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4- Lec 3_1 Material First

4- Lec 3_1 Material First

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Published by: ramjanmsingh on Mar 11, 2011
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Types of Material

Why Materials ???

Ashby,: Material Selection in Mechanical Design

Engineering Materials

Ferrous metals: carbon-, alloy-, stainless-, tool-and-die steels Non-ferrous metals: aluminum, magnesium, copper, nickel, titanium, superalloys, refractory metals, beryllium, zirconium, low-melting alloys, gold, silver, platinum, « Plastics: thermoplastics (acrylic, nylon, polyethylene, ABS,«) thermosets (epoxies, Polymides, Phenolics, «) elastomers (rubbers, silicones, polyurethanes, «) Ceramics, Glasses, Graphite, Diamond, Cubic Boron Nitride Composites: reinforced plastics, metal-, ceramic matrix composites Nanomaterials, shape-memory alloys, superconductors, «

Properties of materials

Mechanical properties of materials Strength, Toughness, Hardness, Ductility, Elasticity, Fatigue and Creep Physical properties Density, Specific heat, Melting and boiling point, Thermal expansion and conductivity, Electrical and magnetic properties Chemical properties Oxidation, Corrosion, Flammability, Toxicity, «

Material Specification ‡ Chemical composition ‡ Mechanical properties ± Strength, hardness (under various conditions: temperature, humidity, pressure) ‡ Physical properties ± density, optical, electrical, magnetic ‡ Environmental ± green, recycling

‡ Ferrous Metals
± Cast irons ± Steels

‡ Non-ferrous metals
± Aluminum and its alloys ± Copper and its alloys ± Magnesium and its alloys ± Nickel and its alloys ± Titanium and its alloys ± Zinc and its alloys ± Lead & Tin ± Refractory metals ± Precious metals

‡ Super alloys
± Iron-based ± Nickel-based ± Cobalt-based

General Properties and Applications of Ferrous Alloys
‡ Ferrous alloys are useful metals in terms of mechanical, physical and chemical properties. ‡ Alloys contain iron as their base metal. ‡ Carbon steels are least expensive of all metals while stainless steels is costly.

Carbon and alloy steels Carbon steels ‡ Classified as low, medium and high: 1. Low-carbon steel or mild steel, < 0.3%C, bolts, nuts and sheet plates. 2. Medium-carbon steel, 0.3% ~ 0.6%C, machinery, automotive and agricultural equipment. 3. High-carbon steel, > 0.60% C, springs, cutlery, cable.

Carbon and alloy steels Alloy steels ‡ Steels containing significant amounts of alloying elements. ‡ Structural-grade alloy steels used for construction industries due to high strength. ‡ Other alloy steels are used for its strength, hardness, resistance to creep and fatigue, and toughness. ‡ It may heat treated to obtain the desired properties.

Carbon and alloy steels High-strength low-alloy steels ‡ Improved strength-to-weight ratio. ‡ Used in automobile bodies to reduce weight and in agricultural equipment. ‡ Some examples are: 1. Dual-phase steels 2. Micro alloyed steels 3. Nano-alloyed steels

Stainless steels ‡ Characterized by their corrosion resistance, high strength and ductility, and high chromium content. ‡ Stainless as a film of chromium oxide protects the metal from corrosion.

Stainless steels ‡ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Five types of stainless steels: Austenitic steels Ferritic steels Martensitic steels Precipitation-hardening (PH) steels Duplex-structure steels

Typical Selection of Carbon and Alloy Steels for Various Applications
T A B L E 5 .1 P roduct
A ircraft fo rg in g s, tu b in g , fittin g s A u to m o b ile b o d ies A x les B all b earin g s an d races B o lts C am sh afts C h ain s (tran sm issio n ) C o il sp rin g s C o n n ectin g ro d s C ran k sh afts (fo rg ed )

S te e l
4140, 8740 1010 1040, 4140 52100 1035, 4042, 4815 1020, 1040 3135, 3140 4063 1040, 3141, 4340 1045, 1145, 3135, 3140

P roduct
D ifferen tial g ears G ears (car an d tru ck ) L an d in g g ear L o ck w ash ers N u ts R ailro ad rails an d w h eels S p rin g s (co il) S p rin g s (leaf) T u b in g W ire W ire (m u sic)

S te e l
4023 4027, 4140, 1060 3130 1080 1095, 1085, 1040 1045, 1085 4032 4340, 8740

4063, 6150 4063, 9260, 6150 1055

Mechanical Properties of Selected Carbon and Alloy Steels in Various Conditions
TABLE 5.2 Typical Mechanical Properties of Selected Carbon and Alloy Steels in the Hot-Rolled, Normalized, and Annealed Condition
AISI Condition Ultimate tensile strength (MPa) 448 441 393 1010 965 615 891 689 1279 744 632 536 Yield Strength (MPa) 346 330 294 586 524 375 599 422 861 472 385 357 Elongation in 50 mm (%) Reduction of area (%) Hardness (HB)



3140 4340 8620

As-rolled Normalized Annealed As-rolled Normalized Annealed Normalized Annealed Normalized Annealed Normalized Annealed

36 35 36 12 11 24 19 24 12 22 26 31

59 67 66 17 20 45 57 50 36 49 59 62

143 131 111 293 293 174 262 197 363 217 183 149

AISI Designation for High-Strength Sheet Steel
TABLE 5.3 Yield Strength psi x 10 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 100 120 140

Chemical Composition S = structural alloy

Deoxidation Practice F = killed plus sulfide inclusion control

MPa 240 275 310 350 415 485 550 690 830 970

X = low alloy K = killed W = weathering O = nonkilled D = dual phase

Room-Temperature Mechanical Properties and Applications of Annealed Stainless Steels
TABLE 5.4 Room-Temperature Mechanical Properties and Typical Applications of Selected Annealed Stainless Steels ltimate iel te sile Elo gatio stre gt AISI stre gt i 50 mm ( S) ( a) ( a) aracteristics a ty ical a licatio s ( ) 303 550±620 240±260 53±50 Scre machine products, shafts, valves, bolts, (S30300) bushings, and nuts; aircraft fittings; bolts; nuts; rivets; scre s; studs.
304 (S30400) 316 (S31600) 565±620 240±290 60±55 hemical and food processing equipment, bre ing equipment, cryogenic vessels, gutters, do nspouts, and flashings. igh corrosion resistance and high creep strength. hemical and pulp handling equipment, photographic equipment, brandy vats, fertilizer parts, ketchup cooking kettles, and yeast tubs. Machine parts, pump shafts, bolts, bushings, coal chutes, cutlery, tackle, hard are, jet engine parts, mining machinery, rifle barrels, scre s, and valves. Aircraft fittings, bolts, nuts, fire extinguisher inserts, rivets, and scre s.




410 (S41000)




416 (S41600)




Tool and die steels ‡ Designed for high strength, impact toughness, and wear resistance at a range of temperatures.

Basic Types of Tool and Die Steels
TABLE 5.5 Type High speed Hot work AISI M (molybdenum base) T (tungsten base) H1 to H19 (chromium base) H20 to H39 (tungsten base) H40 to H59 (molybdenum base) D (high carbon, high chromium) A (medium alloy, air hardening) O (oil hardening) S P1 to P19 (low carbon) P20 to P39 (others) L (low alloy) F (carbon-tungsten) W

Cold work Shock resisting Mold steels Special purpose Water hardening

Processing and Service Characteristics of Common Tool and Die Steels
TABLE 5.6 Processing and Service Characteristics of Common Tool and Die Steels
©       ¥ £  

Source: Adapted rom Tool teels, American Iron and teel Institute, 1978.  

P21 W1, W2

High Highest

Highest Medium

30±40 50±64

Medium Highest

Medium High

Medium Lo  

H26 P20

Medium High

High High

43±58 28±37

Medium Medium to high

Medium High 


D3 H21

Medium Medium

High High

54±61 36±54

o Medium 






o High

Very high Lo 


   ¥ ¨

§ ¦ ¡ ¥  




AISI desig atio 2 T1 T5 H11, 12, 13 2 A9

esista ce to decar rizatio edium igh o edium Medium Medium

esista ce to cracki g edium High edium Highest Highest Highest

ac ina ility edium edium edium edium to high Medium Medium

To g ness o o o Very high Medium High

esistance to softening ery high Very high Highest High High High
High High High



Appro imate ardness ) ( 60±65 60±65 60±65 38±55 57±62 35±56






esistance to ear Very high Very high Very high Medium High Medium to high High to very high Very high Medium to high High Lo to medium Medium Lo to medium


Aluminium and aluminium alloys
‡ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Factors for selecting are: High strength to weight ratio Resistance to corrosion High thermal and electrical conductivity Ease of machinability Non-magnetic

Magnesium and magnesium alloys
‡ Magnesium (Mg) is the lightest metal. ‡ Alloys are used in structural and nonstructural applications. ‡ Typical uses of magnesium alloys are aircraft and missile components. ‡ Also has good vibration-damping characteristics.

Copper and copper alloys ‡ Copper alloys have electrical and mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, thermal conductivity and wear resistance. ‡ Applications are electronic components, springs and heat exchangers. ‡ Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. ‡ Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin.

Nickel and nickel alloys ‡ Nickel (Ni) has strength, toughness, and corrosion resistance to metals. ‡ Used in stainless steels and nickel-base alloys. ‡ Alloys are used for high temperature applications, such as et-engine components and rockets.

Superalloys ‡ Superalloys are high-temperature alloys use in et engines, gas turbines and reciprocating engines.

Titanium and titanium alloys ‡ Titanium (Ti) is expensive, has high strengthto-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. ‡ Used as components for aircrafts, et-engines, racing-cars and marine crafts.

Refractory metals ‡ Refractory metals have a high melting point and retain their strength at elevated temperatures. ‡ Applications are electronics, nuclear power and chemical industries. ‡ Molybdenum, columbium, tungsten, and tantalum are referred to as refractory metal.

Other nonferrous metals 1. Beryllium 2. Zirconium 3. Low-melting-point metals: - Lead - Zinc - Tin 4. Precious metals: - Gold - Silver - Platinum

Special metals and alloys 1. Shape-memory alloys (i.e. eyeglass frame, helical spring) 2. Amorphous alloys (Metallic Glass) 3. Nanomaterials 4. Metal foams

Heat Treatment of Metals ‡ Annealing
± Full annealing ± Normalising (faster rate of cooling) ± Recovery annealing (longer holding time, slower rate of cooling,) ± Stress relieving (lower temperature)

‡ Martensite formation in steel
± Austenitizing (conversion to austenite) ± Quenching (control cooling rate ± Tempering (reduce brittleness)

Heat Treatment of Metals ‡ Precipitation hardening
± Solution treatment (E-phase conversion) ± quenching ± precipitation treatment (aging)

‡ Surface hardening
± Carburizing ± Nitriding ± Carbonitriding ± Chromizing and Boronizing

Heat Treatment of Steel

Precipitation Hardening

Solution treatment Quenching Precipitation treatment

Furnaces for Heat Treatment ‡ Fuel fire furnaces
± gas ± oil

‡ Electric furnaces
± batch furnaces
‡ box furnaces - door ‡ car-bottom furnaces - track for moving large parts ‡ bell-type furnaces - cover/bell lifted by gantry crane

± continuous furnaces

Furnaces for Heat Treatment ‡ Vacuum furnaces ‡ Salt-bath furnaces ‡ Fluidized-bed furnaces Some of the furnaces have special atmosphere requirements, such as carbon- and nitrogen- rich atmosphere.

Surface Hardening Methods ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Flame hardening Induction heating High-frequency resistance heating Electron beam heating Laser beam heating

Surface Hardening Methods

Induction heating

High frequency resistance heating

Classification of Ceramics ‡ Ceramics
± Traditional ceramics ± New ceramics ± Glass

Ceramics ‡ Traditional ceramics
± clays: kaolinite ± silica: quartz, sandstone ± alumina ± silicon carbide

‡ New ceramics
± oxide ceramics : alumina ± carbides : silicon carbide, titanium carbide, etc. ± nitrides : silicon nitride, boron nitiride, etc.

Glass ‡ Glass products
± window glass ± containers ± light bulb glass ± laboratory glass ± glass fibers ± optical glass

‡ Glass ceramics - polycrystalline structure

Classification of Polymers
± Thermoplastics ± Thermosets ± Elastomers

Polymers ‡ Thermoplastics - reversible in phase by heating and cooling. Solid phase at room temperature and liquid phase at elevated temperature. ‡ Thermosets - irreversible in phase by heating and cooling. Change to liquid phase when heated, then follow with an irreversible exothermic chemical reaction. Remain in solid phase subsequently. ‡ Elastomers - Rubbers

± Acetals ± Acrylics - PMMA ± Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene - ABS ± Cellulosics ± Fluoropolymers - PTFE , Teflon ± Polyamides (PA) - Nylons, Kevlar ± Polysters - PET ± Polyethylene (PE) - HDPE, LDPE ± Polypropylene (PP) ± Polystyrene (PS) ± Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

Thermosets ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Amino resins Epoxies Phenolics Polyesters Polyurethanes Silicones

Elastomers ‡ Natural rubber ‡ Synthetic rubbers
± butadiene rubber ± butyl rubber ± chloroprene rubber ± ethylene-propylene rubber ± isoprene rubber ± nitrile rubber ± polyurethanes ± silicones ± styrene-butadiene rubber ± thermoplastic elastomers

Classification of Composite Materials
± Metal Matrix Composites ± Ceramic Matrix Composites ± Polymer Matrix Composites

Composite Materials ‡ Metal Matrix Composites (MMC)
Mixture of ceramics and metals reinforced by strong, high-stiffness fibers

‡ Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC)
Ceramics such as aluminum oxide and silicon carbide embedded with fibers for improved properties, especially high temperature applications.

‡ Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC)
Thermosets or thermoplastics mixed with fiber reinforcement or powder.

Composite Materials

1D fibre

Woven fabric

Random fibre

Composite Materials

Taxonomy of Materials Selection

Ashby,: Material Selection in Mechanical Design

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