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A bundle of optical fibers
A TOSLINK fiber optic audio cable being illuminated at one end An optical fiber or optical fibre is a thin, flexible, transparent fiber that acts as a waveguide, or "light pipe", to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber. The field of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibers is known as fiber optics. Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communications, which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than other forms of communication. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss and are also immune to electromagnetic interference. Fibers are also used for illumination, and are wrapped in bundles so they can be used to carry images, thus allowing viewing in tight spaces. Specially designed fibers are used for a variety of other applications, including sensors and fiber lasers. Optical fiber typically consists of a transparent core surrounded by a transparent cladding material with a lower index of refraction. Light is kept in the core by total internal reflection.
This causes the fiber to act as a waveguide. Fibers which support many propagation paths or transverse modes are called multi-mode fibers (MMF), while those which can only support a single mode are called single-mode fibers (SMF). Multi-mode fibers generally have a larger core diameter, and are used for short-distance communication links and for applications where high power must be transmitted. Single-mode fibers are used for most communication links longer than 1,050 meters (3,440 ft). Joining lengths of optical fiber is more complex than joining electrical wire or cable. The ends of the fibers must be carefully cleaved, and then spliced together either mechanically or by fusing them together with heat. Special optical fiber connectors are used to make removable connections.
1 History 2 Applications
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2.1 Optical fiber communication 2.2 Fiber optic sensors 2.3 Other uses of optical fibers 3.1 Index of refraction 3.2 Total internal reflection 3.3 Multi-mode fiber 3.4 Single-mode fiber 3.5 Special-purpose fiber 4.1 Light scattering 4.2 UV-Vis-IR absorption 5.1 Materials
3 Principle of operation
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4 Mechanisms of attenuation
5.1.1 Silica 5.1.2 Fluorides 5.1.3 Phosphates 5.1.4 Chalcogenides
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5.2 Process 5.3 Coatings 6.1 Optical fiber cables 6.2 Termination and splicing 6.3 Free-space coupling
6 Practical issues
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6.4 Fiber fuse
7 Example 8 Electric power transmission 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links
Daniel Colladon first described this "light fountain" or "light pipe" in an 1842 article titled On the reflections of a ray of light inside a parabolic liquid stream. This particular illustration comes from a later article by Colladon, in 1884. Fiber optics, though used extensively in the modern world, is a fairly simple and old technology. Guiding of light by refraction, the principle that makes fiber optics possible, was first demonstrated by Daniel Colladon and Jacques Babinet in Paris in the early 1840s. John Tyndall included a demonstration of it in his public lectures in London a dozen years later. Tyndall also wrote about the property of total internal reflection in an introductory book about the nature of light in 1870: "When the light passes from air into water, the refracted ray is bent towards the perpendicular... When the ray passes from water to air it is bent from the perpendicular... If the angle which the ray in water encloses with the perpendicular to the surface be greater than 48 degrees, the ray will not quit the water at all: it will be totally reflected at the surface.... The angle which marks the limit where total reflection begins is called the limiting angle of the medium. For water this angle is 48°27', for flint glass it is 38°41', while for diamond it is 23°42'." Practical applications, such as close internal illumination during dentistry, appeared early in the twentieth century. Image transmission through tubes was demonstrated independently by
the radio experimenter Clarence Hansell and the television pioneer John Logie Baird in the 1920s. The principle was first used for internal medical examinations by Heinrich Lamm in the following decade. In 1952, physicist Narinder Singh Kapany conducted experiments that led to the invention of optical fiber. Modern optical fibers, where the glass fiber is coated with a transparent cladding to offer a more suitable refractive index, appeared later in the decade. Development then focused on fiber bundles for image transmission. The first fiber optic semi-flexible gastroscope was patented by Basil Hirschowitz, C. Wilbur Peters, and Lawrence E. Curtiss, researchers at the University of Michigan, in 1956. In the process of developing the gastroscope, Curtiss produced the first glass-clad fibers; previous optical fibers had relied on air or impractical oils and waxes as the low-index cladding material. A variety of other image transmission applications soon followed. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, light was guided through bent glass rods to illuminate body cavities. Alexander Graham Bell invented a 'Photophone' to transmit voice signals over an optical beam. Jun-ichi Nishizawa, a Japanese scientist at Tohoku University, also proposed the use of optical fibers for communications in 1963, as stated in his book published in 2004 in India. Nishizawa invented other technologies which contributed to the development of optical fiber communications, such as the graded-index optical fiber as a channel for transmitting light from semiconductor lasers. Charles K. Kao and George A. Hockham of the British company Standard Telephones and Cables (STC) were the first to promote the idea that the attenuation in optical fibers could be reduced below 20 decibels per kilometer (dB/km), allowing fibers to be a practical medium for communication. They proposed that the attenuation in fibers available at the time was caused by impurities, which could be removed, rather than fundamental physical effects such as scattering. They correctly and systematically theorized the light-loss properties for optical fiber, and pointed out the right material to manufacture such fibers — silica glass with high purity. This discovery led to Kao being awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2009. NASA used fiber optics in the television cameras sent to the moon. At the time such use in the cameras was 'classified confidential' and only those with the right security clearance or those accompanied by someone with the right security clearance were permitted to handle the cameras. The crucial attenuation limit of 20 dB/km was first achieved in 1970, by researchers Robert D. Maurer, Donald Keck, Peter C. Schultz, and Frank Zimar working for American glass maker Corning Glass Works, now Corning Incorporated. They demonstrated a fiber with 17 dB/km attenuation by doping silica glass with titanium. A few years later they produced a fiber with only 4 dB/km attenuation using germanium dioxide as the core dopant. Such low attenuation ushered in optical fiber telecommunication. In 1981, General Electric produced fused quartz ingots that could be drawn into fiber optic strands 25 miles (40 km) long. Attenuation in modern optical cables is far less than in electrical copper cables, leading to long-haul fiber connections with repeater distances of 70–150 kilometers (43–93 mi). The erbium-doped fiber amplifier, which reduced the cost of long-distance fiber systems by reducing or eliminating optical-electrical-optical repeaters, was co-developed by teams led by David N. Payne of the University of Southampton and Emmanuel Desurvire at Bell Labs in 1986. Robust modern optical fiber uses glass for both core and sheath and is therefore less prone to aging processes. It was invented by Gerhard Bernsee of Schott Glass in Germany in 1973. The emerging field of photonic crystals led to the development in 1991 of photonic-crystal fiber which guides light by diffraction from a periodic structure, rather than by total internal reflection. The first photonic crystal fibers became commercially available in 2000.
there is no cross-talk between signals in different cables and no pickup of environmental noise. the per-channel light signals propagating in the fiber have been modulated at rates as high as 111 gigabits per second by NTT. In some applications.[vague] Fiber is also immune to electrical interference. or metal communication structures prone to lightning strikes. and there are concentric dual core fibers that are said to be tap-proof. It is especially advantageous for long-distance communications. The current laboratory fiber optic data rate record. Bell Labs also broke a 100 Petabit per second kilometer barrier (15. the sensor is itself an optical fiber. fiber may be used because of its small size. Sensors that vary the intensity of light are the simplest. or the fact that no electrical power is needed at the remote location. multiplied by the number of channels (usually up to eighty in commercial dense WDM systems as of 2008[update]). without danger of ignition. fiberoptic cabling can be used to save space in cable ducts. Depending on the application. held by Bell Labs in Villarceaux. temperature. is multiplexing 155 channels. In other cases. or by sensing the time delay as light passes along the fiber through each sensor. . fiber is used to connect a non-fiberoptic sensor to a measurement system. phase. Non-armored fiber cables do not conduct electricity. such as 4 pair Cat-5 Ethernet cabling. if required. each using a different wavelength of light (wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM)). provide distributed sensing over distances of up to one meter. Optical fibers can be used as sensors to measure strain. Each fiber can carry many independent channels.  Applications  Optical fiber communication Main article: Fiber-optic communication Optical fiber can be used as a medium for telecommunication and networking because it is flexible and can be bundled as cables. because light propagates through the fiber with little attenuation compared to electrical cables. France. such as creating a network within an office building. pressure and other quantities by modifying a fiber so that the quantity to be measured modulates the intensity. The net data rate (data rate without overhead bytes) per fiber is the per-channel data rate reduced by the FEC overhead. wavelength or transit time of light in the fiber.  Fiber optic sensors Main article: Fiber optic sensor Fibers have many uses in remote sensing. This is because a single fiber can often carry much more data than many electrical cables. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation have also managed 69. equating to 171 Gbit/s per channel). polarization.5 Tbit/s over a single 7000 km fiber). Photonic crystal fibers can carry higher power than conventional fibers and their wavelength-dependent properties can be manipulated to improve performance. each carrying 100 Gbit/s over a 7000 km fiber. They can also be used in environments where explosive fumes are present. For short distance applications. which makes fiber a good solution for protecting communications equipment located in high voltage environments such as power generation facilities. A particularly useful feature of such fiber optic sensors is that they can. or because many sensors can be multiplexed along the length of a fiber by using different wavelengths of light for each sensor. Additionally. This allows long distances to be spanned with few repeaters. since only a simple source and detector are required. although 10 or 40 Gbit/s is typical in deployed systems. Wiretapping is more difficult compared to electrical connections. Time delay can be determined using a device such as an optical time-domain reflectometer.1 Tbit/s over a single 240 km fiber (multiplexing 432 channels.
A solid state version of the gyroscope using the interference of light has been developed. velocity. An example is the measurement of temperature inside aircraft jet engines by using a fiber to transmit radiation into a radiation pyrometer located outside the engine. torque. Extrinsic sensors are used to measure vibration. acceleration. Extrinsic sensors can also be used in the same way to measure the internal temperature of electrical transformers. displacement. rotation. normally a multi-mode one. A major benefit of extrinsic sensors is their ability to reach places which are otherwise inaccessible. where the light is transmitted along the fiber optic sensor cable. A common use for fiber optic sensors are in advanced intrusion detection security systems. which is placed on a fence. and the returned signal is monitored and analysed for disturbances. The fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) has no moving parts and exploits the Sagnac effect to detect mechanical rotation.Extrinsic fiber optic sensors use an optical fiber cable. and if an intrusion has occurred an alarm is triggered by the fiber optic security system. pipeline or communication cabling.  Other uses of optical fibers A frisbee illuminated by fiber optics Light reflected from optical fiber illuminates exhibited model . and twisting. This return signal is digitally processed to identify if there is a disturbance. to transmit modulated light from either a non-fiber optical sensor. or an electronic sensor connected to an optical transmitter. where the extreme electromagnetic fields present make other measurement techniques impossible.
In spectroscopy. optical fiber bundles are used to transmit light from a spectrometer to a substance which cannot be placed inside the spectrometer itself. .Fiber optic front sight on a hand gun Fibers are widely used in illumination applications. A growing trend in iron sights for arms. This method is most commonly used in front sights. and artificial Christmas trees. Optical fibers doped with a wavelength shifter are used to collect scintillation light in physics experiments. Optical fiber is also used in imaging optics. a spectrometer can be used to study objects that are too large to fit inside. but many makers offer sights that use fiber optics on front and rear sights. made in such a way that ambient light falling on the length of the fiber is concentrated at the tip. By using fibers. rifles. The doped fiber is optically pumped with a second laser wavelength that is coupled into the line in addition to the signal wave. is the use of short pieces of optical fiber for contrast enhancement dots. making the dots slightly brighter than the surroundings. for a long. The process that causes the amplification is stimulated emission. both as aftermarket accessories and a growing number of factory guns. Industrial endoscopes (see fiberscope or borescope) are used for inspecting anything hard to reach. Optical fiber illumination is also used for decorative applications. which transfers energy from the second pump wavelength to the signal wave. or reactions which occur in pressure vessels. They are used as light guides in medical and other applications where bright light needs to be shone on a target without a clear line-ofsight path. Medical endoscopes are used for minimally invasive exploratory or surgical procedures (endoscopy). Optical fiber can be used to supply a low level of power (around one watt) to electronics situated in a difficult electrical environment. and shotguns. Both wavelengths of light are transmitted through the doped fiber. thin imaging device called an endoscope. art. A coherent bundle of fibers is used. A spectrometer analyzes substances by bouncing light off of and through them. Swarovski boutiques use optical fibers to illuminate their crystal showcases from many different angles while only employing one light source. Fiber optic sights can now be found on handguns. In some buildings. optical fibers are used to route sunlight from the roof to other parts of the building (see non-imaging optics). LiTraCon. sometimes along with lenses. such as jet engine interiors. which is used to view objects through a small hole. or gasses. including signs. Examples of this are electronics in highpowered antenna elements and measurement devices used in high voltage transmission equipment. An optical fiber doped with certain rare earth elements such as erbium can be used as the gain medium of a laser or optical amplifier. Rare-earth doped optical fibers can be used to provide signal amplification by splicing a short section of doped fiber into a regular (undoped) optical fiber line. Optical fiber is an intrinsic part of the lighttransmitting concrete building product. in order to analyze its composition.
only light that enters the fiber within a certain range of angles can travel down the fiber without leaking out. The size of this acceptance cone is a function of the refractive index difference between the fiber's core and cladding. such as outer space. Thus a phone call carried by fiber between Sydney and New York. or gradual. in stepindex fiber. The fiber consists of a core surrounded by a cladding layer. Because the light must strike the boundary with an angle greater than the critical angle. the slower light travels in that medium. From this information.46. The index of refraction of a vacuum is therefore 1. To confine the optical signal in the core. Fiber with a larger NA requires less precision to splice and work with than fiber with a smaller NA. or travel. there is a maximum angle from the fiber axis at which light may enter the fiber so that it will propagate. by the process of total internal reflection. The typical value for the cladding of an optical fiber is 1. This effect is used in optical fibers to confine light in the core. Light travels along the fiber bouncing back and forth off of the boundary. The sine of this maximum angle is the numerical aperture (NA) of the fiber.48. Principle of operation An optical fiber is a cylindrical dielectric waveguide (nonconducting waveguide) that transmits light along its axis. Light travels fastest in a vacuum. the refractive index of the core must be greater than that of the cladding. The speed of light in a vacuum is about 300. the signal will take 5 milliseconds to propagate. Or to put it another way. (Of course the fiber in this case will probably travel a longer route. and there will be additional delays due to communication equipment switching and the process of encoding and decoding the voice onto the fiber). Index of refraction is calculated by dividing the speed of light in a vacuum by the speed of light in some other medium. The boundary between the core and cladding may either be abrupt. means that there is an absolute minimum delay of 60 milliseconds (or around 1/16 of a second) between when one caller speaks to when the other hears.  Multi-mode fiber . the light will be completely reflected. a 12000 kilometer distance. a good rule of thumb is that signal using optical fiber for communication will travel at around 200 million meters per second. This range of angles is called the acceptance cone of the fiber. The larger the index of refraction.000 kilometres (186 thousand miles) per second. The core value is typically 1. in the core of the fiber. In simpler terms. in graded-index fiber.  Index of refraction Main article: Refractive index The index of refraction is a way of measuring the speed of light in a material. to travel 1000 kilometers in fiber. both of which are made of dielectric materials.  Total internal reflection Main article: Total internal reflection When light traveling in a dense medium hits a boundary at a steep angle (larger than the "critical angle" for the boundary). by definition. Single-mode fiber has a small NA.
rather than the high-index center. This causes light rays to bend smoothly as they approach the cladding. illustrating the total internal reflection of light in a multi-mode optical fiber. The resulting curved paths reduce multi-path dispersion because high angle rays pass more through the lower-index periphery of the core. This ideal index profile is very close to a parabolic relationship between the index and the distance from the axis. Rays that meet the core-cladding boundary at a high angle (measured relative to a line normal to the boundary). However.The propagation of light through a multi-mode optical fiber. A high numerical aperture allows light to propagate down the fiber in rays both close to the axis and at various angles. this high numerical aperture increases the amount of dispersion as rays at different angles have different path lengths and therefore take different times to traverse the fiber. The critical angle (minimum angle for total internal reflection) is determined by the difference in index of refraction between the core and cladding materials. Such fiber is called multi-mode fiber. are completely reflected. allowing efficient coupling of light into the fiber. In a step-index multi-mode fiber. rather than reflecting abruptly from the core-cladding boundary. In graded-index fiber. from the electromagnetic analysis (see below). Rays that meet the boundary at a low angle are refracted from the core into the cladding. . the index of refraction in the core decreases continuously between the axis and the cladding. A laser bouncing down an acrylic rod. greater than the critical angle for this boundary. and do not convey light and hence information along the fiber. Main article: Multi-mode optical fiber Fiber with large core diameter (greater than 10 micrometers) may be analyzed by geometrical optics. Optical fiber types. rays of light are guided along the fiber core by total internal reflection. The critical angle determines the acceptance angle of the fiber. often reported as a numerical aperture. The index profile is chosen to minimize the difference in axial propagation speeds of the various rays in the fiber.
it must be analyzed as an electromagnetic structure. Photonic-crystal fiber is made with a regular pattern of index variation (often in the form of cylindrical holes that run along the length of the fiber). The mode structure depends on the wavelength of the light used. Instead. a significant fraction of the energy in the bound mode travels in the cladding as an evanescent wave. Multi-mode fiber. The normalized frequency V for this fiber should be less than the first zero of the Bessel function J0 (approximately 2. The most common type of single-mode fiber has a core diameter of 8–10 micrometers and is designed for use in the near infrared. 3. usually with an elliptical or rectangular cross-section. which shows that such fiber supports more than one mode of propagation (hence the name). These include polarizationmaintaining fiber and fiber designed to suppress whispering gallery mode propagation. by comparison. 1. The behavior of larger-core multi-mode fiber can also be modeled using the wave equation.  Special-purpose fiber Some special-purpose optical fiber is constructed with a non-cylindrical core and/or cladding layer. if the fiber core is large enough to support more than a few modes. The electromagnetic analysis may also be required to understand behaviors such as speckle that occur when coherent light propagates in multi-mode fiber. . As an optical waveguide. so that this fiber actually supports a small number of additional modes at visible wavelengths. Cladding: 125 µm dia. is manufactured with core diameters as small as 50 micrometers and as large as hundreds of micrometers. The properties of the fiber can be tailored to a wide variety of applications. by solution of Maxwell's equations as reduced to the electromagnetic wave equation. 4. to confine light to the fiber's core. Fiber supporting only one mode is called single-mode or monomode fiber. The results of such modeling of multi-mode fiber approximately agree with the predictions of geometric optics. Such fiber uses diffraction effects instead of or in addition to total internal reflection. The waveguide analysis shows that the light energy in the fiber is not completely confined in the core. Single-mode fiber The structure of a typical single-mode fiber. especially in single-mode fibers. Core: 8 µm diameter 2.405). Instead. Buffer: 250 µm dia. Main article: Single-mode optical fiber Fiber with a core diameter less than about ten times the wavelength of the propagating light cannot be modeled using geometric optics. the fiber supports one or more confined transverse modes by which light can propagate along the fiber. Jacket: 400 µm dia.
Thus. Attenuation is an important factor limiting the transmission of a digital signal across large distances. Attenuation coefficients in fiber optics usually use units of dB/km through the medium due to the relatively high quality of transparency of modern optical transmission media. much research has gone into both limiting the attenuation and maximizing the amplification of the optical signal. Mechanisms of attenuation Light attenuation by ZBLAN and silica fibers Main article: Transparent materials Attenuation in fiber optics.  Light scattering Specular reflection . also known as transmission loss. is the reduction in intensity of the light beam (or signal) with respect to distance traveled through a transmission medium. Empirical research has shown that attenuation in optical fiber is caused primarily by both scattering and absorption. The medium is usually a fiber of silica glass that confines the incident light beam to the inside.
and it is typically characterized by wide variety of reflection angles. in a manner similar to that responsible for the appearance of color. depending on the frequency of the incident light-wave and the physical dimension (or spatial scale) of the scattering center. most of the internal surfaces or interfaces are in the form of grain boundaries that separate tiny regions of crystalline order. This same phenomenon is seen as one of the limiting factors in the transparency of IR missile domes. Similarly. limits to spatial scales of visibility arise. it depends on whether the electron orbitals are spaced (or "quantized") such that they can absorb a quantum of light (or photon) of a specific wavelength or frequency in the ultraviolet (UV) or visible ranges. At high optical powers. This phenomenon has given rise to the production of transparent ceramic materials. even at the molecular level. which is typically in the form of some specific micro-structural feature. attenuation results from the incoherent scattering of light at internal surfaces and interfaces.Diffuse reflection The propagation of light through the core of an optical fiber is based on total internal reflection of the lightwave. Thus. Light scattering depends on the wavelength of the light being scattered. Distributed both between and within these domains are micro-structural defects which will provide the most ideal locations for the occurrence of light scattering. Thus.  UV-Vis-IR absorption In addition to light scattering. in addition to pores. Since visible light has a wavelength of the order of one micrometre (one millionth of a meter) scattering centers will have dimensions on a similar spatial scale. This is what gives rise to color. It has recently been shown that when the size of the scattering center (or grain boundary) is reduced below the size of the wavelength of the light being scattered. "domains" exhibiting various degrees of short-range order become the building blocks of both metals and alloys. Indeed. the scattering no longer occurs to any significant extent. as well as glasses and ceramics. attenuation or signal loss can also occur due to selective absorption of specific wavelengths. scattering can also be caused by nonlinear optical processes in the fiber. Within this framework. This is called diffuse reflection or scattering. In (poly)crystalline materials such as metals and ceramics. one emerging school of thought is that a glass is simply the limiting case of a polycrystalline solid. Primary material considerations include both electrons and molecules as follows: 1) At the electronic level. . the scattering of light in optical quality glass fiber is caused by molecular level irregularities (compositional fluctuations) in the glass structure. Rough and irregular surfaces. can cause light rays to be reflected in random directions.
how close-packed its atoms or molecules are. particularly around 1. reaching a maximum coupling with the radiation when the frequency is equal to the fundamental vibrational mode of the molecular dipole (e. and chalcogenide glasses as well as crystalline materials like sapphire. These factors will determine the capacity of the material transmitting longer wavelengths in the infrared (IR). Plastic optical fibers (POF) are commonly step-index multi-mode fibers with a core diameter of 0.5. The lattice [disambiguation needed] absorption characteristics observed at the lower frequency regions (mid IR to far-infrared wavelength range) define the long-wavelength transparency limit of the material. One other advantage is that fusion splicing and cleaving of silica fibers is relatively effective. When IR light of these frequencies strikes an object. the energy is either reflected or transmitted. These dipoles can absorb energy from the incident radiation. Si-O bond) in the far-infrared.  Manufacturing  Materials Glass optical fibers are almost always made from silica. Typically the index difference between core and cladding is less than one percent. 1 dB/m or higher. The selective absorption of infrared (IR) light by a particular material occurs because the selected frequency of the light wave matches the frequency (or an integer multiple of the frequency) at which the particles of that material vibrate. are used for longer-wavelength infrared or other specialized applications. and this high attenuation limits the range of POF-based systems. and whether or not the atoms or molecules exhibit long-range order. multi-phonon absorption occurs when two or more phonons simultaneously interact to produce electric dipole moments with which the incident radiation may couple. but some materials such as the chalcogenides can have indices as high as 3. but some other materials. A high transparency in the 1.5 millimeters or larger. Thus. Since different atoms and molecules have different natural frequencies of vibration.g.5 μm. Hence. fluoroaluminate. and has a fairly broad glass transformation range. Silica fiber also has high mechanical strength against both pulling and . all materials are bounded by limiting regions of absorption caused by atomic and molecular vibrations (bond-stretching)in the far-infrared (>10 µm). silica can have extremely low absorption and scattering losses of the order of 0. Alternatively. The design of any optically transparent device requires the selection of materials based upon knowledge of its properties and limitations.4-μm region is achieved by maintaining a low concentration of hydroxyl groups (OH). they will selectively absorb different frequencies (or portions of the spectrum) of infrared (IR) light. In the nearinfrared (near IR) portion of the spectrum. Reflection and transmission of light waves occur because the frequencies of the light waves do not match the natural resonant frequencies of vibration of the objects.2 dB/km. far IR. a high OH concentration is better for transmission in the ultraviolet (UV) region. or one of its harmonics. it depends on the frequencies of atomic or molecular vibrations or chemical bonds. Silica can be drawn into fibers at reasonably high temperatures. POF typically have higher attenuation coefficients than glass fibers. They are the result of the interactive coupling between the motions of thermally induced vibrations of the constituent atoms and molecules of the solid lattice and the incident light wave radiation. Silica and fluoride glasses usually have refractive indices of about 1.  Silica Silica exhibits fairly good optical transmission over a wide range of wavelengths. radio and microwave ranges.2) At the atomic or molecular level. such as fluorozirconate.
and sodium fluorides. Thus. Aluminosilicates are much more effective in this respect. Even simple cleaving (breaking) of the ends of the fiber can provide nicely flat surfaces with acceptable optical quality. Their main technological application is as optical waveguides in both planar and fiber form. germanosilicate. ophthalmology and dentistry). so that the entire assembly (core and cladding) is effectively the same compound (e. This can lead to quenching effects due to clustering of dopant ions. fluoride fibers can be used for guided lightwave transmission in media such as YAG (yttria-alumina garnet) lasers at 2. fiber lasers. Because of their low viscosity. lanthanum. Silica fiber also exhibits a high threshold for optical damage. These include mid-IR spectroscopy. in fiber amplifiers or laser applications. fiber amplifiers. and have poor resistance to moisture and other environmental attacks. as required for medical applications (e.9 μm. and imaging. Because of these properties silica fibers are the material of choice in many optical applications. Also. This is important for fiber amplifiers when utilized for the amplification of short pulses. an aluminosilicate. and fiber-optic sensors. In particular. for example. provided that the fiber is not too thick and that the surfaces have been well prepared during processing. Particularly for active fibers.g. barium. they are not only difficult to manufacture. Both the fiber core and cladding are typically doped. which are transparent only up to about 2 μm. the utility of fluoride fibers for various other applications was discovered. Later.  Phosphates . because the intrinsic losses of a mid-IR fiber could in principle be lower than those of silica fibers. which is present in nearly all oxide-based glasses. pure silica is usually not a very suitable host glass. phosphosilicate or borosilicate glass). composed of zirconium. The large efforts which have been put forth in the development of various types of silica fibers have further increased the performance of such fibers over other materials. and the fragility and high cost of fluoride fibers made them less than ideal as primary candidates.g. HMFGs were initially slated for optical fiber applications. fiber optic sensors. An example of a heavy metal fluoride glass is the ZBLAN glass group. One purpose of doping is to raise the refractive index (e. Their best attribute is that they lack the absorption band associated with the hydroxyl (OH) group (3200–3600 cm−1). such low losses were never realized in practice.g. it is not hygroscopic (does not absorb water). This property ensures a low tendency for laser-induced breakdown. Doping is also possible with laseractive ions (for example. such as communications (except for very short distances with plastic optical fiber). Silica glass can be doped with various materials. They are advantageous especially in the mid-infrared (2000–5000 nm) range. aluminium.g. because it exhibits a low solubility for rare earth ions. but are quite fragile.  Fluorides Fluoride glass is a class of non-oxide optical quality glasses composed of fluorides of various metals. thermometry. it is very difficult to completely avoid crystallization while processing it through the glass transition (or drawing the fiber from the melt). However. with Germanium dioxide (GeO2) or Aluminium oxide (Al2O3)) or to lower it (e. with fluorine or Boron trioxide (B2O3)). Silica is also relatively chemically inert. rare earth-doped fibers) in order to obtain active fibers to be used.even bending. although heavy metal fluoride glasses (HMFG) exhibit very low optical attenuation.
A mix of fluoride glass and phosphate glass is fluorophosphate glass. metallic or semiconducting. to form chalcogenides. Phosphate glass constitutes a class of optical glasses composed of metaphosphates of various metals.  Process . The most familiar polymorph (see figure) comprises molecules of P4O10. Phosphate glasses can be advantageous over silica glasses for optical fibers with a high concentration of doping rare earth ions. selenium (Se) and tellurium (Te)—react with more electropositive elements. which crystallizes in at least four different forms. Instead of the SiO4 tetrahedra observed in silicate glasses. the building block for this glass former is Phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5). and conductors of ions or electrons.The P4O10 cagelike structure—the basic building block for phosphate glass. in that they can be crystalline or amorphous. such as silver. These are extremely versatile compounds.  Chalcogenides The chalcogens—the elements in group 16 of the periodic table—particularly sulfur (S).
is built up on its end. and vapor axial deposition. After the torch has reached the end of the tube. The preform. solid preform by heating to about 1800 K (1500 °C. whose length is not limited by the size of the source rod. This process is repeated until a sufficient amount of material has been deposited. For each layer the composition can be modified by varying the gas composition. 3000 °F). outside vapor deposition. the tension on the fiber can be controlled to maintain the fiber thickness. and then pulling the preform to form the long. Gases such as silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) or germanium tetrachloride (GeCl4) are injected with oxygen in the end of the tube. The gases are then heated by means of an external hydrogen burner. where the preform tip is heated and the optic fiber is pulled out as a string. cabling and installation. In outside vapor deposition or vapor axial deposition. The buffer is what gets stripped off the fiber for termination or splicing. which subsequently deposit on the walls of the tube as soot. proof testing. a reaction in which silicon tetrachloride and germanium tetrachloride are oxidized by reaction with water (H2O) in an oxyhydrogen flame. 2800 °F). In vapor axial deposition. the preform starts as a hollow glass tube approximately 40 centimeters (16 in) long. however constructed. The oxide particles then agglomerate to form large particle chains." The cladding is coated by a "buffer" that protects it from moisture and physical damage. The porous preform is consolidated into a transparent. The coatings protect the very delicate strands of glass fiber—about the size of a human hair—and allow it to survive the rigors of manufacturing. The torch is then traversed up and down the length of the tube to deposit the material evenly. it is then brought back to the beginning of the tube and the deposited particles are then melted to form a solid layer. An outer secondary coating protects the primary coating against mechanical damage and acts as a barrier to lateral forces. resulting in precise control of the finished fiber's optical properties. . With inside vapor deposition. where the tetrachlorides react with oxygen to produce silica or germania (germanium dioxide) particles. and a porous preform. with a carefully controlled refractive index profile.  Coatings The light is "guided" down the core of the fiber by an optical "cladding" with a lower refractive index that traps light in the core through "total internal reflection. Today’s glass optical fiber draw processes employ a dual-layer coating approach. By measuring the resultant fiber width. this technique is called modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD). bringing the temperature of the gas up to 1900 K (1600 °C. Sometimes a metallic armour layer is added to provide extra protection. the glass is formed by flame hydrolysis. The preform is commonly made by three chemical vapor deposition methods: inside vapor deposition. which is removed before further processing. is then placed in a device known as a drawing tower. These coatings are UVcured urethane acrylate composite materials applied to the outside of the fiber during the drawing process.Illustration of the modified chemical vapor deposition (inside) process Standard optical fibers are made by first constructing a large-diameter preform. which is placed horizontally and rotated slowly on a lathe. In outside vapor deposition the glass is deposited onto a solid rod. An inner primary coating is designed to act as a shock absorber to minimize attenuation caused by microbending. a short seed rod is used. The deposition is due to the large difference in temperature between the gas core and the wall causing the gas to push the particles outwards (this is known as thermophoresis). thin optical fiber. When the reaction conditions are chosen to allow this reaction to occur in the gas phase throughout the tube volume. in contrast to earlier techniques where the reaction occurred only on the glass surface.
Fiber optic coatings are applied in concentric layers to prevent damage to the fiber during the drawing application and to maximize fiber strength and microbend resistance. Under proper drawing and coating processes. but traditional fiber's loss increases greatly if the fiber is bent with a radius smaller than around 30 mm. Three key characteristics of fiber optic waveguides can be affected by environmental conditions: strength. usually glass. Over time or in extreme conditions. which can ultimately result in fiber failure. coatings ensure the reliability of the signal being carried and help minimize attenuation due to microbending. lashing to aerial telephone poles. . and insertion in paved streets. and is susceptible to greater signal attenuation. Unevenly coated fiber will experience non-uniform forces when the coating expands or contracts. This reduces cross-talk between the fibers. Modern cables come in a wide variety of sheathings and armor. making FTTX installations more complicated.  Practical issues  Optical fiber cables An optical fiber cable Main article: Optical fiber cable In practical fibers. Rigid fiber assemblies sometimes put light-absorbing ("dark") glass between the fibers. which may be further surrounded by a jacket layer. the coatings are concentric around the fiber. high voltage isolation. submarine installation. Fiber optic coatings protect the glass fibers from scratches that could lead to strength degradation. The cost of small fiber-count pole-mounted cables has greatly decreased due to the high demand for fiber to the home (FTTH) installations in Japan and South Korea. at speeds approaching 100 kilometers per hour (60 mph). then through the secondary coating application which is subsequently cured. and wet-on-wet. continuous over the length of the application and have constant thickness. dual use as power lines. External fiber optic coatings protect glass optical fiber from environmental conditions that can affect the fiber’s performance and long-term durability. attenuation and resistance to losses caused by microbending. or reduces flare in fiber bundle imaging applications.[not in citation given] installation in conduit. in which the fiber passes through both the primary and secondary coating applications and then goes to UV curing. These layers add strength to the fiber but do not contribute to its optical wave guide properties. which is then UV cured. designed for applications such as direct burial in trenches. When fiber is subjected to low stresses over a long period. the cladding is usually coated with a tough resin buffer layer. to prevent light that leaks out of one fiber from entering another. The combination of moisture and scratches accelerates the aging and deterioration of fiber strength. Fiber cable can be very flexible. Fiber optic coatings are applied using one of two methods: wet-on-dry. these factors combine to cause microscopic flaws in the glass fiber to propagate. On the inside. in which the fiber passes through a primary coating application. This creates a problem when the cable is bent around corners or wound around a spool. fiber fatigue can occur.These fiber optic coating layers are applied during the fiber draw.
a "mechanical splice" is used. Even more bendable fibers have been developed. in which the signal in a fiber is surreptitiously monitored by bending the fiber and detecting the leakage. Then the splicer generates a larger spark that raises the . The splice is usually inspected via a magnified viewing screen to check the cleaves before and after the splice. For quicker fastening jobs."Bendable fibers". These connectors are usually of a standard type such as FC. if present). and the fiber ends are stripped of their protective polymer coating (as well as the more sturdy outer jacket. or MTRJ. LC. The splicer uses small motors to align the end faces together. have been standardized as ITU-T G. joining two fibers together to form a continuous optical waveguide. Another important feature of cable is cable withstanding against the horizontally applied force. It is technically called max tensile strength defining how much force can applied to the cable during the installation period. Bendable fiber may also be resistant to fiber hacking. and emits a small spark between electrodes at the gap to burn off dust and moisture. ST.657. SC. The ends are cleaved (cut) with a precision cleaver to make them perpendicular. which melts the fiber ends together with an electric arc. Telecom Anatolia fiber optic cable versions are reinforced with aramid yarns or glass yarns as intermediary strength member. Glass yarns also protect the cable core against rodents and termites.  Termination and splicing ST connectors on multi-mode fiber. Fusion splicing is done with a specialized instrument that typically operates as follows: The two cable ends are fastened inside a splice enclosure that will protect the splices. Optical fibers are connected to terminal equipment by optical fiber connectors. targeted towards easier installation in home environments. and are placed into special holders in the splicer. This type of fiber can be bent with a radius as low as 7. In commercial terms. that is.5 mm without adverse impact. usage of the glass yarns are more cost effective while no loss in mechanical durability of the cable. Optical fibers may be connected to each other by connectors or by splicing. The generally accepted splicing method is arc fusion splicing.
the direction. fusing the ends together permanently. or screw-in (threaded). the resulting loss in signal strength is known as gap loss. a laser diode. terminating fiber optic cables was very labor intensive. In a laboratory environment. to make an "angled physical contact" (APC) connection.  Free-space coupling It is often necessary to align an optical fiber with another optical fiber. often using a clear index-matching gel that enhances the transmission of light across the joint. size . fiber. Fibers with a connector on the end make this process much simpler: the connector is simply plugged into a pre-aligned fiberoptic collimator. The location and energy of the spark is carefully controlled so that the molten core and cladding do not mix. by directing light through the cladding on one side and measuring the light leaking from the cladding on the other side. less labor intensive way of terminating the cables. A precision translation stage (micro-positioning table) is used to move the lens. Quick-set adhesive is usually used so the fiber is held securely. Various polish profiles are used. with the gel surrounding the point where the two piece meet inside the connector very little light loss is exposed. In the 1990s. The complexity of this process makes fiber splicing much more difficult than splicing copper wire. because light that reflects from the angled surface leaks out of the fiber core. or a modulator. or with an optoelectronic device such as a light-emitting diode. The fiber ends are aligned and held together by a precision-made sleeve. Once the adhesive has set. careful cleaning and precision cleaving. and the need to oven-bake the epoxy in each connector made terminating fiber optic cables very difficult. The number of parts per connector. depending on the type of fiber and the application. a bare fiber end is coupled using a fiber launch system. All splicing techniques involve the use of an enclosure into which the splice is placed for protection afterward. This can involve either carefully aligning the fiber and placing it in contact with the device. polishing of the fibers. position. many different connectors are on the market and offer an easier. The mating mechanism can be "push and click". or device to allow the coupling efficiency to be optimized. APC fiber ends have low back reflection even when disconnected. Mechanical fiber splices are designed to be quicker and easier to install.1 dB is typical. or is adjustable. To achieve the best injection efficiency into single-mode fiber. Fibers are terminated in connectors so that the fiber end is held at the end face precisely and securely. the fiber ends are typically polished with a slight curvature. In some cases the end of the fiber is polished into a curved form that is designed to allow it to act as a lens. The curved surface may be polished at an angle. and a strain relief is secured to the rear. but greatly reduced back reflection. A cleave is made at a required length in order to get as close to the polished piece already inside the connector. A splice loss estimate is measured by the splicer. which contains a lens that is either accurately positioned with respect to the fiber. Some of the most popular connectors have already been polished from the factory and include a gel inside the connector and those two steps help save money on labor especially on large projects. the fiber's end is polished to a mirror finish. or can use a lens to allow coupling over an air gap. A fiber-optic connector is basically a rigid cylindrical barrel surrounded by a sleeve that holds the barrel in its mating socket. For single-mode fiber. and this minimizes optical loss. A splice loss under 0. especially if the gel is used. which uses a microscope objective lens to focus the light down to a fine point. Such joints typically have higher optical loss and are less robust than fusion splices. "turn and latch" ("bayonet"). such that when the connectors are mated the fibers touch only at their cores. but there is still the need for stripping. A typical connector is installed by preparing the fiber end and inserting it into the rear of the connector body. Today. Such connections have higher loss than PC connections. This is known as a "physical contact" (PC) polish.temperature above the melting point of the glass.
using the TOSLink protocol. and this new defect remains reflective so that the damage propagates back toward the transmitter at 1–3 meters per second (4−11 km/h. While the efficiency is not nearly that of traditional copper wire. This allows the streaming of audio over light. when a fiber is subjected to a shock or is otherwise suddenly damaged. Aspheric lenses are typically used. a fiber fuse can occur.  Electric power transmission Optical fiber can be used to transmit electricity. and must not introduce aberrations in the beam. The open fiber control system. With good beams.  Fiber fuse At high optical intensities. 2–8 mph). The lens needs to be large enough to support the full numerical aperture of the fiber. For example. With properly polished single-mode fibers. the emitted beam has an almost perfect Gaussian shape—even in the far field—if a good lens is used.and divergence of the beam must all be optimized. can also effectively halt propagation of the fiber fuse. In situations. where high power levels might be used without the need for open fiber control. above 2 megawatts per square centimeter. The reflection from the damage vaporizes the fiber immediately before the break.  See also • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Cable jetting Data cable Fiber Bragg grating Fibre channel Fiber pigtail Fiber laser Gradient-index optics Interconnect bottleneck Leaky mode Light Peak Modal bandwidth Optical cable Optical communication Optical fiber connector Optical interconnect . 70 to 90% coupling efficiency can be achieved. which ensures laser eye safety in the event of a broken fiber.  Example Fiber connections can be used for various types of connections. a "fiber fuse" protection device at the transmitter can break the circuit to prevent any damage. most high definition televisions offer a digital audio optical connection. such as undersea cables. it is especially useful in situations where it is desirable to not have a metallic conductor as in the case of use near MRI machines which produce strong magnetic currents.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. ^ "1971-1985 Continuing the Tradition".com/?id=4oMu7RbGpqUC&pg=PA114. N.S. 2. 114.nishizawa . Physics of semiconductor devices.archive. Crystal Fiber A/S. ^ The Birth of Fiber Optics 5. http://www. http://www.com/? id=2NTpSnfhResC&pg=PA27&lpg=PA27&dq=Junichi+Nishizawa+proposal+on+use+of+optical+fiber. New Delhi. Retrieved April 5. ^ Hecht.google.html. "Photonic Crystal Fibers". New York: Oxford University Press. The Nobel Foundation.nasa. http://books. http://nobelprize. The Story of Fiber Optics. 10. Suto.xml&. 27. ^ U. 3. Retrieved 2008-10-22. http://www. ^ "Optical Fiber".966. Jun-ichi. ^ Nishizawa. http://www. In Bhat. Notes about Light. ^ "New Medal Honors Japanese Microelectrics Industry Leader". p.html. "Terahertz wave generation and light amplification using Raman effect".• • • • • • • • • • Optical mesh network Optical power meter Optical time-domain reflectometer Optoelectronics Parallel optical interface Photonic-crystal fiber Small form-factor pluggable transceiver Soliton. PMID 12532007.gov/alsj/MSC-SESD-28-105.archive. doi:10. ^ Tyndall.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2009/press. http://books. 4. Science 299 (5605): 358–62. Optical Switching and Networking Handbook. 10. 6. ^ http://history. 7. 2009. p.ge. p. John (1873). John (1870). ISBN 007137356X. Ken (2004). Retrieved 2008-10-22.com/innovation/timeline/index. ^ Russell. ISBN 0195108183. ^ "The History of Crystal fiber A/S". Sendai New.ieee. ^ "Press Release — Nobel Prize in Physics 2009". http://www.org/portal/site/tionline/menuitem.jsp? &pName=institute_level1_article&TheCat=1003&article=tionline/legacy/inst2003/jun03/6w. "Six Lectures on Light".sendai. GE Innovation Timeline. New York: McGraw-Hill.300 "Light conducting fibers of quartz glass" 13.city.html. 12. General Electric Company. Jeff (1999). Vector soliton Submarine communications cables XENPAK Electronics portal  References 1. India: Narosa Publishing House. http://www. Regis J (2001).1079280. DasGupta. ISBN 8173195676.com/.pdf 11.org/details/notesofcourseofn00tyndrich. . "Total Reflexion". Amitava.crystal-fiber. ^ a b Bates. 14. K.google. 8.jp/soumu/kouhou/s-new-e6/page01.org/details/sixlecturesonlig00tynduoft. Retrieved 2009-10-07.130a3558587d56e8fb2275875bac26c8/index. Patent 3.1126/science. ^ Tyndall. 9.. Philip (2003). City of Light.
37. . M. Degradation. P. ^ Kurkjian. ^ Siemen's claim to a fiber optic line that can not be tapped. (2008). and by NSN 16. http://www. and Bennett.1098/rspa. doi:10. Inniss. "In situ real-time monitoring of a fermentation reaction using a fiber-optic FT-IR probe" (pdf). 33. ^ Ciena. A.15. Peter R.0085. ^ Kurkjian. 17. Sep. . Series A. Journal of Lightwave Technology 7: 1360. pp. 19. ^ Glasesmenn. Melling. (1999). doi:10.. Johnson. ^ 14 Tbps over a Single Optical Fiber: Successful Demonstration of World's Largest Capacity . Arne (2000). 34. 77. Peter. G.com/WorkArea/downloadasset.pdf.11512916.. 18. Opt. J.E.50715. 2009 20.remspec. "Strength and fatigue of silica optical fibers". Stacey Higginbotham. NTT Press Release. In Chalmers. doi:10. (1967). "Advancements in Mechanical Strength and Reliability of Optical Fibers". "Mechanical stability of oxide glasses".com/brillouin_scattering. "Brillouin Scattering". http://www. (1999). 2008. Krause.remspec.. 278. Whitney.. "Fiber-optic probes for mid-infrared spectrometry"..x.) (pdf). Applied Optics 11 (11): 2489–94. Charles R. H. Thomson.com/pdfs/2703_o.aspx?id=7783. http://www. ^ Proctor. ^ Kurkjian. . Alfiad.J. S. et al.396408. (eds. John M. ^ Bell Labs breaks optical transmission record. 2003.1016/0022-3093(88)90114-7. pp. 27.. Proceedings ECOC 2008: pp. Laurin Publishing. RP Photonics.T. 36. http://www. B.E. 2006.1016/0022-3093(68)90007-0.11. doi:10. "111 Gb/s POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK Transmission over 1140 km of SSMF with 10.140 digital high-definition movies transmitted in one second. Simpkins. Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology. G (1968). Scattering from infrared missile domes.002489.1109/50. 30. Peter J.1111/j. Griffiths. S. Nonlinear mechanical properties of silica-based optical fibers. Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy. W.372757. R.7 Gb/s NRZ-OOK Neighbours". 32. (1972). Rüdiger. ^ !!!x-in-lab/ Alcatel Boosts Fiber Speed to 100 Petabits in Lab. doi:10. 35. 31.1. 17. "Optical Power Handling Capacity of Low Loss Optical Fibers as Determined by Stimulated Raman and Brillouin Scattering". Zaid. 25.647 (1978) 28. American Laboratory News. Daryl (1993). Strength variations in silica fibers.tb03727. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 1: 69.R. ^ Melling.1117/12.2. ^ "Novak Fiber Optic Sights" Novak Sights Web site.remspec. September 29. Peter J. Mary A.. ^ Skontorp. Retrieved July 29. C (1988).. Journal of the American Ceramic Society 76: 1106. The Photonics Handbook. (1989). and Coating of Silica Lightguides". Mo. ^ Kurkjian. ^ World Record 69-Terabit Capacity for Optical Transmission over a Single Optical Fiber 21. Yao. G. SPIE CR73: 1.rp-photonics. JANET Delivers Europe’s First 40 Gbps Wavelength Service 07/09/2007 Retrieved 29 Oct 2009. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 102: 71. (June 2001).. Peter G. ”Polarization in Fiber Systems: Squeezing Out More Bandwidth”.4. "The Strength of Fused Silica". Matthewson. 100 Petabit per second kilometer barrier 22. 26.S. PMID 20119362. Charles R.corning.1993.pdf.1117/12. doi:10. 23. Mary (2002). Vol. 28. "Reaction monitoring in small reactors and tight spaces" (pdf). Mathematical and Physical Sciences (1934-1990) 297: 534. Retrieved 18 Dec 2009. I. Proc..1364/AO. ^ Bartenev. "Strength. ^ Al Mosheky.com/pdfs/SP5619. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Thomson. C. ^ M. Engr. http://www.html. p. Mary (October 2002).com/pdfs/amlab1002. doi:10. ^ Archibald. J. Wiley. ^ Smith. Spectroscopy.1967. 24. Thomson. doi:10.pdf. ^ S. "The structure and strength of glass fibers". ^ Melling. 29. ^ Paschotta. p.
http://zone. 47. "Corning announces breakthrough optical fiber technology". ^ Hecht. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 263-264: 207. et al.com.archive. but article includes a list of references.com/media_center/press_releases/2007/2007072301.1117/12. doi:10. doi:10. Understanding Fiber Optics (4th ed. Alaska Division of Community and Regional Affairs. Hempstead. http://blogs. 2008-0705. Unsourced material may be challenged and adding (July 2008) . J. (July 2008) This articleimprove this article bycitations for verification.38..pdf. 42. ^ Tran. ^ "Screening report for Alaska rural energy plan" (pdf).org/xpl/freeabs_all. Soe-Mie F. p.ak. "Protect your network against fiber hacks".techrepublic. ISBN 0136387276. Prentice Hall.1984.us/dca/AEIS/PDF_Files/AIDE A_Energy_Screening. Lightwave Technology 2: 566. 39. M (2001).). 2006. 40. ^ Kurkjian. John (1993) (2d ed. Retrieved 2007-12-09.dced. National Instruments' Developer Zone.).state. D.com/devzone/cda/ph/p/id/129#toc2. related reading or citations.1016/S0022-3093(01)00615-9.aspx.corning. Journal of NonCrystalline Solids 288: 8.1016/S0022-3093(99)00637-7. ^ Corning Incorporated (2007-07-23). 2011-01-23. ISBN 0-13-027828-9. http://www. 41. Please improve this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate. 46.jsp? arnumber=1073661.com/security/?p=222. Jeff (2002). 44. 43. doi:10. (1984). Retrieved April 11. 2006. Top of Form Special:Search Gradient-index optics From Wikipedia. CNET. http://ieeexplore. Retrieved 2007-12-10. Press release. Please help needs additionalremoved. "Heavy metal fluoride glasses and fibers: A review". ^ "Light collection and propagation". C (2000). ^ Nee. "Mechanical properties of phosphate glasses". National Instruments Corporation.ni. ^ Olzak.405276. 122. Archived from the original on May 8. pp. 209. 45. doi:10.1109/JLT. Techrepublic.1073661. Retrieved 2007-03-19. http://web. . ^ Gowar.org/web/20060508191931/http://www. reliable references. "Mechanical and structural properties of phosphate glasses". UK: Prentice-Hall. ^ Karabulut. search Thisits sources remain unclear because it lacks inlineexternal links. Optical and surface properties of oxyfluoride glass. Tom (2007-05-03). the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation.ieee. (2000).
This lens. is impractical to make and has little usefulness since. The object may appear closer to the observer than it actually is. The lens focuses light in variation of refractive index (n) lens. In humans. Contents [hide] • 1 Gradient-Index Lenses in Nature • • • • • 2 History 3 Theory 4 Design and Manufacture of GRIN Lenses 5 Applications 6 References  Gradient-Index Lenses in Nature A variety of inhomogeneous lenses exists in nature that allow for different functions. Disk shaped slices of the cylinder were later shown to have plane faces with radial index . In 1905. axial. 2006). it is seen that cool air has a higher refractive index than hot air. Since refractive index generally increases with density of the material.  History In 1854. Known as the Maxwell Fisheye Lens. Eagles have the ability to maintain focus and high resolution at large distances.A gradient-index lens with a parabolicthe same way as a conventional with radial distance (x). it involves a spherical index function and would be expected to be spherical in shape as well (Maxwell. 1854). R W Wood used a dipping technique creating a gelatin cylinder with a refractive index gradient that varied symmetrically with the radial distance from the axis.e. deteriorate with age with noticeable effects usually occurring after the age of 40 in humans. which allows them to detect predators. Therefore. Another phenomenon related to the varying refractive indexes of materials in nature is the Mirage. These lenses are able to eliminate the aberrations caused by traditional spherical lenses without requiring variation to the shape of the lens. J C Maxwell suggested a lens whose refractive index distribution would allow for every region of space to be sharply imaged. The eyes of an antelope have a broad field of view. Nature progressively varies the refractive index of the lens in order to optimise the optics required for survival. light passes from the cool air to the warm air causing the path of the light ray reaching an observer to bend. The quality of the lens does. however. only points on the surface and within the lens are sharply imaged and extended objects suffer from extreme aberrations. or radial. i. in a desert. Gradient-index optics is the branch of materials science dealing with the production and characterization of gradually changing refractive index lenses. however. The most obvious lens in nature is the lens present in the eye. Gradient index lenses may have a refraction gradient that is spherical. the lens is able to highly resolve and reduce aberration for both short and long distances (Shirk et al. thus giving them a misconception of the object’s spatial displacement.
He showed that even though the faces of the lens were flat. and passes near point P’. Figure 2: How a Two Dimensional Gradient Index Lens Works. from the optical axis. is stationary relative to its value for any nearby curve joining the two points. 1976). GRIN lenses made from a radial gradient index material. In 1964. This also limits the applications of the lens. this equation is modified to incorporate the change in arc length for a spherical gradient. r. however. 2006). The light path integral is able to characterize the path of light through the lens in a qualitative manner.distribution. 1905). it was thought to have had some usefulness in microwave applications. Gradient index lens converge all light rays onto a common point.  Design and Manufacture of GRIN Lenses . was published a posthumous book of R. Rays of light leaving point P are refracted at the lens plane. express a refractive index that varies according to: Where. If a ray is emitted from point P. 1964). Inhomogeneous GRIN lenses attempt to reduce the aberrations Δx and Δy to zero (See Figure 2). the light path integral (L). and pass through point A. such as SELFOC® (Flores-Arias et al. such that the lens may be easily reproduced in the future. An inhomogeneous gradient-index lens possesses a refractive index whose change follows the function: n=f(x. Point A and point P’ differ by the values Δx and Δy. The light path integral is given by the equation: Where n is the refractive index and S is the arc length of the curve. For example. taken along a ray of light joining any two points of a medium. K. in that it is difficult to be used to focus visual light.y. to each physical dimension: where prime corresponds to d/ds (Marchand. then Δx and Δy are measures of the aberration for the rays perceived (Figure 1) (Marchand. Luneburg where he discovered a lens that converge all rays of light onto a point which is located on the opposite surface of the lens (Luneburg. 1978). Figure 1: Cartesian Interpretation of Aberrations. it is necessary to interpret the projections of light in terms of Gaussian Principles. by refracting light through a changing refractive index (many different refractive indices). If Cartesian coordinates are used.z) of the coordinates of the region of interest in the medium. is the design index on the optical axis and A is a positive constant. According to Fermat’s principle.  Theory Yet to upload images and equations. they acted like converging and diverging lens depending on whether the index was a decreasing or increasing relative to the radial distance (Wood. and Δx and Δy are the deviations from P’. Point P’ is the point at which the light rays would ideally converge if an aberration free lens was used. nr the refractive index at a distance. The refractive index gradient of GRIN lenses can be mathematically modelled according to its method of production. When considering aberrations.
408 (25 Mar. of California Press. In the first phase. Imaging using GRIN lenses is used to mainly reduce the aberrations and increase focus. When this technique is modulated spatially. This involves detailed calculations of aberrations as well as the efficient manufacture of the lenses. "Method of Producing a Refractive Index Gradient in Glass. Gomez-Reino C. The second phase involves the design of the lens. J. Bao C. Ion Exchange (Hensler. and sodium chloride. “Optics Communicaitons”266. • • • •  Applications The main uses of GRIN lenses involve applications in telecommunications and optical imaging. J. plastics. Castelo A. This differs from the traditional optical fibres which rely on total internal reflection.904.” Univ. and the magnitude of the change in index-of-refraction. (1854). Chemical Vapour Deposition (Keck et al. "Optical Waveguide Having Optimal Index Gradient. New York Academic Press. Opt.873. Perez M V. This allows for a sinusoidal height distribution of the ray within the fibre.268 (9 Sept. with refractive index decreasing as distance from the centre increases. J. Cambridge and Dublin Math. thus allowing for a higher temporal bandwidth for the fibre (Moore. preventing the ray from touching the walls. throughout the lens (Moore. 490-494 Hensler J R. Δn. Luneberg R K." U. zinc selenide. “Mathematical Theory of Optics. 1975) – Ions. Partial Polymerisation (Moore. 1973) – Organic monomer is partially polymerized using UV light at varying intensities in order to give a refractive gradient. 1979) – Phase separation of a specific glass causes pores to form. “Gradient Index Optics”. such as lithium replace sodium ions already present in a glass substrate.S.. Berkeley. Marchand E W (1978). 1971) – Boron-rich glass is bombarded with neutrons in order to cause a change in the boron concentration. (2006). Patent 3. 8. 1326. 1980). there are two important features of any technique: the depth of the gradient.The GRIN lens is designed in two separate phases.  References Flores-Arias M T. germanium. and thus the refractive index of the lens. onto a surface to produce a cumulative refractive change. optical glasses. 188 . 66. Soc. a gradient index lens is formed. Ion Stuffing (Mohr. Recently. 1975) – Involving the deposition of different glass with varying refractive indexes. Patent 3. Keck D B and Olshansky R. a number of different methods of gradient production have been implemented. 1980). Marchand E W (1976). Maxwell. Amer." U. When considering the manufacturing of GRIN lenses. (1964). a long fibre many kilometres in length but only a 20-100µm diameter have refractive gradients engineered to vary radially from the centre. In telecommunications. such as.S. in that all modes of the GRIN fibres propagate at the same velocity. which can later be filled using a variety of salts or concentration of salts to give a varying gradient.C. Production techniques involve: • Neutron Irradiation (Sinai. 1975). the lens is evaluated by analytical techniques. 1975).
Baer E. Applied Optics. 71. (2006) NRL Review pp 53-61 Sinai P. Washington. (1980). and Gupta P K. Macmillan. 1973). 10. Moore..index Optical Imaging Systems (Optical Society of America. Hilter A. "Plastic Optical Element Having Refractive Index Gradient. Patent 3.” p. Applied Optics. R.S. D.Mohr R K. D.C. Fleet E. Stroman R.383 (Feb. paper WAL. 1979). Sandrock M.S. (1905). 1035-1038 Moore R S. (1970).T. New York. Shirk J. Scribner D." U. Wilder J A.W. Macedo P B. 19.718. “Physical Optics. [hide]v · d · eGlass science topics Basics Glass · Glass transition · Supercooling AgInSbTe · Bioglass · Borophosphosilicate glass · Borosilicate glass · Ceramic glaze · Chalcogenide glass · Cobalt glass · Cranberry glass · Crown glass · Flint glass · Fluorosilicate glass · Fused quartz · Glass GeSbTe · Gold ruby glass · Lead glass · Milk glass · Phosphosilicate formulation glass · Photochromic lens glass · Silicate glass · Soda-lime glass · Sodium hexametaphosphate · Soluble glass · Tellurite glass · Ultra low expansion glass · Uranium glass · Vitreous enamel · Wood's glass · ZBLAN Glass-ceramics Bioactive glass · CorningWare · Glass-ceramic-to-metal seals · Macor · Zerodur Glass preparation Annealing · Chemical vapor deposition · Glass batch calculation · Glass forming · Glass melting · Glass modeling · Ion implantation · Liquidus temperature · Sol-gel technique · Viscosity · Vitrification Achromat · Dispersion · Gradient index optics · Hydrogen Optics darkening · Optical amplifier · Optical fiber · Optical lens design · Photochromic lens · Photosensitive glass · Refraction · Transparent materials Anti-reflective coating · Chemically strengthened glass · Corrosion · Surface Dealkalization · DNA microarray · Hydrogen darkening · Insulated modification glazing · Porous glass · Self-cleaning glass · Sol-gel technique · Toughened glass . in Digest of Topical Meeting on Gradient. 99-104 Wood.
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Figure 1:response spectral A Fiber Bragg Grating structure.2 Chirped fiber Bragg gratings 5. or as a wavelength-specific reflector.1 Standard gratings or Type I gratings 4.3 Tilted fiber Bragg gratings 5.4 Production 3 Theory 4 Types of gratings ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 4.2 Type IA gratings 4.3 Type In (commonly known as Type IIA gratings) 4.5 Type II gratings 5.2 Photomask 2. which generates a wavelength specific dielectric mirror.3 Point-by-point 2.4 Regenerated gratings 4.1 Interference 2.2 Fiber Bragg grating sensors • 5 Grating structure ○ ○ ○ ○ • 6 Applications ○ ○ • • • 7 See also 8 References 9 External links . A fiber Bragg grating can therefore be used as an inline optical filter to block certain wavelengths.1 Communications 6.This is achieved by adding a periodic variation to the refractive index of the fiber core.1 Apodized gratings 5.4 Long-period gratings 6. with refractive index profile and Contents [hide] • 1 History • 2 Manufacture ○ ○ ○ ○ • • 2.
The refractive index of the photosensitive fiber changes according to the intensity of light that it is exposed to. is the use of twobeam interference. This method is specifically applicable to the fabrication of long period fiber gratings. specifically used for uniform gratings. Gerald Meltz and colleagues demonstrated the much more flexible transverse holographic technique where the laser illumination came from the side of the fiber. which cannot be manufactured using an interference pattern. This technique uses the interference pattern of ultraviolet laser light to create the periodic structure of the Bragg grating. the manufacture of the photosensitive optical fiber and the 'writing' of the fiber Bragg grating were done separately.  Manufacture Fiber Bragg gratings are created by "inscribing" or "writing" systematic (periodic or aperiodic) variation of refractive index into the core of a special type of optical fiber using an intense ultraviolet (UV) source such as a UV laser. production lines typically draw the fiber from the preform and 'write' the grating. The photomask is placed between the UV light source and the photosensitive fiber. This method allows for quick and easy changes to the Bragg wavelength. The germanium-doped fiber is photosensitive. The shadow of the photomask then determines the grating structure based on the transmitted intensity of light striking the fiber. In 1989. Here the UV laser is split into two beams which interfere with each other creating a periodic intensity distribution along the interference pattern. Today. A special germanium-doped silica fiber is used in the manufacture of fiber Bragg gratings. Two main processes are used: interference and masking.  Photomask A photomask having the intended grating features may also be used in the manufacture of fiber Bragg gratings.  Production Originally.  Interference The first manufacturing method.  Point-by-point A single UV laser beam may also be used to 'write' the grating into the fiber point-by-point. Point-by-point is also used in the fabrication of tilted gratings. the gratings were fabricated using a visible laser propagating along the fiber core. in that the refractive index of the core changes with exposure to UV light. Mass production is in particular facilitating applications in smart structures utilizing large numbers (3000) of embedded fiber Bragg gratings along a single length of fiber. Photomasks are specifically used in the manufacture of chirped Fiber Bragg gratings. Initially. this also enables the mass production of fiber Bragg gratings. The method that is preferable depends on the type of grating to be manufactured. the laser has a narrow beam that is equal to the grating period. all in a single stage. with the amount of the change a function of the intensity and duration of the exposure. History The first in-fiber Bragg grating was demonstrated by Ken Hill in 1978. which is directly related to the interference period and a function of the incident angle of the laser light. As well as reducing associated costs and time. Here.  Theory .
ne depends not only on the wavelength but also (for multimode waveguides) on the mode in which the light propagates. where δn0 is the variation in the refractive index (n3 the core. particularly the temperature . where ne is the effective refractive index of the grating in the fiber core and Λ is the grating period. see Fig. . The full equation for the reflected power (PB(λ)). − n2). it is also called modal index. is defined by the relationship. The effective refractive index quantifies the velocity of propagating light as compared to its velocity in vacuum. The wavelength spacing between the first minima (nulls. The term “type” in this context refers to the underlying photosensitivity mechanism by which grating fringes are produced in the fiber. called the Bragg wavelength. 2). and η is the fraction of power in The peak reflection (PB(λB)) is approximately given by.  Types of gratings . . For this reason. . is Fresnel reflection. is given by.Figure 2: FBGs reflected power as a function of wavelength The fundamental principle behind the operation of a FBG. The reflected wavelength (λB). . or the bandwidth (Δλ). where N is the number of periodic variations. The different methods of creating these fringes have a significant effect on physical attributes of the produced grating. Where light traveling between media of different refractive indices may both reflect and refract at the interface. The grating will typically have a sinusoidal refractive index variation over a defined length. where. is given by.
Further exposure showed that a grating reformed which underwent a steady blue shift whilst growing in strength. and was therefore labeled as regenerated. Typically. a large positive wavelength shift was measured. This type IA grating appeared once the conventional type I FBG had reached saturation followed by subsequent complete or partial erasure. It was shown that initial exposure formed a standard (type I) grating within the fiber which underwent a small red shift before being erased. There is a clear relationship between type IA and IIA gratings insomuch as their fabrication conditions are identical in all but one aspect: they both form in B/Ge co-doped fiber but IAs form only in hydrogenated fibers and IIAs form only in non-hydrogenated fibers. though not always. In contrast to the anticipated blue shift of the peak Bragg wavelength.  Type II gratings . It was also noted that the temperature coefficient of the regenerated grating was lower than a standard grating written under similar conditions. in the presence of hydrogen. five (or six) types of FBG have been reported with different underlying photosensitivity mechanisms. It is usually associated with gradual relaxation of induced stress along the axis and/or at the interface. These are summarized below:  Standard gratings or Type I gratings Written in both hydrogenated and non-hydrogenated fiber of all types Type I gratings are usually known as standard gratings and are manufactured in fibers of all types under all hydrogenation conditions. They have been interpreted in different ways including dopant diffusion (oxygen being the most popular current interpretation) and glass structural change.  Type In (commonly known as Type IIA gratings) • These are gratings that form as the negative part of the induced index change overtakes the positive part. the reflection spectra of a type I grating is equal to 1-T where T is the transmission spectra.  Regenerated gratings These are gratings that are reborn at higher temperatures after erasure of gratings. outperforming even Type II femtosecond gratings. and the only types of grating available off-the-shelf at the time of writing. Recent work has shown that there exists a regeneration regime beyond diffusion where gratings can be made to operate at temperatures in excess of 1295C. These are extremely attractive for ultra high temperature applications. The gratings were formed in germanosilicate fibers with pulses from a frequency doubled XeCl pumped dye laser. This grating exhibited a negative change in the mean index of the fiber and was termed type IIA. Type II label is reserved for those that are distinctly made above the damage threshold of the glass).response and ability to withstand elevated temperatures. showed the existence of another type of grating with similar thermal stability properties to the type II grating. Type I gratings are the most commonly used of all grating types.  Type IA gratings • Regenerated grating written after erasure of a type I grating in hydrogenated germanosilicate fiber of all types Type IA gratings were first published in 2001 during experiments designed to determine the effects of hydrogen loading on the formation of IIA gratings in germanosilicate fiber. These gratings have recently been relabeled Type In (for Type 1 gratings with a negative index change. Thus far. Later research by Xie et al. usually Type I gratings and usually. This means that the reflection and transmission spectra are complementary and there is negligible loss of light by reflection into the cladding or by absorption.
They include recent developments in multiphoton excitation using femtosecond pulses where the short timescales (commensurate on a timescale similar to local relaxation times) offer unprecedented spatial localization of the induced change. For ease of identification. Microscopic examination of these gratings showed a periodic damage track at the grating’s site within the fiber . these cracks can be very localized so as to not play a major role in scattering loss if properly prepared   Grating structure Figure 3:a tilted FBG (3). The resulting gratings were shown to be stable at temperatures as high as 800˚C (up to 1000C in some cases. through micro-explosions. a chirped FBG (2). . they labeled gratings fabricated below the threshold as type I gratings and above the threshold as type II gratings.• Damage written gratings inscribed by multiphoton excitation with higher intensity lasers that exceed the damage threshold of the glass. whereas below 30mJ the index modulation grew linearly with pulse energy. and 4) a discrete phase shift a raised-cosine-apodized FBG with zero-dc change. It was further shown that a sharp threshold was evident at ~30mJ. Lasers employed are usually pulsed in order to reach these intensities. showed that it was possible to inscribe gratings of ~100% (>99. and higher with femtosecond laser inscription). and in recognition of the distinct differences in thermal stability. The gratings were inscribed using a single 40mJ pulse from an excimer laser at 248 nm. 3) FBG. voids surrounded by more dense glass. 1) a uniform positive-only FBG. above this level the index modulation increased by more than two orders of magnitude. The amorphous network of the glass is usually transformed via a different ionization and melting pathway to give either higher index changes or create. However. 2) a Gaussian-apodized FBG.uniform FBG (1). Archambault et al.8%) reflectance with a single UV pulse in fibers on the draw tower. Structure of the refractive index change in a Figure 4: Refractive index profile in the core of. hence type II gratings are also known as damage gratings. and a superstructure FBG (4).
such as a linear variation in the grating period. the variation of the refractive index is at an angle to the optical axis. The refractive index has two primary characteristics. including the sampled gratings first made by Peter Hill and colleagues in Australia. and either localised or distributed in a superstructure. This is apodization of the refractive index change. discrete phase shift. 3. called a chirp. can then be used to set the peak reflectivity. The grating length. The angle of tilt in a TFBG has an effect on the reflected wavelength. or the grating period. and 6. Gaussian apodized. A grating possessing a chirp has the property of adding dispersion—namely. the refractive index profile can be uniform or apodized. Canning in 1994. as well. The reflected wavelength changes with the grating period. In a tilted FBG (TFBG).  Apodized gratings There are basically two quantities that control the properties of the FBG. This property has been used in the development of phasedarray antenna systems and polarization mode dispersion compensation. and the side-lobe strength. These are the reflectivity. which depends on both the grating strength and the grating length. three properties that need to be controlled in a FBG. chirped. The term apodization refers to the grading of the refractive index to approach zero at the end of the grating. . The first complex grating was made by J. the bandwidth. Typically.  Tilted fiber Bragg gratings In standard FBGs. however. different wavelengths reflected from the grating will be subject to different delays. raised-cosine apodized. effectively N. and is typically uniform across the width of the fiber. superstructure. the bandwidth depends on the grating strength. This supported the development of the first distributed feedback (DFB) fiber lasers. the grading or variation of the refractive index is along the length of the fiber (the optical axis). and the refractive index offset is positive or zero. A third quantity can be varied to help with side-lobe suppression. The grating period can be uniform or graded. There are. 5. 2. . There are six common structures for FBGs.The structure of the FBG can vary via the refractive index. 4. given as and the grating strength. 1. δn0 η. This means the grating strength can be used to set the bandwidth. The result of this is that the side-lobe strength cannot be controlled. broadening the reflected spectrum. the refractive index profile. and bandwidth. and this simple optimisation results in significant side-lobes. and the offset. Lg. and also laid the groundwork for most complex gratings that followed. As shown above. and not the grating length. The two functions typically used to apodize a FBG are Gaussian and raised-cosine.  Chirped fiber Bragg gratings The refractive index profile of the grating may be modified to add other features. Apodized gratings offer significant improvement in side-lobe suppression while maintaining reflectivity and a narrow bandwidth. These are the grating length. uniform positive-only index change.
 Applications  Communications Figure 5: Optical add-drop multiplexer. where each drop element uses a FBG set to the wavelength to be demultiplexed. Longer periods can be used to achieve much broader responses than are possible with a standard FBG. which is made up of the thermal expansion coefficient of the optical fiber. The signal is reflected back to the circulator where it is directed down and dropped out of the system. as shown above. the grating period is 500 nm. the strain optic coefficient pe. Also. depicted as 4 colours. Here. αn. These gratings are called long-period fiber grating. A demultiplexer can be achieved by cascading multiple drop sections of the OADM. . They are specifically used as notch filters. The sensitivity of a FBG to strain is discussed below in fiber Bragg grating sensors. another signal on that channel can be added at the same point in the network. using a refractive index of 1. They are also used in optical multiplexers and demultiplexers with an optical circulator. and are therefore much easier to manufacture. due to an applied strain (ε) and a change in temperature (ΔT) is approximately given by. CS is the coefficient of strain. the measurand causes a shift in the Bragg wavelength. In a FBG sensor. In a tunable demultiplexer or OADM. to a millimeter. ΔλB / λB. impinging onto a FBG via an optical circulator. For a grating that reflects at 1500 nm. and the thermo-optic coefficient. The relative shift in the Bragg wavelength. This means that fiber Bragg gratings can be used as sensing elements in optical fiber sensors. the Bragg wavelength of the FBG can be tuned by strain applied by a piezoelectric transducer. Since the channel has been dropped. FBG demultiplexers and OADMs can also be tunable. Conversely. Long-period gratings Typically the grating period is the same size as the Bragg wavelength.  Fiber Bragg grating sensors As well as being sensitive to strain. a multiplexer can be achieved by cascading multiple add sections of the OADM. The FBG is set to reflect one of the channels. the Bragg wavelength is also sensitive to temperature. αΛ. which is related to. or Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer (OADM). The primary application of fiber Bragg gratings is in optical communications systems. ΔλB. CT is the coefficient of temperature.5. . Figure 5 shows 4 channels. or. here channel 4. They typically have grating periods on the order of 100 micrometers.
D. Lett. K. K..O. Japan. Ph. Fujii.embedding FBGs in flexible skins  References 1. Specifically. 2 (4). Lett. 6. ^ J. PMID 19752980. C.000823. 32: 647. Fiber Gratings and Devices for Sensors and Lasers. (2001). Optical Fibre Sensors and Their Interrogationdv. which is measurable by the grating. "An ideal method for the fabrication of temperature compensating IA-I strain sensors".  See also • • • • • • • • • Bragg's law Bragg diffraction Diffraction ○ Diffraction grating Dielectric mirror Hydrogen sensor Long-period fiber grating Photonic crystal fiber Distributed temperature sensing by fiber optics PHOSFOS project . seismic vibrations and inline flow measurement. G.D. Y. G. (1978). for example fiber Bragg grating gas sensors use an absorbent coating. Johnson. Wiley. Bennion. Ph. Advanced fiber gratings and their application. I.89881. B. Appl. Zhou. G. Kalli.. They can also be used as transduction elements.. A. Thesis. which in the presence of a gas expands generating a strain. converting the amount of gas to a strain. Lasers and Photonics Reviews.. the absorbent material is the sensing element.Fiber Bragg gratings can then be used as direct sensing elements for strain and temperature. ^ Meltz. Kawasaki. K. (2005). ^ Simpson.1063/1. ^ Simpson. In the 1990s. 14 (15): 823.. and as downhole sensors in oil and gas wells for measurement of the effects of external pressure. et al. A.. Y. Aston University. L. Aston University. doi:10. 5. Zhang. "Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method". Thesis. The Bragg grating then transduces the strain to the change in wavelength. Nara. ^ a b Liu. Canning. USA (2008) 4. 275-289. .. (1989). 3. investigations were conducted for measuring strain and temperature in composite materials for aircraft and helicopter structures. pressure sensors for extremely harsh environments. As such they offer a significant advantage over traditional electronic gauges used for these applications in that they are less sensitive to vibration or heat and consequently are far more reliable. 2.. "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: application to reflection fiber fabrication".14. postdeadline paper PD4. Opt. converting the output of another sensor.1364/OL. pp. Technically. OFS16.D. ^ Hill. which generates a strain or temperature change from the measurand. doi:10. S. fiber Bragg gratings are finding uses in instrumentation applications such as seismology. Phys. temperature. (2003).
. 13. Ferraro. issued March 21. M. M. G. Sensors. ^ For a contemporary review.. Monerie. Bandyopadhyay.. 14. L. Archambault. pp. L. P. De Natale (2002).Technobis Fibre Technologies Other . Poumellec.^ P.^ US patent 5493390. 8. "p-phase-shifted periodic distributed structures in germanosilicate fibre by UV post-processing".. N. Douay. doi:10.. "On the possible use of optical fiber Bragg gratings as strain sensors for geodynamical monitoring". (16). ^ Xie.. S. J.^ Dong. Bernage.. "Experimental-Evidence of 2 Types of Photorefractive Effects Occurring During Photo inscriptions of Bragg Gratings Within Germanosilicate Fibres". X. Canning. see J. B.jsp? tp=&arnumber=618322&isnumber=13456.1049/el:19931051. G. (1994). L.1109/50.7. Optics Communications 104 (13): 185–195..1016/0030-4018(93)90127-Q. (1993). ^ Niay. ISBN 0890063443. doi:10.1049/el:19930303. Legoubin. (2008) 11.1-5. doi:10.^ J. Artech House. P. Niay. Bayon. "Behaviour of Spectral Transmissions of Bragg Gratings Written in Germania-Doped Fibres Writing and Erasing Experiments Using Pulsed or CW UV Exposure". Douay. 10.. "Single-Pulse Bragg Gratings Written During Fibre Drawing". Bayon. Reekie. X. J. Journal of Lightwave Technology 15 (8): 1277–1294. M. F.ieee. Sceats. P. W. 20. Kalli.Fibre Optic Sensing Network Europe Development Platforms • TFT .. J. 9.. issued Feb. 30. Andreas. Monerie.^ US patent 5399854. Reekie.^ J. T.. P. Optics Communications 113 (1-3): 176–192.. M. M. Lett.. "Integrated optical instrumentation for the diagnostics of parts by embedded or surface attached optical sensors". L. D. P. http://ieeexplore. Russell.. 2 (4). B. "100-Percent Reflectivity Bragg Reflectors Produced in Optical Fibres By Single ExcimerLaser Pulses".. (1994) 15.org/xpl/freeabs_all. Optics and Lasers in Engineering 37: 115–130. Fiber Bragg Gratings: Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing. J. P. Georges. doi:10.. T. Xie. S. doi:10. S. 1995  External links International Optical Sensor Societies • FOSNE . Russell.^ Erdogan. 17.618322. Georges.. Dunphy & et al. Kyriacos (1999). Bernage. Canning. J. Canning. K. "Embedded optical sensor capable of strain and temperature measurement using a single diffraction grating". J. Payne. 16..1016/0030-4018(94)906068. F. 12... Wiley. Electronics Letters 29 (17): 1577–1578. S. doi:10. L. “Extreme silica optical fibre gratings”. (1993). (1993). M. Electronics Letters 29 (5): 453–455.1016/S0143-8166(01)00141-5.^ Archambault. Lasers and Photonics Reviews. Stevenson. Fiber Gratings and Devices for Sensors and Lasers. J. 275-289.R. USA (2008) 8. "Fiber Grating Spectra". Turan (August 1997). Cook. 1344-1345. Electron.^ Othonos.. 1996 18.. W. Poumellec.
wikipedia.patentgenius.html .com/patent/7133582.org/wiki/Fiber_Bragg_grating" Categories: Optical fiber | Diffraction Hidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from May 2009 Personal tools • • • Views Log in / create account Article Discussion Namespaces Variants • • • Actions Search Read Edit View history Top of Form Special:Search Search Bottom of Form Navigation • • • • • • • • • • • Toolbox Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Interaction • • • • • .• • Bragg grating as hydrogen detector http://www.Fiber .Optic filter with tunable grating Retrieved from "http://en.
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The core. This fiber may be either single-mode or multimode. allowing the light core the center the fiber core. Manyor optical amplifiers such as EDFAs in order to maintain signal signal repeaters. These are discussed in separate articles as linked in this paragraph. back into elements may also appear in a fiber optic transmission system.three main regions. A coating or the light. These elements comprise the simplest link. as consists of actually carries illustrated in Figure 2. typically uses either a PIN photodiode or an APD to receive the optical signal and plastic.in a glass with a different refractive index than The core. System drop/repeat/add to the fiber optic system. a composite signal for transmission.Elements of a Fiber Optic Link Figure 2 . the linked articles for additional . A data demodulator converts the data convert its original electrical form. dispersion management multiplexers. provides to be confined in receiver it back into an electrical signal. Long distance fiber optic transmission leads tosignal regenerators.Figure 1 . For but other the addition of WDM components allows two separate signals to be example. The buffer. Other wavelength-division multiplexing their original techniques allow up to eight signals (CWDM) or more (DWDM) to be combined onto a single fiber. and then can be separated into joined into signals at the receive end. further addsignal fanouts. See equipment. and error-correction components. remote monitoring information on these components.interfaces.Cross-section of an Optical Fiber The optical fiber connects the transmitter and the receiver. couplers/splitters. the cladding surround thestrength and protection to the optical fiber. long-haul transmission systems require quality. incorporating add-drop requirements. such as those in multichannel broadcast networks. further system complexity. The fiber of the fiber.
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