV): 20 + (3 x 10) + 1 = 56 Gal Opening Volume (OV): 20 + (3 x 10) + 1 = 56 Gal Closing Volume (CV): 20 = 20 Gal Open Choke Line Valve (OV): 1 = 1 Gal Usable Volume (UV): = 133 Gal Nominal (Bottle) Volume (NV): 2 x UV = 266 Gal IDPT Basic WC IPM Accumulator Sizing 1000 psi Non-Flammable Gas 3000 psi Accumulator Fluid 1200 psi USABLE VOLUME 1 2 Operating Useable 3 Calculation of Usable (Bottle) Volume Pre-Charge Pressure Gas Vol PxV Liquid Vol 1000 10 10.000 0 3000 3.000 6.000 1.67 – 1.67 UV = 5 IDPT Basic WC IPM 26 .33 10.
pressure operated adjustable choke. IDPT Basic WC IPM 27 . discharge manifold or other downstream piping without passing through a choke. • Shall be equipped with a manually operated adjustable choke.Hydraulic Pumps SPECIFICATION: The unit will include one (1) electric pump and two (2) back-up air pumps for accumulator charging. Two gate valves with full rated working pressure must be provided in this unchoked path. • Must permit returns to flow directly to the pit. With the accumulator system removed from service.14 mm (3”) nominal diameter or larger. the pumps should be capable of: • Closing annular preventer (excluding diverter) on minimum size drill pipe being used • Opening hydraulic operated choke line valve • Obtain a minimum of 1380 kPa (200 psi) pressure above accumulator precharge pressure on closing unit within two (2) minutes or less IDPT Basic WC IPM Choke and Standpipe Manifold At least three flow paths must be provided that are capable of flowing well returns through conduits that are 76. Simplified choke manifolds without remote control choke may be acceptable on light rigs with 2-3k psi stacks. At least one flow path: • Shall be equipped with a remotely controlled.
Float Valves SPECIFICATION: Float valves must be used while drilling and opening hole prior to setting surface casing or any time the posted well control plan is to divert and can also be used in deeper sections of the hole. Diameter and length controls the amount of pressure in separator Baffle Plates From Choke 2. They: • Prevent sudden influx entry into the drill string • Prevent back flow of annular cuttings from plugging bit nozzles Either plain or ported floats are acceptable IDPT Basic WC IPM Mud-Gas Separator Vent Line No Valves!! Siphon Breaker GAS 1. Height of ‘U’-Tube (D) and distance from bottom of separator to top of ‘U’-Tube controls fluid level and stops gas from going out of the bottom IDPT Basic WC 28 . Height and diameter and internal design control separation efficiency No Valves!! Impingement Plate Mud D MUD d Drain Line w/Valve IPM 3.
202 MCF/D Avg Gas Rate during last minute of venting: 1.462 MCF/D IDPT Basic WC IPM 29 .5#): 0.025 bbl/ft MW: 12 ppg KMW: 14 ppg Kick Vol: 50 bbl Kill Speed: 3 BPM Well Killed by Driller’s Method Csg Press when gas reaches surface: 1987 psi Csg Press when gas out: 1057 psi Avg Gas Rate during 1st minute of venting: 3.MGS Design IDPT Basic WC IPM Exercise . 000’ Hole/CSG Size (12-1/4” x 13-3/8”): 0.Exercise . 19.MGS Design EXAMPLE: Well Depth: 10.722 MCF/D Avg Gas Rate while venting: 2.125 bbl/ft Drill Pipe (5”.
Exercise .MGS Design Pressure Loss in 100 ft 30 Upstream Pressure – psi 25 Gas Temp = 75º F Downstream Pressure = Atmospheric 20 4” ID 6” ID 10 15 8” ID 10” ID 12” ID 5 0 0 5 5 10 10 15 15 20 20 Gas Flowrate – MMSCF/D IDPT Basic WC IPM Well Control Equipment DIVERTERS Are NOT Well Control Equipment IDPT Basic WC IPM 30 .
Diverters • Diverter Requirements • Diverter Procedures IDPT Basic WC IPM Diverters Designed to direct UNCONTROLLED flow away from personnel • Major weaknesses of the Diverter: 1) Plugging: 1/4 -1/2” A large number particles of this size: Can bridge off these flow paths: 8” 12” 2) Erosion: • Gas/Sand mixtures flowing through diverter lines have been measured to erode though steel at the rate of 8”/hour • Water mixtures have been measured at 16”/hour NO RELIABLE MEANS EXIST TO ELIMINATE THESE PROBLEMS IDPT Basic WC IPM 31 .
Diverter Configuration Flow Line Diverter Riser Surface Casing Shoe Diverter Line Entry IDPT Basic WC IPM SLB Diverter Requirements Land. Swamp Barge & Jack-Up Relief Lines • At least two relief lines installed to permit venting at opposite ends or sides of the rig • On Land a single line is permissible • The relief line shall be at least 8” (203 mm) • No other lines into or out of diverter lines or housing IDPT Basic WC IPM 32 .
A means of switching flow from one vent to the other without closing in the system must be provided. Each diverter relief line will be equipped with a pressure-operated full opening. IDPT Basic WC IPM SLB Diverter Requirements Land. if the mud return line and diverter relief outlet from the well is a common outlet or the mud return line connects below the diverter head IDPT Basic WC IPM 33 . Swamp Barge & Jack-Up Relief System • Special care should be taken to protect pipe bends form erosion.SLB Diverter Requirements Land. This may include: • • • • Use of long radius pipe bends Providing extra metal thickness at bends Sleeve-type connections shall not be used in the diverter system A power-operated valve must be installed to automatically shut off mud returns to the pits when the diverter is closed. Swamp Barge & Jack-Up Relief System • The diverter relief system shall be inserted with a minimum number of bends and all lines well secured. unrestricted valve. The operating sequence of the diverter will be as follows: • Open selected valve • Close diverter These functions shall be interlocked.
Record annulus and drill pipe pressure and pit gain IDPT Basic WC IPM 34 . Stop the pumps and flow check. if well flows. Stop rotation 2. Bleed off pressure between pipe rams and annular (if possible) 8.SLB Diverter Requirements Land. if the mud return line and diverter relief outlet from the well is a common outlet or the mud return line connects below the diverter head IDPT Basic WC IPM Shut-In Procedure while Drilling Paths on Choke Manifold Closed (Hard Shut-In). Raise string to shut-in position (time permitting) 3. Float in Drill string 1. Close annular/ open remote controlled choke line valve (HCR) 5. Notify man in charge 6. Swamp Barge & Jack-Up Relief System • Special care should be taken to protect pipe bends form erosion. This may include: • • • • Use of long radius pipe bends Providing extra metal thickness at bends Sleeve-type connections shall not be used in the diverter system A power-operated valve must be installed to automatically shut off mud returns to the pits when the diverter is closed. proceed without delay to next step 4. Check space out and close pipe rams and locks 7.
Make up kelly or top drive (insert a pup joint or single between safety valve and top drive) and open safety valve 6. Soft Shut-In Hard Shut-In Advantages: • Influx stopped in shortest possible time • Quick and simple procedure Disadvantages: • Perceived pressure pulse or ‘Water Hammer’ effect that is thought to damage formation IDPT Basic WC IPM 35 . Float in Drill string 1. Close annular/open remote controlled choke line valve (HCR) 4. Set slips below tool joint (No tool next to shear ram) 2. Install full opening safety valve and close same 3. Notify man in charge 5. Read annulus and drill pipe pressure and pit gain IDPT Basic WC IPM Hard Shut-In vs.Shut-In Procedure while Tripping Paths on Choke Manifold Closed (Hard Shut-In).
Lower annular pressure • Safety of personnel and equipment without risk to well IDPT Basic WC IPM 36 . Soft Shut-In Soft Shut-In Advantages: • Perceived pressure pulse is reduced Disadvantages: • A larger influx is obtained due to the delay in fully shutting the well in • More complex due to requirement of ensuring valve alignment before closing BOP IDPT Basic WC IPM Hard Shut-In vs. Soft Shut-In Conclusions Soft Shut-In • Little improvement to pressure pulse • Significant effect from additional influx Hard Shut-In • ‘Water Hammer’ smaller than shut-in pressure rise • Formation exposed to lower net pressure • Results favor Hard Shut-In • Minimum confusion. Less influx volume.Hard Shut-In vs.
• Volumetric. Lubricate and Bleed • When circulation is a problem • Bullheading IDPT Basic WC IPM 37 .Well Kill Procedures CONSTANT BHP WELL CONTROL METHOD Circulate Gas Out Holding Constant BHP P1 = P2 IDPT Basic WC IPM Well Kill Procedures • 4 Methods • Drillers Method • Circulate kick out • Then pump kill weight mud • Wait and Weight Method • Mix KW mud (Well shut in) and pump into wellbore.
therefore less damage to Well Control Equipment Defacto standard for majority of our clients DISADVANTAGES • Requires longest waiting period prior to circulation. the cuttings may settle out and plug annulus • Gas migration is a problem while the density of the system is increased IDPT Basic WC IPM 38 . it generates the lowest pressure on the formation near casing seat. Requires one less circulation.Driller’s Method ADVANTAGES • • • • Simplicity – Less calculations are required than Wait and Weight Can start circulation immediately – Effect of gas migration reduced Removes influx and stabilizes wellbore pressure at earliest possible time Viable option if limited barite is available DISADVANTAGES • Method will require at least two circulations • Under certain conditions the highest shoe pressure • Two circulations may cause damage to Well Control Equipment IDPT Basic WC IPM Wait and Weight Method ADVANTAGES • • • • In some circumstances. In a case where a significant amount of hole is drilled prior to encountering the kick. In a long open hole section. it is the least likely method to induce lost circulation.
• The QUEST entry shall be accompanied by a Well Control Incident Report IDPT Basic WC IPM Well Control Incident Reporting IDPT Basic WC IPM 39 .Well Control Incident Reporting • All WC Incidents will be reported in QUEST within 24 hours of the incident.
Well Control Incident Reporting IDPT Basic WC IPM Well Control Incident Reporting IDPT Basic WC IPM 40 .
secondary and tertiary WC procedures • Perform basic WC calculations • Describe the necessary equipment for Well Control • Be able to report a WC incident in Quest • Fill out a killsheet.Basic Well Control • Now you should be able to: • Define the terms “kick” and “Blowout” • Understand the causes of kicks and blowouts • Describe primary. IDPT Basic WC IPM 41 .