November 23, 1992

The CDMA Nel\vork Engineering

Volume J: Concepts in CDMA

Dralt Version Xl

March J, J 993

The CDMA Net\vork Engineering

Volume J: Concepts in CDMA

Attachments to Replace Chapters 3, 6, and J 0

·1617 :::OMM Incorporated. All rights reserved. Printed inthe United

[97. Rev. XI

-1617 :OMM Incorporated. All rights reserved. Printed in the United

,Rev. Xl

Table of Contents
Section J. An Introduction to CDMA
Chapter J. An Overview of CDMA
1.0 Introduction 1.01 CTIA. Requirements and TIA Standards 1.1 The Multiple Access Concept 1.2 The CDMA Concept 1.2.1 CDMA System Overview 1.2.2 The CDMA Proposed Standard 1.3 CDMA System Benefits 1.3.1 Multiple Forms of Diversity 1.3.2 Power Control in CDMA 1.3.3 Low Transmit Power 1.3.4 Vocoder and Variable Data Rates 1.3.5 Privacy 1.3.6 Mobile Station- Assisted Soft Handoff 1.3.7 Capacity 1.3.8 Voice Activity Detection 1.3.9 Frequency Reuse and Sectorization 1.3.10 Low EblNO (or CII) and Error Protection 1.3.11 Soft Capacity 1.3.12 Transition to CDMA 1.4 The CDMA System Design 1.4.1 CDMA Capacity Explained Low EblNO and Error Protection Achieving Low EblNO - Multipath and Diversity Voice Activity Detection COMA Network Engineering Handbook Attachment 1-1 1-2 1-4 1-6 1-8 1-9 1-11 1-12 1-13 1-15 1-15 1-16 1-16 1-17 1-17 1-18 1-19 1-19 1-20 1-21 1-21 1-22 1-23 1-24 Page iii Frequency Reuse Sectorization Capacity Gain Unequal Cell Loading The Complete CDMA Capacity Equation 1.4.2 CDMA System Features System Pilot Acquisition Mobile Station-Assisted Soft Handoff Variable Data Rate Vocoder 1.4.3 LinkWaveform CDMA Forward Link Waveform Design CDMA Reverse Link Waveform Design 1.4.4 CDMA Power Control CDMA Reverse Link Open Loop Power Control.. CDMA Reverse Link Closed Loop Power Control CDMA Forward Link Power Control 1.4.5 Networking and Control Standard Message Format and System Layering The Sync Channel The Paging. Channel The Access Channel Framing and Signaling on the Traffic Channel.. Registration Service Options Authentication, Message Encryption, and Voice Privacy 1.4.6 Call Flow 1.4.7 System Functional Description Mobile Station Functions Cell Site Functions MTSO Functions 1.4.8 The CDMA Equipment Design Dual-Mode Mobile StationlPortable The CDMA Cell Site 1.5 CDMA Validation Testing 1.5.1 Overview 1.5.2 Testing Goals and Objectives Laboratory Testing Page iv Attachment ;

1-25 1-27 1-27 1-28 1-29 1-29 1-30 1-32 1-33 1-33 1-35 1-36 1-37 1-37 1-38 1-39 1-39 1-41 1-41 1-42 1-43 1-43 1-45 1-46 1-46 1-48 1-48 1-50 1-51 1-52 1-52 1-52 1-54 1-54 1-54 1-54 COMA Network Engineering Handbook Field Trials


Section 2. The CDMA Base Station
Chapter 2. The CDMA Base Station
2.0 Physical Description 2.0.1 GPS Receiver 2.0.2 Digital Shelf 2.0.3 The RF Rack 2.0.4 Controllers 2.1 The Digital Shelf 2.1.1 Channel Card 2.1.3 Channel Element 2.2 Analog Common Card 2.2.1 Forward Link 2.2.2 Reverse Link 2.3 Sector Interface Card (SIC) 2.3.1 Forward Link 2.3.2 Timing Distribution 2.4 Backplane 2.5 RF Rack 2.6 Qualcomm Telephone Switching Office (QTSO) 2.7 VocoderlSelector Card 2-1 2-3 2-3 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-6 2-6 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-11

Section 3. Channel Characteristics
Chapter 3. Channel Characteristics
3.0 Introduction 3.1 The Mobile Cellular Environment Excessive Loss Scattering Dominated Paths Fading Channel 3.1.1 Signal Bandwidth 3.1.2 Signal Bandwidth 3.2 Measurement Results 3.2.1 Main Observations 3.3 Multipath Mitigation CDMA Network Engineering Handbook Attachment 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-2 3-4 3-5 3-5 3-17 Page v

3.3.1 Optimizing the Signal Bandwidth 3.4 Coverage 3.4.1 Survey of Forward Propagation Modes 3.4.2 Propagation Inside the Street Canyon 3.4.3 Propagation in the Urban Maze 3.5 Personal and In-Building Application 3.5.1 The Channel Behavior 3.6 Channel Measurements 3.6.1 Channel Paramenters Required for Performance Evaluation 3.6.2 The Path-loss Maps 3.6.3 The Required EbINo 3.6.4 Delay Profile Dynamics Impulse Response Sounders Transfer Function Measurement References

3-18 3-19 3-19 3-23 3-25 3-26 3-26 3-27 .3-27 3-28 3-28 3-28 .3-29 .3-29 3-28

Section 4. CDMA System Capacity
Chapter 4a. On the Capacity of a CDMA System
4.0 Introduction 4.1 Single Cell CDMA Capacity 4.2 Augmented Performance Through Sectorization and Voice-Activity Monitoring 4.3 Reverse Link Power Control in Multiple Cell Systems 4.4 Reverse Link Capacity for Multiple Cell CDMA 4.6 Multiple-Cell Forward Link Capacity with Power Allocation 4.7 Conclusions and Comparisons Appendix A Reverse link Outer-Cell Interference References : 4-1 4-2 4-5 4-6 4-7 .4-14 4-18 4-21 .4-21 4-23

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COMA Network Engineering Handbook

Chapter 4&. Erlang Capacity of a Power Controlled CDMA System
4.8 Introduction 4.9 Conventional Blocking 4.10 CDMA Reverse Link Erlang Capacity 4.11 Effect of Other Cell Interference 4.11.1 Designing for Minimum Transmitted Power 4.11.2 Initial Access 4.12 Conclusions Appendix Modified Chernoff Bound for a Single Sector References 4-25 4-26 .4-27 .4-33 .4-41 4-42 4-45 4-46 .4-46 4-48

Section S. Frequency Coordination Issues
Chapter 5. frequency
5.0 Introduction 5.1 Characteristics of Transmitters and Receivers 5.1.1 Transmitters 5.1.2 Receivers 5.1.3 Mobile Output Power 5.2. Mutual Interference Between FM Mobiles and CDMA Cells 5.2.1 Guard Band Calculations 5.2.2 Guard Zone Calculations 5.3 Mutual Interference Between CDMA Mobiles and FM Cells 5.3.1 Guard Zone Calculations 5.3 ~

Coordination Issues
5-1 5-3 5-3 5-5 5-7 5-8 5-10 5-13 5-14 5-22

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5.3.1 Capacity Gain 6.3 Softer Handoff 6.1 Space Diversity 6. Antenna Systems 6.7 Steerable Arrays 6.4 Sectorization 6.1 The Vertical Radiation Pattem 6.2 Diffraction Effects 6.3 Concealed Antennas 6.1 Repeater Coverage References .3 Reflections 6.0 Introduction 6.1 Antenna Parameters 6.3 Vertical Displacement 6.1 Near-field Effects 6. Sector Antennas Active Antennas The Radiation Pattem 6.2 CDMA Repeaters Directive Omnidirectional Antennas 6.2.3 Antenna Neighborhood Displacement of the Diversity Antennas 6.2 Sectorization Efficiency 6.8 Antenna Arrays 6.4. Antenna Systems Chapter 6.9 Repeaters 6. 6-1 6-2 6-5 6-5 6-7 6-10 6-11 6-11 6-13 6-13 6-14 6-15 6-16 6-16 6-19 6-22 6-23 6-23 6-24 6-26 6-26 6-26 6-27 6-28 6-30 6-30 6-30 6-31 6-31 6-32 Page viii Attachment COMA Network Engineering Handbook .4 Antenna Coupling 6.5.Section Diversity Antennas 6.5 Coverage Zones 6.3.10 Delayed Repeaters 6.9.1 Repeaters in Narrow-band Systems 6.

2 Forward Link Cell Size 7.0 Introduction 7.1 Interference from Mobiles in the Same Cell 7.6. 7.2 Forward Link Interference 7.1 Reverse Link Interference 7.5 Conclusions References - Coverage Issues in CDMA ~ 7-1 7-3 7-3 7-4 7-4 7-6 7-7 7-7 7-8 7-9 7-11 7-12 7-16 7-17 7-19 7-21 7-25 7-25 7-26 7-26 7-27 7-28 7-30 7-31 Chapter 7&. CDMA Forward Link 7.2 Closed Loop Correction by the Base Station 7.7.2 Channel Characteristics 7.6. Case 2: 7.Section 7.1 Waveform 7. CDMA Link Budget Analysis 7. Forward Link COMA Network Engineering Handbook Attachment 7-35 7-36 7-37 7-38 7-40 7-41 Page ix .1. Coverage and Cell Design Chapter 7a. Link Budget Details 7.1 Open Loop Estimation by the Mobile Station 7.6 Introduction 7..4.1.2 Interference 7.1.1 CDMA Sample Link Analysis 7.2.1 Interference 7.2 Interference from Other Cells 7.3 Forward and Reverse Links Balance .3 Interference 7.2.1 Reverse Link Cell Size Design Examples Example 1: Homogenous Macrocells Example 2: Homogenous Microcells Example 3: Heterogeneous Cells Case 1: Mobile at the Crossover Point.4 CDMA 7.2 CDMA Reverse Link: Waveform 7.

7.7.1 Transmit Levels 7.7.2 Receive Levels at the Mobile 7.7.3 Interference 7.7.4 EblNo Calculations 7.8. Link: Budget - Reverse Link 7.8.1 Transmit Levels 7.8.2 Receive Levels at the Cell 7.8.3 Interferences 7.8.4 EblNo

7-41 7-42 7-42 7-43 7-44 7-44 7-44 7-44 7-44

Section B. Power Control
Chapter 8. Power Control
8.0 Introduction 8.1 Forward Traffic Channel 8.2 Reverse Traffic Channel 8.2.1 Open Loop Estimation 8.2.2 Turn Around Constant Calculations 8.3 Closed Loop Correction 8.3.1 Closed Loop Transmit Power 8.4 Examples Demonstrating Power Control.. 8-1 8-2 8-3 8-3 8-4 8-6 8-6 8-6

Section 9. HandoH
Chapter 9a. Search and HandoH Parameters
9.0 Handoff Procedures 9.0.1 Types of Handoff 9.1 Handoff Signaling 9.1.1 The Pilot Strength Measurement Message Pilot Search Pilot Strength Rules for Transmission of Pilot Strength Measurement Messages 9.1.2 The Handoff Direction Message 9.1.3 The Handoff Completion Message 9.1.4 Set Maintenance 9.2 Soft HandoffRequirements 9.2.1 Handoff Parameters 9.2.2 Numerical Estimates for HandoffParameters Page x Attachment 9-1 9-1 9-3 9-4 9-4 9-5 9-7 9-8 9-9 9-10 9-13 9-13 9-15 COMA Network Engineering Handbook

9.2.3 Mobile Station Search Windows 9.2.4 Sample Results 9.3 Call Processing 9.4 Cell Site Identification 9.4.1 Background 9.4.2 Pilot Sequence Offset Index Assignment Appendix A A Simplified Searcher Model Lower Bound Analysis Model and Notation Analysis Metrics Upper Bound Analysis

9-16 9-18 9-23 9-26 9-26 9-27 9-30 9-30 9-30 9-30 9-31 9-32 9-35

Section '0. Microcell Design
10.1 Introduction 10.1.1 Why Microcells? 10.1.2 Types of Microcells 10.1.3 Microcell-Related Technologies 10.1.4 Microcells and the CDMA System 10.1.5 The Microcell Environment 10.2 Heterogeneous Cell Clustering 10.2.1 Definition of the Cell Boundary 10.2.2 Antenna Heights 10.2.3 Cell Directivity 10.2.4 Desensitization 10.2.5 Beam Tilting 10.3 Overlay- Underlay Cells Clustering 10.3.1 Overlay-Underlay Hierarchy 10.3.2 Capacity 10.3.3 Capacity - Underlaid Microcell Cluster 10.3.4 The Extent of the Soft Handoff Zone Overlay-Underlay Soft HandoffLayout Munster Test Results Soft HandoffZone 10.3.5 HandoffBalancing COMA Network Engineering Handbook Attachment Reduction : 10-1 10-1 10-1 10-2 10-2 10-3 10-5 10-5 10-6 10-8 10-8 10-10 l0-l0 l0-l0 10-10 10-12 l0-13 10-13 l0-15 10-15 10-17 Page xi Power Scaling 10A.l Introduction 10A.2 The Model 10A.3 Microcell Interference 10AA The Large Cell Interference to the Microcell 10A.5 The Capacity

10-18 10-20 10-20 10-22 10-22 10-23

Section J J. System Parameters

Section J 2. Appendices
Appendix A. Glossary Appendix 8. Index

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COMA Network Engineering Handbook

List of figures
1-1. Frequency and Time Domain Representations of FDMA, TDMA, and CDMA .. 1-6 1-2. A View of the CDMA Concept. 1-3. Diversity Processes in CDMA 1-4. Power Control in CDMA 1-5. Active Links During Handoff 1-6. Interference Contributions From Neighboring Cells 1-7. Performance of the Forward and Reverse Links on a Gaussian Channel.. 1-8. Unequal Cell Loading 1-9. Mobile Senses HandoffRequirements 1-10. Forward Link Channelization 1-11. Forward CDMA Channels Transmitted by a Base Station 1-12. Reverse CDMA Channels Received at a Base Station 1-13. Effects of Power Control for the Reverse Link 1-14. Mobile Station and Base Station Layering 1-15. Simple Call Flow, Mobile Station Origination Example Using Default Service Option 1-16. Simple Call Flow, Mobile Station Termination Example 1-17 Mobile Subsystem 1-18. A Single Sector CDMA Cell 1-19. Frame Error Rate Performance As a Function of Speed 1-20. Results of Power Control During Field Tests 1-21. Limits in Sector Capacity Induced for Higher Required Et/No 1-22. The Results of Injected Interference During the Field Tests 1-23. Mobile Station Transmitted Power During Field Tests 2-1. Elevation Drawing of a Single Sector CDMA Cell 2-2 Elevation Drawing of a Single Sector CDMA Cell- RTS Configuration 2-3 Forward Link of SIC COMA Network Engineering Handbook Attachment 1-47 1-49 1-52 1-53 1-56 1-57 1-59 1-60 1-60 2-2 2-3 2-6 Page xiii 1-7 1-13 1-14 1-16 1-19 1-23 1-28 1-31 1-34 1-35 1-36 1-39 1-41

2-4. RF Rack 2-5. The Elevation Drawing of a QTSO - RTS Configuration 2-6 QTSO/Subscriber Interface Subsystem Block Diagram 3-1. Typical Impulse Response. . 3-2. Relative Delay Profiles For Reflection and Scattering 3-3. First Order Approximation to Propagation in the City Maze 3-4. Structure of a Delayed Impulse Response. . 3-5. Path Loss and Loss Distribution Plots. . 3-6a. Dynamics of a Leading Peak. . 3-6b. Statistical Distribution of the Leading Peak. . 3-7a. Profile of a Dense Downtown High-Rise Environment. 3-7b. Profile of a Dense Downtown High-Rise Environment. 3-8a Profile of a Dense Downtown Environment with Lamp-Post Height Transmitter Antenna. . Antenna. . 3-9a Profile of a Dense High-Rise Downtown Environment. 3-9b Profile of a Dense High-Rise Downtown Environment 3-10a Profile of a Scattered High Rise Downtown Environment. 3-lOb Profile of a Sparse Suburban Environment. 3-11 Multipath Delay Statistics 3-12. Line-of-Sight Propagation 3-13. Over-the-Roof Propagation 3-14. The Forward Reflections . . :

2-7 2-9 2-1 0 3-2 .3-3 .3-7 .3-10 .3-1 0 3-11 3-11 .3-12 .3-12 3-13 3-13 .3-14 .3-14 .3-15 .3-15 3-16 .3-21 3-22 3-23 3-24 3-25 .4-3 .4-8 4-13 4-16 .4-17 .4-18 .4-30 .4-32

3-8b Profile of a Dense Downtown Environment with Lamp-Post Height Transmitter

3-15. Propagation Inside The Street Canyon: Delay Profile as a Function of the Building Reflection R=lkm, S= 50m 3-16. Propagation Inside The Street Canyon: Back Reflections 4-1a. Cellular System Simplified Block Diagram 4-2a. Capacity Calculation Geometries: Reverse Link Geometry 4-3a. Reverse Link Capacity/Sector 4-4a. Forward Link Allocation Geometry 4-5a. Histogram of Forward Power Allocation 4-6a. Forward Link Capacity Per Sector 4-1b. Empirical EblNo Probability Density and Log-Normal Approximation 4-2b. Blocking Probabilities for Single Cell Interference

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COMA Network Engineering Handbook

4-3b. Gaussian Approximations to Blocking Probabilities Including Other Cell Interference 4-5b. Erlang Capacity Ratio 4-6b. Relative Erlang Capacity for Various Propagation Power Laws (Power Control Std) 4-7b. Relative Erlang Capacity of Central Cell as Function of Other Cell Relative Loading (4th Power Prop Law; Power Control Std. Dev.= 2.5 dB) 4-8b. Total Interference-to-Noise 5-1. Mobile Transmit Mask 5-2. Cell Transmit Mask 5-3. Cell Receiver Selectivity 5-4. Mobile Receiver Selectivity 5-5. Path Loss Calculations 5-6. Mobile Output Power. . 5-7. CDMA Cell Noise 5-8. PM Mobile Noise Figure as a Function of the Frequency Offset. 5-9. Guard Zone Definition 5-10. Noise Figures as a Function of Path Loss (Df=870 kHz. ) 870 kHz 5-12. Noise Figures as Function of Frequency Spacing (Lp=-72 dB) 5-13. Noise Figures as a Function of Frequency Spacing (Lp=-116 dB) 5-14. Noise Figures as a Function of the Path Loss 5-15. Mutual Interference: Big Cells Case 5-16. Noise Figures for the Medium Cells Case 5-17. Mutual Interference: Medium Cells Case 5-18. Noise Figures for the Small Cells Case 5-19. Mutual Interference: Small Cells Case 6-1. Dipole radiation 6-2. Coupling Between Dipoles 6-3. The Collinear Dipole Array 6-4. Beam Tilting and Coverage Shaping 6-5. Ground-plane Backed Dipoles 6-6. Minimum Propagation Loss Condition Between the Cell Site and the Mobile 6-7a. Antenna and Scatterer Configuration COMA Network Engineering Handbook Attachment and SNR per User .4-40 .4-41 5-4 5-4 5-6 5-6 5-7 5-8 5-10 5-11 5-11 5-12 5-13 5-15 5-16 5-17 .5-18 5-19 5-20 5-21 5-22 6-6 6-7 6-9 6-1 0 6-11 6-13 6-15 Page xv 4-39 4-36 4-38 4-4b. Power Controlled CDMA Erlang Capacity Including Other Cell Interference ...4-37

5-11. Mutual Interference between CDMA Cell and PM Mobiles at Frequency Offset

6-7b Ripple Level in the Antenna Pattern by a Scattering Dipole 6-8. Distance for Collimated Beam from a Reflecting Surface 6-9. Interference Accumulation in Cellular Systems 6-10. Interference Sources into a Sector 6-11. The Sectorization Efficiency Model 6-12. Sectorization Efficiency 6-13. Beam Overlap, 6-14. The Cell Site Scattering Environment. 6-15 Adaptive Sectorization in CDMA. 7-1 Reverse Link: Interference 7-2 Forward Link Model. 7-3. Layout of Hexagonal Coverage Areas 7-4. IoclIo for Different Propagation Indices 7-5. Effect of Loading on the Maximum Transmission Loss 7-6. Transmission Loss as a Function of Pilot Strength 7-7a. Problems Associated with Unbalanced Links: Balanced Links 7-7b. Problems Associated with Unbalanced Links: Powerful Forward Link 7-7c. Problems Associated with Unbalenced Links: Powerful Reverse Link 7-8. Mobile Close to the Crossover Point 7-9. Mobile within the Territory of the Macrocell 7-10. Pilot ERP as a Function ofthe Number of Users Per Cell 7-11. Eb/Nt Changes According to System Loading 8-1. Power Control in CDMA 8-2. Response of the Power Control Loops to Sudden Degradation in the Channel. 8-3. Response of the Power Control Loops to Sudden Improvement in the-Channel 9-1. Soft Handoff 9-2. Hard Handoff ...................................................................•...................................... 9-3. Determination of the Pilot PN Phase 9-4. HandoffExample in a Manhattan Type Terrain 9-5. Neighbor Pilot Reception Geometry 9-6. Probability of False Alarms vs. T_ADD 9-7. Detection Probability vs. Pilot Strength 9-8. Time to Send a Pilot Strength Measurement Message as a Function of T_COMP 9-9. False Report Probability as a Function of T_COMP 9-10. Call Processing During Soft Handoff Page xvi Attachment

6-15 6-16 6-18 6-20 6-21 6-21 6-23 6-25 6-29 7-9 7-10 7-13 7-15 7-19 7-21 7-22 7-23 7-24 7-28 7-29 7-37 7-40 8-2 8-7 8-8 9-2 9-2 9-6 9-14 9-16 9-18 9-19 9-20 9-21 9-23

CDMA Network Engineering Handbook

9-11. Call Processing During Sequential Soft Handoff. 9-12. Geometry of Correlated Pilot Interference 9A-l. Geometry for Upper Bound Analysis 10-1. Coverage Inside a Laboratory Floor 10-2. Capacity Bound in Each Cell 10-3. The Cell Boundary and its Dynamics 10-5. Intersection of a Microcell with a Macrocell 10-6. Cell Boundary Condition 10-7. Directional Microcell 10-8. Macrocell Bounding A Cluster of Microcells 10-9. Overlay-Underlay 10-10. Overlay-Underlay Coverage Cell Arrangement. ~

9-24 9-28 9-35 10-4 10-5 10-9 10-11 10-12 10-13 10-14 10-9 10-19 10-20 10-21 10-21 10-23 10-24 10-26

10-4. Transmission Loss from the Cell Site for Different Antenna Heights and Tilt. 10-10

10-11. Ratio of Soft Handoff Area to Cell Area 10-12. Soft Handoff Zone as a Function of Window Size 10-13. A Directional Microcell 10-14. Overlay-Underlay HandoffConditions 10-15. Power Scaling in the Microcell lOA-I. The Overlay-Underlay Model.

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Page xviii Attachment CDMA Network Engineering Handbook .Blank.

9-3 Events Moving a Pilot between Sets 9-5 Results of the Upper Bound Analysis 1-11 4-35 7-25 8-6 9-5 9-8 9-12 9-15 9-22 4-1 Additive Factors for Other Cell Interference with Log-Normal Propagation Law and 9-4 Handoff Parameters Used in the San Diego Field Trials CDMA Network Engineering Handbook Attachment Page xix .List of Tables 1-1 CDMAFeatures Standard Deviation s' = 8 dB 7-1 Homogenous Macrocells: Parameters and Values 8-1 Values of k for Different Sets of Parameters 9-1 Searcher Window Sizes 9-2 HandoffDrop Timer Expiration Values .

Page xx Attachment CDMA Network Engineering Handbook .Blank.

Preface .

the following must be investigated carefully during the initial phase of plannin a new network or converting an existing analog network into digital: capacity. Chapter 1 serves as an overview to Qualcomm CDMA system. and RF rack. traffic and purchase intent distribution. The result of such a calculation is the basis for the initial cell plan. voice. and future growth. field survey. In Chapter 2 we briefly discuss CDMA system block diagram. and cell test equipment recommendations. The amount of traffic generated can be calculated or predicated using existing busy hour call attempt data (BHCA). CDMA waveforms on the forward and reverse links. and in-building applications are covered. system features. Chapter 4 treats the subject of system capacity. This document will change and grow with time. coverage and signal quality. The discussion and treatment presented in the document are intended to serve as a system engineering guidelines rather than as a definitive specification or equipment recommendations. A cellular network planning is a guide for installing base stations (or modifying existing ones). and income level distribution. service quality. radio spectrum survey. The subscriber usage pattern (traffic demand) will provide the basis to predicate the above parameters. This chapter discusses the advantages of the CDMA system. The data should also be analyzed and incorporated into the design to predict hot spots and bottle neck areas especially in heavy populated metropolitan areas. GPS. transmission network planning. channel characterization is discussed in Chapter 3. employment pattern. selecting trunks and facilities. The handbook is divided into 11 completed chapters. commands to enter these parameters. As in other cellular design and planning. digital shelf.Preface The objective of this document is to provide system engineers and planners with basic information about the Qualcomm CDMA cellular system to help them in planning and designing an efficient CDMA network. and the results of the validation tests. Normal cell planning for CDMA system is somehow similar to planning for any other cellular system with respect to map and land usage of data. The chapter describes base station equipment such as transceiver. cost. Other factors must be taken into consideration such as population. system performance prediction. Cellular network engineering involves all the work required to design a cellular radio base station network. There is a possibility that future revisions of the document may address other issues such as: specific system parameter values. topics such as mobile cellular environment. The first part of the chapter discusses the capacity of both the forward and reverse links and the effect of the statistical distribution of different on the system COMA Network Engineering Handbook Attachment Page xxi . general rules to determine cellular fixed network equipment. coverage. multipath mitigation. land usage distribution. population distribution. and cellular system tuning.. quality. mobile test installation and operation. factors that determine the system capacity. car usage distribution.

antenna diversity. discusses the types of handoff. Handoff parameters determine the size of the handoff region. a procedure to balance to two links are presented. Finally. In Chapter 6 we discuss the antenna system. Detailed discussion of different forms of interference is presented. Techniques to determine the cell size on both the forward and reverse links are discussed. The first part is devoted to the subject of coverage in CDMA. the CDMA system employs power control on both the forward and reverse links. In the second part we present a sample of the CDMA link budget. Chapter 10 describes microcell design and use. a handoff mechanism is provided to allow a call to continue when a mobile station crosses the boundary between two cells. Chapter 7 is divided into two parts. Finally Chapter 11. determines the handoff requirements. Characteristics of transmitters and receivers are discussed. In a cellular telephone system.to the concept of cellular mobile telephony is the process of power control. hence affect the capacity of the system.capacity. and finally explains the call processing during handoff. The chapter begins with definition of antenna parameters and treats in detail issues such as sectorization. Mutual interference between PM mobiles and CDMA cells as well as mutual interference between CDMA mobiles and PM cells are evaluated. The concept of guard band and guard zone is defined and calculated. The second part of the chapter discusses the Erlang capacity of the CDMA system which is a measure of the economic usefulness of the peak load that can be supported by the system. In Chapter 8 we describe in detail the process of power control. Chapter 5 is devoted to frequency coordination issues. describes the handoff signals. Chapter 9 is devoted to the handoff issues in CDMA. To achieve both high capacity and good voice quality. which will be supplied in a later draft. Fundamental. This chapter defines the search and handoff parameters. will have a list of the system parameters and their descriptions. Page xxii Attachment COMA Network Engineering Handbook . active antenna. and steerable arrays.

~ ]rilE! C=J)~ c:C»IICEtl't ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• J-~ r.3 CDMA SystelJ1 8enelils •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••J J.An Overview of CDMA I r.4 The CDMA System Design ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••J -2 J 1.o IntroC#uefion •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••J .J Access Concept ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• J-4 J. J The Multiple J.r J.5 CDMA Va/iC#ation Testing •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• J -54 .

5 gives an overview of the extensive CDMA Validation Test that started last year and is still underway in San Diego. and generic system design. The results of these tests are summarized in Section 1. developed. all the major features of CDMA have been demonstrated.O Introduction This chapter provides an overall understanding of the Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) system design that QUALCOMM has developed for digital cellular applications and the governing proposed "Wideband Spread Spectrum Digital Cellular System Dual-Mode Mobile Station . and most will be elaborated on in later chapters. layering. including. economical.3 gives a general overview of the CDMA system and its relationship to the cellular frequency allocations in the United States. A prototype CDMA digital cellular system consisting of six cell sites (nine sectors) and 70 mobile stations was also developed and tested extensively in San Diego. Sections 1. Although the tests are still underway. signaling. This section also includes details of the features highlighted in section 1. This chapter provides an overview of the systems engineering concepts pertinent to CDMA The topics addressed in this chapter are described in varying degrees of detail. Section 1.1 through 1. which included widespread industry participation. Section 1. portable. Attributes of the CDMA system and its features are also highlighted in this section. in conjunction with many cellular operators. COMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version XI Page 1-1 . functional description. and mobile manufacturers. and format. and tested the CDMA system.3. the VLSI chip sets for the CDMA system subscriber equipment and the base station channel elements. Following this introduction.4 provides a more detailed look at the system structure. its contents. QUALCOMM designed. has shown the viability of CDMA in an extensive field trial. To verify this belief.Base Station Compatibility Standard. network manufacturers. Section 1. and quality digital cellularlPCN services with low-cost. call processing. This test.5.Chapter 1 An Overview of COMA r An Overview of the Application of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) J.2 provide a conceptual look at CDMA and its application as a multiple access scheme followed by a discussion of the proposed standard." QUALCOMM firmly believes that its CDMA approach is the candidate for the second generation of cellular systems most capable of providing spectrum-efficient. as a part of the overall development activities. pocket phones.

GTE Mobile Communications. Ameritech Mobile.An Overview of CDMA Chapter 1 J. formulated the EINTINIS-54. Sony. Alps Electric. or TDMA. The carriers that are taking part in the CDMA digital cellular validation efforts are PacTel Cellular. the TIA's Cellular and Common Carrier Radio Section. 1992. On February 11.Cellular Open Network Architecture (CONA). as the air interface radio channel access scheme for traffic channel transmissions. and most recently Matsushita-Panasonic. This decision was made prior to QUALCOMM's introduction of CDMA digital cellular technology. During 1989. The motion further recommended that the TR45 Committee consider a subcommittee structure that would not dilute the IS-54 revision process. and Bell Cellular of Canada. Clarion. the Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association (CTIA) released the Users' Performance Requirements (UPR) document which specified the cellular carriers' requirements for the next generation cellular technology. presented the results of its successful field trials of the CDMA digital cellular validation system.." QUALCOMM. unanimously adopted a motion that recommends that the TR45 Committee address standardization activities regarding wideband spread spectrum digital technologies. Bell Atlantic Mobile Systems.3 Subcommittee on Digital Cellular Systems. These requirements for digital technology include: • Tenfold increase over analog system capacity • • • • • • Long life and adequate growth of second-generation technology Ability to introduce new features Quality improvements Privacy Ease of transition and compatibility with existing analog system Early availability and reasonable costs for dual-mode radios and cells • . Nokia. the CTIA Board of Directors unanimously adopted a resolution to prepare 'structurally' to accept contributions regarding wideband [cellular systems]. OKI Telecom. 1992. On December 5. at the CTIA's "Presentations of the Results of the Next Generation Cellular Field Trials. along with a number of participating carriers and manufacturers. The infrastructure equipment manufacturers involved in the CDMA development activities include AT&T. With extensive cellular industry support. The subscriber equipment manufacturers include MOTOROLA. On January 6. NYNEX Mobile. 1991. The field trials were conducted publicly with the support and the participation of a large number of major cellular carriers and manufacturers. US West NewVector Group.3 Subcommittee adopted Time Division Multiple Access. a subcommittee of the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA). Dual-Mode Subscriber Equipment . the TIA TR-45.Network Equipment Compatibility Specification. Based on the above recommendations from CTIA and TIA and more specifically in responding to the needs of Page 1-2 Draft Version XI CDMA Network Engineering Handbook .OJ CTIA Requirements and TlA Standards In September 1988. QUALCOMM has developed a CDMA system completely compliant with the CTIA requirements. and most recently Northern Telecom. MOTOROLA. The TR-45.

namely TR45. a new subcommittee.5. This system was extensively tested and as a result. 1992 meeting of Committee TR45. was formed to develop spread spectrum digital cellular standards. the system interface specification is being submitted as a candidate for standardization. CDMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version XI Page 1-3 .Chapter 1 An Overview of CDMA the user and service provider communities at a March 5.

and truly portable communications. time division in the form of schedules. with frequency division multiple access (FDMA). spatial filtering with directive antennas. Over the last 40 years. Different signals are assigned different frequency channels. and time sharing. As the number of wireless radios in operation increased. cellular system designers have been confronted with the problem of multiple access to the frequency spectrum without mutual interference.An Overview of CDMA Chapter 1 J. There are many simultaneous users who want to use the same electromagnetic spectrum and there is an array of filtering and processing techniques. a channel is a relatively narrow band in the frequency domain into which a signal's transmission power is concentrated. Page 1-4 Draft Version XI CDMA Network Engineering Handbook . The techniques that have long been used include propagation mode selection. The analog PM cellular system usesFDMA. which allow the different signals to be separately received and demodulated without excessive mutual interference. The approach will solve the near-term capacity concerns of major markets and the industry's long-term need for economic. frequency filtering. J The Multiple Access Concept CDMA is a modulation and multiple access scheme based on spread spectrum communication. and netted operations were employed. frequency division in the form of resonant antennas. FDMA and TDMA As shown in Figure 1-1. The multiple access problem can be thought of as a filtering problem. Interference to and from adjacent channels is limited by the use of bandpass filters which pass signal energy within the specified narrow frequency band while rejecting signals at other frequencies. This has grown over the years to the complex process that we have today for worldwide frequency allocations and licensing by service type. Propagation Mode Selection Propagation mode selection involves a proper choice of operating frequency and antenna so that signals propagate between the intended communicators but not between (very many) other communicators. Frequency reuse in cellular mobile telephone systems is an example of this technique carried to a great degree of sophistication. a well-established technology that has been applied only recently to digital cellular radio communications and advanced wireless technologies. The current analog cellular system uses sectorization successfully to reduce interference from co-channel users in nearby cells. it became necessary to impose frequency allocations. efficient. techniques involving spread spectrum modulation have evolved in which more complex waveforms and filtering processes are employed. In the early days of wireless telegraphy. Spatial Filtering Spatial filtering uses the properties of directive antenna arrays to maximize response in the direction of desired signals and to minimize response in the direction of interfering signals. Ever since the second pair of wireless telegraphs came into existence.

which are subdivided into six time slots for TDMA transmissions. The EIAITIAIIS-54-B TDMA standard provides a basic modulation efficiency of three voice calls per 30 kHz of bandwidth. The resulting capacity is one call per 70 kHz of spectrum or three times that of the analog FMsystem. The currently accepted frequency reuse criteria is similar to the analog design. narrowband FM modulation is employed. Two time slots are required for each call when employing 8 kbps vocoders. there is a cost of increasing handoff rates as mobile stations move through smaller coverage areas. To provide acceptable call quality. The resulting capacity is one call per 210 kHz of spectrum in each cell. In addition. With TDMA. a channel consists of a time slot in a periodic train of time intervals making up a frame (see Figure 1-1). The TIAproposed EINTIAIIS-54-B digital cellular standard uses 30 kHz FDMA channels. Adjacent channel interference is limited by the use of a time gate that only passes signal energy which is received at the proper time. Because of interference. analog cellular system divides the allocated spectrum into 30 kHz bandwidth channels.S. Empirical results have shown that in most cases this level of C/I requires a reuse factor of seven. The frequency reuse factor is a number which represents how often the same frequency can be reused.Chapter 1 An Overview of CDMA FDMA spectral efficiency in a cellular system is determined by the modulation spectral efficiency (the information bit rate per Hertz of bandwidth) and the frequency reuse factor. TDMA spectral efficiency is determined in a manner similar to that used for FDMA. the same frequency cannot be used in every cell. resulting in a modulation efficiency of one call per 30 kHz of spectrum. a Carrier-to-Interference ratio (CII) of 18 dB or greater is needed. but with increased equipment costs. CDMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version XI Page 1-5 . A given signal's energy is confined to one of these time slots. Note that by increasing the number of cells. Some systems use a combination of FDMA and TDMA. The U. an arbitrarily high capacity can be obtained.

one in the soprano range and the other in the bass. As Golomb writes. CDMA has multiple users simultaneously sharing the same wide band channel.J. Page 1-6 Draft Version XI COMA Network Engineering Handbook . J .An Overview of COMA Chapter 1 Figure J . Another strategy is to have them sing a duet. we may ask them to await their turns. And if you can solve that problem. TDMA. J. Frequency and Time Domain Representations 01 FDMA. Unlike FDMA or TDMA. who will be occupying the same regions in time.K. and frequency. with CDMA (see Figure 1-2) each signal consists of a different pseudorandom binary sequence that modulates the carrier. space. or to hold their conversations in separate rooms. The problem of code division is to write a duet for two tenors. and if your ear is equipped with a band-pass filter. you can tune in to one or the other. Individual users are selected by correlation processing of the pseudonoise waveform. August 4-16. Wouldn't it help to have each one ofthem singing in a different language?"! Technically speaking. Proceedings from The Advanced Study Institute Conference on Ed. and CDMA. A large number of CDMA signals share the same frequency spectrum. This is a frequency division of the channel. in such a way that a listener can choose to follow one or the other without getting confused. the multiple access signals appear to be on top of 1 "New Concepts in Multi-user Communications: Concepts in Multi-user Communication. If CDMA is viewed in either the frequency or time domain. then we will ask you to try your hand at trios. 1980. spreading the spectrum of the waveform. " When two people want to speak: at once. UK.2 The CDMA Concept The CDMA concept can be explained simply in harmonious terms. and the Vienna Boys choir. Skwirzynski. These are examples of time division and space division of the available channel. octets. NATO.

as a result. voice duty cycle. The signal-tointerference ratio is determined by the ratio of desired signal power to the sum of the power of all other signals.interference produced by other users of the same 2 EbfN 0 is defined as the ratio of bit energy to noise power spectral density. and the number of sectors in the cell. As discussed in "CDMA System Benefits. contribute only to the noise and represent a self-interference generated by the system. This is a capacity of up to one call per 10kHz of spectrum." the major parameters that determine the CDMA digital cellular system capacity are processing gain. different sources The dominant source is system self. whose codes do not match.Chapter 1 An Overview of COMA each other. required EJ/No. cell. frequency reuse efficiency. comparable to CII. are not despread in bandwidth and.6 Kbps) BACKGROUND NOISE EXTERNAL INTERFERENCE OTHER CELL INTERFERENCE (IOC) OTHER USER NOISE (ISC) Figure J -2. The other users' signals. COMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version XI Page 1-7 . The desired signal is selectedfromfour of interference. The signals are separated in the receivers by using a correlator. DATA (9. The increased signal-to-noise ratio for the desired signal is shown in Figure 1-2.' The CDMA cellular telephone system achieves a spectral efficiency of up to 20 times the analog FM system efficiency when serving the same area with the same antenna system. and is enhancedby the system processing gain or the ratio of spread bandwidth to baseband data rate. which accepts only signal energy from the selected binary sequence and despreads its spectrum. A View of the CDMA Concept. This source is controlled by closed loop power control.

power control. The CDMA system can also be a hybrid of FDMA and CDMA techniques where the total system bandwidth is divided into a set of wideband channels. The channel number denotes the FM (30 kHz) channels.5 MHz allocated to each carrier for each direction of the link is further subdivided into two subbands. the 12. an efficient modem.25 MHz after filtering or approximately 111 of the total bandwidth allocated to one cellular 0 service carrier. Since all calls use the same frequencies.An Overview of CDMA Chapter 1 In the cellular radio frequency reuse concept. only one or a small number of 1. and conserves battery power in the mobile station. the A and the B carriers. r . and a signal design which uses error correction coding. helps to overcome fading. For the A carriers. Some frequency guard band is necessary if there are adjacent high-power cellular (or other) frequencies in use and the maximum capacity of the CDMA cell is required.25 MHz channels need to be removed from the present FM analog service to provide digital service.25 MHz CDMA segment can provide about twice the capacity of the entire 12. Because the FCC increased the cellular frequency allocations.5 MHz allocation using the present FM system. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has allocated a total of 25 MHz for mobile station to cell site and 25 MHz for cell site to mobile station for the provision of cellular services. The chip rate of the PN spreading sequence was chosen so that the resulting bandwidth is about 1. Page 1-8 Draft Version XI CDMA Network Engineering Handbook . For the B carriers. interference is accepted but controlled with the goal of increasing system capacity.25 MHz bandwidth CDMA channels can be used by each operator if the entire allocation is converted to CDMA. Each 1. the subbands are 10 MHz and 2. The FCC has divided this allocation equally between two service providers. power gating of transmissions by voice activity.5 MHz each.2.5 MHz each. CDMA frequency reuse efficiency is determined by a small reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio caused by system users in neighboring cells. CDMA does this effectively because it is inherently an excellent anti-interference waveform. This minimizes interference to other users. This facilitates the deployment by introducing a more gradual reduction in analog capacity. A combination of open loop and closed loop power control (through measurements of the received power at the mobile station and the base station) commands the mobile station to make power adjustments in order to maintain only the power level required for adequate performance. A set of ten 1. Initially. r CDMA System Overview The multiple access scheme exploits isolation provided by the antenna system. Capacity can be sacrificed for a decreased guard band if desired. each of which contains a large number of CDMA signals. The CDMA digital cellular waveform design uses a Pseudorandom Noise (PN) spread spectrum carrier. in each service area. geometric spacing. CDMA frequency reuse efficiency is approximately 2/3 compared to 117 for narrowband FDMA systems. Adjacent CDMA channels need not employ a guard band. the subbands are 11 MHz and 1.

a significant interim release. the goal is to provide compatibility between the existing analog mode and the new digital mode. A CDMA-only mobile or base station can be implemented by applying only those specifications that apply to CDMA operation. Minimum performance requirements for dual-mode mobile stations and base stations will be provided in future specifications. On the basis of comments received from the participants actively involved in the development of CDMA. Due to CDMA's autonomous nature. January 1992. provisions for future service additions and expansions of system capabilities are included.1 of the proposed standard was released on September 11. The document is structured after the existing EIAffIA standard documents and has a similar section format and terminology. is a comprehensive document that specifies the common air interface for a system which uses CDMA and PM technology to provide a very high capacity digital cellular telephone system. A mobile station that complies with the defined specifications can obtain service by communicating with either an analog (PM) base station or with a CDMA base station.2.18. Revision 1.05. the first draft of the proposed standard was reviewed by many major cellular carriers as well as network and subscriber equipment manufacturers. Dual-Mode Mobile Station . 1992 as TIA Contribution Number TR45. revision 2. the proposed standard document structure separates the analog (PM) and digital (CDMA) sections.0.2 The CDMA Proposed Standard The Wideband Spread Spectrum Digital Cellular System Dual-Mode Mobile Station-Base Station Compatibility Standard. 1990. For this reason. 1990 release. The incorporation of the analog portions of EINTINIS-54-B instead of EINTIA-553 (Mobile Station . The type of system with which the mobile station operates depends on the availability of either system in the geographic area of the mobile station as well as the preference of the mobile station. Four subsequent revisions that were each widely reviewed by the cellular industry preceded the document submitted for TIA review. The fundamental system design approach was field tested both before and during the development of the CDMA proposed standard specification. This facilitates transition from one technology to the other and will continue to allow roaming with existing systems that have not deployed newer digital technologies. was released on October 1.0 of the proposed standard. Although the proposed standard includes features only planned for other systems. The CDMA architecture is not a forced extension of the analog architecture but is an innovative design that substantially increases spectral efficiency while providing many other benefits. An analog/digital dual-mode document specifies two separate modes of operation that co-exist (or can co-exist) as one functional unit. each mode operates virtually independent of the other. Draft Revision 0.01. Testing continues today to complete validation of the proposed standard. The TIA review document. produced by QUALCOMM.Chapter 7 An Overview of CDMA '.5/92. 1990. The flexible architecture defined by the specification permits such expansion without the loss of backward compatibility with older mobile stations. Following a July 31.Base Station Compatibility Specification.Land Station CDMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version X 7 Page 7-9 . The minimum compatibility requirements for CDMA base stations are specified in the proposed standard. The proposed standard specifies that mobile stations operating with analog base stations meet the analog compatibility provisions for mobile stations as specified in EINTINIS-54-B. was submitted on May 18. Though the individual modes can exist alone.

An Overview of COMA Chapter I Compatibility Specification. will be supplied for CDMA-analog dual-mode subscriber units. Furthermore. the requirements of the proposed standard take precedence. where applicable. Page 1-10 Oraft Version XI COMA Network Engineering Handbook . A document equivalent to IS-55. September 1989) accommodates all the changes to analog operation imposed by the new EIAffIAlIS-54-B dual-mode standard. mobile stations operating with analog base stations also comply with the provisions ofEIA1IS-19. In the event of conflict between the requirements of EIAITWIS-54-B and the proposed standard. Recommended Minimum Standards for 800 MHz Cellular Subscriber Units. which specifies recommended minimum standards for mobile stations.

residential cordless phones. CDMA subscriber units are dual-mode so they can access either CDMA or analog channels. Table f-f. ~ase 01 TranSItIon (and CompatibilIty WIth Analog}. _ Base StationlMTSO interfaces are being addressed that would allow independent development of switch and Base Station equipment.6 kbps is the current level). and not closely dependent as in narrowband systems. Proven ASIC technology has Mobile reduced the sophisticated signaling technology to very simple manufacturing technology. Antenna coverage and sectorization are independent from cell to cell. simple interface to ISDN. public digital cordless phones. Privacy. only the features peculiar to CDMA are discussed here. FAX protocols are supported by the existing control structure. PCNs. Subsequent growth is incremental and can be localized (to provide hot spot coverage) or global. The CDMA soft handoff technique provides a totally transparent handoff of calls. Ability to Introduce New Features.14.... Finally. CDMA Features Feature . a common instrument can access private wireless PBXs.Description High Capacity. and infra-structure equipment in the second quarter of '93.Chapter 1 An Overview of CDMA J .7. reducing installation and operating costs. Field tests in diverse environments have verified the predictions for CDMA in that capacities averaging 15 times greater than analog were achieved under stressed conditions. Digital data traffic and paging services are included in the current system. Capacity improvement allows service with far fewer cell sites than analoglfDMA. If desired. summarized in Table 1-1. The initial service using a single CDMA channel and the transfer of the high usage customers to CDMA nearly triples current capacity and provides better service quality for both CDMA and analog users. Capacity and coverage characteristics allow CDMA introduction with far fewer cells than used in current networks. More detailed descriptions of the system and its functionality are contained in Sections 1. and cellular systems. that provide these benefits. Higher data rates can be provided (9..6 through 1. System Evolution. Availability and Cost. Background levels are muted even under heavy load. The digital format. The system independently tracks individual multipath arrivals to greatly reduce the susceptibility to fading. . if the existing half-rate vocoder is used. and addressee-specific traffic protection features provide an unmatched combination of privacy features. the capacity increases by a factor of 1. subscriber equipment will be available in the third quarter of '92. Cellular open Network Architecture . CDMA-only portables that are compatible with both cellular and PBX operations can meet localized needs. This robust handoff technique virtually eliminates dropped calls and reduces switching loads.3 CDMA System Benefits This section highlights some of the major attributes of the digital cellular system developed by QUALCOMM and briefly describes the features. In terms of Erlangs offered at any grade of service. wideband signaling. handheld portables in the first quarter of '93. . increasing capacity even greater (see Viterbi and Viterbi. The digital control signaling provided allows a variety of data services that can be added as the carrier expands the scope of services offered. The variable rate vocoder and data service allow multiple grades of service. "Erlang Capacity of a Power Controlled CDMA System" in Chapter 2). High Quality Service. Range measurements inherent with the waveform will allow mobile position determination.A}. Additional sectorization (beyond 3) also increases capacity.. CDMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version XI Page 1-11 . PBX. A variable rate vocoder provides digital voice and highly rated voice reproduction. and PSTN is provided. While the CDMA system employs dual-mode subscriber units to provide compatibility with the analog system. Current estimates of CDMA system costs in terms of network equipment as well as subscriber equipment show them to be equivalent to current analog costs.

Receivers using parallel correlators (sometimes called rake receivers) allow individual path arrivals to be tracked independently. and correction coding Frequency Diversity . Multipath processing takes the form of parallel correlators for the PN waveform. Diversity is the favored approach to mitigate fading.An Overview of CDMA 1. The mobile and cell receivers employ three and four parallel correlators. Wideband CDMA offers a form of frequency diversity by spreading the signal energy over a wide bandwidth. Demodulation based on the sum of the signals is then.25 MHz wideband signal Space (Path) Diversity . This frequently results in fading. A unique feature of direct sequence CDMA is the ability to provide extensive path diversity.3.symbol interleaving. Time diversity can best be obtained by the use of interleaving and error correction coding. and the sum of their received signal strengths is then used to demodulate the signal. Multipath fading is not completely eliminated because multipaths which cannot be independently processed by the demodulator occasionally occur.dual cell site receive antennas.more cell sites (soft handoft) Exploitation of the multipath environment through spread spectrum processing (rake receiver). and space. the existence of multiple paths causes severe fading.1. however. the other methods can be only provided easily with CDMA. the better the performance in this difficult propagation environment.1 Multiple Forms 01 Diversity Chapter 1 In relatively narrowband modulation systems such as analog PM modulation employed by the firstgeneration cellular phone system. Page 1-12 Draft Version XI CDMA Network Engineering Handbook . With wideband CDMA modulations. and multiple cell sites (soft handoft). the greater the order of diversity in a system. Time diversity can be provided in all digital systems that can tolerate the required higher transmitted symbol rate needed to make the required error correction process effective. frequency selective fading usually affects only a 200-300 kHz portion of the signal bandwidth. While there is fading on each arrival. Antenna diversity can be easily provided in FDMA and TDMA systems . However. multipath rake receivers. the different paths may be independently received greatly reducing the severity of the multipath fading. There are three major types of diversity: time... frequency. the fades are independent. allowing signals arriving with different propagation delays to be received separately and combined Multiple antennas at the cell site • The different types of diversity employed in the CDMA system to greatly improve performance are shown in Figure 1-3 and summarized below: • • • Time Diversity . respectively. error detection. much more reliable. Space or path diversity is obtained three different ways by providing the following: • • Multiple signal paths through simultaneous links from the mobile station to two or .

the CDMA mobile telephone system employs forward (cell-to-mobile) and reverse link (mobile-to-cell) power control. signal structure.2 Power Control in CDMA To achieve high capacity. The system CDMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version Xl Page 1-13 . wide band. I 1.Assisted Soft Handoff. quality. Diversity Processes in CDMA. and other benefits." FREQUENCY =. If all the mobile station transmitters within a cell site's area of coverage are so controlled. each mobile station's signal will be received at the cell at the same level. 1. increases the signal-tointerference ratio (in dB) from a negative value to a level that allows operation with an acceptable bit error rate. along with the capabilities of the rake receiver provide three forms of diversity in CDMA in addition to the time diversity available in other digital systems. Regardless of a mobile station's position or propagation loss. The objective of the mobile station transmitter power control process is to produce a nominal received signal power from each mobile station transmitter operating within the cell at the cell site receiver. commonly called processing gain. At the same time. The bandwidth reduction processing. It is very desirable to maximize the capacity of the CDMA system in terms of the number of simultaneous telephone calls that can be handled in a given system bandwidth. then the total signal power received at the cell site from all mobile stations is equal to the nominal received power times the number of mobile stations.25 MHz I DIVERSITY 0246usec ~ Figure 1-3.3. the other signals that are not selected remain wide bandwidth noise signals (see Figure 1-2). Each CDMA receiver at the cell site operates by converting a selected CDMA signal from one of the mobile station transmitters into a signal that carries narrowband digital information.Chapter 1 An Overview of CDMA The multiplicity of correlators also is the basis for the simultaneous tracking of signals from two different cells and allows the subscriber unit to control the soft handoff described in "Mobile Station . The reception from two different cells.

This constant is sent as part of a broadcast message from the cell to the mobile. Reverse link open loop power control is primarily a function of the mobile stations.•." »x.. ~ TRANSMrr OATA ----~ " -l6::::::!:~~==$~~b:e=I. Open loop power control attempts to have all mobile station-transmitted signals arrive at the cell site with the same nominal power leveL The cell site supports the open loop control function by providing a calibration constant to the served mobile stations. reverse link closed loop power control.:::. If the received power is too high. x'. "m".•.•.. . The goal of the closed loop portion is for the cell to provide rapid corrections to the mobile station's open Page 7-74 Draft Version X 7 COMA Network Engineering Handbook . {"""">""~""~""""'"W"'''''. and forward link power control are employed in the CDMA system as shown in Figure 1-4. Reverse link open loop power control. The calibration constant is sensitive to the cell load. then the mobile's performance is degraded.•. The mobile stations measure the received power level from the cell sites and adjust their transmitter power in an indirectly proportional manner. the performance of this mobile station is improved. and power amplifier output." •. Power Control in CDMA.An Overview of COMA Chapter 7 capacity is maximized if the transmit power of each mobile station is controlled so that its signal arrives at the cell site with the minimum required signal-to-interference ratio. and may result in unacceptable performance to other users unless the capacity is reduced. Fast open loop and closed loop control maintains the reverse link transmit power at a selectable level. If a mobile station's signal arrives at the cell site with a lower level of received power. ""~»== •. cell noise figure.::::F!n CELL SITE PROCESSING SUBSCRIBER UNIT PROCESSING Figure '-4. The mobile station rapidly adjusts transmit power according to changes in received power from the cell. antenna gain. XMITPWR CONTROL "\J I .•. "x. A slower loop limits the forward link to only that power required The cell site takes an active role in the reverse link closed loop power control functions. but interference to all the other mobile station transmitters that are sharing the channel is increased.

An even greater gain is the reduction of average (rather than peak) transmitted power that is realized because of the power control used in CDMA. one of the more important results of reducing the required Et/No (signal-to-interference level) is the reduction of transmitter power required to overcome noise and interference. or data. relatively close to the cell site. and 1200 bps frame rates. The cell measures the relative received power level of each of the associated mobile station's signals and compares it to an adjustable threshold.25 ms to either transmit a power-up command or a power-down command to the mobile station. 4800 bps. This reduction means that mobile stations also have reduced transmitter output requirements which reduces cost and allows lower power units to operate at larger ranges than the similarly powered analog or TDMA units. Narrrow band systems must always transmit with enough power to override the occasional fades. CDMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version XI Page 1-15 . Most of the time propagation conditions are benign. A determination is made every 1. 2400 bps.Chapter 1 An Overview of CDMA loop estimate to maintain the optimum transmit power.3 Low Transmit Power Besides directly improving capacity. Thus. or experiencing minimal other cell interference. An important feature of the variable rate vocoder is the use of adaptive thresholds to determine the required data rate. The cell supports forward link power control by adjusting the forward link power for each subscriber link signal in response to measurements provided by the mobile station. impacted little by multipath fading and shadowing effects. J . a reduced transmitter output requirement increases coverage and penetration and may also allow a reduction in cells required for coverage. The thresholds are changed according to the background noise level activating the higher vocoder rates only on the local voice. The vocoder algorithm uses Code Excited Linear Prediction (CELP). The result is suppression of the background and good voice transmission even in a noisy environment. extra power can be given to units that are either in a more difficult environment or far away from the cell and experiencing high error rates.4 Vocoder and Variable Data Rates The vocoder (voice encoder/decoder) in the CDMA system is an 8 kbps variable rate design. The purpose is to reduce power for units that are either stationary. Service Option 1. The variable data rate two-way voice service option. Furthermore. and the CDMA-specific algorithm is termed QCELP. The two vocoders communicate at one of four rates corresponding to the 9600 bps. CDMA uses power control to provide only the power required at the time and thus reduces the average power by transmitting at high levels only during fades. The rates are determined by the input. J .3. provides two-way voice communications between the base station and the mobile station by using a dynamically variable data rate vocoder algorithm. The receiving vocoder then decodes the received speech packet into voice samples.3. The transmitting vocoder takes voice samples and generates an encoded speech packet for transmission to the receiving vocoder. messaging. This closed loop correction to any variation required in the open loop estimate accommodates gain tolerances and unequal propagation losses between the forward and reverse links.

After a call is initiated. The transition is from the original cell to both cells and then to the new cell.An Overview of CDMA Chapter 1 J . Following notification by the subscriber which identifies the desired new cell. J . the MTSO activates the new cell. The digital voice channel is.Assisted Soft HandoH As shown in Figure 1-5. amenable to direct encryption using DES or other standard encryption techniques. Active Links During HandoH. the analog system (and the digital TDMA-based systems) provides a break-before-make switching function. it indicates to the mobile station that the call has entered a new cell's coverage area and that a handoff Page 1-16 Draft Version XI CDMA Network Engineering Handbook .3. of course. Not only does this greatly minimize the probability of a dropped call. the CDMA-based soft handoff system provides a make-before-break switching function. the mobile station continues to scan the neighboring cells to determine if the signal from another cell becomes comparable to that of the original cell. and air-time fraud. and communication is supported through both cells until the subscriber notifies theMTSO that one of the links is no longer useful. soft handoff allows both the original cell and a new cell to temporarily serve the call during the handoff transition. inexpensive scanning receivers.6 Mobile Station.3. whereas. The proposed standard includes the authentication and voice privacy features specified in EINTINIS-54-B even though the CDMA architecture inherently provides voice privacy and provisions for extended protection. In this regard. When this happens. Figure J -5.5 Privacy The scrambled form of CDMA signals provides for a high degree of privacy and makes this digital cellular system inherently immune to cross-talk. but it also makes the handoff virtually undetectable by the user.

the channel will provide an acceptable signal quality. instead of the users in any given celL Since the total capacity becomes quite large. if a spread spectrum bandwidth of 1. 1. this capacity is reduced by interference received from neighboring cells and increased by other factors.7 Capacity In the cellular frequency reuse concept. With TDMA and FDMA. The "law of large numbers" can be said to apply. interference is governed by a "law of small numbers" in which "worst-case" situations determine the percentage of time in which the desired signal quality will not be achieved. voice duty cycle. as long as they are each power-controlled to provide equal received power at the receiving location. frequency reuse efficiency. In CDMA. the larger number of voice circuits provided by CDMA results in a significant increase in trunking efficiency. As long as the ratio of received signal power to the average noise power density is greater than a threshold value. The primary parameters that determine CDMA digital cellular system capacity are processing gain. or repeated requests to hand the call back and forth between two cell sites. then up to 32 mobile stations could transmit simultaneously. For example. for a given blocking probability. thereby eliminating the ping-ponging effect. With CDMA. It is difficult to exploit the voice activity factor in either FDMA or TDMA systems because of the time delay associated with reassigning the channel resource during the speech pauses. The mobile station transmits a control message to the MTSO. This means that the net interference to any given signal is the average of all the users' received power times the number of users. The original cell site will only discontinue handling the call when the mobile station is firmly established in the new cell.25 MHz is utilized by mobile stations transmitting continuously at 9600 bps and if the modulation and coding technique utilized requires an Ei/No of 6 dB. In CDMA. its genesis was in military anti-jamming systems.Chapter 1 An Overview of COMA can be initiated. Since the level of other user interference directly determines COMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version XI Page 1-17 . interference is accepted but controlled with the goal of increasing system capacity. which serves a larger number of subscribers per voice circuit. and the number of sectors in the cell site antenna. as discussed in "CDMA System Design. Additionally. the statistics of all the users are more important than those of a single user. While the mobile station is located in the transition region between the two cell sites.3.3. Ei/No (with the required margin for fading).8 Voice Activity Detection In a typical full-duplex two-way voice conversation. the duty cycle of each voice is less than 35%. frequency reuse efficiency is determined by the signal-to-interference ratio that results from all the system users within range. the call is supported by communication through both cells." 1. it is possible to reduce the transmission rate when there is no speech. CDMA does this effectively because it is inherently a better antiinterference waveform than FDMA or TDMA. which states that the new cell site is now strong and identifies the new cell site. the wideband channel is reused in every cell. Narrowband modulations are limited in frequency reuse efficiency by the requirement to achieve a C/I ratio of about 18 dB. This requires that a channel used in one cell is not reused in a nearby cell. thereby substantially reducing interference to other users. In a CDMA cellular system. Indeed. The MTSO initiates the handoff by establishing a link to the mobile station through the new cell while maintaining the old link.

or about 65%. typical 120° sector antennas) the interference is simply divided by three because.l 3 Actually 2. each mobile station's signal competes with all the other mobile station signals. on the average. the wideband channel is reused in every celL The total interference at the cell site to a given inbound mobile station signal is comprised of interference from other mobile stations in the same cell plus interference from mobile stations in neighboring cells. The contribution of all the neighbor cells is equal to approximately half of the interference due to the mobile stations within the same celL The frequency reuse efficiency of omni-directional cells is the ratio of interference from mobile stations within a cell to the total interference from all cells. This also reduces average mobile station transmit power requirements by approximately a factor of two..g. the capacity is increased by approximately a factor of two. In other words.3. Page 1-18 Draft Version XI COMA Network Engineering Handbook . cells in the second and greater tiers contribute less than 4%. When directional cell site antennas are used (e. Figure 1-6 shows the percentage of interference contributions from neighboring cells.55 due to adjacent antenna overlap. 1. each antenna receives only in the direction of onethird of the mobile stations.9 Frequency Reuse and Sedorization In CDMA. Each cell in the first tier contributes about 6% of the total interference so the entire first tier contributes an average of 6 times 6% or 36%.An Overview of COMA Chapter 1 capacity. The capacity supportable by the total system is therefore increased by nearly a factor of three.

3. ··'nterference Contributions From Neighboring surrounding the cell.10 Low E. the system operator could decide to allow a small degradation in the bit error rate and increase the number of available channels during peak hours. With narrowband digital modulation techniques. low redundancy error correction codes must be used to conserve channel bandwidth. For example. The spectrum is further divided between the cells. There is no way to add even one more signal to a fully occupied system. It is directly analogous to the CIN for analog PM modulation. there is a much softer relationship between the number of users and the grade of service. Cells. This call-blocking behavior results in about a 35% loss of capacity.. In the analog system and in digital TDMA. When demand for service is at a peak. 1 1 Soft Capacity In the present U. Due to the wide channel bandwidth employed in the CDMA system. Significant contribution to interference perceived by a cell as a result of activity in other cells is limited to the first tier of cells 1. The CDMA system employs a powerful combination of forward error correction coding together with an extremely efficient digital demodulator in its implementation of the CDMA digital cellular system. with a maximum of 57 analog PM channels in a three-sector cell site.Chapter I An Overview of COMA Figure 1-6. the call must be COMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version XI Page 1-19 . 1. The lower EJ/No increases capacity and decreases transmitter output power requirements. however. it is possible to use extremely powerful. high redundancy error correction coding techniques. the 58th caller in a given cell must be given a busy signal. This capability is especially important for avoiding dropped calls at handoff because of a lack of channels. a much higher EblNO is required compared to CDMA because less powerful. if a channel is not available.S. which is equally split between two system operators in each service area. cellular environment./NO (or C/') and Error Protection ElINo is the ratio of energy per bit to the noise power spectral density and is the standard figure of merit by which digital modulation and coding schemes are compared. With the CDMA system.3. the FCC has allocated 25 MHz of spectrum.

25 MHz segment is cleared out in all cells in the local area (i. Some guard band is most likely required for adjacent channels. the introductory 1. Handoffs for high-grade users can be given priority over those for other users. As demand for CDMA service grows beyond the capacity provided by the initial service. This should be far fewer cells than required by the existing PM system. Frequency planning is not necessary to support the change as additional cells are added or converted by sectorization.25 MHz is occupied by the CDMA operation because the spread spectrum modulation requires this minimum bandwidth. Page 1-20 Draft Version XI COMA Network Engineering Handbook .. however. a setof cells capable of covering the entire geographic area will be identified and equipped with omnidirectional or multi-sectored CDMA cell site equipment. a band segment of approximately 1. Although only the selected cells are equipped with CDMA cell site equipment. however. As demand for CDMA service grows. This represents only 10% of the present FDMAIFM system capacity or about two analog PM channels per sector in a three-sector cell. Additional modems are required to support the new channels. Each 1. to prevent mutual interference between the PM and CDMA segments of the system. an additional 10% of the band segments can be removed from analog service and dedicated to the CDMA service. J . In return. additional omnidirectional cell sites are added. With CDMA. and existing omnidirectional cells are converted to multi-sectored cells to increase capacity or improve coverage in the more difficult areas. the 1.3. the call can be accommodated if it is acceptable to slightly raise the users' bit error rates until another call is completed. the area of coverage). J 2 Transition to COMA In the initial introduction of CDMA service.25 MHz band segment requires an additional RF chain and power amplifier per sector.e.25 MHz CDMA system allows up to 40 calls per sector. It is also possible to offer a higher grade of service (at a higher cost to the user) where the highgrade user would obtain a larger fraction of the available power (capacity) than the low-grade user. Initially.An Overview of COMA Chapter 1 reassigned to a second candidate or it will be dropped at the handoff. which are not CDMA.

the received signal power from a mobile station at the cell. The larger the power received by a mobile station from the cell site.I Eb No (1-1) Because mobile stations in a cell are at different ranges and experience different path losses. The CII ratio is therefore: C R· Eb I = W· No In the above equation. C. In a multiple access system using CDMA spread spectrum. the system is capable of compensating for differing multipaths between the two CDMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version XI Page 1-21 . cellular system. Each mobile station measures the power level received from the cell site. power control of the inbound signals is necessary to normalize the power received at the cell site from all the mobile stations operating in its cell.4 The CDMA System Design The following section includes a more detailed description of the features highlighted in the previous section and an overview of the system structure and functional description.S. J CDMA Capacity Explained To develop the equation for capacity. and I is equal to No • W. the smaller the transmit power required in the inbound path. and Eb is the signal energy per bit. we start with the equation for CII. . It does not eliminate Rayleigh fading because the phase relationships that cause this fading are not correlated over the 45 MHz frequency difference between the outbound and inbound frequencies in the U. is equal to the C • (N. the smaller the path loss to the cell site and. A high-speed closed loop power control measures the power received from each mobile station at the cell site receivers and commands a power adjustment to normalize all received signals within the cell.Chapter 1 An Overview of CDMA . Thus. This assumes that all the signals are transmitted at a controlled powerlevel to arrive at the receiver with power. and that other sources of interference are insignificant. This power control process eliminates received power variations due to differing mobile station to cell ranges and differing terrain. notice in the above equation that the interference power. The section concludes with a generic CDMA system design.4. Thus. therefore. W. noting that C. CII is equal to II(N-I). where W is the system transmission bandwidth.") This results in the following equation (1) for the capacity of CDMA in a noncellular environment without additional system features: W N-I = R . J . called the processing gain of the system. I.I) where N is the number of users transmitting in the band. RIW is commonly EIINo is defined as the ratio of energy per bit to the noise power spectral density that is required by the particular modulation and coding scheme utilized. (Modifications to the latter assumption are discussed in "The Complete CDMA Capacity Equation. and No is the thermal power spectral density. where R is the transmission bit rate. is equal to R • Eb.

It is directly analogous to CIN for analog PM modulation. and bit error rates as a function of Ei/No. The Viterbi decoder. The specific case involves four faded paths (two Rayleigh and two Rician) and vehicle speeds of 10 and 100 mph. Page 1-22 Draft Version XI COMA Network Engineering Handbook . For each vocoder data block. the effect of the power control is to yield capacity results very close to those predicted. The plot shows symbol. in the cell site to mobile station direction.4. The magnitude of the result. J. Figure 1-7 shows the results of the forward link processing as tested with validation equipment in the Formal Test Laboratory (see "CDMA Validation Testing"). In the cell site receiver. both cases are less than this value for an Ei/No of 7 dB or more. Due to the wide channel bandwidth employed in the CDMA system. The optimum decoder for this type of code is the soft decision Viterbi algorithm. nominally 20 ms of data. with a constraint length of K = 9 and a code rate 113 decoder. The 64 coefficients are then multiplied by a weighting function and passed to a diversity combiner. together with the identity of the largest of the 64. The weighted 64 coefficients from each antenna's receiver are added to each other. J . In the mobile station to cell site link. The resulting set of 64 coefficients is tested to determine the largest coefficient. The combination of the open loop and the closed loop power control techniques results in a very wide dynamic range and a very high-speed power control that compensates for all known effects. low-redundancy. The quality estimate is the average signal-to-noise ratio over the frame interval. the CDMA signal design uses convolutional encoding with a constraint length of K = 9 and a code rate 112. Performance varies with the fading environment as well as the velocity but Ei/No values averaged under 7 dB for the cases in the field tests. or the forward link. This processor produces a set of 64 coefficients for every six symbols. With narrowband digital modulation techniques. high redundancy error correction coding techniques. the demodulation is based on the use of the Fast Hadamard Transformers (FHTs) as an optimum receive filter for the Walsh function.An Overview of COMA Chapter 1 directions of the link. A frame error rate ofless than two percent is undetectable in the reproduced voice. frame. error correction codes must be used to conserve channel bandwidth. it is possible to use extremely powerful. the correlator output is fed to an FHT processor. since the modulation scheme employs 64-ary orthogonal signaling that is based on the set of Walsh function sequences. As shown in the last section. or reverse link. As mentioned earlier. J Low Eb/NO and Error Protection EIINo is the ratio of energy per bit to the noise power spectral density and is the standard figure of merit by which digital modulation and coding schemes are compared. determines the most likely information bit sequence. is used to determine a set of decoder weights and symbols for a Viterbi algorithm decoder. a much higher EblNO is required compared to CDMA because less powerful. a signal quality estimate is obtained and transmitted along with the data.

.~~--~-_~L~n~-~~--I-~--~--~-~--!-~--~--~--~-~--~-~--~--~--~!~~~: r".~--~-~. In the 800 MHz cellular radio band. 1 l-~-~--~--~--!-~-~~--~-~. designed especially for the cellular environment. CDMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version XI Page 1-23 . interleaving.-~-~-. this fading is typically as fast as one fade per second per mile per hour of vehicle speed. The Rayleigh fading channel is caused by the reflection of the signal from many different features of the physical environment and results in copies of the signal arriving simultaneously from many directions with different transmission delays..-~-~--~-~--~-~.-~-~-!-~.5 ---------------4. this results in a lower subscriber transmit power performance processing techniques employed. .-------1. this causes significant phase differences between the paths with the possibility for destructive summation of the signals.2 Achieving Low Eb/NO . of both links shows the power of the modulation.5 Eb/No dB 0. .4. o III O.. actually makes use of the multiple arrivals rather than creating destructive interference as in the narrowband systems. Thus. the motion of the mobile station through the environment can result in a rapid fading process. even a few inches. E III 0.00 1 ~. The rake receiver (which provides for individually tracking multiple multipath arrivals) allows the constructive recombination of arrivals separated by a microsecond or more. . which results in deep fades. A small change in position.5 -------3. At the UHF frequency employed for mobile radio communications.a o 0.0001 .-~-~-~-~-~--~-~-~- -~-!-~--~-~--~. The fading is a very strong function of the physical position of the mobile station.. J. Performance Tested EI/No 01 the Forward and Reverse Links on a Gaussian Channel. J._M • ••• MM •••• _ W II. . .~~-~-~ ---------~-------2. changes the physical delay associated with all paths and results in a different phase for each path. and requires additional transmitter power to overcome the fades.. The cellular mobile station channel typically consists of the Rayleigh faded components without a direct line-of-sight component.-~-~-~.. and error With power control.Multipath and Diversity The CDMA system will offer much improved performance in the urban environment because CDMA provides inherent discrimination against multipath.5 -------- Figure J -7. This receiver. results in poor communication quality. Fading is very disruptive to the channel..Chapter 1 An Overview of CDMA ___________ . requirement.

The log-normal distribution can be considered to be the same for both the inbound and the outbound frequency bands (as used in conventional UHF cellular telephone systems). This will result in fading behavior. then multiple PN receivers can be employed to separately receive the strongest of signals in multiple paths. If two or more paths exist with greater than 1 microsecond differential path delay. the existence of multiple paths causes severe fading. With wideband CDMA modulations.3 Voice Activity Detection In a typical full-duplex. is a relatively fast-varying function of position. on the other hand. This type of diversity not only mitigates Rayleigh fading but also mitigates fades caused by physical obstructions blocking of the signal path. Rayleigh distribution. Log-normal distribution is a relatively slow-varying function of position.4. However. Because of the time delay associated with reassigning the channel resource during the speech pauses. Equation (1) becomes: W N -1 =]f. it is not cost effective to exploit the voice activity factor in either FDMA or TDMA systems. Multipath fading is not completely eliminated because two or more paths with delay differentials of less than one microsecond (in a 1 MHz PN chip rate system) will exist occasionally and cannot be discriminated against in the demodulator. With CDMA. This also reduces mobile station transmit requirements by a nearly factor of two. the outputs of the receivers can be diversity combined so that a loss in performance only occurs when all receivers experience fades at the same time. however. 1 1 Eb • d No (1-2) Page 7-24 Draft Version X 7 COMA Network Engineering Handbook . and a fading process caused by multipath which is characterized by a Rayleigh distribution. The number of signals (or paths) is equal to the number of PN receivers provided.e. If we define the transmit duty cycle as d.. J. then the interference power received is now equal to N· d. In relatively narrowband modulation systems such as in the analog PM modulation that was employed by the first-generation cellular phone system. it is possible to reduce the transmission rate when there is no speech and thus substantially reduce interference to other users. the different paths may be discriminated against in the demodulation process and may greatly reduce the severity of the multipath fading. Signals coming from different directions are affected differently by obstructions in the immediate physical environment of the mobile station. they usually do not fade together). J. which can be described statistically by a log-normal distribution whose mean is proportional to the inverse fourth-power of the path distance and whose standard deviation is approximately equal to 8 dB. the duty cycle of each voice is usually less than 35%. Another unique capability of direct-sequence CDMA is the exploitation of multipath to provide path diversity. Since the level of other user interference directly determines capacity. two-way voice conversation. Signals arriving with larger than a 1 microsecond delay spread probably arrive from different directions. This effect is especially pronounced in heavily built-up urban areas. Rayleigh fading is an independent process for the inbound and outbound frequency bands. Since these signals will typically exhibit independence in fading (i.An Overview of COMA Chapter 7 The path loss of the UHF mobile station channel can be characterized by two separate phenomena: an average path loss. the capacity is increased by approximately a factor of two.

This is fortunate (also for FDMA and TDMA) because without this path loss. Digital modulation techniques are being proposed to provide increased capacity through improved spectral efficiency.1989. instead of absolute distances. the ell exceeds only 16 dB 90% of the time. Simple geometric arguments for the seven-frequency set case with omni antennas show that an average CII of 22.3 dB results for mobile stations positioned in the worst case locations within the two cells. Lee. This illustrates the need for greater than seven frequency sets when omni antennas are used or when directive antennas are used to provide adequate isolation. Originally. many densely populated areas are approaching saturation. The interfering cell must be far enough away so that the received interference power results in a ell of greater than 18 dB. the log-normal distribution of path loss results in CII less than 18 dB much of the time.Y. the cell sizes can be reduced and more cells can be provided to cover the geographic area. prompting the search for even more efficient frequency reuse techniques. and the interference received in a cell from mobile stations operating in neighboring cells is calculated. Analog PM voice modulation requires 18 dB ell isolation to provide acceptable performance.e. The analysis for an FDMA cellular system is based on the interference that comes not from the statistical average of received interference from all other users in the system. This implies that as higher capacity is desired. In fact. but rather from particular units in the nearby cells using the same frequency. which is caused by less-than-ideal cell design inthe real world and the need for a very rapid handoff process as cell sizes decrease.Chapter 7 An Overview of CDMA J. With 4 For a detailed description of these arguments. There is a practical limit to capacity. Cell splitting through sectorizing antennas and the use of smaller cells have been carried to the point of diminishing returns. This advance has allowed much higher capacity than in previous mobile telephone systems.4. J. CDMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version X 7 Page 7-25 . Digital FDMA and TDMA modulation techniques require similar isolation.4 Frequency Reuse The concept of frequency reuse is the fundamental advance of analog cellular radio systems over its predecessors. only the interference from mobile stations within the boundaries of a cell was considered. Use of 1200 sectors improves the ell ratio by about 6 dB for FDMA. w. frequency reuse promised nearly infmite system capacity for any given geographic area because the ell is determined by ratios of distances. In equations (1) and (2). Frequencies allocated to the system are reused by dividing the available spectrum into many sets of frequencies. Currently. Assuming a large number of equal sized cells and a uniform density of mobile stations. The path loss is well known to follow a fourth power law of distance if the system exists in an area of uniform flat topography with relatively low antennas. see McGraw-HilI. The case of a large cellular system is now considered. The system relies on the spatial separation provided by the cell structure and directive cell site antennas to provide adequate isolation between two terminals that use the same frequency. Frequency reuse introduces the idea of accepting but controlling co-channel interference to increase system capacity." However. Mobile Cellular Telecommunications Systems. A given cell uses frequencies from only one of the sets. an unacceptable level of interference is received from distant stations in a very large system area. The cells immediately adjacent to this cell can not use the same frequency set.

.. the incident power at the center of the cell from each mobile station is the same as for every other mobile station in the cell. (1-3) I C = N [1 + 6k] + 12k2 1 + 18k3 + . ] (1-4) where N is the number of mobile stations per cell. In CDMA. In a cell containing N mobile station transmitters..An Overview of COMA Chapter 1 seven-frequency sets. .4.2.. In a hexagonal cell structure. The total signal-to-interference ratio received at a cell site is: I which can be factored to yield: C = N + 6Nk] + 12Nk2 1 + 18Nk3 + .3. the number of effective interferers is simply N-1. Theresults are then augmented to include the effect of directive cell site antennas. This loss contribution is a function of both the reduction due to power control to an interfering mobile and kt. regardless of how they are distributed within the cell.4. cell. First. A frequency reuse efficiency. F. etc.. The mobile stations within these neighboring cells control their power relative to their own cell center. ka. Assuming that the path losses for mobile stations in the neighboring cells to their own cell centers is also fourth-law. are the interference relative to the interference from the center path loss to the center cell and the power station's own cell center. the total interference at the cell site to a given inbound mobile station signal is comprised of interference from other mobile stations in the same cell plus interference from mobile stations in neighboring cells. since power control is employed in the mobile stations. regardless of the distance from the center of the cell. In the operation of power control. FDMAIFM can provide about 57 simultaneous calls per cell (and two control channels) with current cellular frequency allocations... contribution from individual cells in rings 1. the cell sites have omni-directional antennas). consider only spatial isolation effects in the cellular system (i. The contribution of all neighbor cells is equal to approximately half of the interference due to the mobile stations within the celL The frequency reuse efficiency of omni-directional cells is the ratio of interference from mobile stations within a cell to the total interference from all cells or about 65% as discussed in Section 1. The following is a derivation of the above result..e. is equal to the following: Page 1-26 Draft Version XI COMA Network Engineering Handbook . k3. the interference path loss from adjacent cell mobile stations into the center cell is also fourth-law... six cells are immediate neighbors of the central cell.

The lightly loaded cells contribute less interference to their more heavily loaded neighbors and allow more mobile stations to operate in these cells. unequal cell loading frequently occurs because most cars are on the freeways during rush hour. loaded to 30% of normal capacity. the number of channels available in a cell depends upon the loading of the neighboring cells.. the loaded cells are at 120% of capacity. However. the typical 1200 sector antennas).65 for this propagation model. is about 0.." IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology. there are only a fixed number of channels available. then the remaining cells must be more lightly loaded than the average. in reality. See in K. May. and they are divided and parceled out to the cells in a neighborhood according to a fixed. J . F.g. Figure 16 shows the relative interference contributions of each cell surrounding the center cell. surrounds a line of heavily loaded cells. depending on the actual distribution of mobile stations. A similar set of simulations can be used to determine that the outbound half of the CDMA system's capacity is comparable to the inbound or reverse channel. 1991. The normal capacity of a cell assumes that all surrounding cells are loaded to that same capacity. COMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version XI Page 1-27 .Chapter 1 1 An Overview of COMA F=1 +6k1 + 12k2 + 18k3 + .and TDMA-based systems.4. If some cells are more heavily loaded than others. In the example depicted in Figure 1-8.4.55. With FDMA. 5 A more detailed and precise analysis has been performed and repeated. When that is not true. When the surrounding cells are at 30% normal capacity.S. 303-312. Various software simulations and field tests have verified these results. inflexible plan.> J . as in this case. vol 40. "On the Capacity of a Cellular CDMA System. while the cells bordering these cells have only half of the demand of the cells along the freeway. This reduction leads to an increase in capacity for the loaded cell.. the interference seen is simply divided by three because it only receives in the direction of one-third of the mobile stations. The capacity supportable by the total system is therefore increased by a factor of almost three. (1-5) Numerical integration techniques andlor simulation techniques can be used to calculate F.. the interference introduced into the loaded cell by the surrounding cells is reduced. If neighboring cells are less than fully loaded. an area of lightly loaded cells. J . J . then the capacity of a heavily loaded cell can be increased. Accounting for side lobes. the capacity can increase by 10-50%. With the CDMA system.5 Sectorization Capacity Gain When directional cell site antennas are used (e. pp. this is approximately 85% efficient for an effective gain of 2.6 Unequal Cell Loading The discussion of CDMA frequency reuse assumed an equal distribution of mobile stations throughout the service area. Gilhausen et al. With CDMA. The result is that the frequency reuse efficiency. An example of this is a line of cells along a freeway that has a higher than average demand.

7 The Complete CDMA Capacity Equation The complete equation for determination of capacity in QUALCOMM's CDMA cellular system is given by equation (1) and is augmented by the additional system capabilities to provide the following equation for CDMA capacity: .25 MHz) R = Data Rate in kbps (Assumed value: 9600 bps) (1-6) ElINo= Bit Energy + Noise Power Spectral Density (Assumed value: 7.. 1 Eb No Where: N = Calls Per Cell (Assuming Rayleigh Fading on the Reverse Link) W = Spread Spectrum Bandwidth (Assumed value: 1. The only provision that must be made for such operation isthat an adequate number of modems must be provided in the cell sites of the heavily loaded cells. The computer equipment that manages the system must be programmed to coordinate the variable capacity assignment. J ..An Overview of COMA Chapter 1 Figure I-B. the capacity of heavily For the 30% surrounding capacity shown. Unequal Cell Loading.1. When surrounding cells are lightly loaded. Note that no other coordination is required to mechanize this function.4. the loaded cells are at 120% loaded cells can be increased. It happens naturally. capacity. This flexible allocation of capacity is completely transparent to the radios in both the cell site stations and in the mobile stations.0 dB) D = Voice Duty Cycle (Assumed value: 40%) F = Frequency Reuse Efficiency (Assumed value: 60%) Page 1-28 Draft Version X 1 COMA Network Engineering Handbook .

. the cell site asks the system controller to determine whether a neighboring cell site can receive the mobile station with a better signal CDMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version X/ Page /-29 . When this occurs. The cell site receiver then assumes that the mobile station must be near the cell border. In analog cellular telephone systems.2. This pilot carrier is used by the mobile station to obtain initial system synchronization and to provide robust time. 1.4. the above calculation shows CDMA to offer 720 Erlangs. This channel uses the same PN sequence and phase offset as the pilot channel and can be demodulated whenever the pilot channel is being tracked.55) Radio Capacity Per Cell equals 98 CDMA Channels in 1.4. the mobile station is capable of establishing System Time and knows the proper transmit power to initiate calls. The pilot carriers are transmitted by each cell site using the same code but with different spread spectrum code phase offsets. '. For this same bandwidth. With this information. and the cell site pilot PN carrier phase offset. a ratio of 20: 1. mobile station-assisted handoff. the cell site receiver handling a call notices that the received signal strength from a mobile station has fallen below a predetermined threshold value. and variable rate vocoding.2.1 System Pilot Acquisition In the CDMA cellular telephone system. each cell site transmits a pilot carrier signal. The following sections address three of these features: acquisition. Variations in the transmitted power level of the pilot signal control the coverage area of the cell as is explained in the following section. This sync channel carries cell site identification. a handoff mechanism is provided to allow a call to continue when a mobile station crosses the boundary between two cells. when the next call comes to a particular sector that already is receiving N calls.e.4. frequency. and phase tracking of the signals from the cell site. allowing them to be distinguished. The sample Erlang capacity calculation was made using the assumption that the soft capacity limit feature described below is not used (i. This signal is tracked continuously by each mobile station. For the same grade of service. it is refused service and does not try again). 1.2 CDMA System Features The CDMA system has many other features that do not relate directly to capacity but rather to ease of system operation and to improved link quality. a three-sectored analog cell will offer 36 Erlangs and use the entire operating bandwidth.25 MHz An OveNiew of CDMA Erlang Capacity Per Cell with 2% Blocking equals 72 Erlangs in 1.2 Mobile Station-Assisted Soh HandoH In a cellular telephone system. The strongest signal found corresponds to the code phase of the best cell site. The soft capacity limit could allow such a call to proceed with the understanding that slightly higher bit error rates would result for all system users. The fact that the pilots all use the same code allows the mobile station to find system timing synchronization by a single search through all code phases.25 MHz. Each cell also transmits a setup or sync channel.Chapter / G = Sectorization Gain (Assumed value: 3 [120°] sectors: 2. pilot transmit power.

employing special scanning receivers. This results in the call being switched to the wrong cell. look for the signal from the mobile station on the specified channel. Handoff is attempted if one of the neighboring cell sites reports an adequate signal level. soft handoff greatly reduces the link outages in the transition region and in handoff using a technique that allows simultaneous transmission to and from the subscriber through two cells. Since TDMA uses the same control structure as the analog system. At call initiation. This overloads the system controller and increases the likelihood of (l dropped call. This list is transmitted to the MTSO whenever it is requested. sends messages to the neighboring cell sites with the handoff request. the subscriber searches for all the possible pilots (with an emphasis on the candidates) and maintains a list of all pilots whose signals are above a threshold (as shown in Figure 1-9) established in the initial setup. the signal levels tend to fluctuate at both cell sites and results in a ping-ponging effect. While tracking the signal from the original cell. At the same time. In the analog system. In CDMA. handoff can fail if an idle channel is not available to accept the call in the neighboring cell. An idle channel from the channel set used at the new cell site is selected. Also. The system controller. the system controller switches the call from the first cell site to the appropriate radio at the second cell site. it suffers from the same problems. in tum. Actual operating experience indicates that handoffs fail frequently and that improvements are necessary. the handoff fails if the mobile station fails to hear the command to switch channels.of CDMA Chapter 1 strength. Page 1-30 Draft Version XI CDMA Network Engineering Handbook . and a control message to switch to this new channel is sent to the commanding mobile station. or whenever an existing pilot falls below a level that is useful to support the traffic. These cell sites. Another common problem is that when the mobile station is near the border between two cells. whenever the list changes by having a new pilot appear on the list. the subscriber is supplied a tailored set of handoff thresholds and a list of cells that are most likely to be the candidates for handoff.An Overview . It can also fail if another cell site reports hearing the mobile station in question when it actually hears a different mobile station using the same channel in a different cell.

The cell receiver actually combines signals from the antennas for both sectors and demodulates based on the diversity combining of the signals. the mobile determines the specific cell for the handoff. the mobile station functions in exactly the same manner as with soft handoff. A similar process takes place when the mobile station moves from one sector to another sector of the same cell. dropping of the original cell. both cells have to request a power increase for the subscriber to increase its power. but it does not participate directly. In this process. Transparent voice handoff. and no additional hardware assets are required. Power control information is received from both cells. Built-in margins protect against pingponging. called softer handoff. No additional MTSO/cell path is set up for softer handoff. Mobile Senses HandoH R. robustness is added to the process by requiring new pilots to exceed old ones by a selectable margin and by requiring signals crossing thresholds to remain in the new zone for a certain length of time.equirements. and thus provides the parallel path as with soft handoff. the subscriber unit commences tracking the second cell and uses diversity combining of the two signals (identical data is on each cell's transmission) to enhance the overall received signal. fewer dropped calls. intercepts the handoff request. creates a very robust handoff process which field tests have shown to be very reliable. higher COMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version XI Page 1-31 . continuous monitoring of the pilot signal strengths. By measuring signal strength from all pilots. bit integrity of data. The cell site. The MTSO is notified of the activity. MTSO-commanded setup from subscriber-identified cell information. and level and time margins in the decisions. or initiation of tracking another cell prior to the completion of the handoff. initiates transmissions in the new sector. The combined system of subscriber determination of EelNo. Data from the subscriber unit is received by both cells and is forwarded to the MTSO where the best source is selected on a frame-by-frame (20 ms) basis and is used to represent the data transmitted by the subscriber. The criteria for these actions are the EdNo of the pilots. This linkage can be terminated by return to the original cell.Chapter 1 An Overview of COMA CELLB o SIGNAL MARGIN TIME MARGIN ADD THRESHOLD ~ w t TIME DROP THRESHOLD Figure J -9. however. Upon command from the MTSO via the initial cell.

based on a QUALCOMM-developed CELP algorithm is the baseline vocoder in the initial implementation and fielding of the CDMA network and subscriber equipment.2. the decoder must process the received vocoder frame four times (multiple decode attempts).3 Variable Data Rate Vocoder The appearance of the modulated signal does not change if the baseband data rate is changed. field testing. The microcontroller must decide what rate was sent using CRC checking results and symbol error rate measurements provided by the decoder. A given vocoder's channel data rate is determined by a software parameter that is changeable from call to call. ISDN.8. 4. the vocoder must signal the cell channel card that a given packet is at a given data rate. which reside on a general purpose microprocessor that is part of either the mobile station or the channel element at the cell site.. imaging. the 8 kbps variable rate vocoder provides better voice quality than the analog system and the TDMA system.2 kbps. The vocoder is a variable rate that supports 8.) Based on internal testing. The capacity of the CDMA system is directly proportional to the basic vocoder data rate. and 1 kbps operation and corresponds to channel rates of 9. The 8 kbps vocoder is primarily driven by the capacity considerations for the first. The vocoder packet that is sent to the cell will therefore have fewer bits for lower data rates. and a reduced load of switching transactions are the effects of soft and softer handoff in the CDMA system.An Ovetvie« of CDMA Chapter 1 quality links in fringe areas. J . 4.7 times (The full factor of two is not realized because of the requirement to maintain low-rate transmissions during speech blanking. At the mobile station end. 2. a range of voice coded (or vocoder) rates can easily be introduced over time and offered to subscribers as different grades of voice quality which can be priced accordingly without impact on system operation or costly redesign ofthe system.g. For example. 2. The channel card will transmit lower data rate frames by repeating symbols and transmitting them at lower gain levels. as a shared resource at the MTSO. and 1. data.6. facsimile. A lower rate vocoder. for example. A wide range of new non-voice services (e. the vocoder is located at the MTSO. At the land end. the vocoder is located along with the rest of the mobile station digital circuitry. running at 4 kbps would increase the capacity by a factor of 1.4. This allows considerable data rate flexibility to accommodate differing grades of service. The transmit waveform will be "ON" continually but the gain level from any given channel will vary throughout the conversation due to voice activity (among other things). In the forward link (cell-to-mobile station).) that require data rates other than the ones employed by the vocoders.generation digital cellular and PCN systems. etc. Page 1-32 Draft Version XI CDMA Network Engineering Handbook . At the mobile station. The vocoder quality provides the most improvement under adverse propagation environments. and MOS testing of the CDMA system utilizing the QCELP. The cellular operator maintains a bank of vocoders that operate at different rates. QUALCOMM is implementing its QCELP 8 kbps vocoder on a VLSI ASIC with an I/O driver module and some additional functions. can be accommodated simultaneously. An 8 kbps vocoder.4.

a 9600 bps operation results in a continuous waveform. Signals from different cells and sectors are distinguished by time offsets from the basic code.25 MHz bandwidth channels. The information to be transmitted is convolutionally encoded to provide the capability of error detection and correction at the receiver.4. Normally. in multiples of 30 kHz. To avoid confusion between the system bandwidth. Pseudorandom noise (PN) binary codes are used to distinguish signals from different base stations received at a mobile station. and it also must signal when it is changing data rates to the modulation hardware. or exactly 128 times the 9600 bps information transmission rate. The transmitted waveform from a given mobile station is based on a Time Division Multiplex (TDM) structure. the PN chip rate. Two codes are generated. for two adjacent CDMA carriers is 1. and orthogonal signal multiple access techniques. The frequency assignment spacing. and the frequency assignment spacing.23 MHz. This relies on the property of PN codes that the auto-correlation (when averaged over a few bit times) has an average which approaches zero for all time offsets greater than a single code chip time (approximately 1 us).23 MHz.3. The PN chip rate is 1. and a code rate of 112(two encoded binary symbols are produced per information bit). Orthogonality provides nearly perfect isolation between the multiple signals transmitted by the base station. pseudorandom code division. note that the PN chip rate is exactly 1.2288 MHz. The remaining signal is still operating at the highest data rate and is organized into groups of six Walsh symbols. They are distinguished at the mobile station receiver by using a binary orthogonal code based on Walsh functions (also known as Hadamard matrices). To provide communications privacy. which results in quadriphase PN modulation. The PN codes used are generated by linear shift registers that produce a code with a period of 32768 chips. The Walsh function is 64 PN code chips long and represents 64 different orthogonal codes. a cellular system would be implemented in a service area within a single radio channel until demand requires employment of additional channels. COMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version XI Page 1-33 . and a 4800 bps operation has half of the waveform effectively gated-off. J CDMA Forward Link Waveform Design The CDMA proposed standard specifies a forward link CDMA waveform design that uses a combination of frequency division. All CDMA signals in the system share a quadrature pair of PN codes. K = 9. All signals transmitted from a cell in a particular CDMA radio channel share a common PN code phase.4.2288 MHz. J . Frequency division is employed by dividing the available cellular spectrum into nominal 1. The code used has a constraint length (encoder memory) of nine.23 MHz wide at the 3 dB point. each data channel is scrambled with a user-addressed long code PN sequence. The signals are bandlimited by a digital filter that provides a sharp frequency roll-off and results in a nearly square spectral shape that is 1.Chapter 1 An Overview of COMA In the reverse link (mobile station-to-cell) the source vocoder is located in the mobile station. The 3 dB bandwidth is also 1. one for each quadrature carrier. Lower data rates are produced by pseudorandomly gating-off (punching holes in) the transmit waveform. Therefore.3 Link Waveform J . The encoded symbols are interleaved to combat fast fading.

Thus. interleaved.2 i)Modulo 2 addition g.Channel PUot PN Sequence Figure J .4 1. After synchronization. The Pilot Channel signal is unmodulated by information and uses the zero Walsh function (which consists of 64 zeroes).8 2. interleaved.J O. the pilot signal is used as a coherent carrier phase reference for demodulation of the other signals from this base station.An Overview of COMA Chapter 1 Thus a channel in the forward link: of the specified CDMA system consists of a signal centered on an assigned radio channel frequency. The strongest signal's time offset corresponds to the time offset of the nearest base station's PN code. 9. and biphase modulated by the encoded. biphase modulated by an assigned orthogonal Walsh function. which allows for extremely accurate tracking. the signal simply consists of the quadrature pair PN codes. Forward Unk Channelization. The base band signals are encoded. the example shown in the figure depicts seven paging channels (the maximum number allowed) and 55 traffic channels. Out of the 63 forward code channels available for use. spread using a common pseudonoise functions (WO-W63). Page 1-34 Draft Version XI COMA Network Engineering Handbook . but are individually identified by the assigned Walsh An important aspect of the forward link waveform design is the use of the pilot signal that is transmitted by each cell site and is used as a coherent carrier reference for demodulation by all mobile station receivers. The pilot is transmitted at a relatively higher level than other types of signals. and sequence. WO I-Channel Pilot PN Sequence Sync Channel Data-_~ 1200 bps Wp WI Forward Traftlc Channel Data-~ kbps kbps kbps kbps Symbol Cove. The mobile station can obtain synchronization with the nearest base station without prior knowledge of the identity of the base station by searching out the entire length of the PN code.6 4. Figure 1-11 shows an example of all of the signals transmitted by a base station on a particular sector antenna. quadriphase modulated by a pair of PN codes with an assigned time offset.. and scrambled digital information signal as shown in Figure 1-10.

Forward CDMA Channe's Transmitted by a Base Station.32768 length binary sequences that are used for the forward link. This also inherently provides a reasonably high level of privacy. a fixed code phase offset is used. J . however. up to a maximum of 0 paging channels and 63 traffic channels. the remainder are traffic channels.J J. On the forward link. the forward link in each sector supports 62 channels that may be used for paging and traffic.2 CDMA Reverse Link Waveform Design The CDMA reverse link also employs PN modulation using the same. the mobile station can select one of the paging channels to listen for other system information and pages. The encoded information is then interleaved over a 20 ms interval. These code words are used to select one of 64 different orthogonal Walsh functions for transmission.23 MHz radio channel transmitted by base statlonj] w = Walsh Symbol Number Figure J . Because every possible time offset is a valid address. Zero to seven channels are assigned to paging.4. The remaining synchronization details and other system information are communicated to the mobile station by the base station's Synchronization Channel. FORWARD CDMA CHANNEL (1. This channel has a fixed assigned Walsh function. The transmitted digital information is convolutionally encoded using a rate 113code (three encoded binary symbols per information bit) of constraint length nine. In addition to the pilot and sync channels. COMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version X 7 Page 7-35 .Chapter 7 An Overview of COMA Other possible configurations could replace the paging channels one for one with traffic channels. The interleaved information is then grouped in six symbol groups (or code words).1) PN sequence with a user-address-determined time offset. Once the Sync Channel has been received. Here. The Walsh function chips are combined with the long and short PN codes. Note that this use of the Walsh function is different than on the forward link. Signals from different mobile stations are distinguished by the use of a very long (242 .3. the Walsh function is determined by the mobile station's assigned channel while on the reverse link the Walsh function is determined by the information being transmitted. an extremely large address space is provided.

unique PN code. On the forward channel. the performance of this mobile station is good. The channels can be distinguished by the subscriber . Figure 1-12 shows an example of all of the signals received by a base station on a particular sector antenna. the Pilot Channel signal is shared among all the users of the forward channel. Each Reverse CDMA Channel can have up to 62 Traffic Channels and up to 32 Access Channels per supported Paging Channel.4. The bit error rate is too high to permit high-quality communications if a mobile station's signal arrives at the cell site with too Iowa received power value. A "channel" on the reverse link of the specified CDMA system consists of a signal centered on an assigned radio channel frequency. This is not possible on the reverse channel. interleaved. --t1 Reverse CDMA Channels Received at a Base Station. offset quadriphase modulated by a pair of PN codes. biphase modulated by a long PN code with address-determined code phase. Figure J . This is the best way of providing a high quality link in the fading channel with low E1fNo where a pilot phase reference channel cannot be provided.. REVERSE COMA CHANNEL (1.An Overview of CDMA Chapter 1 The use of the Walsh function modulation on the reverse link is a simple method of obtaining 64ary modulation with coherence over two information bit times. by Long CodePNs------- . and biphase modulated by the Walsh encoded. however interference to all the other mobile station transmitters that are sharing the channel is increased and may result in unacceptable performance to other users unless their number is reduced.. J .J 2. and convolutionally encoded digital information signal. The system capacity is maximized if the transmitted power of each mobile station is controlled so that its signal arrives at the cell site with the minimum required signal-to-interference ratio.4 CDMA Power Control It is very desirable to maximize the capacity of the CDMA system in terms of the number of simultaneous telephone calls that can be handled in a given system bandwidth. If the received power is too high. Page 1-36 Draft Version XI CDMA Network Engineering Handbook ..~---------Addressed ..23MHz channelreceived by base station) •••••••••••••••••••••••• I. Reverse link channels comprise zero to 32 access channels and up to 64 traffic channels per paging channel..

It responds with a higher transmit power than is necessary for the short range. the open loop power control mechanism. provides for a very rapid response over a period of just a few microseconds. In the case of a sudden improvement in the channel.Chapter 1 An Overview of COMA J . J . The Sync Channel from each cell contains data on the transmitted pilot channel power that the mobile uses to determine the transmitted power. In the CDMA approach to multiple access. when the mobile station is a certain distance from a low power cell. This means that relatively less mobile station transmitter power is required to produce a nominal received power at the cell site from this mobile station transmission. This capability allows the system to have cell sites with differing transmit power levels and antenna gains (ERP levels) corresponding to the size of the cells. For example.4. hence.4. it is assumed that exactly the same path loss is present as on the forward link. The mobile station measures the power level of both the pilot signal from the cell site to which it is connected and the sum of all the cell site signals receivable at the mobile station. A frequency and time reference for demodulation of digital speech signals is also transmitted by each of the cell site stations. It adjusts the mobile station transmit level downward and thus prevents the mobile station transmitter power from being at too high a level.4. The frequency separation allows a mobile station's transmitter and receiver to be active simultaneously without feedback or interference from the transmitter into the receiver. J CDMA Reverse Unk Open Loop Power Control Each mobile station attempts to estimate the path loss from the cell site to the mobile station. described below. the lower the mobile station's transmitter power. This frequency separation has very important implications for the power control process: It causes multipath fading on the inbound and the outbound channels to be independent processes. This means that a mobile station cannot measure the path loss of the return link directly and. The rate of increase for mobile station transmit power must generally be limited to the rate at which the closed loop power command from the cell site. which is analog in nature and has about 85 dB or more dynamic range.2 CDMA Reverse Unk Closed Loop Power Control In a cellular telephone. However. This measurement technique usually provides the correct average transmit power. This is because the 45 MHz frequency separation greatly exceeds the coherence bandwidth of the channel. The outbound link path record signal strength at the mobile station is used by the mobile station to adjust its own transmitter power. COMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version XI Page 1-37 . each cell site transmits its characteristics for power control. can reduce the power. all the cell sites in a region transmit a pilot signal on the same frequency. Reception of a strong signal from the cell site indicates that the mobile station is either close to the cell site or has an unusually good path to the cell site. it receives a weaker signal than it does from a high power cell. Those signals are used by all mobile stations for initial synchronization. the full-duplex radio channel is provided by using one frequency band for transmission from the cell site to the mobile stations and a different frequency band for transmission from the mobile stations to the cell sites. the stronger the received signal. but additional provisions must be made for the effects of independent Rayleigh fading. This prevents a sudden degradation which affects only the outbound path from causing a mobile station transmit power to increase to a level significantly higher than required for communication.4. a small radius cell need not transmit a high power level as a large radius cell.

4. Each cell site demodulator measures the received signal-to-noise ratio from each mobile station. The system controller residing at the MTSO provides each cell site controller with a value of desired signal-to-noiseratio to be used for each individual mobile station based on the error rate performance of that mobile station. In certain locations. the total interference is increased by three times over the interference seen by the mobile station at a point relatively close to its cell site. This process continues until the subscriber.25 ms proved adequate to track fading processes in the field tests. the mobile station transmitter power is also controlled by a signal from the cell site. The measured signal-to-noise ratio is compared to the desired signal-tonoise ratio for that mobile station and a power adjustment command is sent to the mobile station in the outbound channel addressed to that mobile station. the interference coming from these neighboring cell sites does not fade in unison with the desired signal as in the case with interference coming from the desired cell site. In such a location. where it is used to determine whether to command a particular mobile station to increase or decrease its transmitter power. the cell site could transmit the desired signal using a lower-than-normal transmitter power and reduce interference to other signals being transmitted by the system. the link from cell site to mobile station may be unusually disadvantaged.5 dB). The power adjustment command is transmitted at a rate of once every 1. In such a case.3 CDMA Forward Link Power Control The relative power used in each data signal transmitted by the cell site in response to control information is transmitted by each mobile station. The rate of the power adjustment command transmission must be high enough to permit tracking of Rayleigh fading on the inbound path. the cell periodically reduces the power transmitted to the subscriber. sensing an increase in received frame error rate. This mechanism is called the CDMA closed loop power control. the quality may become unacceptable.4. The cell site power adjustment command signals the mobile station to nominally increase or decrease the mobile station power by a predetermined amount (approximately 0.An Overview of COMA Chapter 1 To account for the independence of the Rayleigh fading on the forward and the reverse link: which the mobile station cannot estimate. J .f It is important that the latency in determining the power control signal and the transmission process be kept small so that the channel conditions will not change significantly before the control bit can be received and acted upon. An example of such a location is a point where the path loss to one or two neighboring cells is nearly the same as the path loss to the cell site communicating with the mobile station. This situation may require an additional 3-4 dB of signal power to achieve adequate performance. Page 1-38 Draft Version XI COMA Network Engineering Handbook . This power adjustment command is combined with the mobile stations' open loop estimate to obtain the final value of the mobile station's transmit radiated power. unless the power being transmitted to this mobile station is increased. At other times.25 ms. The cell site receives the power adjustment requests from each mobile station and responds by adjusting the power allocated to the corresponding cell 6 One command every 1. In addition. the mobile station may be located where the signal-to-interference ratio is good. This level is passed to the channel controller. To accomplish the forward link power control. requests additional power.

Figure 1-13 shows the net result of the open and closed loop power control processes. Notice that the return link channel has its own independent Rayleigh fading process. The records then are composed of a fixed set of fields followed by a variable number of fields.) The rate of change of power is somewhat slower than that used for the mobile station to cell site link. the padding bits extend from the end of the message to the end of the frame. J . The subscriber sees both variable average path loss and possible Rayleigh jading.4. The dynamic range of the adjustment is also limited approximately to a ± 6 dB range around the nominal power. and the CRC.5 dB. J Standard and Control Message Format and System Layering Signaling on all channels uses a synchronized bit-oriented protocol. The power control modifies the subscriber transmit power to provide nearly constant received power at the cell. DISTANCE POWER RECEIVED BY SUBSCRIBER DISTANCE RECEIVED POWER AT CELL SITE DESIRED AVERAGE RECEIVED POWER POWER TRANSMITTED BY MOBILE DISTANCE POWER RECEIVED BY CELL Figure J . the capsule is the entire frame (less with some overhead bits).5 Networking J . a fixed set of fields.e. The messages on all channels have a similar layered format. The next layer format splits the message into a length field.J 3.. either once per vocoder frame or nominally once per 15-20 IDS. If the message is less than a frame. if present.Chapter 1 An Overview of COMA site transmitted signal by a predetermined amount. COMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version XI Page 1-39 .5.4. An example of this is with blank-and-burst signaling on the Traffic Channel. The highest layer format is the message capsule that consists of a message and padding (padding is used on some channels to make the message fit into a frame). the message body. and a variable number of records. The adjustment is usually small (i. The message body consists of a message type field. ERects of Power Control for the Reverse Unk. approximately 0. if present.

the cell site can respond with a link layer acknowledgment. has a simple layer 2 and a vocoder as a single upper layer. may have an entirely different set of upper layers. authentication. This is a simplified logical view of the structure of the system. power control. To avoid excess signaling. For example. and clean interfaces. and the control process layer 3 serve as the foundation for the CDMA system. Whether common software is used for these service options is left entirely to the manufacturer. and Access Channels. These layers provide the basic mobile station services of call setup and tear down. link. Service Option 1. The multiplex sublayer and frame rate determination mechanisms are specified by the multiplex option. identified by a service option. When a mobile station is not involved in a call. the Paging Channel and Access Channel layer 2. Some service options may have one or more layers providing identical services. signaling functions must be provided with the base station. An end-user application. all of these layers are typically located in one physical piece of hardware. the default multiplex option. while the MTSO can respond later with a control process response. Since there is no retransmission of voice frames due to an error. vocoded voice. This multiplex option allows both primary and secondary traffic as is shown in Figure 1-14. the signaling layer 2. can be viewed as plugging into sockets provided by the multiplex sublayer. Different multiplex options can be defined that are optimized for different service options. handoff. A particular multiplex option may allow only a certain set of service options to be plugged into it. Acknowledgements are sent at both the link layer. Page 1-40 Draft Version XI COMA Network Engineering Handbook . the multiplex sublayer. Paging. In the mobile station. A service option for a different user application. where the processing delay for the control process response is very small. Thus layering tends to make systems easier to implement and reduces the number of software or other errors. and registration. link acknowledgements and control process signaling responses can be bundled into a single message. The CDMA system layering structure is a useful design approach for ensuring protocol and software structure. orthogonality between functions. On the base station side. the layer 2 for Service Option 1 does very little. In addition. This is to allow extensibility so that additional features and capabilities can be readily added in the future. Multiplex Option 1. The physical layer. maintenance. In the base station. specifies the frame formats given in the proposed standard. Layering creates regularity. and control process layers as shown in Figure 1-14. the CDMA system has the Sync. the Sync Channel layer 2. For this purpose. Responses are sent at the control process layer. the physical layer and the multiplex sublayer provide the transport of frames (or partial frames) for user applications. A service option implies a particular layer 2 and all layers on top of the layer 2. Thus two service options can be simultaneously active and plugged into the multiplex sublayer. such as data.An Overview of COMA Chapter 1 The signaling architecture is divided into the physical. Portions of one layer may be implemented in several pieces of hardware which mayor may not be located together. This is typically done by the mobile station. The CDMA cellular system has been designed with a very flexible signaling and control structure. these layers are typically distributed between several pieces of hardware which mayor may not be located together.

5. The frame is transmitted timealigned with the pilot PN sequence. J . J. J 4. On each CDMA frequency assignment. it will not normally reuse the Sync Channel until it powers on again. A Sync Channel frame is the length of the pilot PN sequence. the mobile station adjusts its timing to correspond to normal system timing. Since the pilot PN sequences are offset differently for each base station. there can be up to seven Paging Channels.Chapter 1 An Overview of CDMA Upper Layers (PrImary Traffic) Layer 2 (PrImary Traffic) Upper Layers (Secondary Traffic) Layer 2 (Secondary Traffic) Multiplex Sublayer (Traffic Channel) Layer 2 (Signaling) Layer 3 (Mobile Station Control Processes) Layer 2 (Link Layer) (Paging & Access Channels) Layer 2 (Sync Channel) Layer 1 (Physical Layer) Figure Mobile Station and Base Station Layering. 4800. The basic CDMA protocol is supported by the functions shown in Layers 1 through 3 (plus the multiplex layer). This Paging Channel is determined by hashing over all the available Paging Channels. The Paging Channel data rates can be either 2400. or 9600 bps. This message provides the mobile station with certain system parameters.5. the framing of the Sync Channel is different for every base station. The mobile station then determines and begins monitoring its Paging Channel.3 The Paging Channel Once the mobile station has obtained information from the Sync Channel Message. J . Only one message is sent on the Sync Channel. The mobile station only monitors a single Paging Channel. it is called the Sync Channel Message.4. Paramount among these is the time of the base station's pilot PN sequence with respect to the System Time and the Paging Channel data rate.4. Analysis shows that a single 9600 bps Paging Channel can support about 180 pages per second. This provides a total paging capacity far in excess of anything anticipated. Using all seven Paging Channels on a single CDMA frequency assignment gives a capacity of about 1260 pages per second. The base station may also assign a mobile station to a particular Paging Channel. CDMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version XI Page 1-41 .2 The Sync Channel The Sync Channel is a forward channel that is used during the system acquisition stage. Once the mobile station acquires the system. Individual services access the system through Level 2 to the multiplex Layer. There can be Paging Channels on different CDMA frequency assignments. Frame alignment with the base station PN allows a mobile station that is initially acquiring the system to easily receive the Sync Channel.

etc. Page Messages contains pages to one or more mobile stations. The Access Parameter Message contains information on the configuration of the Access Channel and control parameters. These slots can occur from once every 2 seconds to once every 128 seconds. Neighbor List Message. The protocol tells the mobile station when all messages for slotted mobile stations using the slot have been transmitted. and thus serve to stabilize the Access Channel. Pages are usually sent when the base station receives a call for the mobile station and are usually sent by several different base stations. Orders are a broad class of messages. This allows the mobile station to correctly determine where to find its Paging Channel. Some of these control parameters provide a dynamic feedback to the mobile stations to control their transmit rate. a mobile station will only have to receive a portion of the slot. Similarly. Access Channel messages provide for call originations. which is operating in this slotted mode. Access Parameter Message. The Neighbor List Message contains information to speed handoff to a neighbor base station. Each Access Channel is distinguished by a different long PN code. or direct the mobile station to use the analog PM system. Orders are used for everything from acknowledging registration to locking or preventing an errant mobile station from transmitting. In this mode. orders. responses to pages.4. order. The base station responds to transmissions on a particular Access Channel by a message on an associated Paging Channel. messages for a particular mobile station are sent only in certain pre-defined slots which occur at certain pre-defined times.An Overview of COMA Chapter 1 Paging Channel messages convey information from the base station to the mobile station. the mobile station responds to a Paging Channel message by transmitting on one of the associated Access Channels. All Access Channel transmissions use a special 4800 bps mode. change its Paging Channel assignment. Through the registration process. paging. The CDMA Channel List Message lists CDMA frequency assignments that contain Paging Channels. parameters to aid pilot acquisition. There are four major types of messages: overhead. The System Parameter Message contains the configuration of the Paging Channel. in most cases. These techniques provide a very powerful method by which a batteryoperated mobile station (portable) can conserve a considerable amount of battery energy when idle. and channel assignment. the mobile station can specify the slots that it will receive to the base station. The configuration of the system is conveyed in the four overhead messages: System Parameter Message. which are used to control a particular mobile station. Page 1-42 Draft Version XI COMA Network Engineering Handbook .5. This information includes the time offset of the pilot PN and the basic neighbor configuration. This capability allows a mobile station. to partially powerdown during slots other than its pre-defmed slot. J . The order of messages in a Paging Channel slot is also arranged so that. and registrations.4 The AC'C'essChannel The Access Channel provides communications from the mobile station to the base station when the mobile station is not using a Traffic Channel. and CDMA Channel List Message. The CDMA cellular system can be configured in many different ways so that it can be adapted to many different environments. One or more Access Channels is paired with every Paging Channel. The channel assignment message allows the base station to assign a mobile station to the traffic channel. The Paging Channel has a special mode called a slotted mode. registration parameters.

When the mobile station has been assigned to a Traffic Channel. its rate is not limited. the system instantaneously shifts to using a higher burst rate. the burst rate is reduced to a low rate. messages controlling handoff. A transmitting mobile station randomly chooses both an Access Channel from the set of available Access Channels and a PN time alignment from the set of available PN time alignments. The specific uses of these types of messages are discussed in sections 1.5. or 1200 bps. Multiple mobile stations associated with a particular Paging Channel may simultaneously try to use an Access Channel. messages controlling forward link power. messages for security and authentication.5. the receiver detects the rate of the frame and processes it at the correct rate. The Access Channel transmission rate can be varied for different types of transmissions and for different classes of mobile stations so that priority can be given to emergency and maintenance mobile stations. The base station controls the rate of Access Channel transmissions to prevent too many simultaneous transmissions by multiple mobile stations. signaling occurs directly on the Traffic ChanneL Signaling can be either blank-and-burst or dim-and-burst. When the vocoder desires to transmit at its maximum rate (equivalent to 8000 bps). typically vocoded voice. and messages eliciting or supplying special information from or to the mobile station. Simultaneous transmission would. The rate can vary from frame to frame. The remaining bits are used for signaling and overhead. when the talker speaks. Control of Access Channel transmissions is accomplished through the parameters contained in the Access Parameters Message which is sent on the Paging Channel.6 Registration Registration is the process by which the mobile station notifies the base station of its location. This technique allows the channel rate to dynamically adapt to the speech of the talker. When a talker pauses. Dim-and-burst signaling sends both signaling and primary traffic data in a frame using the 9600 bps transmission rate. and ultimately exhaust the available base station processing resources. The 9600 bps transmission rate is used with the vocoder data filling part of the frame and the signaling data filling the remaining part of the frame.6 and 1. the base station is able to receive their simultaneous transmissions. it is permitted to supply data at half of this rate (an equivalent of 4000 bps). Dim-and-burst signaling has an immense advantage over blank-and-burst signaling because degradation in voice quality is essentially undetectable.terminated COMA Network Engineering Handbook Oraft Version XI Page 1-43 .4.4.5 Framing and Signaling on the TraHic Channel Both the Forward and Reverse Traffic Channels use a similar control structure consisting of 20 ms frames.4. There are four types of control messages on the Traffic Channel: messages controlling the call itself. When the vocoder desires to transmit at other than its maximum rate.Chapter I An Overview of COMA The Access Channel is a random access CDMA channel. 2400. invariably. Unless two or more mobile stations choose the same Access Channel and the same PN time alignment. J . J . as in the analog FM system. Blank-and-burst signaling is sent at 9600 bps and replaces one or more frames of primary traffic data. exhaust the available Eb/No on the channel. This allows the base station to more efficiently locate the mobile station for mobile station.4. Frames can be sent at either 9600. with signaling data. This technique decreases the interference to other CDMA signals and thus allows an increase in system capacity.7. use the same Access Channel and PN time alignment. 4800.

Frequent registrations allow the system to know with great accuracy. However. requests it. The base station communicates the forms of registration that are active and the corresponding registration parameters via the System Parameters Message. there is a tradeoff between the paging and registration rates that results in some optimal use of the base station equipment. Distance-based registration. the base station can imply the mobile station's location. The mobile station also uses registration to inform the base station of the active MINs. Thus. The mobile station registers whenever it enters a new • • • • • • • Parameter-change registration. the base station sends its latitude. Zone-based registration. and Access Channels. (i... Paging Channel slots in use. If this metric exceeds the distance parameter from Page 7-44 Draft Version X 7 COMA Network Engineering Handbook . The mobile station registers whenever a timer expires. With distance-based registration. very little paging is required. the location of the mobile station. Timer-based registration. There is a tradeoff between the rate that the network pages mobile stations and the rate at which mobile stations register. the mobile station receives the new base station's latitude and longitude. Paging Channels. Thus. . Some forms of autonomous registration have parameters which may be tuned. It is expected that combinations of registration methods will be the most effective. The mobile station then computes a metric using these latitude and longitude values and those from the base station where the mobile station last registered. or switches from using the analog system. Power-down registration. Ordered registration. The mobile station registers whenever it powers on. The first six forms are called autonomous registration since the mobile station initiates the registration in response to an event. When the mobile station starts receiving a new base station. The mobile station registers whenever one of its parameters changes (such as a MIN or the SLOT_CYCLE_INDEX). Whenever a mobile station successfully Channel. switches from using the alternate serving system. and other characteristics. The mobile station registers whenever it powers off. By not registering at all. and a distance parameter in the System Parameters Message. zone. longitude. The base station can enable or disable any of the various forms of autonomous registration. The paging rate is high since the system may have to page in every cell and sector of the system.e.An Overview of COMA Chapter I calls. the system does not know whether the mobile station is on or off or where it might be located. The mobile station registers whenever the base station uses the Access Implied registration. without being explicitly directed to register by the base station). The CDMA cellular system supports eight forms of registration: • Power-up registration. frequent registrations place a high load on the Access Channels and a moderate load on the Paging Channels (the base station must acknowledge every registration). The mobile station registers whenever it moves more than a certain distance from where it registered the last time.

it registers. and the second is for secondary traffic. the mobile registers. The mobile station performs distance registration again only when it exits the circle. All service options use the capabilities provided by the physical layer and multiplex sublayer. With timer-based registration. When the mobile station enters a zone not on its list. Power-down registration is not expected to be extremely reliable as the mobile station may have driven beyond the range of the cellular system. By keeping multiple zones on the list. called service options. For example. more of the available bandwidth is allocated to secondary packet data. the base station may determine that the mobile station is no longer monitoring the system or was unsuccessful in powerdown registration. the MTSO can avoid paging in the old zones after the timers expire. a service option plugs into the multiplex sublayer. however. Primary traffic and signaling always have precedence over secondary traffic. may have a poor orientation. Zone-based registration is particularly powerful for defining boundaries between different sections of a cellular system or between systems. Packet data can be transmitted continually. or may have its antenna collapsed. By setting timers on old zones. The mobile and the MTSO both keep a list of the zones in which the mobile has recently registered. The base station timer is typically a little longer in duration that the mobile station's timer. With power-down registration. If the mobile station has not registered by the expiration of the base station's timer. both the mobile station and the MTSO add the new zone to their lists and set expiration timers on all other zones on the list. the system can avoid multiple registrations along the border between zones. both the base station and the mobile station set timers. Even though power-down registration may be unreliable. the mobile station registers whenever it has been directed to tum off.4. CDMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version XI Page 1-45 . a successful powerdown registration allows an MTSO to avoid paging the mobile station. With zone-based registration. After the expiration of the timer. the base station becomes the center of a circle which is typically several cells in radius. 1. One service option is for primary traffic.5. a second or third generation mobile station that supports an advanced technology vocoder could request a service that supports that device. Upon a successful registration.Chapter I An OveNiew of CDMA the base station where the mobile station last registered. Upon successfully accessing the system.5. the mobile station registers whenever a timer expires.7 Service Options The CDMA cellular system supports different user applications. The variable rate vocoder is called Service Option 1. Two different service options can be simultaneously supported. It is expected to be even more unreliable for a portable as a portable may be in a poor location. Service Option 1 (variable rate vocoded voice) could be an active primary traffic service option and a packet data service could be an active secondary traffic service option. when the speaker pauses and the vocoder drops to a lower rate. Other possible service options include data and FAX services. a cellular system is divided into zones or location areas. As described in Section 1. Service options are also a way of introducing new technology into the system.4. Upon registering. the mobile station and MTSO delete the zone from their list. For example.

it issues an acknowledgment.stating that the Traffic Channel has been fully initialized. When the cell acquires the mobile station on the Reverse Traffic Channel. The generation of the long code mask is identical to the generation of the voice privacy mask defined in Appendix A of IS-54-B. While the MTSO finishes setting up the call. the mobile station sends an origination message to the cell. Nlessage Encryption. The CDMA system supports message encryption on the Traffic Channel using procedures similar to IS-54-B.An Overview of COMA Chapter 1 The mobile station can specify the desired service option at call origination. The CDMA system very quickly assigns the mobile station to a Traffic Channel. Page 1-46 Draft Version XI COMA Network Engineering Handbook . The message encryption algorithm is identical to the CMEA algorithm defined in Appendix A of IS-54-B. the mobile station receives the cell on the Forward Traffic Channel and commences transmitting on the Reverse Traffic Channel. The CDMA system also supports privacy using the private long code mask. J . the mobile station and the base station encrypt only the layer 3 portions of a message. The mobile station can be challenged and have its shared secret data updated. registration. or data burst messages on the Access Channel. and Voice Privacy The CDMA system uses the authentication procedures developed for EIAlTIAlIS-54-B. page response. the cell assigns the mobile station to a Traffic Channel and sends the dialed digits to the MTSO. Authentication. Thus the message can be acknowledged before the message is decrypted. The mobile station maintains one A-key and one set of shared secret data which are used in both the analog and CDMA modes of operation. Upon receipt of the origination message.4. If the request is agreed upon. When performing message encryption. The authentication algorithm is identical to the CAVE algorithm defined in Appendix A of IS-54-B.5.6 Call Flow The basic call flow for a mobile station originated call is shown in Figure 1-15. then the new service option is activated. With the CDMA system. this does not impact system capacity as transmissions occur at the lowest rate and at the corresponding lowest transmit power level. After the user enters the digits and presses the send key.8 1. The message sequence is as follows. At any time during a call (typically at the beginning).4. The mobile station can add the 18-bit authentication signature to origination. the mobile station or base station can request either a primary traffic or a secondary traffic service option.

ESN . Mobile Station Origination Example Using Default Service Option.dialed digits) An Overview of CDMA Base Station • Receives Origination Message • Tunes to assigned Traffic Channel using public long code on Reverse Traffic Channel • Begins transmitting null Traffic Channel data on the Forward Traffic Channel • Sends Channel Assignment Message (ESN. A short sequence of messages establishes the subscriber originated call.MIN. Code ChI • Validates mobile MIN... s.Chapter 1 Mobile Station • Detects mobile station user initiated call • Sends Origination Message Access Channel (ESN. CDMA cu. • Receives Channel Assignment Channel Message • Tunes to Traffic Channel using public long code on Traffic Channel • Receives N50mconsecutive valid frames from the base station • Begins sending Traffic Channel preamble Forward • Receives Base Stattpn Acknowledgement Order • Receives Traffic Channel preamble from the mobile station • Sends Base Station Acknowledgement Order • Begins transferring primary traffic packets to and from Service Option 1 Figure 1·1 Simple Call Flow. Options are available for special services. CDMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version XI Page 1-47 .

The digitized signal is provided to each of four simple correlator receivers.7 System Functional Description J . The correlation process provides a processing gain which enhances the signal-to-interference ratio of a signal that matches the proper PN sequence but doesn't enhance the other signals. If this time difference exceeds one chip time. the base station may also authenticate the mobile station. The result of this demodulation process is a sequence of encoded data symbols. the base station may have the mobile station use the private long code for enhanced security. there is a difference in the reception time which corresponds to the difference in distance divided by the speed of light. the mobile station autonomously responds and is assigned to a Traffic Channel. Ringback for a voice call may be through the voice channel by sending a vocoded tone or by generating a tone at the mobile station's vocoder. A property of PN signals is that discrimination is provided against multipath signals.4. The correlator output is then coherentlydemodulated using the pilot carrier from the closest cell site as the carrier phase reference. The translation process includes a frequency synthesizer of standard design which permits the receiver to be tuned to any of the frequencies within the receive portion of the cellular telephone frequency band. The IF signal is then passed through a SAW bandpass filter of approximately 1. three independent paths can be tracked and received in parallel with the outputs diversity combined. At this point. When the signal arrives at the mobile station receiver after passing through more than one path.An Overview of CDMA Chapter 1 After the Traffic Channel has been fully initialized. Traffic Channel initialization is the same as in the mobile station origination case. the mobile station uses the Connect Message to tell the base station that the call has been answered. The receiver can chose whether to track and receive the earlier or the later path. f .4. The receive signal is translated from the RF frequency in the 850 MHz band to an IF frequency. the system pages the mobile station by issuing pages in cells or sectors where it figures the mobile station is located. J Mobile Station Fundions The mobile station antenna is connected to the transmitter and receiver through a diplexer of standard design which allows simultaneous transmissions and reception through a single antenna. The digital receivers correlate the IF samples with the proper PN sequences. This generation is controlled by the Alert With Information Message and the Stop Alert Order. If three receivers are provided. Page 1-48 Draft Version XI CDMA Network Engineering Handbook . When the user answers the call. then the correlation process discriminates against one of the paths. Upon receipt of a page. the base station sends an Alert With Information Message to have the mobile station ring. The filtered output of the IF is digitized in an AID converter.25 MHz in bandwidth. The digitized IF signal contains the signals of many on-going calls with the pilot carriers transmitted by all the neighboring cell sites. one of which is called the searcher and the others are called digital data receivers. The call flow for a mobile station terminated voice call is shown in Figure 1-16. Upon receipt of a call.7. While not shown.

ESN) An Overview of COMA Base Station .. CNI) Information Message Reverse !'raffic Channel • Receives acknowledgement • Sends Acknowledgement . Mobile Station Termination Example. Paging Channel Aeee s Channel • Sends Page Message or Slotted Page . • Applies ringing to mobile han dset • Displays CNl information on mobile display (user answers calJ) • Removes ringing to mobile han dset • Sends Connect Order Reverse :raffic Channel • Receives Connect Order ..Chapter 1 Mobile Station • Receives Page Message • Sends Page Response Message (MIN.... COMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version XI Page 1-49 ... • Begins transmitting primary tr affic packets from Service Option 1 • Receives acknowledgement (user conversation) . Forward l'raffic Channe I • Sends acknowledgement (user conversation) Figure J .. Simple Call Flow.. .. CDMACh... A call to a subscriber unit can include a phase that establishes the specific service option required... Message (MIN) • Receives Page Response Message • Tunes to assigned Traffic Channel using public long code • Begins transmitting null Traffic Channel data on the Forward Traffic Channel • Receives Channel AssWnme~age . Pagir gChannel • Sends Channel Assignment Message (ESN..J 6. Code Ch) • Tunes to assigned Traffic Chann el using public long code • Receives N 50m consecutive vali d frames from the base station • Receives Trafflc Channel • Begins sending Traffic Channe I preamble from the mobile preamble on the Reverse Traffic Forward rraffic Channel Channel station • Receives Base Station Acknowledgement Order • Sends Base Station Acknowledgement Order • Begins transferring received pri mary traffic packets to Service Opti on 1 and sending null Traffic Channel data on Reverse Traffic Channel Forward Irraffic Channe • Sends Alert With Information Message • Receives Alert Wtth (RINGtone...

During soft handoff between two cells. The mobile station user voice is first passed through a digital vocoder in the direction of mobile station to cell site. and finally is interleaved.2 Cell Site Functions The cell site uses two or more receive antennas for space diversity reception. The signal from one antenna is amplified. the strongest paths from both cell sites are determined by the searcher receiver.4. converted to the RF frequency of operation by mixing with a frequency synthesizer which tunes the signal to proper output frequency. The resulting symbols modulate a PN carrier signal whose PN sequence is chosen according to the assigned address for the call. translated to an IF frequency by a synthesizer. The modulator output is then power-controlled by signals from the digital control processor and the analog receiver.7. the searcher receiver attempts to find multiple paths caused by terrain and building reflections. so a non-coherent modulation and demodulation scheme is used. while the searcher receiver continues to evaluate the paths to keep the three data receivers on the three strongest paths as path conditions change. The three data receivers are assigned to the three strongest such paths. The transmit signal is then passed on to the diplexer and the antenna. while the others are used as data receivers.An Overview of CDMA Chapter 7 The current CDMA mobile station design includes four demodulator processors. The CDMA system employs a form of maximal ratio combining in which the signal-to-noise ratios are determined for all paths being combined and the contributions from the paths are weighted proportionally before summation. The order of space diversity employed can be increased by using more antennas and receiver processors. Page 7-50 Draft Version X7 CDMA Network Engineering Handbook . The resulting decoded bits are processed by the vocoder or data user. One processor is used for the searcher function. The outputs of the maximal ratio diversity combiner are passed to the decoder function where the resulting combined symbol stream is first de-interleaved and then decoded using a Viterbi algorithm forward error correction decoder. and then amplified to the final output level. The mobile station to cell site link also differs from that used in the cell site to mobile station link as mentioned earlier. The data demodulation process uses information from all three receivers in a diversity combining operation which results in greatly improved fading resistance. then is forward error correction encoded using a convolutional encoder. In particular. filtered. The combining is done coherently because the pilot demodulation allows the phase of each path to be determined before combining. The signals from each of the two antennas are processed identically until they are combined in the diversity -combiner function. and the three data receivers are assigned to demodulate these paths. a pilot signal is not available for coherent reference purposes. The digitized IF signals are processed by digital data receivers similar to those used in the mobile station. and then digitized in a process identical to that described previously for the mobile station receiver. J . During operation in a single cell.

This controller also communicates with each cell site controller about the assignment of particular calls to lines between the MTSO and cell site and the assignment of PN codes for the calls. analog format. The MTSO controller determines the assignment of calls to cell sites and to vocoder equipment. If the mobile station is in soft handoff. the switch routes the information bit stream to the appropriate cell sites for transmission to the mobile station.3 MTSO Functions For each vocoder data block. The additional receivers track and receive additional delay paths similar to the method used in the mobile station receiver. nominally 20 ms long. However. The cell site controller also monitors the progress of the call and the signal quality. The digital data receivers are controlled to demodulate the strongest signals. If the mobile station is not in soft handoff. The resulting information bit stream is routed through a second switch to one or more cell sites. The vocoder output is fed to the MTSO using standard telephone wireline or microwave facilities. This is probably most useful in cell sites located in dense urban areas where many possibilities for multipath exist. 1. and initiates tear-down upon the loss of signal. The voice signal from the PSTN to the mobile station first passes through the switch to connect to a vocoder.4. because of fading and interference on the link from the mobile station to the cell sites.Chapter 1 An Overview of COMA Two searcher receivers are used to scan the time domain to assure that the associated receivers are tracking and processing the strongest available time domain signals. the mobile station uses its searcher receiver to find and track the strongest multipath signals from up to three cell sites. Signals may arrive at the MTSO from more than one cell site with the same information if cell site diversity reception is used. The process is identical to that described previously for the mobile station receiver. The quality estimate is the average signal-to-noise ratio over the 20 ms interval.7. The vocoder then converts the format of the digitized voice signal to a standard 64 kbps peM telephone format. or any other standard format. The functionality depicted as two separate switches could be performed by a single physical switch unit. The MTSO digital switch is used to route the information stream which corresponds to a given mobile station from the one or more cell sites to an individual selector. in order to obtain additional diversity modes. the signals from one cell site may be better than the signals from the other cell site. COMA Network Engineering Handbook Oraft Version XI Page 1-51 . The result is then connected to the PSTN by the switch. When the cell diversity mode is in use. the signal goes only to a single cell site. One selector and a corresponding vocoder are required for each call process. The selector compares the signal quality indicators that accompany the information bits from two or more cell sites and selects the bits that correspond to the highest quality cell site on a frame-byframe basis for output to the vocoder. The cell site controller is responsible for assignment of digital data receivers and modulators to particular calls. a signal quality estimate is obtained in the cell site and transmitted along with the data to the Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSO). Improved performance is accomplished by the employment of additional digital data receivers.

The GPS receiver provides the timing to the system. The major difference between the dual-mode CDMA mobile stations and existing analog cellular mobile stations is the addition of digital signal processing. upconvert._-___. power amp. The heart of the system is the digital shelf which holds multiple channel elements.. This Page 1-52 Draft Version XI CDMA Network Engineering Handbook . size. The mobile station is fully backward-compatible with the existing analog PM system. and frequency synthesizer functions as shown in Figure 1-17. The CDMAfunctions are contained in three (soon to become one) ASICs and the controllerprocessor. 1. so that newgeneration digital cellular units can be used in all areas with existing cellular coverage.-FM Baseband Chipset RX Freq.17 Mobile Subsystem. or power consumption. SystemCLK synth. 1 Dual-Mode Mobile Station/Portable The mobile station design uses existing RF and IF circuitry. I .Ynth.2 The CDMA Cell Site Figure 1-18 is a block diagram of a single sector CDMA cell.. power control. (better known as "dual-mode" capability). The signal processing functions (including all FMlFDMA analog functions) of the dual-mode CDMA mobile station/portable unit are currently being implemented on three custom VLSI chips or ASICs.. ~~C:.4. synth.4..8. downconvert. power amplifier. __ -_-_.8.. FM mod/demod. These three chips are currently combined into a single device. The chip designs do not stress the state of the art in speed.8 The CDMA Equipment Design 1. The subscriber unit comprises an analog section similar to current analog units and a digital processing section.. EPROM SRAM Figure 1.4. Each channel element can be configured as a traffic channel or an overhead channel.An Overview of CDMA Chapter 1 J .

monitors subordinate devices for detected faults. The digital shelf and the transceiver shelf are controlled through a Cell Controller (CC). allocates and configures resources for call traffic. The CC maintains the service status of hardware and software entities within the cell. A Single Sedor CDMA Cell. The forward link from the transceiver shelf passes through a high power amplifier and a filter to the Tx antenna. It is then down-converted to IF in the transceiver shelf and input to the digital shelves. A single transmit or receiver channel supports all channels in the sector. It also controls the multiplexing of the channel element ports to the digital backhaul to the MTSO. The main function of the transceiver shelf is to upconvert the IF signal out of the digital shelf to UHF and downconvert UHF back to IF. Note that only a single set of RF components is required per antenna. Power Amplifier (Tx) Transceiver Shelf Cell Controller Figure I-lB. passes through filters and a low noise amplifier. The reverse link starts from the Rx antennas. collects statistical information about the operation of the cell.Chapter 1 An Overview of CDMA includes a 1 Pulse Per Second (PPS) tick and a reference clock. this eliminates the expensive power combiner function. Two traffic channels are supported per channel card. The function of the CC is to manage the operation of a cell within a CDMA cellular system. CDMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version XI Page 1-53 . and distributes some aspects of timing.

two for the cell. and one small switch. Tests were grouped into major categories and a "core test team" was established. Field Trials The field test configuration included five cells with eight sectors. Calibrated fading simulators were used to simulate fading environments in the lab. interference.An Overview of COMA Chapter 1 1. representatives of carriers. J Laboratory Testing The CDMA laboratory tests conducted were designed to measure performance under a variety of controlled conditions. scope. The testing continues to validate all remaining relevant portions of the proposed standard. Over the past year. one small switch connected to the PSTN. The test complement included a mobile. The channel simulations were based on extensive field measurements from various cities and areas. Typical performance areas involved were capacity. The environments varied from urban and suburban to hilly terrain with canyons. The carriers and manufacturers developed a test matrix of over 100 sets of tests necessary to validate CDMA system performance. The following is a brief summary of the goals.5. functionality. many manufacturers and carriers participated in all aspects of the field trials to help evaluate the technology. This tearn established the objectives and success criteria for each test category and assisted in creating the procedures.2 Testing Goals and Objectives The goals of the carriers and manufacturers were to validate the Common Air Interface (proposed standard) and to prove the performance of CDMA in actual field conditions.5. manufacturers. A test plan and schedule for the high priority testing was created by QUALCOMM and agreed to by the carriers and manufacturers. A calibrated noise generator was used to simulate the effect of other CDMA users in the form of interference. QUALCOMM's in five ASICs (two for the mobile station.2 . and vehicle speed.5. and wideband propagation/coverage. The results of these tests provided individual evaluation of system parameters and insight into the field testing required to assess system performance. The channel parameters were characterized with the channel simulators to include multipath fading. The laboratory test environment remains as a stable. A portable unit was used for in-building testing. power control. The core test tearn. low Et/No. voice quality. Calibrated noise generators were used to simulate additional CDMA users. and one common) which contain the proposed standard system Page 1-54 Draft Version XI COMA Network Engineering Handbook J . and up to seventy mobile stations.1 Overview Extensive testing has been performed to establish feasibility.5. 1. and performance of the CDMA concept and system. soft handoff.2. and many other parties. calibrated test facility to evaluate software upgrades and new mobile implementations. J . and results of some of the testing. participated in the lab and field testing.5 CDMA Validation Testing 1.2. low mobile station transmit power. The matrix was prioritized by the group. one cell. and the highpriority tests were addressed first followed by all other lower-priority tests.

so the test results are extremely close to the predicted values.Chapter I An Overview of COMA functionality were used during testing to verify performance. The jammer cases included CW jamming at levels from 6 to 30 decibels greater than the intrinsic noise power. at 20 mph and above. Figure 1-21 shows test results of the capacity trials in a variety of test environments. A test was run using six sectors in four cells with 62 active mobiles plus sufficient simulated links to amount to a total system loading of 10 times the analog capacity. The figure shows Frame Error Rate (FER) versus vehicle speed forboth links. During the particular field run shown in Figure 1-19. Stability arguments limit the total signal power received at the cell to 10 decibels greater than the total background noise power. A standard deviation of 1. COMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version XI Page I-55 . Between 10 and 20 mph. 40. and mobile station transmit power. power control. A jammer was then inserted into a sector containing active mobiles. normalized to the total background noise power in the bandwidth. The agreement with prediction for these measurements gives confidence in the use of the curves for predicting capacity in different environments. the fade durations are short enough for the interleaver to restore the full performance of the Viterbi decoder. the power control reacts to compensate for fading. The acceptable frame error rate to achieve above average voice quality is 2%.8 dB which shows an operating point well within the capacity ranges shown by the curves in Figure 1-21. Figure 1-20 shows the mean and standard deviation for full rate and traffic variable rate. Not only was the power control put through rigorous testing. The family of curves represents values predicted by the capacity equation for capacity levels of 30. The results shown are grouped into the following categories: capacity and voice quality.6 dB was predicted for the variable data rate case. The average FER is better than acceptable throughout with the expected and noticeable degradation at low speeds. but extensive interference and jamming tests were also performed. The abscissa is the average Et/No realized in the sector under test. The average required Eb/No during this particular set of tests was 6. The accuracy and response of the power control has been a concern since the inception of the CDMA concept. the deviation is much less than with the variable rate. Figure 1-21. One of the primary goals of the testing effort was to determine the system level characteristics of CDMA. handoff. shows limits in sector capacity being induced for higher required EJNo. The markers represent measured Eb/No and total relative signal power for a set of capacity measurements. Capacity and voice quality are linked together to emphasize the requirement for quality under loaded capacity conditions. Notice that with the full rate frames. the ordinate is the total received signal power at cell from all mobile stations within the cell. this causes durations of low received Et/No that are too long for the interleaver to randomize the errors (a step required for good performance from the error correcting process). However. and 50 users. The deviation was similar to expected values even with the Et/No value set high. At very low speeds (0-10 mph). therefore. the system was loaded at 20 mobile stations per sector. the power control no longer keeps up with the fades.

Frame Error Rate Performance As a Function of Speed. Speed Reverse FER is 0. velocity. Power control.8% 20 Mobiles per Sector 0. wideband modulation interleaving.4% Frame Performance vs.00"10 0-10 10-20 20-30 Speed (mph) 30-40 40-50 Figure J .An Overview of COMA Chapter 1 Forward FER is 0.J 9. and error control combine to limit error rates for all ranges of vehicle Page 1-56 Draft Version XI COMA Network Engineering Handbook .

8 [d I J I .'I ~. 2 [dB] ~3 4 5 6 -2 -1 o RX Rates 1. V 0. Sid Dev = 1.1 dB).04 = 0..08 0.Setpoint Eb/No Only RX Full Rate --All Figure J-20.~ -3 r-. ~ \ '~ ~ . . Std Dev 1= 1.12 Average Eb/!> 0. Field trials show a 1. 0.1 0 = 6.7 dB] <. The full rate case is even better (1.4 [dJ]. 0 ~/ r .5 [dB].7 dB standard deviation for power control of cell site received power in the variable data rate case.1 [dB] I . COMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version XI Page 1-57 ..14 0.02 o -5 -4 -...- Received Eb/No . \ MeL = 0.Chapter 1 An OveNiew of COMA CeIl RX Eb INo Statistics 62 Mobiles in 3 Sectors 0.06 ~ean 0.. Results of Power Control During Field Tests.

and thus effectively "shrunk" the cell coverage). As the jammer approached the 20 dB level. The first 380 seconds of the test involved the CW jammer. and a gated interference at four cycle rates (0. Dropped calls did occur during the test but they were not caused by the jammer. The bar graph shows that as the interference increased from 20 dB and then 30 dB.8 mW which was consistent throughout testing. The ordinate is read in two ways. First. (i. The results relative to capacity gains of at least ten. Overall. The mean transmit power level was only 6. In response to received transmit power from the interfered-upon sector. The abscissa of the figure is the running time during the test. the feasibility of CDMA technology for cellular was well demonstrated. Another important parameter verified during the tests was the mobile station transmit power. the base station recognized the additional interfering power at its receivers and accordingly adjusted its transmit power. and sometimes thirty. For the line graph. The investigation of these dropped calls led to the discovery of a software problem that has since been corrected. Page 1-58 Draft Version XI COMA Network Engineering Handbook . reduced its transmit power. the last 320 seconds involved the cycled jammer. are environment specific and may vary significantly with system implementation. the mobile stations within the sector (usually stations in the boundary regions) recognized the need to handoff to adjacent sectors which were not subjected to interference.e. the ordinate represents the level of the jammer in decibels above the intrinsic noise power in the total bandwidth. As soon as the jammer was turned off. This implies greatly increased battery life for portables or better penetration. The results are very impressive. which represents the number of active mobiles in the sector under test. For the bar graph. the mobile stations that handed-off returned to the original sector and thus restored the initial number of active cells in that sector.1 to 100 Hz) at a level of 15 decibels greater than the intrinsic noise power. the ordinate is the actual number of calls active at the particular time. the mobile stations increased their transmit power (through closed loop power control commands) to overcome the additional interference. Tests for jammer rate sensitivity that were made using the cyclic jammer failed to show any sensitivity. Notice that the total number of active cells in the system remained constant throughout the test.. as the jammer power increased from 0 dB to 20 dB.An Overview of COMA Chapter 1 the bandwidth. Figure 1-23 shows the histogram of multiple mobile stations transmit power. and testing continues to validate the proposed standard requirements and further investigate system performance and design criteria. The results of these tests are shown in Figure 1-22. another advantage of thorough testing. about 15 mobile stations handed-off to adjacent sectors. The system adapted to the CW jammer in three ways.

~/rl ·2 ~.... There has been close agreement between measurements and predicted Carrier-to-Noise ratios for a variety of capacity levels.'" era_../ -: 30usera / ~ / / 55 85 9...5 ~V 75 ".." r• r ! == . V 6.... COMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version X I Page I-59 .. ./ v: ... Limits in Sector Capacity Induced for Higher Required EbINO.. ..J/'" v // 4C /" / V' V" ..5 10 Eb/No[dB] Figure '-2'..'oJ" ...... ..-"" ~ .Chapter I An Overview of COMA Cell C/N vs Eb/No 10 v IV'" _/ ~.....~ .

e- 0.:§i!"l~~~~~~~~~~.I 20 25 o 5 10 15 Mobile TX Power [dBm] Figure J -23.04 .8 [mWatts] .02 .045 o III ~ 0.. tests showed the effectiveness Calls are shiftedfrom of power control and handoff in reaction to unanticipated cell to cell without losing calls as local conditions change.i.~ 0.g oms ~ 0.025 r-Mean TX Power = 8. An average mobile transmitter power of less than 7 m W means longer portable battery life.3 [dBm] = 6..( I I r ./ / J "'" "--.05 0.01 0..0 0.~~5lfjjili*ii!§~~!ii~~I!~ 1_ Figure J -22.03 . The Results of Injected Interference During the Field Tests.. ~ .. Mobile TX Power Statistics of Capacity Tests 0.". Mobile Station Transmitted Power During Field Tests.A r-' ~ _l ~ \ \ \ \... -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10-5 -- . Time into test (sec) alphasectorcaUs _systemcaUdrops --aIphajammerdB I Total system interference.035 0.An Overview of COMA Chapter 1 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 °>l'ilO::.*~~Ii.005 o . Page 1-60 Draft Version XI COMA Network Engineering Handbook .

..•..••..•.....••..3 Sector Interface Carel (SIC)••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 2-5 2..~Jl~ IlClcJc ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 2-" 2.~ Qua/comm Telephone Switchinsr OHice (QTSO) 2-8 2..... J lrl14! J).jr "ocoelerl'Se/ector Carel •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••J 2-J .......The CDMA Base Station 2 2...~ IIClcJc"ICll1e ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 2-~ 2.•..•..•..srifClI 2.. 2.r 2-~ 2-~ 2~O Physical Description ..~ JlI1CJIC»!J ~"~I' C=()I11I11c)11 C=Clrei •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 2...••....•.•.••....

The main function of the transceiver shelf is to upconvert the IF signal out of the Digital Shelf to UHF and downconvert UHF back to IF. The reverse link starts from the Rx antennas. The forward link from the Transceiver Shelf will then pass through the High Power Amplifier. The purpose of DM is to monitor and modify the internal states of the different cards in the rack as well as the interface card inside the transceiver shelf. The Digital Shelf and the Transceiver shelf are monitored and controlled through a Diagnostic Monitor (DM) and Cell Controller (CC).Chapter 2 The CDMA Base Station 2 The CDMA Base Station CDMA base station is divided into the switching system and the cell. Each of these contains a number of functional units. These two systems are functionally identical. Sector Interface Card. It is then downconverted to IF in the transceiver shelf and inputted to the Digital Shelf. 2. The Cell Controller is the interface between the functionality of each element of the cell and a cell operator. Filter. The heart of the system is the Digital Shelf which holds Channel Cards. later. This chapter includes block diagrams of the hardware for the CDMA Brassboard Base Station. and finally to the Tx antenna. The function of these cards will be explained in more detail. Figure 2-2 shows the same system built as a Roving Test System (RTS). and finally the Termination Card. passes through a block filter followed by a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) and another filter.0 Physical Description Figure 2-1 shows the elevation drawing of a single sector CDMA Cell. where all system functions are realized. and Analog Common Card. < CDMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version XI Page 2-1 . This functionality can be accessed either directly at the cell site using DM or at the QTSO using the Remote Monitoring System (RMS). The functional units are implemented in various equipment. It also allows the noise from the Noise Box to be added to both forward and reverse links.

Sector Interface Cards.The COMA Base Station Chapter 2 Tx Rx Rx t-/-F-il-te-rS-(-Rx-&-T-X)-a-n-d-LN-A-S-(-Rx-)-o{~ t- H__ig_h_p_o_w __er_)Un p_l_if_~_r __ __(T_X_) Noise Box __r~~-~------------------~ V . Page 2-2 Oraft VersionXl COMA Network Engineering Handbook . The GPS receiver provides timing to the system. Both the Digital Shelf and Transceiver shelf are controlled by the Diagnostic Monitor (DM) and the Cell Controller (CC). the signal out of the Digital Shelf to UHF and downconverts it back to IF.J./~ / ~~~ T_ra_n_s_c_ei_v_e_r_S_h_el_f ~~~--~ GPS Receiver Tl I--++-~MUX / '1 1 / (-{j Cell Controller D l/ / / (-(j Diagnostic Monitor DV / Figure 2. the Analog Common Card and the Termination Card. Elevation Drawing 01 a Single Sedor CDMA Cell. The heart of the system is the The transceiver shelf upconverts Digital Shelf which holds Channel Cards.

the satellite positions may be unknown.2 Digital Shelf The next block is the Digital Shelf. The first group of signals is timing which is supplied by the GPS receiver. and Data/Control signals.. and the diagnostic COMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version Xl Page 2-3 . 2. The second group of signals is the IF signals to/from the transceiver shelf..42 MHz). The input to this box is an antenna operating at civilian L-band (1575. a QTSO. the cell controller. 2.RTS Configuration.0. f~ •a i} ~ Diagnostic Monitor CPU magnosllc Momtor KeyDoar<1 Patch Pannel GPS Receiver Cell Controller CPU Cell Controller Keyboard Power Distribution Power Distribution i ii Fan Assembly Transceiver Shelf Noise Box High Power Amplifier (Tx) CP3000MUX Power Distribution Figure 2-2 Elevation Drawing of a Single Sector CDMA Cell . This includes the 1 Pulse Per Second (PPS) tick and 10 MHz reference clock. There are three types of 110to the digital shelf: Timing.. In reality. The RTS system is functionally identical to the Brassboard System except that it only consists of two cells. a few mobile units and other users simulation. The first block is the Receiver. The same is true for the 1 PPS. the reference frequency (10 MHz) is first buffered in the transceiver shelf and then input to the digital rack. g> • ~~ a ! " ~ .0. When the cell is installed for the very first time. The output of the receiver is a 1 PPS positive true signal and a 10 MHz reference from a Rubidium clock disciplined by the GPS. If the reference clock drifts. the frequency correction is done gradually with small changes. except that this signal is inverted as well as buffered. IF. J GPS Receiver The GPS receiver provides the timing to the system.Chapter 2 The COMA Base Station 11 18 ~ Diagnostic Monitor Cell Controller Monitor g It [[ i ~ ~ ~ Q . The third group of signals are those that communicate with the QTSO. Appendix A describes the procedure to set up the GPS receiver. The Sector Interface Card uses the reference clock and supplies SYS_CLK to the rest of rack.

The RF output of the HPA passes through a bandpass filter before being fed to the transmit antenna.' The D. J. 2. amplification and Other Users Noise Simulation (OUNS) generation and control. Its features include: Logging of data packets. G=17). This signal.950 MHz IF.0. Page 2-4 Draft Version X 7 CDIv1. 2. it must be converted to UHF. temporal analyzer displays.talShelf 2.4.. Other functions of the RF Rack include AGC. DACs. 2. status displays. The function of Cell Controller (CC) is to manage the operation of a cell (one or more sectors) within a CDMA Cellular System. It is used for individual device monitoring and debugging. ase Station B Chapter 2 monitor. two Channel Elements (CE). Each Channel Element can be configured as a Traffic channel or an overhead channel.5 MHz) bandpass filter.4 Controllers There are two 33 MHz i386 based PCs that monitor and control a cell site. and error reporting. allocates and configures resources for call traffic. At the same time Gaussian noise generated by the Noise Shelf can be added. monitors subordinate devices for detected faults. J Channel Card The Channel Card consists of a Channel Card Controller (CCC). Next a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) is used to amplify the signal (1. downconverts the signals while adding Gaussian Noise to them.0. Filters. downloading to Channel Elements. This signal is then upconverted to the appropriate UHF frequency inside the transceiver shelf. In order to broadcast. is input to the transceiver shelf. The Receive paths begin at the two receive antennas.. The Forward path begins from the TxIF output of Sector Interface Card. The cell Diagnostic Monitor (DM) collects and displays information from the Base Station processors. and other logic to connect different parts. Each Channel Card currently has two Channel Elements.4. after passing through a wide band (824849 MHz) bandpass filter. The transceiver shelf. Network Engineering Handbook .3 The Rf Rack The Digital Shelf's transmit and receive signals operate at 4. a Digital Combiner.5 dB. The UHF output is then amplified using the High Power Amp (HPA). collects statistical information about the operation of the cell. and distributes some aspects of timing.g. The resultant IF signals are sent to the Digital shelf. CC maintains the service status of hardware and software entities within the cell. remote processor memory peek/poke.The CDIv1. The signals are then passed through Helix cables to a very narrow band (2.

The output of the NOs are passed through a Mux. The actual analog summation is performed on the backplane. The ACC also includes a microprocessor for on-board control and interface to the Cell Controller and Diagnostic Monitor. enter the ACC at -10±10 dBm.2. The ACC receives these summed signal differentially and transmit them to the Sector Interface Card single ended. the Cell Controller (CC). there are additional logic to connect the 960 to the ASICs and CC. Note that this description is for one sector only.2. The I and Q outputs are converted to analog through a set of DACs and filters. The ACC distributes SYS_CLK and EVEN_SEC to the rest of digital shelf. to perform the timing distribution. 2. the ACC combines the incoming baseband signals from the Channel Cards within a digital shelf. to combine the baseband forward link signals and upconvert them to IF frequency and second. The analog signals are translated to differential before going to backplane.950 MHz in reverse link QPSK demodulation. one Modulator. the signals from the two antennas. The Cell Diagnostic Monitor collects and displays information from the Base Station processors. Then they are passed through a Digital Combiner. The ACC can accept inputs from 3 sectors and process them. Also. J Forward Link In the Forward Link. Each CE can be used as a Traffic or an overhead 2. a pulse every other second (EVEN_SEC) and a 10 MHz reference to be used for synthesizing the 4.Chapter 2 The CDMA Base Station The CCC interfaces between CEs and the Diagnostic Monitor (DM). The ACC receives the combined transmit signals from all Channel Cards on the same shelf. 2.2 Analog Common Card Following is a description of the functions of Analog Common Card (ACC). and one Serial Viterbi Decoder ASIC. 2. The ACC receives three timing signals: SYS_CLK (19. SIC CDMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version X7 Page 2-5 . The signal will then pass through a passive bandpass filter The output of the filter is then passed through an AGC loop and analog-to-digital converter (AID). after passing through the RF rack. Note that these signals start from the output of the Modulator ASIC (two channels per card). 2.6608 MHz).2 Reverse Link For the reverse link.3 Channel Element A Channel Element consists of a microprocessor and its peripherals.3 Sector Interface Card (SIC) The Sector Interface Card (SIC) has two functions: First. J. four Demodulator. The function of Cell Controller is to manage the operation of a cell (one or more sector) within a CDMA Cellular System.

4 Backplane Interfaces to the RF rack are supported by connectors on the backplane. J Forward Link The SIC receives the combined baseband transmit signals from the ACCs. These signals are generated in SIC and distributed by ACC.95 MHz Figure 2-3. The Cell Controller uses a multi-drop line to control all the Channel Cards at the cell site with RS-485 signal levels. a frequency reference for the Analog Common Card (ACC). Page 2-6 Draft Version X 7 CDMA Network Engineering Handbook .95 MHz IF Odeg 90deg 4. combines and amplifies them by a nominal gain of about 0 dBm. RxIF signals for the ACC from RF Splitters. 2.3.The CDMA Base Station Chapter 2 like ACC includes a microprocessor for on-board control and interface to the Cell Controller and Diagnostic Monitor. The transmit data and clocks are repeated by the ACC. BPF 4.2 TimingDistribution The timing distribution section of SIC takes the one Pulse Per Second (1 PPS) signal and the 10 MHz reference clock and generates a one pulse per two second (EVEN_SEC) time reference and a system clock (SYS_CLK). and a TxIF signal from the sm to the RF rack. Baseband Ir------. The combined signal is then passed through a Low Pass Filter (LPF). 2. These include frequency and time references for the Sector Interface Card (SIC). combines and amplifies them. Forward Unk of SIC. The SIC receives the combined baseband tx signals from the ACCs. The Diagnostic Monitor uses an identical interface as the Cell Controller. mixed with the IF frequency and combined and filtered via a bandpass filter as shown in Figure 2-3. 2.3.

Tx Rx Rx Filters (Rx & Tx) and LNAs (Rx) High Power Amplifier (Tx) Noise Box Transceiver Shelf Cell Controller and Diagnostic Monitor RxIF TxIF Figure 2-4.5 RF Rack As was mentioned before. shown in Figure 2-4. a High Power Amplifier (HPA) for the forward link. a Tranceiver Interface Card (TIC) to control and monitor the different parts of the shelf. The main function of the RF Rack is to convert the Digital Shelf's transmit and receive signalsfrom IF to UHF. Two of these are provided per slot as each CC can support 2 Traffic Channels. several filters and Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs) for the reverse link. 2. is composed of a Transceiver shelf. the main function of the RF Rack is to convert the Digital Shelf's transmit and receive signals from IF to UHF. and finally. The function of the upconverter is to COMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version XI Page 2-7 . There are three parts to the transceiver shelf. a Noise Box. The RF Rack. The CC is defined as the DTE in this case. RF Rack.Chapter 2 The COMA Base Station Traffic Channels between the Channel Card (CC) and the DSO interface are also supported by DE-9 connectors. First it has an upconverter for the forward link. two receiver cards for the reverse link. Next.

perhaps considerably. Each channel contains an AGC which holds its output signal level constant and derives an estimate of the total (input power in its IF bandwidth. one of which outputs an IF signal to the digital rack for CDMA signal processing. The QTSO consists of two subsystems: The Subscriber Interface and the PSTN Subsystems. To simulate the effect of other users. and as different manufacturers give their input. The AGC circuit of this receiver will thus provide a measure of signal plus multiple users noise.The COMA Base Station Chapter 2 upconvert the IF signal from the Sector Interface Card to the assigned forward link CDMA channel frequency. Each Receiver Card contains two channels. QTSO is part of the Base Station. Each channel shares a common LNA and first conversion stage. Figure 2-5 shows the elevation drawing for a QTSO RTS. or mobile-tomobile calls Supplies frequency/time reference for Vocoder/Selector Bank and codecs Vocodes Manages call soft handoff to an adjacent cell Provides an interface to the Switch Monitors subsystem performance. as the development process evolves. and so will provide a measure of signal level from real users. Each transceiver shelf contains two receiver cards for diversity reasons. 2. Note that.6 Qua/comm Telephone Switching Office (QTSO) The QTSO performs the function of the MTSO. diagnostics. noise is added only to the channel whose output is routed to the digital rack. and alarms Records information and events Page 2-8 Draft Version Xl COMA Network Engineering Handbook . The second channel is used for system test purposes. It is expected that this partitioning will change. The current QTSO is an emulation of the necessary portions of QTSO functionality needed to support the brassboard testing and verification of a CDMA system. The description of the QTSO which will follow. is the partitioning selected for the Brassboard. but provide separate IF amplifiers and second conversion stages. The Subscriber Interface Subsystem performs the following general functions: • • • • • • • Provides network connection for mobile to/from the PSTN calls. It connects mobile subscribers to other mobile subscribers and to land lines. The second channel will operate with no noise injected.

r. COMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version Xl Page 2-9 .! . The Elevation Drawing of a QTSO ..Chapter 2 The COMA Base Station CP3000 (MUX) j ~ n ~ I'" '" 5.)l CP3000 (Swit<h) a.RTS Configuration. and the PSTN Subsystems.. a. ! . a. l t i r.! .. The QTSO consists of two subsystems: The RTS configuration is The Subscriber Interface The PSTN Subsystem is responsible for the following: • • • • Provides a control and traffic interface with the Central Office Manages call progress information . [ .)l I QTSO Controller Monitor QTSO Controller Keyboard QTSO Diagnostic Monitor QTSO Diagnostic Keyboard QTSO Controller CPU QTSO Dlagnosfic CPU Fan Assembly Patch Pannel E<ho Canceller PSTNPakh Power Distribution Power Distribution Power Distribution umm .Transaction processing Contains THE SWITCH Provides echo cancellation. the same as the brassboard system. ~ ~~~ r. • Isolates the CDMA digital network from the public (analog) telephone network Figure 2-6 is a high-level functional block diagram of the equipment at an QTSO from the Subscriber Interface Subsystem's point of view. . Figure 2-5. l.

diagnostics and alarms. such as: Initiates paging activities for mobile terminated calls Processes mobile directed call processing functions. and vocodes. managers soft handoff . provides The QTSO Controller. or mobile-tomobile calls Controlling the DCS routing to manage call soft handoff to an adjacent cell Draft Version XI CDIv1A Netvvork Engineering Handbook • • • • Page 2-10 .The CDIv1A Base Station Chapter 2 Subscriber Interface Subsystem PSTN Subsystem I SIS Controller MTSO Controller Frequencyrrime Reference Timing Interface Traffic Interface Digital Cross Connect Switch Switch ToPSTN T1 SIS Control VocoderlSelector Bank Can:I Figure 2-6 QTSO/Subscriber supplies frequency/time Interlace Subsystem Block Diagram. performed by the QTSO Controller include: • • • • The functions Receiving and sending the control data to and from the various Cell Sites Mobile registration Maintains Mobile Subscriber database Performs call processing activities. maintains the control interface to the Cell Site Controllers. and monitors subsystem performance. provides network connection from the mobile to and from the PSTN calls or mobile-to-mobile reference for Vocoder/Selector an interface to the switch. such as DTMF tone generation Coordinates Private Long Code Transition Maintains neighbor list for each registered mobile Mobile authentication Controlling the DCS routing for mobile to/from the PSTN calls. The Subscriber Interface calls.

Mobile-to-Mobile • Soft handoff management by: .Data logging of the CDMA system performance.Chapter 2 • The COMA Base Station Passing QTSO-generated mobile commands/responses to the Vocoder/Selector Card involved in the call of interest.CDMA system performance monitoring. • • The re-routing of the Serial Communications path for Mobile-to-Mobile calls. calls. • Provides a real time clock for the time stamping of events.Data logging of the CDMA network configuration. . and alarms Recording information and events • • 2. . The configuration of this plug-in board will be determined by the QTSO Controller. call tear down.Data logging of soft handoff conditions. COMA Network Engineering Handbook Draft Version XI Page 2-11 .7 Vocoder/Selecfor Card The Vocoder/Selector Channel card functions as either a Control Channel card or a Vocoder/Selector Channel card.Data logging of Mobile calls.CDMA network coordination for soft handoff management.Selecting one of the aligned reverse direction Vocoder frame. Provides a full duplex variable rate Vocoder. The Control Channel card performs the following tasks: • Provides interface from the QTSO Controller to/from the Cell Controller for: .CDMA network administration and configuration. The Vocoder/Selector Channel Card performs the following tasks: • Provides a Mobile communications path for: .CDMA network coordination Mobile call set-up.Logging of registered Mobile users within the CDMA network. . . . . . • Provides interface to the Diagnostic Monitor for: .Mobile-to-PSTN. . PSTN-to-Mobile. for insertion into the forward traffic channel to the mobile Monitoring QTSO performance. diagnostics.Aligning the reverse direction Vocoder frames.

call. The VocoderlSelector Card can operate in four different modes: 1) Mobile-to-PSTN PSTN-to-Mobile call.The COMA Base Station • Provides HDLC polled serial communication ports to: . Chapter 2 • Provides a software adjustable 20 mSec time reference. • Provides a serial communication port for BER Testing. and 4) Mobile-to-Mobile Communication. 3) Soft Handoff. 2) Page 2-12 Oraft Version XI COMA Network Engineering Handbook .The QTSO Controller and the Diagnostic Monitor.

0 Introduction •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 3.J 9 3.Channel Characteristics 3 3.3 Multipath Mitigation •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 3.~MeaJSurement lleJSultJS••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• • 3-jr 3.J 3.5 PerJSonal and In-Building Application ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 3-~6 JleferellceJi ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 3-~~ .J jr 3.4 Coverage •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 3.J 3. J The Mobile Cellular Environment 3.

Scattering Dominated Paths The propagation within the relatively small congested cells is dominated by scattering and reflections from the structures and objects surrounding both the cell site and the mobile antennas. a scattering of dominated paths. where capacity is at high demand are congested with structures. The man-made environment consists mostly of large structured stationary objects. or are reflected from large surface structures (e. man-made objects. and a fading channel. reaching for line-telephone quality. poles. 3. Highly populated areas. The flexibility required for the mobile or the personal unit dictates the use of an omnidirectional antenna.g.. cell design.. The need for high capacity dictates the re-use of the spectrum at a distance great enough for the propagation loss to reduce potential co-channel interference below a required threshold. The multipaths scatter from objects in the vicinity of either cell site or mobile antenna (e.Chapter 3 Channel Characteristics 3 Channel Characteristics 3. has to supply both a high quality transmission for the service within the cell and a high enough isolation from interference from other cells by re-using the same transmission frequency. and sometimes trees that obstruct the transmission path. large buildings or mountains) which can have a favorable path to both antennas. Use of the excess loss achieves the required isolation from other cells. buildings. and environment. Excessive Loss The mobile needs to be serviced everywhere within the cell.0 Introduction The land cellular service is driven by the requirements for high teletraffic capacity and continuous service. The propagation channel which is shaped by user mobility. The cell cluster architecture that is thus formed becomes ever more compact as the need for capacity increases. but the line-of-sight between the cell site antenna and the mobile cannot and should not always be maintained. which collects signals arriving from any direction. COMA Network Engineering Handbook Attachment Page 3-} .g. I The Mobile Cellular Environment The cellular mobile channel is characterized by excessive loss. wires).

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