Network Fundamentals

,
CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Instructor Edition
Antoon W. Rufi Priscilla Oppenheimer Belle Woodward Gerlinde Brady

Cisco Press
800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, Indiana 46240 USA

ii

Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide
Instructor Edition Antoon W. Rufi, Priscilla Oppenheimer, Belle Woodward, and Gerlinde Brady
Copyright© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. Published by: Cisco Press 800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, IN 46240 USA All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review. Printed in the United States of America First Release January 2008 ISBN-10: 1-58705-583-X ISBN-13: 978-1-58705-583-6

Publisher Paul Boger Associate Publisher Dave Dusthimer Cisco Representative Anthony Wolfenden Cisco Press Program Manager Jeff Brady Executive Editor Mary Beth Ray Production Manager Patrick Kanouse Development Editor Dayna Isley Project Editors Patrick Kanouse Jennifer Gallant Copy Editors Gayle Johnson Keith Cline Technical Editors Cindy G. Layman Michael Duane Taylor Tony Chen Editorial Assistant Vanessa Evans Book and Cover Designer Louisa Adair Composition Mark Shirar Proofreader Leslie Joseph

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Warning and Disclaimer
This book is designed to provide information about the Network Fundamentals course of the Cisco Network Academy CCNA Exploration curriculum. Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied. The information is provided on an “as is” basis. The authors, Cisco Press, and Cisco Systems, Inc. shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book or from the use of the discs or programs that may accompany it. The opinions expressed in this book belong to the author and are not necessarily those of Cisco Systems, Inc.

Trademark Acknowledgments
All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Cisco Press or Cisco Systems, Inc. cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

About the Authors
Antoon “Tony” W. Rufi currently is the associate dean of computer and information science for all the ECPI College of Technology campuses. He also teaches the Cisco Networking Academy CCNA, CCNP, Network Security, Fundamentals of Wireless LAN, and IP Telephony curricula. Before becoming an instructor for ECPI, he spent almost 30 years in the U.S. Air Force, working on numerous electronic projects and computer programs. Tony has a master’s degree in information science from the University of Maryland and a bachelor’s degree in industrial technology from Southern Illinois University. Priscilla Oppenheimer is an author and network consultant with more than 25 years of experience in the computer industry. Priscilla has a master’s degree in information science from the University of Michigan and has worked at such big-name companies as Apple Computer and Cisco Systems. She currently teaches at Southern Oregon University and provides network consulting to companies in her hometown of Ashland, Oregon, and elsewhere. Belle Woodward, CCNA, CCAI, CCNP, is an assistant professor in the School of Information Systems and Applied Technologies in the College of Applied Sciences and Arts at Southern Illinois University (SIU) in Carbondale, Illinois. She has more than nine years experience in the networking and network security field. Belle teaches network security, advanced networking, and telecommunications. After redesigning the networking and network security undergraduate curriculum, her students took first place at the 2006 Regional Midwestern Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition (CCDC) and fourth place at the national CCDC. In addition to publishing several journal articles in the network security discipline, Belle has also contributed several chapters included in published network security and networking books. Gerlinde Brady has been teaching Cisco CCNA and CCNP courses at Cabrillo College, a Cisco Regional Networking Academy, since 1999. She holds a master’s degree in education from the University of Hannover, Germany, and a master’s degree in translation (English/German) from the Monterey Institute of International Studies. Her IT industry experience includes LAN design, network administration, technical support, and training.

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About the Technical Reviewers
Cindy G. Layman has been an instructor at Itawamba Community College in Tupelo, Mississippi, for more than 10 years. She has been teaching programming, computer servicing, and networking courses, including the full CCNA curriculum in the Cisco Networking Academy. Cindy has a bachelor of science degree in mathematics and a bachelor of science degree in computer science, both from Mississippi State University. Before teaching at ICC, she was a programmer analyst for nine years. Michael Duane Taylor is department head of computer information sciences at the Raleigh Campus of ECPI College of Technology. He has more than seven years of experience teaching introductory networking and CCNA-level curriculum and was awarded the Instructor of the Year Award. Previously, Michael was a lab supervisor with Global Knowledge working with router hardware configuration and repair. He holds a bachelor’s degree in business administration from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and a master of science degree in industrial technology/computer network management from East Carolina University. His certifications include CCNA, CCNP-router, and MCSE.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Dedications
I would like to dedicate this book to my wife, Linda, who is instrumental in getting me to apply myself. Always supportive, she has been the catalyst that has kept me going. —Tony Rufi This book is dedicated to my hard-working students who have inspired me to be a better teacher. — Priscilla Oppenheimer This book is dedicated to my husband, Jeff, and son, Alan, whose tireless support helped see me through another project. —Belle Woodward To my wonderful husband, Paddy, and my daughters Fiona, Teresita, and Ejay, who let me take time away from them to be a part of this project. —Gerlinde Brady

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Acknowledgments
From Tony Rufi: I’d like to give special recognition to Mike Taylor for his diligent approach to tech editing. He has provided a tremendous amount of input to get the technical aspects of this endeavor correct. I have enjoyed working with him. I also want to thank Mary Beth Ray; she has been instrumental in allowing me to pursue the dream of authoring a book. A special thank you to ECPI College of Technology, specifically President Mark Dreyfus, Vice President of Academic Affairs John Olson, and Director of Operations Barbara Larar. Without their support, I would not have been able to write this book. From Priscilla Oppenheimer: I’d like to thank Cisco Press for giving me the opportunity to work on this project. I especially want to thank Mary Beth Ray and Dayna Isley for turning this complex project into a success. Thanks also go to our technical reviewers for their persistence and attention to detail. Finally, I’d like to thank the Cisco Networking Academy for developing courses that inspire students to do amazing things with networks. From Belle Woodward: It has been a great pleasure to be part of such an outstanding group of professionals, and to these people and everyone on the team I extend my heartfelt thanks. Dayna Isley, thanks for all your help and patience. Cindy and Michael, thanks for providing your expert technical knowledge in editing the book. I want to give special recognition to Susanne Ashby, a great friend, who has always been willing to read and edit my work. From Gerlinde Brady: I would like to thank Dayna Isley and Mary Beth Ray for their unending patience. A special thanks goes to the technical editors, Cindy Layman, Mike Taylor, and Tony Chen, for their diligence and expertise.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Contents at a Glance
Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Living in a Network-Centric World Communicating over the Network 1 33 63

Application Layer Functionality and Protocols OSI Transport Layer OSI Network Layer 91 125 151

Addressing the Network: IPv4 OSI Data Link Layer OSI Physical Layer Ethernet 231 199 217

Planning and Cabling Networks

263 297

Configuring and Testing Your Network

4) 11 11 11 Task 3: Navigate the Google Earth Interface Task 5: Challenge 13 Activity 1-2: Identifying Top Security Vulnerabilities (1.6.4.1.ix Contents Chapter 1 Living in a Network-Centric World Concept Questions 1 2 2 1 1 Communicating in a Network-Centric World Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 2 3 Communication: An Essential Part of Our Lives The Network as a Platform Vocabulary Exercise: Define Vocabulary Exercise: Identify 3 3 4 4 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 5 The Architecture of the Internet 5 Vocabulary Exercise: Define Concept Questions 6 5 7 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Trends in Networking 8 Multiple-Choice Questions Task 1: Install Google Earth Task 2: Run Google Earth Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 13 13 8 10 Activity 1-1: Using Google Earth to View the World (1.1.1) 16 Task 1: Configure the Chat Client Task 2: Connect to the Chat Server Task 3: Consider the Chat Session Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 21 22 Task 5: Challenge 22 19 20 21 .5.3) 13 Task 1: Locate the SANS Resources Task 2: Review the SANS Resources Task 3: Collect Data Task 4: Reflection 15 16 14 15 Task 5: Challenge 16 Lab 1-1: Using Collaboration Tools: IRC and IM (1.1.

6.1) 22 Task 1: Define the Terms Wiki and Blog Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 28 28 22 23 Task 2: Explore Wiki Features with the TWiki Tutorial Task 4: Challenge 28 Skills Integration Challenge: Introduction to Packet Tracer (1. and Internetworks Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Protocols 36 34 35 36 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions Using Layered Models 36 37 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Network Addressing 38 37 38 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Multiple-Choice Questions 38 Activity 2-1: Using NeoTrace to View Internetworks (2.2.1.2.x Network Fundamentals. WANs.1.3) 28 Task 1: Explore the PT Interface Task 2: Explore PT Operations Task 4: Reflection Chapter 2 32 30 30 32 Task 3: Review the Standard Lab Setup Communicating over the Network The Platform for Communications 33 33 Concept Questions 33 34 34 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching LANs.1) 39 Task 1: Trace Route to Remote Server Task 2: Trace Route Using NeoTrace Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 41 41 Task 4: Challenge 41 40 41 Lab 2-1: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Lab 1-2: Using Collaboration Tools: Wikis and Web Logs (1.6.1.2) 48 .6.1) 42 Task 1: Create a Peer-to-Peer Network Task 3: Cable the Peer-to-Peer Network Task 5: Reflection 48 43 43 47 43 Task 2: Identify the Cables Used in a Network Task 4: Connect Your Workstations to the Classroom Lab Switch Packet Tracer Companion: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2.5.7.

2.1) Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer for E-mail Service 81 Task 2: Capture and Analyze E-mail Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and an E-mail Server 84 .1) 69 69 70 Task 2: Observe the Properties of the Audio File Lab 3-1: Managing a Web Server (3.1) 71 Task 1: Download.7.xi Lab 2-2: Using Wireshark to View Protocol Data Units (2.1) 49 Task 1: Ping PDU Capture 53 Task 2: FTP PDU Capture 56 Task 3: HTTP PDU Capture 58 Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Cleanup 58 59 Task 5: Challenge 58 Packet Tracer Companion: Using Packet Tracer to View Protocol Data Units (2.6.4.4.2.1.6.2) 59 Skills Integration Challenge: Examining Packets (2.3. and Verify the Apache Web Server Task 2: Verify the Default Web Server Configuration File Task 3: Capture and Analyze HTTP Traffic with Wireshark Task 4: Challenge 78 Task 5: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 78 79 79 73 77 76 Lab 3-2: E-mail Services and Protocols (3. Install.3) 59 Task 1: Complete the Topology 60 61 61 61 Task 2: Add Simple PDUs in Real-Time Mode Task 3: Analyze PDUs in Simulation Mode (Packet Tracing) Task 4: Experiment with the Model of the Standard Lab Setup Task 5: Reflection CHapter 3 61 63 63 Application Layer Functionality and Protocols Applications: The Interface Between the Networks Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 64 64 Making Provisions for Applications and Services 65 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Multiple-Choice Questions 65 65 Application Layer Protocols and Services Examples 66 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Multiple-Choice Questions Task 1: Create a Sound File Task 3: Reflection Task 4: Clean Up 71 71 67 66 66 Activity 3-1: Data Stream Capture (3.2.4.1.

5. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Task 3: Challenge 86 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 86 86 87 Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring Hosts and Services (3.1) Task 1: Explain Common netstat Command Parameters and Outputs 96 Task 2: Use netstat to Examine Protocol Information on a Pod Host Computer 98 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Cleanup 100 100 100 Task 4: Challenge 100 Lab 4-2: TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocols.3.1) Task 1: Identify TCP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark FTP Session Capture 102 Task 2: Identify UDP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark TFTP Session Capture 108 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Cleanup 110 111 111 Task 4: Challenge 111 Lab 4-3: Application and Transport Layer Protocols (4. TCP and UDP (4.xii Network Fundamentals.5.1) Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer to Capture Application Layer Protocols 113 Task 2: Capture and Analyze HTTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server 114 Task 3: Capture and Analyze FTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server 116 .5.5.1.1.2.3) Task 1: “Repair” and Test the Topology Task 3: Reflection Chapter 4 89 91 91 88 89 Task 2: Explore How DNS and HTTP Work Together OSI Transport Layer Roles of the Transport Layer Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 92 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Port Type Ranges Exercise Concept Questions 93 92 91 92 The TCP Protocol: Communicating with Reliability 92 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Managing TCP Sessions 93 93 Internet Research Exercise Concept Questions 94 93 The UDP Protocol: Communicating with Low Overhead 94 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion 94 95 Lab 4-1: Observing TCP and UDP Using netstat (4.

2) 122 Skills Integration Challenge: Analyzing the Application and Transport Layers (4.3) 122 Task 1: Repair and Test the Topology Task 3: Reflection Chapter 5 OSI Network Layer IPv4 125 123 124 Task 2: Explore How DNS.5.5.1.3.5.xiii Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 121 122 Task 5: Challenge 121 Packet Tracer Companion: Application and Transport Layer Protocols Examination (4.1) 138 136 Task 1: Use the route Command to Modify a Windows Computer Routing Table 139 Task 2: Use a Windows Telnet Client Command telnet to Connect to a Cisco Router 144 Task 3: Examine Router Routes Using Basic Cisco IOS Commands Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 147 147 147 Task 5: Challenge 147 Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Route (5.6. and TCP Work Together 124 125 125 126 126 127 Concept Questions Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Define Internet Research Exercise Networks: Dividing Hosts into Groups 127 127 127 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 127 128 Routing: How Our Data Packets Are Handled Vocabulary Exercise: Define Routing Processes: How Routes Are Learned 129 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion 129 130 Lab 5-1: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5.1. UDP.2) 145 .5.5.2.1) Task 1: Understand and Explain the Purpose of a Gateway Address 132 Task 2: Understand How Network Information Is Configured on a Windows Computer 134 Task 3: Troubleshoot a Hidden Gateway Address Problem Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 137 137 137 Task 5: Challenge 137 Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5.2) Lab 5-2: Examining a Route (5. HTTP.1.2.

3) 148 Task 1: Configure a Router Interface Task 2: Examining Routes 149 149 150 150 Task 3: Configure a Route Using a GUI Task 5: Reflection Chapter 6 150 151 Task 4: Examine the Routing of the IP Packet Addressing the Network: IPv4 IPv4 Addresses 151 Concept Questions 151 152 152 Binary-to-Decimal Conversion Exercise Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Exercise Addresses for Different Purposes 152 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Internet Research Exercise Vocabulary: Completion Concept Questions Assigning Addresses 152 153 153 153 154 Internet Research Exercises Concept Questions Is It on My Network? 154 154 155 Binary Matching Exercise Concept Questions 156 Internet Research Exercise Calculating Addresses 156 155 156 Concept Questions 156 157 157 Multiple-Choice Questions Testing the Network Layer Concept Questions 157 158 159 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Lab 6-1: Ping and Traceroute (6.1) 169 Task 1: Understand the Format of ICMP Packets Task 3: Challenge 177 170 173 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Examine ICMP Messages .2.1) Task 1: Use the ping Command to Verify Simple TCP/IP Network Connectivity 160 Task 2: Use the tracert Command to Verify TCP/IP Connectivity Task 3: Challenge 166 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 168 168 168 164 Packet Tracer Companion: ping and traceroute (6.1.7.7.7.1.xiv Network Fundamentals.1.2) Lab 6-2: Examining ICMP Packets (6.6. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Skills Integration Challenge: Routing IP Packets (5.

4.1) Task 1: For a Given IP Address and Subnet Mask.5. Part 1 (6. Determine Subnet Information 184 Task 2: Challenge 188 Task 3: Clean Up 191 192 Lab 6-3: Subnet and Router Configuration (6.1) Task 1: Subnet the Address Space 192 193 193 Task 2: Determine Interface Addresses Task 4: Verify the Configurations Task 5: Reflection 194 193 Task 3: Configure the Serial and FastEthernet Addresses Packet Tracer Companion: Subnet and Router Configuration (6.8.1) 178 Task 1: For a Given IP Address.xv Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 177 177 177 178 Packet Tracer Companion: Examining ICMP Packets (6.7.1) 203 205 Task 1: Explain the Header Fields in an Ethernet II Frame 206 209 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Ethernet II Frames .2.1.2) Activity 6-1: IPv4 Address Subnetting.5.7.7.3) 194 Task 1: IP Subnet Planning 195 196 196 Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer Task 3: Configure the Network Task 4: Test the Network Task 5: Reflection chapter 7 OSI Data Link Layer 197 199 199 197 Data Link Layer: Accessing the Media Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 199 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Media Access Control Techniques 199 200 200 Concept Questions 200 201 201 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 202 Media Access Control: Addressing and Framing Data 201 Putting It All Together: Follow Data Through an Internetwork 203 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Lab 7-1: Frame Examination (7.7.2) 194 Skills Integration Challenge: Planning Subnets and Configuring IP Addresses (6.3.5. Determine Network Information Task 2: Challenge 180 Task 3: Clean Up 182 183 Activity 6-2: IPv4 Address Subnetting. Part 2 (6.2.7.

Attending to Some Layer 2 Issues 215 Task 3: Configure the Network Task 4: Test the Network Task 5: Reflection Chapter 8 OSI Physical Layer 216 217 217 215 216 The Physical Layer: Communication Signals Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions Concept Questions 217 217 Physical Signaling and Encoding: Representing Bits 218 218 218 218 219 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 219 Physical Media: Connecting Communication Vocabulary Exercise: Matching 219 220 Lab 8-1: Media Connectors Lab Activity (Lab 8.xvi Network Fundamentals. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Task 3: Challenge 212 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 212 213 213 Skills Integration Challenge: Data Link Layer Issues (7.4.5.3) Task 1: IP Subnet Planning 214 Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer.6.1) Task 1: Become Familiar with the Most Common Functions of a Cable Tester 221 Task 2: Test Different Cables for Type and Wiring Problems Task 4: Verify Cable Length Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 226 226 Task 6: Challenge 226 226 223 224 Task 3: Perform Initial Configuration of the Fluke LinkRunner Skills Integration Challenge: Connecting Devices and Exploring the Physical View (8.1.1.3) 227 Task 1: Connect the Devices in the Standard Lab Setup 228 228 Task 2: View the Standard Lab Setup in the Physical Workspace chapter 9 Ethernet 231 231 Overview of Ethernet Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 232 231 Ethernet: Communication Through the LAN 232 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 233 232 .1.

8.2) 253 Lab 9-3: Intermediary Device as an End Device (9.8.1.8.8.1) 249 248 Task 1: Use the Telnet Protocol to Log in to a Cisco Switch 251 Task 2: Use the Cisco IOS show mac-address-table Command to Examine MAC Addresses and Port Associations 251 Task 3: Challenge 253 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 253 253 Packet Tracer Companion: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9.1.1.3) 259 256 Task 1: IP Subnet Planning 260 261 Task 2: Repair Problems with the Ethernet Switched LAN .8.2.3.2.1) Task 1: Use the Windows arp Command Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 248 248 242 246 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Examine ARP Exchanges Task 4: Challenge 248 Packet Tracer Companion: Address Resolution Protocol (9.9.8.xvii The Ethernet Frame 233 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Multiple-Choice Questions Concept Questions 235 234 233 Ethernet Media Access Control 235 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 236 236 235 Ethernet Physical Layer Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Hubs and Switches 237 236 237 237 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Question 238 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 238 Multiple-Choice Questions 238 240 Lab 9-1: Address Resolution Protocol (9.2) 259 Skills Integration Challenge: Switched Ethernet (9.2) Lab 9-2: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9.1) 253 Task 1: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Frames Originating from Network Nodes 255 Task 2: Examine the Origination of Frames in a Small Network Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 258 259 Task 4: Challenge 259 Packet Tracer Companion: An Intermediary Device as an End Device (9.3.

1.1) 282 Task 2: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Router 283 .2.xviii Network Fundamentals.6.1) Task 1: Design the Logical Network 276 278 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 278 Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 281 281 281 282 280 Task 6: Challenge 281 Packet Tracer Companion: Creating a Small Topology (10.2) Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Lab 10-3: Establishing a Console Session with HyperTerminal (10. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Task 3: Test the Network Task 4: Reflection Chapter 10 261 261 Planning and Cabling Networks Concept Questions 263 264 263 263 LANs: Making the Physical Connection Multiple-Choice Questions Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Device Interconnections 264 264 Concept Questions 264 265 265 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Developing an Addressing Scheme Concept Questions 266 266 266 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Multiple-Choice Questions Calculating the Subnets 267 Concept Questions Concept Question 267 267 Device Interconnections 268 268 269 Multiple-Choice Questions Lab 10-1: How Many Networks? (10.2.3.6.2) Task 1: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram A 269 Task 2: Record Subnet Information Task 4: Record Subnet Information Task 6: Record Subnet Information Task 8: Record Subnet Information Task 9: Reflection 273 274 270 270 271 272 271 272 273 Task 3: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram B Task 5: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram C Task 7: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram D Lab 10-2: Creating a Small Lab Topology (10.1.6.

7.xix Task 3: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Switch 285 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 286 286 287 Task 4: Challenge 286 Lab 10-3 (Alternative): Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable 287 Task 2: Configure TeraTerm Web to Establish a Console Session with the Router 288 Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 288 289 Task 4: Challenge 289 Packet Tracer Companion: Establishing a Console Session with PT Terminal (10.1) 290 Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable 290 Task 2: Configure Minicom to Establish a Console Session with the Router 291 Task 3: Perform Basic Commands Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 292 293 292 Skills and Integration Challenge: Planning and Cabling Networks (10.3) 293 Task 1: Build the Network Topology Task 3: Interface Configuration Task 4: Testing Connectivity Chapter 11 295 294 294 Task 2: Create and Assign an Addressing Scheme 295 297 Configuring and Testing Your Network Configuring Cisco Devices: IOS Basics 297 Concept Questions 297 298 298 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Cisco IOS Command Exercises Test Your Knowledge 299 Applying a Basic Configuration Using Cisco IOS 299 Concept Questions 300 300 301 Multiple-Choice Questions Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Verifying Connectivity 301 Test Your Knowledge 301 Concept Question 301 .2) 289 Lab 10-4: Establishing a Console Session with Minicom (10.2.6.6.3.1.

4.3. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Lab 11-1: Network Latency Documentation with ping (11.2) Lab 11-4: Configure Host Computers for IP Networking (11.5.1.1) 327 326 Task 1: Configure Network Connectivity Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 333 335 328 329 Task 2: Use TFTP to Save and Restore a Cisco IOS Configuration Task 4: Challenge 333 Packet Tracer Companion: Managing Device Configuration (11.1) Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 350 351 Task 6: Challenge 350 343 345 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 345 349 .5.2.3.1) 335 336 Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Reflection Task 7: Clean Up 341 341 342 337 338 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 338 340 Task 6: Challenge 341 Lab 11-5: Network Testing (11.3) 302 Task 1: Use the ping Command to Document Network Latency Task 3: Measure Delay Effects from Larger Datagrams Task 4: Reflection 308 Task 5: Challenge 309 Lab 11-2: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11.5.5.5.1.1) 310 303 Task 2: Compute Various Statistics on the Output of a ping Capture 304 306 Task 1: Configure Cisco Router Global Configuration Settings Task 2: Configure Cisco Router Password Access Task 3: Configure Cisco Router Interfaces Task 4: Save the Router Configuration Files Task 5: Configure a Cisco Switch Task 6: Reflection Task 8: Clean Up 323 325 Task 7: Challenge 324 320 317 319 315 312 Packet Tracer Companion: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11.4.2.xx Network Fundamentals.2) Lab 11-3: Managing Device Configuration (11.5.

xxi Lab 11-6: Network Documentation with Utility Commands (11.5.5.6.6.5.1) 366 Task 1: Prepare the Lab 367 368 370 372 Task 2: Review the Process of Data Flowing Through the Network Task 3: Analyze Captured Packets Task 4: Complete the Final Analysis Task 5: Conclusion Task 6: Summary 373 374 Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring and Analyzing Networks (11.3) 374 Task 1: Plan 375 376 Task 2: Build and Configure the Network Task 3: Test and Analyze 377 Task 4: Reflection 377 .1.1) 352 Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Document the Network Task 6: Reflection Task 8: Clean Up 358 359 Task 7: Challenge 358 357 353 354 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 354 356 Lab 11-7: Case Study: Datagram Analysis with Wireshark (11.

The Command Reference describes these conventions as follows: ■ Boldface indicates commands and keywords that are entered literally as shown. Braces within brackets [{ }] indicate a required choice within an optional element. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ . Vertical bars (|) separate alternative. mutually exclusive elements. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Icons Used in This Book Desktop Computer Laptop Firewall Packet Streaming Video IP Phone Switch Router Route/Switch Processor Phone Server Cloud Wireless Router Hub Printer Wireless Media LAN Media WAN Media Command Syntax Conventions The conventions used to present command syntax in this book are the same conventions used in the IOS Command Reference. Italics indicate arguments for which you supply actual values. Square brackets [ ] indicate optional elements. In actual configuration examples and output (not general command syntax). boldface indicates commands that are manually input by the user (such as a show command). Braces { } indicate a required choice.xxii Network Fundamentals.

student performance tracking. you should do everything in your power to arm yourself with a variety of tools and training materials to support your learning efforts. matching. Used to its fullest extent. By establishing a firm foundation in the fundamental topics taught in this course. where you can use Packet Tracer to complete a simulation of the lab. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide is a supplement to your classroom and laboratory experience with the Cisco Networking Academy. This Labs and Study Guide is just such a collection of tools. these exams are rigorously application based. Network Fundamentals. this book is designed to help you learn all the required materials of the first course in the Networking Academy CCNA Exploration curriculum. The CCNA Exploration curriculum includes four courses oriented around the topics of the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) certification. Goals and Methods First and foremost. To be successful on the exam and achieve your CCNA certification. it will help you gain knowledge and practice the skills associated with the content areas of the CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals course. operate. implement. Many of the hands-on labs include Packet Tracer companion activities. A Networking Academy delivers web-based content. Each chapter also includes a culminating activity called the Packet Tracer Skills Integration Challenge. Each chapter is slightly different and includes multiplechoice. fill-in-the-blank.xxiii Introduction The Cisco Networking Academy is a comprehensive e-learning program that provides students with Internet technology skills. Passing this foundation exam means that you not only have the required knowledge of the technologies covered by the exam. . These activities require you to pull together several skills learned from the chapter—and previous chapters and courses—to successfully complete one comprehensive exercise. You can view the exam topics any time at http://www. online assessment. and open-ended questions designed to help you ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Review vocabulary Strengthen troubleshooting skills Boost networking skills Reinforce concepts Research topics Each chapter also includes a Labs and Activities section that includes the online curriculum labs and a Packet Tracer Skills Integration Challenge activity. and troubleshoot these technologies. but also that you can plan. In other words. and hands-on labs to prepare students for industry-standard certifications. you will be better prepared to move on to the rest of the CCNA Exploration curriculum and ultimately to pass the CCNA certification exam (640-802).cisco. The Study Guide sections of this book offer dozens of exercises to help you learn the concepts crucial to your success as a CCNA exam candidate. design.com/go/certifications.

it allows students to practice using a command-line interface. . CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide A Word About Packet Tracer Packet Tracer is a self-paced. Packet Tracer version 4. However. This “e-doing” capability is a fundamental component of learning how to configure routers and switches from the command line. The Eagle Server is developed by the Cisco Networking Academy to provide network services and applications that are typically accessed over the Internet in an isolated lab environment. Your instructor needs to follow those instructions to set up the labs for you accordingly. interactive teaching and learning tool developed by Cisco. Although Packet Tracer is not a substitute for real equipment. Students can spend as much time as they like completing standard lab exercises through Packet Tracer.xxiv Network Fundamentals. The Eagle Server software and complete FAQ documentation can be downloaded by your instructor from the Tools section of Academy Connection. visual. Lab activities are an important part of networking education. Many of the hands-on labs in Network Fundamentals are based on an Internet model that uses a local server to provide a range of network services and applications that students can experiment with in the lab environment. and have the option to work from home.x is available only to Cisco Networking Academies through the Academy Connection website. A Word About Eagle Server The CCNA Exploration courses are designed to provide a hands-on learning approach to networking. Packet Tracer provides a visual simulation of equipment and network processes to offset the challenge of limited equipment. The Eagle Server provides the following network services: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ DNS Web server FTP TFTP SSH Instant messaging Wiki server E-mail The Eagle Server is required to complete most of the labs in CCNA Exploration. The top-down approach adopted in the Network Fundamentals course enables students to set up and implement application layer services in a network lab environment. lab equipment can be a scarce resource.

The questions in the chapter focus on network architectures.” introduces the concepts of routing packets from a device on one network to a device on a different network. Chapter 6.xxv Audience for This Book This book’s main audience is anyone taking the CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals course of the Cisco Networking Academy curriculum. “Communicating over the Network. “OSI Transport Layer.” focuses on network addressing in detail and tests your knowledge of how to use the address mask. such as Wireshark. The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. How This Book Is Organized Because the content of Network Fundamentals. This book has 11 chapters. wikis. or prefix length. “Living in a Network-Centric World. the application layer. Chapter 5. Work through the different types of questions to test your knowledge of the TCP/IP application and OSI application. Internet Relay Chat. Chapter 4. Chapters and Topics The book has 11 chapters. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide and the online curriculum is sequential. and network collaboration tools. while other academies recommend the Companion Guides as an additional source of study and practice materials. “OSI Network Layer. beginning with Chapter 1. to determine the number of subnetworks and hosts in a network. path determination. to help evaluate network communications. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ . quality of service (QoS). presentation.” introduces the devices.” provides exercises and labs to supplement your study of the basics of communication and how networks support the way we live. Chapter 2. hands-on skills needed to use some critical tools. security issues. “Application Layer Functionality and Protocols. and Packet Tracer. network components. Many academies use this textbook as a required tool in the course. media. and protocols that enable network communication.” provides exercises and labs that focus on the role of the transport layer as it provides the end-to-end transfer of data between applications. and IP. as follows: ■ Chapter 1. such as ping and trace. “Addressing the Network: IPv4. The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses different types of questions to test your knowledge of how devices communicate over the network. and session layer. with the same numbers and similar names as the online course chapters. Activities and labs let you practice your skills using and configuring network applications such as Google Earth. blogs. You learn how TCP and UDP apply to common applications. The labs further reinforce that you have mastered the skills needed to work with the application layer of the OSI model. scalability. This chapter also includes questions and labs related to Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) tools. The book covers the major topic headings in the same sequence as the online curriculum for the CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals course. Chapter 3. data packets.” introduces you to the top network model layer. you should work through this Lab Study Guide in order. The questions and labs help you reinforce important concepts related to addressing.

com/title/1587132036. and setting speed and duplex settings.” examines the technologies and operation of Ethernet. This chapter continues the examination of Ethernet frames that you started in Chapter 7.ciscopress. A Packet Tracer skills integration lab provides an opportunity to practice IP subnetting.” provides questions and extensive.asp and enter the book’s ISBN. “Configuring and Testing Your Network.com to continue registration. Becoming a member and registering is free.” provides questions and labs that explore the functions. challenging labs that ask you to connect and configure a small network using basic Cisco IOS commands for routers and switches. standards. http://www. and Packet Tracer Challenge files that are referenced throughout the book as indicated by the Packet Tracer Activity. The files will be updated to cover any subsequent releases of Packet Tracer. “Ethernet. Packet Tracer Companion. MAC. Chapter 11. and Packet Tracer Challenge icons. how to connect devices. The chapter also helps you develop skills related to examining Cisco switch MAC address tables. connecting it to a switch. “OSI Data Link Layer. Chapter 9. After you register the book. This chapter tests your ability to describe the encapsulation processes that occur as data travels across a LAN and a WAN. The chapter also helps you study Media Access Control (MAC) and MAC addressing. “OSI Physical Layer. Topics include the evolution of Ethernet technologies. . a link to any supplemental content will be listed on your My Registered Books page. You’ll then be prompted to log in or join Ciscopress. hands-on skills needed to understand and work with the OSI physical layer. About the Cisco Press Website for This Book Cisco Press may provide additional content that can be accessed by registering your individual book at the Ciscopress. Chapter 8. ■ ■ ■ ■ About the CD-ROM The CD-ROM included with this book has all the Packet Tracer Activity. which is located on its back cover. with a focus on ARP frames. and you then gain access to exclusive deals on other resources from Cisco Press. and building and configuring a complex network. A Packet Tracer skills integration lab lets you simulate the steps of installing an Ethernet card in a PC.com website.com/bookstore/register. and how to develop an addressing and testing scheme. and Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). You can obtain updates to these files from the website for this book. and protocols associated with the physical layer (Layer 1).” supplements your study of how the OSI data link layer prepares network layer packets for transmission.xxvi Network Fundamentals. “Planning and Cabling Networks. Packet Tracer Companion. You will apply the knowledge and skills developed in the previous chapters to determine the appropriate cables to use.” focuses on designing and cabling a network. go to http://www. Use this chapter to reinforce that you have mastered the practical. To register this book. CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide ■ Chapter 7. Chapter 10. A hands-on lab lets you practice your skills using Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet frames.ciscopress. You will configure Cisco routers and switches for basic network operations.

High-speed data networks that span the globe with cabling and networking devices have had a profound effect on human communication and will continue to revolutionize how humans interact with each other. or country?) Answers will vary. but it has evolved over the years to encompass many types of media. the printing press. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the importance of data networks and the major components and characteristics of network architectures. ranging from paper to fiber-optic cabling. The addition of all these different types of network traffic has enabled the creation of online communities where geographic distances and physical limitations are no longer major obstacles and where humans around the globe can collaborate in their work.CHAPTER 1 Living in a Network-Centric World The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. Study Guide Communicating in a Network-Centric World Humans are social animals who need to communicate with each other. video. movies. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure that you have mastered the practical. How has data networking changed your community (your family. newspapers. Concept Questions 1. play. school. what other breakthroughs in communication media have extended the reach of human interactions? Answers will vary but could include smoke signals. text. As you work through this chapter. Early data networks carried character-based messages between computer systems. 3. . city. and graphics. What types of network traffic do modern networks carry. Communication was once limited to face-to-face conversations. fill-in-the-blank. and education. radio. telephony. and television. and how has this changed human interactions? Answers will vary but should mention that modern networks carry voice. telegraphy. multiple-choice. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance. In addition to data networks. use Chapter 1 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or the corresponding Chapter 1 in Network Fundamentals. hands-on skills needed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with modern networks. 2. the written word.

Concept Questions 1. Rules help data networks function despite the many factors that can degrade communication. and learn. A wiki is a web page that groups of people can edit and view together. as can internal factors that are related to aspects of the message itself. Students should include at least four of the following correct answers: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ The quality of the pathway between the sender and receiver The number of times a message changes form The number of times a message is redirected The number of times a message is readdressed The number of times a message is reformatted The number of other messages sharing the communication pathway Whether a confirmation of the message was returned to the sender The amount of time allotted for successful communication List three internal factors that affect data networks. 3. 5. communication networks include rules (or protocols) that help ensure reliable delivery of messages. Communication: An Essential Part of Our Lives Communication helps us work. Factors that are external to the message can affect reliability. Because communication is so important. A blog is a web page that is easy to update and edit by someone who wants to publish a record of his or her thoughts on a subject. List four external factors that affect data networks. 1. Packet Tracer is a Cisco collaborative learning tool that provides a way to build virtual representations of networks that behave much like actual networks.2 Network Fundamentals. play. 2. The message’s size The message’s complexity The message’s importance 2. . CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following questions. Instant Messaging (IM) is a form of online real-time communication between two or more people based on entered text. 4. Podcasting is an audio-based medium that lets people record audio and publish it on a website.

To achieve the scale. Fill in the definition for each element. and reliability that are required. Modern networks support fast and reliable message transfer among millions of users across the globe. Engineers use a set of standard icons to refer to the elements. and interpreted A means of interconnecting devices. Figure 1-1 shows some of these icons. Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 1-1 lists the four fundamental elements of a network. directed.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 3 The Network as a Platform Data networks provide a platform for humans to communicate and thus play an increasingly important role in the business and personal lives of humans. in which data is transferred A unit of information that travels from one device to another across a medium Equipment that connects directly to a network Vocabulary Exercise: Identify Networks consist of many elements. speed. a physical environment. Table 1-1 Element Network Element Definitions Definition Rule Medium Message Device An agreement or protocol that governs how messages are sent. The figure shows a network topology for a typical small company. Figure 1-1 Network Topology Icons B C A D F G H K IP E I J L . Network engineers often include these elements in network topology drawings. such as a cable or the air for wireless. network experts have standardized many elements and components of a data network. received.

A Firewall B Router C WAN medium D Network cloud E Server F LAN medium G LAN switch H Wireless router I IP phone J Desktop computer K Wireless media L Laptop computer Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 1-2. or the communication between devices on Earth and satellites in orbit. which carries data in the form of light signals. Router d. Table 1-2 Device Network Devices Definition a. Interconnects computers and cabling to form a local-area network (LAN) e. . A device often found in home and small networks that lets laptop computers connect to a network without cabling c. Connects two or more networks and directs messages as they travel across a set of networks b. or optical fiber. the medium is either copper. 2. which carries data in the form of electrical signals. Protocols are the rules that network devices use to communicate. Wireless router e. One form of a wide-area network (WAN) connection a. Wireless media include the wireless connection between a wireless router and a computer in a home network. and instant messaging require a network to provide services. 4. Cloud f. Serial link f. Switch b. e-mail. Network applications such as web browsing. In wired connections. Summarizes a group of network elements in topology drawings d. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Provide the name of each element in the network topology shown in Figure 1-1. Provides network security Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following questions. 3. Firewall c. 1.4 Network Fundamentals. match the term on the left with its definition on the right. the terrestrial wireless connection between two ground stations.

2. The bits arrive at a router. are also hierarchical. 6. Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 1-3 lists four fundamental characteristics of network architectures. At their destination. and the Internet must provide fault tolerance. The bits travel through network devices such as switches in the LAN. and security. The Network Interface Card (NIC) converts the bits to electrical or optical signals and places them on the medium. This can save money. The computer converts the message to bits. What is meant by the term converged network. which directs them to their destination. quality of service. with different tiers offering different levels of service. 2. including traffic that was once relegated to its own separate network. Fill in the definition for each characteristic. . including the Internet. 3. The Architecture of the Internet A network architecture describes a network’s physical infrastructure and the high-level services and protocols that move messages across that infrastructure. Messages must be converted to bits (binary coded digital signals) before they are sent to their destination. Converged networks have become common because they allow engineers to build one common infrastructure instead of multiple specialized networks. If they are just starting to learn networking and have grasped the information in “Elements of a Network” section in Chapter 1 of the curriculum and the Companion Guide. the bits get converted back into a human-readable format. scalability. and enable advanced applications such as videoconferencing and online gaming.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 5 5. Answers will vary depending on how much students already know. Many large networks. Concept Questions 1. List the steps that take place on a network when you send an instant message. their answers should read something like the following: 1. and why are converged networks becoming so common? What advantages do converged networks offer? A converged network carries network traffic of many different types. The Internet’s architecture shares many of the same characteristics of any large network that supports numerous users. simplify troubleshooting. Business networks. education networks. 5. 4. such as voice or radio. TCP/IP is a set of standard protocols that is widely used in home and business networks as well as on the Internet.

. Messages are divided into small blocks of data (packets) that can travel across many paths to the destination. is created through various switching locations between the sender and receiver. which improves scalability and fault tolerance. the call is dropped and must be reestablished. the circuit and its resources remain reserved until one end disconnects. The circuit is dedicated to the call for the duration of the call. How does the Internet benefit from using a hierarchical architecture? The hierarchical architecture permits Internet service providers (ISP) of different levels. using all available resources. For example. Tier 2 providers are smaller and often provide regional service. If there’s a problem with any device in the path during a call. Tier 1 providers.6 Network Fundamentals. such as AT&T and Verizon. The problem of underutilized idle circuits is eliminated. With packet switching. The hierarchical structure also means that network traffic that is destined for a service that is local to the sender does not need to traverse to a central point for distribution. 3. provide national and international connections and are optimized for carrying huge loads of traffic across the globe. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 1-3 Network Architecture Characteristics Definition Characteristic Fault tolerance Scalability Quality of service Security The capability of a network to withstand hardware and software failures and recover quickly when failures occur The capability of a network to expand quickly to support new users and applications without degrading performance for existing users A method of providing different priorities for different applications. because resources are used dynamically as packets arrive at switching locations. Why did the Internet designers choose packet switching instead of circuit switching? With circuit switching. Even if no communication is occurring between the sender and receiver. Each tier can optimize its services for its unique role. a call goes through a setup process whereby a temporary path. or circuit. The early Internet designers chose packet switching because it provides better fault tolerance and scalability. 2. there’s no requirement for call setup. Why was fault tolerance a major focus of the initial design for the Internet? The United States Department of Defense (DoD) designed the network that evolved into the Internet with fault tolerance because the department was concerned about a military attack or other severe problem that could destroy numerous sites and transmission facilities. Packets are routed according to the best path available at the time and can be routed around problem areas. A new call requires a new setup process that creates a new circuit. Packets from different sources are intermixed. based on the requirements of the applications and their importance to users Measures taken to guard against unauthorized access to a network and the data traveling on the network Concept Questions 1. Tier 3 providers are smaller yet and focus on getting end users on the Internet. Compare and contrast circuit switching and packet switching.

3. which protects devices and cabling. Business transactions can be time-sensitive. with consequent loss of business Misdirected or lost personal or business funds Stolen company intellectual property (research ideas. which protects the information carried in packets and stored on network-attached devices. but here are some examples based on the curriculum: Streaming video and audio are time-sensitive and will appear or sound choppy. Calls to an emergency response center are time-sensitive. or designs. Answers will vary. The consequences of a lost control signal to an automated piece of heavy machinery. could cause death or dismemberment. The consequence of the calls being dropped or delayed include people dying or suffering needlessly with injuries. Answers will vary. which are the rules that govern how packets are formatted. for example) Private customer contract details becoming known to competitors or made public. confidentiality. Three fundamental security measures include ensuring confidentiality so that only intended and authorized recipients can read data. but here are some examples based on the curriculum: A network outage that stops communications and transactions. The two types of network security concerns are network infrastructure security. and ensuring availability so that timely and reliable access to services is not disrupted by security breaches. and content security. For example. a stock price could change while a buyer is making a purchase if traffic is delayed. maintaining integrity to ensure that information is not altered in transmission. repelling. and delivered. for example. if their traffic is delayed. with lots of starts and stops. 4.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 7 4. and coping with network attacks. List some consequences of a network security breach. patents. . 2. Tools to provide security for individual messages must be implemented on top of the underlying protocols. List some applications that are time-sensitive and the negative consequences of their packets getting dropped or delayed. and integrity Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following questions. resulting in a loss of confidence in the business Loss of sales and eventual company failure because of a loss of public trust in the company’s ability to maintain privacy. Network firewalls can help ensure system reliability by detecting. Production control in factories can be time-sensitive. 1. addressed. 5.

Programmer b. The need to support circuit switching 2. The need to protect networks from unauthorized access f. and flexible as users continue to depend on their networks to help them live. More networks that are open and unconcerned with protection from unauthorized access 3. b. A fault-tolerant network limits the impact of hardware or software failures and recovers quick- ly when a failure occurs. 1.) a. Which of the following is a relatively new information technology (IT) job title? a. Increasing use of simplified network devices e. Which of the following best defines a fault-tolerant network? a. A fault-tolerant network is built to withstand earthquakes. More networks that are locked down so that new applications and services cannot be added d. . A fault-tolerant network supports users who have different viewpoints. Fewer services as networks converge c. and play. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer for each of the following questions.8 Network Fundamentals. The increasing number of mobile users b. Networks will need to be scalable. More users wanting to access web pages in character mode b. Information security officer c. work. c. Network technician d. d. Software engineer 4. Fewer applications as networks converge d. fault-tolerant. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Trends in Networking Data networks continue to evolve quickly. More voice and video transmissions that require a level of consistent quality and uninterrupted delivery c. Modern networks need to be ready to support increasing numbers of users who will make innovative use of the networks to enhance human communication. A fault-tolerant network can expand quickly to support new users and applications without causing errors for existing users. Which of the following are major trends that are contributing to the current evolution of networks? (Choose two. learn. Which of the following is most associated with the concept of converged networks? a.

including skyscrapers and b. Which of the following best defines a scalable network? satellite dishes on mountains. A scalable network supports redundant connections so that alternative paths are available when a device or link fails. . a. c. d. A scalable network is built to support high-altitude environments. A scalable network ensures that priorities are matched with the type of communication and its importance to an organization.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 9 5. A scalable network can expand quickly to support new users and applications without impact- ing the performance of the service being offered to existing users.

The Google Earth Pro version is for professional and commercial use. Currently. Explain the hardware and software requirements needed to use Google Earth (free edition). Which versions support Tilt and 3D rotation? All versions 2. a spreadsheet importer.google.10 Network Fundamentals.4) Upon completion of this activity. Estimated completion time. depending on network speed. Background Google Earth is a popular application that executes on the desktop of most operating systems.1. The URL http://earth. 16-bit high-color screen Scenario This activity is to be performed on a computer that has Internet access and on which you can install software. Use this link to answer the following questions: 1. the following minimum computer hardware requirements must be met: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Operating system: Microsoft Windows 2000 or Windows XP CPU: Pentium 3 with 500 MHz System memory (RAM): 128 MB Hard disk: 400 MB of free space Network speed: 128 kbps Graphics card: 3D-capable with 16 MB of video RAM (VRAM) Screen: 1024×768 pixels. countries. Google Earth displays the Earth as a manipulated 2D or 3D image.html contains a description of the versions. Experiment with Google Earth features such as Help and Tutorial. Explain the different versions of Google Earth. Experiment with Google Earth to explore continents. it requires a broadband connection to the Internet. is 30 minutes. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Labs and Activities Activity 1-1: Using Google Earth to View the World (1. three versions of Google Earth exist.com/product_comparison. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Explain the purpose of Google Earth. Which Google Earth version supports the highest resolution? Google Earth Pro supports 4800 pixels. To use Google Earth. The version that fits most needs is the free version. and other support features. and places of interest. The Google Earth Plus version includes GPS support. The popular world news channel CNN regularly uses Google Earth to show where a news story has occurred. version 4. . Google Earth.1.

Choose View > Overview Map. List the three ways to move the image. Figure 1-2 Google Earth Opening Screen Task 2: Run Google Earth Refer to Figure 1-2.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 11 Task 1: Install Google Earth If Google Earth is not installed on the computer. . The Menu bar is located in the upper-left corner. 2. only a compass is displayed.google. Follow the installation instructions. The navigation controls. Placemark. On the Help menu. What is the purpose of the left mouse button? It rotates the image. Figure 1-2 shows the opening screen for Google Earth. Take a few minutes to browse the User’s Guide. answer the following questions: 1. you may have to disable any popup blockers on your browser. Which mouse control zooms in and out? Right mouse button or scroll wheel. They control the image magnification and position. you can download the free application from http://earth. shown in Figure 1-3. otherwise.com/download-earth. navigation controls. This handy feature provides a relative global position of the magnified image. Before leaving the User’s Guide website. are located in the upper-right quadrant. The mouse pointer must be moved close to the controls. 3.html.google. choose User Guide to launch a default web browser and bring up the Google Earth User’s Guide (http://earth. and the Google Earth download should start automatically. Remember. mouse. Task 3: Navigate the Google Earth Interface Step 1: Use the Overview Map feature. the opening screen. Step 2: Review the navigation controls.com/userguide/v4/).

browse the surrounding area to see if you can determine approximately how old the image is. The image takes you to that site. Geographic coordinates are displayed in the lower-left quadrant of the image. Enter 95134. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 1-3 Google Earth Screen Navigation Tools Tilt. California What if you would like to “Fly To” London. The coordinate measurements are in degrees. For example. Using the pointer and coordinates shown in the lower-left quadrant of the image. state and city are displayed? San Jose. Choose View > Grid to display Google Earth Gridlines.S. it’s the angle between a point and the equator. For example. choose a location that you want to see. Try to find your home using the Search > Fly To folder. Is the resolution for your home the same quality as the Sightseeing location in Step 3? Answers will vary. UK? What data would you need to enter? London.12 Network Fundamentals. If the resolution for your neighborhood is sufficient. United Kingdom.2D or 3D Zoom Rotate or Move Step 3: Use the Sightseeing feature. Common graticule is the grid created by the longitude and latitude lines as depicted on a globe. a U. Some locations have better resolution than others. the equator is an imaginary line dividing the globe into a Northern and Southern Hemisphere. it’s the angle east or west of an arbitrary earth point. Expand Sightseeing. the reference is East (E) or West (W) of the Royal Observatory. When the location has been reached. what are the coordinates of your home? Answers will vary. Step 6: View geographic coordinates. seconds. The equator has a 0° latitude. but the new house next door had not yet been built. The second number is called the longitude. is the international zero-longitude point. UK Step 5: Use the Fly To feature. The combined longitude and latitude are called the common graticule. The first number is called the latitude. experiment with the Places > Sightseeing folder. zip code. Step 4: Experiment with the Search > Fly To folder. The Royal Observatory. and double-click that location. For latitude. and tenths. an image streaming indicator reports when the image resolution is complete.S. On the left navigation bar. . the reference is North (N) or South (S) of the equator. For longitude. one user commented that he found his home. What U. minutes. and some location images are older than others.

Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 13 Task 4: Reflection Google Earth can bring the world into your home or office. Some type of database was used to store the image. Could the image be displayed faster if data compression techniques were used? Answers will vary. Consider network security.3) Upon completion of this activity. A LAN sent your image request across the Internet. For example. Activity 1-2: Identifying Top Security Vulnerabilities (1.html. If so. Step 2. The delay in retrieving the image may have been short or long. Choose Start > Settings > Control Panel.5.colorado. Step 3.google.py?answer=20738&ctx=sibling. Step 4. Could someone eavesdrop on your network connection? Answers will vary. Explain how threats are organized. While enjoying the images. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Use the SANS site to quickly identify Internet security threats. Use the geographic coordinate system to describe your home with as much accuracy and detail as possible. Task 5: Challenge Google Earth displays image coordinates in the lower-left quadrant of the image. turn off the computer. List several recent security vulnerabilities. probably through several WANs and then to another LAN with a computer that returned the image to you. Locate and click Google Earth. satellite communication with an Earth station transmitted the image of your home to a ground location. Task 6: Clean Up You may be required to remove Google Earth from the computer. follow these steps: Step 1.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/coordsys/coordsys. Additional removal information is available at http://earth. Double-click Add or Remove Programs. . depending on the slowest speed of all network connections in the path between the database repository and your computer. consider what digital communication resources were used.com/support/bin/answer. Unless instructed otherwise. Click Remove and follow the prompts.4. Wikipedia also contains a useful definition of common geographic terms. Use the SANS links to access other security-related information. Use the following URL to learn about different coordinate systems: http://www.

CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Background One of the most popular and trusted sites related to defending against computer and network security threats is SANS.sans. and numbers separate category topics. You will use the SANS website as a tool for threat vulnerability identification. Router and switch topics fall under the Network Devices category. as shown in Figure 1-4. and so on). go to http://www. switches. go to http://www. UNIX/Linux. VoIP devices Human elements: Security policies.org/ and select items from the Resources menu. understanding. including web.sans. personnel issues Special section: Security issues not related to any of the preceding categories ■ ■ ■ Scenario This activity introduces you to computer security vulnerabilities. choose top 20 list. instant messaging. SANS stands for SysAdmin. DNS servers. and defense.sans.14 Network Fundamentals. A letter indicates the category type. Using a web browser. Network and Other Devices Common Configuration Weaknesses . Network. and management servers Network devices: Network infrastructure devices (routers. Task 1: Locate the SANS Resources Step 1. human behavior. Security. each a major contributor to information security. peer-to-peer. How can a corporate security administrator quickly identify security threats? SANS and the FBI have compiled their list of the top 20 Internet Security Attack Targets at http://www. media players. database. Audit.org/top20/. Estimated completion time is one hour. Open the SANS Top 20 List. There are two major hyperlink topics: ■ ■ N1. N. backup software.org. Figure 1-4 SANS Menu The SANS Top-20 Internet Security Attack Targets list is organized by category. For additional information about the SANS site. VoIP Servers and Phones N2. On the resources menu. SANS contains several components. The list is regularly updated with information related to the following: ■ ■ Operating systems: Windows. You must complete this lab outside of the Cisco lab from a computer with Internet access. Mac Applications: Cross-platform.

Review the contents of N2. . Step 2. Fill in information about the vulnerability impact: CVSS Severity: Answers will vary. Source: Answers will vary. which contains information about the vulnerability. Answers will vary. References to Advisories. contains links with information about the vulnerability and possible solutions.2. sponsored by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) National Cyber Security Division and US-CERT. Task 3: Collect Data The remainder of this lab walks you through a vulnerability investigation and solution. Authentication: Answers will vary. Open Google and search on wireless router passwords to return links to multiple sites that publish a list of wireless router default administrator account names and passwords. Overview: Answers will vary. and Tools.2 Common Default Configuration Issues. Step 1: Choose a topic to investigate. Failure to change the default password on these devices can lead to compromise and vulnerability by attackers. Step 2. Last revised: Answers will vary. and click a sample CVE hyperlink. The link should open a new web browser connected to http://nvd.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 15 Step 2: Click hyperlink N2. Under the Impact heading are several values. Network and Other Devices Common Configuration Weaknesses to jump to this topic. the current list may not contain the same vulnerabilities as those that were present at the time of this writing. Task 2: Review the SANS Resources Step 1. The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) severity is displayed. Note the CVE references. Step 3. For example.nist.gov/ and the vulnerability summary page for the CVE. Range: Answers will vary. Fill in the following information about the vulnerability: Original release date: Answers will vary. The CVE name is linked to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Vulnerability Database (NVD).2 (as of this writing) contains information about threats associated with default accounts and values. The last line under several topics’ references is Common Vulnerability Exposure (CVE). The next heading. Impact Type: Answers will vary. N2. Using the hyperlinks. Solutions. Note: Because the CVE list changes. It contains a value between 1 and 10. write a brief description of the solution as found on those pages.

However.” In the chat room. allows multiple people to interact. Finding an organization willing to do this may be difficult. When people have wanted immediate contact. you typically create your own identity and can give as little information about yourself as you choose. often called a Buddy List. Use IRC to demonstrate collaboration. and transfer files. Governments have dedicated significant resources to coordinating and disseminating information about the vulnerability and possible solutions. Lab 1-1: Using Collaboration Tools: IRC and IM (1. IRC and IM fit nicely into these requirements. It will also give representatives of the organization an opportunity to meet the class and conduct informal intern interviews. It remains the responsibility of the end user to implement the solution. the telephone has been the technology of choice.1) Upon completion of this lab.16 Network Fundamentals. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Define Internet Relay Chat (IRC) and Instant Messaging (IM). but this will provide beneficial information about how vulnerability mitigation is accomplished in the world. IM clients allow you to have an approved list of users. and data continues to increase. networks. Background E-mail permits multiple users to collaborate. Unfortunately. . Think of ways that users can help strengthen security. for security reasons. a brief hands-on lab will demonstrate the ease of IRC. When you join. Each of these windows represents a two-person communication. If you want to communicate with more than one person at a time. share ideas. unless the user constantly monitors the e-mail account. Think about user habits that create security risks. Although the following discussion focuses primarily on IM. users can easily exchange ideas and files. IM provides one-on-one communication with “accepted” individuals. The recipient of the invitation knows about—and accepts—the IM session based on the other user’s screen name. unread e-mail may go unnoticed for a long period of time. Task 5: Challenge Try to identify an organization that will meet with you to explain how vulnerabilities are tracked and solutions are applied. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 4: Reflection The number of vulnerabilities for computers. on the other hand. List several misuses of and data security issues involving IM. you can open additional IM windows.6. they are implemented differently. the telephone cannot be used to transfer files. What collaborators need for communication in the human network is a tool that has the flexibility of e-mail with the responsiveness of the telephone. To start chatting. Using the Internet or a private corporate network. one person needs to “invite” another. IMing and chatting are both methods of real-time communication.1. you are said to “join a room. Chat also provides a degree of anonymity. you establish a connection to a Chat server and join a discussion on a particular topic. To initiate an instant message. however. List several collaborative uses of IM. IRC.

desktop sharing. This relationship is called an IM network. Throughout this course we will learn about many different protocols. based on the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (EMPP). Encrypted communication is supported. Many of the IM networks use proprietary protocols. Voice over IP (VoIP). Applicable IETF references are RFC 3920 and RFC 3921. This device is called the Instant Messenger Server. AIM and ICQ (purchased by AOL) use the proprietary Open System for Communication in Real Time (OSCAR) protocol. web conferencing. called a protocol. and even IP radio and IPTV. As with proprietary IM protocols. SIPv2 was originally defined in RFC 2543 and was made obsolete by RFC 3261. Figure 1-5 shows the AIM client application connected to the AIM network. any existing connections can be alerted through a contact list—a list of other people that you communicate with through the IM client. notably with Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). Social misuse of IM has been a concern for parents. ■ ■ ■ ■ Protocols Each IM network uses an agreed-upon method of communication. use a piece of software called the Instant Messenger Client. Some IM networks offer audio services. Popular IM networks include America OnLine (AOL) Instant Messenger (AIM). and the server joins clients. The IETF formalized an open standard. Both Microsoft and Yahoo! have proprietary protocols but have partnered services for joint connectivity. AIM and . Many different IM networks are available. Yahoo! Messenger. IM clients connect to an IM server. Child restrictions include limiting IM contacts and providing supervision while online.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 17 IM requires a device providing services that allows users to communicate. IM servers can also incorporate this support. Some IM client applications. such as a computer. such as Gaim and Trillian. Text messaging between clients is possible and can be logged. Windows Live Messenger (MSN). each with a dedicated following of users. Newer services that some IM networks are beginning to provide include videoconferencing. and ICQ (I Seek You). numerous open-source protocols exist. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has attempted to standardize IM protocols. File sharing between IM clients enables work collaboration. Jabber. can differentiate between the various IM network protocols. Figure 1-5 AIM Client Features IM services have several common features: ■ When an IM client connects to the IM network. and many IM networks encourage parental control. This arrangement is called a client/server relationship. The users on the end devices.

IM clients and IM servers have experienced application vulnerabilities. Employ antivirus and antispyware products. Understand that many IM applications can enable associated communications to masquerade as otherwise legitimate traffic (for example. The following list is from the SANS website at http://www. and online communication. enabling users to adapt new technologies for collaboration. Standard users should not be permitted to install software. have been transferred to IM client computers. online time limits. which have resulted in vulnerable computers. (Note: This offers only partial protection because of the number of potential external servers.4 How to Protect Against IM Vulnerabilities and Unauthorized IM Usage ■ Establish policies for acceptable use of IM. and Trojan horses. Another popular handheld appli- . provide a commercial-grade IM proxy or internal IM server. Internet surfing. Consider deploying products specifically designed for IM security. Security Multiple security issues have been identified with IM. Computer worms. Ensure that all users are aware of those policies and clearly understand the potential risks. If a user must have Administrative or Power User privileges. interrelated applications. providing IM services to handheld cellular phones. Block access to known public IM servers that have not been explicitly authorized. (Note: This offers only partial protection because of the number of potential protocols and associated ports and the ability of applications to bypass port restrictions. Filter all HTTP traffic through an authenticating proxy server to provide additional capabilities of filtering and monitoring IM traffic.) Monitor using an Intrusion Detection/Prevention system for users creating tunnels for IM or bypassing proxies. and disabling certain functions of the client. The SANS Institute recommends several countermeasures that system administrators can use to protect their networks from IM vulnerabilities and misuse.18 Network Fundamentals.) Block popular IM ports. chat room blocking. Do not rely on external IM servers for internal use of IM.sans. and the underlying operating system. Ensure that vendor patches are promptly applied to IM software. HTTP). Appropriately configure intrusion detection and prevention systems. Restrict Administrative and Power User level privileges to support personnel acting in their support capacity. Most popular cellular phone manufacturers have their own form of mobile IM. Without strong security methods. Even legitimate users can congest network throughput by transferring large files. information exchanged between users can be captured and disclosed. As a result. Some parental supervision tools include background logging. categorized as malware. For example. viruses. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ The Future of IM The future of IM is promising. blocking specific users. mobile IM supports mobile users. many organizations either limit or block IM from entering the corporate network. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Yahoo! Messenger provide free supervision software tools.org/top20/#c4: C4. Create secure communication paths when using IM with trusted business partners. create a separate account to be used for his or her daily office functions.

Note: Eagle Server is a component of the Cisco Networking Academy. In subsequent chapters you will study in great detail the devices and protocols that are inside the cloud. telephony.” In networking. a cloud is often used to symbolize a more complex network.5. follow the next steps to configure Gaim. An IRC client is available for download from eagle-server at http://eagleserver. . The BlackBerry supports common IM tools. Step 2: Open the Accounts window.example. Open Gaim and select the Login window.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 19 ance is the BlackBerry. This lab uses Gaim as the IRC client. including this one. icon Accounts. for communicating across plain-text links. Figure 1-6 Topology for Lab 1-1 Eagle Server Pod#A Estimated completion time is 45 minutes. Some of the labs in this book. click Add. The Accounts window is shown in Figure 1-7. Step 1: Verify that an IRC client is on the lab computer.com/pub. and web browsing. Scenario Figure 1-6 shows two computers connected to a “cloud. the cloud represents the network and networking devices between an IRC client and a server called eagle-server.com. In this lab. assume that a Cisco Networking Academy instructor has already set up Eagle Server and named it eagleserver.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1. such as text messaging.example. as well as push e-mail. originally described in RFC 1459.exe (a Windows executable) from ftp://eagleserver. such as the Internet.example.0. Accept the default settings during the installation. Figure 1-7 Gaim Accounts Window In the Accounts window. which is not the current focus of this discussion. If not. Task 1: Configure the Chat Client The IRC protocol is an open standard. After verifying that the Gaim chat client is installed. but any IRC client may be used if available. download and install gaim-1.

example. as shown in Figure 1-8: ■ ■ ■ ■ Protocol: IRC Screen Name: (how others will know you) Server: eagle-server. click Save. Figure 1-10 shows the main Gaim IM client window. where the new account to eagle-server should be visible. Figure 1-9 shows the IRC Connect Status window. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 3: Add a new account. Return to the Login window. expand the Show more options option. Task 2: Connect to the Chat Server Step 1: Sign on. used for chatting or IM. Figure 1-9 IRC Connect Status Window Figure 1-10 Gaim IRC Client Window . Fill in required information.20 Network Fundamentals.com Proxy type: No Proxy Gaim Add Account Window Figure 1-8 When you’re finished. Click Sign-on. Two windows should open. Close the Accounts window. In the Add Account window.

Task 4: Reflection On a network with an Internet connection. Most teenagers and young adults today are familiar with IMing between friends and sharing files. Multiple students can join and interact with each other. When the IRC client connects to the IRC server. . Click Chat. and a Buddy List window appears. you will be in a chat room alone (unless other students made a similar error). you should understand the social and security issues with IM and IRC. Answers will vary. As a future network engineer. Figure 1-11 Joining a Chat Note: For you to join a chat channel. the Channel name must start with #. the Gaim IM client can be used to connect to several different IM providers. Task 3: Consider the Chat Session Figure 1-12 shows a brief chat between users root and student2. but you might not understand the communication between the client and server. the status window closes. consider how you—as a parent or network administrator—would manage this type of connection.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 21 Step 2: Join the chat. as shown in Figure 1-11. Figure 1-12 Participating in a Chat During the chat. If the Channel name is incorrect.

If you have ever used Wikipedia. a cloud is often used to symbolize a more complex network that is not the current focus of discussion. A wiki can be installed for . In networking terms. Use the Orientation lab to configure and test connectivity before students arrive in class. or graphics to a common site for other users to read and modify. Use a continuous ping from the host to Eagle Server to monitor network throughput. To gain experience with a wiki.1) Upon completion of this lab. Lab 1-2: Using Collaboration Tools: Wikis and Web Logs (1. you explore the TWiki wiki server installed on Eagle Server in this lab. transfer files between partners. files. If there are connectivity issues with the lab computer connecting to Eagle Server. Observe the response time before and during the file transfer.2. Figure 1-13 shows two computers connected to a “cloud. Task 6: Clean Up Check with your instructor before removing Gaim and shutting down the computer. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 5: Challenge While you are connected in chat. ask the instructor for assistance. Scenario In this lab. In subsequent chapters you will study in great detail the devices and protocols that are inside the cloud. Task 1: Define the Terms Wiki and Blog Wiki is a Hawaiian-language word that means fast. you will use a host computer that connects across the cloud to access the TWiki wiki server. you will be able to ■ ■ Define the terms wiki and blog. you have the opportunity to learn about the different parts of a wiki. A wiki lets you access a home page (first page) that provides a search tool to assist you in locating the articles that interest you.6. Explore wiki features. you are probably familiar with the look and feel of a wiki. Figure 1-13 Topology for Lab 1-2 Eagle Server Pod#A Note to Instructor: The lab should be preconfigured for students. Background The lab topology shown in Figure 1-13 should be configured and ready for use.” In networking. In this lab. a wiki is a web-based collaboration tool that permits almost anyone to immediately post information.22 Network Fundamentals. Write a brief description of the network response time—during file transfers and without file transfers.

wiki. The user not only reads wiki contents but also participates by creating content within a web browser.cgi?WhatIsWiki http://www. is similar to a wiki in that users create and post content for others to read.wikispaces.com/ A web log. 6. It covers the following major topics: 1.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 23 the Internet community or behind a corporate firewall for employee use. groups. but others are more restrictive. Use your browser to upload files as page attachments. Test the page controls. and . and the blog owner controls blog content. The power of a wiki is in the rich hyperlink content. 7. Edit and auto links are available to edit a page and automatically link pages. Get e-mail alerts whenever pages are changed. Open a private account” topic. Take a quick tour. A search engine is used for quick content location. A wiki web is a grouping of pages with different collaboration groups. the following common features have been formalized into every wiki: ■ ■ Any web browser can be used to edit pages or create new content. It is recommended that you open two browsers.. Text formatting is similar to creating an e-mail. Blogs are normally the creation of a single person. ■ ■ ■ For more information on wikis. 5.com. Some blogs permit users to leave comments and provide feedback to the author.org/wiki. similar to a free website or e-mail account. complete the questions in this task. 3. from such providers as www. users have already been created for steps that require login privileges. Following hyperlinks can present continuity problems. Instead. 8. TWiki requires e-mail verification for new accounts. Although many different wiki servers are available. As you investigate each topic in the tutorial. called a blog. Get set.blogger. Change a page and create a new one. Note that you won’t be able to carry out the instructions in the “3. and e-mail has not been configured on the lab host computers. visit the following URLs outside of class: http://www. Open a private account. Task 2: Explore Wiki Features with the TWiki Tutorial The TWiki tutorial explores some of the more common features of a wiki. defining who is permitted to edit content. Point one browser at the TWiki URL. 2. Free Internet blog hosting is available. Access control can be set by the topic creator. Check out TWiki users.. 4.

made up of two or more words with initial capital letters. “Get set.” E-mail is not possible at this time. The key point to understand about this step is that registration is a two-part process.24 Network Fundamentals.. so enter it exactly as shown. Click the TWiki Tutorial link. that hyperlinks to the topic. “Take a quick tour. Any external links that are selected will result in an error.example. Adjust the browser window sizes so that instructions can be viewed in one browser and actions can be performed in the other. Refer to the tutorial. topic 1. users fill in registration information and submit the form to TWiki. topic 3.” and topic 2.” After completing the first two tutorial sections. List the mandatory information required for registration: First Name Last Name E-mail address Your password Retype password Organization name Country .. “Open a private account. Step 3: Complete the TWiki tutorial. shown in Figure 1-14. you will not be able to register. answer the following questions: What is a WikiWord? A WikiWord is a topic name. How many results are returned from a search of WebSearch? 5 Refer to the tutorial. The Sandbox. Open a web browser and connect to the TWiki Sandbox at http://eagleserver. Figure 1-14 TWiki Sandbox Web Step 2: Open the TWiki Tutorial. The URL name is case-sensitive. therefore. First. user IDs have been created for you to use later in this lab.com/twiki/bin/view/Sandbox/WebHome. highlighted in Figure 1-14. to open the wiki tutorial page. Instead. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide use the other browser for “working” pages. Step 1: Establish a web client connection to the Eagle Server wiki. is a web topic designed to test wiki features.

good for printing Edit Raw View Attach Backlinks More History r3 > r2 > r1 Printable Tutorial topic 6. answer the following questions related to user and group issues: How is a user’s password reset? The user selects WikiWord “Reset Password” and enters the login ID. History. The user logs in with the new password and creates a new. using Table 1-5 to log in to the wiki server. Place the following action links: Attach. such as rename/move. How can inappropriate changes be fixed in a wiki topic? A topic revision can be undone by a member of the TWikiAdminGroup. After completing this tutorial section. At this time. answer the following question: What is the latest revision number? 15 In Table 1-4.” is an opportunity for you to add content to the wiki. More. such as who changed what and when View a previous version of the topic or the difference between two versions Goes to a stripped-down version of the page. “Check out TWiki users. After completing this tutorial section. Edit. Tutorial topic 5. “Test the page controls. place the correct action link next to the descriptions of page controls. memorable password. Note to Instructor: This tutorial is an opportunity for the student to create a personalized page. Backlinks. Recognize the student who has the best topic page! . Table 1-4 Description Action Links Action Link Add to or edit the topic Show the source text without editing the topic Attach files to a topic Find out what other topics link to this topic (reverse link) Additional controls. Complete this tutorial. topic 4. “Change a page and create a new one. groups. and setting the topic’s parent Topics are under revision control—shows the topic’s complete change history. The TWiki system generates a new password and sends it to the user’s e-mail account. version control. the user account is added to the TWiki database.” makes you familiar with page-editing commands. and Raw View.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 25 TWiki responds to a registration request by sending an e-mail to the user that contains a unique activation code. Printable. The second part of the registration process is when the user either enters the code in the activation window or responds with e-mail by clicking the TWiki response link.” A list of TWiki users and groups is displayed. r3 > r2 > r1. Refer to the tutorial.

.26 Network Fundamentals. You should use the account that reflects your pod and host computer number. Refer to Table 1-5. cisco. All accounts have the same password. Table 1-5 Account Logins Account Login ID (Case-Sensitive) Lab pod#host# Pod1host1 Pod1host2 Pod2host1 Pod2host2 Pod3host1 Pod3host2 Pod4host1 Pod4host2 Pod5host1 Pod5host2 Pod6host1 Pod6host2 Pod7host1 Pod7host2 Pod8host1 Pod8host2 Pod9host1 Pod9host2 Pod10host1 Pod10host2 Pod11host1 Pod11host2 StudentCcna1 StudentCcna2 StudentCcna3 StudentCcna4 StudentCcna5 StudentCcna6 StudentCcna7 StudentCcna8 StudentCcna9 StudentCcna10 StudentCcna11 StudentCcna12 StudentCcna13 StudentCcna14 StudentCcna15 StudentCcna16 StudentCcna17 StudentCcna18 StudentCcna19 StudentCcna20 StudentCcna21 StudentCcna22 From the lab Wiki Welcome Screen. These accounts are StudentCcna1 through StudentCcna22. a group with private accounts has been created to allow participation in a private TWiki topic. See Figure 1-15. located in the upper-left corner of the page. click the Log In link. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide On Eagle Server.

create a document using Notepad. To complete this tutorial.” details how to receive e-mail alerts whenever a particular page has been updated. Sometimes it is not convenient to return regularly to a . Both the username and password are case-sensitive. Figure 1-16 Login Box This should bring up your wiki topic page. and upload it to the wiki server. What is the default maximum file size that can be transferred? 10 MB Tutorial topic 8. “Get e-mail alerts whenever pages are changed.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 27 Figure 1-15 Log In Link A login box similar to the one shown in Figure 1-16 should appear. Figure 1-17 Wiki Topic Page Tutorial topic 7.” describes the process of uploading files into the wiki. Enter the applicable TWiki username and password cisco. similar to the one shown in Figure 1-17. “Use your browser to upload files as page attachments.

Here are some wikis of possible interest: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ CCNA: http://en. Create a personal blog of your network education experience.nyetwork.com/index.networkdictionary. Task 5: Clean Up Close all web browsers and shut down the computer unless instructed otherwise. and Table 1-6 reflects the addressing information. ] wikiName . Answers will vary.wireshark.3) Figure 1-18 shows the topology for this challenge. alerts are not sent. and add the web name and your e-mail address.1. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide wiki simply to check for updates to postings. the class may be able use the TWiki wiki server to post interesting topics related to computer network theory and class progress.org/ Task 4: Challenge Depending on the type of Eagle Server installation. Usefulness and collaboration will not be realized until you actually join a wiki.wikipedia. Here’s a possible format: three spaces * [ webname . Describe how you could receive e-mail notifications whenever a topic changes. Because e-mail is not configured on the host computer.SMTP mail address three spaces * [ webName .wikibooks. Edit the WebNotify page. ] wikiName three spaces * SMTP mail address three spaces * SMTP mail address : topics three spaces * [ webname .com: CiscoStudentsStuff Task 3: Reflection This lab presented the mechanics of a wiki.org/wiki/Network_Plus_Certification/Study_Guide Network Dictionary: http://wiki.28 Network Fundamentals.org/wiki/Cisco_Systems Wiki web about Cisco equipment and technology: http://www.php/Main_Page Wireshark network protocol analyzer: http://wiki. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Introduction to Packet Tracer (1.org/wiki/CCNA_Certification Cisco Systems corporate history: http://en.7. .wikibooks. Internet access is required.org/wiki/Cisco Network+: http://en. ] wikiName : topics ° ccna1@example.

253 10.255.168.255.0. Explore Packet Tracer operation.254 172.0 255.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 29 Figure 1-18 Topology for Skills Integration Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B Table 1-6 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP R2-Central S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server Fa0/0 S0/0/0 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC 192.0 255.0.254.168.1.10.6 172.255.1 172.255.255.254.10.255.255.6 10.0 255.10.0 255. Examine a device configuration.168.255.16.16.0 255.255.0.10.254.10.255.254 10.16.16. Connect devices.252 255.1.254.255.254 192.255.254 255.255.253 Upon completion of this activity.254 172. Describe the devices.10.2 192.255.6 172.5 172.16.0 — — 10.10. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Explore Packet Tracer Real-time mode.0.16.16. .255.252 255.1 172. Review the standard lab setup.10.255. Explore the Logical Workplace.

You are encouraged to compare the results obtained from Packet Tracer network models with the behavior of real equipment. When you launched this activity from the curriculum. or modify existing files from your instructor or your peers.pka Packet Tracer activity file format. Reset Activity restarts the activity if you want to clear your work or get more practice. The first specific type. The simulator that is used in this course is Packet Tracer. it presents a logical view of the network in realtime mode. You are also encouraged to examine the Help files built into Packet Tracer.30 Network Fundamentals. Packet Tracer is a supplement and not a replacement for experience with real equipment. below the yellow bar. Task 1: Explore the PT Interface Step 1: Examine the Logical Workplace. At the bottom of these instructions are two buttons: ■ ■ Check Results gives you feedback on how much of the activity you have completed. This method provides the widest range of features and the most realistic experience. The first box in the lower left contains symbols that represent groups of devices. They are the result of the . Packet Tracer can create two file formats: . CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Background Throughout the course you will use a standard lab setup created from actual PCs. the pointer resembles a cable connector. these instructions appeared. As you point to the specific devices. this experience can be supplemented by a simulated environment. Step 2: Explore symbols navigation. automatically selects the connection type based on the interfaces available on the devices. Because equipment and time are limited. and study the various devices that are available and their symbols. which include an extensive “My First PT Lab. and features but only a fraction of what is possible with real equipment. Task 2: Explore PT Operations Step 1: Connect the devices using auto connect. and switches to learn networking concepts. Click each group. equipment. The specific connection symbols provide different cable types that can be used to connect devices. routers. you will often use the .pkt files (network simulation model files) and . is the portion of the interface that you use to select and place devices into the Logical Workplace. This is the large area where devices are placed and connected. servers. The lower-left portion of the PT interface.pka files (activity files for practice). the specific devices in the group appear in the box to the right. the gold lightning bolt. When Packet Tracer starts. When you create your own networks in Packet Tracer. When you click one of these symbols. . Packet Tracer provides a set of protocols. This activity gives you an opportunity to explore the standard lab setup using the Packet Tracer simulator. the name of the group appears in the text box in the center.pkt file format. As you move the mouse pointer over these symbols. Click the connections group symbol.” tutorials. When you click this symbol. a description of the device appears in the text box below the specific devices. and information on the strengths and limitations of using Packet Tracer to model networks.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Open the file LSG01-PTSkills1. The main part of the PT interface is the Logical Workplace.

and VLAN membership. and MAC address. The Config tab displays the general configuration information.Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World 31 To connect two devices. and CLI (command-line interface). A terminal emulator. The Physical tab displays components of the device. As you move the mouse pointer over these symbols. The Physical tab displays components of the device. subnet mask. Move the mouse over the devices found in the Logical Workplace. Connect PC-PT 1A to the S1-Central switch. subnet mask. and a simulated web browser can also be accessed using the Desktop tab. New modules can also be added using this tab. New modules can also be added using this tab. IP address. . The Desktop tab allows the user to configure IP address. and wireless. such as device name. DNS. and Desktop. including IP address. click the first device. MAC address. including IP address. Config. port status. and gateway information. The Config tab displays the general information. The CLI tab allows the user to configure the device using the command-line interface. port status. such as device name. MAC address. the device configurations appear in a text box: ■ Router displays port configuration information. and then click the second device. New modules can also be added using this tab. Server displays IP address. and gateway information. and gateway information. Using the auto connection symbol. PC displays IP address. Step 2: Examine device configuration with a mouseover. ■ Server and Hub devices contain two tabs—Physical and Config. such as modules. ■ ■ ■ Step 3: Examine device configuration. default gateway. ■ PC devices contain three tabs—Physical. the command prompt. DNS server. Switch displays port configuration information. Config. such as ports. click the auto connection symbol. make the following connection: ■ ■ Connect Eagle Server to the R1-ISP router. dialup. Click each device type found in the Logical Workplace to view the device configuration: ■ Router and Switch devices contain three tabs—Physical. MAC address. The Config tab displays the device name. The Physical tab displays physical components of the device.

Task 4: Reflection You have completed your first Packet Tracer lab. IP addresses. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Review the Standard Lab Setup The standard lab setup consists of two routers. one server. and two PCs. You are encouraged to obtain Packet Tracer from your instructor or Academy Connections. gateways. one switch. and connections. Each of these devices is preconfigured with such information as device names. . if you have not done so already.32 Network Fundamentals.

that must be sent from one individual or device to another. All of these methods have three elements in common. Concept Questions 1. or flow of data. hands-on skills needed to use some critical tools to help evaluate network communications. use Chapter 2 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 2 in the Networking Fundamentals.CHAPTER 2 Communicating over the Network The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. People exchange ideas using many different communication methods. As you work through this chapter. for assistance. ■ ■ ■ What are the three elements of communication? Message source or sender Destination or receiver Channel or media What is the process of breaking large messages. fill-in-the-blank. What are these three types? Metallic wires within cables Glass or plastic fibers (fiber-optic cable) Wireless transmission ■ ■ ■ . CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. Modern networks primarily use three types of media to interconnect devices. Study Guide The Platform for Communications Communication begins with a message. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of how devices communicate over the network. matching. easier-to-manage pieces called? Segmentation 2. 3. What is the process used to allow many different conversations to be interleaved on a network called? Multiplexing 4. or information. into smaller.

Computer. fiber-optic cable a. wireless connection. file servers. Table 2-1 Term Components of the Network Definition a. PDAs) Network access devices (hubs. or others with authorization. laptops. E-mail. web servers) Mobile handheld devices (such as wireless barcode scanners. WANs. Services b. web browser In Table 2-2. Cat5 cable.34 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 2-1. . WANs. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. and is designed to be accessible only by the organization’s members. Devices b. and Internetworks Network infrastructures can vary greatly in terms of the following: ■ ■ ■ The size of the area covered The number of users connected The number and types of services available This section tests your knowledge of the differences between LANs. 1. switch. Media c. employees. and wireless access points) Network printers Internetworking devices (routers) VoIP phones Communication servers and modems Security cameras Security devices (firewalls) End devices End devices Intermediary device End devices Intermediary device End devices Intermediary device End devices Intermediary device LANs. The term intranet is often used to refer to a private connection of LANs and WANs that belongs to an organization. and internetworks. Table 2-2 Definition End or Intermediary Device Device Type Computers (work stations. switches. router c. identify the definition on the left with either end devices or intermediary devices on the right. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements.

or region. such as a single business. a. WANs use specifically designed network devices to make the interconnections between LANs. campus. WANs. LANs b. A LAN is usually administered by a single organization. and Internetworks Definition a. and Internetworks Number Router Firewall Wireless access point LAN hub LAN switch IP phone Wireless router Wireless media Server Laptop LAN media Desktop computer WAN media 1 7 9 3 2 8 10 13 4 6 12 5 11 . it might be necessary to use a telecommunications service provider (TSP) to interconnect the LANs at the different locations. An individual network usually spans a single geographic area. b. The media connecting the PC to the networking device plugs directly into the NIC. Table 2-3 Term LANs. c. Internetworks In Table 2-4. A global mesh of interconnected networks. 4. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 2-3. WANs.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 35 2. 3. Table 2-4 Device LANs. match the term on the left with the correct symbol number from Figure 2-1. providing services and applications to people within a common organizational structure. When a company or organization has locations that are separated by large geographic distances. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. WANs c.

The most common internetwork protocol is Internet Protocol (IP). ■ What processes do networking protocol suites describe? The process by which networking devices share information about pathways with other networks How and when error and system messages are passed between devices The setup and termination of data transfer sessions ■ ■ .36 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-1 Common Data Network Symbols 1 7 2 IP 8 3 9 4 10 11 5 12 6 13 Protocols All communication. is governed by predetermined rules called protocols. 3. 1. A standard is a process or protocol that has been endorsed by the networking industry and ratified by a standards organization. whether face to face or over a network. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements. All communication. Successful communication between hosts on a network requires the interaction of many different protocols. 2. 4. is governed by predetermined rules called protocols. Concept Questions 1. These protocols are specific to the characteristics of the conversation. A group of interrelated protocols that are necessary to perform a communication function is called a protocol suite. whether face to face or over a network.

continues d. it is common to use a layered model. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. Presentation layer c. Internet layer d. a. functional. and deactivate physical connections for bit transmission to and from a network device. Application layer b. electrical. Protocols describe methods for exchanging data frames between devices over a common media. Network layer . c. and procedural means to activate. Uses packet sequencing and application mapping through port numbers a. match the definition on the right with a term on the left. and the interaction with the layers above and below it. Transport layer e. Application layer b. Describes the mechanical. maintain. A layered model depicts the operation of the protocols occurring within each layer. because protocols that operate at a specific layer have defined information that they act upon and a defined interface to the layers above and below Fosters competition because products from different vendors can work together Prevents technology or capability changes in one layer from affecting other layers above and below Provides a common language to describe networking functions and capabilities ■ ■ ■ Using Layered Models To visualize the interaction between various protocols. Network access layer b. Provides services to the presentation layer to organize its dialogue and to manage data exchange. Provides for common representation of the data transferred between application layer services. Ensures that loss of connection can be recovered and reset if data flow is interrupted before all data is received. b. g. Determines the best path through the network In Table 2-6. Represents data to the user plus encoding and dialog control d. ■ What are some benefits to using a layered model to describe network protocols and operations? Assists in protocol design. Table 2-6 Term OSI Model Definition a. Table 2-5 Term TCP/IP Model Definition a. Transport layer c. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 2-5. Session layer f. Provides the means for end-to-end connectivity between individuals in the human network using data networks. Controls the hardware devices and media that make up the network c.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 37 2.

you can see the different addresses and identifiers that are necessary at each layer. Network Addressing Various types of addresses must be included in a packet to successfully deliver the data from a source application running on one host to the correct destination application running on another. Layer 4 2. In a LAN using Ethernet. Switches c. Data link layer g. The first identifier. Layer 2 c. Physical layer e. 1. and reassemble the data for individual communications between the end devices. this address is called the Media Access Control (MAC) address. transfer. A unique dialogue between devices is identified with a pair of Layer 4 source and destination port numbers that are representative of the two communicating applications. Hubs d. Servers . Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements. Using the OSI model as a guide. Provides connectivity services that route packets from source network to destination network. Defines services to segment. called a frame. What kind of protocols are primarily designed to move data from one local network to another local network within an internetwork? a. 2. d. the host physical address. 1. Which devices make Layer 3 decisions? a. The Layer 2 address is unique on the local network and represents the address of the end device on the physical media. Layer 3 d. Layer 1 b. is contained in the header of the Layer 2 protocol data unit (PDU). Routers b. Layer 2 is concerned with the delivery of messages on a single local network.38 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 2-6 Term OSI Model continued Definition f. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer for each of the questions that follow.

NeoTrace uses available online information to graphically display the route traced on a global map. Others such as NeoTrace are proprietary programs that provide extra information. It can also be useful when performing tasks such as downloading data. for example. Background Route-tracing software is a utility that lists the networks data has to traverse from the user’s originating device to a distant destination network device. The displayed list can help identify data-flow problems when trying to access a service such as a website. it enables the user to identify the path taken to reach a particular destination on the network or across internetworks. This network tool is typically executed in UNIX and similar systems at the command line as follows: traceroute <destination network name or end device address> This network tool is typically executed in Microsoft Windows systems at the command line as follows: tracert <destination network name or end device address> This tool determines the route taken by packets across an IP network. Each router represents a point where one network connects to another network and the packet was forwarded through. such as tracert and NeoTrace. you use two route-tracing programs to examine the Internet pathway to destination networks. This lab assumes the installation of NeoTrace.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 39 Labs and Activities Activity 2-1: Using NeoTrace to View Internetworks (2. Scenario Using an Internet connection. one can trace each mirror to get a good idea of which mirror would be the fastest to use. If multiple websites (mirrors) are available for the same file of data.1) Upon completion of this activity. you might have to turn your firewalls off for this lab. that because of the “meshed” nature of the interconnected networks that make up the Internet and IP’s capability to select different pathways over which to send packets.5. Use tracert and NeoTrace to trace a route from its PC to a distant server. however. Describe the interconnected and global nature of the Internet with respect to data flow. By showing a list of routers traversed. and then the more enhanced NeoTrace program.2. You should perform this activity on a computer that has Internet access and access to a command line. The number of routers is known as the number of “hops” the data traveled from source to destination. two trace routes between the same source and destination conducted some time apart might produce different results. Tools such as traceroute/tracert are usually embedded within the operating system of the end device. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Explain the use of route tracing programs. Note. Remember. some computers running Windows XP might have firewall programs enabled that might prevent tracert and NeoTrace from operating. First. The traceroute (or tracert) tool is often used for network troubleshooting. . you use the Windows embedded tracert utility.

net [195.com from a location in Bavaria.73] so0-0-0-2488M.net [208.de [188. enter tracert www.133.sprintlink.219. Step 3.11] 194.cr1.133. If DNS is not available.g-win.gblx.net [213.internal.ar2.cisco.com [198.694] sl-bb22-sj-5-1. How many hops between the source and destination? Answer varies based on location Example 2-1 shows the successful result when running tracert www.8.g-win.239.cr2.cisco.net [62.net [144. the tracert would have failed.19. because this tool operates at the TCP/IP layers.g-win.com [128.37.cisco.23.LON3.69] sl-bb20-rly-15-1.18.145] ar-augsburg1.gblx. the PC being used must have a working connection to the class/lab network.232.125] sl-bb25-sj-12-0.FRA2.14] sjck-dirty-gw1.96.193] cr-muenchen1.239. Without this name resolution.net [144.107. At the command-line prompt.19.96.9.131.sprintlink.174] pos1-0-622M.219.sprintlink.de [188. Germany.1.FRA2.cisco.210] sl-gw11-sj-10-0.1. the IP address of the destination device rather than the server name has to be entered after the tracert command.dfn.8. Step 2.cisco.com [128.cisco.32.232.dfn.de [10.16.189] sl-bb21-lon-5-0.gblx.5] sjck-sdf-ciod-gw1.25] Over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 <10 ms <10 ms 20 ms <10 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 30 ms 30 ms 30 ms 100 ms 110 ms 171 ms 161 ms 160 ms 170 ms 170 ms 160 ms 160 ms 10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 30 ms 30 ms 30 ms 100 ms <10 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 20 ms 20 ms 31 ms 90 ms 10-37-00-1.dillingen.81] so-6-0-0.141] pos3-0-622M. To trace the route to a distant network.206.sprintllink.net [195.40 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 1: Trace Route to Remote Server Step 1.g-win. Examine the output displayed.net [144.sprintlink.207.sprintlink.106] www.cisco.74.25] 110 ms 110 ms 160 ms 170 ms 160 ms 170 ms 181 ms 160 ms 151 ms 160 ms 151 ms 160 ms 160 ms 161 ms 150 ms 161 ms Trace complete.sprintlink.br1. The lab Domain Name Service (DNS) server was able to resolve the name to an IP address.net [144.317.de [188.LON3.com [198.0.com.com Tracing route to www.74.3.3. The first output line should show the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) followed by the IP address.net [144.232.de [188.25] sl-bb20-msq-10-0. Example 2-1 tracert Output C:\> tracert www.107. Trace the route to a distant network.dfn.dfn. which understand valid IP addresses only.gblx.1.44.48.228.95.alp.232.1.11 ar-augsburg2.net [144.232.33] cr-frankfurt1.134] sl-ciscopsn2-11-0-0. .

com in the Target field and click Go. Task 3: Reflection Review the purpose and usefulness of route-tracing programs. you can click the Advanced button. Step 5. Launch the NeoTrace program. Relate the displays of the output of NeoTrace to the concept of interconnected networks and the global nature of the Internet. Then. Therefore. Destination URL: Answer varies based on URL Destination IP address: Answer varies based on URL Task 2: Trace Route Using NeoTrace Step 1. Step 6. choose Options. Map View from the View menu displays the links and routers in their geographic location on a global map.cisco. Select each view in turn and note the differences and similarities. properly shut down the computer. Unless instructed otherwise by your instructor. Follow the instructions to select your country and location within your country.com: Answer varies based on location Step 5. and examine your output. Consider which technical details are revealed and how this information could perhaps be misused. Step 2. Task 4: Challenge Consider and discuss possible network security issues that could arise from the use of programs such as traceroute and NeoTrace. On the View menu.cisco. which enables you to enter the precise latitude and longitude of your location. Step 7. Try a number of different URLs and view the routes to those destinations. . and in the Home Location section click the Set Home Location button. Step 3. a DNS server was able to resolve the name to an IP address. Task 5: Clean Up Exit the NeoTrace program. Enter www. followed by the IP address. From the View menu.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 41 The first output line shows the FQDN. List View displays the list of routers similar to tracert. Step 4. Alternatively. Step 4. Node View from the View menu displays the connections graphically with symbols. there are listings of all routers through which the tracert requests had to pass to get to the destination. Click the Map tab. Try another trace route on the same PC. Try the same trace route on a PC connected to the Internet and examine your output: Number of hops to www.

In the basic portion of this lab. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Correctly identify cables for use in the network. which allows the data to reach the appropriate destination device.6. The network layer (Layer 3) requires a unique address (also known as a logical address or IP address). as shown in Figure 2-2.1. Background Many network problems can be fixed at the physical layer of a network.42 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 2-1: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2. Addressing for this lab is applied to the workstations and is used to enable communication between the devices. The type of media required depends on the type of device being connected. you need to understand clearly which cables to use for your network connections. In addition.1) Upon completion of this lab. Scenario This lab starts with the simplest form of networking (peer to peer) and ends with the lab connecting through a switch. At the physical layer (Layer 1) of the OSI model. you use straight-through or patch cables to connect workstations and switches. Figure 2-2 Topology for Lab 2-1 Peer-to-Peer Network Switched Network . two or more devices communicate through an address. end devices must be connected by media (cables). Verify basic connectivity on each network. Physically cable a peer-to-peer and switched network. Therefore.

right-click My Network Places. Connect two workstations. This is an Ethernet cable. Notice when you look at the plug that both ends of the cable are exactly the same in each pin position. Using the correct Ethernet cable.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 43 Task 1: Create a Peer-to-Peer Network Step 1. connect two workstations together. The cables used in this lab are crossover and straight-through. . This is also an Ethernet cable. Obtain the following equipment and resources for the lab: ■ ■ ■ ■ Two workstations Two straight-through (patch) cables One crossover cable One switch (or hub) Task 2: Identify the Cables Used in a Network Before the devices can be cabled. Select a lab partner. as shown in Figure 2-3. Notice when you look at the plug that the orange and green wires are in opposite positions on each end of the cable. a. Task 3: Cable the Peer-to-Peer Network Step 1. See Figure 2-4. Apply a Layer 3 address to the workstations. with icons showing the different network connections. Figure 2-3 Peer-to-Peer Cabling Which cable did you use? Crossover cable Step 2. Note: These steps must be completed on each workstation. use the following step-by-step instructions. Use a crossover cable to connect two workstations to each other through their network interface card (NIC) Ethernet port. Steps may differ slightly if you are using a different operating system. The Network Connections window should appear. you must identify the types of media you intend to use. To complete this task. Use a straight-through cable to connect the router’s Ethernet port to a switch port or a workstation to a switch port. Connect one end of the cable to the NIC port on PC1 and the other end of the cable to PC2. click Start. The instructions are for Windows XP. On your computer. Step 2. and then click Properties.

1.3 for PC2. and then click the Properties button. Enter the IP address 192. enter the IP address 192. . Right-click the Local Area Connection and click Properties. e. Select the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) item as shown in Figure 2-5. Figure 2-5 Local Area Connection Properties d. On the General tab of the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window.168. select the Use the following IP address option.44 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-4 Network Connections b.1. In the IP address box. c.2 for PC1.168.

The DOS command (cmd.255. click Start. the subnet mask lists automatically. Figure 2-7 Run Command Enter cmd in the Open box. and then click OK. enter the address manually.255. Step 3. Click OK. You can enter DOS commands using this window. . Verify connectivity. The subnet address should be 255.0.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 45 f. you enter basic network commands to test your computer connections. Press the Tab key.exe) window will appear as shown in Figure 2-8. as shown in Figure 2-6. If this address is not automatically listed. On your computer. The dialog box shown in Figure 2-7 appears. and then click Run. h. For the purposes of this lab. Figure 2-6 Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties g. Close the Local Area Connection Properties window.

router.3. server.1. enter ping 192.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.1. and so on) is reachable across an IP network.168.1.168.1.168.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.168.168.1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.168. What is the output of the ping command? Answer for PC1: Reply from 192.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Answer for PC2: Reply from 192.168. Use the ping command to verify that PC1 can reach PC2 and PC2 can reach PC1.168. enter ping 192.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 If the ping command displays an error message or doesn’t receive a reply from the other workstation.168. Possible areas to troubleshoot include the following: ■ Verifying the correct IP addresses on both workstations .2.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.1.46 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-8 cmd Command The ping command is a computer network tool used to test whether a host (workstation. troubleshoot as necessary.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.1.168.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.1. From the PC2 DOS command prompt. From the PC1 DOS command prompt.1.1. Step 4.

Connect the workstation to a switch. Repeat this process for each workstation on your network. Figure 2-9 Switched Network 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B Step 2. as shown in Figure 2-9. Using the correct cable. connect one end of the cable to the NIC port on the workstation and the other end to a port on the switch. Which cable did you use? Straight-through cable .Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 47 ■ Ensuring that the correct type of cable is used between the workstations What is the output of the ping command if you unplug the network cable and ping the other workstation? Answer for PC1: Destination host unreachable Destination host unreachable Destination host unreachable Destination host unreachable Task 4: Connect Your Workstations to the Classroom Lab Switch Step 1.

however. A hand symbol will appear under the icon. switch powered off Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2. Share a document between PCs.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. The test folder should appear. Verify network connectivity by using the ping command to reach the other workstations attached to the switch. media disconnected. Verify connectivity. Double-click the workstation icon.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. Task 5: Reflection What could prevent a ping from being sent between the workstations when they are directly connected? Wrong IP address on workstation.1. Place a file in the folder.1. On the desktop. What is the output of the ping command? Answer for PC1: Reply from 192. When you can see it and work with the file.1. and media disconnected What could prevent the ping from being sent to the workstations when they are connected through the switch? Wrong IP address.48 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 3. Remember. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.1. On your desktop.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab2612. .168. double-click My Network Places and then Computers Near Me.168. create a new folder and name it test.168.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 What is the output of the ping command if you ping an address that is not connected to this network? Answer for PC1: Request timed out Request timed out Request timed out Request timed out Step 4. Right-click the folder and click Sharing and Security. or a misconfiguration of the switch.6.1.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192. pinging wrong IP address.168. You can access this folder across the network. you have access through all seven layers of the OSI model. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.

analysis. the screen shown in Figure 2-10 displays. Scenario To capture PDUs. When Wireshark is launched.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 49 Lab 2-2: Using Wireshark to View Protocol Data Units (2. Experiment with Wireshark features and options such as PDU capture and display filtering. Wireshark was known as Ethereal. Perform basic PDU capture using Wireshark. As data streams travel back and forth over the network. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Explain the purpose of a protocol analyzer (Wireshark). Before June 2006.2. the computer on which Wireshark is installed must have a working connection to the network. Background Wireshark is a software protocol analyzer. Wireshark is programmed to recognize the structure of different network protocols. the sniffer “captures” each protocol data unit (PDU) and can decode and analyze its content according to the appropriate RFC or other specifications.1) Upon completion of this lab. and Wireshark must be running before any data can be captured.6. software and protocol development. It is a useful tool for anyone working with networks and can be used with most labs in the CCNA courses for data analysis and troubleshooting. Figure 2-10 Wireshark Opening Screen .org. A packet sniffer (also known as a network analyzer or protocol analyzer) is computer software that can intercept and log data traffic passing over a data network. and education. For information and to download the program.Wireshark. This enables it to display the encapsulation and individual fields of a PDU and interpret their meaning. used for network troubleshooting. go to http://www. Perform basic PDU analysis on straightforward network data traffic. or “packet sniffer” application.

From the Interface dropdown list. Figure 2-12 Wireshark Capture Options . the two highlighted in Figure 2-12 deserve examination. select Options from the Capture menu.50 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide To start data capture. Typically. shown in Figure 2-11. select the network adapter in use. Figure 2-11 Wireshark: Capture Options Dialog Box First. you can set the other options. for a computer this is the connected Ethernet adapter. you must ensure that Wireshark is set to monitor the correct interface. Among those available in the Capture Options dialog box. Then. provides a range of settings and filters to determine which and how much data traffic is captured. The Capture Options dialog box.

Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 51 If the Capture packets in promiscuous mode feature is not checked. . If this feature is checked. Wireshark also provides a number of other capture-filtering and capture-process settings. Figure 2-13 Wireshark Capture Start As data PDUs are captured. Clicking the Start button starts the data-capture process. switches. The examples in Figure 2-14 show the capture of a ping process (box on left) and then accessing a web page (box on right). only PDUs destined for this computer will be captured. Note: The capturing of these other PDUs depends on the intermediary device connecting the end-device computers on this network. the types and number are indicated in the message box. Although this is a useful feature. routers) throughout these courses. perhaps distorting the analysis. As you use different intermediary devices (hubs. you will experience the different Wireshark results. and a message box displays the progress of this process (as shown in Figure 2-13). the name-resolution process might add extra PDUs to your captured data. The Enable transport name resolution option allows you to control whether Wireshark translates network addresses found in PDUs into names. those that “pass by” the NIC but are not destined for the computer) are captured. all PDUs destined for this computer and all those detected by the computer NIC on the same network segment (that is.

If you select a line in this pane. The packet details pane shows the current packet (selected in the pack- . more details will display in the packet details pane and in the packet bytes pane. Packet number one is selected in this pane. By clicking packets in this pane.52 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-14 Wireshark Capture Output When the Stop button is clicked. the capture process is terminated and the main screen displays. as shown in Figure 2-15. Figure 2-15 Wireshark Capture Main Panes The PDU (or packet) list pane at the top of Figure 2-15 displays a summary of each packet captured.Wireshark.org was accessed. The PDU (or packet) details pane in the middle of Figure 2-15 displays the packet selected in the packet list pane in more detail. Each line in the packet list corresponds to one PDU or packet of the captured data. This main display window of Wireshark has three panes. The example in Figure 2-15 shows the PDUs captured when the ping utility was used and http://www. you control what displays in the other two panes.

and highlights the field selected in the packet details pane. The packet list pane on Wireshark should now look something like Figure 2-17. In this lab. After receiving the successful replies to the ping in the command-line window. stop the packet capture. this pane is not examined in detail. The packet bytes pane shows the data of the current packet (selected in the packet list pane) in what is known as hexdump style. Task 1: Ping PDU Capture Step 1.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 53 et list pane) in a more detailed form. However. The information displayed when a capture file is opened is the same as the original capture. This pane shows the protocols and protocol fields of the selected packet. which you can expand and collapse. After ensuring that the standard lab topology and configuration is correct. You can save the information captured for the data PDUs in a file.168. Figure 2-16 Wireshark Save Option Clicking Continue without Saving closes the file and exits Wireshark without saving the captured data. Step 2.254. and then open this file in Wireshark for later analysis without having to recapture the same data traffic. a prompt asks whether you want to save the captured PDUs. In this case. Set the capture options as described in the preceding section. . ping the Eagle Server using the command ping 192. The PDU (or packet) bytes pane at the bottom of Figure 2-15 displays the actual data (in hexadecimal form representing the actual binary) from the packet selected in the packet list pane. as shown in Figure 2-16. launch Wireshark on a computer in a lab pod. you will find this displayed information useful for examining the binary values and content of PDUs. and then start the capture process. ping the IP address of another network-connected and poweredon end device in the lab topology. When closing a data-capture screen or exiting Wireshark.254. The protocols and fields of the packet display in a tree form. Examine the packet list pane. when a more in-depth analysis is required. From the command line.

11. . 12.54 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-17 Wireshark Packet List Pane Look at the packets listed in Figure 2-17. 8. The packet details pane will now display something similar to Figure 2-18. If you performed Step 1. 9. particularly packet numbers 6. match the messages displayed in the command-line window when the ping was issued with the six packets captured by Wireshark. 7. Step 3. Locate the equivalent packets on the packet list on your computer. and 15. answer the following: What protocol is used by ping? ICMP What is the full protocol name? Internet Control Message Protocol What are the names of the two ping messages? Echo Request Echo Reply Are the listed source and destination IP addresses what you expected? Why? Answers may vary. and the destination is the Eagle Server. the source address is my computer. From the Wireshark packet list. Select (highlight) the first echo request packet on the list. 14. Yes.

and the Internet Protocol shows the IP addresses. For example. Locate the two different types of “source” and “destination. if you select (highlight) the second line (+ Ethernet II) in the details pane. make a note of the information you do recognize.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 55 Figure 2-18 Wireshark Packet Details Pane Click each of the four plus sign (+) buttons to expand the information. as shown in Figure 2-20. Expanded As you can see. . all or part of the information in the packet bytes pane also becomes highlighted. What protocols are in the Ethernet frame? eth:ip:icmp:data As you select a line in the packet details pane. Figure 2-19 Wireshark Packet Details Pane. Spend some time scrolling through this information. the bytes pane highlights the corresponding values. The packet details pane will now display something similar to Figure 2-19. you can further expand the details for each section and protocol.” Why are there two types? The Ethernet II shows the MAC addresses. Although at this stage of the course you might not fully understand the displayed information.

150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1/gaim1.com Connected to eagle-server.168.exe (6967072 bytes). At this stage of the course.08Kbytes/sec. The output will look similar to Example 2-2. When the connection is established. enter anonymous as the user without a password.5.0. Start packet capture.example. Example 2-2 Eagle Server Output C:\Documents and Settings\ccna1>ftp eagle-server. 226 File send OK.com:(none)): anonymous 331 Please specify the password. Go to the File menu and select Close.example. as follows: Userid: anonymous Password: <ENTER> You may alternatively log in with userid cisco and password cisco. Password:<ENTER> 230 Login successful.exe 200 PORT command successful. User (eagle-server. 220 Welcome to the eagle-server FTP service. When the file download is complete.5. start packet capture by clicking the Start option on the Capture menu of Wireshark. Task 2: FTP PDU Capture Step 1. At the command line on your computer running Wireshark. enter ftp 192. enter quit.com.exe and press the Enter key <ENTER> to start downloading the file from the FTP server. as follows: ftp> quit 221 Goodbye. ftp: 6967072 bytes received in 0.56 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 2-20 Wireshark Packet Expanded. When successfully logged in.59Seconds 11729. Highlighted Pane This line shows the particular binary values that represent that information in the PDU.5.254. Click Continue without Saving when the message box shown in Figure 2-16 appears. Assuming Wireshark is still running from the previous steps. Consider using PASV. enter get /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1/gaim-1.example. C:\Documents and Settings\ccna1> When the file has successfully downloaded. ftp> get /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1/gaim-1. .0. it is not necessary to understand this information in detail.0.254. stop the PDU capture in Wireshark. Step 4.

] Locate recurring TCP exchanges throughout the FTP process. View the packet details in the details pane. Examine packet details. If you performed Step 2. Response: 220 Welcome to the eagle-server FTP service. FTP. In the details and bytes panes. Identify the three groups of PDUs associated with the file transfer.exe.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 57 Step 2. Request:QUIT. These will be the PDUs from the Layer 4 protocol. ACK]. match the packets with the messages and prompts in the FTP command-line window.5. What feature of TCP does this indicate? Send and receipt of data Step 3. 1292 > ftp [SYN]. What protocols are encapsulated in the frame? Eth:ip:tcp:ftp-data Highlight the packets containing the username and password. 1294 > ftp-data [ACK. Increase the size of the Wireshark packet list pane and scroll through the PDUs listed. Request: Pass. note the plain text visible in the bytes pane. the actual download request and the data transfer). What does this indicate about the security of this FTP login process? Security isn’t high because the name and password are visible. FTP Data: 1448 bytes. Response: 331 Please specify the password.” List examples of messages exchanged during this process. and the Layer 7 protocol. From any pane. highlight and examine some packets exchanged in the third phase of the file download. Examine the highlighted portion in the packet bytes pane. 1292 > ftp [FIN.0. Locate and list examples of messages exchanged in the second phase (that is. Request: User anonymous. ACK. ACK]. The first group is associated with the “connection” phase and logging in to the server. Answers will vary. FTP > 1292 [SYN. Response: 221 Goodbye. Select (highlight) a packet on the list associated with the first phase of the FTP process. Highlight a packet associated with the second phase. List examples of messages exchanged in this phase. locate the packet containing the filename. 1292 > ftp [ACK]. The filename is gaim-1.] The third group of PDUs relate to logging out and “breaking the connection. Highlight a packet containing the actual file content. Answers will vary. TCP. Locate and note those PDUs associated with the file download. ftp >1292 [FIN. . Answers will vary.

Step 3. highlight an HTTP packet that has the notation “(text/html)” in the Info column. Launch a web browser on the computer that is running Wireshark. In the packet details pane.168. When this information expands. Start packet capture. Step 2. Relate this to the OSI and TCP/IP layer models. ACK] is issued to close the connection. Increase the size of the Wireshark packet list pane and scroll through the PDUs listed. In the packet list pane. This shows the HTML data carried by the packet. Wireshark could show when a request for a web page failed because of an incorrect URL. close the Wireshark file and continue without saving. Task 4: Reflection Consider the encapsulation information pertaining to captured network data Wireshark can provide. Locate and identify the TCP and HTTP packets associated with the downloaded web page. Answers may vary. Note the similarity between this message exchange and the FTP exchange.58 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Which features distinguish the content of these packets? A [FIN. It is important that you can recognize and link both the protocols represented and the protocol layer and encapsulation types of the models with the information provided by Wireshark. close the Wireshark file and continue without saving. Also. Assuming Wireshark is still running from the previous steps. After the web page has fully downloaded. Task 3: HTTP PDU Capture Step 1. . When you have finished. stop the Wireshark packet capture. click the + box next to Line-based text data: html.254. When finished.com or enter the IP address 192. User traffic could be monitored to identify errors in source or destination. Task 5: Challenge Discuss how you could use a protocol analyzer such as Wireshark to troubleshoot the failure of a web page to download successfully to a browser on a computer. Note: Capture options do not have to be set if you are continuing from previous steps of this lab. what is displayed? HTML code for the web page Examine the highlighted portion of the bytes pane.254. start packet capture by clicking the Start option on the Capture menu of Wireshark. Enter the URL of the Eagle Server as example. identify data traffic on a network that is requested by users.

3) In this activity. and analyzing a model of the Exploration lab network. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Using Packet Tracer to View Protocol Data Units (2. You can now open the file LSG01-PTSkills2. Remember. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. Remember. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.1. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 59 Task 6: Cleanup Unless instructed otherwise by your instructor.6. Figure 2-21 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B . you start building.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab2622.2. and Table 2-7 reflects the addressing information.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. however.7. exit Wireshark and properly shut down the computer. testing. however. Skills Integration Challenge: Examining Packets (2. Figure 2-21 shows the topology for this challenge.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to do the challenge lab using Packet Tracer.

255. Two buttons appear at the bottom of these instructions: Check Results (which gives you feedback on how much of the activity you have completed) and Reset Activity (which starts the activity over. If you have not done so already.16.10.1.255. in case you want to clear your work or gain more practice).0 255.0 N/A N/A 10. subnet mask 255.255.254. and switches to learn networking concepts.0. you will often use the PKT file format.10. This activity provides an opportunity to explore the standard lab setup using the Packet Tracer simulator.255.16.168.0 255.254.254 255.255.255.0 255. default gateway 172. servers.168. or modify existing files from your instructor or your peers.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Upon completion of this activity. display name 1B. you are encouraged to examine the Help files available from the Help pull-down menu at the top of the Packet Tracer GUI. In this activity.16.255. .6 10.2.252 255. Resources include a “My First PT Lab” to help you learn the basic operation of Packet Tracer.6 172. and information about the strengths and weaknesses of using Packet Tracer to model networks.253 10.255.60 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 2-7 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.255. Add simple PDUs in real-time mode.1 172.254.255.5 172.1.254.254 172.10.255.255.0.1 172. Background Throughout the course.254 10. When you launched this activity from the curriculum. They are the result of the PKA Packet Tracer activity file format.16.16.2 192.255.255.254.255.168.255.10. routers. you continue learning how to build and analyze this standard lab topology.252 255. you will be using a standard lab setup created from actual PCs. Analyze PDUs in simulation mode.0.254.254 192. Task 1: Complete the Topology Add a PC to the workspace.0. DNS server 192. Configure it using the following parameters: IP address 172. Experiment with the model of the standard lab setup.255.10.1.10. these instructions appeared.0 255.10.16. tutorials to guide you through various tasks.16.254 172. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Complete the topology. When you create your own networks in Packet Tracer.254.168.16.0.255.16.0.10.6 172. Packet Tracer can create two file formats: PKT files (network simulation model files) and PKA files (activity files for practice).0 255. Connect PC 1B to the Fa0/2 port of the S1-Central Switch and check your work with the Check Results button to see that the topology is complete.

.Chapter 2: Communicating over the Network 61 Task 2: Add Simple PDUs in Real-Time Mode Using the Add Simple PDU. or click the colored square in the Info column of the event list. and in the lower right as a user-created PDU that can be manipulated for testing purposes. Task 4: Experiment with the Model of the Standard Lab Setup The standard lab setup will consist of two routers. Note that this packet will appear in the event list as something that was “detected” or “sniffed” on the network. Try creating different combinations of test packets and analyzing their journey through the network. Each of these devices is preconfigured. you are encouraged to obtain Packet Tracer from your instructor and complete My First PT Lab (available by accessing the Help pull-down menu and choosing Contents). Double-click the red “Fire” button in the User-Created PDU window. send a test message: one between PC 1B and Eagle Server. Task 5: Reflection If you have not already done so. one server. Click the packet envelope. and two PCs. Task 3: Analyze PDUs in Simulation Mode (Packet Tracing) Switch to simulation mode. to examine the packet at each step in its journey. one switch. Use the Capture / Forward button to move the packet through the network.

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and session layers. As you work through this chapter. presentation. the OSI and TCP/IP models provide a means by which you can visualize and discuss the flow of networking. How the human network generates data and how that data then enters the computer network is discussed. In this section you explore the upper layers of both the OSI and TCP/IP models. matching. Study Guide Applications: The Interface Between the Networks Visualizing the mechanisms that enable communication across the network is easier if you use the layered framework of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. fill-in-the-blank. or use the corresponding Chapter 3 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. as shown in Figure 3-1. use Chapter 3 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. Application layer software and application layer services and protocols are examined in the labs. for assistance. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the TCP/IP model application layer and the OSI model application. hands-on skills needed to work with the application layer of the OSI model. When placed side by side. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. Figure 3-1 OSI and TCP/IP Models OSI Model 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 4 3 2 1 Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Application Layers TCP/IP Model Domain Name System Application Hypertext Transfer Protocol Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Post Office Protocol Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Transport Internet Data Flow Layers Network Access .CHAPTER 3 Application Layer Functionality and Protocols The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice.

and encryption e. HTTP. Define the meaning of any informational fields. GIF. What is meant by the term application layer services? Why are protocols important when used in conjunction with application layer services? Software programs need the assistance of application layer services to use network resources. Generally defines the protocols in the TCP/IP suite a. Layer 7 c. Specify what to do with corrupted or improperly formatted messages. Top layer of the OSI model g. Protocol used to provide remote access to servers and network work devices c. Network-aware applications are software programs used to communicate over the network. 2. Request For Comments (RFC) h. Presentation layer d. Define the syntax of a message. DNS. These software programs are considered network-aware if they implement the application layer protocols and can communicate directly with the lower layers of the protocol stack. compression. Functions at this layer create and maintain dialogs between source and destination applications f. Application layer b. FTP g. Telnet h. . What does the term network-aware application mean? List a few examples. Protocols define the standards and data formats used. the data network would not have a common way to format and direct data. Define the format of a message. Session layer e. Without protocols. This layer provides coding. 3. Define the start and end of a message. Define the types of messages. match the term on the left with its definition on the right. SMTP. Table 3-1 Term OSI and TCP/IP Model Comparison Definition a. such as file transfer or network print spooling. JPEG. Graphic image formats Concept Questions 1.64 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 3-1. Top layer of both the OSI and TCP/IP models d. Define processes on either end of the communication. It is difficult to generalize about protocols because they vary so greatly in purpose. The most widely known TCP/IP application layer protocols that provide for the exchange of user information b. TIFF f. Email clients and web browsers are a couple of examples. Define how messages are sent and the expected response. but what properties do application protocols display? Answers will vary. Define interaction with the next lower layer.

Device requesting information c. but not at the same time c. Device responding to the request d. match the term on the left with its definition on the right. If that is the case. Can be on a client and/or a server a. Peer-to-peer networks b. Across the peer-to-server network 2. a request to access that information must be made to the device where the data resides. a single client requesting a service b.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 65 Making Provisions for Applications and Services When people attempt to access information on their device. multiple clients requesting services. Web browser e. the data may not be physically stored on their device. whether it is a PC. simultaneously but as separate transactions d. Hosted on a web server f. or some other device connected to a network. a. Peer-to-peer networks b. laptop. Table 3-2 Term Application Layer Terms Definition a. PDA. Web services d. 1. cell phone. multiple clients requesting services. simultaneously and as a single transaction .) a. Server c. Across the intranet only e. Peer-to-peer applications can be used on which of the following? (Choose all that apply. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer(s) for each of the following questions. Client/server networks c. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 3-2. Two or more computers are connected via a network and can share resources (such as printers and files) without having a dedicated server. Client b. A Telnet server may have _____________. Telnet services f. Hosted on a client e. Across the Internet d. multiple clients requesting services.

66 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Application Layer Protocols and Services Examples As you will see later in this course. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. the most popular network service. 8. 7. DHCP allows a host to obtain an IP address dynamically when it connects to the network. When a web address (or URL) is entered into a web browser. A DNS server provides name resolution using the name daemon. 9. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 3-3. sends a request message to a server. Telnet a. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) g. Domain Name System (DNS) f. the transport layer uses an addressing scheme called a port number. Sharing files over the Internet has become extremely popular. TCP port 23 f. The Server Message Block (SMB) is a client/server file-sharing protocol. When a client. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) d. With peer-to-peer applications . TCP/UDP port 53 b. Table 3-3 Port Number Port Numbers and Protocols Protocol a. The FTP client is an application that runs on a computer that is used to push files to and pull files from a server. E-mail. people can make files on their hard disks available to others for downloading. has revolutionized how people communicate through its simplicity and speed. 10. typically a web browser. Port numbers identify applications and application layer services that are the source and destination of data. TCP ports 20 and 21 b. UDP port 110 e. Post Office Protocol (POP) e. 4. 5. TCP port 25 d. 6. the web browser establishes a connection to the web service running on the server using the HTTP protocol. 3. TCP port 80 c. Server programs generally use predefined port numbers that are commonly known by clients. UDP port 67 g. 2. The e-mail server operates two separate processes: Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) and Mail Delivery Agent (MDA). based on the Gnutella protocol. match the port number on the left with its protocol on the right. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) c. DNS uses a hierarchical system to create a name database to provide name resolution. HTTP defines the message types that the client uses to request the web page and also the message types the server uses to respond. 1.

transport. Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) b. Internet. c. Mail User Agent (MUA) d. b. Application. Data transfer from a client to a server is referred to as which of the following? a. Query b. What is the most popular application service? a. session. d. Resolve domain names to computer names. data link. presentation. It uses file servers. The Domain Name System (DNS) was created to do what? a. transport. Which of the following best describes a peer-to-peer network? a. Upload d. b. World Wide Web b. Application. 6. Application. Mail Delivery Agent (MDA) 4. It centralizes the resources on a network. Telnet provides a standard method of emulating text-based terminal devices over the data network. abstract representation created as a guideline for network protocol design. session. data link. transport. It uses the client/server model. and physical d. E-mail c. Pull 5. eBay 3. Internet. Internet. Resolve domain names to IP addresses. Resolve domain names to MAC addresses. d. network. data link. The e-mail server operates which two separate processes? a. The Open Systems Interconnection reference model is a layered. Application. The OSI model divides the networking process into which seven layers? a. session. presentation. presentation. network. and physical c. Mail Transfer Bridge (MTB) c. Resolve domain names to e-mail addresses. network. It decentralizes the resources on a network. Download c. . 1. c. presentation.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 67 11. and physical 2. and physical b. P2P d. transport. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer(s) for each of the following questions.

subnet masks. Country of origin c. Which service automates the assignment of IP addresses. gateway. Type of organization b.) a. To receive e-mail messages from an e-mail server. HTTPS b. STelnet 9. DHCP . SHTTP c. Company or brand name d. File server name 8. POP 10. The different top-level domains represent which of the following? (Choose all correct answers. TFTP c. For secure communication across the Internet. and other IP networking parameters? a. HTTP d. SMTP b. SMTP b. SSH c.68 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 7. the e-mail client can use which of the following protocols? a. STP d. Telnet d. which protocol is used to access or post web server information? a.

or it can be transferred for storage on another device. you will use a microphone and Microsoft Sound Recorder to capture an audio stream. Estimated completion time.html. Record an audio file. or create sounds that the microphone can pick up.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 69 Labs and Activities Activity 3-1: Data Stream Capture (3. Scenario Perform this activity on a computer that has a microphone and Microsoft Sound Recorder or Internet access so that you can download an audio file.1. as shown in Figure 3-3. The Sound Recorder interface is shown in Figure 3-2. you can download an audio file to use in this activity from http://newsroom. click the Record button on the Sound Recorder interface.4. Record the file’s characteristics. You can find the application in Windows XP by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Entertainment > Sound Recorder. Examine data transfer rates associated with the file. If a microphone and Microsoft Sound Recorder are not available. Microsoft Sound Recorder is a Windows accessory. Speak into the microphone. To begin recording. the sound’s waveform should appear on the Sound Recorder interface. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Capture or download an audio stream.cisco. is 30 minutes.com/dlls/podcasts/audio_feeds. Open the Windows Sound Recorder application. Background When an application creates a file. depending on network speed. As the audio is recorded. the data that comprises that file must be stored somewhere. Figure 3-2 Sound Recorder Interface Step 2. You can find it in Windows XP by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Entertainment > Sound Recorder. The data can be stored on the end device where it was created. Task 1: Create a Sound File Step 1.1) Upon completion of this activity. In this activity. .

When the file is open. The recording should be played back. Check the audio file that was recorded. as shown in Figure 3-4. What is the file size in kilobytes? Answers will vary. depending on the file created. Save the audio file to the desktop. Right-click the audio file and choose Open With > Windows Media Player. and proceed to Task 2. What is the file size in bytes? Answers will vary. check the microphone’s configuration. and choose File > Properties from the popup menu. If you are unable to create a recording. . After saving the file. depending on the file created. Save the audio file. Open the audio file in Windows Media Player. Save to the desktop the audio file you created. Click the Play button to listen to the recording. Right-click the audio file you saved to the desktop. Step 2. close the Sound Recorder application. What is the file size in bits? Answers will vary. the speakers.com/dlls/podcasts/audio_feeds. Step 3.cisco.html. and the volume settings. Figure 3-4 Playback If you are unable to hear the recording.wav. Task 2: Observe the Properties of the Audio File Step 1. View audio file properties. Step 4. and choose Properties from the popup menu. right-click at the top of the Media Player interface. Name the file myaudio. depending on the file created. download an audio file from News@Cisco at http://newsroom. and attempt to create the recording again.70 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-3 Recording in Progress Click the Stop button when you are finished.

4. Verify the default web server configuration file. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Download. how long would it take for the file transfer to be completed? Answers will vary. Web server support is a valuable skill for network administrators. If the audio file that you saved to the desktop were to be transferred at a rate of 100 megabits per second (Mbps). Background Web servers are an important part of the business plan for any organization with a presence on the Internet.1) Upon completion of this lab. Consumers use web browsers to access business websites. Based on a survey by Netcraft in January 2007. such as source and destination addresses. Answers will vary. Even with an Ethernet connection operating at 100 Mbps.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 71 What is the length of the audio file in seconds? Answers will vary. web browsers make up only half the communication channel. Capture and analyze HTTP traffic with Wireshark. Task 4: Clean Up You may be required to remove from the computer the audio file you saved. Lab 3-1: Managing a Web Server (3. Task 3: Reflection Data files do not have to remain on the end devices where they are created. Unless instructed otherwise. how long would it take the file transfer to be completed? Answers will vary. If so. delete the file from the desktop. that is necessary for the frame’s delivery. Calculate the amount of data per second in the audio file. . All Ethernet frames contain other information. you may want to copy the audio file that you created to another computer or a portable audio device. depending on the file created. However. and record the result. depending on the file created. Table 3-4 shows the top three web server applications by percentage of use.2. If the Ethernet overhead uses 5 percent of the available 100 Mbps bandwidth. turn off the computer. and 95 percent of the bandwidth is left for the data payload. the data that makes up a file is not transferred at this speed. depending on the file created. The other half is web server support. For example. and verify a web server application. depending on the file created. install.

ask the instructor for assistance before proceeding. The lab should be configured as shown in Figure 3-5 and Table 3-5. Analyzing the capture will help you understand how the HTTP protocol operates. You will use a web browser to connect to the server. If it is not. install. and configure the popular Apache web server.6 percent In this lab you will download. using Wireshark to capture the communication. Figure 3-5 Topology for Lab 3-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 .72 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-4 Web Server Web Server Choices Percent of Use Apache Microsoft Sun Scenario 60 percent 31 percent 1.

253 10.254 172. Choose default values and consent to the licensing agreement.255. Right-click the file.255.10.254 172.252 255.254.16.31.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 73 Table 3-5 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10. ping eagle-server.255. Step 3.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter3 to access and download the software.255.10.16. R2-Central. The next installation step requires customized configuration of the web server. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. 10.example.254 172.168. Open the folder where the software was saved.10. go to ftp://eagle-server. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address.0 255.16. Download the software from Eagle Server.com. and that it can ping R1-ISP. and double-click the Apache file to begin installation.example. From a known good host computer.0.10.168. The Apache web server application is available for download from Eagle Server. the lab topology may have been modified before this class.16.Pod#.0 255.254 172.0 255.10. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.6 192. ping S1Central.10.0 255.255. and finally eagle-server. 172.16.10. 172.255.0.6.5 172.1 255. If the ping test fails.255. Install the Apache web server on the pod host computer. and Verify the Apache Web Server Step 1. Using a web browser.255.16.16.252 255. Step 2. as shown in Table 3-5. and save the software on the pod host computer.254 192.255. R1-ISP. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server.example.10.2 172.com.255. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.255.254.254.255. .168. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Install.Pod#. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1.255.254.255.16.255. Take corrective action on devices that fail the ping tests.255.1 172.255.255.255.24.254.254.255. as shown in Figure 3-6.0 — — 10. and that it can ping R2-Central.0. Task 1: Download.16. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.4 — 192.0. Step 2.253 — 172.0 255. Finally.0 255.

Accept the recommended port and service status.2\ Accept the default installation folder. click Next. Accept the default typical installation. click Unblock.com.com. Table 3-6 Information Apache Server Values Value Network Domain Server Name Administrator’s E-mail Address example. When the installation has finished. Click Next. What is the default installation folder? C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2. and click Next. This permits connections to the web server.com The computer’s IP address ccnaxx@example. the administrator’s e-mail address is ccna10@example. Figure 3-7 Windows Security Alert . if the computer is on Pod 5.74 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-6 Customized Configuration Screen Use the values shown in Table 3-6. close the screen. and click Install. for users 1 through 22. as shown in Figure 3-7. For example. Note: If a Windows Security Alert is displayed. Host B.

Open a web browser. and then click OK. Choose Start > Run and open a command-line window.0. Enter cmd. Figure 3-8 Web Server Default Page The 127. verify that the web server is operating properly on the pod host computer. A web page similar to Figure 3-8 appears if the web server is working properly. as shown in Example 3-1.0 /8 network range.0. .0.0 /8 network address is reserved and is used for local IP addresses.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 75 Step 3. and connect to your computer’s URL. Verify the web server.0.0. The Apache web server monitor icon should be visible on the lower-right side of the screen.0 /8 network range. The same page should be displayed if the URL is changed to the IP address on the Ethernet interface or to any host IP address in the 127. near the time. Test the web server on several different IP addresses from the 127. Fill in Table 3-7 with the results. Example 3-1 netstat -a Output C:\> netstat -a Active Connections Proto TCP TCP TCP TCP Local Address GW-desktop-hom:http GW-desktop-hom:epmap Foreign Address GW-desktop-hom:0 GW-desktop-hom:0 State LISTENING LISTENING GW-desktop-hom:microsoft-ds GW-desktop-hom:3389 GW-desktop-hom:0 LISTENING LISTENING GW-desktop-hom:0 <output omitted> C:\> Using the command netstat -a.0. Use the netstat -a command to discover open and connected ports on your computer. The netstat command displays protocol statistics and connection information for this lab computer.

1 80. use the IP address:port number. To accept connections from only this host.2:80 DocumentRoot “C:/Program Files/Apache Software Foundation/ Apache2. the web server ignores the comment. For servers without DNS names. This is the root directory for the web server. e-mail the web server at this e-mail address.16. C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2.conf file.56. The # character indicates a comment for system administrators.255. change the line to Listen 127. and verify the settings listed in Table 3-8.254 127. Open the Apache web server configuration file. Scroll down the configuration file.conf.0. Access the httpd.2/htdocs” .2\conf\httpd.78:80 Listen 80 Listen on TCP port 80 for all incoming connections. Figure 3-9 Apache Web Server Configuration File Step 2. ServerAdmin ccna2@example.com ServerName 172. A system administrator may need to verify or modify the default configuration file. If there are problems.1.76 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-7 IP Address Web Server Test Status Description 127.255.0.1 127.0. Numerous configuration parameters allow the Apache web server to be fully customizable.0 OK OK Fail Fail Legal host address Legal host address Network broadcast address Network address Task 2: Verify the Default Web Server Configuration File Step 1.255 127.0.0.34. Review the httpd.255.conf file. Table 3-8 Value Apache Web Server Settings Description #Listen 12.255. as shown in Figure 3-9.0.

so you should encourage them to personalize the page.html if it is present. Although this page is sufficient for testing. Some students may already be familiar with creating web pages. Change the file content to something similar to Example 3-2. Example 3-2 htdocs Edit <html><body><h1>Welcome to the Pod1HostB Web Server!!!</h1> <center><bold> Operated by me! </center></bold> Contact web administrator: ccna2@example. and set the capture interface to the interface destined for the 172.0. something more personal should be displayed. Analyze HTTP traffic. Or.html should be present. refresh the web browser to view the new content. access the web server by running Apache from a separate client machine. From the pulldown list.html </IfModule> DirectoryIndex sets the file that Apache serves if a directory is requested. and connect to another computer with an active web server. As you make and save changes to index. Deliberately enter a web page that is not on the web server. To complete this task.0.1. Modify the web server default page. as shown in Figure 3-10. Step 3.0. Step 1. go to http://127.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 77 Table 3-8 Value Apache Web Server Settings continued Description <IfModule dir_module> DirectoryIndex index.html not have to be entered in the URL for the file contents to be displayed? The web server configuration directive for that server displays index. The interface will not appear. Note that an error message is displayed in the web browser.16 network.html as the default page. and choose Open With. If no page is requested from that directory.html. Right-click the file.0 network on a Windows computer. The file index.com </body></html> Save the file.html. however—this is a classroom setting. Open a web browser. choose notepad. The new default page should be displayed. Start Wireshark. Open folder C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2.0. . Task 3: Capture and Analyze HTTP Traffic with Wireshark Wireshark will not capture packets sent from or to the 127.2\htdocs. Be wary of content. and refresh the web browser. Why does index. Figure 3-8 shows the default web page from file index. display index.

htm was not found on this server.0.1:8080. </p> </body></html> Task 4: Challenge Modify the default web server configuration file httpd. You modified the default web page index.1 error 404 and returned a file not found message to the web browser.0// EN”> <html><head> <title>404 Not Found</title> </head><body> <h1>Not Found</h1> <p>The requested URL /index. The web browser simply displayed the server response “The page cannot be found. but the server did not have it. This lab has demonstrated how to install and configure the Apache web server. the server sent a 404 error. File index. you used Wireshark to capture an HTTP session of a file that could not be found. Task 5: Reflection Web servers are an important component of e-commerce.78 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-10 404 Not Found Error Figure 3-11 shows a captured HTTP session.htm was requested from the web server. Finally. The web server responded with an HTTP 1. Depending on the organization. Verify with the netstat command that the new web server TCP port is 8080. test for proper operation.conf by changing the Listen 80 line to Listen 8080.html and observed the effect on the web browser output. .” Figure 3-11 Wireshark Capture of HTTP Traffic What are the contents of the HTTP session? Line-based text data: text/html <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC “-//IETF//DTD HTML 2. and identify several key configuration parameters.0. Open a web browser and go to http://127. Therefore. the network or web administrator has the responsibility of maintaining the corporate web server.

turn off power to the host computers. Spam attacks flood networks with useless. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. consuming bandwidth and network resources. Also. secure versions of both protocols employ Secure Socket Layer/Transport Layer Security (SSL/TLS) for communication. You will use an e-mail client such as Outlook Express or Mozilla Thunderbird to connect to the eagleserver network service. It should be uninstalled. Scenario In this lab. RFC 2821. . IMAP servers listen on well-known TCP port 143. which have left computers open to compromise. It has undergone many modifications and enhancements. and leave the room ready for the next class. choose Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.3.1) Upon completion of this lab. Background E-mail is one of the most popular network services that uses a client/server model. the typical user may be unaware of the complexities of e-mail or the protocols used. you will use IMAP instead of POPv3 for e-mail delivery to the client. consolidates and updates previous e-mail-related RFCs. SMTP is used to send e-mail messages from the external e-mail client to the e-mail server. In network environments where the Mail User Agent (MUA) client must connect to an e-mail server on another network to send and receive e-mail.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 79 Task 6: Clean Up During this lab the Apache web server was installed on the pod host computer. The e-mail client is configured on a user’s computer and is configured to connect to an e-mail server. Most Internet service providers (ISP) provide step-by-step instructions for using e-mail services. Eagle-server has SMTP mail services preconfigured. you will configure and use an e-mail client application to connect to eagle-server network services. E-mail servers have had numerous vulnerabilities. Lab 3-2: E-mail Services and Protocols (3. and then click Remove. Earlier versions of both protocols should not be used. The SMTP server listens on well-known TCP port 25. unsolicited e-mail. the following protocols are used: ■ Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) was originally defined in RFC 821 in August 1982. To uninstall the web server.4. deliver e-mail to local accounts. Capture and analyze e-mail communication between the pod host computer and a mail server. you will be able to ■ ■ Configure the pod host computer for e-mail service. The POPv3 server listens on well-known TCP port 110. ■ ■ E-mail is subject to multiple computer security vulnerabilities. In this lab. Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is an Internet protocol that allows a central server to provide remote access to e-mail messages. Consequently. with user accounts that can send and receive external e-mail messages. from April 2001. and relay e-mail between SMTP servers. Click Apache Web Server. Post Office Protocol version 3 (POPv3) is used when an external e-mail client wants to receive e-mail messages from the e-mail server. You will monitor the communication with Wireshark and analyze the captured packets.

31.1 255.255.254 172.16.255.10.255.5 172.0 255.254.10.254 192.0 255.255.255.16.0.Pod#.16.80 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The lab should be configured as shown in Figure 3-12 and Table 3-9. If it is not.255.255.2 172.0 255.16.255.4 — 192.1 172.0 255. ask the instructor for assistance before proceeding.16.252 255.255.0.10.255.255.253 — 172.168.255.255.254.254 172.6 192.16.10.254.168.168.255.254 172.10.0 — — 10.255.16.254.252 255.255.24.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — .253 10.255.10.254 172.255.0. Figure 3-12 Topology for Lab 3-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 3-9 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.0 255.0 255.0.Pod#.

From a known good host computer. When Thunderbird starts.10.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter3. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server. the lab topology may have been modified before this class. and then select Save the file to the host pod computer. Step 3. select Email account.6. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. Download and install Mozilla Thunderbird. Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer for E-mail Service Step 1. and finally eagle-server.16. The download URL is ftp://eagleserver.255. Configure Thunderbird to receive and send e-mail messages. select Don’t import anything. . Fill in the account information.example. R1-ISP. If the ping test fails. Step 2. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. 172. start Thunderbird. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. as shown in Table 3-9. When the file has downloaded.example. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1. this download may be slow. double-click the filename and install Thunderbird with the default settings. and that it can ping R2-Central. and that it can ping R1-ISP. and then click Next. When finished. you can download it from eagleserver. and click Next. 172.com. 10.10. with the information shown in Table 3-10.example.example. ping S1Central. as prompted.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 81 Note to Instructors: Depending on the classroom situation. ping eagle-server.com. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address.254. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server. R2-Central.16. In the New Account Setup. Figure 3-13 FTP Download for Wireshark Double-click the Thunderbird filename. Finally. Note: Depending on the connection speed of the link between the two routers and the number of students downloading the file.254. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. If prompted for Import Options. as shown in Figure 3-13.com. Step 2.255. you must configure an e-mail account. If Thunderbird is not installed on the pod host computer.

shown in Figure 3-14. your_name@eagle-server. To do this. Host A. The Thunderbird client needs to have SMTP server login disabled. the account name is ccna6.. the account name is ccna1. Figure 3-14 Thunderbird SMTP Server Settings .com IMAP eagle-server. Use the same name as the Account Name. and so on.. Host B. labeled ccna[1. you may be prompted for a password for your e-mail account.com Your Name E-mail address Type of incoming server you are using Incoming Server (SMTP) Outgoing Server (SMTP) Incoming User Name Account Name When Thunderbird starts.82 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-10 Field Account Information Value Account Name The account name is based on the pod and host computer.example. your_name@eagle-server. If the pod host is on Pod 3.example.example. Click Cancel. A total of 22 accounts are configured on Eagle Server.com eagle-server. From the outgoing server screen.example. If this pod host is on Pod1.com Use the same name as above (see Account name discussion). choose Tools > Account Settings > Outgoing Server (SMTP). click Edit.22].

and then click OK again. Figure 3-16 Thunderbird Account Settings In the left pane of the Account Settings screen.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 83 On the SMTP Server screen. shown in Figure 3-15. as shown in Figure 3-16. Figure 3-15 SMTP Server Edit You may also want to verify account settings. click Server Settings. . uncheck the Use name and password box. Click OK. by choosing Tools > Account Settings. A screen similar to Figure 3-17 appears.

To create and send an e-mail. After sending and receiving one e-mail message. . To do so. check your e-mail. Step 2. SMTP listens on TCP port 25. Using the name provided in the preceding task. Analyze a Wireshark capture session of SMTP. Wireshark displays captures based on packet type. If you have not previously logged in. Send an uncaptured e-mail.84 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 3-17 Thunderbird Server Settings What is the purpose of the SMTP protocol. A partial Wireshark capture of an outgoing e-mail message using SMTP is shown in Figure 3-18. again send and receive e-mail from a classmate. enter cisco as the password. Start Wireshark captures. and what is the well-known TCP port number? The SMTP protocol is used to send e-mail messages to an e-mail server for forwarding to a mail recipient. click the Write icon. each of you should compose and send an e-mail message to the other. Using the e-mail client. stop the Wireshark capture. start a Wireshark capture. however. Step 3. you must be logged in. the e-mail transactions will be captured. This time. When you are certain that the e-mail operation is working properly for both sending and receiving. Please note that this is the default password that is embedded in the Eagle Server. Ask another student in the class for his or her e-mail name. Task 2: Capture and Analyze E-mail Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and an E-mail Server Step 1. When the e-mails have been sent.

What are the SMTP server name and version? Sendmail. version 8. Malicious attackers can gain valuable knowledge simply by learning the SMTP server type and version. In every first SMTP exchange.1 E-mail client applications send commands to e-mail servers. 221. . the e-mail client sends the command EHLO.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 85 Figure 3-18 SMTP Capture Highlight the first SMTP capture in the top Wireshark window. this is line 7.1.0 ccna1@example. end with “. The syntax may vary between clients.1]. What is the SMTP server response to the EHLO command? 250-localhost.com Recipient ok 354 Enter mail.example. In Figure 3-18. The e-mail server must respond to the command. pleased to meet you\r\n The next exchanges between the e-mail client and server contain e-mail information.localdomain Hello host-1.0.0 mail-serial-number Message accepted for delivery What are the contents of the last message body from the e-mail client? QUIT How does the e-mail server respond? It sends a response to the e-mail client. however. In the second Wireshark window.5 ccna2@example.com> RCPT TO:<ccna2@example. Using your Wireshark capture.16. fill in the e-mail server responses to the e-mail client commands shown in Table 3-11.1.13.com Sender ok 250 2. and e-mail servers send responses.” on a line by itself 250 2.1. and the command may also be HELO or HELLO. Many different types of SMTP servers exist. expand the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol record. closing connection.com [172.com> DATA (message body is sent) 250 2. Table 3-11 E-mail Client Response Table E-mail Server MAIL FROM:<ccna1@example.

Are any newer versions available? Task 4: Reflection E-mail is probably the most common network service used.. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.. Connection to host lost.com 250 2. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.. and begin a Telnet session with the SMTP server. e-mail SMTP server test. as shown in Example 3-3.1.com. Recipient ok DATA 354 Please start mail input. Is the problem with the e-mail client or the e-mail server? One simple way to test SMTP server operation is to use the Windows command-line Telnet utility to telnet into the SMTP server. Sun. Understanding the flow of traffic with the SMTP protocol will help you understand how the protocol manages the client/server data connection. turn off power to the host computers. To test SMTP operation. To remove Thunderbird.localdomain Hello [172.1/8. Sender ok RCPT To: instructor@example.0 ccna2@example. open the Windows command-line window.13.com 25 220 localhost. 250 Mail queued for delivery.5 instructor@example.1. Good bye. 28 Jan 2007 20:41:0 3 +1000 HELO eagle-server. and leave the room ready for the next class.1. pleased to meet you MAIL From: ccna2@example.com 250 localhost.localdomain ESMTP Sendmail 8. Scroll to and click Thunderbird.example. Example 3-3 Telnet Session C:\> telnet eagle-server. C:\ > Task 5: Clean Up If Thunderbird was installed on the pod host computer for this lab... E-mail can also experience configuration issues.2].16. . and then click Remove. QUIT 221 Closing connection.com 250 2. the instructor may want the application removed.example. The highlighted lines are what you enter into the blank Telnet window.86 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Challenge Access a computer that has Internet access.. . Look up the SMTP server name and version for known weaknesses or compromises.com.13. choose Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs.1.

1. Figure 3-19 Topology for the Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B .5. At the end of each chapter. Use simulation mode to view the details of packets generated by DNS and HTTP. and switches to learn networking concepts. servers. Figure 3-19 shows the topology for this Skills Integration Challenge. Background Throughout the course. and Table 3-12 shows the corresponding addressing table.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 87 Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring Hosts and Services (3. routers. you will use a standard lab setup created from actual PCs. Add. Explore how DNS and HTTP work together. configure.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills3. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure hosts and services. you will build increasingly larger parts of this topology in Packet Tracer. Upon completion of this activity. and connect hosts and servers.

0. it appears in the PDU List Window as part of “Scenario 0. Enable DNS services. Turn on web services on the server by enabling HTTP.0. You can create different test packet scenarios by clicking the New button.254 172. the term scenario means a specific configuration of one or more test packets. For example. and Scenario 1 might test packets between PC 1A and the routers.0 255.168. if you use the Delete button for Scenario 0.16.254 172.5 172.0. This time it succeeds.252 255.0 Default gateway: 172.255. Connect Eagle Server to the Fa0/0 port on the R1-ISP router.255.255.10.16.255.1 172.1.0 — — 10.2 Subnet mask: 255.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Task 1: “Repair” and Test the Topology Add a PC with a display name of 1B to the topology.254. Scenario 0 might have one test packet from PC 1B to Eagle Server.example.255.6 172.” The first time you issue this one-shot ping message.0.16.10.254 DNS server: 192.168. .254 10.255.253 10.255.2 192.1 172.10.254 192.16.16. In Packet Tracer.255.254.255. Double-click the Fire button in the PDU List Window to send this single test ping a second time. You can remove all test packets in a particular scenario by clicking the Delete button.16.10.0.0 255.255.255.255. and add a DNS entry that associates eagle-server. For example.255.16. Do this before the next task.168.10.255.88 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 3-12 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.1.0 255.255.6 10.0 255.10.10.168.com with the server’s IP address. Configure it with the following settings: ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address: 172.254 255.1.6 172. Verify your work using feedback from the Check Results button and the Assessment Items tab. Test connectivity in real time by using ADD SIMPLE PDU to test connectivity between PC 1B and the Eagle Server.252 255.254. the test packet you just created between PC 1B and Eagle Server is removed.254.255.255. it shows Failed because of the ARP process.255.254 Connect PC 1B to the Fa0/2 port of the S1-Central switch. Note that when you add a simple PDU.16.168.10.0 255.254.

especially when the packets are at PC 1B or at Eagle Server.example. Examine the Packet contents (PDU Information Window. Play this animation.com. Outbound PDU Details) for each event in the event list. Even though the processing of the packets by the switch and the routers may not make sense to you yet. press Enter. Enter eagle-server. you are encouraged to obtain Packet Tracer from your instructor and complete My First PT Lab (choose Help > Contents). If you receive a “Buffer Full” message. Task 3: Reflection Can you now explain the process that occurs when you enter a URL into a browser and a web page returns? What types of client/server interactions are involved? If you have not already done so. Inbound PDU Details. you should be able to see how DNS and HTTP work together. and then use the Capture / Forward button in the Event List to capture the interaction of DNS and HTTP.Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 89 Task 2: Explore How DNS and HTTP Work Together Switch from Realtime mode to Simulation mode. . Open a web browser from the desktop of PC 1B. click the View Previous Events button.

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Manages data delivery if there is congestion on the host. surf the web. Multiplexing b. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the OSI transport layer. use a Voice over IP (VoIP) phone. g. Same order delivery f. Multiple network-aware applications can use the network at the same time. b. a. That way. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. c. match the definitions on the right with the terms on the left. Means lost segments are present so the data is received complete. use Chapter 4 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 4 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA 1 Exploration Companion Guide for assistance. Reliable delivery g. fill-in-the-blank. Flow control d. Performed on the data in the segment to check if the segment was changed during transmission. Study Guide Roles of the Transport Layer The transport layer provides vital control over the network: It enables multiple applications to work at the same time over the same network.CHAPTER 4 OSI Transport Layer The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. As you work through this chapter. Establishing a session e. Error checking d. stream video. Data segmentation c. Ensures segment sequencing so that data can be presented by the session layer to the application layer with all data intact and ready for processing. matching. e. hands-on skills needed. Ensures the application is ready to receive data. The transport layer provides for data network needs by ■ ■ ■ ■ Dividing data received from an application into segments Adding a header to identify and manage each segment Using the header information to reassemble the segments back into application data Passing the assembled data to the correct application Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 4-1. and check e-mail. Facilitates data preparation for delivery by the lowest four OSI layers. Table 4-1 Term Transport Layer Matching Exercise Definition a. . one computer can use instant messaging. f.

The pieces of communication in UDP are called datagrams. This reliability is achieved by having fields in the TCP segment. it knows that the data has been successfully delivered and can quit tracking that data.92 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. How does the transport layer multiplex different applications’ communication? Dividing data into small parts and sending these parts from the source to the destination enables many different communications to be interleaved (multiplexed) on the same network. If the source does not receive an acknowledgment within a predetermined amount of time. A complete TCP conversation requires the establishment of a session between the source and the destination in both directions. Table 4-2 Port Type Port Type Ranges Numbers Well-known ports Registered ports Dynamic or private ports 0 to 1023 1024 to 49151 49152 to 65535 The TCP Protocol: Communicating with Reliability The key distinction between TCP and UDP is reliability. each segment header contains a sequence number. 2. This ensures that the destination application has the data in the exact form the sender intended. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. the transport layer adds to the segment a header containing binary data. Additional functions specified by TCP are same order delivery. In TCP. it retransmits that data to the destination. This sequence number allows the transport layer functions on the destination host to reassemble segments in the order in which they were transmitted. each with a specific function. As the source receives an acknowledgment from the destination. Fill in the port number ranges in the Numbers column. 3. 1. reliable delivery. whereas each UDP segment only has 8 bytes of overhead. Port Type Ranges Exercise Table 4-2 lists port types. and flow control. How does the transport layer tell the difference between different data segments? To identify each segment of data. A TCP segment has 20 bytes of overhead in the header encapsulating the application layer data. 2. .

2. but encourage students to find a website. URG e. segments may arrive at their destination out of order. the data in these segments is reassembled into the original order. Urgent pointer field significant a. Table 4-3 Flags Flag-Matching Exercise Definition a. PSH c. Sequence numbers are assigned in the header of each packet to achieve this goal. Push function f. Synchronize sequence numbers e.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 93 Concept Questions 1. why does the transport layer initiate a process to create a connection with the destination? This connection enables the tracking of a session. FIN f. RST d. or communication stream between the hosts. provide the URL. Acknowledgment field significant b. A key feature of TCP is its reliability. Using this site. . This process ensures that each host is aware of and prepared for the communication.” and find a website that explains it. Internet Research Exercise Using your favorite search engine. When the host is using TCP. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 4-3. match the definition on the right with a flag on the left. Segment sequence numbers enable reliability by indicating how to reassemble and reorder received segments. Define reliability. be prepared to share your findings with the class. and be prepared to explain or present the information found. This exercise works best if the students are required to present their website to the class or to teach each other in small groups. No more data from sender Managing TCP Sessions When services send data using TCP. Reset the connection c. ACK b. enter the keywords “TCP segment reassembly. For the original message to be understood by the recipient. SYN d. Note to instructor: Answers will vary. Reliability means ensuring that each segment of data that the source sends arrives at the destination.

After a client has chosen the source and destination ports. What is flow control. and therefore they do not need TCP to guarantee the message delivery. . 3. 1. The UDP Protocol: Communicating with Low Overhead User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a simple protocol that provides the basic transport layer functions. simply retry the request if they do not receive a response. such as online games and VoIP. both hosts would have to support selective acknowledgments. can tolerate some loss of data. For the data returning to the client from the server. The low overhead of UDP makes it very desirable for such applications. and what does it do? Flow control assists the reliability of TCP transmission by adjusting the effective rate of data flow between the two services in the session. such as DNS. 2. Some applications. and flow-control mechanisms. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following sentences. 3. What is expectational acknowledgment? Expectational acknowledgment is TCP using the acknowledgment number in segments sent back to the source to indicate the next byte in this session that the receiver expects to receive. These delays would be more detrimental to the application than small data losses. 2. the same pair of ports is used in the header of all datagrams used in the transaction. In what case would it be possible for the destination to acknowledge bytes in discontiguous segments and request that the host retransmit only the missing data? In this case. UDP is said to be transaction based. the source and destination port numbers in the datagram header are reversed. It has much lower overhead than TCP because it is not connection oriented and does not provide the sophisticated retransmission. Some applications. they might experience large delays while TCP detects data loss and retransmits data. sequencing.94 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. If these applications use TCP.

Table 4-4 shows the corresponding addressing table.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 95 Labs and Activities Lab 4-1: Observing TCP and UDP Using netstat (4. netstat displays incoming and outgoing network connections (TCP and UDP). Passing optional parameters with the command will change output information.1. available on both Windows and UNIX/Linux computers. Figure 4-1 Topology for Lab 4-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 . Figure 4-1 shows the topology for this lab.5. and interface statistics.1) Upon completion of this lab. host computer routing table information. and adjust netstat output options to analyze and understand TCP/IP transport layer protocol status. you examine the netstat command on a pod host computer. Scenario In this lab. Use netstat to examine protocol information on a pod host computer. Background netstat is an abbreviation for the network statistics utility. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ Explain common netstat command parameters and outputs.

use the /? options.253 N/A 172. . as shown here: C:\> netstat /? Use the output of the netstat /? command as reference to fill in the appropriate option that best matches the description in Table 4-5.168. 172.255.16.253 10.255.254.168.0 255.255.10.254. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. and click OK.252 255. 172.com.0.168.255.com.16.254 172.16.254 172.255. R2-Central.255.31.0. Task 1: Explain Common netstat Command Parameters and Outputs Open a terminal window by clicking Start > Run.10.254.0.10.16. Step 2. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server. From a known good host computer.0 255.254 192. Enter cmd. 10.255. Step 3.0 255.Pod#.6.255.example.96 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 4-4 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.254.255.16. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. and that Eagle Server is on.255.example. and can ping R1-ISP.10.1 172.Pod#.2 172.255. ping S1-Central.255.16. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address. shown in the preceding logical addressing table.255.com.example.24.255.254.255. Finally. R1-ISP. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1.255.255.0 255.5 172. and can ping R2-Central.4 N/A 192. ping eagle-server. and finally Eagle Server.10. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.255.252 255.255.6 192. To display help information about the netstat command.16.10.16.0.0 255.16.10. the lab topology may have been modified before this class.254 172. If the ping test fails.0 255.254.0 N/A N/A 10.255. Verify that all network equipment is powered on. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.254 172.1 255.10. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.

The local connection is waiting for a response after sending a connection request. The connection is open. as shown in Table 4-7. UDP. proto may be any of IP.0. Display only open connections.0. .0. A global address. or UDPv6.0 Remote Address This address refers to the local host. Table 4-7 IP Address Packet State Table Description 127. and data may be exchanged through the connection. and will normally last between 30 and 120 seconds. proto may be any of TCP. This is the normal state for the data-transfer phase of the connection. or this computer. The connection is closed. The local connection is waiting a default period of time after sending a connection termination request before closing the connection. TCP. TCPv6. This is a tricky problem. Displays addresses and port numbers in numeric form. CLOSE-WAIT SYN-SENT SYN_RECEIVED IP addresses displayed by netstat fall into several categories. -an 30 No options When netstat statistics are displayed for TCP connections. as reported by netstat.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 97 Table 4–5 Option netstat Table Description -a -n 5 (interval) -p Displays all connections and listening ports. but is waiting for a termination request from the local user.1 0. Redisplays statistics every 5 seconds. IPv6. September 1981. If used with the –s option to display per-protocol statistics.0. UDP. the TCP state is displayed. Press Ctrl+C to stop redisplaying statistics. or UDPv6. Redisplays all connections and listening ports every 30 seconds. The local connection is waiting for a confirming connection request acknowledgment. Shows connections for the protocol specified by proto. The address of the remote device that has a connection with this computer. During the life of a TCP connection. TCPv6. ICMPv6. Table 4-6 State Packet State Table Connection Description LISTEN ESTABLISHED TIME-WAIT The local connection is waiting for a connection request from any remote device. Table 4-6 is a summary of TCP states. the connection passes through a series of states. This is a normal condition. compiled from RFC 793. ICMP. meaning any. The connection should transition quickly through this state. Multiple connections in SYN_RECEIVED state may indicate a TCP SYN attack. Transmission Control Protocol. The connection should transition quickly through this state.

0. Note to instructor: Answers will vary. and state information.0:445 TCP UDP UDP UDP GW-desktop-hom:netbios-ssn 192.98 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Use netstat to Examine Protocol Information on a Pod Host Computer Step 1.254. foreign address. issue the command netstat –an: C:\> netstat –an Use the window vertical scrollbar to go back and forth between the outputs of the two commands.0. Addresses and protocols that can be translated into names are displayed.168.1:123 GW-desktop-hom:netbios-ns 192. Table 4-8 provides a list of several common services on a host computer.0:0 GW-desktop-hom:0 0.168.0:0 LISTENING LISTENING GW-desktop-hom:microsoft-ds 0. local address.1:139 GW-desktop-hom:ntp 192.0. Table 4-8 Connection Protocol netstat Output Table Local Address Foreign Address State TCP TCP GW-desktop-hom:epmap 0.0:135 GW-desktop-hom:0 0.0.0.254.254.1:138 GW-desktop-hom:0 0.0. From the terminal window in Task 1. Write down three TCP and three UDP connections from the netstat –a output and the corresponding translated port numbers from the netstat –an output.0. note that in Table 4-8.1:137 GW-desktop-hom:netbios-dgm 192.168.0. If fewer than three connections translate.254. The –n option forces netstat to display output in raw format. noting how well-known port numbers are changed to names.0. Use netstat to view existing connections. issue the command netstat –a: C:\> netstat –a A table will display that lists the protocol (TCP and UDP). Compare outputs. .168.0.0:0 *:* *:* *:* *:* *:* *:* LISTENING LISTENING LISTENING LISTENING Refer to the following netstat output shown in Example 4-1. From the terminal window.

. Several network services on Eagle Server will respond to a Telnet connection. In the fourth terminal window.0. To close a Telnet connection.1:1070 127.1:1070 State ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED A new network engineer suspects that his host computer has been compromised by an outside attack against ports 1070 and 1071. and UDP cannot build the TCP session. connections should terminate from inactivity. The terminal windows that will be used to collect connection information should be 1⁄2 screen width by full screen height. In the second terminal window. press the Ctrl+] keys together. a connection might close before all connections have been made. That will bring up the t=Telnet prompt. How would you respond? Because the foreign address is 127. The command for a Telnet connection on port 21 follows: C:\> telnet eagle-server.1.0. Establish multiple concurrent TCP connections and record netstat output. Eventually. Type quit and press Enter to close the session. telnet on port 25. port 21 SMTP: SMTP mail server. the host computer has made a TCP connection with itself. The four terminal windows that will be used for Telnet connections to Eagle Server can be relatively small.1:1071 127. port 53 FTP: FTP server. In the third terminal window. The venerable telnet command is used to access Eagle Server network services.1:1071 Foreign Address 127.example.0. Open four additional terminal windows. Microsoft Telnet>. port 23 Why should Telnet to UDP ports fail? Telnet is a TCP protocol. In this task. You will use the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ DNS: Domain Name System server. port 25 Telnet: Telnet server.0.0.0.0. telnet on port 23. telnet on port 21. Arrange the windows so that all are visible. telnet to Eagle Server on port 53.com 53 In the large terminal window.0.0. thus providing several protocols to examine with netstat. Step 2. If typing is slow.0. record established connections with Eagle Server. several simultaneous connections will be made with Eagle Server.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 99 Example 4-1 Netstat Output C:\> netstat –n Active Connections Proto TCP TCP C:\> Local Address 127. Output should look similar to the output in Example 4-1. In the first Telnet terminal window. approximately 1⁄2 screen width by 1⁄4 screen height.

168.168. and issue the netstat –an command.168. defined in RFC 761. TCP is used to provide transport layer support for the HTTP and FTP protocols.1) Upon completion of this activity.254:21 192. . among others. TCP and UDP (4.254.254:23 State ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED Task 3: Reflection The netstat utility displays incoming and outgoing network connections (TCP and UDP).254. Remove anything that was brought into the lab and leave the room ready for the next class. Lab 4-2: TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocols.168. you can download it from ftp://eagle-server.1:1693 192.254. defined in RFC 768. Scenario Using Wireshark capture.254:25 192. The ability to understand the parts of the TCP and UDP headers and operation is a critical skill for network engineers. Background The two protocols in the TCP/IP transport layer are the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).168.1:1691 192. file wiresharksetup-0.254:53 192.example. Task 4: Challenge Close established sessions abruptly (close the terminal window). August 1980. Ponder the utility of netstat in small and large networks and consider how netstat can help you diagnose problems.1:1688 192.254.100 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 4-2 C:\>netstat Proto TCP TCP TCP TCP Eagle Server Output Table Local Address 192. For example.254. host computer routing table information. Identify UDP header fields and operation using a Wireshark TFTP session capture.exe.254.5.2. and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Both protocols support upper-layer protocol communication. analyze TCP and UDP protocol header fields for file transfers between the host computer and Eagle Server. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ Identify TCP header fields and operation using a Wireshark FTP session capture. UDP provides transport layer support for Domain Name System (DNS) services and Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP).168. turn off power to the host computers.4.254.1:1694 Foreign Address 192. Task 5: Cleanup Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.254.168. Try to view connections in stages different from ESTABLISHED. January 1980.99.168. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/. and interface statistics. among others.

253 10.168.254 172.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A .254. Figure 4-2 shows the topology for this lab.168.255.254 192.0 255.4 N/A 192.254.255.255.0.255.252 255.16.16.0 255.0 255.255.255.254 172.0.1 255.16.255.6 192.255.255.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 101 Windows command-line utilities FTP and TFTP will be used to connect to Eagle Server and download files.10.10.31.5 172.255.252 255.255.24.0 255.253 N/A 172.Pod#.255.10. and Table 4-9 shows the corresponding addressing table.254.16.1 172.0.10.255.10.10.168.255.0.2 172.255.254 172.0 N/A N/A 10.255.0 255.254.254 172.0 255.Pod#.16.16.255.255.16. Figure 4–2 Topology for Lab 4-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 4-9 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.

If the ping test fails. Start an FTP connection to Eagle Server.255. From a known good host computer.16. and can ping R2-Central.example. Enter the following command: > ftp eagle-server. 10. When finished.com.Pod#.254. Verify that all network equipment is powered on. Finally.16. ftp. an FTP session is made to Eagle Server.255. Capture an FTP session. TCP sessions are well controlled and managed by information exchanged in the TCP header fields. In this task. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server. and the text configuration file for S1-Central from Eagle Server will be downloaded.10. ping S1Central. Step 3. Step 2.com. and that Eagle Server is on. and finally Eagle Server. Windows computers use the FTP client.6. to the host computer.example. the lab topology might have been modified before this class. /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/s1-central. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. type anonymous. ping Eagle Server. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps: Step 1. When prompted for a password. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. .102 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. Figure 4–3 Command-Line Window Start a Wireshark capture on the interface that has IP address 172. 172.10. 172. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. R1-ISP. A command-line window will start the FTP session.254. press Enter. Task 1: Identify TCP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark FTP Session Capture Step 1.example. Open a command-line window by clicking Start > Run. R2-Central. to connect to the FTP server. the session capture will be analyzed. and can ping R1-ISP.com When prompted for a user ID. A window similar to Figure 4-3 should open.16. and then click OK. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. shown in the preceding logical addressing table. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server.[1-2]. type cmd.

and manage window size. At the conclusion of the data transfer. TCP is routinely used during a session to control datagram delivery. When the FTP client is connected to the FTP server. an explanation of the summary information is needed. Highlight the first TCP datagram from the host computer. Your capture should be similar to the capture shown in Figure 44. Figure 4–4 FTP Capture In Wireshark. The top window contains summary information for each captured record. and move the cursor to the middle window. detailed TCP information is available in the middle window. when the FTP session is finished. the transport layer protocol TCP created a reliable session. terminate the FTP sessions in each command-line window with the FTP quit command: ftp> quit Close the command-line window with the command exit: > exit Stop the Wireshark capture. TCP performs an orderly shutdown and termination.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 103 Change the FTP directory to /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/: ftp> cd /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/ Download the file s1-central: ftp> get s1-central When finished. Before we delve into TCP packet details. verify datagram arrival. . The expanded TCP datagram should look similar to Example 4-3. You might need to adjust the middle window and expand the TCP record by clicking the protocol expand box. Switch to the Wireshark capture windows. a new TCP session is started. Finally. Step 2. Analyze the TCP fields. For each exchange of data between the FTP client and FTP server. the TCP session is closed.

and contains a SYN flag.. Figure 4-5 shows a TCP datagram.. . Src Port: 1052 (1052)...104 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 4-3 Wireshark Capture of a TCP Datagram >Transmission Control Protocol.1.. . Dst port: ftp (21).168. ...0 . Figure 4-5 0 TCP Packet Fields for Lab 4-2 TCP Segment 4 10 16 Sequence Number Acknowledgment Number HLEN Reserved TCP Checksum Options (If Any) Data Data.. = Push: Not set . = Syn: Set .. port number 21.0. = Congestion Window Reduced (CWR): Not Set .... Len: 0 Source Port: 1052 (1052) Destination Port: ftp (21) Sequence number: 0 (relative sequence number) Header length: 28 bytes >Flags: 0x02 (SYN) 0..... = Acknowledge: Not set .. on some port above 1023.. 172.x.. = ECN-Echo: Not set .0 = Fin: Not set Window size: 64240 Checksum: 0xb965 [correct] >Options: (8 bytes) Maximum segment size: 1460 bytes NOP NOP SACK permitted How is the first datagram in a TCP session identified? The initial datagram originates from the host computer.0.. = Urgent: Not set ..254...0.... . 192. = Reset: Not set . . to Eagle Server........ Code Bits: U A R P S F RCS S Y I GK T HNN Code Bits Window Urgent Pointer Padding 24 TCP Destination Port Number 31 TCP Source Port Number .x. .. Seq: 0.254. 0...16...

TCP destination port number: Is used to identify the upper-layer protocol or application on the remote site.1 192. Among interesting values are ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ACK: Acknowledgment of a segment receipt SYN: Synchronize. * 172. Acknowledgment number: Specifies the next octet expected by the receiver.254. The value is normally a random value above 1023. The quadruple field combination (Source IP Address. which is the request to close the TCP session ■ ■ Window size: Is the value of the sliding window (that is. Sequence number: Specifies the number of the last octet in a segment. HTTP.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 105 An explanation of each field is provided to refresh your memory: ■ TCP source port number: Belongs to the TCP session host that opened a connection.254 *1052 21 0 (relative) N/A 28 bytes * 64240 . Using the Wireshark capture of the first TCP session start-up (SYN bit set to 1). such as Telnet. Destination Port) uniquely identifies the session to both sender and receiver. which is only set when a new TCP session is negotiated during the TCP three-way handshake FIN: Finish. how many octets can be sent before waiting for an acknowledgment). FTP. Source Port.1. and so on). Destination IP Address. Code bits: Have a special meaning in session management and in the treatment of segments. The values in the range of 0 to 1023 represent the so-called well-known ports and are associated with popular services and applications (as described in RFC 1700. Urgent pointer: Is only used with an URG (Urgent) flag (when the sender needs to send urgent data to the receiver). ■ ■ Table 4-10 TCP Header: SYN Bit Set to 1 Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number Sequence number Acknowledgment number Header length Window size * May differ from what student enters.16.168. Options: The only option currently defined is the maximum TCP segment size (optional value). fill in information about the TCP header in Table 4-10.

1. fill in information about the TCP header in Table 4-11. a new TCP connection is started in half-open fashion.106 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Using the Wireshark capture of the first TCP session start-up (SYN and ACK bits are set to 1).254 *1052 21 1 (relative) 1 20 bytes * 64240 Ignoring the TCP session started when a data transfer occurred.168. fill in information about the TCP header in Table 4-12. Attackers take advantage of the three-way handshake by initiating a “half-open” connection.254.254. and the receiver sends a related TCP datagram with the SYN ACK bits set. the receiving computer may exhaust resources and crash.16. A crash could involve a loss of networking .1. In this sequence.168. a SYN bit is only used during the beginning of a TCP session. With sufficient TCP sessions in the half-open state.254 * 172. Table 4–12 TCP Header: ACK Bits Set to 1 Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number Sequence number Acknowledgment number Header length Window size * May differ from what student enters * 172. A final ACK bit is never sent to finish the TCP handshake. how many other TCP datagrams contained a SYN bit? None. Instead.1 * 21 1052 0 (relative) 1 28 bytes * 5840 Using the Wireshark capture of the first TCP session start-up (only ACK bit is set to 1).16. the opening TCP session sends a TCP datagram with the SYN bit set. Table 4–11 TCP Header: SYN and ACK Bits Set to 1 Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number Sequence number Acknowledgment number Header length Window size * May differ from what student enters 192.1 192.

FTP server. receives a duplicate termination. the FTP server TCP session sends a TCP datagram to the FTP client. The FTP client and server communicate with each other. but is normally 5 minutes. announcing the termination of the TCP session. When the originator of the TCP termination. visible in the Wireshark capture.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 107 services or could corrupt the operating system. The FTP client TCP session acknowledges receipt of the termination datagram. When the FTP server sends a Response: 220 to the FTP client. Figure 4–6 TCP Session Management FTP Client FTP Welcome TCP Acknowledgment FTP Userid Sent TCP Acknowledgment FTP Password Response FTP Server When the FTP session has finished. and the TCP session is closed. networking service has been stopped on the receiver. visible in the Wireshark capture. Figure 4–7 Orderly TCP Session Termination FTP Client FTP Client. unaware and uncaring that TCP has control and management over the session. .“Goodbye” TCP Acknowledgment TCP Session ACK FIN Sent TCP Acknowledgment TCP Session ACK FIN Sent TCP Acknowledgment TCP Session Ends FTP Server Without an orderly termination. an ACK datagram is sent to acknowledge the termination. This sequence. such as when the connection is broken. is shown in Figure 4-7.“Quit” FTP Server. This is one example of a denial-ofservice (DoS) attack. the FTP client sends a command to “quit. the TCP session on the FTP client sends an acknowledgment to the TCP session on Eagle Server. and then sends its own TCP session termination. the attacker has won.” The FTP server acknowledges the FTP termination with a Response: 221 Goodbye. This sequence. is shown in Figure 4-6. At this time. In either case. The default timeout value varies. the TCP sessions will wait a certain period of time until closing.

/tftpboot. The TFTP server has its own directory on Eagle Server. Specifies where to transfer the file. host GET Specifies the local or remote host. Transfers the file destination on the remote host to the file source on the local host. .108 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Identify UDP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark TFTP Session Capture Step 1. Use this mode when transferring binary files. byte by byte. In binary image mode the file is moved literally. and then download the s1-central configuration file from Eagle Server with the Windows TFTP client. GET. Analyze the UDP fields. The TFTP command has a different syntax than FTP. there is no authentication. there are only two commands. Example 4-4 contains Windows TFTP client syntax. to retrieve a file. Switch to the Wireshark capture windows. which is different from the directory structure supported by the FTP server. open a command-line window. No authentication is supported. Following the procedure in Task 1. Destination Start a Wireshark capture. source Specifies the file to transfer. A TFTP transfer will be used to analyze transport layer UDP operation.com get s1-central Step 2. Capture a TFTP session.example. Student capture should be similar to the capture shown in Figure 4-8. to send a file. PUT Transfers the file source on the local host to the file destination on the remote host. The command and syntax to perform this follows: >tftp eagle-server. Example 4-4 >tftp –help TFTP Syntax for a Windows TFTP Client Transfers files to and from a remote computer running the TFTP service. For example. TFTP [-i] host [GET | PUT] source [destination] -i Specifies binary image transfer mode (also called octet). Also. and PUT.

it is the responsibility of the upper-layer protocol. Instead. in this case TFTP. detailed UDP information is available in the middle window. There are similarities. compared to the TCP datagram. Each UDP datagram is identified by the UDP source port and UDP destination port.. denoted by the preceding 0x code.. and move the cursor to the middle window. 16 UDP Destination Port UDP Checksum 31 Using the Wireshark capture of the first UDP datagram. . You might have to adjust the middle window and expand the UDP record by clicking the protocol expand box. The expanded UDP datagram should look similar to Figure 4-9. fill in information about the UDP header in Table 4-13. a UDP datagram diagram. explain that the UDP header does not contain an acknowledgment field. Figure 4–10 UDP Format UDP Segment 0 UDP Source Port UDP Message Length Data Data. however. This will be shown during the UDP datagram examination. In Wireshark. Header information is sparse. to manage data transfer and receipt information. Figure 4–9 UDP Datagram Capture See Figure 4-10. Highlight the first UDP datagram from the host computer.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 109 Figure 4-8 UDP Session Capture Note: If students point to UDP acknowledgments. The checksum value is a hexadecimal (base 16) value.

1.16.___ Source port number Destination port number UDP message length UDP checksum: 0x * May differ from what student enters.1 192.16.16. Table 4-14 UDP Header Information Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address: 172. Because there is no reliable connection. but this source port is used for the remainder of the TFTP transfer. transport data between clients and servers using application layer protocols and are appropriate for the upper-layer protocol each supports. UDP has less overhead and control.___.168. but reliability and guaranteed delivery requires additional control over the communication channel.254 * 1038 69 * 30 bytes * 0x1f04 (correct) How does UDP verify datagram integrity? A checksum is sent in the UDP datagram.110 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 4-13 UDP Header Table Answers Characteristics Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number UDP message length UDP checksum * May differ from what student enters.254.254 * 172.168. If the computed checksum is identical with the sent checksum. and the upper-layer protocol must provide some type of acknowledgment control. 192. Fill in information about the UDP header in Table 4-14. Both protocols.1. and the datagram checksum value is recomputed upon receipt.254. Examine the first packet returned from Eagle Server. however. Task 3: Reflection This lab provided you with the opportunity to analyze TCP and UDP protocol operations from captured FTP and TFTP sessions. only the original source port used to begin the TFTP session is used to maintain the TFTP transfer. Both protocols have advantages . TCP manages communication much differently from UDP.1 * 32799 * 1038 *524 bytes * 0xc5cf (correct) Notice that the return UDP datagram has a different UDP source port. * 172. the UDP datagram is assumed complete.

Task 5: Cleanup During this lab. such as TCP and UDP.1) Upon completion of this lab. A user may open several client applications to the same server. Capture and analyze HTTP communication between the pod host computer and a web server. HTTP and FTP. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Application layer protocols define the communication between network services. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure the host computer to capture application layer protocols. Applications are designed to use one protocol or another based on maximizing the advantages while minimizing the disadvantages. you use client applications to connect to Eagle Server network services. all data transferred is sent in clear text. Consider how you would determine which protocol to use if you were designing an application. Scenario In this lab. passwords. Background The primary function of the transport layer is to keep track of multiple application conversations on the same host. Observe TCP establish and manage communication channels with HTTP and FTP connections. There may be several servers on the same end device. Upper-layer TFTP data examination is a bit more complicated.5. yet each client communicates exclusively with a session established between the client and server. a different server is listening on a different port for client connections. and an FTP server and client. or clear-text file contents. but the data field can be examined and configuration user ID and password information extracted. For each network service. turn off power to the host computers.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 111 and disadvantages. However. Analysis of the upper-layer FTP session will quickly identify the user ID. . and configuration file passwords. and the server responds to the client. You monitor the communication with Wireshark and analyze the captured packets. Also examined are popular client requests and corresponding server responses.3. password. This lab examines two popular application layer protocols. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. several files were transferred to the host computer and should be removed. Lab 4-3: Application and Transport Layer Protocols (4. and leave the room ready for the next class. such as a web server and client. and how transport layer protocols TCP and UDP manage the communication channel. different applications have different requirements for their data. Capture and analyze FTP communication between the pod host computer and an FTP server. Clients initiate communication to the appropriate server. Application layer protocols rely on lower-level TCP/IP protocols. and therefore different transport protocols have been developed to meet these requirements. This includes any user IDs. Task 4: Challenge Because neither FTP nor TFTP are secure protocols.

255.10. The lab should be configured as shown in Figure 4-11 and Table 4-15.16.255.6 192.10. as will the FTP command-line client.254 172.255.255.16.31.255.255.255.0.16.0 255.254 .254 172.0 255. the underlying communication to the server remains the same.255.0 255.252 255.254 172.0 255.Pod#.16.252 255.253 N/A 172.24.10.255.255.0. Figure 4–11 Topology for Lab 4-3 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 4–15 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP R2-Central Eagle Server Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 Fa0/0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 10.0 255.Pod#.254.168. The web browser will also be used to examine the FTP protocol.168. This exercise demonstrates that although clients may differ.254.254. waiting to respond to client requests.0.10.255. such as HTTP.254.255.0 N/A N/A 10.10.16.2 172.255.16.0.1 172. Eagle Server has several network services preconfigured.255.254 192.112 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide A web browser such as Internet Explorer or Firefox will be used to connect to the Eagle Server network service.10.255. If it is not.5 172.16.255.254 172.255.255.168.0 255. ask the instructor for assistance before proceeding.4 N/A 192.1 255.253 10.

It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. This is also why the file has no physical size. Start Wireshark from Start > All Programs > Wireshark > Wireshark. and can ping R2-Central. and that Eagle Server is on. to another file. Start Wireshark and configure the capture interface. and finally Eagle Server.255. Finally. Step 2. If Wireshark is not installed on the pod host computer. If the ping test fails. Wireshark will be used in upcoming tasks. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. the interface is used as the default and does not need to be changed. From a known good host computer.10. Step 2. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server. Step 3. ping Eagle Server. See Figure 4-12. 172. Step 3. it is because the file is a link. The interface with the IP address of the pod host computer is the correct interface. and then save the file to the host pod computer.example. and can ping R1-ISP. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.16.com.example. shown in the preceding logical addressing table. If students ask why the Wireshark icon is a directory folder. Figure 4-12 Wireshark Interface Capture After the file has downloaded. Download and install Wireshark. 172. Thereafter. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. The download URL is ftp://eagleserver.10. R2-Central. When the opening screen appears.example. . Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer to Capture Application Layer Protocols Step 1. Right-click the Wireshark filename. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server.com.example. R1-ISP.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter3.com. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.254. double-click the filename and install Wireshark with the default settings. 10. you can download it from eagleserver.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 113 Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. Wireshark should begin to log data. or shortcut. set the correct capture interface. ping S1Central. Verify that all network equipment is powered on.16. the lab topology might have been modified before this class. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps: Step 1.6. Wireshark can be started by clicking the interface Start button. Stop Wireshark for the moment.255.254.

example.example. There should be no change to the display in the web client.example. This is seen in the first three session lines. Start Wireshark captures. Step 3. Start the pod host web browser. Using a web browser such as Internet Explorer or Firefox. Wireshark will display captures based on packet type. There were actually at least three HTTP sessions created in Step 2. connect to URL http://eagleserver. relying on lower-level protocols such as TCP to establish and manage the communication channel. A web page similar to Figure 4-13 will display. The first HTTP session started with a connection to http://eagleserver. Before HTTP can begin. Do not close this web browser until instructed to do so.com. . Step 1. Do not close either browser until Wireshark capture is stopped.114 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Capture and Analyze HTTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server HTTP is an application layer protocol.com/page2. and connect to URL http://eagleserver. 11. Step 2. Open a second web browser. and 12. Close the web browsers. This will display a different web page. the TCP session must be created.example. Figure 4-13 Web Server Screen Click the web browser Refresh button. Stop Wireshark captures and analyze the captured data. The second session occurred with a refresh action.1 is defined in RFC 2616.html.com. numbers 10. The third session occurred when the second web browser accessed http://eagleserver. dated 1999.com/page2. Figure 4-15 shows a sample captured HTTP session. This part of the lab demonstrates how sessions between multiple web clients and the web server are kept separate. The resulting Wireshark data will display.html. HTTP version 1.

254. Which computer initially signaled an end to the HTTP session.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 115 Figure 4-14 Captured HTTP Session Fill in Table 4-16 from the information presented in the HTTP session.1.254.254 with the SYN flag set.254. Highlight the first line of the HTTP protocol. Complete Table 4-17 using information from the protocol.2.254 signaled an end to the session with the FIN ACK flags set.16.16. In Figure 4-14. This is the actual information sent to the web server.2 started the HTTP session to 192.168. Which protocol is carried (encapsulated) inside the TCP segment? Hypertext Transfer Protocol Expand the last protocol record and any subfields. Table 4-16 HTTP Session Table Answers Characteristics Web browser IP address Web server IP address Transport layer protocol (UDP/TCP) Web browser port number Web server port number 172. and repeated by 172. If necessary. some web servers are configured to display a default file if one is available. and how? 172. Table 4–17 HTTP Session Table Answer Characteristics Protocol version Request Method * Request URI Language HTTP/1. the path is the root directory of the web server.168.254 TCP 1056 80 Which computer initiated the HTTP session. the GET request is on line 13. and how? 192. expand the fields. Move into the second (middle) Wireshark window to examine the layered protocols. In the first browser. a GET request from the web browser. acknowledged. Although no page was requested. This is the beginning of the TCP three-way handshake. .16.1.2 192.1.168.1 GET \ En-us *Request URI is the path to the requested document.

Open all collapsed subfields of HTTP. the bandwidth used is minimal. the web browser and a command-line FTP utility are used to download data from an FTP server. The familiar web browser can be used to communicate with more than just the HTTP server. Highlight the web server response. the GET request contained the following additional instructions to the web server: If-modified-since: Fri. In Figure 4-14. . The web browser understands and correctly formats the data in the browser window. this is on line 15. Figure 4-15 Captured HTTP Session The significance of the refresh action is in the server response. What is the web server response to the web client GET request? 200 OK.page tag number (ETAG) What is the ETAG response from the web server? 98072-b8-82da8740 Task 3: Capture and Analyze FTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server The application layer protocol FTP has undergone significant revision since it first appeared in RFC 114. GET. a single reply packet can save significant bandwidth. Because this web page was saved in the web client’s cache. 304 Not Modified. refresh. dated October 1985. A response to the web browser is possible because the web server understands the type of request and has a file to return. However. Scroll down the top window of Wireshark until the second HTTP session. there are only a few lines of text (web server responses can contain thousands or millions of bytes). 26 Jan 2007 06:19:33 GMT\r\n If-None-Match: “98072-b8-82da8740”\r\n <. and then move into the second (middle) window. With a single packet returned for both the initial GET request and refresh.116 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The web server responds with the next HTTP packet. Also. is visible. Notice the information returned from the server. Crackers sometimes send unknown or garbled requests to web servers in an attempt to stop the server or gain access to the server command line.1 is defined in RFC 959. Figure 4-15 shows a sample capture. FTP version 5. is sent in the response. in 1971. In this reply. a request for an unknown web page will result in an error message. for an initial response that contains millions of bytes. From RFC 2616 What does this response mean? The request has succeeded. an entity corresponding to the requested resource. In this task.

Step 2. To do so.com Connected to eagle-server. enter cmd.com. Start the pod host command-line FTP client. Start a pod host computer FTP session with the FTP server. Example 4-6 ftp> help Commands may be abbreviated. type help and press Enter. using the Windows FTP client utility. Start Wireshark captures. User (eagle-server. as shown in Example 4-5. A screen similar to Figure 4-16 will display. If necessary.com:(none)): anonymous 331 Please specify the password. 220 Welcome to the eagle-server FTP service.example.example. refer to Task 1. To view a list of FTP client commands. The FTP client prompt is ftp>.example. Step 2. Example 4-5 FTP Eagle Server Example >ftp eagle-server. Password: <ENTER> 230 Login successful. This means that the FTP client is waiting for a command to send to the FTP server. use user ID anonymous. and then click OK. To authenticate. press Enter. Figure 4-16 Windows Command Line Step 1. In response to the password prompt. Commands are: FTP Client Commands ! ? append ascii bell binary bye cd close delete debug dir disconnect get glob hash help lcd literal ls mdelete mdir mget mkdir mls mput open prompt put pwd quit quote recv remotehelp rename rmdir send status trace type user verbose . to open Wireshark.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 117 In preparation for this task. click Start > Run. as shown in Example 4-6. open a command line on the host pod computer.

254. -rw-r—r— -rw-r—r— -rw-r—r— -rw-r—r— 1 0 100 1 0 100 1 0 100 5853 Jan 12 04:26 ftptoeagle-server. Example 4-7 FTP Directory Output ftp> dir 200 PORT command successful.254. prohibiting access outside of the current directory. ftp> dir 200 PORT command successful. Enter the command dir to display the current directory contents. for the owner. . 226 File send OK. The first character. 150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for ftptoeagle-server. 150 Here comes the directory listing.12Kbytes/sec.pcap (5853 bytes). and save the captures as FTP_Command_Line_Client. Stop Wireshark captures. d.exe 226 Directory send OK. however. The permissions are arranged as r (read). Subdirectories can be traversed. Move into directory pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter2. This is not the real root directory of the server.99. Close the command-line window with the exit command. See Example 4-8. the values are UNIX file permissions. group. indicates that the file is a directory. Consider using PASV. and files transferred to the pod host computer. ftp> quit 221 Goodbye. ftp: 333 bytes received in 0.pcap 4493 Jan 12 04:27 http to eagle-server. and exit. ftp> get “ftptoeagle-server. User anonymous has been placed into a root jail.pcap 1486 Jan 12 04:27 ping to 192.pcap 1 0 100 15163750 Jan 12 04:30 wireshark-setup-0. Consider using PASV. We will only use a few commands for Wireshark evaluation. The FTP client is at the root directory of the FTP server.pcap” 200 PORT command successful. but only the highest point that user anonymous can access.4. drwxr-xr-x 3 0 0 4096 Jan 12 04:32 pub If students ask what the values at the beginning of the line mean. ftp: 5853 bytes received in 0. Example 4-8 FTP Subdirectory Example ftp> cd pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter2 250 Directory successfully changed. World (anyone) can read and access the directory. and world. 150 Here comes the directory listing.21Kbytes/sec.168. download a file.34Seconds 17. w (write). x (access). as shown in Example 4-7. Consider using PASV.118 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Unfortunately. the large number of FTP client commands makes using the command-line utility difficult for a novice.04Seconds 8.

example.com.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 119 Step 3. Double-click the file ftptoeagle-server. In Figure 4-18. Step 4. Analyze the captured data. On the top Wireshark window. Stop Wireshark captures. A browser window opens with the pub directory displayed. Open a web browser as shown in Figure 4-17. similar to HTTP. Start the pod host web browser. go down the directories until the URL path is pub/eaglelabs/eagle1/chapter2. this is line 23. Also. and enter the URL ftp://eagle-server. close the web browser. . select the FTP capture that is the first FTP protocol transmission. Figure 4-18 Wireshark FTP Capture Move into the middle Wireshark window and expand the FTP protocol. Start Wireshark captures again. as shown on the bottom of the Figure 4-17. the web browser logged in to the FTP server as user anonymous. If not already opened. Figure 4-17 Web Browser FTP Client Using the browser.pcap and save the file. and save the captures as FTP_Web_Browser_Client. FTP communicates using codes. Response: 220. When finished. What is the FTP server response 220? Service is ready for a new user. open the Wireshark capture FTP_Web_Browser_Client.

a port number above 1023. The Windows FTP client used for this lab did not support the passive transfer mode. The transfer mode can be either active or passive. the port number is 1073. the same connection used in the active transfer mode. See Figure 4-20. See Figure 4-19. If possible. . Step 5. a new port is opened. The transfer mode sets how the data port is configured. the commands are similar. In Figure 4-18. however. the server opens a TCP session to the FTP client and transfers data across that port. First. For data transfer. and the FTP client port number is some number above 1023. This is called the transfer mode. Open the Wireshark capture FTP_Web_Browser_Client. however. the client initiates the data connection to the server. In active mode. Figure 4-19 Active FTP FTP Client FTP Control Connection on TCP Port 21 FTP Server FTP Data Connection From TCP Port 20 on Server to a High Port on the Client. The implications between the two modes are important from an information security perspective. the FTP client must permit either FTP-related connections (implying stateful packet filtering) or disable blocking. In passive mode. To establish connectivity for data transfer. Compare FTP active and passive transfer modes. there are two significant changes. high ports are used on both ends of the connection. a client initiates an FTP session with the server on well-known TCP port 21. students should be shown a passive transfer mode. For data transfer. Unless the FTP client firewall is configured to permit connections from the outside. What is the FTP data port number used by the FTP server? The port number is 20. When data is transferred or with simple directory listings. In passive transfer mode.120 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide When the FTP server issued a Response: 331 Please specify the password. In active transfer mode. Although the clients are different. and observe the FTP communication. the server initiates a connection from well-known TCP port 20 to a client’s high port. what was the web browser reply? IEUSER@ Which port number does the FTP client use to connect to the FTP server port 21? Port number will vary. the client opens a new port to the server for data transfer. Both port numbers are above 1023. The FTP server source port number is 20. Second. data transfer may fail. a client initiates an FTP session with the server on well-known TCP port 21.

All of these services use TCP. HTTP uses a single protocol to communicate with the HTTP server. User anonymous normally has restricted access to the FTP server and cannot upload files. A client application may be either a web browser or command-line utility. Task 4: Reflection Both HTTP and FTP protocols rely on TCP to communicate. however. Depending on the transfer mode. The communication protocol is normally defined in an RFC. lasts until the client signals that it is leaving with the quit command. even if the authentication is open to the world. The browser acts as a client to the server. and Gopher. TCP manages the connection between client and server to ensure datagram delivery.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 121 Figure 4-20 Passive FTP FTP Client FTP Control Connection on TCP Port 21 FTP Server FTP Data Connection From the Client High TCP Port to the Server High TCP Port. guaranteed delivery of datagrams. The FTP client must authenticate to the FTP server. Think about the differences between TCP and UDP. How is the application layer protocol Telnet similar to HTTP and FTP? How does Telnet differ? Answers will vary. uses two protocols. but each must send and receive messages that can be correctly interpreted. Task 5: Challenge Enabling Wireshark capture. Not all FTP client applications support changes to the transfer mode. The FTP server listens on TCP port 21. Observe the Telnet protocol behavior. however. and consider why UDP is inappropriate for HTTP. Unless the FTP server is configured to permit a connection to a random high port. sending requests and processing replies. as the command line. Issue a GET request and observe the results. FTP. Telnet and Gopher may also be supported on the browser. Multiple application layer protocols can be accessed through a simple web browser. An FTP session. Although only HTTP and FTP were examined here. FTP. The server listens on port 80 for client connections. Telnet. data transfer will fail. An HTTP session begins when a request is made to the HTTP server and ends when the response has been acknowledged by the HTTP client. but Telnet is similar to HTTP and FTP in that all three use the TCP protocol for connection-oriented. use a web browser or command-line Telnet client to connect to a Cisco device such as S1-Central or R2-Central. . the server or client may initiate the data connection.

You will use the topology in Figure 4-21 and the addressing table in Table 4-18 to document your design. UDP. turn off power to the host computers. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.3.122 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 6: Clean Up If Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer for this lab. and analyze increasingly more complex protocol interactions. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. and UDP work together. Connect and configure hosts and services on the model of the lab network. you will build increasingly larger parts of this topology in Packet Tracer. however.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. and leave the room ready for the next class. .3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills4.6. servers. HTTP.1. Remember. and switches to learn networking concepts. and TCP on the model of the lab network. Scroll to the bottom of the list. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Analyzing the Application and Transport Layers (4.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure hosts and services. and then click Remove. routers. UDP.5. Upon completion of this activity. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. To remove Wireshark. HTTP. the instructor may want the application removed. delete all files retrieved from the FTP server. click Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs. right-click Wireshark. you will be using a standard lab setup created from actual PCs. Explore How DNS. Background Throughout the course. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Application and Transport Layer Protocols Examination (4. If downloaded files need to be removed from the host pod computer. Use simulation mode to visualize the operation of DNS. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab4532. At the end of each chapter.

0 N/A N/A 10.10.254.10.16.Chapter 4: OSI Transport Layer 123 Figure 4-21 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B Table 4-18 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.16.252 255.16.254.10.6 10.254.1 172.1 172.6 172.255.255.254.10.254 172.254 172.255.255.0 255.16.16.0 255.255.255.example.254.255.255.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Task 1: Repair and Test the Topology The server has been replaced.255.10. It must be powered on.10.254 Subnet mask 255.16.254 192.1.5 172.255.254.168.255.0.254 10.252 255.16.1.0.0 255. with the association of eagle-server.0.255.6 172.2 192.255.255.0.168.255.253 10.255.168.255.0 255.168.168.253 DNS enabled.254 255. Then configure it with the following settings: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address 192.0 255.0 Default gateway 192.com with the server’s IP address HTTP enabled .10.10.255.

it will show as Failed. and ICMP. Test connectivity. UDP. HTTP. click the View Previous Events button.255.254.0 Default gateway 172.1 Subnet mask 255. Scenario 1 might have test packets between PC 1B and the routers). in real time. UDP. Make sure Event Filter is set to display DNS. In Packet Tracer.” Double-clicking the Fire button in the PDU List window. and UDP and TCP. the test packet you just created between PC 1A and Eagle Server will be removed. and then use the Capture / Forward button in the event List to capture the interaction of DNS. especially when the packets are at PC 1A or at the Eagle Server. You can examine the packet in two ways: by clicking the packet envelope as it is displayed in the animation. Configure it with the following settings: ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address 172. and TCP Work Together Switch from real time to simulation mode.16.254 Connect PC 1A to the Fa0/1 port of the S1-Central switch using a straight-through cable. Note that when you add a simple PDU. Inbound PDU Details. Outbound PDU Details) for each event in the event list. which is explained later in Chapter 9.example. . this is because of the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) process.254 DNS server 192.16. HTTP. Task 3: Reflection Can you make a diagram of the sequence of protocol events involved in requesting a web page using a URL? Where might things go wrong? Compare and contrast DNS and HTTP. and TCP. the term scenario means a specific configuration of one or more test packets. Scenario 0 might have one test packet from PC 1A to Eagle Server. you should be able to see how DNS. If you receive a Buffer Full message. if you use the Delete button for Scenario 0.124 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Connect the Eagle Server to the Fa0/0 port on the R1-ISP router using a crossover cable.0.1. Task 2: Explore How DNS.255. by using the Add Simple PDU to test connectivity between PC 1A and the Eagle Server. HTTP.com. PC 1A has lost its IP address information. HTTP. For example. or by clicking the Info column for that packet instance as it is listed in the Event List. it appears in the PDU List window as part of Scenario 0. “Ethernet. You can remove all test packets in a particular scenario by using the Delete button. please do this before the next task. Play this animation and examine the packet contents (PDU Information window. UDP. press Enter. Type the URL eagleserver. The first time you issue this one-shot ping message. send this single test ping a second time. UDP.168. You can create different test packet scenarios by using the New button (for example. TCP. Verify your work using feedback from the Check Results button and the Assessment Items tab. This time it will succeed. and TCP work together by studying tracing the packets and using the PDU Information window to look “inside” them. Although the processing of the packets at the switch and the routers might not make sense to you yet. Open a web browser from the desktop of 1A.

What are the four basic processes used in the network layer to accomplish end-to-end transport? To accomplish end-to-end transport. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. fill-in-the-blank. The address space for IPv4 is 32 bit. and Connectionless Network Service (CLNS/DECNet) 3. IP version 4 (IPv4) is the network layer protocol used as an example throughout this study guide. hands-on skills needed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with modern networks. AppleTalk. 4. use Chapter 5 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 5 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance. The network layer must provide a unique address for these end devices. IPv4 defines many different fields in the packet header. What is the most significant difference between the two? Although answers will vary. The data must be packaged so that it can be sent in a manageable size. List three protocols implemented at the network layer that carry user data. IPv4 is going to be replaced by IPv6. The network layer must provide services to direct these packets to their destination host. Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6). These fields contain binary values that the IPv4 services reference as they forward packets across the network.CHAPTER 5 OSI Network Layer The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. The packet arrives at the destination host and is processed at Layer 3. The most significant network layer protocol is the Internet Protocol (IP). Novell Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX). 2. Concept Questions 1. the most significant difference between IPv4 and IPv6 is length. 3. As you work through this chapter. multiple-choice. 2. whereas IPv6 is 128 bit. . and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the importance of data networks and the major components and characteristics of network architectures. Layer 3 uses the following four basic processes: 1. Answers will vary but could include Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). Study Guide IPv4 The network layer provides services to exchange the individual pieces of data over the network between end devices.

an intermediary device. usually a router. Data quality of service (QoS) priority: Enables router to give priority to voice and network route information over regular data. Number of hops before packet is dropped: This value is decremented at each hop to prevent packets being passed around the network in routing loops. Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 5-1 lists the six key fields in a typical IPv4 header. Table 5-1 Field Key Fields of IPv4 Header Purpose IP source address IP destination address Time-to-Live (TTL) Type-of-Service (ToS) Protocol IPv4 address of host sending the packet: enables the destination host to respond to the source if required. 1. In some cases. The header of an IPv4 packet does not include fields required for reliable data delivery. What is this process called? Fragmentation Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. Any individual IP packet can be communicated electrically over cable. If out-of-order or missing packets create problems for the application using the data. IPv4 is connectionless. 3. There is no error control for data. 5. Fill in the purpose of each field. The data payload protocol type: Denotes whether the data is a UDP datagram or TCP segment. There are no acknowledgments of packet delivery. IPv4 address of host to receive the packet: enables routers at each hop to forward the packet towards the destination. as optical signals over fiber. which services have to resolve these issues? The upper-layer services resolve these issues. Each route that a packet takes to reach the next device is called a hop. best effort (unreliable). and media independent. Intermediary devices that connect the networks are called routers. or wirelessly as radio signals.126 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 4. 6. 4. Fragment offset . 2. These 13 bits allow a receiver to determine the place of a particular fragment in the original IP datagram. because these transport layer protocols manage the receipt of their protocol data units (PDU) differently. List three basic characteristics of IPv4. will need to split up a packet when forwarding it from one media to a media with a smaller maximum transmission unit (MTU).

The default gateway is a router on a network that serves as an exit from that network. Routing: How Our Data Packets Are Handled Within a network or a subnetwork. trusted data to access the network. 6. also known as the default gateway. Using a hierarchical addressing scheme means that the higher levels of the address can be retained. Be prepared to discuss and present your findings in class. Broadcasts are contained within a broadcast domain. 2. it is a good idea to break the network into groups. what graphical user interface (GUI) tool do you use to configure the default gateway IPv4 address? The Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties tools . The firewall function performed by an intermediary permits only known. 7. is needed to send a packet out of the local network. A router will do one of the following with a packet: ■ ■ ■ Forward it to the next-hop router Forward it to the destination host Drop it Concept Questions 1. 4. The gateway. Internet Research Exercise Use your favorite Internet search engine to find a website that describes the advantages to using hierarchical addressing. an intermediary device. When a host needs to communicate with another network. A broadcast is a message sent from one host to all other hosts on the network. Answers will vary. Please be prepared to allot class time for discussions/presentations. On a Windows computer. Separating networks is relatively simple if you use hierarchical addressing. 3. 5. or router. To support data communications between networks over internetworks. with the middle level denoting the network addresses and the lower level the individual hosts. Routing is done packet by packet and hop by hop. they present problems that can be at least partially alleviated by dividing the network into smaller interconnected networks. 1. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 127 Networks: Dividing Hosts into Groups As networks get larger. acts as a gateway to the other network. As networks grow larger. network layer addressing schemes are hierarchical. Dividing large networks so that hosts who need to communicate are grouped together reduces the unnecessary overhead of all hosts needing to know all addresses. hosts communicate with each other without the need for any network layer intermediary device. A hierarchical address uniquely identifies each host.

Packets with a destination network address that does not match a more specific route in the routing table are forwarded to the next-hop router associated with the default route.0. 3. Packets with a destination network address that does not match a more specific route in the routing table are forwarded to the next-hop router associated with the default route. Default route Gateway . the packet is sent to the gateway. next hop. When forwarding a packet. Can a packet be forwarded without a route? No. For a host on a network.0 is used for this purpose. if used) portion of their respective addresses. a packet cannot be forwarded without a route. the address of the default gateway (router interface) is the next hop for all packets destined for another network. 8. The default route is used to forward packets for which there is no entry in the routing table for the destination network. In IPv4 networks. 6. To do this. and metric.128 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 2. What piece of addressing information should both the IPv4 host address and its default gateway share? The host IPv4 address and gateway address both must have the same network (and subnet. What is a default route? A default route is a route that will match all destination networks. 4. which route will a router select? When forwarding a packet. the address 0. Vocabulary Exercise: Define Table 5-2 lists some terms about routing. Define each term and write your responses in the definition column. If the network portion of the destination address of the packet is different from the network of the originating host.0. 7. The default gateway is needed to send a packet out of the local network. the router will select the most specific route. Table 5-2 Terms Routing Terms Definitions Definition Next hop A next hop is the address of the device that will process the packet next. Routes must have which three main features in a routing table? The three main features that routes must have in a routing table are destination network. the packet has to be routed outside the original network. A default route is a route that will match all destination networks. 5. When should you use a default route? A default route is used to forward packets for which there is no entry in the routing table for the destination network. Why is Layer 3 addressing hierarchical? The hierarchical nature of Layer 3 addressing means that one route entry could refer to a large general network and another entry could refer to a subnet of that same network.

. Otherwise. The routing table contains the information that a router uses in its packet-forwarding decisions. in turn. 3. 2. or router. Out-of-date routing information means that packets might not be forwarded to the most appropriate next hop. every router must be configured with static routes to next hops that reflect its location in the internetwork. the routing table needs to represent the most accurate state of network pathways that the router can access. it updates its own routing table and. When a router receives information about new or changed routes. Routing is the process of finding a path to a destination host. As routers become aware of changes to the networks for which they act as the gateway. or changes to links between routers.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 129 Routing Processes: How Routes Are Learned Routing requires that every hop. causing delays or packet loss. Static routing is routing that depends on manually entered routes in the routing table. 1. each known destination network needs to either have a route or a default route configured. passes the information to other routers. To ensure that packets are routed to use the best possible next hops. along the path to a packet’s destination have a route to forward the packet. Routing protocols are the set of rules by which routers dynamically share their routing information. Because packets are forwarded at every hop. It only needs to know the next hop on the path to the packet’s destination network. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following questions. For the routing decisions. the packet is dropped at that hop. Each router in a path does not need a route to all networks. this information is passed on to other routers.

By the use of several common utilities. Troubleshoot a hidden gateway address problem. devices on different networks have different source and destination network numbers. A router is assigned the gateway address for all the devices on the LAN. Scenario Pod host computers must communicate with Eagle Server. . This is called the 80/20 rule. If the pod host computer gateway address is not configured properly. For devices on the same LAN. Therefore. connectivity with Eagle Server will fail.130 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Labs and Activities Lab 5-1: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5. the host portion of the IP address is used as the host identifier. Figure 5-1 shows the topology for this lab. However. Cisco estimates that 80 percent of network traffic will be destined to devices on other networks. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Understand and explain the purpose of a gateway address. if a gateway cannot be reached by the LAN devices. Background An IP address is composed of a network portion and a host portion. and only 20 percent of network traffic will go to local devices. and Table 5-3 shows the corresponding addressing table. but Eagle Server is located on a different network. The network portion of the destination device is the same as the network portion of the host device. One purpose of a router is to serve as an entry point for packets coming into the network and exit point for packets leaving the network.1. Understand how network information is configured on a Windows computer.1) Upon completion of this lab. The network portion of the IP address is used to identify when a packet must be sent to a gateway address. which is assigned to a network device that forwards packets between distant networks. A computer that communicates with another device must first know how to reach the device. Gateway addresses are important to users. users will not be able to perform their job.5. network configuration on a pod host computer will be verified.

0 255.255.255.10.168.0.254.16.16.10.Pod#.255.0.252 255.10.16.1 172.1 255.16.0 255.254 172.31.24.10.0 N/A N/A 10.2 172.254.255.168.255.168.253 10.0 255.255.255.255.255.252 255.254 172.255.254 172.0 255.255.0.255.5 172.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 131 Figure 5-1 Topology for Lab 5-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 5-3 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.0 255.0 255.255.16.255.255.16.16.254 172.0.253 N/A 172.255.6 N/A 192.254.10.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A .254 192.254.255.Pod#.255.10.6 192.

the gateway address is the address of the Ethernet device. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server. The “quad-zero” Network Destination and Netmask values. R1-ISP.0.0.132 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. Figure 5-2 Communication Between LAN Devices Referring to Figure 5-2.com. and can ping R1-ISP. 172. the netstat –r command is used to view the gateway addresses for this computer. ping S1Central.255. Finally.254 as the default gateway.10. Step 3. In Example 5-1. 0. ping Eagle Server. 172. what is the MAC address of the network device on IP address 172. is automatically assigned to the 127. One popular command is netstat –r. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address. Figure 5-2 shows two devices on the same network communicating with the ping command.16.example.1? 00:10:a4:7b:01:5f Several Windows commands will display a network gateway address.0. For any nonlocal network.16. Verify that all network equipment is powered on. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server. The first highlighted line shows what gateway address is used to forward all network packets destined outside of the LAN. If the ping test fails.0 and 0. refer to any network not specifically known.0. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.0. this computer will use 172.0) is on the same LAN.0.6. and finally Eagle Server.254. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity with the following steps: Step 1. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. and can ping R2-Central. From a known good host computer.16. and that Eagle Server is on. 10. 172.16. shown in the preceding logical addressing table. The fourth highlighted line displays the information in humanreadable form.0 network.0.example.10. A local interface. More specific networks are reached through other gateway addresses. R2-Central. This interface is .com. Task 1: Understand and Explain the Purpose of a Gateway Address For LAN traffic. the lab topology might have been modified before this class.255. Step 2.254.1. called the loopback interface.0. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. Any device that has the same network address (in this example.16.255.

1 172..16.2 172.0.0 255... Was the ping successful? Yes Step 3. This entry is the third highlighted line.1. 127.255 Default Gateway: Netmask 0.255..255.1 172.1.255.16. What is the default gateway address? 172.0.255.16.0.00 16 76 ac a7 6a Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 0.16. 127..0.0.255 255.2 Interface 172.0. Finally.1.0.0..254 127..16.1...0.1.255.1.1. .16. Pings are successful to any valid 127. See the second highlighted entry..255.1.0. any device on network 172.255..0.16.1.0..255..255.0 172..255.0 host IP address.0.255. Were responses successful? If not.16. and 127.. why? For 127.2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Persistent Routes: None C:\> Step 1.1.16.16.0.0. For 127..0 172.255.255 255.0.0 255. yes.0. no.1.255..255. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x20005 .255. the IP address for this Ethernet interface.0.1 172.255.1.255 255.16.16.0.1....2 172.255 172..255.255.255.255 is the network broadcast address.2 127.16.10.16.0.0 255. Example 5-1 Output of the netstat Command C:\>netstat –r Route Table ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 ..2.2 127.0.254 Gateway 172.0 is accessed through gateway 172. Use the ping command to ping different IP addresses on the 127..1 172..0.255.10..254 Step 2.0 network.0.255.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 133 used to identify the local host to local network services.2 127.0. Pings will fail.0.2 172.16. Use the ping command to verify connectivity with IP address 127..0 127.1. Open a terminal window on a pod host computer.

and click the Properties button.168.1. .134 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide A default gateway address permits a network device to communicate with other devices on different networks.254.0. a router. initiates a ping to IP address 192. A window similar to the one in Figure 5-4 will display. Click Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. and choose Properties.16. Step 1. for which IP can you not find a MAC address? 192. Right-click Local Area Connection. All traffic destined to different networks must go through the network device that has the default gateway address. To access this window.168. it is the door to other networks. Because IP address 192. As shown in Figure 5-3.254.254. several tools are available to quickly determine the network configuration for any Windows computer. Examine network properties settings.254.168. the pod host computer requests the MAC address of the default gateway device. the Layer 2 MAC addresses will change before the packet reaches its destination. what is the MAC address of the gateway device? 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 Referring to Figure 5-3. select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). The information cannot be determined from any device on this LAN. On the General tab. IP address 172. Pod host computer 2.16. responds with its MAC address. This gateway device.254. scroll down the list of items in the pane. communication between devices on different networks is different than on a LAN. The MAC address of 192. The computer composes the Layer 2 header with the destination MAC address of the router and places frames on the wire to the gateway device.254. For troubleshooting connectivity issues.254 is on a different network.0 differs from 192. In essence.254 is only important to the gateway device on the same LAN that must eventually deliver the packet to that IP address. Task 2: Understand How Network Information Is Configured on a Windows Computer Many times connectivity issues are attributed to incorrect network settings.168.168. Because network 172. One method that might prove useful to determine the network interface IP properties is to examine the pod host computer’s Network Properties settings. Figure 5-3 Communication Between Devices on Different Networks Referring to Figure 5-3.254.2.0.

. : IP Address. a dynamic IP address may be configured. . Example 5-2 Output of the ipconfig Command C:\>ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . .255. The second highlight shows the subnet mask. . .2 Subnet Mask . .0 . . . the Network Properties settings window is not very useful for determining IP address information. . . In this case.16. .16. : 172. as shown in Example 5-2. . . .0. as shown in Figure 5-5. . : 172. .254 The first highlight shows the IP address for this pod host computer. . . The third highlight shows the default gateway address. . .Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 135 Figure 5-4 Network Interface with Static IP Address However. . . Default Gateway . Figure 5-5 Network Interface with Dynamic IP Address A more consistently reliable method for determining network settings on a Windows computer is to use the ipconfig command.1. . : 255.255. . . .

16.1. : No IP Address. . . . : 172. . . Using the command ipconfig /all. . . does not respond to pings. . . . fill in the Table 5-4 with information from your pod host computer. . . . . . . : Node Type . . . .0. . . .0 172.254. .com. all other values should be the same as shown. . . .254 Note to instructors: Only the IP address should be different on a student’s pod host computer. . . . . . You check with the corporate network engineer. .254 DNS Servers . : Unknown Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix Network Connection Physical Address. . . . : No .168.2 255. . . . . . . but nothing unusual was found. . . : . . . . . . use the command ipconfig /all. . . . As the third-shift help desk Cisco engineer. . Refer to the network topology in Figure 5-1 and the logical IP address assignments in Table 5-3.254 192. ipconfig Table Address Table 5-4 Description IP address Subnet mask Default gateway DNS server 172.254. . . . Example 5-3 Output of the ipconfig /all Command C:\>ipconfig /all Windows IP Configuration Host Name .16. . . . The highlighted line shows the domain name server IP address.136 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Several options are available with the ipconfig command. . . : 192. . . who reports that R2-Central has been temporarily brought down for a hardware upgrade.0 Default Gateway . . . .168. . .255. . . Task 3: Troubleshoot a Hidden Gateway Address Problem When troubleshooting network issues. : GW-desktop-hom Primary Dns Suffix IP Routing Enabled WINS Proxy Enabled .2 Subnet Mask . . . : 172.255. . host-11B.0. . .255. . . .example. . . . . : Intel (R) 82562V 10/100 Step 2. .255. . : 255.16. . . . as shown in Example 5-3. . The technician verified the cables and network settings on both computers. accessible with the command ipconfig /?.1. . . . . . . . . . : 00-16-76-AC-A7-6A Dhcp Enabled. . The technician received a trouble ticket from a user on computer host 1A. complaining that computer host 11B.16. . . . : No . . . To show the most information about the network connections. .254 Description . . you are asked for assistance from the help desk technician. a thorough understanding of the network can often assist in identifying the real problem. . . . .

172. 172. . after that. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Packet Tracer Activity Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Device’s Gateway (5. LAN computers still have connectivity between each other. Windows command-line utilities such as netstat –r and ipconfig /all will report gateway settings on host computers. Task 4: Reflection A gateway address is critical to network connectivity.16. First.254. Remember.0. however. but DNS will not work. The pings succeed. you ask the technician to ping the IP address for host 11B. IP network 192.11. use the hostname of the destination pod computer for DNS to reply with the destination IP address. Observe the communication sequence between network devices.5.254. DNS requests from the LAN devices must go through the gateway device. capture a ping between network devices using only IP addresses. and the pings fail.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab5512. Within the hour. Then. especially the gateway. and leave the room ready for the next class.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 137 Nodding your head in understanding. you ask the technician to ping the gateway IP address.2 from host 1A.254. What is wrong? Because the DNS server is on a different network than the LAN. The gateway address should not be needed.16. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. You instruct the help desk technician to tell the user to use the IP address for host 11B temporarily. turn off power to the host computers. Task 6: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. R2-Central. and in some instances LAN devices require a default gateway to communicate with other devices on the LAN. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.1. If the gateway is down. the user is able to establish connectivity with the computer. the gateway router is back on line and normal network operation resumes. Next.168. Task 5: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture a ping between two pod host computers. You might have to restart the host computer to flush the DNS cache.

Figure 5-6 Topology for Lab 5-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 . you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Use the route command to modify a Windows computer routing table. and the network route is automatically entered into the routing table. a default gateway IP address is configured that will send traffic to a device that should know about the network. Scenario Using a pod host computer. test the connection. This lab compares how routes are used in Windows computers and the Cisco router.138 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 5-2: Examining a Route (5. based upon configuration information on the network interface. Examine router routes using basic Cisco IOS commands. Figure 5-6 shows the topology for this lab. and examine the routing table. Use a Windows Telnet client command telnet to connect to a Cisco router. and then add the default gateway route back to the host table.1) Learning Objectives Upon completion of this lab. For networks that are not directly connected.5. Delete the default gateway route.2. and Table 5-5 shows the corresponding addressing table. The device considers a network directly connected when it has an IP address and network mask configured. Use a pod host computer to telnet into R2-Central. a device must know the route to the destination network. Some routes are added to routing tables automatically. examine the routing table with the route command and identify the different routes and gateway IP address for the route. Background For packets to travel across a network.

168.255.255.255. Step 2.com. and can ping R1-ISP.0 255.10.2 172.24. R2-Central.0.1 255.com. From a known good host computer.255. ping S1Central.252 255. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.example.10.16.254.5 172.16.254 172.10.254.254. .254 172.16.0 255. In this lab.16.255. Ensure that the privileged exec password has been changed from the default value of cisco.255.254.255.255.255.16.example.6 192. output from the netstat –r command is useful to determine route and gateway information.16.1 172. students telnet into R2-Central and view the routing table.255. and finally Eagle Server.254 172.254.6.10.0 255.10. Step 3.255.168. and that Eagle Server is on. and can ping R2-Central. the lab topology might have been modified before this class.10.16. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.254 172. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.255. Task 1: Use the route Command to Modify a Windows Computer Routing Table Shown in Example 5-4.252 255.254.168. Finally.0.16.0 255.31. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. If the ping test fails.253 N/A 172.255. Verify that all network equipment is powered on.0 255.Pod#. R1-ISP.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 139 Table 5-5 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address. verify that the host has the correct DNS address.0 255.254 192.10.0.16.255.255.255. 172. 10. 172.255.0 N/A N/A 10.255.255.255.0. shown in the preceding logical addressing table.253 10. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server.Pod#. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps: Step 1. and can ping eagle-server.10.6 N/A 192. ping Eagle Server.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server N/A N/A Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central N/A N/A N/A Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.

0 255. Unlike the netstat –r command.. . MS TCP Loopback interface 0x20005 . A useful command to modify the routing table is the route command..0.16.16.255 255.255.1..255..0.0. To view detailed information about the route command.0.. delete. add..255 255.255.0 255..2 Interface 172.2 127..2 127.0. use the option route /?.255.255.255.0..0 127. or change routing table entries....254 Gateway 172..2 172.254 127.0.16.255.255.1...255.255.16.16.0.0.16.1...0. issue the command route PRINT.. Example 5-5 Output of the route Command C:\>route /? An abbreviated option list for the route command is shown below: route PRINT route ADD route DELETE route CHANGE Prints active routes Adds a route: Deletes a route: Modifies an existing route route ADD network MASK mask gateway route DELETE network To view active routes.140 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 5-4 Output of the netstat Command C:\>netstat –r Route Table ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .255.1 172.1 172.255 172. as shown in Example 5-5.2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Persistent Routes: None C:\> Step 1.0 172.1...1.2 172.0.0.0.1 172.2 127..255.. as shown in Example 5-6..16.16.0.255 Default Gateway: Netmask 0.0.0 172.2 172.0.0.16.1. the route command can be used to view. Examine the active routes on a Windows computer..16.255 255.0.0 255..1 172.1.1.00 16 76 ac a7 6a Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 0.16.16..

255 255.1.00 16 76 ac a7 6a .0.0 255.254.16.0.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192..2 127.255..1.. Example 5-7 Output of the ping Command C:\> ping eagle-server. Average = 0ms C:\> What is the gateway address to eagle-server.16.0..1.0.168.255.255.16.16.0.0.16.0 255..16.168.1 172.0 127.1 172.254. The syntax to remove the default gateway route is this: route DELETE network The full command is as follows: C:/> route DELETE 0.16.255.168.1..254.0..Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 0....example..254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192..168.255 255.example.2 127.168.16. How important is the default gateway route? Delete the gateway route.2 Interface 172.255...0.. Lost = 0 (0% loss).2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Verify network connectivity to Eagle Server.255.0.1.16.0..1.0.168.0.1 172. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x70003 .16.0.2 172.0..255 255.0 .255.255.0 172. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.255.16.0 172.0.254 127..com? 172.com [192.com Pinging eagle-server.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 141 Example 5-6 Output of the route PRINT Command C:\ >route PRINT ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 ..255.2 172.254 Step 2.1 172.254 Gateway 172. as shown in Example 5-7.255. Maximum = 0ms..16.0. and try to ping Eagle Server.0.255 172..example. Received = 4.254...0.255.0.2 127. Delete a route from the Windows computer routing table.255.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.0...2 172.16.254: Packets: Sent = 4..255 Default Gateway: Persistent Routes: None C:\> Netmask 0.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192..254..254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.0 255.1.1.

or the cache times out.255.16.0.254 . If the default gateway IP address is removed. such as 172.MS TCP Loopback interface 0x70003 .0.00 16 76 ac a7 6a .0.1.16.0. If the computer is rebooted...0.0.255.16.1.255.com is stored in the computer’s cache.16.example.1.0..0.. C:\> route PRINT ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .0.255.0. use the IP address assigned to your host pod interface.1.2 172.. Removing the default gateway has no effect on LAN connectivity.. In the following configuration..255 Gateway 127.142 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Examine the active routing table.Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 127.0.255.0.2 127..255 255....16.1. The syntax to add a route to the Windows computer routing table is this: route ADD network MASK mask gateway-IP address The full command appears is as follows: C:/> route ADD 0.0 MASK 0.1.... Can other LAN devices be reached.example.0.0.1.0 172.0 172.255.16.1 172.16..2 172. the name will not be resolved because the DNS server is not on the LAN.1.2 Metric 1 20 20 20 20 1 ======================================================================= Try to ping Eagle Server.16.0.0 255.0 255. Insert a route into the Windows computer routing table.0 255. What are the results? Eagle Server cannot be reached.0.254? Yes.255 224.0.2 172..com? The IP address for eagle-server.1 172. how can the DNS server be reached to resolve eagle-server..255 240.255. and verify that the default gateway route has been removed: What is the default gateway IP address? With the default route removed.0. Step 3...255.0 255...16.1 172.16..2 172.0.1 172.255.2 172.255..255 Persistent Routes: None C:\> Netmask 255.2 127.1...16.255.16.255.0.2 Interface 127..16.0. there is no default gateway IP address..0.0 172.

example...0.254.. Lost = 0 (0% loss).254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.0.254.0.2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1 255.16.254 ======================================================================= Persistent Routes: None C:\> Try to ping Eagle Server.1.254.254.1.0.0.255..1.255 Gateway 172.0 172.255.2 Interface 172.00 16 76 ac a7 6a .168..255 Default Gateway: 172.16.16.0..254.255.2 172.1 172.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 143 Examine the active routing table.0 255.1.0.255.255.255.Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: NetworkDestination 0.16.16. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms..0 255.example.0.. Has the default gateway route been restored? Yes C:\ >route PRINT ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 .2 172.1 172...16.16....1..0.168.1 172.254: Packets: Sent = 4.168.16.255.255.16..254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.254 127..16..0 255.255 255..16.. What are the results? Eagle Server can be reached again. Received = 4.0.1.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192..168.1 172.0. Maximum = 0ms.1...0.. MS TCP Loopback interface 0x70003 .0.2 127. Average = 0ms C:\> .2 127.0 127.com Pinging eagle-server.255 Netmask 0..0..0.0..255.1.168.2 172.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192..255.255.16.0 172.168.0.2 127.com [192. C:\> ping eagle-server.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.255 255..0.254.255.

Cisco devices have a Telnet server and. will permit remote logins. and press Enter. the username is instructor. and so on. as shown in Example 5-8. For all usernames. and requires a username and password. Step 1. Open a terminal window by clicking Start > Run. if properly configured. The username depends on the pod. however. students telnet into R2-Central and view the routing table. the corresponding password is cisco. and then click OK. Type cmd. The Telnet utility has several options and can be viewed with the telnet /? command. and press Enter. you telnet into the R2-Central router and use common Cisco IOS commands to examine the router routing table. Note to instructors: In this lab. A terminal window and prompt should be available.254 <ENTER> A login window will prompt for a username. enter the following command: C:/> telnet 172. A username and password will be required to log in to the router. The default password should have been changed to something other than cisco. For instructors. Table 5-6 Pod Number Pod Number Table Username 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 ccna1 ccna2 ccna3 ccna4 ccna5 ccna6 ccna7 ccna8 ccna9 ccna10 ccna11 To start a Telnet session with router R2-Central.144 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Use a Windows Telnet Client Command telnet to Connect to a Cisco Router In this task. ccna2 is for students on pod 2 computers. Using the Windows Telnet client. Enter the applicable username. The password for all usernames is cisco. The router prompt should be visible after a successful login. cisco. log in to a Cisco router.255. Ensure that the privileged exec password has been changed from the default value of cisco. Type the password. Table 5-6 shows the pod numbers and the corresponding usernames. Username ccna1 is for users on pod 1 computers. Access to the router is restricted.16. .

IS-IS summary. su . Task 3: Examine Router Routes Using Basic Cisco IOS Commands As with any network device. R .IS-IS inter area.0. IA . ************************************************************ User Access Verification Username: ccna1 Password: cisco !The password is hidden when typed in R2-Central> At the prompt. E2 . The purpose of this task was to establish a Telnet session. the router routing table is examined. a router may also employ a default gateway. Similar to the host computer default gateway IP address.OSPF. Also similar to a host computer.IS-IS level-2 ia .connected. M .EIGRP.Static. Authorized access only.BGP D . therefore. L2 . B . O .IS-IS. The route information displayed is much more detailed than the route information on a host computer. because the job of a router is to route traffic between networks. The information required of this task.OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 . Example 5-9 Output of the show ip route Command R2-Central#show ip route Codes: C . EX .IS-IS level-1. which has been accomplished.OSPF NSSA external type 1.OSPF external type 1. R2-Central#. however. U .EIGRP external.ODR. a router is knowledgeable about directly connected networks.6 to network 0. but instead uses a common IOS command to view the routing table. In the next task. gateway addresses instruct the device about how to reach other networks when no other information is available.candidate default.0.per-user static route o . This is to be expected.10.RIP. L1 . a successful Telnet login has been created. S . is not difficult to glean.OSPF external type 2 i .0 .Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 145 Example 5-8 Output for R2-Central ************************************************************ This is Eagle 1 lab router R2-Central. Only limited permissions for ccnax usernames are available.mobile. P . Example 5-9 shows the routing table for R2-Central. it is not possible to modify router settings or view the configuration. The syntax to view the routing table is this: show ip route <ENTER> Enter the command to display the router routing table. * .10. This task does not examine Cisco IOS commands in detail.periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 10. N2 .OSPF inter area N1 .

168.10. L1 .0/16 is directly connected.10.Static.OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 .254. The asterisk shows the example is a candidate default route.254.0.146 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 5-9 Output of the show ip route Command continued C 172.6 to network 0. which denotes directly connected networks and the interface that supports the connection.10.IS-IS level-2 ia . What would the router do with packets destined to 192. If there is no other route in the routing table.254.EIGRP. R . 1 subnets C S* 10.10.0/30 is subnetted.16. such as /30 or /16.10.0. IP mask information is displayed as a numeric value (prefix). exit the router with the command exit.0.0.16.BGP D .4 is directly connected.0. O .0.4 is directly connected.per-user static route o .254? The router will use gateway of last resort IP address to forward packets destined to 192. N2 .connected. use the gateway of last resort IP address to forward packets.OSPF NSSA external type 1.6 R2-Central# The Codes section shown in Example 5-10 explains the symbols to the left of each route entry. * .IS-IS level-1. .0).0. denoting a static route.OSPF inter area N1 . P .0. When finished examining the routing table.periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 10.candidate default.6 R2-Central# Two highlighted lines in the example show C.10.0/0 [1/0] via 10. which is manually entered by the network administrator. EX . B . U .EIGRP external.RIP. IA .168. FastEthernet0/0 10.0.0.0.10.10.10. How is IP mask information displayed in a router routing table? Unlike the pod host computer. su . Serial0/2/0 0. S . Close the terminal window.0 C 172.10. The Telnet client will also close the connection with the Telnet escape sequence Ctrl+] and quit. Serial0/2/0 0. L2 .OSPF.OSPF external type 2 i .IS-IS summary.OSPF external type 1.0/30 is subnetted.IS-IS inter area. FastEthernet0/0 10. M .IS-IS. 1 subnets C S* 10.0.mobile. Example 5-10 Explanation of Codes R2-Central#show ip route Codes:?C .0. E2 . because the route is “quad-zero”(0. One highlighted line shows S.0/16 is directly connected.0/0 [1/0] via 10.0.ODR.

compare network information output. Similar to the Windows ipconfig command. . Example 5-11 Output of the show ip interface brief Command R2-Central#show ip interface brief Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/1 Serial0/2/0 Serial0/2/1 R2-Central# IP-Address 172. turn off power to the host computers.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. telnet. was used to connect to a lab router. and leave the room ready for the next class. and add route information on the pod host computer. R2-Central#show hosts Default domain is not set Name/address lookup uses domain service Name servers are 192. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Route (5. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. however.10.255. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 147 Task 4: Reflection Two new Windows commands were used in this lab. R2-Central.254 unassigned 10. Task 5: Challenge You can use other Cisco IOS commands to view IP address information on a router.254. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. the Cisco IOS command show ip interface brief shown in Example 511 will display IP address assignments. did not display DNS server information.5. delete.10.2.254 <output omitted> R2-Central# Task 6: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. The router routing table was examined with the Cisco IOS command show ip route. however.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab5522. The Windows Telnet client. The Cisco router. and gateway of last resort information are displayed. Remember. statically assigned routes. What was missing? What critical network information was similar? Both devices displayed directly connected routes and a default gateway route. The route command was used to view.168.16.5 unassigned OK? Method Status YES manual up YES unset Protocol up administratively down down up YES manual up YES unset administratively down down Using Windows commands and the Cisco IOS commands in this lab. This technique will be used in other labs to connect to Cisco network devices. Routes for directly connected networks.

255. Explore the routing of IP packets.148 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Routing IP Packets (5.255. and analyze increasingly more complex protocol interactions.255.255.254 10. Background Throughout the course.252 255. routers.1.6 10.254 255.253 10.254 172.254.16. the dominant network layer protocol of the Internet. Explore a routing table.16.16.10. You have already studied a variety of application protocols. in Inbound and Outbound PDU Details view they were always encapsulated in IP packets.255.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC . you will be using a standard lab setup created from actual PCs.0.255. HTTP. works in the context of a simple example of IP routing.255.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills5.2 192. you will examine how IP. Upon completion of this activity.252 255.10.10.0.0 255.16. Table 5-7 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.168.255.0 255. Figure 5-7 shows the topology for this skills integration challenge.10.255.255.255.254 192.168. you will build increasingly larger parts of this topology in Packet Tracer.10.255. servers.5 172. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure a router interface using a GUI.168. such as DNS. TFTP. and switches to learn networking concepts. You may have noticed that regardless of what application and transport protocols were involved.255. and Telnet. In this activity.1. and two transport layer protocols. DHCP. and Table 5-7 shows the corresponding addressing table.1.0 N/A N/A 10. At the end of each chapter.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer.254. Configure a static route using a GUI.10.0 255.1 172.16.0 255. TCP and UDP.16.255.255.6.0.16.254.255.6 172.254 172.10.0.6 172.0 255.1 172.10.254.

. the Config tab is easier and will allow you to focus on the basic idea of IP routing. In the list shown. Task 2: Examining Routes Use the Inspect tool (magnifying glass) to examine the routing table of R2-Central. Move your cursor over the R2-Central router.0. you will learn how to use the Cisco IOS command-line interface (CLI) to perform this task. This interface must have an IP address. and be turned on to act as the default gateway for the LAN. The request still fails. Add the IP address 172.0. and turn the port on.255. At the end of the course. Verify that the router interface (port) is now working by using the mouse over.254 with subnet mask 255. You will see the router’s directly connected networks. For now.16. Click router R2-Central and go to the Config tab. but there is no way to reach the Eagle Server network.255. subnet mask. Try reaching Eagle Server. FastEthernet0/0. and note the condition of the Fa0/0 interface (to which switch is connected).Chapter 5: OSI Network Layer 149 Figure 5-7 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B Task 1: Configure a Router Interface There is a problem on the LAN: PC 1A cannot reach the Eagle Server (verify this in real-time mode). It appears there is a problem with the router. Close the router window. What are some possible reasons why? One possible reason Eagle Server cannot be reached is the fact that it is using a static IP and not the default route. find INTERFACE.

This route is configured so that wherever packets from the 172. Test connectivity. will appear in the User Created PDU list for future use. Configure what is known as a default static route. Settings. double-click Fire to send it again.0. Trace the packet’s journey from PC 1A to Eagle Server and back using the Capture / Forward button and examining the packet’s contents by either clicking the envelope or clicking the colored square in the Info column of the event list.10. Use the Inspect tool (magnifying glass) to examine the routing table of R2-Central again. The PDU. mask 0.16.6 (the S0/0/0 interface on the R1-ISP router) and click the Add button. In the list shown. click the Save button to save the interface and route configuration you have just done to NVRAM (in case the router is power cycled).0. they will go to the R1-ISP router. Task 4: Examine the Routing of the IP Packet Switch to simulation mode.0. You should now see the route you configured in the routing table.10. and the next hop of 10. a one-shot ping. by using Add Simple PDU to test connectivity between PC 1A and the Eagle Server. Under GLOBAL.0 /16 LAN are destined.0.0. find ROUTING.150 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Configure a Route Using a GUI Click router R2-Central and go to the Config tab.0.0. Using the PDU you created in Task 3. too. Task 5: Reflection What data can an IP packet contain? What is meant by the phrase “the IP packet is routed”? What is a route? Where might things go wrong? . using the address 0. Static. in real time. Verify your work using feedback from the Check Results button and the Assessment Items tab.

each packet has a 32-bit source address and a 32-bit destination address in the Layer 3 header. In this chapter.CHAPTER 6 Addressing the Network: IPv4 The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of network addressing. This means that we look at each byte as a decimal number in the range of 0 to 255. 3. As you work through this chapter. What does IPv4 provide for packets that carry data? Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) provides hierarchical addressing for packets that carry data. These addresses are used in the data network as binary patterns. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. What is the format used for IP addresses called? Dotted decimal. What is another name for digital logic? Boolean logic. 2. or use the corresponding Chapter 6 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. for assistance. we refer to binary as it relates to IPv4 addressing. . Concept Questions 1. At Layer 3. For each IPv4 address. use Chapter 6 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. Study Guide IPv4 Addresses With IPv4. Data that appears in binary may represent many different forms of data to the human network. 4. fill-in-the-blank. hands-on skills needed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with IPv4. multiple-choice. some portion of the high-order bits represents the network address. What is another way to refer to 1 byte or 8 bits? Octet. we define a network as a group of hosts that have identical bit patterns in the network address portion of their addresses.

Host address B. Broadcast C. The process of sending a packet from one host to an individual host . Table 6-1 Network Address Type Matching Exercise Definition Address Type A.20 Binary number: 10101100000100000000010100010100 Addresses for Different Purposes Within the address range of each IPv4 network are three types of addresses: ■ ■ ■ Network addresses Broadcast addresses Host addresses Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 6-1. Binary number: 10101100000100000000010000010100 IP address: 172. match the type of communication on the left to its definition on the right. The process of sending a packet from one host to a selected group of hosts A. match the type of network address on the left to its definition on the right. Network address B.5. IP address: 172.16. keeping in mind the following: ■ ■ ■ Divide the 32 bits into four octets.4.152 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Binary-to-Decimal Conversion Exercise Convert the following 32-bit binary number into an IP address. The process of sending a packet from one host to all hosts in the network C. Convert each octet to decimal. Multicast B. Table 6-2 Communication Type Matching Exercise Communication Type Definition A. A special address used to send data to all hosts in the network C. Broadcast address C.20 Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Exercise Convert the following IP address into a 32-bit binary number.16. The address by which we refer to the network In Table 6-2. Unicast B. An address assigned to an end device in the network A. Add a “dot” between each decimal.

255.0.255.0.2.0 to 238.254.31.168.2.0. The globally scoped multicast addresses are 224. 2. the IPv4 address range is 0. 1.255.0 to 255.0.254.168.254.0.254. What is the reserved block for default routing? 0.255 are reserved. What block of addresses is designated “TEST-NET”? 192. How do you know how many bits represent the network portion and how many bits represent the host portion? When we express an IPv4 network address.0.0. these addresses are listed as reserved for future use (RFC 3330). Be sure to include class time for presentations or discussions.16. Concept Questions 1.255. 3.0 /24) .255.0.0 /16) 4.1.0. Currently.255.0. One major block of addresses reserved for special purposes is the IPv4 experimental address range 240.0.255 (169. What is the loopback address. What block of addresses is designated “link-local”? 169.255.0 to 192. addresses 127.0. 5.2.255. Which addresses in a network cannot be assigned to hosts? The first (network address) and last (broadcast address).255.255.1 address is used.0 /16) 8.255.0 /8) 6.255.255.0.0.255 (192.255 (172.0. What is the prefix length? The prefix length is the number of bits in the address that gives us the network portion.0.0.0 /12) 192.0. and what block is reserved for loopback? Although only the single 127.0 to 172.255.0.0. 4. or find a calculator for the three address types.0.0.255.255. Vocabulary: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following sentences. 7. 3.0 to 255.255 (0. What are the private address blocks? 10. Another major block of addresses reserved for special purposes is the IPv4 multicast address range 224.168.255.255 (192.0 to 169. Expressed in dotted-decimal format.255 (10. look up a website detailing the utility of calculating addresses by hand.0 to 192.0 to 127.0.0 to 239. we add a prefix length to the network address.0. Answers will vary.0 /8) 172.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 153 Internet Research Exercise Using any search engine available on the Internet.255.0 to 10.16. 2.0.255.255.0.

List four types of devices that work best using static IP addresses. routers. Be prepared to discuss your opinions of the IANA with the class. it would cause problems if that address changed. hosts that are accessible from the Internet. With the classless system. Nor should address assignment within the network be random. are acceptable: Servers. Any of the following. If hosts normally access a server at a particular IP address. However. Assigning Addresses The allocation of network layer address space within the corporate network needs to be well designed. Answers will vary. Go to the IANA website at http://www.iana.154 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 9. Answers will vary. 3. This feature is especially helpful for mobile users who come and go on a network. it can be time-consuming to enter the information on each host. Describe the pros and cons of using DHCP for addressing. and other networking devices that need to be accessible to clients on the network. Describe the pros and cons of static addressing. Define classless addressing. Answers will vary for both exercises. Answers will vary. Another benefit of DHCP is that an address is not permanently assigned to a host but is only “leased” for a period of time. static assignment of addressing information can provide increased control over network resources. . peripherals. intermediary devices. servers. address blocks appropriate to the number of hosts are assigned to companies or organizations without regard to the unicast class. The allocation of these addresses inside the networks should be planned and documented for the following reasons: ■ ■ ■ Preventing duplication of addresses Providing and controlling access Monitoring security and performance Internet Research Exercises Using your favorite search engine. Be sure to include class time for presentations or discussions. firewalls. search for an example of an IPv4 addressing scheme or an article about IPv4’s addressing. Concept Questions 1. Network administrators should not randomly select the addresses used in their networks. Be prepared to present your findings. in any order. the address is returned to the pool for reuse. Static addresses are useful for printers. 2.org. If the host is powered down or taken off the network. and spend a few minutes familiarizing yourself with the site. Additionally. DHCP generally is the preferred method of assigning IP addresses to hosts on large networks because it reduces the burden on network support staff and virtually eliminates entry errors.

11000000 d. List some improvements that IPv6 will provide. 254 b. increased scalability and longevity. 11100000 e. 224 f. The prefix and the subnet mask are different ways of representing the same thing—the network portion of an address. 5. 248 e. match the binary number to its numeric value. 255 g. 11111111 c. 252 h. 0 i. Tier 3: The focus of these ISPs is the retail and home markets in a specific locale. QoS mechanisms. What is the primary focus of each of the three tiers of ISPs? Tier 1: The primary focus of Tier 1 ISPs is reliability and/or speed. 192 d. 240 a. 128-bit hierarchical addressing. Is It on My Network? To define the network and host portions of an address. flow labeling capability. 128 . 10000000 c. Tier 2: Tier 2 ISPs generally focus on business customers. header format simplification. improved support for extensions and options. Answers will vary. 00000000 b. authentication and privacy capabilities. integrated security. and any of these may appear in any order: Improved packet handling. 11111110 i. In Table 6-3.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 155 4. Binary Matching Exercise There are a limited number of subnet mask octets. 11111100 h. We express the subnet mask in the same dotted-decimal format as the IPv4 address. 11111000 g. the devices use a separate 32-bit pattern called a subnet mask. 11110000 f. Table 6-3 IPv4 Binary Matching Exercise Numeric Value Binary Number a.

Answers will vary. Basically. How does ANDing help an originating host? An originating host must determine if a packet should be sent directly to a host in the local network or be directed to the gateway. Allow class time for presentations or discussions. If the routers and end devices calculate these processes without your intervention. What are the two most useful tools in designing a network? A network diagram and a spreadsheet of IP addresses are the two most useful tools. 3. What is the formula to calculate the number of subnets? 2^n. . 2. each interface on a router must have a unique network ID. the more students understand and can predict the operation of a network. How is a subnet mask created? The subnet mask is created by placing a binary 1 in each bit position that represents the network portion and placing a binary 0 in each bit position that represents the host portion. 3. Be prepared to present your findings. Concept Questions 1. 4. Because we use a router to connect these networks. Every node on that link is on the same network. 2. Why do routers use ANDing? Routers use ANDing to determine an acceptable route for an incoming packet. where n = the number of bits borrowed. Calculating Addresses Subnetting lets you create multiple logical networks from a single address block. and to group hosts used for specific purposes.156 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. Using VLSM makes it easier to group networks around what commonalities? VLSM makes it easier to group based on common geographic location. the more equipped they are to design and administer one. to group based on ownership. why do you need to learn how to AND? Answers will vary. Internet Research Exercise Using your favorite search engine. research ANDing (be sure to specify that you mean in IPv4 networks).

What does a response from 127. ping gives up and sends a message indicating that a response was not received. As each response is received. SNMP c. ping b. Ping uses an ICMP Echo Request datagram. c. 2. Ping uses a Layer 3 protocol that is a part of the TCP/IP suite called Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). For each packet sent. ping displays the time between when the ping was sent and the response was received. Configmaker Testing the Network Layer Ping is a utility for testing IP connectivity between hosts. This method prevents addresses from being allocated. Very Long String of Marbles b.0. Ping has a timeout value for the response. b. Concept Questions 1. 2. the ping utility provides output that summarizes the responses. How does ping work? Be as specific as you can.1 indicates that IP is properly installed on the host. After all the requests have been sent.0. This method lets you assign addresses that have already been allocated.0. Variant Language Superior Model c. If the host at the specified address receives the Echo request. For what is VLSM an acronym? a. Variable-Length Subnet Mask 3. This output includes the success rate and average round-trip time to the destination. Why would you use a VLSM chart? a.1 indicate? A response from 127. it responds with an ICMP Echo Reply datagram. traceroute d. This is a measure of the network performance. .0. d.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 157 Multiple-Choice Questions 1. If a response is not received within that timeout. This method helps prevent assigning addresses that have already been allocated. Variable-Length Subsidiary Mode d. Using a chart makes calculating VLSM easier. ping measures the time required for the reply. What utility attempts to trace the path that a packet takes through the network? a. Ping sends out requests for responses from a specified host address.

The following may be in any order. If a router does not have enough buffer space to receive incoming packets. the router discards these packets. Many network administrators limit or prohibit the entry of ICMP datagrams into the corporate network. Unreachable Destination or Service. Time Exceeded.158 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 3. 4. What does traceroute do? Traceroute (tracert) is a utility that lets you observe the path between hosts. What does TTL stand for? Time to Live 8. . 1. It is also possible that other hosts may have the same security restriction applied. not by nonoperational network elements. Name the different ICMP message types. what sort of problem could this indicate? Answers will vary. Host Confirmation. 6. but any of the following are correct. One possibility is that we have the wrong address for the gateway. What does RTT stand for? Round-Trip Time 7. If the gateway does not respond. Another possibility is that the router interface might be fully operational but might have security applied to it that is preventing it from processing or responding to ping requests. but another host does. Route Redirection. Therefore. 5. A destination host may also send a source quench message if datagrams arrive too fast to be processed. Why is ping not always the most reliable test for connectivity on a network? Answers will vary. Source Quench. This could indicate a problem with the router’s interface serving as the gateway. Assume that you ping your gateway. What do the first four Destination Unreachable codes mean? 0 = Net unreachable 1 = Host unreachable 2 = Protocol unreachable 3 = Port unreachable 2. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. the lack of a ping response could be caused by security restrictions.

255.2 172.255.255.254.168. In a complex network.0.10.0 255.16.255. tracert can be used to check for network latency.168.1) Upon completion of this lab.10.16.0 255. is available on Linux and Cisco IOS.254 172.252 255. it tests network connectivity.254 172.Pod#. ICMP is a TCP/IP network layer protocol.255. ICMP message types were later expanded in RFC 1700.254 192. and Table 6-4 is the corresponding addressing table.255. The ping utility is available on Windows.255.1.Pod#. and a similar utility. Command options will be used to modify the command behavior. you will be able to ■ ■ Use the ping command to verify simple TCP/IP network connectivity.0.0 255.255.253 10. first defined in RFC 792 in September 1981. Scenario This lab examines the ping and tracert commands.0 255.254.255.16.254.0. it usually depends on the experience of the network engineer and familiarity with the network.168.6 192.16. when a web browser fails to connect to a web server.10. Where to begin connectivity tests has been the subject of much debate.16. Both ping and tracert use Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) to send messages between devices.16.16. traceroute. Table 6-4 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.1 172.255.0.0 — — 10.255.10. To familiarize you with the use of the commands.0 255.7.0 255.253 — 172. Background Two tools that are indispensable when testing TCP/IP network connectivity are ping and tracert. In addition to testing for connectivity.255.24.252 255.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 159 Labs and Activities Lab 6-1: Ping and Traceroute (6.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — . Linux. the problem can be anywhere between the client and the server.254 172.5 172.6 — 192. and Cisco IOS. Measured delay time will probably be less than that on a production network. The tracert utility is available on Windows.254.254 172.255. Use the tracert/traceroute command to verify TCP/IP connectivity. the tracert command would be used. A network engineer may use the ping command to test for local network connectivity or connections where there are few devices.255. Figure 6-1 shows the topology for this lab.10. devices in the Cisco lab will be tested. For example.1 255.255. This is because the Eagle Server lab has little network traffic.255.255.255.31.10.

Step 3. such as eagle-server. ping eagle-server. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity with the following steps: Step 1. 172. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.com. 172. and that it can ping R1-ISP. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.160 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 6-1 Topology for Lab 6-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. From a known good host computer.10.6.255. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address. Finally.255. 10. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server. and that it can ping R2-Central.10. R1-ISP. as shown in Table 6-4. and finally eagle-server. If the ping test fails. Step 2.254.com. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.16. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server.example.16. Task 1: Use the ping Command to Verify Simple TCP/IP Network Connectivity The ping command is used to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the local host computer or another device in the network.example.example. ping S1Central.com.254. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. This command can be used with a destination IP address or qualified name. the lab topology may have been modified before this class. R2-Central. to test Domain Name System (DNS) functionality. For this .

reconfigure the TCP/IP settings to match the settings for this pod host computer. . . If there is a break between the source and destination.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 .254 Use the ping command to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the local host computer.255.1. .16.1. By default. . The destination responds with an echo reply. Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the local host computer. as shown in Example 6-1.16.1.1. . . Each pod host computer should have the same network mask and default gateway address.16. and reply information is received. : 172. only IP addresses are used. . . only the IP address may differ.255. If the information is missing or if the subnet mask and default gateway are different. .2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.1.1.2 Pinging 172. Example 6-2 Output of the ping Command on the Local TCP/IP Stack C:\> ping 172. Open a Windows terminal and determine the IP address of the pod host computer with the ipconfig command.254 C:\> The output should look the same except for the IP address. Example 6-1 C:\> ipconfig Output of the ipconfig Command Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . .2 Subnet Mask . The ping operation is straightforward. : IP Address. . . .16.0 Default Gateway .16. . .0.0. .16. . The output should look similar to that shown in Example 6-2. . . 255.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.255. : 255.16. . .16.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172. The source computer sends an ICMP echo request to the destination. . . Step 1. Record local TCP/IP network information in Table 6-5.16.1. Table 6-5 TCP/IP Information Value TCP/IP Information IP address Subnet mask Default gateway Depends on the pod host computer.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 161 lab. . : 172. . . a router may respond with an ICMP message that the host is unknown or the destination network is unknown. .1 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.0 172.255. . four ping requests are sent to the destination. .

The results should be similar to those shown in Example 6-3. fill in the results of the ping command on your computer. Use the ping command to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity to the default gateway. set to the IP address of the local computer.162 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 6-2 Output of the ping Command on the Local TCP/IP Stack continued Ping statistics for 172. The second highlighted entry shows the following reply information: ■ ■ ■ Bytes: Size of the ICMP packet.16. The maximum TTL value is 255. measured in milliseconds. A computer timer is set to 10 milliseconds. Received = 4. In Table 6-6. four packets are sent. Time: Elapsed time between transmission and reply. TTL: Default TTL value of the destination device. Maximum = 0ms.1. minus the number of routers in the path. Students may ask why default TTL values differ when different devices are accessed. The default TTL value of the Windows XP computer is 128. Table 6-6 Field Field Information Value Size of packet Number of packets sent Number of replies Number of lost packets Minimum delay Maximum delay Average delay Step 2. Example 6-2 also shows information about the delay in replies. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. Lower round-trip times indicate faster links. Average = 0ms C:\> The first highlighted line shows the destination address. and the Linux computer is 64. By default. 32 bytes 4 4 0 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the LAN. . The third highlighted line shows summary information about the replies: ■ ■ ■ Packets sent: The number of packets transmitted. Packets lost: The difference between the number of packets sent and received. Values faster than 10 milliseconds display 0. Cisco IOS is 255.2: Packets: Sent = 4. Packets received: The number of packets received. For newer Windows machines the default value is 128. Lost = 0 (0% loss).

16.254: Packets: Sent = 4.255. fill in the results of the ping command to the default gateway. Average = 0ms C:\> The Cisco IOS default TTL value is set to 255. Use the ping command to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity to a device on a remote network.254.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.255. In Table 6-7. In reality.255. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 . Because the router was not crossed. Lost = 0 (0% loss). Maximum = 1ms.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192. For example.168. Table 6-7 Field Field Information Value Size of packet Number of packets sent Number of replies Number of lost packets Minimum delay Maximum delay Average delay 32 bytes 4 4 0 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms What would be the result of a loss of connectivity to the default gateway? No external networks would be reachable.255. The results should be similar to those shown in Example 6-4. Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity to a remote network.254.254: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172.16.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172. Received = 4.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 163 Example 6-3 Output of the ping Command to the Default Gateway C:\> ping 172. users may complain that the Eagle Server web server is down.255.168.16.16. the TTL value returned is 255.254 Pinging 192. Eagle Server is used.254 Pinging 172.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255 Ping statistics for 172. Example 6-4 Output of the ping Command to Eagle Server C:\> ping 192.16.168.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.168.16.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172.255.255.254. Step 3.254.254.168.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192. In this case.16. it is the default Gateway that has failed or that has misconfigured TCP/IP network settings.

168. Lost = 4 (100% loss). Received = 0. the returned TTL value is 62. C:\> Task 2: Use the tracert Command to Verify TCP/IP Connectivity The tracert command is useful for learning about network latency and path information.254. Request timed out. one by one. fill in the results of the ping command on your computer.254. therefore. However. Is the problem with Eagle Server or a device in the path? The tracert command. Received = 4.164 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 6-4 Output of the ping Command to Eagle Server continued Reply from 192. can display network latency and path information. the output shows that a user cannot reach Eagle Server. Average = 0ms C:\> The Linux default TTL value is set to 64. Request timed out.254.168. Instead of using the ping command to test the connectivity of each device to the destination.254. Request timed out. Table 6-8 Field Field Information Value Size of packet Number of packets sent Number of replies Number of lost packets Minimum delay Maximum delay Average delay 32 bytes 4 4 0 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms The ping command is extremely useful when you’re troubleshooting network connectivity. Two routers were crossed to reach Eagle Server. Step 4: In Table 6-8. In Example 6-5. examined next. . Example 6-5 Output of the ping Command to the Lost Packets C:\> ping 192.254.168.168. Ping statistics for 192.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Ping statistics for 192.254: Packets: Sent = 4.168. there are limitations. you can use the tracert command.254: Packets: Sent = 4.254 Pinging 192. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. Maximum = 0ms. Lost = 0 (0% loss).254 with 32 bytes of data: Request timed out.

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On Linux and Cisco IOS devices, the equivalent command is traceroute.
Step 1.

Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity with the tracert command. Open a Windows terminal, and issue the following command: C:\> tracert 192.168.254.254 The output from the tracert command should be similar to that shown in Example 6-6.

Example 6-6

Output of the tracert Command to Eagle Server

C:\> tracert 192.168.254.254 Tracing route to 192.168.254.254 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 2 3 <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.6 192.168.254.254

Trace complete. C:\>

Record your results in Table 6-9.
Table 6-9 Field Field Information Value

Maximum number of hops First router IP address Second router IP address Destination reached?
Step 2.

30 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.6 Yes

Observe tracert output to a host that lost network connectivity. S1-Central is a switch and does not decrement the packet TTL value. If there is a loss of connectivity to an end device such as Eagle Server, the tracert command can give you valuable clues about the source of the problem. The ping command would show the failure but not any other kind of information about the devices in the path. Referring to the topology diagram shown in Figure 6-1, both R2-Central and R1-ISP are used for connectivity between the pod host computers and Eagle Server. Refer to Example 6-7. Options are used with the tracert command to reduce wait time (in milliseconds), -w 5, and maximum hop count, -h 4. If Eagle Server were disconnected from the network, the default gateway would respond correctly, as well as R1-ISP. The problem must be on the 192.168.254.0/24 network. In this example, Eagle Server has been turned off.

Example 6-7

Output of the tracert Command

C:\> tracert -w 5 -h 4 192.168.254.254 Tracing route to 192.168.254.254 over a maximum of 4 hops 1 2 <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.6

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Example 6-7
3 4 * *

Output of the tracert Command
* * * *

continued

Request timed out. Request timed out.

Trace complete. C:\>

What would the tracert output be if R1-ISP failed? Connectivity would stop after R2-Central. What would the tracert output be if R2-Central failed? There would be no connectivity.

Task 3: Challenge
The default values for the ping command normally work for most troubleshooting scenarios. There are times, however, when fine-tuning ping options may be useful. Issuing the ping command without any destination address displays the options shown in Example 6-8.
Example 6-8
C:\> ping

Output of a ping Command with No Destination Address

Usage: ping [-t] [-a] [-n count] [-l size] [-f] [-i TTL] [-v TOS] [-r count] [-s count] [[-j host-list] | [-k host-list]] [-w timeout] target_name

Options: -t Ping the specified host until stopped. To see statistics and continue - type Control-Break; To stop - type Control-C. -a -n count -l size -f -i TTL -v TOS -r count -s count -j host-list -k host-list -w timeout C:\> Resolve addresses to hostnames. Number of echo requests to send. Send buffer size. Set Don’t Fragment flag in packet. Time To Live. Type Of Service. Record route for count hops. Timestamp for count hops. Loose source route along host-list. Strict source route along host-list. Timeout in milliseconds to wait for each reply.

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The most useful options are highlighted. Some options do not work together, such as the -t and -n options. Other options can be used together. Experiment with those described in this section. To ping the destination address until stopped, use the -t option, as shown in Example 6-9. To stop the output, press Ctrl-C.
Example 6-9 Output of a ping Command Using the -t Option

C:\> ping -t 192.168.254.254 Pinging 192.168.254.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.168.254.254: Packets: Sent = 6, Received = 6, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms Control-C ^C C:\>

To ping the destination once and record router hops, use the -n and -r options, as shown in Example 6-10.
Note: Not all devices honor the -r option. Example 6-10 Output of a ping Command Using the -n and -r Options

C:\> ping -n 1 -r 9 192.168.254.254 Pinging 192.168.254.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=63 Route: 10.10.10.5 -> 192.168.254.253 -> 192.168.254.254 -> 10.10.10.6 -> 172.16.255.254 Ping statistics for 192.168.254.254: Packets: Sent = 1, Received = 1, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 1ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 1ms C:\>

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Task 4: Reflection
Network engineers use both ping and tracert to test network connectivity. For basic network connectivity, the ping command works best. To test latency and the network path, the tracert command is preferred. The ability to accurately and quickly diagnose network connectivity issues is a skill expected from a network engineer. Knowledge about the TCP/IP protocols and practice with troubleshooting commands will build that skill.

Task 5: Clean Up
Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.
Packet Tracer Companion

Packet Tracer Companion: ping and traceroute (6.7.1.2)
You can now open the file LSG01-Lab6712.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remember, however, that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. The instructions are summarized within the activity.

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Lab 6-2: Examining ICMP Packets (6.7.2.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
■ ■

Understand the format of ICMP packets. Use Wireshark to capture and examine ICMP messages.

Background Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) was first defined in RFC 792 in September 1981. ICMP message types were later expanded in RFC 1700. ICMP operates at the TCP/IP network layer and is used to exchange information between devices. ICMP packets serve many uses in today’s computer networks. When a router cannot deliver a packet to a destination network or host, an informational message is returned to the source. Also, the ping and tracert commands send ICMP messages to destinations, and destinations respond with ICMP messages. Scenario Using Eagle Server, Wireshark captures will be made of ICMP packets between network devices. Figure 6-2 shows the topology for this lab, and Table 6-10 is the corresponding addressing table.
Figure 6-2 Topology for Lab 6-2

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

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Table 6-10 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

— — 10.10.10.6 — 192.168.254.253 — 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

R2-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

Eagle Server

— —

Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

— — —

Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology may have been modified before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps:
Step 1. Step 2.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. From a known good host computer, ping eagle-server. If the ping test fails, ping S1Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, as shown in Table 6-10, and that it can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and that it can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Step 3.

Task 1: Understand the Format of ICMP Packets
Refer to Figure 6-3, which shows the ICMP header fields common to all ICMP message types. Each ICMP message starts with an 8-bit Type field, an 8-bit Code field, and a computed 16-bit Checksum. The ICMP message type describes the remaining ICMP fields. Table 6-11 shows ICMP message types from RFC 792.
Figure 6-3
0 Type

ICMP Message Header
7 8 Code 16 24 Checksum 31

Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4

171

Table 6-11 Value

ICMP Message Types Meaning

0 3 4 5 8 11 12 13 14 15 16

Echo Reply Destination Unreachable Source Quench Redirect Echo Time Exceeded Parameter Problem Timestamp Timestamp Reply Information Request Information Reply

Codes provide additional information to the Type field. For example, if the Type field is 3, Destination Unreachable, additional information about the problem is returned in the Code field. Table 6-12 shows message codes for an ICMP Type 3 message, Destination Unreachable, from RFC 1700.
Table 6-12 Code Value ICMP Type 3 Message Codes Meaning

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Net Unreachable Host Unreachable Protocol Unreachable Port Unreachable Fragmentation Needed and Don’t Fragment Was Set Source Route Failed Destination Network Unknown Destination Host Unknown Source Host Isolated Communication with Destination Network Is Administratively Prohibited Communication with Destination Host Is Administratively Prohibited Destination Network Unreachable for Type of Service Destination Host Unreachable for Type of Service

172

Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

Using the ICMP message capture shown in Example 6-11, fill in the fields in Figure 6-4 for the ICMP packet echo request. Values beginning with 0x are hexadecimal numbers.
Example 6-11 ICMP Packet Echo Request

Internet Control Message Protocol Type: 8 (Echo (Ping) request) Code: 0 Checksum: 0x365c [correct] Identifier: 0x0200 Sequence number: 0x1500 Data (32 bytes)

Figure 6-4
0

ICMP Packet Echo Request
7 8 16 24 31

Data...

Using the ICMP message capture shown in Example 6-12, fill in the fields in Figure 6-5 for the ICMP packet echo reply.
Example 6-12 ICMP Packet Echo Reply

Internet Control Message Protocol Type: 0 (Echo (Ping) reply) Code: 0 Checksum: 0x3e5c [correct] Identifier: 0x0200 Sequence number: 0x1500 Data (32 bytes)

Figure 6-5
0

ICMP Packet Echo Reply
7 8 16 24 31

Data...

At the TCP/IP network layer, communication between devices is not guaranteed. However, ICMP does provide minimal checks for a reply to match the request. From the information provided in the ICMP messages just shown, how does the sender know that the reply is to a specific echo? The identifier is used to identify this host computer, and the sequence number is used to identify this echo request.

3.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 173 Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Examine ICMP Messages If Wireshark has not been loaded on the pod host computer. Step 1.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.example. Maximum = 0ms. you use Wireshark to examine ICMP echo messages.254: Packets: Sent = 4. as shown in Example 6-13. When ready.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192. you can download it from Eagle Server: 1. Lost = 0 (0% loss). From the Windows terminal. Capture and evaluate ICMP echo messages to Eagle Server.168.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192. choose Save Link As. When the file has been downloaded. start the Wireshark capture. and save the file to the pod host computer.com [192. 2. Right-click the Wireshark filename. Example 6-13 Successful ping Replies from Eagle Server C:\> ping eagle-server. Open a web browser and go to ftp://eagle-server.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter6.168. There should be a total of four ICMP echo requests and matching echo replies.254.example. You should receive four successful replies.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192. Figure 6-6 Wireshark Capture of ping Requests and Replies .168.168. Received = 4.168. Open a Windows terminal on the pod host computer. ping Eagle Server. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. similar to those shown in Figure 6-6.254.254.254.com Pinging eagle-server.254.254. open and install Wireshark.168. In this step. Average = 0ms C:\> Stop the Wireshark capture.example.

but Windows keeps the Identifier field the same. Cisco IOS increments the Identifier field by 1. record information from the first echo reply packet from Eagle Server. fill in information from each new ping. Table 6-13 Field Ping Echo Request Fields Value Type Code Checksum Identifier Sequence number Data 8 (Echo (ping) request) 0 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwabcdefghi Are there 32 bytes of data? Yes In Table 6-14. In Table 6-15. In Table 6-13. Continue to evaluate the remaining echo requests and replies. Table 6-14 Field Ping Echo Reply Fields Value Type Code Checksum Identifier Sequence number Data 0 (Echo (ping) reply) 0 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary acdefghijklmnopqrstuvwabcdefghi Which fields. if any. The bottom window also is needed to examine the Data field. depending on the operating system. and expand the Internet Control Message Protocol record until all fields are visible. changed from the echo request? Type field and Checksum field Note: The Identifier field may change for subsequent echo request messages. .174 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Which network device responds to the ICMP echo request? The destination device Expand the middle window in Wireshark. For example. record information from the first echo request packet to Eagle Server.

but the sequence number changes. Capture and evaluate ICMP echo messages to 192. Ping statistics for 192.255.253.1.16. Lost = 0 (0% loss).168.253. pings are sent to a fictitious network and host.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 175 Table 6-15 Packet Ping Echo Requests and Replies Checksum Identifier Sequence Number Request #2 Reply #2 Request #3 Reply #3 Request #4 Reply #4 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Answers will vary Same as request #2 Answers will vary Same as request #3 Answers will vary Same as request #4 Why do the Checksum values change with each new request? The Identifier remains the same.253. Average = 0ms C:\> What network device responds to pings to a fictitious destination? The gateway router Figure 6-7 shows Wireshark captures to a fictitious destination.255.254: Destination host unreachable.255. an echo response occurs. Step 2.254: Destination host unreachable. Reply from 172.254: Destination host unreachable. .168.1 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172. The results from the Wireshark capture are evaluated.1 See Example 6-14.168.1. Try to ping IP address 192.253. In this step. C:\> ping 192.253. Received = 4. Reply from 172. Maximum = 0ms.16. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.254: Destination host unreachable.16.1 Pinging 192.1: Packets: Sent = 4. Example 6-14 Ping Results from a Fictitious Destination C:\> ping 192.16.168.253.168. Expand the middle Wireshark window and the Internet Control Message Protocol record. Instead of a request timeout.168. Reply from 172.255.

176 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 6-7 Wireshark Capture from a Fictitious Destination Which ICMP message type is used to return information to the sender? Type 3 message What code is associated with the message type? Code 1.168. In this step.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172. Example 6-15 Ping Results for an Exceeded TTL C:\> ping -i 1 192.16. Reply from 172.168. Reply from 172.254: TTL expired in transit. Average = 0ms C:\> What network device responds to pings that exceed the TTL value? The gateway router Figure 6-8 shows Wireshark captures to a fictitious destination.254: TTL expired in transit. Ping statistics for 192. Capture and evaluate ICMP echo messages that exceed the TTL value. Ping Eagle Server. Reply from 172. Received = 4.254: TTL expired in transit.255.254.254 Example 6-15 shows ping replies when the TTL value has been exceeded.16.254.255. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.168. Lost = 0 (0% loss).255.254. Figure 6-8 Wireshark Capture of TTL Value Exceeded . Host Unreachable Step 3.254. Expand the middle Wireshark window and the Internet Control Message Protocol record.168. simulating an unreachable destination. and set the TTL value to 1: C:\> ping -i 1 192.16.254 Pinging 192.16.254: Packets: Sent = 4.255.254: TTL expired in transit. Maximum = 0ms. pings are sent with a low TTL value.

Without ICMP messages. Remember. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Remove any Wireshark pcap files that were created on the pod host computer.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. click Remove. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark may have been loaded on the pod host computer.251. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. turn off power to the host computers. and leave the room ready for the next class. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Examining ICMP Packets (6.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 177 Which ICMP message type is used to return information to the sender? Type 11 message What code is associated with the message type? Code 0. and scroll down to Wireshark.254.2. and follow the uninstall instructions. Task 3: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture a tracert session to Eagle Server and then to 192. however. Task 4: Reflection The ICMP protocol is very useful when troubleshooting network connectivity issues.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab6722. The instructions are summarized within the activity. Time to live exceeded in transit Which network device is responsible for decrementing the TTL value? Routers decrement the TTL value. Using the ping command.168. If the program must be removed. . a sender has no way to tell why a destination connection failed. Examine the ICMP TTL exceeded message. Click the filename. This demonstrates how the tracert command traces the network path to the destination. choose Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs.7. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. you can capture and evaluate different ICMP message type values.

3.114. Table 6-16 Decimal-to-Binary Conversion 172 25 114 250 IP address Network mask 10101100 11111111 255 00011001 11111111 255 01110010 00000000 0 11111010 00000000 0 .250 Network mask: 255. Step 1. such as ■ ■ ■ ■ Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Task 1: For a Given IP Address. Determine Network Information Given the following information: ■ ■ Host IP address: 172.255.7. Scenario When given an IP address and network mask. Part 1 (6.178 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Activity 6-1: IPv4 Address Subnetting.0. In Table 6-16.1) Upon completion of this activity. you will be able to determine other information about the IP address. convert the host IP address and network mask into binary.25. Background This activity is designed to teach you how to compute network IP address information from a given IP address. you will be able to determine network information for a given IP address and network mask.0 (/16) you will determine the following information in this task: ■ ■ ■ ■ Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Translate the host IP address and network mask into binary notation.

In Table 6-17.536 – 2 = 65. Perform a bitwise AND operation on the IP address and subnet mask. The network address has all 0s in the host portion of the address. perform the following tasks: ■ ■ Draw a line under the mask. Table 6-18 Broadcast Information 172 25 0 0 Network address Subnet mask 10101100 11111111 11001000 11111111 11001000 25 00000000 00000000 11111111 255 00000000 00000000 11111111 255 Broadcast address 10101100 172 By counting the number of host bits.0. 0 AND anything results in a 0.536 65. Note: 1 AND 1 results in a 1. ■ Express the result in dotted-decimal notation. In Table 6-18. AND Operation 172 25 114 250 Table 6-17 IP address Subnet mask 10101100 11111111 00011001 11111111 00011001 25 01110010 00000000 00000000 0 11111010 00000000 00000000 0 Network address 10101100 172 Step 3. determine the broadcast address for the network address.534 (addresses that cannot use the all-0s address [the network address] or the all-1s address [the broadcast address]) Add this information to Table 6-19. The network mask separates the network portion of the address from the host portion.0.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 179 Step 2. Determine the network address. Host bits: 16 Total number of hosts: 216 = 65. you can determine the total number of usable hosts for this network. . and the broadcast address has all 1s in the host portion of the address.25. which is 172. The result is the network address for this host IP address.

255.0 172.250 255.25.0 172.534 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 172.255.0 172.1.1. Table 6-21 Field Problem 2 172. Table 6-20 shows Problem 1.536 total hosts 65.255 16 bits 65.0 172.33 255.114.30.1.1.0.180 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 6-19 Field Host Bits: Information on the Number of Hosts Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 172.30.536 – 2 = 65.0.536 – 2 = 65. create a subnetting worksheet to show and record all work for each problem.25.255.30.30.0 (/16) 172.25.255 16 bits or 216 or 65.0. Table 6-20 Field Problem 1 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Table 6-21 shows Problem 2.30.255.255.0 172.30.534 usable hosts Task 2: Challenge For all problems.255.33 255.255 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 .0.

0.255.0 172.168.168.99. Table 6-24 Field Problem 5 172.0 192. Table 6-23 Field Problem 4 192.17.10.3.219 255.255.255 16 bits 65.168.17.17.536 – 2 = 65.534 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 192.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 181 Table 6-22 shows Problem 3.255 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Table 6-24 shows Problem 5.536 – 2 = 65.71 255.10.255.168.255.0 192.0.0 192.168.10.234 255.255.255 16 bits 65.168.0.0 172.255. Table 6-22 Field Problem 3 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Table 6-23 shows Problem 4.0.534 .0 192.

168.219 255.224 192. .223 5 bits 32 – 2 = 30 Task 3: Clean Up Remove anything that was brought into the lab.192 192.182 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 6-25 shows Problem 6.3.255.3. Table 6-25 Field Problem 6 Value Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 192. and leave the room ready for the next class.3.255.168.168.

Table 6-27 Decimal Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Binary 255 254 252 248 240 224 192 128 0 11111111 11111110 11111100 11111000 11110000 11100000 11000000 10000000 00000000 .024 29 512 28 256 27 128 26 64 25 32 24 16 23 8 22 4 21 2 20 1 Number of bits borrowed: 10 1.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 183 Activity 6-2: IPv4 Address Subnetting. Part 2 (6. subtract 2 for the usable number of hosts per subnet—one for the subnet address and one for the subnet’s broadcast address. Background Determine how many bits must be allocated to create a certain number of subnets or a certain number of hosts per subnet. it is easy to determine how many bits must be borrowed.4. Because subnet masks must be contiguous 1s followed by contiguous 0s. the converted dotted-decimal notation can contain one of a certain number of values. Using the chart shown in Table 6-26.7.1) In this activity.024 9 512 8 256 7 128 6 64 5 32 4 16 3 8 2 4 1 2 1 1 Remember. Table 6-26 Hosts or Subnets 210 1. you learn how to determine subnet information for a given IP address and subnetwork mask. as shown in Table 6-27.

network mask.250 Network mask: 255.0. Translate Host IP Addresses Value Step 1.184 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Scenario When given an IP address. Table 6-28 Field IP address 172 10101100 25 00011001 11111111 255 114 01110010 11111111 255 250 11111010 11000000 192 Subnet mask 11111111 255 . and subnetwork mask.255.0 (/16) Subnet mask: 255.25.255. you will be able to determine other information about the IP address: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ The subnet address of this subnet The broadcast address of this subnet The range of host addresses for this subnet The maximum number of subnets for this subnet mask The number of hosts for each subnet The number of subnet bits The number of this subnet Task 1: For a Given IP Address and Subnet Mask.114. Determine Subnet Information Given the following information: ■ ■ ■ Host IP address: 172.192 (/26) you will determine the following information in this task: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Translate the host IP address and subnet mask into binary notation in Table 6-28.255.

. determine the network (or subnet) where this host address belongs.D. .114.D. Draw a line under the mask. Figure 6-9 Major Divide/Subnet Divide M. 10101110 11111111 10001010 11001000 11111111 11001000 11 111010 11 000000 11 000000 Draw the subnet divide (S. 0 AND anything else results in a 0. and the S. As shown in Figure 6-9.0. the major network mask is 255.D. and S.0. In Table 6-29.D. Step 3. This range contains the bits that are being incremented to create the subnet numbers or addresses. label the subnet counting range between the M.192. Express the result in dotted-decimal notation. The network information ends where the 1s in the mask end. which can be determined by simply counting the number of bits between the M. 01110010 11111111 01110010 10 Bits IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Add. Perform a bitwise AND operation on the IP address and subnet mask.D. Determine which bits in the address contain network information and which contain host information.D. As shown in Figure 6-10. or the first 16 leftmost bits.25. which is 172.) as a wavy line where the 1s in the major network mask end (also the mask if there was no subnetting). Step 4.) as a straight line where the 1s in the given subnet mask end. In this example. Determine the bit ranges for subnets and hosts.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 185 Step 2.D. The result is the number of subnet bits. which in this case is 10 bits. S. Table 6-29 Determine the Network 172 25 114 250 IP address Subnet mask Subnet address 10101100 11111111 10101100 172 11001000 11111111 11001000 25 01110010 11111111 01110010 114 11111010 11000000 11000000 192 Note: 1 AND 1 results in a 1.D. The result is the subnet address of this subnet.255. draw the major divide (M.

D.25. 01110010 11111111 01110010 Subnet Counting Range IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Add. Subnet Counting Range and Host Counting Range M. which in the example is 172.).186 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 6-10 Bit Ranges for Subnets and Hosts M. Use Figure 6-11 to determine the range of host addresses available on this subnet and the broadcast address on this subnet.). This gives us the broadcast IP address on this subnet. S. all bits before the S.D. This range contains the bits that are being incremented to create the host numbers or addresses.D. In the host portion (to the right of the S. This is the result for Broadcast Address of This Subnet. make the host bits all 1s except for the rightmost bit (or least-significant bit).255.D. make the host bits all 1s. and the last bits at the end on the right. This gives us the first host IP address on this subnet. which in the example is 172. in the host portion (to the right of the S. Next.D. which is the first part of the result for Range of Host Addresses for This Subnet. In the host portion (to the right of the S. which you make a 0. which you make a 1. This gives us the last host IP address on this subnet.D. .114. Step 5.114. make the host bits all 0s except for the rightmost bit (or least-significant bit).25. which is the last part of the result for Range of Host Addresses for This Subnet.114.).193.D.D.25. which in the example is 172.D. 10101100 11111111 10101100 11001000 11111111 11001000 01110010 11111111 01110010 Subnet Counting Range Figure 6-11 S.254. 11 111010 11 000000 11 000000 Host Counting Range First Host 10101100 172 11001000 25 11001000 25 11001000 25 01110010 114 01110010 114 01110010 114 11 000001 193 11 111110 254 11 111111 255 Last Host 10101100 172 Broadcast 10101100 172 Write down all the network/subnet bits of the network address (that is. 10101110 11111111 10001010 11001000 11111111 11001000 11 111010 11 000000 11 000000 Host Counting Range Label the host counting range between the S. IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Add.).

0 172.25.114.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 187 Add the missing information to Table 6-30.254 172. The number of hosts per subnet is determined by the number of host bits (in this example.255.114. 210 = 1024 Number of subnet bits: 10 bits Number of subnets (all 0s used. Table 6-30 Field Fill in the Missing Information Value Host IP address Major network mask Major (base) network address Major network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts 172. Determine the number of usable hosts per subnet.536 – 2 = 65.114.255. all 1s not used): 210 = 1024 subnets Step 7.25.0 (/16) 172.192 172. 10 bits). 6 bits) minus 2 (1 for the subnet address and 1 for the broadcast address of the subnet). 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet Number of host bits per subnet: 6 bits Number of usable hosts per subnet: 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet .255 16 bits or 216 or 65.0.25.25.536 total hosts 65. The number of subnets is determined by how many bits are in the subnet counting range (in this example. 255.25.255.25.534 usable hosts Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Step 6. Use the formula 2n.193 172.0.255 Determine the number of subnets.114.25.250 255.192 (/26) 26 bits 210 = 1024 subnets 6 bits 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet 172.114. where n is the number of bits in the subnet counting range.255.

1.30.255. Final Answers Value Table 6-31 Field Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 172.193 172.114.114.114.25.1.192 172.114.255. create a subnetting worksheet to show and record all work for each problem.1 172. Table 6-32 shows Problem 1.0 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 172.30.254 172.188 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 8.30.1.33 255.25.30.30.255.25.255.192 (/26) 26 bits 210 = 1024 subnets 6 bits 26 – 2 = 64 – 2 = 62 hosts per subnet 172.254 172.0 172.255 Task 2: Challenge For all problems.250 255. Table 6-32 Field Problem 1 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 172.25.114. Review the final answers in Table 6-31.25.1.255 .1.

1.1 192.10.0 192.255 . Table 6-33 Field Problem 2 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Table 6-34 shows Problem 3.192.33 172.30.255.192.1.384 – 2 = 16.35 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 192.30.0 24 bits 224 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 192.192.10.382 4–2=2 2 172.192. Table 6-34 Field Problem 3 172.30.252 14 bits 16.255.192.234 255.33 255.10.254 192.30.1.10.255.32 172.30.1.1.255.10.34 172.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 189 Table 6-33 shows Problem 2.

0.17.254 172.168.3.0 24 bits 224 8 bits 256 – 2 = 254 192. Table 6-35 Field Problem 4 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Table 6-36 shows Problem 5.3.17.1 172.71 255.3.255 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 192.168.0 192.17.99.17.3.255.190 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 6-35 shows Problem 4.255.1 192.17.255. Table 6-36 Field Problem 5 172.254 192.255 .0 16 bits 216 – 2 16 bits 256 – 2 = 254 172.3.0 172.168.0.255.219 255.168.0.168.255.

218 255.3.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 191 Table 6-37 shows Problem 6.255.168.168.3. .216 192.3. and leave the room ready for the next class.217 192.218 192. Table 6-37 Field Problem 6 Value Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet 192.252 6 bits 64 – 2 = 62 4–2=2 2 192.3.168.219 Task 3: Clean Up Remove anything that was brought into the lab.3.168.255.168.

The routers then will be ready for interface address configuration according to your IP addressing scheme. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Subnet an address space given requirements.96/27 Fa0/0 PC1 S0/0/0 R1 S0/0/0 DCE PC2 R2 Task 1: Subnet the Address Space Step 1. Step 2. Consider the following questions when creating your network design: ■ ■ ■ ■ How many subnets are needed for this network? 3 What is the subnet mask for this network in dotted-decimal format? 255.192 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 6-3: Subnet and Router Configuration (6. Assign subnetwork addresses to the topology diagram shown in Figure 6-12: ■ ■ ■ Assign subnet 1 to the network attached to R1.5.168.255. You have been given the 192.64/27 192.168. Assign subnet 3 to the network attached to R2.0/24 address space to use in your network design.32/27 Fa0/0 192.7.224 What is the subnet mask for the network in slash format? /27 How many usable hosts are there per subnet? 30 Step 3. Reflect on and document the network implementation. The link between router R1 and router R2 requires IP addresses at each end of the link.168.1. Examine the network requirements. Figure 6-12 Topology for Lab 6-3 192.1) Upon completion of this lab. you design and apply an IP addressing scheme for the topology shown in Figure 612. .1. Assign subnet 2 to the link between R1 and R2. Assign appropriate addresses to interfaces and document them. You are given one address block that you must subnet to provide a logical addressing scheme for the network. Scenario In this lab activity. The network connected to router R2 requires enough IP addresses to support 30 hosts.1. Configure and activate serial and FastEthernet interfaces.168.1. verify that the network is working properly. The network consists of the following segments: ■ ■ ■ The network connected to router R1 requires enough IP addresses to support 15 hosts. Test and verify configurations.255. When the configuration is complete.

255.168. Configure the interfaces on the R1 and R2 routers with the IP addresses from your network design.255.1.65 192.168.33 192.168.168.224 255.255. be sure to save the running configuration to the router’s NVRAM.33 192. Assign the first valid host address in subnet 2 to the WAN interface on R1. Configure the PC interfaces.126 255.97 192. In Table 6-38. can you ping the Serial 0/0/0 interface of R2? Yes From the router R2.255. Assign the last valid host address in subnet 3 to PC2.1. you will use the Config tab.255.224 — — — — 192.255. When you have finished.255. Step 2.1. Assign the first valid host address in subnet 3 to the LAN interface on R2. Assign the last valid host address in subnet 1 to PC1.255. Configure the router interfaces. Note that to complete the activity in Packet Tracer.1.168. Assign the last valid host address in subnet 2 to the WAN interface on R2.255. can you ping the default gateway? Yes From the host attached to R2.224 255.94 192.224 255.97 R2 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC1 PC2 NIC NIC Task 3: Configure the Serial and FastEthernet Addresses Step 1. Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway Table 6-38 Device R1 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.255. Task 4: Verify the Configurations Answer the following questions to verify that the network is operating as expected: ■ ■ ■ ■ From the host attached to R1.255. Configure the Ethernet interfaces of PC1 and PC2 with the IP addresses and default gateways from your network design. document the addresses to be used.168.1.62 192. can you ping the default gateway? Yes From the router R1.1.168. Assign appropriate addresses to the device interfaces: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Assign the first valid host address in subnet 1 to the LAN interface on R1. can you ping the Serial 0/0/0 interface of R1? Yes .Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 193 Task 2: Determine Interface Addresses Step 1.224 255.168.1.255.1.224 255. Step 2.

PCs. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.7. but with a new IP addressing scheme. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Planning Subnets and Configuring IP Addresses (6.5. and router interfaces. Test the network: Using ping. Build the network: Connect devices with Ethernet and serial cables.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. check the physical connections and configurations. configure services and static routing.194 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Note: The answers to the preceding questions should be yes. The instructions are summarized within the activity.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills6. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Do IP subnet planning: Practice your subnetting skills. web traffic. ■ Background You have been asked to implement the standard lab topology. Task 5: Reflection Are there any devices on the network that cannot ping each other? Answers will vary What is missing from the network that is preventing communication between these devices? Answers will vary Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Subnet and Router Configuration (6. and Inspect tools. however.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab6752. Configure the network: Apply your subnetting scheme to servers. . trace.8. Upon completion of this lab. If any of the pings failed. Remember.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.1.

252 255.255.109 255.23.168.255.255.168.168. future student LAN.62 192.168.2 192.255.252 255.168.255.255.23.23.255.23.168. Figure 6-13 shows the topology for this lab.255.192 255. up to 28 hosts .23. Fill in your answers in Table 6-39.1 192.192 255.168.23.255.168.23. existing student LAN (off of router R2-Central). up to 60 hosts Second subnet.130 192.255.110 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server NIC NIC NIC Subnet assignments: ■ ■ First subnet.255. Table 6-39 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 195 You will use many of the skills you have learned to this point in the course.255.23.23.130 192. Figure 6-13 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B Task 1: IP Subnet Planning You have been given an IP address block of 192.168.23.255.192 255. You must provide for existing networks as well as future growth.23.23.168.23.0 /24.110 192.168.130 192.252 — — 192.168.129 192.62 192.168.255.62 192.240 255.

■ Task 3: Configure the Network You need to configure the server. Part of the router configuration has already been done for you. point-to-point link Seventh subnet.example. Connect PC 1B to the second FastEthernet port on switch S1-Central. configure the highest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet.196 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Third subnet. For R1-ISP’s S0/0/0 interface. For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface. For all devices. No clock rate is needed on the DTE side—in this case. For R2-Central’s S0/0/0 interface. Connect PC 1A to the first FastEthernet port on switch S1-Central.com. in addition to IP configuration. point-to-point link Sixth subnet. For hosts 1A and 1B. use the domain name eagle-server. use the lowest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. You do not need to configure the switch. future WAN. both routers. use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet. existing WAN. All you must do is configure the static routes and the interfaces via the GUI. up to 8 hosts Fifth subnet. Connect interface Fa0/0 on router R2-Central to the highest FastEthernet port on switch S1Central. make sure the power is on to the device and the interfaces. configure the second-highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. R2-Central’s serial interface. future ISP LAN. you need to set the clock rate (a timing mechanism required on the DCE end of serial links) to 64000. For the server. enable DNS services. For R1-ISP’s Fa0/0 interface. and enable HTTP services. configure them to use DNS services. configure the highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. with the other end to R2-Central S0/0/0. and the two PCs. nor do you need the IOS CLI to configure the routers. The static route on R1-ISP should point to the existing student LAN subnet via R2-Central’s . ■ ■ ■ ■ Additional configurations: ■ ■ For PCs 1A and 1B. future WAN. existing ISP LAN. point-to-point link Interface IP addresses: ■ ■ For the server. For the R1-ISP router serial interface. ■ ■ Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer Add cables where they are missing: ■ ■ ■ ■ Connect a serial DCE cable to R1-ISP S0/0/0. up to 12 hosts Fourth subnet.

configuration. TCP. with HTTP. Trace packet flow in simulation mode. DNS. and the Inspect tool. Task 4: Test the Network Use ping.Chapter 6: Addressing the Network: IPv4 197 serial interface IP address. These procedures were explained in the Chapter 5 Skills Integration Challenge. trace. and testing skills will serve you well throughout your networking courses. Task 5: Reflection Reflect on how much you have learned so far! Practicing IP subnetting skills and network building. web traffic. . to test your understanding of how the network is operating. UDP. and ICMP viewable. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points to R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address.

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and the air in the case of wireless. The protocol data unit (PDU) used in Layer 2 of the OSI model Concept Questions 1. Frame b. Data link d. A device on a network c. hands-on skills you need to work with the data link layer. for assistance. use Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. Network e. fill-in-the-blank. It also controls how data is placed on and received from media. because it is the layer that accesses the physical medium and causes network traffic to traverse different physical media.CHAPTER 7 OSI Data Link Layer The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. Node c. match the term on the left to its definition on the right. including copper cabling. The data link layer hides the details of these media from the upper layers and takes on the job of transmitting data across each network segment. . The physical means used to carry data signals a. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the data link layer. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure that you have mastered the practical. optical fibers. As you work through this chapter. Study Guide Data Link Layer: Accessing the Media The data link layer plays a major role in networks. Media d. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 7-1. What is the difference between a logical network and a physical network? The network layer defines the logical network using a hierarchical addressing scheme. or use the corresponding Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. What are the two main jobs of the data link layer? The data link layer allows upper layers to access media. 2. A layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model that frames upper-layer data and controls how data is placed on a medium b. The media can consist of many different types. The data link layer defines the physical network as a set of devices on a common medium. Two or more devices connected to a common medium e. Table 7-1 Term Data Link Layer Terms Definition a.

to access the medium. To connect to a network. decapsulate the frame to the Layer 3 PDU.200 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 3. IP or other network layer protocols would need to make provisions for connecting every type of media that could exist along a delivery path. There are different ways to accomplish this regulation. 1. a node uses an adapter. each node has its own time to use the medium. Concept Questions 1. IP would need to change every time a new network technology or medium were developed. and place the frame on the medium of the next link in the network. 3. such as a Network Interface Card (NIC) on a local-area network (LAN). depending on the medium and the data link layer protocols in use. A router uses data link layer services to receive a frame from one medium. With controlled media access control. encapsulate the Layer 3 PDU into a new frame. The technique for getting a frame on and off a medium is called the media access control method. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. 2. As more nodes try to access the network to send data. The adapter manages the framing and media access control. The controlled method provides predictable. This disadvantage is avoided by using a layered model for networking and by giving the data link layer the job of placing data on a medium and controlling access to the medium. deterministic throughput. An intermediary device. . Other methods are less complicated but may not scale as well. but it can be inefficient because a device has to wait its turn before it can use the medium. Network devices take turns. If the data link layer didn’t exist. in sequence. Some methods are complicated and add overhead to the process. the probability of successful access without a data collision decreases. what changes would be required of a network layer protocol such as Internet Protocol (IP)? Without a data link layer. The contention-based method has less overhead but does not scale well under heavy use. Compare and contrast controlled media access control and contention-based media access control. has physical interfaces that can encapsulate a packet into the appropriate frame and handle the media access control method to access each link. 4. Any device can try to access the medium whenever it has data to send. Media Access Control Techniques Media access control regulates the placement of data frames on a medium. such as a router. With contention-based media access control. all nodes compete for the use of the medium. Moreover.

Most Layer 2 frames also have addressing fields in the header that identify the sender and receiver. 1. With half-duplex communication. Having many nodes share access to the medium requires a data link layer media access control method to regulate the transmission of data. and trailer. Receiving data while transmitting is not allowed. Receiving data while transmitting is allowed. 3. If another node is also transmitting. Ethernet uses CSMA/CD. 2. “Ethernet. 4. 1. Although different protocols place different fields in a frame. and token passing. transmit the data. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Table 7-2 lists some typical fields that appear in frame headers. While transmitting. 3. Media Access Control: Addressing and Framing Data A fundamental job of the data link layer is to encapsulate a Layer 3 PDU into a Layer 2 PDU. 3. most protocols specify that the frame should have a header. List the steps in the carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD) process. only one device can transmit at any given time. A logical multiaccess topology enables a number of nodes to communicate by using the same shared medium. 4. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements. For example.” Sense whether the medium is free. You will learn more about CSMA/CD in Chapter 9. At this point.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 201 2. data field. What is the difference between full-duplex communication and half-duplex communication? With full-duplex communication. . Data link layer rules (also called protocols) specify the media access control method that is used for a particular technology. stop transmitting and wait a random amount of time before trying again. Three media access control methods used by logical multiaccess topologies include carrier sense multiple access collision detect. The Layer 2 PDU is called a frame. If a carrier signal is not detected. carrier sense multiple access collision avoidance. 5. Match the field on the left to its definition on the right. you can keep the list simple. If a carrier signal from another node is detected. monitor the medium for the presence of another node’s signal. both devices can transmit and receive on the medium at the same time. wait and try again later. 2.

Priority f. Indicates the upper-layer service contained in the frame a. 1000. it gets encapsulated in a new data link layer header with new Layer 2 addresses for each hop it takes. are carried from source to destination host across an internetwork. Table 7-3 Protocol Data Link Layer Protocols Specification a. A protocol for wireless networks that uses CSMA/CA a. When a packet crosses an internetwork. Tells other devices on the network that a frame is coming along the medium b. Defined by the IEEE 802. Includes specifications for operation at 10.202 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 7-2 Field Frame Header Fields Definition a. Match each protocol on the left to its specifications on the right. and 10. Often found on WANs a. Start frame b. Length e. 100. Indicates a particular type of communication service for special processing Table 7-3 lists three major data link layer protocols. Provides unacknowledged connectionless service over a shared medium using CSMA/CD b. Layer 3 addresses use a hierarchical addressing scheme and indicate a network number and host identifier. Layer 2 addresses are used only for local delivery when transporting a frame across a shared local medium.3 standard a. Used to start and stop traffic when overloading occurs d. Layer 2 addresses use a flat addressing scheme and do not indicate on what network a device is located. Type d. Identifies the sender and receiver e. Uses an acknowledgment to confirm that a frame was received successfully Concept Questions 1. Compare and contrast Layer 2 addresses with Layer 3 addresses. Congestion control g. 802. on the other hand. Used to indicate overloading on the medium f. Uses a flag field at the beginning of the frame c. Layer 3 addresses. Address c.11 c. . Uses a preamble field at the beginning of the frame b. If a device is moved to another network.000 Mbps b. Point-to-Point Protocol c. Specifies the number of bytes in the data part of the frame c. Defined in a Request For Comments (RFC) document b. Establishes a logical connection (session) between two nodes a. Ethernet b. Flow control g. its Layer 2 address does not need to change.

The transport layer also places the source port number for this session in the segment. 1. The client builds an Ethernet II frame to transport the IPv4 packet across the local medium. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following statements that describe a user accessing a web page stored on a web server that is located on a remote network. or loss that would change the bit values that those signals represent. distortion. The user is on an Ethernet LAN. The transport layer identifies the upper-layer service that the user wants to reach as the HTTP (or World Wide Web [WWW]) service. 2. The data link layer refers to the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache to determine the Media Access Control (MAC) address that is associated with the Ethernet interface on the client’s router. TCP adds an acknowledgment number that tells the web server the sequence number that TCP expects in the next segment it receives. 5. For the destination address. Putting It All Together: Follow Data Through an Internetwork When a user on a LAN wants to access a service.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 203 2. you should now be able to put together at a high level the events that take place on a network when a user accesses a service. the client uses the IP address associated with the WWW server’s hostname. 4. At the network layer. The transport layer places a destination port number of 80 in the TCP segment to indicate the WWW service. What is the purpose of the Frame Check Sequence (FCS) in a frame trailer? The FCS field is used to determine if errors occurred in the transmission and receipt of a frame. a frame has only one place to go (to the other device). It uses its own IPv4 address as the source address. Only two devices are connected. The application layer adds a Layer 7 header. If you have done the reading in Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or if you have used the corresponding Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. The router sends the data to another router across a PPP WAN link. an IP packet is constructed to identify the source and destination hosts. A TCP three-way handshake sets up a connection with the server. The user sends data to a router on that Ethernet LAN. The user starts by clicking a link or URL on a web page. After it is on the medium. The recipient router forwards the data onto an Ethernet LAN where the server resides. 3. . a number of packets are generated and encapsulated in Layer 2 frames. The FCS field is necessary because the signals on the medium are subject to interference. 3. The user’s web browser initiates a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) GET request. 6. Why are Layer 2 addresses not needed in point-to-point topologies? Layer 2 addresses are not needed in point-to-point topologies because there can be no confusion about the frame’s destination.

The server compares the destination IPv4 address in the packet to its own IPv4 address. At the network layer. and the router determines that the next hop for the packet is a router at the other end of a PPP WAN link. the destination IPv4 address in the packet is compared to routes in the routing table. the destination IPv4 address in the packet is compared to the routes in the 11. The router removes the data link header and pushes the packet up to the network layer. The data link layer frame indicates that the upper-layer data is IPv4 by placing 0x0800 in the Type field of the Ethernet II header. without any errors. the server pushes the data to TCP. 10. The router that receives the frame checks the FCS at the end of the frame to determine if the frame was received intact without any errors. 16. 8. the server removes the data link header and pushes the packet up to the network layer. The recipient router checks the FCS to determine if the frame was received intact without any errors. It uses CSMA/CD to verify that the medium is not already in use. The frame begins with a Preamble field and ends with an FCS field for error detection. The Physical layer transmits the frame onto the medium bit by bit. The physical layer transmits the frame onto the medium bit by bit. Because it matches. 17. Eventually. 9. The server compares the destination MAC address in the frame to the MAC address of the NIC in the server. The router consults its ARP cache to determine the MAC address of the web server. The server examines the frame. Because the IP network layer header identified the upper-layer protocol as 0x06. The router creates a PPP frame to transport the packet across the WAN. the HTTP GET request is delivered to the WWW service. The server examines the TCP segment to determine the session to which the data belongs. The router removes the data link header and pushes the packet up to the network layer. The 22 steps reverse themselves. routing table. The router determines that the packet should be sent out an Ethernet network to the web server. 21. the server removes the network layer header and pushes the data to the transport layer. 12. 20. The router includes a Protocol field in the PPP header with a value of 0x0021 to indicate that 13. The PPP session has already been established. At the application layer. A match is found. 22. Because it matches. so the physical layer begins transmitting the frame onto the WAN medium bit by bit. 14. The client uses the CSMA/CD media access control method to verify that the medium is not already in use. It then builds an Ethernet II frame to transport the IPv4 packet to the server. and a packet flows back to the client. It checks the FCS to determine if the frame was received intact 19. At the network layer. 15. The service . This is done by examining the source and destination ports. can now form a response.204 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 7. The TCP sequence number is used to place this segment in the proper order to be sent upward to the application layer. as soon as all the necessary packets have been sent and received. 18. an IPv4 packet is encapsulated. the user sees a web page.

For example. When learning about Layer 2 concepts. the Layer 2 frame encapsulation is Ethernet II.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter7/. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 205 Labs and Activities Lab 7-1: Frame Examination (7. The Ethernet II frame header is examined in this lab.exe. Figure 7-1 shows the topology for this lab. Scenario Wireshark will be used to capture and analyze Ethernet II frame header fields. data flows down the OSI layers and is encapsulated in a Layer 2 frame.example. Use Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet II frames. you will be able to ■ ■ Explain the header fields in an Ethernet II frame. you can download it from ftp://eagleserver. and Table 7-4 is the corresponding addressing table. The Windows ping command will be used to generate network traffic for Wireshark to capture. it is helpful to analyze frame header information. if the upper-layer protocol is TCP/IP and the media access is Ethernet. Ethernet II frames can support various upper-layer protocols. The file is wireshark-setup-0.4. The frame composition depends on the media access type.2.1) Upon completion of this lab.5. such as TCP/IP. Figure 7-1 Topology for Lab 7-1 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 .99. Background When upper-layer protocols communicate with each other.

255.0 255.254.example.com.16. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address.254. R1-ISP. . and finally eagle-server. Finally.6 192. and that it can ping R1-ISP. shown in the logical addressing table.254 172. From a known good host computer. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity by following these steps: Step 1. If the ping test fails.255. Finally.16.254.252 255.24.0. 172. 10.0 255. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.10.6.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.16. followed by a DNS query.16. 172.255.255.10.254 172. R2-Central.255.168.254.255.255.10.16.253 10.254 192. Figure 7-2 Ethernet II Frame Format Destination Address Source Address Frame Type 2 Octets Preamble Data FCS 8 Octets 6 Octets 6 Octets 46–1500 Octets 4 Octets In Figure 7-3.255.0.31.0 255.10.5 172.253 — 172. Step 3. the ping command issues echo requests. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.Pod#.206 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 7-4 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.255. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server. the lab topology may have been modified before this class.0 255.Pod#.0 255. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.255.2 172.16.10.16.255.10.254.254 172.0 — — 10.16. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address.255.16.252 255.10.255.168.255.com. ping S1Central.254.0.168.255.1 255.10. The session begins with the ARP protocol querying for the MAC address of the Gateway router. Task 1: Explain the Header Fields in an Ethernet II Frame Figure 7-2 shows the format for an Ethernet II frame.255.0 255.255.1 172. ping eagle-server.255. Step 2.0.255.255.6 — 192.example. and that it can ping R2-Central. the Panel List window shows a Wireshark capture of the ping command between a pod host computer and Eagle Server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests.254 172.

Data ARP . A to F. The destination address may be a broadcast that contains all 1s. Each address is 48 bits long.htm for a list of vendor codes. the Packet Details window shows Frame 1 detail information. The first six hex numbers indicate the manufacturer of the network interface card (NIC).neotechcc. Using this window. Table 7-5 shows the information you can obtain. Refer to http://www. The source address is always unicast. ac:a7:6a. Here are two common frame types: Value Description 0x0800 IPv4 protocol 0x0806 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Contains the encapsulated upper-layer protocol. processed by the NIC hardware. The Data field is between 46 and 1500 bytes. this field contains a hexadecimal value that is used to indicate the type of upper-layer protocol in the data field. or unicast. Layer 2 addresses for the frame. Source Address Frame Type 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a 0x0806 For Ethernet II frames. Table 7-5 Field Ethernet II Frame Header Value Description Preamble Destination Address Not shown in the capture ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff This field contains synchronizing bits. 0 to 9. are the serial number of the NIC. A common format is 12:34:56:78:9A:BC. you can obtain Ethernet II frame information. expressed as 12 hexadecimal digits. Ethernet II supports numerous upper-layer protocols.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 207 Figure 7-3 Wireshark Capture of the ping Command In Figure 7-3. or 6 bytes. The last six hex digits.org/forum/macid.

Destination Address MAC address: 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a NIC manufacturer: Intel NIC serial number: ac:a7:6a Source Address MAC address: 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 NIC manufacturer: Cisco NIC serial number: cf:66:40 Figure 7-4 is an expanded view of Frame 3 from the Wireshark capture. and the computer with the corresponding IP address sends a unicast reply to the source. . and data field. answer the following questions about the destination and source MAC address. What is the significance of all 1s in the destination address field? This is a broadcast address. All computers on the LAN receive the frame. The value is computed by the sending machine. answer the following questions about the destination and source MAC address. used by the NIC to identify errors during transmission. encompassing frame addresses.208 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 7-5 Field Ethernet II Frame Header Value continued Description FCS Not shown in the capture Frame Check Sequence. It is verified by the receiver. type. From the information contained in the Packet List window for the first frame. Destination Address MAC address: ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff NIC manufacturer: Does not apply NIC serial number: Does not apply Source Address MAC address: 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a NIC manufacturer: Intel NIC serial number: ac:a7:6a From the information contained in the Packet List window for the second frame.

Choose Capture > Interfaces. Prepare Wireshark for captures. you use Wireshark to capture and analyze packets captured on the pod host computer.com.example. and capture the session.y interface IP address. stop the Wireshark capture.x. Choose Start > Run.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 209 Figure 7-4 Frame 3 Fields Use the information shown in Figure 7-4 to complete Table 7-6. Ping eagle-server. enter cmd. and click OK. Start a ping to Eagle Server. Step 2. Table 7-6 Field Ethernet II Frame Header Completion Value Preamble Destination Address Source Address Frame Type Data FCS Not shown in the capture 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a 0x0800 IP Not shown in the capture Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Ethernet II Frames In this task. Configure Wireshark for packet captures. When the command has finished executing. as shown in Example 7-1. Open a Windows terminal window. and then click the start button that corresponds to the 172. . Step 1.16. This begins the packet capture.

254. Use the Windows XP ipconfig /flushdns command to clear the DNS cache. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms. Your capture should look similar to the one shown in Figure 7-3. Analyze the Wireshark capture. Lost = 0 (0% loss).168.168. as shown in Example 7-2.255. Average = 0ms C:\> Step 3.254 C:\> arp -d * C:\> arp -a No ARP Entries Found C:\> Physical Address 00-0c-85-cf-66-40 Type dynamic If you do not see a DNS query.254.168.254. C:\> ping eagle-server. Maximum = 0ms. Next.example.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.com. it is because the DNS record for eagle-server.0x30004 Internet Address 172.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.com is stored in the DNS cache.2600] Copyright 1985-2001 Microsoft Corp. as shown in Example 7-3.254.example. a DNS request is made for the IP address of eagleserver.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Ping statistics for 192. the ping command is executed.com Pinging eagle-server.1.168. Example 7-2 Displaying and Flushing the ARP Cache C:\> arp -a Interface: 172.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.254.168.254.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.example.1 --.1.210 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 7-1 Pinging Eagle Server Microsoft Windows XP [Version 5.16.example. The Wireshark Packet List window should start with an ARP request and reply for the Gateway’s MAC address.16.com [192.254: Packets: Sent = 4. you can flush the ARP cache using the arp -d * command. Received = 4. Finally. .168. If you don’t see an ARP exchange.

. : 549045 Data Length . . . . . . . . . . : 549045 Data Length . .arpa --------------------------------------Record Name . : localhost eagle-server. .com ---------------------------------------Record Name . . : Answer A (Host) Record . . : localhost . . . . : eagle-server. . .arpa ---------------------------------------Record Name . . . : 4 Section .127. : Answer PTR Record localhost --------------------------------------Record Name . . .in-addr.arpa. . . . : 4 Section .0. : localhost Record Type . .168. .1 C:\> . . . . . . . . : 127. C:\> ipconfig /displaydns Windows IP Configuration 1. Record Type . Record Type . . . . . . : 127. : 549013 Data Length . .0. : localhost Record Type . . .example. : 86386 Data Length . . . .0.0.arpa. : 1. .example. . . . . . .127. . . . : 12 Time To Live . . . . . . . . . : 1 Time To Live .0. . : Answer A (Host) Record . . . . . . .in-addr. . . . . . : 4 Section . .in-addr. : 12 Time To Live . .0. . : 1 Time To Live . . . .127. . : 1. .Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 211 Example 7-3 Displaying and Flushing the DNS Cache C:\> ipconfig /displaydns Windows IP Configuration 1. : 192. . . . : Answer A (Host) Record . . : 4 Section . . .0. . : 1 Time To Live .254 localhost --------------------------------------Record Name . . . . . . . . . : 4 Section . .254. . . . . . . : 549013 Data Length .com Record Type . : Answer PTR Record . . . . . .in-addr. . .127.0. . . .0.0. .1 C:\> ipconfig /flushdns Windows IP Configuration Successfully flushed the DNS Resolver Cache.0.0. . .

different from the identifier for IP. ICMP is encapsulated in the IP packet. R2-Central MAC address information MAC address: Answers will vary. DNS is encapsulated in an IP packet. A student from another school wants to know the MAC address for Eagle Server. Because the student’s Eagle Server is on a different LAN than yours. and verify that the Ethernet II frame type remains 0x0800. The first six hex digits contain the manufacturer of the NIC.212 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Use your Wireshark capture of the ping command to answer the following questions. such as FTP and HTTP. NIC manufacturer: Answers will vary. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ICMP echo reply? 0x0800 Task 3: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture sessions from other TCP/IP protocols. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ARP Reply? 0x0806 What is the Ethernet II frame type value for a DNS query? 0x0800. If the frame is a broadcast. Ethernet II frame header information was examined. and the last six hex digits contain the NIC serial number. 10101011. Task 4: Reflection In this lab. 0x0800 is the frame type for IP. A 2-byte frame type field contains a value that indicates the . Analyze the captured packets. Destination and source MAC addresses each contain 12 hex digits. Pod computer MAC address information MAC address: Answers will vary. the destination MAC address contains all 1s. What would you tell the student? MAC addresses are visible only on the LAN and are different for each LAN. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ARP Request? 0x0806. 0x0800 is the frame type for IP. it must have a unique identifier. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for a DNS query response? 0x0800 What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ICMP echo? 0x0800. Because ARP is not encapsulated inside an IP packet. A preamble field contains 7 bytes of alternating 1010 sequences and 1 byte that signals the beginning of the frame. NIC manufacturer: Cisco NIC serial number: Answers will vary. the information cannot be obtained from a Wireshark capture on your LAN. Again. NIC serial number: Answers will vary.

PCs. Test the network. a 4-byte FCS value is used to verify that there were no errors during transmission. the value is 0x0800. The data field is variable and contains the encapsulated upper-layer protocol. and leave the room ready for the next class.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Use ping. is called a WAN interface card (WIC). Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Data Link Layer Issues (7. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer. trace. Build the network. Choose Wireshark. Also reflect on the destination and source addresses. ■ ■ Background Network Interface Cards (NIC) are sometimes thought of as Layer 2 and Layer 1 devices (or as Layer 2 and Layer 1 components of devices that function at all seven layers). Apply your subnetting scheme to server. and consider why the developers of Ethernet chose to place the destination address first. Click Add or Remove Programs. and click Remove.3) Open file LSG01-PTSkills7. typically used in WAN connections. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Practice your IP subnet planning skills. Configure the network. Connect devices with Ethernet and serial cables.1. turn off power to the host computers. . before the source address. Upon completion of this activity. Figure 7-5 shows the topology for this lab. At the end of a frame. In addition. choose Start > Control Panel.6. Sometimes the NIC for a serial connection. and configure services and static routing. and Table 7-7 is the corresponding addressing table. you have been asked to implement a new IP addressing scheme for the Exploration lab topology. For example. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer 213 protocol in the data field. Reflect on the necessity and formatting of each of these fields. Practice your subnetting skills. In this challenge you must add a WIC to a device to complete the network. consider why the preamble field is necessary and why it consists of alternating 1s and 0s. For IPv4. Remove any files created on the pod host computer during the lab. and router interfaces. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. If Wireshark needs to be uninstalled. web traffic. and the Inspect tool.

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Figure 7-5

Topology for the Challenge
1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server

2960-24TT S1-Central

1841 R2-Central

PC-PT 1A

PC-PT 1B

Table 7-7 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway (Route)

R1-ISP

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

172.16.3.62 172.16.3.98 172.16.1.254 172.16.3.97 172.16.0.1 172.16.0.2 172.16.3.61

255.255.255.192 255.255.255.252 255.255.254.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.254.0 255.255.254.0 255.255.255.192

— — 172.16.3.98 172.16.3.98 172.16.1.254 172.16.1.254 172.16.3.62

R2-Central

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server

NIC NIC NIC

Task 1: IP Subnet Planning
You have been given an IP address block of 172.16.0.0/22. You must provide for existing networks as well as future growth. Subnet assignments:
■ ■ ■

First subnet, existing student LAN, up to 400 hosts (Fa0/0 on R2-Central) Second subnet, future student LAN, up to 180 hosts (not yet implemented) Third subnet, existing ISP LAN, up to 40 hosts (Fa0/0 on R1-ISP)

Chapter 7: OSI Data Link Layer

215

■ ■ ■ ■

Fourth subnet, future ISP LAN, up to 18 hosts (not yet implemented) Fifth subnet, existing WAN, point-to-point link (S0/0/0 on R1-ISP and R2-Central) Sixth subnet, future WAN, point-to-point link (not yet implemented) Seventh subnet, future WAN, point-to-point link (not yet implemented)

Interface IP addresses:
■ ■

For the server, configure the second-highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. For R1-ISP’s Fa0/0 interface, configure the highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. For R1-ISP’s S0/0/0 interface, configure the highest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. For R2-Central’s S0/0/0 interface, use the lowest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface, use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. For PCs 1A and 1B, use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet.

■ ■

Additional configurations:
■ ■

For PCs 1A and 1B, in addition to IP configuration, configure them to use DNS services. For the server, enable DNS services, use the domain name eagle-server.example.com, and enable HTTP services.

Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer, Attending to Some Layer 2 Issues
On the R2-Central router, a NIC is missing for the serial connection to R1-ISP. Add a WIC-2T in the slot on the right. Also on R2-Central, Fa0/0 is shut down; turn it on. Connect a serial DCE cable to R1-ISP S0/0/0, with the other end connected to R2-Central S0/0/0. For all devices, make sure the power is on.

Task 3: Configure the Network
You need to configure the server, both routers, and the two PCs. You do not need to configure the switch, nor do you need the IOS CLI to configure the routers. Part of the router configuration has already been done for you; all you must do is configure the static routes and the interfaces via the GUI. The static route on R1-ISP should point to the existing student LAN subnet via R2-Central’s serial interface IP address. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points to R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address. These procedures were explained in the Chapter 5 Skills Integration Challenge, and you practiced them in the Chapter 6 Skills Integration Challenge.

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Task 4: Test the Network
Use ping, trace, web traffic, and the Inspect tool. Trace packet flow in simulation mode, with HTTP, DNS, TCP, UDP, and ICMP viewable, to test your understanding of how the network is operating. Note in particular what Layer 2 encapsulation is used in each step of a packet’s journey, and how the headers on the Layer 2 PDUs change.

Task 5: Reflection
Consider an ICMP echo request packet sent from PC 1A to Eagle Server and the ICMP echo reply packet that results. Reflect on which addresses stay the same in this situation and which ones change.

CHAPTER 8

OSI Physical Layer

The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice, matching, fill-in-the-blank, and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the OSI physical layer. The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical, hands-on skills needed to understand and work with the physical layer. As you work through this chapter, use Chapter 8 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 8 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance.

Study Guide
The Physical Layer: Communication Signals
The role of the OSI physical layer is to encode the binary digits that represent data link layer frames into signals and to transmit and receive these signals across the physical media (copper wires, optical fiber, and wireless) that connect network devices.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements.
1.

The purpose of the physical layer is to create the electrical, optical, or microwave signal that represents the bits in each frame. Manchester encoding indicates a 0 by a high-to-low voltage transition in the middle of the bit time. For a 1, there is a low-to-high voltage transition in the middle of the bit time.

2.

Concept Questions
1.

What are the three basic forms of network media on which data is represented? Copper cable, fiber, and wireless

2.

Physical layer standards cover what four areas? Physical and electrical properties of the media Mechanical properties (materials, dimensions, pinouts) of the connectors Bit representation by the signals (encoding) Definition of control information signals

3.

What are the three fundamental functions of the physical layer? The physical components Data encoding Signaling

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Physical Signaling and Encoding: Representing Bits
Eventually, all communication from the human network becomes binary digits, which are transported individually across the physical media.

Concept Questions
1.

Bits are represented on the medium by changing one or more of the following characteristics of a signal: Amplitude Frequency Phase

2.

Different physical media support the transfer of bits at different speeds. Data transfer can be measured in three ways: Bandwidth Throughput Goodput

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks in the following statements.
1.

The capacity of a medium to carry data is described as the raw data bandwidth of the media. Digital bandwidth measures the amount of information that can flow from one place to another in a given amount of time. Throughput is the measure of the transfer of bits across the media over a given period of time. Goodput is the measure of usable data transferred over a given period of time, and is therefore the measure that is of most interest to network users.

2. 3.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
In Table 8-1, match the definition on the right with a term on the left.
Table 8-1 Term Signaling and Encoding Definition

a. NRZ signaling b. Manchester encoding

b. Bit values are represented as voltage transitions. a. Uses bandwidth inefficiently and is susceptible to electromagnetic interference. In addition, the boundaries between individual bits can be lost when long strings of 1s or 0s are transmitted consecutively. c. Each byte to be transmitted is broken into 4-bit pieces or nibbles and encoded as 5-bit values known as symbols. These symbols represent the data to be transmitted and a set of codes that help control transmission on the media.

c. 4B/5B

Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer

219

Physical Media: Connecting Communication
The physical layer is concerned with network media and signaling. This layer produces the representation and groupings of bits as voltages, radio frequencies, or light pulses. Various standards organizations have contributed to the definition of the physical, electrical, and mechanical properties of the media available for different data communications.

Concept Questions
1.

Standards for copper media are defined by what criteria? Type of copper cabling used Bandwidth of the communication Type of connectors used Pinout and color codes of connections to the media Maximum distance of the media

2.

What can limit the susceptibility of copper cables to electronic noise? Selecting the cable type or category most suited to protect the data signals in a given networking environment Designing a cable infrastructure to avoid known and potential sources of interference in the building structure Using cabling techniques that include the proper handling and termination of the cables

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
In Table 8-2, match a connector on the right with a media (cable) on the left.
Table 8-2 Media and Connectors Connector

Media (Cable)

a. Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cabling b. Coaxial cable c. Multimode optical fiber d. Single-mode optical fiber

c. Straight-Tip (ST) a. RJ-45 d. Subscriber Connector (SC) b. BNC

In Table 8-3, match the speed on the right with the wireless standard on the left.
Table 8-3 Wireless Media Speed

Wireless Standard

a. Bluetooth 802.15 b. 802.11(a,b,g,n), HiperLAN 2 c. 802, 11, MMDS, LMDS d. GSM, GPRS, CDMA, 2.5-3G

c. 22+ Mbps a. < 1 Mbps d. 10[nd]384 Kbps b. 1[nd]54+ Mbps

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Labs and Activities
Lab 8-1: Media Connectors Lab Activity (Lab 8.4.1.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to do the following:
■ ■ ■

Test cables using a Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter and a Fluke LinkRunner. Become familiar with the most common functions of a cable tester. Test different cables for type and wiring problems.

Background Category 5 (Cat 5) unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cables are wired according to function. End devices, such as routers and host computers, connect to switches with Cat 5 straight-through cables. When connected together, however, a Cat 5 crossover cable must be used. This is also true of switches. When connecting one switch to another, a Cat 5 crossover cable is used again. Problems related to cables are one of the most common causes of network failure. Basic cable tests can prove helpful in troubleshooting cabling problems with UTP. The quality of cabling components used, the routing and installation of the cable, and the quality of the connector terminations will be the main factors in determining how trouble-free the cabling will be.
Note to instructor: Before starting the lab, the teacher or lab assistant should have several correctly

wired Cat 5 cables that are used by the student to learn cable tester operation. The cables should be both straight-through and crossover. There should also be several Cat 5 cables available with problems. Cables should be numbered to simplify the testing process and to maintain consistency. The following resources are required:
■ ■

Good Cat 5 straight-through and crossover wired cables of different colors Cat 5 straight-through and crossover wired cables with open wire connections in the middle or one or more conductors shorted at one end that are different colors and different lengths Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter or equivalent (see Figure 8-1) Fluke LinkRunner
Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter

■ ■

Figure 8-1

Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer

221

Scenario First, you will visually determine whether the Cat 5 cable type is crossover or straight-through. Next, you use the cable tester to verify the cable type and common features available with the tester. Finally, you use the cable tester to test for bad cables that cannot be determined with a visual inspection.

Task 1: Become Familiar with the Most Common Functions of a Cable Tester
Figure 8-2 shows the TIA/EIA 568B Cat 5 UTP wire positioning for a straight-through and a crossover cable. When Cat 5 connectors are held together, wire color is a quick way to determine the cable type. TIA/EIA 568B is different from TIA/EIA 568A wiring. TIA/EIA 568A straight-through cables can be identified by the color coding.
Figure 8-2 TIA/EIA 568B Cat 5 UTP
TIA/EIA 568B CAT 5 UTP Straight Through 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TIA/EIA 568B CAT 5 UTP Crossover 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Step 1.

Visually determine cable types.

Note to instructor: Students should be given a functional straight-through and crossover cable. These

cables will be used to learn cable tester features and build confidence in cable tester accuracy. There should be two numbered cables available. Perform a visual inspection of the cables and then fill out the chart in Table 8-4 with the cable color, type, and use.
Table 8-4 Cable Number Cable Types Cable Color Cable Type (StraightThrough or Crossover) Cable Use (Circle correct device)

1 2

Answers will vary Answers will vary

Answers will vary Answers will vary

Switch to: host / switch Switch to: host / switch

It is now time to verify the cable type and learn about the common features of the cable tester.

Verify the cable wire map. Press the up. Turn the rotary switch selector on the tester to the WIRE MAP position. The top set of numbers displayed on the LCD screen refers to the near end. Table 8-5 Tester Option Cable Tester Settings for UTP Desired Setting: UTP Cable Wiring Category Wire size CAL to Cable? Beeping LCD contrast UTP 10Base-T or EIA/TIA 4PR Category 5 AWG 24 No On or Off From 1 through 10 (brightest) When satisfied with the correct settings.or down-arrow buttons until the desired cable type of UTP is selected.222 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 2. and the bottom set of numbers refers to the far end. Place the RJ-45 to RJ-45 female coupler on the far end of the cable. shown in Figure 8-3. Step 3. press the Setup button to exit setup mode. Figure 8-3 Cable Coupler and Cable Identifier cable coupler cable identifier Place the near end of the cable into the RJ-45 jack labeled UTP/FTP on the tester. The coupler and the cable identifier are accessories that come with the Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter. Press Enter to accept that setting and go to the next one. Perform initial configuration of the Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter. Press the Setup button to enter the setup mode. Continue pressing the up/down-arrow buttons and pressing Enter until the tester is set to the cabling settings in Table 8-5. The wiring of both the near and far end of the cable will be displayed. . The first option should be Cable. The wire map function displays which pins on one end of the cable are connected to which pins on the other end. and observe the LCD screen on the tester. Use the following procedure to test each cable with the LAN cable coupler and cable identifier. and then insert the cable identifier into the other side of the coupler.

. If power was cycled. Move the rotary switch selector on the tester to the Length position. Perform a basic cable test on each of the cables. write down the number and color. repeat the setup steps described in Task 1.Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 223 Perform a wire map test on each of the cables provided. Task 2: Test Different Cables for Type and Wiring Problems Obtain at least five different cables from your instructor. the tester screen test results. For each cable. The tester Length function displays the length of the cable. If power was cycled. the tester screen test results. and complete Table 8-7 based on the results. and fill in Table 8-6 based on the results. For each cable. repeat the setup steps described in Step 2. Move the rotary switch selector on the tester to the Wire Map position. write down the number and color. write down the number and color. Verify the cable length. perform a wire map test on each of the cables provided. and any problem. Table 8-6 Cable Tester Settings for UTP Cable Color Cable Type (Straight-Through or Crossover) Cable Number 1 2 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Note any problems encountered during this test: Answers will vary Step 4. the cable length. Using the cable tester Wire Map function. unknown cables are tested. For each cable. and whether the cable is straight-through or crossover. Table 8-7 Results of Basic Cable Test Cable Color Cable Length Cable Number 1 2 Answers will vary Answers will vary Note any problems encountered during this test: Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Repeat these steps until you are comfortable using the cable tester. and what the problem is (if one exists). Step 2. In the next task. Then fill in Table 8-8 based on the result for each Cat 5 cable tested. whether the cable is straight-through or crossover.

Figure 8-4 Turn on the Fluke LinkRunner. and 5 show examples of cable problems. 4. Step 3. Task 3: Perform Initial Configuration of the Fluke LinkRunner Step 1. Answers are examples only. which is shown in Figure 8-4. and press the green button on the lower right along with the blue button to the left. . Fluke LinkRunner Step 2. Place both ends of the cable into the LAN and MAP ports located on top of the LinkRunner. Rows 3. Press the green button on the lower right to turn it back off. Answers will vary Straight-through Crossover Crossover Top: 12364578 Bottom: 12364578 Top: 12364578 Bottom: 36124578 Top: 12oo4578 Bottom: 36124578 None None Pins 3 and 6 are open somewhere in the first half of the cable Pin 5 is shorted in the last half of the cable Miswire 4 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Straight-through Top: 12364578 Bottom: 12364s78 Top: 12365478 Bottom: 12364578 5 Straight-through *Refer to the Fluke manual for a detailed description of test results for wire map. and will vary. Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary.224 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 8-8 Results of Wire Map Test Cable Color Cable type (Straight-Through or Crossover) *Test Results Problem Description Cable Cable Type Number (Visual Inspection) 1 2 3 Answers will vary Answers will vary.

two intersecting lines (as shown in Figure 8-6) will appear in the upper-left corner of the screen. Figure 8-7 Fluke LinkRunner: Bad Cable . as shown in Figure 8-7. the triangle with an exclamation mark in the center will appear and details will display. two parallel lines (as shown in Figure 8-5) will appear in the upper-left corner of the screen.Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 225 If it is a correct straight-through cable. Figure 8-5 Fluke LinkRunner: Straight-Through Cable If it is a correct crossover cable. Figure 8-6 Fluke LinkRunner: Crossover Cable If it is a bad cable.

. Fluke LinkRunner: Cable Length Step 2. Step 1. Skills learned in this lab will enable you to quickly troubleshoot wrong cable types and broken cables. Locate the length of the cable below the icon indicating the type of cable (as shown in Figure 8-8). Figure 8-8 Task 5: Reflection Problems related to cables are one of the most common causes of network failure. A properly functioning cable today may be broken tomorrow. A cable tester is used to determine cable type. Task 7: Clean Up The cable tester is expensive and should never be left unattended. and wire map. and press the green button on the lower right along with the blue button to the left. Network technicians should be able to determine when to use Cat 5 UTP straight-through and crossover cables. This isn’t unusual. length. Turn on the Fluke LinkRunner by pressing the green button on the lower right along with the blue button on the right. Press the green button on the lower right to turn it back off.226 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 4: Verify Cable Length Note: The instructions to test a cable are the same as determining cable length. Step 3. Return the cable tester to the instructor when finished. Ask the instructor where to return used cables. and is part of the learning process. In a lab environment. Task 6: Challenge Look for opportunities to test other cables with the Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter. Step 4. Store the cables neatly for the next class. cables are constantly moved and reconnected. Place both ends of the cable into the LAN and MAP ports located on top of the LinkRunner.

5. Enter and view the physical workspace. and connecting the devices. Figure 8-9 shows the topology for this skills integration challenge. and Table 8-9 shows the corresponding addressing table. or in a corporate setting. View the standard lab setup in the physical workspace. Connect the devices. View the standard lab setup at the various levels of the physical workspace. This activity examines device configurations in Packet Tracer. Figure 8-9 Topology for Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B .Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 227 Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Connecting Devices and Exploring the Physical View (8. selecting the proper cable based on the configuration.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Background When working in Packet Tracer. Verify connectivity.1. Upon completion of this activity. it is important to know how to select the proper cable.3) Open the file LSG01-PTSkills8. This activity also explores the physical view of the network in Packet Tracer. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Connect the devices in the standard lab setup. in a lab environment. and how to properly connect devices.

255.254 255. In an internetwork.254 172.168.253 10.254.168.0. The DCE connects to a service provider’s local loop.16. .254.10.255.255.255.252 255. Most of our work in Packet Tracer has been done in the logical workspace.10.0 N/A N/A 10.254.0.1 172.255.255.0 255. The physical workspace enables you to see these relationships more clearly.10.10. routers may be in different sites.16.254 192.16.6 172.255.2 192. From the command prompt on the desktop of both PCs.6 10.10.255.255.10. check your connections and troubleshoot until the pings succeed.1. Connect the devices.228 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 8-9 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192. the IP address of Eagle Server. and the connections are repeated at the other end of the link. Connect the proper interface on the router to the proper interface on Eagle Server using the proper cable.0 255.0 255.254.255.0 255. Task 2: View the Standard Lab Setup in the Physical Workspace Step 1.0 255.16. connected to a DCE (data communication equipment).6 172.254 172.0.168.10.255.255. Verify connectivity. Connect PC 1A to the first port on switch S1-Central and PC 1B to the second port on switch S1-Central using the proper cable. issue the command ping 192. from across the street to across the globe.254.255.16.10.1 172. Enter and view the physical workspace.16. Click both routers and examine the configuration using the Config tab.0. Check your configuration by clicking the Check Results button.1.255.254. Connect the proper interface on the router to interface FastEthernet0/24 on switch S1Central using the proper cable. Step 2. If the pings fail.255.168.252 255.168.5 172. Click router R1-ISP and examine the configuration using the Config tab.254 10. Connect the routers together using the proper interfaces and the proper cable. such as a channel/data service unit (CSU/DSU) or modem. Click router R2-Central and examine the configuration using the Config tab.255.253 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC Task 1: Connect the Devices in the Standard Lab Setup Step 1. The serial link between the routers represents a dedicated leased line between two locations consisting of a DTE (data terminal equipment). such as a router.

View the standard lab setup at the various levels of the physical workspace. Step 2.Chapter 8: OSI Physical Layer 229 Enter the physical workspace by clicking the tab in the upper-left corner of the workspace. Click Central City. Click the central office building. You will see the city and the location of the central office building. You will see a physical representation of the equipment installed in the wiring closet and the cabling that connects the equipment. Repeat the steps to view the equipment installed in ISP City. Click Intercity on the navigation bar. . Click the wiring closet. It shows the connection between Central City and ISP City. You will see the floor plan of the building and the location of the wiring closet. Examine this view of the topology.

.

Provides an interface to the upper layers b. use Chapter 9 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. Using IEEE terminology. can give upper-layer protocols access to Ethernet. Provides a unique source and destination address .CHAPTER 9 Ethernet The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. Ethernet’s success can also be attributed to the fact that it was adopted by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and standardized as IEEE 802. Table 9-1 Sublayer Data Link Layer Sublayers Function a. multiple-choice. or use the corresponding Chapter 9 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. Logical Link Control (LLC) or IEEE 802. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of Ethernet. match the function on the right with the correct IEEE sublayer of the data link layer. Ethernet has been so successful because it has evolved over time to incorporate new technologies such as higher speeds and fiber-optic cabling. Ethernet (without LLC) is the frame encapsulation method used for the most popular network layer protocol in use today. Adds a frame delimiter b. Study Guide Overview of Ethernet Ethernet is the predominant LAN technology in use today. for assistance. hands-on skills needed to work with Ethernet. Ethernet operates at the OSI physical and data link layers. Controls the placement of a frame on the medium a. Remains relatively independent of the physical equipment b. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. Ethernet operates at the physical layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer of the data link layer.2.3. In addition. Internet Protocol (IP). fill-in-the-blank. The upper sublayer of the data link layer. LLC b. MAC a. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 9-1. As you work through this chapter.

also known as Ethernet II. Concentrates connections. Switch d. proposing the name for their prototype network. Ethernet forms the foundation of most industrial. Isolates each port and sends a frame only to its proper destination (if the destination is known) e. to a shared hub-based network. Today.3 standard for Ethernet in 1985. and now 10 Gbps. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 9-2. low cost of installation and upgrading. and Xerox published the DIX V1. Ethernet: Communication Through the LAN The term Ethernet first appeared in 1973 when Dr. Metcalfe of the Xerox Corporation circulated a memo to his colleagues. Only one station at a time can transmit c. and government networks. a receiving node calculates its own CRC to compare to the one in the frame. Robert M. Hub d. the recipient assumes that the frame arrived without error. was released in 1982. and then to 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps. If the two CRC results match. Both ends of a connection can send at the same time a. 10BASE5 b. Since 1985. The node places the CRC result in the Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field in the trailer part of the Ethernet frame. Why has Ethernet been so successful? Ethernet has been so successful because it has evolved with the times to incorporate new technologies. Half duplex e. How does Ethernet handle error detection? The sending node calculates a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) of the bits in the frame. Full duplex f. What functions does data encapsulation provide? Data encapsulation provides frame delimiting. Uses 185 meters of thin coaxial cable f. and standardization by the IEEE. Uses 500 meters of thick coaxial cable . match the description on the right with the correct Ethernet term on the left. the fact that the Ethernet frame has remained relatively unchanged over the years has allowed applications to keep running over Ethernet even as it evolved. 10BASE2 c. Table 9-2 Term Ethernet Implementations Description a. In addition. The cabling has also evolved from coaxial to unshielded twisted pair to fiber-optic. reliability.0 standard for Ethernet. addressing. educational. DIX V2. 3. and error detection. In 1980. ease of maintenance. allowing the network to see a group of nodes as a single unit b. Its original speed of 3 Mbps evolved to 10 Mbps. Digital Equipment Corporation. After receiving a frame. Metcalfe’s goal that Ethernet become ubiquitous has been achieved. much like the ether substance that scientists in the 1800s believed filled space and matter.0. Ethernet’s success also can be attributed to its simplicity.232 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. 2. and finally to a selective-forwarding environment with high-speed switches. The IEEE published the 802. The name reflects the goal that Ethernet become ubiquitous. Intel. Ethernet has evolved from a shared coaxial medium.

When Ethernet ran on coaxial cable.Chapter 9: Ethernet 233 Concept Questions 1. Frame check sequence g. and high-end devices. For example. Match the field on the left with the definition on the right. links between switches. 2. Full duplex means that each end of a communications channel can send at the same time. Start of frame delimiter c. Used for synchronization e. it used half-duplex communication. which is a shared device. Ethernet is still usually connected in a star topology. Destination address d. Specifies the frame’s sender c.3 header and trailer. Length/type f. Fiber-optic is reserved mostly for data centers. Switches are capable of full duplex because they consider each connection a separate communication channel. Preamble b. and what aspects have changed? Ethernet’s simplicity and ease of use and installation have remained unchanged. Although the cabling could have supported full duplex. Compare and contrast half duplex and full duplex. Carries the upper-layer data b. Half duplex is used on a medium that can carry only one signal at a time. What aspects of Ethernet have remained relatively unchanged over the years. Source address e. Although different protocols place different fields in a frame. Most Layer 2 frames also have addressing fields in the header that identify the sender and receiver. data field. but the center of the star is a switch rather than a hub these days. Specifies the number of bytes in the data part of the frame or specifies the type of data (the upper-layer protocol) f. most protocols specify that the frame should have a header. the hub was still a shared medium. Ethernet follows these conventions. Tells other devices on the network that a frame is coming along the medium d. The Ethernet Frame A fundamental job of the data link layer is to encapsulate a Layer 3 Protocol Data Unit (PDU) into a Layer 2 PDU. When Ethernet was upgraded to run on hubs with twisted-pair cabling. a switch port and the connected device can send at the same time. and trailer. The Ethernet frame has remained relatively unchanged. Transmitting and receiving simultaneously is not allowed. it still used half-duplex communication. The Layer 2 PDU is called a frame. Unshielded twisted pair is still widely used. Data g. Specifies the frame’s intended recipient . Table 9-3 Field Frame Header Fields Definition a. unlike a hub. Only one device can send at any time. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Table 9-3 lists the fields that appear in an IEEE 802. Used for error detection a. The cabling for Ethernet has evolved from coaxial to unshielded twisted pair to fiber-optic.

d. d. . To specify the Portable Application Description (PAD) that describes the encapsulated data. d. 1522 bytes b. 64 bytes 3. the field specifies a type. c. 64 bytes 2. 72 bytes d. 6. If the value is equal to or greater than 0x0600. 128 bytes c. The sender notices the missing acknowledgment and retransmits the frame. 1. 5. c. How does a recipient device know if the sender used the Length/Type field to specify a length or a type? a. 4. To ensure that the frame is protected from damage. 1024 bytes d. Why is padding sometimes added to the data part of an Ethernet frame? a. c. 1522 bytes b. b. The recipient bases the decision on whether it’s been configured for Ethernet II or IEEE 802. the field specifies a type. c. b. The sender backs off and waits a random amount of time before trying again. What happens if a frame arrives damaged? frame. The receiving device requests a retransmission. b. d. a. To ensure that the frame is at least 64 bytes. 1518 bytes c. The receiving device reports a collision. What does a receiving device do if it receives a frame that is less than the allowed minimum size or greater than the allowed maximum size? a. What is the maximum size of an Ethernet frame according to the IEEE 802. The receiving device sends back a negative acknowledgment to the sender. If the value is equal to or less than 1536. What is the minimum size of an Ethernet frame? a. To provide synchronization.234 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best answer for each of the following questions. The recipient requests a retransmission. The recipient calculates a CRC that differs from the CRC in the FCS field and drops the b.3. The receiving device drops the frame. The recipient sends a query to the sender to determine how the field should be interpreted.3ac standard? a.

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7.

How long is a MAC address?

a. Six hexadecimal digits b. 32 bits c. 48 bits d. 8 bytes

Concept Questions
1.

Compare and contrast MAC addresses with IP addresses. MAC addresses operate at the OSI data link layer (Layer 2). Layer 2 addresses are used only for local delivery when transporting a frame across a local medium. These addresses use a flat addressing scheme and do not indicate on what network a device is located. If a device is moved to another network, its Layer 2 address does not need to change. IP addresses operate at the OSI network layer (Layer 3). Layer 3 addresses are carried from source to destination host across an internetwork. Layer 3 addresses use a hierarchical addressing scheme and indicate a network number and host identifier.

2.

Compare and contrast unicast, broadcast, and multicast communications at the MAC sublayer. Unicast, broadcast, and multicast are all 48-bit MAC address types. All of them can be destination MAC addresses. Only unicast can be a source address. A unicast address is a unique address used when a frame is sent from a single transmitting device to a single destination device. In the case of a broadcast, the frame is destined for all devices in the broadcast domain and is addressed to a MAC broadcast address of 48 1s (or FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF in hexadecimal). With multicast, a source can send to a group of devices. The low-order bit of the first byte must be a 1 for the address to be a multicast. If the multicast is also an IP multicast, the first 24 bits of the MAC address are 01-00-5E in hexadecimal.

Ethernet Media Access Control
In a shared medium, all devices have guaranteed access to the medium, but they must fairly share the medium and not interfere with each other. If more than one device transmits at the same time, the physical signals collide, and the data is damaged. Both transmitters must recognize that their data has been damaged and resend it. Ethernet uses carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD) to detect and handle collisions and regulate use of the shared medium.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements that discuss CSMA/CD.
1.

Because devices using coaxial or hub-based Ethernet send their messages on a shared medium, a protocol (or coordination scheme or media access control method) is used to determine if the medium is already in use before a sender transmits. When a device detects that no other computer is sending a frame, the device transmits if it has something to send. All devices that have messages to send must listen before transmitting.

2.

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3. 4.

If a device detects a signal from another device, it waits before attempting to transmit. When no traffic is detected, a device transmits its message. While transmitting, the device continues to listen for traffic from another device. If another device is sending at the same time, a collision has occurred. If a collision happens, the sending devices continue to send for the time it takes to send a jam signal and then stop sending. The devices invoke a backoff algorithm that causes them to wait a random amount of time before trying to send again.

5.

Concept Questions
1.

What is interframe spacing, and why does Ethernet use it? Interframe spacing is the required time between frames on an Ethernet network. After a frame has been sent, all devices are required to wait a minimum of 96 bit times (the time it takes to send 96 bits). This gives the medium time to stabilize after transmitting a frame.

2.

Why is the backoff timing random when an Ethernet collision occurs? The backoff waiting period is intentionally designed to be random so that two stations do not delay for the same amount of time before retransmitting, which would result in more collisions.

Ethernet Physical Layer
The many implementations of Ethernet include Classic Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, and 10 Gigabit Ethernet. The differences occur at the physical layer, often called the Ethernet PHY. Four data rates are currently defined for operation over optical-fiber and twisted-pair cables:
■ ■ ■ ■

10 Mbps: 10BASE-T Classic Ethernet 100 Mbps: Fast Ethernet 1000 Mbps: Gigabit Ethernet 10 Gbps: 10 Gigabit Ethernet

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements that describe Ethernet physical layer options.
1.

10BASE-T uses two pairs of a four-pair cable and is terminated at each end with an eight-pin RJ-45 connector. The pair connected to pins 1 and 2 is used for transmitting, and the pair connected to pins 3 and 6 is used for receiving. Replacing hubs with switches in 10BASE-T networks has greatly increased the bandwidth available to these networks and has helped Ethernet maintain its dominance in the LAN market. The 10BASE-T links connected to a switch can support either half-duplex or full-duplex operation. The most popular implementations of 100 Mbps Ethernet are 100BASE-TX, which uses Category 5 or later UTP cable, and 100BASE-FX, which uses fiber-optic cable. 1000BASE-T Ethernet provides full-duplex transmission using four pairs of Category 5 or later UTP cable.

2.

3.

4.

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5.

The two fiber versions of Gigabit Ethernet are 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX. Fiber-optic cabling offers better noise immunity than UTP, a smaller physical size, and higher distances and bandwidth. A difference between 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX is the wavelength of the optical signal. The IEEE 802.3ae standard was adapted to include 10-Gbps, full-duplex transmission over fiber-optic cable. 10-Gigabit Ethernet is evolving for use not only in LANs, but also in MANs and WANs. Although Gigabit Ethernet is now widely available and 10-Gigabit products are becoming more available, the IEEE and the 10-Gigabit Ethernet Alliance are working on 40-, 100-, and even 160-Gbps standards.

6.

7.

8.

Hubs and Switches
In the 1970s and 1980s, Ethernet networks were connected in a bus topology using coaxial cable. The coaxial cable provided a shared medium. In the 1990s, administrators started connecting nodes to the shared network in a star topology using twisted-pair cabling and hubs. During the 1990s, to improve performance, administrators upgraded their hubs to switches. Switches divide collision domains into smaller domains, sometimes so small that collisions are no longer an issue. For example, in the common case where a single device is connected to a port on a switch, both ends of the communications channel can send and receive at the same time, and collisions don’t occur. Switches forward broadcast and multicast traffic to all members of a LAN but provide selective forwarding for unicast traffic. The selective forwarding greatly reduces collisions and improves performance.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching
In Table 9-4, match the characteristic on the right with the correct term on the left.
Table 9-4 Term Characteristics of Hubs and Switches Characteristic

a. Hub b. Switch

b. Divides collision domains a. Forwards received bits out every port b. Supports full-duplex communication a. Simplifies network cabling but doesn’t have any performance benefits a. When many nodes that transmit frequently are connected to this device, latency increases, because each node must wait for an opportunity to transmit b. Provides an alternative to contention-based Ethernet b. Maintains a table that maps each MAC address to a port

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Fill in the blanks for the following statements that describe the selective forwarding service provided by switches.
1.

A switch selectively forwards a frame that it receives on a port to the port where the destination node is connected.

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2.

Switches use store-and-forward switching, whereby the switch receives an entire frame, checks the FCS field for errors, and forwards the frame to the appropriate port. A switch maintains a table, called the MAC table (also called MAC address table, CAM table, switch table, bridge table, filter table), that matches a MAC address with the port used to connect the node with that address.

3.

Concept Question
List and describe the five basic operations of an Ethernet LAN switch. Learning. A switch populates the MAC table by learning which port it should use to reach each MAC address. As a frame enters the switch, the switch examines the MAC source address. If no entry exists in the table for this address, the switch creates a new entry that pairs the source address with the port on which the frame arrived. The switch can now use this mapping to forward frames to the node with the MAC address in the table entry. Aging. A switch tracks how long an entry has been in the MAC table. If the entry reaches a certain age without being refreshed by a new frame from the same node on the same port, the entry is removed. Flooding. If a switch has not yet learned which port it should use to forward a frame to a destination, the switch sends the frame to all ports, except the port on which the frame arrived. Selective forwarding. A switch examines the destination MAC address in a frame and forwards the frame out the appropriate port. Filtering. After a switch has learned the address or addresses that map to a port, it filters frames from going out that port that include a destination address that is not mapped to the port.

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
To send an IP packet to a recipient, a sender needs to learn the recipient’s MAC address. ARP provides a means for a sender to broadcast a message to find the MAC address for a known IP address.

Multiple-Choice Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the following questions.
1.

What is a basic job of ARP?

a. Resolve IPv4 addresses to MAC addresses b. Build a table that maps MAC addresses to ports c. Build a loop-free LAN from redundantly connected switches d. Provide a resource protocol for finding applications 2.

If a node has recently sent a frame to another node, where is the mapping of IPv4 address to MAC address stored?

a. MAC table b. ARP cache c. Routing table d. NVRAM

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3.

When a node has not recently sent a frame to another node, how does the node discover the correct MAC address to use for the IPv4 address of the destination node?

a. The sender sends an IPv4 query to the destination node to ask the node for its MAC address. b. The sender broadcasts an ARP request. c. The sender monitors traffic until it discovers the correct MAC address to use. d. The sender transmits a TCP SYN to the destination node. 4.

What type of header does an ARP frame contain?

a. IP b. Ethernet c. TCP d. UDP 5.

When an Ethernet transmitter sends to a destination not on its local network, what MAC destination address does it use, and how does it discover this address? request.

a. The transmitter uses the MAC address of the destination, which it discovers with an ARP b. The transmitter uses the MAC address of the local router interface, which it discovers with an

ARP request.
c. The transmitter uses the MAC address of the destination, which it discovers with a proxy ARP

request.
d. The transmitter doesn’t need a MAC address for the destination and relies on the IP destination

address to provide enough information for routers to forward the frame.
6.

What is the destination address in the frame when a node sends an ARP request to find the MAC address associated with a known IP address?

a. 255.255.255.255 b. The address of the local router interface c. The recipient’s address d. FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF

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Labs and Activities
Lab 9-1: Address Resolution Protocol (9.8.1.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
■ ■

Use the Windows arp command. Use Wireshark to examine ARP exchanges.

Background TCP/IP uses ARP to map a Layer 3 IP address to a Layer 2 MAC address. When a frame is placed on the network, it must have a destination MAC address. To dynamically discover the MAC address of the destination device, an ARP request is broadcast on the LAN. The device that contains the destination IP address responds, and the MAC address is recorded in the ARP cache. Every device on the LAN keeps its own ARP cache, which is a small area in RAM that holds ARP results. An ARP cache timer removes ARP entries that have not been used for a certain period of time. Depending on the device, the times differ. For example, some Windows operating systems store ARP cache entries for 2 minutes. If the entry is used again during that time, the ARP timer for that entry is extended to 10 minutes. ARP is an excellent example of a performance trade-off. With no cache, ARP must continually request address translations each time a frame is placed on the network. This adds latency to the communication and could congest the LAN. Conversely, unlimited hold times could cause errors with devices that leave the network or change the Layer 3 address. A network engineer needs to be aware of ARP but may not interact with the protocol on a regular basis. ARP is a protocol that enables network devices to communicate with the TCP/IP protocol. Without ARP, no efficient method exists to build the datagram Layer 2 destination address. ARP is a potential security risk. ARP spoofing, or ARP poisoning, is a technique used by an attacker to inject the wrong MAC address association into a network. An attacker forges a device’s MAC address, and frames are sent to the wrong destination. Manually configuring static ARP associations is one way to prevent ARP spoofing. In addition, an authorized MAC address list may be configured in Cisco devices to restrict network access to only approved devices. Scenario With a pod host computer, use the Windows arp utility command to examine and change ARP cache entries. In Task 2, you will use Wireshark to capture and analyze ARP exchanges between network devices. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer, you can download it from ftp://eagleserver.example.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter9/. The file is wireshark-setup-0.99.4.exe. Figure 9-1 shows the topology for this lab, and Table 9-5 is the corresponding addressing table.

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Figure 9-1

Topology for Lab 9-1

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

Table 9-5 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

— — 10.10.10.6 — 192.168.254.253 — 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

R2-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

Eagle Server

— —

Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

— — —

Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology may have been modified before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity:
Step 1.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.

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Step 2.

From a known good host computer, ping eagle-server. If the ping test fails, ping S1Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, shown in Table 9-5, and that it can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and that it can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Step 3.

Task 1: Use the Windows arp Command
Step 1.

Access the Windows terminal. Open a Windows terminal by choosing Start > Run. Enter cmd, and click OK. With no options, the arp command displays useful help information. Issue the arp command on the pod host computer, and examine the output. It should look like Example 9-1.

Example 9-1

Using the arp Command

C:\> arp Displays and modifies the IP-to-Physical address translation tables used by address resolution protocol (ARP). ARP -s inet_addr eth_addr [if_addr] ARP -d inet_addr [if_addr] ARP -a [inet_addr] [-N if_addr] -a Displays current ARP entries by interrogating the current protocol data. If inet_addr is specified, the IP and Physical addresses for only the specified computer are displayed. If more than one network interface uses ARP, entries for each ARP table are displayed. -g Same as -a. Specifies an internet address. inet_addr

-N if_addr Displays the ARP entries for the network interface specified by if_addr. -d Deletes the host specified by inet_addr. inet_addr may be wildcarded with * to delete all hosts. -s Adds the host and associates the Internet address inet_addr with the Physical address eth_addr. The Physical address is given as 6 hexadecimal bytes separated by hyphens. The entry is permanent. eth_addr if_addr interface Specifies a physical address. If present, this specifies the Internet address of the

whose address translation table should be modified. If not present, the first applicable interface will be used.

.16. Any entry indicates communication between the pod host computer and other network devices.1. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms.2 Pinging 172. C:\> . Maximum = 0ms.1.16.1. as shown in Example 9-2.1. Received = 4. ARP associations are dynamically added to the ARP cache.16.Chapter 9: Ethernet 243 Example 9-1 Using the arp Command continued Example: > arp -s 157. the ARP cache should be empty..254 Step 2.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Ping statistics for 172. Lost = 0 (0% loss). Use the arp command to examine the local ARP cache.85.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.. Average = 0ms C:\> C:\> arp -a .254? arp -d 172.212 00-aa-00-62-c6-09 > arp -a table. Adds a static entry.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172... as shown in Example 9-3.2: Packets: Sent = 4. When you issued the command that displays ARP entries. Step 3.1. .16. Using the arp Command with the -a Option Example 9-2 C:\> arp -a No ARP Entries Found C:\> Without any network communication. Use the ping command to dynamically add entries to the ARP cache.255.16.16.2 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.1..255. what were the results? The ARP cache should be empty. Example 9-3 Using the ping Command C:\> ping 172. Displays the arp Answer the following questions about the arp command: ■ What command is used to display all entries in the ARP cache? arp -a ■ What command is used to delete all ARP cache entries (flush the ARP cache)? arp -d * ■ What command is used to delete the ARP cache entry for 172.55. By accessing other devices.16.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.1. The ping command can be used to test network connectivity.16.16.

16. and check the ARP cache again.2 C:\> Physical Address 00-10-a4-7b-01-5f Type dynamic Use the command ipconfig /all to verify another pod host computer’s Layer 2 and Layer 3 information. . a couple explanations are possible. Step 4. Issue the ping command to that pod host computer. It may be easier to ping both devices more than once. What is the physical address of Eagle Server? It cannot be determined. What is the IP address of the Gateway? 172. First.16. Manually adjust entries in the ARP cache.0x60004 Internet Address 172. which will retain the cache entry for approximately 10 minutes. Dynamically What is the IP address of the destination pod host computer? Answers will vary.1.16. Because Eagle Server is on a different network. Do not send any traffic to the computer accessed previously.com. only the Gateway MAC address is displayed. Or. you accessed the destination device more than once and caused the ARP timeout for the entry to rise to 10 minutes. How was the ARP entry added to the ARP cache? Hint: Review the Type column. Was the ARP cache entry cleared? Yes If the entry was not cleared. Wait between 2 and 3 minutes. Issue the ping command to the Gateway. Record the two ARP cache entries using Table 9-6. you did not wait 2 minutes.1 —. R2-Central. Verify that the ARP cache contains two entries: one for the Gateway and one for the destination pod host computer.255. What is the physical address of the destination pod host computer? Answers will vary. which is how long the ARP cache stores an initial entry.example. Examine the ARP cache entry.254 What is the physical address of the Gateway? Answers will vary. Examine the ARP cache entry. eagle-server.1.244 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 9-3 Using the ping Command continued Interface: 172. How was the address discovered? Dynamically Issue the ping command to Eagle Server.

What is one layer of security that can be applied to ARP cache entries to help counter ARP spoofing? Add a static ARP entry for the Gateway. Dynamically Simulate removing all entries.16. or you can delete all entries using the wildcard *.1 —.0x60004 Internet Address 172.16.2 C:\> Physical Address 00-10-a4-7b-01-5f Type dynamic Physical Address 00-10-a4-7b-01-5f 00-0c-85-cf-66-40 Type dynamic dynamic What command deletes the entry for the pod host computer? arp -d inet-addr Record the remaining ARP cache entry in Table 9-7.254 C:\> arp -a Interface: 172.16.254 C:\> C:\> arp -d 172.254 Answers will vary Answers will vary Dynamically Dynamically Next.255.16. delete the entry for the pod host computer.Chapter 9: Ethernet 245 Table 9-6 Device Initial ARP Cache Entries IP Address Physical Address How Is It Discovered? Pod host computer Gateway Answers will vary 172.255.254 Answers will vary. What command deletes all entries in the ARP cache? arp -d * Issue the command to remove all entries in the ARP cache on your pod host computer. To delete entries in the ARP cache. You can delete addresses individually by specifying the IP address.16.16.16. Example 9-4 Manually Deleting an ARP Cache Entry C:\> arp -a Interface: 172. Consider a secure environment where the Gateway controls access to a web server that contains top-secret information. .1.1. Example 9-4 shows how to manually delete an ARP cache entry.1. All entries should be removed.1 —.2 172. Table 9-7 Device Remaining ARP Cache Entry IP Address Physical Address How Is It Discovered? Gateway 172.255. issue the arp -d {inet-addr | *} command.16.255. and examine the ARP cache with the arp -a command.1.0x60004 Internet Address 172.

What command did you use? arp -d * Step 3. and click OK.254 MAC-address Issue the command on your pod host computer. and one ping request is sent to Eagle Server.16. provide answers to these questions: ■ ■ ■ What is the IP address of the Gateway? 172. In this step. Capture and evaluate ARP communication. Flush the ARP cache. one ping request is sent to the Gateway. This begins the packet capture. Click Start. Prepare Wireshark for captures. Enter cmd.254.255. and the ARP communication is evaluated. The Wireshark Packet List window displays the number of packets captured. . you will use it to view the ARP cache. If you haven’t already done so.168. Task 2: Use Wireshark to Examine ARP Exchanges Step 1. and examine the ARP cache again. open a Windows terminal window by choosing Start > Run. Stop Wireshark and evaluate the communication.246 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Simulate adding a static entry for the Gateway. You should see a Wireshark screen similar to the one shown in Figure 9-2. Prepare the pod host computer for ARP captures. Send one ping request to the Gateway. using the command ping -n 1 172.254 What is the physical address of the Gateway? Answers will vary. the Wireshark capture is stopped. this will require ARP to rediscover address maps. Now.16. The Packet Details window shows ARP protocol contents. Step 2. Configure Wireshark for packet captures. What is the type of the ARP entry? Static For the next task. Wireshark will be used to capture and examine an ARP exchange. Choose Capture > Options.255. Select the interface that corresponds to the LAN.254. Do not close the Windows terminal. Afterward. using the command ping -n 1 192. What command adds a static ARP entry for the Gateway to the ARP cache? arp -s 172.254.255.16. Send one ping request to Eagle Server. Check the box to update the list of packets in real time.

16.254 Fill in Table 9-9 with information about the second ARP packet.16. why does the target MAC address contain all 0s? The ARP protocol has no value yet to put in the field.255. Table 9-9 Field Second ARP Packet Value Sender MAC address Sender IP address Target MAC address Target IP address Answers will vary 172. answer the following questions: ■ ■ What is the first ARP packet? A request What is the second ARP packet? A reply Fill in Table 9-8 with information about the first ARP packet. Table 9-8 Field First ARP Packet Value Sender MAC address Sender IP address Target MAC address Target IP address Answers will vary Answers will vary 00:00:00:00:00:00 172.254 Answers will vary Answers will vary If the Ethernet II frame for an ARP request is a broadcast.Chapter 9: Ethernet 247 Figure 9-2 Wireshark Screen Using your Wireshark capture. .255.

This sets the new timeout value to 10 minutes. Task 3: Reflection The ARP protocol maps Layer 3 IP addresses to Layer 2 MAC addresses. Most wireless routers support a network administrator manually adding a list of MAC addresses to the router that are permitted access to the wireless network. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Using outside resources. it is a static entry and remains until the computer is turned off or the ARP cache is manually flushed. If the entry was learned dynamically.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. however. If a packet must move across networks. Discuss ways in which attackers can circumvent this security. it will eventually be deleted from cache. If Wireshark needs to be uninstalled. Click Add or Remove Programs. the Layer 2 MAC address changes with each hop across a router. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Address Resolution Protocol (9. discuss the advantages of configuring MAC address restrictions for wireless networks. Choose Wireshark. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer. perform a search on ARP spoofing. . Discuss several techniques used to counter this type of attack.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab9812. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.248 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Why was there no ARP request for the ping to Eagle Server? The TCP/IP protocol already had the MAC address for the Gateway.8. The ARP cache stores ARP address mappings. and click Remove. choose Start > Control Panel. How long should the Gateway mapping be stored in the ARP cache on the pod host computer? Why? 10 minutes. turn off power to the host computers. Remove any files created on the pod host computer during the lab. but the Layer 3 address never changes. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. Remember. because the cache entry was accessed within the 2-minute cache timeout. and leave the room ready for the next class. If the entry was manually inserted in the ARP cache.1. Task 4: Challenge Using outside resources. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. which is used to forward the packet outside the LAN.

Scenario Telnet is a network service that uses a client/server model. In this lab. and the corresponding port is used to route the frame out the switch. The Cisco device must be configured for Telnet access. Using the Windows hyperterm utility. In this course.8. If a switch does not know which port to use to route the frame. Log in with your student account. You will do the following: ■ ■ ■ Telnet to S1-Central. limited privileges have been configured for student use. Using Telnet. a serial connection can be established. Use the show mac-address-table command to examine the MAC addresses and association to ports. Background Switches maintain a table of MAC addresses and associated switch ports. When a switch receives a frame. you will be able to ■ ■ Use the Telnet protocol to log into a Cisco switch. the destination MAC address is checked against the table. you will connect to the switch via a Telnet session. For secure networks. If the network is not secure. or the frame is a broadcast. Access to Cisco devices can be accomplished through several means.Chapter 9: Ethernet 249 Packet Tracer Challenge Lab 9-2: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9. network connectivity can be established through two means. . it is denied. the frame is routed out all ports except the port where it originated. A console port can be used if the Cisco router or switch is within proximity of a computer. For devices physically distant from the network engineer. network engineers can log into network devices from anywhere across a secure network. a modem configured on the AUX port enables telephone access. otherwise.2. Use the Cisco show mac-address-table command to examine MAC address and port associations.1) Upon completion of this lab. and operating systems such as Windows have built-in Telnet clients. Cisco IOS devices provide a default Telnet server. Figure 9-3 shows the topology for this lab. and Table 9-10 is the corresponding addressing table. the Cisco device can be configured for a Telnet session.

R1-ISP.16.255.168.255.254 172.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation.0. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.255.252 255.1 172.255.253 10.16.10.2 172.253 — 172.24.255.16.0 255.com.255. .255.16.255.254 192.255.255. Step 2.5 172.254.252 255.10.0 255.16.168.254 172.255.Pod#.254. the lab topology may have been modified before this class.255. R2-Central.6 — 192.254 172.31.10. ping eagle-server.255. From a known good host computer.255.0.0 255. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1. Take corrective action on devices that fail the ping tests.0 255. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.16.1 255.6 192.10.254 172.0 — — 10. If the ping test fails.16. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity.255.255.Pod#.255.10.168.0.0 255. ping S1Central.0 255.254.example.250 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 9-3 Topology for Lab 9-2 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 9-10 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.10.254.0. and finally eagle-server.255.

10. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address. 172. Issue the show mac-address-table ? command. for host computers on pod 1.255.16. . To provide access to each student.255. Step 2.6.1 An access prompt is displayed. ******************************************************************* User Access Verification Username: ccna1 Password: cisco S1-Central# (*hidden*) Task 2: Use the Cisco IOS show mac-address-table Command to Examine MAC Addresses and Port Associations Step 1.254. issue the Telnet command telnet destination-ip-address: C:/> telnet 172. use user ID ccna1.10.Chapter 9: Ethernet 251 Step 3. Authorized access only. For example. Task 1: Use the Telnet Protocol to Log in to a Cisco Switch Step 1. shown in Table 9-10. similar to the one shown in Example 9-5.example. Unless directed otherwise by your instructor. Access the Windows terminal. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. From the Windows terminal.16.16. Finally. Open a Windows terminal by choosing Start > Run. the password is cisco. Enter cmd. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server. and that it can ping R1-ISP.com. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server. and click OK. This outputs all options for the command. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. 172. Example 9-5 Switch Access Prompt ******************************************************************* This is Lab switch S1-Central.254.254. Use the Windows Telnet client to access S1-Central.10. ccna1 through ccna11. S1-Central has been configured with 11 student accounts. and that it can ping R2-Central. Use Table 9-11 to fill in a description for each command option. use the user ID corresponding to your pod. Examine the switch MAC address table.

Use Table 9-12 to list the MAC addresses and corresponding switch ports. or learned. Address keyword Aging-time keyword Count keyword Dynamic entry type Interface keyword Multicast information for the selected wildcard MAC notification parameters and history table Static entry type VLAN keyword Output modifiers Carriage return Examine dynamic MAC address table entries. entries. Issue the show mac-address-table command. This command displays static (CPU) and dynamic.252 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 9-11 Option Show Mac-Address-Table Command Options Description address aging-time count dynamic interface multicast notification static vlan | <cr> Step 2. Table 9-12 MAC Addresses and Ports Switch Port MAC Address Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Suppose that a hub with five active hosts is connected to switch port gi0/0. How many MAC addresses are listed for switch port gi0/0? 5 .

Remember. Task 4: Reflection Using the Telnet protocol. that MAC address entries are stored. network engineers can access Cisco devices remotely across secure LANs.2. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Examine the origination of frames in a small network.Chapter 9: Ethernet 253 Step 3. however. in seconds. If a match occurs in the MAC address table. This command displays the default amount of time. Examine MAC address table aging time. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. the switch would have to flood the frame out each port. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Use Wireshark to capture and analyze frames originating from network nodes. Issue the show mac-address-table aging-time command.1) Upon completion of this lab. A switch contains a MAC address table that lists the MAC address connected to each switch port.3. turn off power to the host computers.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab9822. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9. the frame is routed out the corresponding port. the switch performs a lookup of the frame destination MAC address.8. This has the benefit of permitting access to remote devices for troubleshooting and monitoring purposes. . and leave the room ready for the next class. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Lab 9-3: Intermediary Device as an End Device (9. When a frame enters the switch. What is the default aging time for VLAN 1? 300 Task 3: Challenge What would be the result if the MAC address table were flushed of dynamic entries? The switch would broadcast frames out each port except the originating port until the switch learned all the MAC addresses connected to the switch.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Copy and paste data captured by Wireshark into Notepad for further analysis. Without a MAC address table.8.

5 172.255.Pod#. Scenario You will use Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet frames.254.255.10.0.255.1 255.254 172.24.0.255.2 172. and Table 9-13 is the corresponding addressing table.0 255.253 — 172.254 172.254.16. Rather. A switch normally does not originate frames to node devices.254 172.255.252 255.0.Pod#.0 — — 10.168.4.16.255.31.255.6 — 192. In this lab.10. however.255.255. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer.255.252 255.16.0.0 255.253 10. Figure 9-4 Topology for Lab 9-3 R1-ISP S0/0/0 DCE Eagle Server S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24 S1-Central R2-Central 1A 1B 11A 11B Pod#1 Pod#11 Table 9-13 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP S0/0/0 Fa0/0 10.255.254 R2-Central S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Eagle Server — — Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central — — — . you can download it from ftp://eagleserver.0 255.0 255.254.exe.255. you will see the switch originating frames.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter9/.0 255.255.255.0 255.255. because you will use Telnet to directly access the switch.255.255.168.1 172.16. Figure 9-4 shows the topology for this lab.168.99.16.254 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Background A switch is used to forward frames between network devices. The file is wireshark-setup-0.16.254.254 172.10.6 192.16.10.10.254 192. a switch efficiently passes frames from one device to another in a LAN.example.255.10.

254. In addition to several static CPU entries.16. however. 172. Configure Wireshark for packet capture. R2-Central. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server. troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity: Step 1. Examine the switch MAC address table with the show mac-address-table command. For example. issue the Telnet command telnet 172. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. Step 2. Enter enable to enter privileged mode. Use Table 9-14 to list the dynamic MAC address entries. Finally.16. If the ping test fails. The critical Telnet conversation between the pod host computer and S1-Central will be easy to filter. check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central.10. Choose Capture > Options.example. and finally eagle-server. and that it can ping R2-Central.com. Examine and clear the MAC address table. the lab topology may have been modified before this class. cisco. During this capture there will probably be more than 200 packets. Step 3. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. 10. R1-ISP. Use the Windows Telnet client to access S1-Central. ping S1Central. ping eagle-server. This begins the packet capture. Select the interface that corresponds to the LAN.255. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address.com. To provide access to each student. From a known good host computer. Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. should be returned. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address. for host computers on pod 1. and that it can ping R1-ISP. Check the box to update the list of packets in real time. S1-Central has been configured with 11 student accounts. shown in Table 9-13.1. In this lab you will ping a neighbor’s pod host computer. 172.16.254. Enter the appropriate username and password. verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server. The S1-Central prompt. From the Windows terminal.255. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server. use the user ID corresponding to your pod. Step 2. making analysis a bit tedious. Unless directed otherwise by your instructor.example. Step 3. numerous dynamic address table entries should be listed.254.6. Click Start. the password is cisco.Chapter 9: Ethernet 255 Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation. use user ID ccna1. Write down the IP address and port connection on S1-Central for the neighbor’s pod host computer: ■ ■ IP address: Answers will vary S1-Central port number: Answers will vary Task 1: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Frames Originating from Network Nodes Step 1.10. ccna1 through ccna11. . S1-Central#.

issue the Cisco IOS interface configuration command no keepalive. You will analyze the capture in the next task. examine the Telnet session to S1-Central. Open a second terminal window.256 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 9-14 Dynamic MAC Address Entries Switch Port MAC Address Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary To clear dynamic MAC address table entries. If the username and passwords are not visible. To prove this to students. Stop the Wireshark capture. Table 9-15 Dynamic MAC Address Entries Switch Port MAC Address Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary What conclusion can you make about how a switch learns MAC addresses connected to switch interfaces? A switch does not learn about connected devices until traffic originates from the device. choose Analyze > Follow TCP Stream. using ASCII as the default display. You can use the show mac-address-table command again to verify that the address is added. Use Table 9-15 to list the dynamic MAC address entries. R2-Router. From Wireshark. In Wireshark. This stops the 10-second Ethernet heartbeat. may be read within 10 seconds after flushing the MAC address table. This is normal. Ping your neighbor’s IP address. Highlight one of the Telnet session packets. Task 2: Examine the Origination of Frames in a Small Network Step 1. because R2-Router sends Ethernet keepalive frames every 10 seconds. Note to Instructor: Fa 0/24. . switch to HEX Dump. A stream content window opens. which was recorded earlier: C:>\ ping -n 1 ip-address The MAC address for your neighbor’s computer should be dynamically added in the S1Central MAC address table. use the clear mac-address-table dynamic command. on R2-Router interface Fa 0/0. You can use the show mac-address-table command again to verify that the dynamic entries have been cleared.

Right-click telnet and choose Copy Bytes (Printable Text Only).cccd 0100. Example 9-6 MAC Address Table Before the Ping Mac Address Table {_lEMaNL.015f Type ———— STATIC STATIC STATIC STATIC DYNAMIC Ports ——CPU CPU CPU CPU Fa0/1 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 5 S1-Central# In Table 9-16. scroll down to the captured ICMP request that was generated when you pinged.f79f. Figure 9-5 shows partial output of a Wireshark capture.Chapter 9: Ethernet 257 Verify the username and password that you entered: ■ ■ Username: Answers will vary Password: cisco Close the stream content window. You should see a dynamic mapping for your own computer similar to the output shown in Example 9-6. Does the switch port correspond to your pod host computer? Yes . Examine output of the show mac-address-table command. click the Filter button at the top-left corner of the screen and remove the filter string. Open Notepad.6cc0 0100.dddd 0010. write down the dynamic MAC address and port number displayed in the output. Figure 9-5 Wireshark Capture of Telnet Select the last Telnet data packet from S1-Central before the ping command.0ccc.0ccc.0cdd. To remove any display filters. In Notepad. choose Edit > Paste to copy and paste the Telnet data into Notepad.cccc 0100. View the packet in the Packet Details window pane.RPC —————————————————————Vlan —— All All All All 1 Mac Address —————000f. In the top Wireshark Packet List pane.a47b. Step 2. You will copy and paste data into Notepad for analysis.

0ccc. Next. view the packet in the Packet Details window pane. Select the last Telnet data packet following the ping reply.258 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 9-16 Dynamic MAC Address Entry Type Port MAC Address Answers will vary Dynamic Answers will vary Why is your pod host computer mapping still in the MAC address table. In Notepad.a76a Type ———— STATIC STATIC STATIC STATIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC Ports ——CPU CPU CPU CPU Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 6 S1-Central# In Table 9-17. choose Edit > Paste to copy and paste the Telnet data into Notepad. Does the switch port correspond to your neighbor’s pod host computer? Yes Table 9-17 Dynamic MAC Address Entry Type Port MAC Address Answers will vary Dynamic Answers will vary Task 3: Reflection The Wireshark capture of a Telnet session between a pod host computer and S1-Central was analyzed to show how a switch dynamically learns about nodes directly connected to it.cccc 0100.0cdd.6cc0 0100.VP —————————————————————Vlan —— All All All All 1 1 Mac Address —————000f. despite having been cleared? This is the connection for the pod host computer that is telnetted into S1-Central. The text should be similar to Example 9-7. .76ac.dddd 0010.f79f.015f 0016. Example 9-7 MAC Address Table After the Ping Mac Address Table {_lEPaNM.0ccc. Right-click TELNET and choose Copy Bytes (Printable Text Only).cccd 0100.a47b. write down the MAC address and port number for the second dynamic entry displayed in the output.

If Wireshark needs to be uninstalled. Repair Ethernet-related network issues. Click Add or Remove Programs. For example. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Test the network. any clear-text password can be viewed and used by an attacker.9. passwords of more than nine characters.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab9832. and leave the room ready for the next class. Choose Wireshark. Remember. one recommendation may be to require passphrases—that is.1. however. How secure is the Telnet protocol? What can be done to make communication with Cisco devices more secure? The Telnet protocol is very insecure and should never be used outside of secure networks. Background You have been asked to repair some problems in the network model related to the Ethernet LAN connected to R2-Central. and lively discussions should be encouraged.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. and Table 9-18 is the corresponding addressing table. and click Remove.3.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remove any files created on the pod host computer during the lab. choose Start > Control Panel. Emphasize that security should be employed in layers. Point out that because the TCP session may be captured. Student answers will vary on how to secure the communication channel.8. choose Analyze > Follow TCP Stream to view the login user ID and password. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Figure 9-6 shows the topology for this Skills Integration Challenge. and no one solution is a guarantee against compromise. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Determine IP subnet plans. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.3) Open file LSG01-PTSkills9.Chapter 9: Ethernet 259 Task 4: Challenge Use Wireshark to capture and analyze a Telnet session between the pod host computer and the Cisco switch. turn off power to the host computers. . From Wireshark. Task 5: Clean Up Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer. SSH is one way to encrypt communications between devices. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: An Intermediary Device as an End Device (9. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Switched Ethernet (9. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. Upon completion of this activity.

111.2 192.168.255.252 255. up to 100 hosts (Fa0/0 on R2-Central) Second subnet.168. point-to-point link (already configured) .111.255.128 255.255.134 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server NIC NIC NIC Task 1: IP Subnet Planning You have been given an IP address block of 192.255.126 192.168.138 192.134 192.126 192.255.111. existing ISP LAN.255.255.255.0/24.168.111.111.168.248 — — 192.255.111.133 255.111.111.168.168.111.255.255.128 255.111.168. The subnet assignments are as follows: ■ ■ ■ First subnet.168.111.168.255.138 192.168.137 192.128 255.111.255.260 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 9-6 Topology for the Challenge 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC 1A PC 1B Table 9-18 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192. existing WAN.111. up to five hosts (already configured) Third subnet.1 192. You must provide for the three existing networks.252 255.168.255. existing student LAN.168.138 192.126 192.248 255.

Remove the wireless card from PC 1B. TCP. DNS. and the Inspect tool to trace packet flow in simulation mode. ■ ■ ■ Task 2: Repair Problems with the Ethernet Switched LAN PC 1B has a wireless card and cannot be connected to the switch.168. For hosts 1A and 1B. R1-ISP. with HTTP. web traffic. For all devices. trace. Task 4: Reflection The two Layer 2 and Layer 1 technologies in this model are a serial connection (between the routers) and the Ethernet LANs (for the ISP server and with the S1-Central switch). Connect PC 1A to the Fa0/1 interface on the switch. Assign the highest usable subnet address to the gateway and the two lowest usable addresses to the PCs. Set all Ethernet interfaces to autonegotiate speed and duplex (which will achieve full-duplex 100-Mbps operation if both ends of the link can support it). In a future course you will learn much more about switched Ethernet technologies. These procedures were explained in the Chapter 5 and 6 Skills Integration Challenges. UDP. and the PC 1A interfaces are incorrect. The next-hop router (to which the default route should point). Connect this newly installed Fast Ethernet NIC to the Fa0/2 interface on the switch.111. Connect the Fa0/24 interface on the switch to the R2-Central Fa0/0 interface. use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet. Task 3: Test the Network Use ping. the S1-Central switch interfaces (Fa0/1. . Fa0/2. has an IP address of 192. Compare and contrast the serial connection with Ethernet.138 /30. R1-ISP. ICMP. Apparently the Ethernet speed and duplex settings for the R2-Central Fa0/0 interface. to test your understanding of how the network is operating.111. Add the Fast Ethernet Interface card PT-HOST-NM-1CFE to PC 1B. the DNS server is 192. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points to R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address.168. For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface. Add IP addresses to the router Fa0/0 interface and to the two PCs. and R2-Central’s serial interface have already been configured. and Fa0/24).133 /29. For hosts 1A and 1B. and ARP viewable. make sure that the power is on to the device and to the interfaces (make sure that the Ethernet interfaces are not shut down).Chapter 9: Ethernet 261 Interface IP addresses: ■ ■ The server.

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and capabilities. you need to be familiar with the different device selection factors. devices will need to be selected that go beyond the current need of the LAN in terms of number of ports. Concept Questions 1. Growth consists of more user devices. Switches are more expensive than hubs but use bandwidth more efficiently. whereas a switch is a Layer 2 device. and switches are common network devices. and manageability. hubs. supported speeds. Routers. 2. . this up-front investment might save money. expandability. more capabilities. matching. It is essential that you have knowledge of the different media types and the distinct roles they play with the devices that they connect. As a networking professional. though. A hub is a Layer 1 device. Study Guide LANs: Making the Physical Connection A networking professional needs to know how to select and interconnect the proper devices for a network. That affects the cost calculation because the costs will seem high compared to the current network needs. Switches are Layer 2 devices. To allow for growth. Hubs do not segment networks. Each switch port is its own collision domain. They filter frames. types. Compare and contrast the function of hubs and switches. In this chapter. As you work through this chapter. more speed. Explain the advantage of one device over the other. Devices need to have empty slots that allow the addition of modules that have more capabilities or that support new technologies. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical. Be as detailed as possible. and speeds of different ports and interfaces. hands-on skills needed. Hubs do not filter frames. fill-in-the-blank. They flood all the frames they receive on one port out all other ports. use Chapter 10 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 10 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance.CHAPTER 10 Planning and Cabling Networks The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice. The design of an IP addressing scheme is presented and then practiced with the help of concept questions and the hands-on labs. Hubs should be used in small LANs. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of planning and cabling networks. Explain how adaptability to new technologies can be taken into consideration when selecting devices for a LAN. Hubs are less expensive and less efficient than switches. In the long run. How does this affect the cost calculations? When selecting devices for a LAN it is important to allow for future growth. including cost. Switches segment networks into multiple collision domains. They also allow for the interconnection of segments with different speeds. and also new technology. All of the ports of a hub are part of one collision domain. you identify the cables needed to make successful LAN and WAN connections and learn how to use device management connections.

Switches regenerate each bit of the frames they receive. 2. d. Concept Questions 1. By using a special cable type to connect to the devices on its ports. By using high-speed fiber-optic media c. The computer and the router both have Medium Dependent Interface (MDI) connections with pins 1 and 2 for transmitting and pins 3 and 6 for receiving. How can redundancy be provided in a switched network? a. By delpoying gigabit switches only 2. 1. A swich is used to segment a network into multiple collision domains. How do switches create collision domains? port. By providing multiple interconnections between a number of switches d. A switch provides dedicated bandwidth on each port. 3. there are several physical areas to consider. they remain in a single collision domain. By deploying one central switch with a high port density b. Even though hubs can be interconnected. The transmit wires of the cables will be connected to the transmit pins on the router and the computer. The straight-through cable will connect with its pins 1 and 2 to pins 1 and 2 of the computer.264 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answer for each of the following questions. Each switch port creates a point-to-point dedicated connection to the devices connected to that b. A network administrator needs to be familiar with the different standards that define devices and cabling in these areas. Each area has its unique requirements and standards. Device Interconnections When planning the installation of LAN cabling. a. 1. and no data transfer will be possible. . Explain what will happen when you use a straight-through cable to connect your computer to the Fast Ethernet interface of a router. c. By allowing the interconnection of segments with different speeds. Pins 3 and 6 of both devices will be connected in the same way. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements. which can increase LAN performance.

switches. patch cables. one router will act as the DCE and uses a DCE cable. UTP cabling uses RJ-45 connectors. A router is considered a DTE device. Main components are jacks to connect individual devices to the network. routers. configuring. patch cables. 3. Data Circuit-Terminal Equipment (DTE) is a device that receives clocking services from another device and adjusts accordingly. cabling to access outside resources. 5. Answers may vary. Developing an Addressing Scheme Developing an IP addressing scheme is one of the most important tasks that you will have to perform as a network professional. 3. Attenuation is the decrease in signal strength along an electrical or optical cable. 4. The routers are connected back to back. this device is at the WAN customer or user end of the link. Therefore. It is extremely important that you understand IP addressing. this device is at the WAN access provider end of the link. patch panels. List these four areas and their main components. hubs. high-bandwidth cabling that connects the telecommunications room with the work area. and other communications devices. and troubleshooting networks.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 265 2. sometimes servers Backbone cabling: Cabling that connects the telecommunications room to the equipment room Distribution/horizontal cabling: Typically. . Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements that discuss features and issues related to different types of media. including computers and radio equipment. This is where the users access the network. Typically. In the lab setting. Interference can be produced by electrical machines. there is no service provider. This router will provide the clocking that is usually provided by the service provider’s equipment. and switches. This knowledge is vital in designing. Signal attenuation and exposure to possible interference increase with cable length. 1. lighting. data service units (DSU). Explain how the serial connection to a WAN service provider differs from the way the serial connections are set up for the curriculum labs. 2. The Data Communications Equipment (DCE) is a device that supplies the clocking services to another device. Work area: Work areas are dedicated to end devices. The ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B standard specifies the maximum cable length in UTP installations. Typically. or connects telecommunications rooms. Telecommunications room: hubs. There are four physical areas to consider when planning the installation of LAN cabling.

2. and server addresses. special users. 1. It is good practice to use IP addresses that fit a common pattern across all subnets. Each subnet requires a router interface as the gateway for that subnet. Broadcast address d. a. (2^n – 2) d. departments. 3. Network devices that require IP addresses for management purposes include switches and wireless access points. a. network resources. What devices do you need to consider when counting devices in your network that need IP addresses. What are some common categories that you can use to allocate IP addresses? Explain why you should use address schemes that fit a common pattern across your network. Network address c. Some common categories are general users. You need to consider end devices such as user computers. 2^n c. Which formula is used to calculate the number of hosts per network or subnet? Use n to represent the number of bits. Subnets divide broadcast domains into a number of smaller domains. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answer(s) for the following questions. 3. Network devices requiring an IP address for management purposes are switches and wireless access points.266 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. (n – 2) . Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks for the following statements dealing with IP addressing and subnetting. 2. 1. and IP cameras. router LAN and WAN interfaces. Gateway address 2. Which addresses cannot be assigned to hosts? Choose all that apply. and other end devices such as printers. servers. Why does each connection between routers count as a separate subnet if there are no hosts connected? The router interfaces on the link connecting the two routers need to have IP addresses. A systematic allocation of IP addresses makes troubleshooting and the addition of new hosts easier. (2^n – 1) b. You also need to consider network devices such as router LAN interfaces and router WAN (serial) interfaces. Management address b. management subnets. IP phones. administrator computers.

a. Smaller broadcast domains c.0 2. This way. and switches have several different types of interfaces associated with them. and other subnets that require more host addresses can use different bit masks. Which addressing method will allow you to design an IP addressing scheme without wasting any host addresses? How is the efficiency of this method achieved? The method that allows for the most efficient IP addressing design without wasting any addresses is called variable-length subnet masking (VLSM).16. routers. Network 3 needs to support 2 host addresses. If your network uses the address 172. The non-VLSM approach uses the same prefix length and the same number of host bits for each subnet. VLSM allows different subnet masks within one network. Device Interconnections Cisco devices. Variable-length subnet masking (VLSM) assigns the prefix and host bits to each network based on the number of hosts in that network.0. LAN and WAN interfaces require different cabling and configuration.252.0 and you need to create 64 subnets. can use a bit mask of 255. Implementation of different levels of security d.255. a serial link. You have the following network requirements: Network 1 needs to support 32 host addresses.252. Decreased costs b.255. Larger collision domains Calculating the Subnets Two different methods can be used for allocating addresses to an Internetwork. Network 4 needs to support 52 host addresses. What are advantages of dividing networks into subnets? Choose all that apply. what will be the subnet mask for your network? 255. Network 2 needs to support 64 host addresses. . It allows a subnet to be subnetted.255. It is important to understand the different types of interfaces and know the types of cable required to connect to the interfaces. which requires only two IP addresses. These interfaces are also referred to as ports. Network 5 needs to support 128 host addresses.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 267 3. Concept Questions 1.

Which interface is the primary interface for the initial configuration of a Cisco device such as a router or a switch? a. The Telnet interface c. a. To make a back-to-back connection between routers in the lab d. 1. The serial interface 3. Ethernet interface: This is the LAN interface of a router or a switch. Serial interface: This is the WAN interface. a. To connect the router to a terminal for configuration purposes b. To establish a WAN connection b. To connect to LAN devices such as computers and switches c. It provides physical access to the router for troubleshooting. To establish communication with a router via a console on a remote WAN c. To connect to other routers d. What can Ethernet interfaces be used for? Choose all that apply. What are serial interfaces used for? Choose all that apply. The console interface d. Auxiliary interface: This interface provides remote management for the router. It connects to LAN devices such as computers or switches.268 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Question List the four types of interfaces on Cisco routers and switches. WAN interfaces are used for connecting WAN devices to the CSU/DSU. They can also connect to other routers. Console interface: This is the primary interface for initial configuration of a Cisco device. Briefly describe the function of each of these interfaces. To connect to a terminating device such as a switch or a computer . Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answers(s) for the following questions dealing with interface types. A CSU/DSU is a device used to make the physical connection between data networks and WAN provider’s circuits. The Ethernet interface b. To connect the router to the DSU/CSU 2.

3.255. In this example. Figure 10-1 Topology Diagram A Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/0 B1 B2 How many networks are shown in Figure 10-1? 2 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 1 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 126 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.2.168. Assign addresses and subnet mask pairs to device interfaces.26. Scenario In this lab. Task 1: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram A Use the topology in Figure 10-1 to answer the questions that follow. You must determine the number of networks needed then design an appropriate addressing scheme.255.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 269 Labs and Activities Lab 10-1: How Many Networks? (10. Examine the use of the available network address space. Place the correct address and mask in the addressing table. Design an appropriate addressing scheme.2) Upon completion of this lab. You are only required to determine the number of subnets per topology example.0/24 to subnet and provide the IP addressing for the networks shown in the topology diagrams.1128 How many subnets are available for future use? 0 . the number of hosts is not important. you have been given the network address 192. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Determine the number of subnets.

270 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Record Subnet Information Fill in Table 10-1 with the subnet information. Table 10-1 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 192.127 192.26.255 Task 3: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram B Use the topology in Figure 10-2 to answer the questions that follow.168.168.255.26.254 192. Figure 10-2 Topology Diagram B Fa0/0 S0/0/1 HQ S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/0 B1 B2 How many networks are there? 4 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 2 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 30 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.26.26.168.192 How many subnets are available for future use? 0 .26.168.0 192.126 192.255.168.129 192.1 192.26.26.168.128 192.26.168.168.

26.26.26.168.168.126 192.168.26.26.129 192.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 271 Task 4: Record Subnet Information Fill in Table 10-2 with the subnet information.168.26.26.192 192.255.65 192.127 192.168.26. Use the subnet mask from Step 4.26.255 Task 5: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram C Use the topology in Figure 10-3 to answer the questions that follow.26. Table 10-2 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 2 3 192.168.190 192.26.1 192.26.168.168.63 192.64 192.168.168.168.193 192.254 192.255. Figure 10-3 Topology Diagram C S0/0/1 S0/0/0 B1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 HQ S0/1/0 S0/0/0 B2 S0/0/1 S0/1/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 B3 Fa0/0 How many networks are there? 6 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 3 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 30 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.168.128 192.26.26.0 192.168.224 How many subnets are available for future use? 2 .168.168.26.62 192.191 192.168.26.

168.32 192.168. Table 10-3 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 192.168.168.191 192.1 192.30 192.0 192.224 192.168.26.272 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 6: Record Subnet Information Fill in the Table 10-3 with the subnet information.222 192.26.26.255 Task 7: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram D Use the topology in Figure 10-4 to answer the questions that follow.168.26.223 192.26.254 192.168.26.168.168.31 192.26.168.158 192.168.168.129 192.26.26.26.63 192.26.26.26.168.128 192.168.33 192.26.26.126 192.26.26.168.190 192.168.168.127 192. Figure 10-4 Topology Diagram D Fa0/0 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/1 S0/1/1 B1 S0/0/1 HQ B2 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/0 B3 Fa0/0 B4 Fa0/0 Fa0/0 B5 .96 192.161 192.168.26.168.64 192.168.26.168.225 192.168.62 192.26.168.94 192.168.26.97 192.95 192.65 192.26.168.168.168.26.26.26.26.26.159 192.168.168.26.168.160 192.168.26.26.193 192.26.168.192 192.26.

26.239 192.15 192.26.168.191 192.111 192.161 192.26.168.208 192.168.168.168.168.168.26.80 192.94 192.127 192.33 192.168.26.142 192.168.26.168.240 192.168.168.81 192.26.26.168.223 192.26.168.168.26.26.26.26.168.17 192.168.168. Table 10-4 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address Subnet Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 192.26.26.128 192.26.207 192.26.14 192.168.168.241 192.168.255.95 192.26.168.168.168.190 192.168.26.168.26.168.168.0 192.168.168.168.32 192.168.79 192.255 Task 9: Reflection What information is needed when determining an appropriate addressing scheme for a network? When determining an appropriate addressing scheme for a network.26.30 192.174 192. .26.16 192.168.26.46 192.26.26.176 192.168.238 192.26.26.26.112 192.168.96 192.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 273 How many networks are there? 12 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 4 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 14 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.168.26.143 192.168.26.48 192.97 192.26.175 192.26.47 192.26.168.2222 192.145 192.26.168.129 192.209 192.63 192.26.126 192.168.26.168.26.26.168.1 192.26.168.26.26.160 192.168.224 192.168.168.26.26.168.192 192.26.168. you need the number of networks and hosts.168.144 192.31 192.26.225 192.26.26.26.158 192.26.110 192.168.168.240 How many subnets are available for future use? 4 Task 8: Record Subnet Information Fill in Table 10-4 with the subnet information.168.168.159 192.168.168.26.168.168.168.168.26.26.168.113 192.26.26.26.78 192.26.168.254 192.26.26.255.168.26.26.26.62 192.168.177 192.193 192.65 192.206 192.168.64 192.26.26.26.49 192.

Subnet zero will be used. Verify LAN connectivity. as shown in Figure 10-5.274 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 10-2: Creating a Small Lab Topology (10.1. Configure the logical LAN topology. Gather the necessary equipment and cables. you create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity. Background Table 10-5 shows the equipment and hardware requirements for this lab. Table 10-5 Hardware Equipment and Hardware for Lab Quantity Description Cisco Router Cisco Switch Computer (host) Cat5 better straight-through UTP cable Cat5 crossover UTP cable Scenario 1 1 3 3 1 Part of CCNA Lab bundle Part of CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects Router 1 and computers Host1 and Host2 to Switch1 Connects computer Host1 to Router1 In this lab. Subnet A and Subnet B are subnets that are currently needed. Figure 10-5 Topology for Lab 10-2 Subnet A Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Subnet B Fa0/1 1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 Subnet C Subnet D 2 3 Note: The CD-ROM accompanying this book contains a subnet chart for the last IP address octet. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Design the logical network. not yet connected to the network. Subnet C and Subnet D are anticipated subnets. Configure the physical lab topology.1) Upon completion of this lab. .6.

0. Authorized access only.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 275 Note to instructor: In Chapter 11 labs.255.20. The following example contains a basic configuration for Router 1. students will learn how to configure a router. ******************************************************************* % ! .20. For this lab.248 172.255. the router should be configured for students. consider configuring a loopback interface as an alternative to the FastEthernet 0/1. If you do not have a router that has two Fast Ethernet interfaces.0.198 255.202 255.252 This is Eagle 1 lab router Router1.255.255. Example Router 1 Configuration Router1 configuration ! service timestamps debug uptime service timestamps log uptime no service password-encryption ! no ip domain-lookup ! hostname Router1 ! enable secret cisco ! ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description connection to Host1 ip address no shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description connection LAN ip address no shutdown ! ip classless ip http server ! banner motd % ******************************************************************* 172. Another alternative is to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the Fast Ethernet interfaces from each router.

Design Subnet D address block.255. and pick the first address block that will support Subnet D.0.20.128 What is the bit mask? 172. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM.20.0/24 (address / mask). Router interfaces will use the last available IP address in the address block.0. design an IP addressing scheme that satisfies the requirements listed in Table 10-6. Begin the logical network design by satisfying the requirement of Subnet D.1 172.0.276 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide line con 0 password cisco ! line con 0 password cisco login line aux 0 line vty 0 4 password cisco login ! end Task 1: Design the Logical Network Given an IP address and mask of 172.0. which requires the largest block of IP addresses.1111111. Fill in Table 10-7 with IP address information for Subnet D. Step 1.20.127 11111111. Table 10-6 Subnet Subnet Requirements Number of Hosts Subnet A Subnet B Subnet C Subnet D 2 6 47 125 Host computers from each subnet will use the first available IP address in the address block. Table 10-7 Subnet D IP Address Information Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast Network Address 172.255.20.20.0 255.11111111.10000000 .1 172.0.

Table 10-8 Subnet C IP address information Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast Network Address 172.20.193 172.198 172.20.255. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM.248 172.20. Design Subnet B address block.20.0. and pick the next available address block that will support Subnet C.128 255. and pick the next available address block that will support Subnet A.0.202 172.252 172.20.11111111.0. Design Subnet D address block.203 What is the bit mask? 11111111. and pick the next available address block that will support Subnet B. Table 10-9 Subnet B IP Address Information Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast Network Address 172.20.11111111. Satisfy the requirement of Subnet A.0.11111100 .0.190 172. Table 10-10 Subnet A IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172.20.129 172.255. Fill in Table 10-9 with IP address information for Subnet B.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 277 Step 2.192 255. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM. the next largest IP address block.192 172. Satisfy the requirement of Subnet B.20.20. Fill in Table 10-10 with IP address information for Subnet A. Design Subnet A address block. Satisfy the requirement for Subnet C.0.0.0.11111111.255.20.200 255. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM.191 What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.1111111.199 What is the bit mask? 11111111.0. the next largest address block.0.0.255.0.255.255. Fill in Table 10-8 with IP address information for Subnet C.20.11111111.20.11000000 Step 3.201 172.11111000 Step 4.

.201 255.20. enter addressing information for Host 2. Table 10-11 Host 1 Address Type Address IP address IP mask Gateway address 172.255. and like devices require a crossover cable.255. and Router 1 to Switch 1. Host 2.252 172. Confirm that the power is applied to the connected device. What type of cable connects Router1 interface Fa0/0 to Host 1? Crossover cable What type of cable connects Router 1 interface Fa0/1 to Switch 1? Straight-through cable What type of cable connects Host 2 to Switch 1? Straight-through cable What type of cable connects Host 3 to Switch 1? Straight-through cable Is all equipment turned on? Yes Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Step 1. Cable the network devices as shown in Figure 10-5. Therefore. and the correct cable is functional. turn power on to all devices. enter the information for Host 1. The host computer gateway IP address is used to send IP packets to other networks.20. Document logical network settings. Step 2. In Table 10-11. straight-through cables are required.278 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology Step 1. What cable type is needed to connect Host 1 to Router 1. Visually inspect network connections.0. and why? The switch ports are dissimilar to the router and computer network interfaces. write down the IP address information for each computer in the tables that follow.202 In Table 10-12. After cabling the network devices. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot network connectivity issues later. Ensure that all switch connections show green. Therefore. Physically connect devices. the gateway address is the IP address assigned to the router interface for that subnet. Any switch connection that does not transition from amber to green should be investigated. the correct cable is used. If not already enabled. take a moment to verify the connections.0. and why? Both devices have similar network interfaces. What cable type is needed to connect Host 1. From the IP address information recorded in Task 1.

172.248 172.20.0. Right-click the Local Area Connection device icon and choose Properties. enter addressing information for Host 3.0.255. Figure 10-6 shows Host 1 IP address and gateway settings.0.0.20.255.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 279 Table 10-12 Host 2 Address Type Address IP address IP mask Gateway address 172. On Host 1. recorded in the preceding Step 1: ■ ■ ■ IP address: Host1 IP address Subnet mask: Host1 subnet mask Default gateway: Gateway IP address Figure 10-6 Host 1 IP Addressing and Gateway Settings .198 In Table 10-13.20.193 255.255.255. On the General tab.198 Configure the Host 1 computer. and then click the Properties button. Table 10-13 Host 3 Address Type Address IP address IP mask Gateway address Step 2. select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). click Start > Control Panel > Network Connections.20.248 172.194 255. Manually enter the following information.

193 172.20. Step 3.201 172.20.193 172. Fa0/1) Router1. it might be a gateway issue. Otherwise.0. When troubleshooting connectivity issues.0. Type cmd.20. connectivity will be broken between LANs.20.0.202 172.198 172. and then press Enter. .20. In this scenario. Fa0/0) Router 1.0.194 172. Switch 1 should have a default configuration.198 172.0. using the IP address information for those computers. Use Table 10-14 to methodically verify and record connectivity with each network device.280 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide When finished.0.20. the computer might require a reboot for changes to be effective. close the Internet Protocols (TCP/IP) Properties window by clicking OK. Fa0/0 Host 1 Host 2 Gateway (Router 1. Configure Host 2 and Host 3 computers. Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Verify with your instructor that Router 1 has been configured.202 172. disable the firewall (for your ping tests to work). Table 10-14 Network Connectivity Test Results From To IP Address Ping Results Host 1 Host 1 Host 1 Host 1 Host 2 Host 2 Host 2 Host 2 Host 3 Host 3 Host 3 Host 3 Gateway (Router 1.0. the topology diagram shown in Figure 10-5 can prove extremely helpful.202 172.20.0.0.0.20. how can you detect a malfunctioning gateway? If Host 2 and Host 3 can successfully ping each other but not Host 1. Try to disable and then reenable the network interface card (NIC) by right-clicking the NIC in the Local Area Connection Properties window.0.0.198 172. Remember that the default gateway address on the computers is the IP address of the Fast Ethernet interface of the router that the computers connect to via the switch. Depending on the Windows operating system.20. Fa0/1 Host 2 Host 3 Host 3 Gateway (Router 1. Repeat Step 2 for computers Host 2 and Host 3. Open a terminal window by clicking Start > Run. Fa0/1) Router 1.20. Network connectivity can be verified with the Windows ping command.201 Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Note any break in connectivity. Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails. If your computer’s operating system is Windows XP SP2. Close the Local Area Connection window.20.20. Fa0/0 Host 1 172.194 172.

To fix the problems. Look for green link lights on Switch 1. Check the default gateways on the hosts. continue troubleshooting. you configured host computers with network addresses and tested them for connectivity. and then turn off power to the host computers. Task 6: Challenge Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room. restore host computer network connectivity. . Hosts cannot ping the router.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab10612.6. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. This is a particularly important lab. Hosts 1 and 2 cannot ping Host 3. A summary of the instructions is provided within the Packet Tracer activity. Step 1. Write down your proposed solution(s). and leave the room ready for the next class. Test your solution. Be sure that you have a thorough understanding of the procedures used to verify network connectivity. Problems can be either physical (wrong UTP cable) or logical (wrong IP address or gateway). It is best to practice host computer configuration and verification several times. In addition to practicing IP subnetting. Answers may vary. Carefully remove cables and return them neatly to their storage. Perform a good visual inspection. Step 4. This will reinforce the skills you learned in this lab and make you a better network technician. Check cabling. Check the IP address configuration. Task 7: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. If the solution did not fix the problem. document the solution. Use the table provided in Task 3 to identify failed connectivity. Answers may vary. List the problems. Step 3. Reconnect cables that were disconnected for this lab. If the solution fixed the problem. However.1. follow these steps: Note to instructors: A simple way to introduce problems is to switch the Fast Ethernet connections. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Creating a Small Topology (10.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 281 Task 5: Reflection Review any physical or logical configuration problems encountered during this lab. keep in mind that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Step 2.

Instructions for TeraTerm Web use are contained in the section “Lab 10-3 (Alternative): Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm” later in this chapter.2. 2600 routers. 2500. Configure HyperTerminal to establish a console session with a Cisco IOS router. 1600. 1700. or a combination. Using HyperTerminal is the most basic way to access a router for checking or changing its configuration. Possible routers include 800. Any router that meets the interface requirements may be used. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Connect a router and computer using a console cable. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router.1) Upon completion of this lab. Another popular serial communication utility is TeraTerm Web.282 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 10-3: Establishing a Console Session with HyperTerminal (10. A serial interface on a computer is connected to the Cisco device via a rollover cable. Scenario Set up a network similar to the one in Figure 10-7. Connect the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. Background HyperTerminal is a simple Windows-based terminal emulation program for serial communication that can be used to connect to the console port on Cisco IOS devices. Set up the basic physical connection. Figure 10-7 Establishing a Console Session with HyperTerminal Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable The following resources are required: ■ ■ ■ Computer with a serial interface and HyperTerminal loaded Cisco router Console (rollover) cable for connecting the workstation to the router Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Step 1. . Configure HyperTerminal to establish a console session with a Cisco IOS switch.6.

Figure 10-8 HyperTerminal Connection Description Window In the Connect To window shown in Figure 10-9. Figure 10-8 shows an example of the opening HyperTerminal configuration window. Figure 10-9 HyperTerminal Connection Type . Start the HyperTerminal application. enter a session name in the Name field. Note to instructors: On newer systems. Click OK. or leave the default. enable power to the computer and router. At the Connection Description window. Configure HyperTerminal. you might have to use an USB connection rather than the COM port. From the Windows taskbar. You need to fill in a number to be able to continue. the program prompts for an area code/phone number. If not already powered on. Select an appropriate icon. If you are accessing HyperTerminal for the first time. Task 2: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Router Step 1. in the Connect using field. Power on the devices.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 283 Step 2. Click OK. start the HyperTerminal program by clicking Start > All Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. COM 1. enter the appropriate connection type. Step 2.

Step 3. close the HyperTerminal session. There should be a response from the router. click Cancel. When asked whether to save the session. press the Enter key. troubleshoot as necessary. Select the saved session. Click File > Exit. For example. click Yes. Reconnect the HyperTerminal session. . 9600 8 None 1 None When the HyperTerminal session window comes up. If there is no connection. Step 1. If there is still no connection. Use this technique to reconnect the HyperTerminal session to a Cisco device without reconfiguring a new session. Check the connection to the correct COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the router. this indicates that connection has been successfully completed. This time. ask the instructor for assistance. verify that the router has power. Step 4. Reopen the HyperTerminal session as described in Task 2. and then click Open.284 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide In the COM 1 Properties box shown in Figure 10-10. Figure 10-10 HyperTerminal COM 1 Port Settings Table 10-15 HyperTerminal Port Settings Settings Value Bits per second Data bits Parity Stop bits Flow control Click OK. When finished. Click File > Open. change port settings to the values in Table 10-15. When finished. Close HyperTerminal. Enter a name for the session. when the Connection Description window opens. exit HyperTerminal.

in the Connect using field. Power on the devices. enter the appropriate connection type. At the opening HyperTerminal Connection Description window. COM 1. start the HyperTerminal program by clicking Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. Configure HyperTerminal. Set up the basic physical connection. 9600 8 None 1 None . Connect the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. you make a serial connection between the host computer and a Cisco IOS switch. In this task. Figure 10-11 Serial Connection Between a Host Computer and Cisco Switch 1 S1 Step 2. Start the HyperTerminal application. Select an appropriate icon. Click OK. change port settings to the values shown in Table 10-16. See Figure 10-11. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router. enter a session name in the Name field. Click OK. If not already powered on. From the Windows taskbar. In the COM 1 Properties window. enable power to the computer and switch.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 285 Task 3: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Switch Serial connections between Cisco IOS routers and switches are similar. Use the procedure described in Task 2. Table 10-16 Port Settings Settings Value Bits per second Data bits Parity Stop bits Flow control Click OK. Step 1. or leave the default. Step 2. Step 3. Step 4. In the Connect To window. to configure HyperTerminal.

click No. Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. turn off power to the host computer and router.286 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide When the HyperTerminal session window comes up. Step 5. close the HyperTerminal session. Remove the rollover cable. troubleshoot as necessary. verify that the switch has power. Check the connection to the correct COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the switch. ask the instructor for assistance. Click File > Exit. For example. When asked whether to save the session. You will only be able to connect to the router if you are using the proper settings. Compare the differences. Be sure to remember the correct HyperTerminal port settings. There should be a response from the switch. press the Enter key. When finished. Task 3: Reflection This lab provided information for establishing a console connection to a Cisco IOS router and switch. Task 4: Challenge Draw the pin connections for the rollover cable and straight-through cable. . and be able to identify the different cable types. Close HyperTerminal. this indicates that connection has been successfully completed. If there is still no connection. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. and leave the room ready for the next class. If there is no connection.

Figure 10-12 Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable The following resources are required: ■ ■ ■ Computer with a serial interface and TeraTerm Pro loaded Cisco router Console (rollover) cable for connecting the workstation to the router Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Step 1. Scenario Cable a network similar to Figure 10-12. Configure TeraTerm to establish a console session with the router. Enable power to the computer and router. Ensure that power is turned off on the computer and Cisco router. Set up the basic physical connection. Connect the other cable end to the PC with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. Note to instructor: TeraTerm is not available on the Eagle Server. . Any router that meets the interface requirements may be used. but it can be downloaded from the following http://www. or a combination. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router.com/teraterm/. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ Connect a router and computer using a console cable. 1600.ayera. Possible routers include 800. 1700. 2600 routers. Power on the devices. 2500. Background TeraTerm Web is another simple Windows-based terminal emulation program for serial communication that can be used to connect to the console port on Cisco IOS devices.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 287 Lab 10-3 (Alternative): Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm Upon completion of this lab. Step 2.

click Yes. Click OK. this indicates that the connection has been successfully completed. ttermpro. When finished. If there is no connection. Check the connection to the COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the router. Start TeraTerm Web application.288 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 2: Configure TeraTerm Web to Establish a Console Session with the Router Step 1. Remember that you must use the correct serial port configurations to connect to the Cisco device via Minicom. Select the appropriate serial COM port. Reopen the TeraTerm Web session as described in Task 2. Step 1. troubleshoot as necessary. Use this technique to reconnect the TeraTerm Web session to a Cisco device without reconfiguring a new session. start the TeraTerm Web program by opening the TeraTerm Web folder. Step 3. Enter a name for the session. Select the saved session. For example. press the Enter key. Step 2. ask the instructor for assistance. If there is still no connection. Step 4. Click File > Exit. Configure TeraTerm Web Click File > New Connection. Cisco switches are accessed in the same way. verify that the router has power. Reconnect the TeraTerm Web session. From the Windows taskbar. Figure 10-13 TeraTerm Web Connection Configuration Window When the TeraTerm Web session window comes up. and then click Open. Refer to Figure 10-13. Task 3: Reflection This lab provided information for establishing a console connection to a Cisco router. click Cancel. close the TeraTerm Web session. When asked whether to save the session. Close TeraTerm Web. and starting the TeraTerm Web application. . when the New Description window opens (see Figure 10-13). There should be a response from the router. Click File > Open. This time.

2. turn off power to the host computer and router. and leave the room ready for the next class.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. keep in mind that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. . Remove anything that was brought into the lab.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 289 Task 4: Challenge Draw the pin connections for the rollover cable and straight-through cable.2) You can now open the file LSG01-Lab10622. and be able to identify the different cable types. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Establishing a Console Session with PT Terminal (10. A summary of the instructions is provided within the Packet Tracer activity.6. However. Compare the differences. Remove the rollover cable.

. Scenario Set up a network similar to the one in Figure 10-14. Configure Minicom to establish a console session with the router. 2600 routers. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router. such as controlling a modem or accessing a Cisco router through the serial console connection. Ensure that power is turned off on the computer and Cisco router. similar to the Windows HyperTerminal program. Any router that meets the interface requirements may be used. 1600. 1700. Step 2. 2500. Background Minicom is a text-based UNIX terminal emulation program. Enable power to the computer and router. Set up the basic physical connection. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ Connect a router and computer using a console cable.3. Power on the devices.6.1) Upon completion of this lab.290 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 10-4: Establishing a Console Session with Minicom (10. The Linux or UNIX operating system is required. Connect the other cable end to the PC with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port. Perform basic commands. Minicom can be used for many purposes. or a combination. Possible routers include 800. Figure 10-14 Topology for Lab 10-4 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable The following resources are required: ■ ■ ■ Linux/UNIX computer with a serial interface and Minicom loaded Cisco router Console (rollover) cable for connecting the workstation to the router Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable Step 1.

select option Q) F G Hardware Flow Control Software Flow Control Toggle: No Toggle: No Return to the Configuration menu by pressing Enter or Esc. Figure 10-16 Serial Port Configuration Window Table 10-17 Serial Port Settings Option Field Value A Serial Device Dev/ttyS0 for COM 1 /dev/ttyS1 for COM 2 E Bps/Par/Bits Bps: 9600 Par: None Bits: 8 Stop bits: 1 (or. Press Enter. Table 10-17 shows the correct values. enter the minicom command with the –s option. root access is required. Start the Minicom application in configuration mode. to start Minicom. scroll down the configuration list and select Serial port setup. To configure the serial port. Use the letter by the field to change a setting.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 291 Task 2: Configure Minicom to Establish a Console Session with the Router Step 1. Configure Minicom for serial communications. . Note: To configure Minicom. From the Linux command prompt. Figure 10-15 shows the main configuration window. Figure 10-15 Main Configuration Window Figure 10-16 shows the serial port configuration window. This starts Minicom in configuration mode: [root]# minicom –s <ENTER> Step 2.

Figure 10-18 Minicom Command Summary Screen Task 4: Reflection This lab provided information for establishing a console connection to a Cisco router using Minicom. press <Ctrl> A. press the Enter key. Task 3: Perform Basic Commands Minicom is a text-based. this indicates that a connection has been successfully completed. Check the connection to the correct COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the router. use <Ctrl> A. Basic commands are not intuitive. users communicate with remote devices within the terminal window. . To get help. However. To quit Minicom. For example. menu-driven. Close Minicom. Select Exit from Minicom. Cisco switches are accessed in the same fashion. close the Minicom session. Figure 10-18 shows a list of functions and corresponding keys. If there is no connection. select Save setup as dfl (default file). followed by Z. Step 4. Restart the Minicom session. as follows: [root]# minicom <ENTER> When the session window starts. For example. troubleshoot as necessary. to control the utility. verify that the router has power. There should be a response from the router. When finished. followed by either Q or X. Figure 10-17 Serial Port Configuration Window Step 3.292 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide In the window shown in Figure 10-17. When Minicom is restarted. serial communication utility. the default values will be reloaded. press <Ctrl> A.

255.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 293 Task 5: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills and Integration Challenge: Planning and Cabling Networks (10.255.134 192.168.1.1.255.255.224 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 192.3) You can now open the file LSG01-PTSkills10. Background Table 10-18 shows the addressing for this lab.255.255.192 255. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.168.62 192. Plan the IP addresses.224 255.240 255.168.255. Remove the rollover cable.1.255.252 255. However.255.126 192.255. Test the network.252 255.94 R2 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 R3 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 PC1-A PC2-A PC3-A Eagle-Server NIC NIC NIC NIC .1.168.252 255.93 255.255.255.255.1.168.1. Configure router and PC interfaces.1.1.94 192.240 255.168.97 192.1.126 192.252 255.168. you will be able to do the following: ■ ■ ■ ■ Build the network topology. and leave the room ready for the next class.168. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.255.168. Table 10-18 Addressing Table Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 192.130 192.168. Upon completion of this lab.133 192.240 255.255.168.255.1 192.110 192.1.1.7.129 192.255.168.168.168.255.113 192.110 192.252 255.168.255.240 255.1.255.1.1.1.252 255.137 192.255.1. keep in mind that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.255.255.168.255.255.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.255.192 255.1.168.62 192. turn off power to the host computer and router.138 192.1.1.255.255.168.

planning. Table 10-21 LAN Hostname Interface Number of Hosts R1 R2 Fa0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 60 10 30 7 R3 Fa0/0 . assign the networks in decreasing order of number of hosts required for efficient use of address space. Table 10-19 Routers Hostname Interface Connects To Interfaces R1 R1 R1 R2 R2 R2 R3 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 (DCE) S0/0/1 (DCE) Fa0/0 S0/0/1 (DCE) Fa0/1 Fa0/0 SW-1 R2 R3 SW-2A R3 SW-2B SW-3 Fa0/1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 Fa0/1 S0/0/0 Fa0/1 Fa0/1 Table 10-20 shows the switch information.0 /24 address space. Seven total networks are required.1. Table 10-19 shows the router information. Device names and routing have already been configured. and configuration skills.168.294 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Practice your network building. Table 10-20 Switches Hostname Interface Connects To Interfaces SW-1 SW-2A SW-2B SW-3 Fa0/2 Fa0/2 Fa0/2) Fa0/2 PC-1A PC-1B Eagle-Server PC-1C FastEthernet FastEthernet FastEthernet FastEthernet Task 2: Create and Assign an Addressing Scheme You are asked to use the 192. Task 1: Build the Network Topology Use the following tables and the devices in the device pool to create the topology. Use Table 10-21 and Table 10-22 to create an effective addressing scheme.

■ ■ Task 3: Interface Configuration Perform interface configuration of the R1. the server will use the second to last host address in its subnet. and the R2–R3 link will use the third WAN subnet.Chapter 10: Planning and Cabling Networks 295 Table 10-22 WAN Hostname Address to be Assigned Number of Hosts R1–R3 R1–R3 R2–R3 R1–First host address R1–First host address R2–First host address 2 2 2 Use the following rules to assign IP addresses: ■ PCs will use the first host address in the subnet. All Fast Ethernet ports on a router will use the last host address of the assigned subnet. other PCs. Task 4: Testing Connectivity Make sure all PCs can ping their gateways. and the server. R2. the R1–R3 link will use the second WAN subnet. and R3 routers. and the server according to the preceding addressing scheme. R1 and R2 DCE interfaces should have clock rates of 56000. the PCs. The R1–R2 link will use the first WAN subnet. .

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Describe the different access methods for Cisco devices. Telnet and SSH provide remote access to the device and require network services. hands-on skills you need. security. Discuss when and why you would use a certain method. Concept Questions 1. addressing. Not all devices have an AUX port. use Chapter 11 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum. The console port provides a low-speed serial connection and is used mainly when network services are unavailable on the device—during initial configuration. For security reasons. It is important to configure the console port with a password and prevent physical access to the router by keeping it in a locked room. What security concerns do you need to consider for the different access methods? Answers will vary. The operating system on most Cisco devices is the Cisco IOS. When an AUX port is available. Understanding these functions and being able to access them is essential for network administrators and technicians. disaster recovery. such as routing and switching. just like the console port.CHAPTER 11 Configuring and Testing Your Network The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching. it is important to protect it with a password. multiple-choice. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical. and quality of service. or use the corresponding Chapter 11 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of configuring and testing networks. Study Guide Configuring Cisco Devices: IOS Basics Routers and switches need an operating system to function. fill-in-the-blank. for assistance. troubleshooting. As you work through this chapter. SSH is preferred over Telnet. and password recovery. The AUX port can be used to access the device either locally or through a dialup connection. . It provides a number of network services. Access through the AUX port does not require network services on the device. SSH uses more secure password authentication and encrypts the data for transport.

Describe the advantage of the hierarchical modal structure.298 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide 2. location. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching In Table 11-1. Answers may vary. 2. which is volatile memory. Therefore. and how they relate to each other. Switch> b. Because this file is in RAM. Interface configuration mode Cisco IOS Command Exercises Answer these questions based on the following command: Router#show ip interface brief 1. the startup configuration file stays intact when the device is powered off. Answers may vary. Router# c. Authentication can be configured for different modes. Each time a device is started or reloaded. After it is loaded into RAM. The running configuration file is lost when the device is powered down. the network administrator can grant different personnel different levels of access. Switch(config-if)# b. It is important to save changes that need to be permanent. these changes are not permanent unless they are written to the startup configuration file in NVRAM. The startup configuration file is stored in nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM). These changes are active immediately. The main advantage is the controlled access or security. What is the name of the command? show Does this command use arguments or keywords? Keywords . Global configuration mode a. A network technician might be allowed to look at configurations but not change them. 3. Router(config)# d. Table 11-1 Prompt IOS Configuration Modes IOS Configuration Mode a. the startup configuration file loads into RAM. For example. it becomes the running configuration file—the file that is used to operate the device. Privileged EXEC mode c. Compare and contrast the two main configuration files on Cisco devices in terms of function. Any configuration changes that are made to the device are written to the running configuration file. because this file is stored in RAM. User EXEC mode d. match the device prompt on the left with the correct IOS configuration mode on the right.

. and the IP addresses and descriptions on the interface. and flash. Where do the following commands get the information they display? Name the file if applicable and the storage location of this information. and IP addresses are needed to establish connectivity with other devices on the network. Passwords establish basic security at the local level. Hostnames are important for network documentation and remote access. ROM. The most important initial configuration parameters include hostnames. Because configuration files are critical. the network administrator needs to exercise proper file management by saving changes to the configuration and by backing up configuration files. passwords. NVRAM.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 299 3. Table 11-2 Key IOS Command-Line Help Function Tab Ctrl-R Ctrl-Z Up arrow Down arrow Ctrl-D Ctrl-C Ctrl-Shift-6 Backspace exit Autocomplete: completes the remainder of the command or keyword Redisplays a line Exits configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode Scrolls backwards through previously entered commands Scrolls forward through previously entered commands Deletes the character to the right of the cursor Aborts the current command and exits configuration mode Interrupts an IOS process such as ping or traceroute Deletes the character to the left of the cursor A command to move up one level in the configuration mode hierarchy Applying a Basic Configuration Using Cisco IOS All networking devices need a basic configuration to be functional. show version: IOS information in RAM show startup-config: Backup configuration file in NVRAM show running-config: Active configuration file in RAM show flash: Operating systems stored in flash Test Your Knowledge Use Table 11-2 to test your knowledge of the command-line interface (CLI) shortcuts and hot keys. Possible locations are RAM.

Enter interface configuration mode. Multiple-Choice Questions Choose the best possible answer(s) for the following questions dealing with interface configuration network testing. d. such as from an office. Therefore. This can prove helpful if somebody breaks into the system and a legal case arises. The administrator needs to have fast access to the desired files. and they need to be worded carefully. The administrator does not have the physical devices in front of him or her to make sure they are attached to the correct piece of equipment. There should always be backup copies of files to aid in disaster recovery. . b. It is good practice to advise against unauthorized access with the help of banners. 1. Router(config)# interface s0/1/0 d. Enter global configuration mode. because this lets you sort files by date if needed. Answers will vary. Router(config)# interface 0/1/0 b. c. help the administrator know what device he or she is connected to. Answers may vary. 2. a logical naming scheme that includes version control is critical. Backing up configuration files is part of good file management.) a. Therefore. Router(config)> interface s0/1/0 2. Router# interface s0 c.300 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Concept Questions 1. Explain how good management of configuration files can be implemented. Which of the following steps are required to configure an Ethernet interface? (Choose all that apply. The filename also needs to indicate the hostname of the device it belongs to. This means that the administrator connects to the networking devices via the network. Enable the interface. Explain why the hostname is an extremely important feature for networking devices. Briefly explain the purpose of banners. Hostnames. The directory structure needs to be logical and should be documented. Banners provide a method for declaring that only authorized personnel should have access to the devices. Which of the following interface commands allows you to enter interface configuration mode to configure a router’s interface? a. are managed remotely. Including dates in the naming convention can be helpful. and explain why they should contain some type of warning message. proper file management is very important. Answers will vary. Most networking devices. Network configuration files are extremely important on a production network. Filenaming conventions are extremely important. together with up-to-date documentation. Be specific in your answer. 3. such as routers and switches. Hostnames are a vital part of network management. They are visible to anyone who logs on to the system. Specify the interface address and subnet mask.

and 1 of the OSI model. Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Fill in the blanks in the following sentences.) a.): The ping timed out. Period (. One effective way to test network connectivity is to use the ping command. 2. Testing network connectivity is a very important task. Time to Live (TTL) defines the number of hops that the ping packet has remaining before it will be dropped. It is possible that a router along the path did not have a route to the destination and did not send an ICMP destination unreachable message. show interfaces c. It verifies the proper operation of the protocol stack from the network layer to the physical layer (and back) without putting a signal on the medium. Because the ping test tests all the layers of the TCP/IP model. Answers may vary.1 command can be used to test the local host IP configuration. The ping 127. show running-configuration d. . 1. Describe the following indicators. It is also possible that the ping was blocked by security measures. The output provided by the utilities and the show commands provides useful information for troubleshooting. Because it uses a protocol stack to perform connectivity testing.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 301 3. The output of which of the following commands shows the interface description? (Choose all that apply. The letter U: A router along the path did not have a route to the destination address and responded with an ICMP unreachable message. show IP interface brief b. Test Your Knowledge The ping utility yields useful indicators that can be used for troubleshooting. and Layer 3 connectivity has been established. Because it tests connectivity at Layers 3. show interface description 4. Exclamation mark (!): The ping completed successfully. Verifying Connectivity A network needs full connectivity to converge.0. Because it tests all the layers of the OSI model. A network administrator needs to be familiar with the different testing utilities such as ping and traceroute and the different show commands. 3. Concept Question Explain how the internal IP configuration on the local host can be tested. A connectivity problem has occurred along the path. b. 2. d. Why is the ping test also called testing the protocol stack? a.0. c. a switch needs a default gateway address defined to communicate with hosts outside the local network. Like other hosts.

which may be used in decision-making when evaluating suitable applications for wide-area network (WAN) deployment.3. Monitoring path latency provides some measure of administrative diligence. Some computers have this feature disabled through a firewall. Network engineers routinely rely on networks outside of local administration for connectivity to external networks. If you’re patient. Normally these devices are the ones that introduce network latency. Compute various statistics on the output of a ping capture. The destination server computer must return ICMP echo replies. and some private networks block transit ICMP echo datagrams.302 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Labs and Activities Lab 11-1: Network Latency Documentation with ping (11. Background To obtain realistic network latency statistics. otherwise. to capture a representative sample of typical network activity. You will also measure delay when the ICMP datagram size increases. You will perform statistical analysis of throughput delay with the assistance of a spreadsheet application such as Microsoft Excel.3) Upon completion of this lab. a sufficiently distant destination should be chosen. the network cloud represents all the network devices and cabling between the student computer and the destination server computer.4. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Use the ping command to document network latency. you can find a suitable destination. Figure 11-1 Topology for Lab 11-1 Server Computer Network Cloud Student Computer . You will note the latency value at the center of the ordered range of latency points (median) and identify the most frequently occurring delay (mode). The purpose of this lab is to measure and evaluate network latency over time. Measure delay effects from larger datagrams. You will summarize return delay times. Be sure to check with your instructor for any local security restrictions on using the ping command on the network. delay cannot be computed. Scenario In the topology diagram shown in Figure 11-1. For this experiment to be interesting. You will accomplish this by analyzing the return delay from a distant computer using the ping command. and during different periods of the day. by computing the average latency (mean). this lab must be performed on a live network. measured in milliseconds. Destinations on the same LAN or within a few hops may return an unrepresentative low latency.

use another destination. Verify connectivity between the student computer and the destination server computer. one test should be done in the early morning.com. Open a terminal window by choosing Start > Run. When you’re done. and then click OK. one around midday. and write down the name: Answers will vary. and retest. depending on the destination address. Enter cmd. To understand the delay effects from larger datagrams.93.5: Packets: Sent = 1. Task 1: Use the ping Command to Document Network Latency Step 1. depending on the destination server computer students choose. The ping command might fail or succeed.com Pinging www. . Three tests will be performed each day. Students might decide to ping google.93.191. Lost = 0 (0% loss) Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 304ms.com. Example 11-1 Ping Test C:\> ping -n 1 www.52] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 209.93. you will send and analyze increasingly larger ICMP datagrams. as shown in Example 11-1. Average = 304 ms Use the ping /? command to answer the following questions: What is the purpose of the -n option and argument 1? The -n option determines the number of echo requests to send. If packets were lost. The idea is to note and document latency differences that occur at different times of the day. Received = 1.52: bytes=32 time=304ms TTL=52 Ping statistics for 209. Maximum = 304ms . for example. Use the ping command to verify connectivity with the destination.com or yahoo. and one in the evening. Preferably. and write down the results: Packets sent: _____________ Packets received: _________ Packets lost: _____________ Answers will vary. What option and argument would change the default size to 100 bytes? ping IP Address -l 100 Decide on a destination server computer.191.yahoo-ht3. such as www.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 303 This lab requires five days of testing.191.yahoo. you will have 15 sets of data.akadns.net [209.yahoo. Attempt to ping a suitably distant destination. Note to Instructor: Answers will vary.

Figure 11-2 Excel Text Import Wizard Step 2. you should have a spreadsheet that looks similar to Figure 11-3. Choose Start > Programs > Accessories > Notepad. When you’re done. . The command syntax is ping [options] >day-sample#. Alternatively. Save the file using the name format day-sample#. manually fix the numbers. format the columns so that they are more readable.txt. where day is the day the test was performed (1 through 5) and sample# is the sample period (1 through 3). Note: The terminal remains blank until the command has finished. Compute the mean. When the input formatting is satisfactory. Step 1. Write down the command that sends 100 echo requests to the destination: ping -n 100 Use the ping command to send 100 echo requests to your destination.txt to the end of the ping command. start Microsoft Excel. Bring the text file into the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application. In Step 2. If it isn’t already open. Task 2: Compute Various Statistics on the Output of a ping Capture Step 1. Choose File > Open.304 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Step 2. In the Text Import wizard. shown in Figure 11-2. copy the replies into Notepad. Highlight the filename and click Open. When you’re finished. choose Fixed Width. After the spreadsheet has been opened. To format a text file for use within Excel. Perform a delay test.txt. click Finish. and mode delay values. follow the instructions to separate numeric values from text values. If the spreadsheet has numbers in different fields. you can redirect output to a file by appending >day-sample#. median. ensure that all numeric values are separated from text characters. Click Browse to move to the directory that holds the text file.

Dropped packets have a consistently large delay value. Figure 11-4 Ordering on the Delay Column . If a header row was highlighted. In Figure 11-4 it is Column G. You do this by choosing Data > Sort. click the Header row radio button. Finally. Highlight all the data fields. Select the column that contains the Delay values. When you’re finished. click OK.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 305 Figure 11-3 Partial Spreadsheet Record the number of dropped packets in the column Dropped Packets. the delay values must be ordered (sorted) when computing the median and mode values. Figure 11-4 shows a partial spreadsheet highlighted and the Data dialog box opened.

1) would generate the sequence (5 4 3 2 1).1. The formula used to compute the median delay. >>. and (5.end) DO command [command-parameters] The set is a sequence of numbers from start to end. Perform a quick visual inspection to verify that your mode value is the most frequently occurring value in the data range. You will create a spreadsheet with the reply results. overwrites the file each time the ping command is executed.2000) DO ping -n 1 -l %i destination >> variablesizedelay. as well as a chart that plots size versus delay. and save the file using the name variablesizedelay. FOR /L %i IN (100. You may either save or discard the new spreadsheet file.306 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The formula used to compute the mean. but you should retain the data text file. In the following command. The syntax is FOR /L %variable IN (start. Perform a quick visual inspection to verify that your median value is similar to what is shown midway in the data range.100. the formula in cell G104 would be =mode(G2:G101). use the redirect append operator.100. Perform a quick visual inspection to verify that your mean value is approximately the value shown.–1. Step 1. as shown in the following command. So (1. Record this number in your chart in the Mean column. For this spreadsheet. and only the last reply is saved.2000) DO ping -n 1 -l %i destination Copy the output into Notepad. destination is the destination. For the median value. Task 3: Measure Delay Effects from Larger Datagrams To determine if larger datagrams affect delay. this would equate to the formula in cell G102: =average(G2:G101). 20 datagrams will be incremented by 100 bytes per ping request.txt Note: The terminal remains blank until the command has finished. the formula in cell G103 would be =median(G2:G101). by step amount. Issue this command: FOR /L %i IN (100. you will send increasingly larger ICMP echo requests to the destination. To redirect output to a file. The formula used to compute the modal delay. or the delay value in the center of the ordered range. In this analysis. Record this number in your chart in the Median column. The normal redirect operator. >.5) would generate the sequence 1 2 3 4 5.step. . All 20 replies are arranged similarly. or average. The output of one line is shown in Example 11-2. is also similar. or the delay value that occurs the most frequently. For the mode value. The easiest way to accomplish this task is to use the Windows built-in FOR loop command. is similar to the average formula. Perform a variable-sized delay test. delay is the sum of the delays divided by the number of measurements. Record this number in your chart in the Mode column.txt.

The chart shown in Figure 11-7 is a stacked line chart. Average = 383ms Step 2. Step 4.akadns.yahoo-ht3. Bring the text file into the Excel spreadsheet application. and submit them to your instructor with the final delay analysis. Lost = 0 (0% loss).2000) DO ping -n 1 -l %i www.93. Format the spreadsheet.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 307 Example 11-2 Variable-Size Delay Test C:\> FOR /L %i IN (100. Create a chart of the data.93. Maximum = 383ms. Open the new text file in Excel.net [209. but there is room for individual creativity. Highlight the Delay column data and choose Insert > Chart. as shown in Figure 11-5.com >>variablesizedelay.52: bytes=100 time=383ms TTL=52 Ping statistics for 209.52: Packets: Sent = 1. Step 3.txt C:\> ping -n 1 -l 100 Pinging www. When larger datagrams are sent.52] with 100 bytes of data: Reply from 209. When you’re finished.191. Can you make any assumptions about delay when larger datagrams are sent across a network? Answers may vary. the spreadsheet should look similar to Figure 11-6. Received = 1. Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 383ms. save your spreadsheet and chart. .100. a delay might occur. Bytes and Delay. A number of charts can be used to display delay data.yahoo.93. depending on available bandwidth and other traffic on the network.191. When you’re finished. Figure 11-5 Excel Text Import Wizard The difference between this file and the previous one is that the variable-size file has much more information than is really needed. A chart should be clear.191. Clean up and organize the spreadsheet data into two columns.

Also. When the source originates from external networks not under the control of the organization. For example. If that does not work. valuable bandwidth is diverted from critical business applications. when delay is less. and network delay spikes. In this case. If delays are caused by events within the organization. When these file-sharing applications are active. many users subscribe to peer-to-peer applications such as Kazaa and Napster. Careful delay analysis over successive days and at different times of the day can alert the network engineer to changes in network performance.308 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-6 Formatted Spreadsheet Figure 11-7 Plot of Delay Versus Datagram Size Task 4: Reflection The ping command can provide important network latency information. and corrective action can be taken. routine data transfers should be scheduled during off-peak times. network devices may become overwhelmed during certain times of the day. network analysis tools can be used to determine the source. subscribing with a different or additional Internet service provider (ISP) may prove beneficial. . try to work out the problem with the ISP first.

Write a one. download a large file.or two-paragraph analysis that compares these delay results against a measurement made without the download.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 309 Task 5: Challenge If permitted. . and perform a separate delay test while the file is downloading.

Table 11-3 Hardware Equipment and Hardware Requirements Quantity Description Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Console (rollover) cable Crossover cable Straight-through cable 1 1 3 3 1 3 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects computer Host1 to the router console port Connects the computer to the router LAN interface FA0/0 Connects computer hosts to the switch and the switch to the router Note to Instructor: If you do not have a router that has two FastEthernet interfaces. Common configuration tasks include setting the hostname. Configure Cisco router password access.5. Another alternative would be to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the FastEthernet interfaces from each router. Save the router configuration file. make sure that the equipment listed in Table 11-3 is available. To configure the lab. consider configur- ing a loopback interface as an alternative to the FastEthernet 0/1.310 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-2: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11. . Configure Cisco router interfaces. and message-of-the-day (MOTD) banner.1. Figure 11-8 Topology for Lab 11-2 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Fa0/1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 2 3 Gather the necessary equipment and cables. Background Figure 11-8 shows the topology for this lab. Configure a Cisco switch.1) Learning Objectives Upon completion of this lab. access passwords. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Configure Cisco router global configuration settings.

219.158 192.238 192.133.133.30 192.133.110 192.219.219.48 192.219.133.177 192.219.255.133. In addition to assigning a Layer 3 IP address.219 192.133.176 192.133.219.133.133.126 192.133.223 192.133.129 192.133.144 192.160 192.219.133.219.133.31 192.219.133.65 192.133.219.219.208 192.33 192.219.133.14 192.133.133.219.46 192.133.225 192.95 192.142 192.133.219.209 192.219.222 192.219.219.174 192.16 192.133.133.133. you will configure common settings on a Cisco router and Cisco switch.133.219.193 192.133.255. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection.64 192.80 192.219.133. Configuration changes take effect immediately.219.47 192.133.133.219.219.133.219.0 # Subnet 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 192.79 192.133.133.133. entering a description that describes the destination connection decreases troubleshooting time. The changes must be saved in NVRAM to be persistent across reboot.219.219.113 192.219.219.159 192.207 192.219.133.127 192.219.219.219.81 192.133.219. have several different types of cables available for the students.133.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 311 Interface configuration is extremely important.112 192.0 192.133.133.133.133.219.219.133.240 First host address Last Host Address Broadcast IP address: 192.239 192.219.32 192. Maximum number of usable subnets (including the 0th subnet): 16 Number of usable hosts per subnet: 14 Table 11-4 Subnet Address Table Subnet mask: 255.192 192.78 192.133.133.219.97 192.133.219.0/24. and rollover cables.133.145 192.219.161 192.219.133. Address information is easy to compute with the subnet number filled in first.95 192.63 192.) Note to Instructor: To reinforce student cable identification.133.219.219. Mix crossover. (Hint: fill in the subnet number and then the host address.219.143 192.219. Configuration changes may also be saved offline in a text file for auditing or device replacement.133.133.219.133.17 192.133.133. Scenario In this lab.133.219.219.175 192.219.219.254 192.133.219.133.255 .128 192.133.191 192.219.15 192.219. fill in Table 11-4.133.219.219.219.96 192.133.62 192.219.133.219.133.219.111 192.133.240 192.1 192.133.190 192.133.219.224 192. with 4 bits borrowed for subnets.133.219.133. straight-through.219.207 192.219.219. Cisco IOS switch configuration is similar to Cisco IOS router configuration.219.219.219.241 192.133. Given an IP address of 198.

verify your addresses with the instructor. . Ensure that power has been applied to the host computer. start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. Connect host computer through HyperTerminal. Figure 11-9 shows the cabling for this lab. Connect the crossover cable between the host computer’s network interface card (NIC) and Router interface Fa0/0.312 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Before proceeding. Physically connect the devices. The instructor will assign subnetworks. Connect the console or rollover cable to the console port on the router. Task 1: Configure Cisco Router Global Configuration Settings Step 1. switch. press the Enter key until the router responds. Connect a straight-through cable between the Router interface Fa0/1 and any of the switch’s interfaces (1 through 24). and router. Configure HyperTerminal with the proper settings: ■ ■ Name the connection description: Lab 11_5_1 Connect using: COM1 (or an appropriate COM port) Configure the COM1 properties: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Bits per second: 9600 Data bits: 8 Parity: None Stop bits: 1 Flow control: None When the HyperTerminal session window comes up. Connect the other end of the cable to the host computer using a DB-9 adapter to the COM 1 port. From the Widows taskbar. Give each team of students a subnetwork number. Figure 11-9 Lab Cabling 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 R1 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable Step 2.

The following shows a user mistyping a command and the router attempting a domain name lookup: Router>enabel Translating “enabel”. and then press X. Write down the list of configuration modes. your configuration may look slightly different from a typical default router’s configuration. exit by entering no: Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [yes/no]: no Press RETURN to get started! Router> In privileged EXEC command mode.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 313 If the router terminal is in configuration mode. press Ctrl-Shift-6. it must be removed. What two commands may be used to leave privileged EXEC mode? exit or end What shortcut command can you use to enter privileged EXEC mode? en Examine the different configuration modes that can be entered with the command configure?. enter privileged EXEC mode: Router> enable Router# Verify a clean configuration file using the privileged EXEC command show runningconfig. and then press X.domain server (255. Step 3. the router attempts to translate any misspelled or unrecognized commands as a domain name. release. This can take from several seconds to several minutes. If your router does not have a default configuration. From user EXEC mode.255. If a configuration file was previously saved. Depending on the router’s model and the IOS version. Because no domain server is configured. This results in the following: Name lookup aborted Router> To disable name translation attempts.. Configure global configuration hostname settings.255) % Press Ctrl-Shift-6. However. a delay occurs while the request times out.255. it should have no configured passwords or IP addresses. To terminate the domain name lookup process. ask the instructor to remove the configuration. and describe them: confirm: Confirms replacement of running-config with a new config file memory: Configures from nonvolatile memory network: Configures from a TFTP network host overwrite-network: Overwrites nonvolatile memory from the TFTP network host replace: Replaces the running-config with a new config file terminal: Configures from the terminal <cr> . apply the global configuration command no ip domain-lookup. release..

Unauthorized access will be prosecuted. a court might interpret a friendly “Welcome” message as permission for an attacker to hack into the router. In production networks. Configure the MOTD banner. Unauthorized access is prohibited and will be prosecuted. penalties for unauthorized access. For example. suppose you are connected to an ABC network device. For example. and all connection information will be logged. the end command. and describe them. and applicable local laws. and Ctrl-Z What shortcut command can be used to enter global configuration mode? config t Set the device hostname to Router1: router(config)# hostname Router1 Router1(config)# How can the hostname be removed? no hostname Router1 Step 4. where ‘c’ is a delimiting character Examine the different banner modes that can be entered. Only system administrators of the ABC Company are authorized users. Router1(config)# banner ? LINE: c banner-text c. The corporate security policy should cover all banner messages. A banner should include information about authorization. enter global configuration mode: Router# configuration terminal Router(config)# What three methods may be used to leave global configuration mode and return to privileged EXEC mode? The exit command.314 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide From privileged EXEC mode. All connections are continuously logged. Write down the list of banner modes. Access is granted to only current ABC system administrators with prior written approval. banner content may have a significant legal impact on the organization. exec: Sets the EXEC process creation banner incoming: Sets the incoming terminal line banner login: Sets the login banner motd: Sets the message-of-the-day banner prompt-timeout: Sets the message for the login authentication timeout slip-ppp: Sets the message for SLIP/PPP . connection logging. Create a suitable MOTD banner.

Cisco IOS supports two commands that set access to privileged EXEC mode.” Password security relies on the password . )--------------------+ ) / (_/ | | | +---------------------\ (----( \_) Task 2: Configure Cisco Router Password Access Access passwords are set for privileged EXEC mode and the user entry point such as console. The following is a banner made from ASCII art that can be copied into the router: ( o o ) +------------------. contains no encryption or weak cryptography and should never be used if the enable secret command is available. *** All connections are continuously logged. aux. as shown in Example 11-3. and virtual lines.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 315 Choose a terminating character that will not be used in the message text. The privileged EXEC mode password is the most critical password.------------------+ | | | . enable password. *** % Router1(config)# What is the global configuration command to remove the MOTD banner? no banner motd Personal banners on nonproduction devices can be entertaining. *** *** Unauthorized access is prohibited. The enable secret command uses a very secure MD5 cryptographic hash algorithm. because it controls access to configuration mode. One command.oooO--(_)--Oooo. Cisco says “As far as anyone at Cisco knows.oooO ( ) Oooo. End with the character %’ ***You are connected to an ABC network device. Configure the privileged EXEC password. Use the terminating character on a blank line to end the MOTD entry. it is impossible to recover an enable secret based on the contents of a configuration file (other than by obvious dictionary attacks). such as % (percent). The MOTD banner is displayed on all connections before the login prompt. Access is granted to only current ABC company system administrators with prior written approval. Configure the MOTD banner. Step 1. Example 11-3 banner motd Output Router1(config)# banner motd % Enter TEXT message. and will be prosecuted.

Issue the command exit. Unless a Telnet password is set. we will use weak passwords. numbers. access on that virtual line is blocked. In a lab environment. Set the privileged EXEC password to class: Router1(config)# enable secret class Router1(config)# Step 2. and symbols. In newer Cisco IOS versions. Router1(config)# line console 0 Router1(config-line)# password cisco Router1(config-line)# login What is the command to remove the console password? no password cisco Step 3. What is the router prompt? What is the mode? Router1(config-line)# exit Router1(config)# Global configuration mode Issue the command end. Set the console access password to cisco.316 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide algorithm and the password. Exits the configuration and returns to privileged EXEC mode. Fill in Table 11-5 with the correct answers. strong passwords should be used at all times. Table 11-5 Command Ways to Exit Line Configuration Mode Effect exit end Ctrl-Z Returns to global configuration mode. In production environments. What is the router prompt? What is the mode? Router1# Privileged EXEC mode . Configure the console password. The virtual line password controls Telnet access to the router. Router1(config-line)# line vty 0 4 Router1(config-line)# password cisco Router1(config-line)# login There are three ways to exit line configuration mode. only five virtual lines could be set—0 through 4. A strong password consists of at least nine characters of uppercase and lowercase letters. Set the virtual line access password to cisco. the number has been expanded. Configure the virtual line password. The console password controls console access to the router. In early Cisco IOS versions.

depending on which subnet students choose from Table 11-4.1. Apply the description on the router interface with the interface configuration command description.0 255.1.255.255.240 The first IP address will be used to configure the host computer LAN. 192. Figure 11-10 shows a network topology in which a host computer is connected to Router 1.14 Step 1.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 317 Task 3: Configure Cisco Router Interfaces All cabled interfaces should contain documentation about the connection.168. Example 11-4 Interface Configuration Router1(config)# interface fa0/0 Router1(config-if)# description Connection to Host1 with crossover cable Router1(config-if)# ip address address mask Router1(config-if)# no shutdown Router1(config-if)# end Router1# . On newer Cisco IOS versions. 192.1 The last IP address will be used to configure the router fa0/0 interface.1. Write a short description for the connections on Router1: Fa0/0 -> Connection to Host1 with crossover cable. Figure 11-10 Network Topology 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 R1 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable Write down your subnet number and mask: Answers will vary. Configure the router interface Fa0/0. interface Fa0/0.168. as shown in Example 11-4. 192. the maximum description length is 240 characters.168. Write down the last IP address: Answers will vary. Write down the first IP address: Answers will vary.

Configure the host computer for LAN connectivity.602: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/1.602: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0. changed state to up Step 3. Recall that you access the LAN configuration window by choosing Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. Open a Windows command window. and choose Properties. Step 4. changed state to up Step 2.318 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Look for the interface to become active: *Mar 24 19:58:59. Verify network connectivity. Configure the router interface Fa0/1. troubleshoot the connection. What Cisco IOS command can you use to verify the interface status? show interface fa0/0 and show interface fa0/1 What Windows command can you use to verify host computer configuration? ipconfig What is the correct LAN cable between Host1 and Router1? Crossover . Highlight the Internet Protocol field. Write a short description for the connections on Router1: Fa0/1 -> Apply the description on the router interface with the interface configuration command description. as shown in Example 11-5. and then click Close. Fill in the following fields: ■ ■ ■ IP Address: The first host address Subnet Mask: The subnet mask Default Gateway: The router’s IP address Click OK. Configure the host computer. Use the ping command to verify network connectivity with the router. and verify network settings with the ipconfig command. If ping replies are not successful. and choose Properties. Rightclick the LAN icon. Example 11-5 Interface Configuration Router1(config)# interface fa0/1 Router1(config-if)# description Connection to switch with straightthrough cable Router1(config-if)# ip address address mask Router1(config-if)# no shutdown Router1(config-if)# end Router1# Look for the interface to become active: *Mar 24 19:58:59.

it is because there is no saved configuration. cisco. A line containing — more — indicates that there is additional information to display. Table 11-6 Key Key Responses Description Spacebar Enter Q Ctrl-C Displays the next page Displays the next line Quits Quits Write down one possible shortcut command that displays the contents of NVRAM: show start Use this command to show the contents of NVRAM. For configurations to survive rebooting or power restarts. (Answers will vary. Router1# show running-config Use the output to answer the following questions: How large is the configuration file? The current configuration is 935 bytes. contains the hash algorithm type—in this case. . or random value. If all students used cisco as the enable secret password. 1. NVRAM must be manually updated after any changes are made.) What is the enable secret password? enable secret 5 $1$Sg/E$JnEnON09QjpibV33dJXBI0 Ask students to compare their passwords. someone is bound to ask why the cryptotext is different. but a short answer to intrigue students may lead to independent research. The configuration is displayed one screen at a time. JnEnON09QjpibV33dJXBI0. Compare router RAM and NVRAM configurations. as shown in Example 11-6. separated by $. Example 11-6 Missing NVRAM Router1# show startup-config startup-config is not present Router1# Display the contents of RAM. but they will be close to 1000 bytes. to compute the MD5 hash. Step 1. the RAM configuration must be copied into NVRAM. MD5. the resulting hash is different. The cryptotext $1$Sg/E$JnEnON09QjpibV33dJXBI0 is actually composed of three fields. that is used with the password. is called the salt. The first field. The second field. Because the salts are different. If the output of NVRAM is missing. and it calls nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM) configuration storage the startup configuration. Use the Cisco IOS show command to view RAM and NVRAM configurations. This does not occur automatically. Sg/E.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 319 Task 4: Save the Router Configuration Files Cisco IOS calls RAM configuration storage the running configuration. Table 11-6 describes acceptable key responses. The answer is beyond the scope of this curriculum.

Move the console. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM. The contents should be the same. your configuration may look slightly different from the typical default switch configuration. write terminal Step 2. copy run start. If your switch does not have a default configuration. Task 5: Configure a Cisco Switch Cisco IOS switch configuration is similar to configuring a Cisco IOS router. However. Ensure that power has been applied to the switch. Example 11-7 Saving the RAM Configuration Router1# copy running-config startup-config Destination filename [startup-config]? <ENTER> Building configuration. or rollover. Depending on the switch model and IOS version. press Enter until the switch responds. Configure the global configuration hostname setting. Step 2. The benefit of learning IOS commands is that they are similar to many different devices and IOS versions. wr Review the contents of NVRAM.320 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide ■ ■ ■ Does your MOTD banner contain the information you entered earlier? Yes Do your interface descriptions contain the information you entered earlier? Yes Write down one possible shortcut command that will display the contents of RAM. From user EXEC mode. enter global configuration mode: Switch> en Switch# config t Switch(config)# Set the device hostname to Switch1: Switch(config)# hostname Switch1 Switch1(config)# . write mem. Step 1. For a configuration to be used the next time the router is powered on or reloaded. wr mem. sh run. there should be no configured passwords.. In HyperTerminal. cable to the console port on the switch.. and verify that the configuration is the same as the configuration in RAM. it must be manually saved in NVRAM. as shown in Example 11-7. ask the instructor to remove the configuration. Connect the host to the switch. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM. [OK] Router1# Write down one possible shortcut command that will copy the RAM configuration to NVRAM.

Create a suitable MOTD banner. Unauthorized access is prohibited. and all connection information will be logged. Sixteen virtual lines can be configured on a Cisco IOS switch. review the similar step for configuring a switch MOTD banner. Configure the interface description. All connections are continuously logged. Set the virtual line access password to class.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 321 Step 3. Switch1 interface Fa0/2 is connected to host computer 2. Configure the console password. For assistance. Configure the virtual line password. interface Fa0/1. and will be prosecuted. Set the privileged EXEC password to cisco: Switch1(config)# enable secret cisco Switch1(config)# Step 5. Access is granted to only current ABC system administrators with prior written approval. Switch1(config)# banner motd % You are connected to an ABC network device. Configure the privileged EXEC password.% Step 4. Figure 11-11 shows a network topology in which Router1 is connected to Switch1. Set the console access password to class: Switch1(config)# line console 0 Switch1(config-line)# password class Switch1(config-line)# login Step 6. Only system administrators of the ABC company are authorized users. Use the terminating character on a blank line to end the MOTD entry. Configure the MOTD banner: Switch1(config)# banner motd % The MOTD banner is displayed on all connections before the login prompt. and interface Fa0/3 is connected to host computer 3. . Unauthorized access will be prosecuted. 0 through 15: Switch1(config-line)# line vty 0 15 Switch1(config-line)# password class Switch1(config-line)# login Step 7. Configure the MOTD banner.

.. Example 11-8 Interface Description Switch1(config)# interface fa0/1 Switch1(config-if)# description Connection to Router1 Switch1(config)# interface fa0/2 Switch1(config-if)# description Connection to host computer 2 Switch1(config)# interface fa0/3 Switch1(config-if)# description Connection to host computer 3 Switch1(config-if)# end Switch1# Step 8. For a configuration to be used the next time the switch is powered on or reloaded. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM as shown in Example 11-9. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM. as shown in Example 11-8. Table 11-7 Interface Description Description Switch1 Interface Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Fa0/3 Connection to Router 1 Connection to host computer 2 Connection to host computer 3 Apply the descriptions on the switch interface using the interface configuration command description.322 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-11 Network Topology 1 Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Fa0/1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 2 3 In Table 11-7. Example 11-9 Saving the Configuration Switch1# copy run start Destination filename [startup-config]? <ENTER> Building configuration. write a short description for the connections on Switch1. The contents should be the same. . [OK] Switch1# Review the contents of NVRAM. it must be manually saved in NVRAM. and verify that the configuration is the same as the configuration in RAM.

Specify a password to prevent unauthorized access to the console. but an experienced network engineer does not need a cheat sheet to perform common configuration tasks. hostname name Example: Router(config)# hostname Router1 Router1(config)# Specify an encrypted password to prevent unauthorized access to privileged EXEC mode.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 323 Task 6: Reflection The more you practice the commands. Table 118 lists the commands covered in this lab. Router vty lines: 0 4 password password login Example: Router(config)# line vty 0 4 Router(config-line)# password class Router(config-line)# login Router(config-line)# continues . the faster you will become at configuring a Cisco IOS router and switch. configure terminal Example: Router> enable Router# configure terminal Router(config)# Specify the router’s name. Table 11-8 Action Commands Covered in This Lab Command Enter global configuration mode. enable secret password Example: Router(config)# enable secret cisco Router(config)# password password login Example: Router(config)# line con 0 Router(config-line)# password class Router(config-line)# login Router(config-line)# Specify a password to prevent unauthorized Telnet access. It is perfectly acceptable to use notes at first to help configure a device.

Router: Interface is off by default Switch: Interface is on by default interface type/port Example: Router(config)# interface fa0/0 Router(config-if)# description description Router(config-if)# ip address address mask Router(config-if)# no shutdown Router(config-if)# Save the configuration to NVRAM. banner motd % Example: Router(config)# banner motd % banner text % Router(config)# Configure an interface. Enter a path and filename.324 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-8 Action Commands Covered in This Lab continued Command Configure the MOTD banner. as shown in Figure 11-12. and always handy. . to save the configuration file to an offline text file. To start a capture. It also can be copied and pasted into a router. copy running-config startup-config Example: Router# copy running-config startup-config Router# Task 7: Challenge It is often necessary. from HyperTerminal choose Transfer > Capture Text. One way to do so is to choose Transfer > Capture Text from HyperTerminal. and click Start. The file can be edited and saved. Step 1. Figure 11-12 HyperTerminal Capture Menu All communication between the host computer and router is saved to a file.

Delete any configuration files saved on the host computers. and leave the room ready for the next class. Otherwise. it is always a best practice to begin with a clean RAM configuration. This places the configuration in host computer memory. Manually correct any lines that were scrambled or places where several lines occupy the same line. The configuration is quickly loaded to the router. Erase the NVRAM configuration file: Router1# erase start Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue? [confirm] <ENTER> [OK] Erase of nvram: complete Step 3. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. remove the NVRAM configuration file from each device using the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config. Verify the configuration. Remove any lines that are not configuration commands. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Issue the privileged EXEC command show running-config. Reload the router: Router1# reload Proceed with reload? [confirm] <ENTER> When the router reboots. enter global configuration mode: Router> en Router# config t Router(config)# Right-click inside the HyperTerminal window and choose Paste To Host. and press Spacebar until all the configuration has been displayed. After the reload is complete. and save to NVRAM. The important point is to closely examine the configuration for any errors before reloading. manually enable the interfaces by issuing the no shutdown command in interface configuration mode. highlight the lines and choose Edit > Copy from Notepad. To load the configuration file. Stop the capture. Task 8: Clean Up Before turning off power to the router and switch. restore host computer network connectivity. Watch closely for error messages.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 325 Step 2. Step 4. Each message must be investigated and corrected. Choose Transfer > Capture Text > Stop. After checking the configuration file. such as the — more — prompt. stale configuration commands may survive a paste action and have unintended consequences. and then turn off power to the host computers. . Open the text file and review the contents. Highlighting the HyperTerminal text and copying may also bring the configuration into memory.

326 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11. . Remember. however. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.5. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.1.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer.2) You can now open the file LSG1-Lab11512.

0/24 and additional 6 bits for subnets. SolarWinds is a free TFTP application for Windows. Scenario In this lab. You are given an IP address of 10.solarwinds. and Router1 should use the last valid host address. you will be able to ■ ■ Configure network connectivity. save the configuration to a TFTP server.5.1) Upon completion of this lab. Host1 should use the first valid host address. Background Figure 11-13 shows the topology for this lab.2. Use the last valid subnet. you will configure common settings on a Cisco router. This lab requires the use of SolarWinds TFTP server software. . and then restore the configuration from a TFTP server. You may download a free copy of the SolarWinds TFTP server software from www.250. Figure 11-13 Topology for Lab 11-3 1 Fa0/0 R1 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable Table 11-9 lists the lab equipment and hardware requirements for this lab.com/products/freetools/free_tftp_server. Use TFTP to save and restore a Cisco IOS configuration.250.aspx or from any freeware or shareware website. Table 11-9 Hardware Lab Equipment and Hardware Requirements Quantity Description Cisco router Computer (host) Console (rollover) cable Crossover cable 1 1 1 1 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects computer Host1 to the router console port Connects the Host1 NIC to Router1 Fa0/0 The host computer will be used as a TFTP server.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 327 Lab 11-3: Managing Device Configuration (11.

Physically connect the devices. Connect the console. and rollover cables. Configure Router1. press the Enter key until the router responds. .250.252 Last Host Address Broadcast First Host Address 10. Connect the host computer to the router through HyperTerminal. Task 1: Configure Network Connectivity Step 1.250.255. Connect the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 adapter to the COM 1 port. Refer to Figure 11-13.248 10. Step 3. Caution: Do not save the configuration in NVRAM.250. Ensure that power has been applied to both the host computer and the router. configure the Host1 computer with an IP address. and default gateway. The configuration tasks for Router1 are as follows: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Specify the router name: Router1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. Table 11-10 IP Addressing IP address: 10. Step 2.250. From the Widows taskbar.251 To reinforce student cable identification. cable to the console port on the router. subnet mask.255. straight-through. Issue the no shutdown command.249 10. start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. In this lab you practice transferring a configura- tion file to a router that does not have a configuration file in NVRAM.250.0 Subnet Subnet mask: 255.250.250 10. Configure the Router1 interface Fa0/0: ■ ■ ■ Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Mix crossover. Logically connect the devices. Step 4. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection.250.328 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Use Table 11-10 to record your addressing. When the HyperTerminal session window opens. or rollover. have several different types of cables available for the students.250. Using the IP address information from the scenario.250.250.

as shown in Table 11-11. Figure 11-14 shows an active TFTP server window. Double-click the SolarWinds TFTP application to begin the installation. and accept the default settings. Sending 5.250. To configure the TFTP server. Click Next.!!!! Success rate is 80 percent (4/5). Example 11-10 Verify Connectivity Router1# ping 10.250. After SolarWinds has finished the installation.250. Start the TFTP server. Verify the settings. Verify connectivity between Host1 and Router1.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 329 Step 5. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1 ms Router1# Task 2: Use TFTP to Save and Restore a Cisco IOS Configuration Step 1. click Finish. . as shown in Example 11-10. Verify connectivity. Step 2.250. Figure 11-14 TFTP Server Window Start the TFTP server by choosing Start > Programs > SolarWinds Free Tools > TFTP Server. Step 3. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10. timeout is 2 seconds: . Configure the TFTP server.249. Install the SolarWinds TFTP application. choose File > Configure. as shown in Figure 11-15.249 Type escape sequence to abort. Agree to the license agreement.

250.250. From HyperTerminal. Open Log file c:\Program Files\SolarWinds\Free Tools\TFTP-Server. Step 4.250.250.250) 3/25/2007 12:29 :Received router1-confg from (10.250. Use Microsoft Word or WordPad to examine the contents of the file c:\TFTP-Root\router1-confg. . Leave the default file. Example 11-11 Saving the Router Configuration to the TFTP Server Router1#copy running-config tftp: Address or name of remote host []? 10.txt. click OK. The contents should be similar to the following: 3/25/2007 12:29 :Receiving router1-confg from (10. When you’re finished.250). The contents should be similar to the configuration shown in Example 11-12.250 To 10.250. as shown in Example 11-11.249 Destination filename [router1-confg]? <ENTER> !! 1081 bytes copied in 2. begin a TFTP upload to the TFTP server.250 Never Enable Log Requests to the Following File. Save the Router1 configuration to the TFTP server.250.250. 1081 bytes Verify the transferred file.250.330 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-15 Active TFTP Server Window Table 11-11 TFTP Server Settings Setting Value TFTP Root Directory Security Advanced Security Auto-Close Log TFTP-Root Transmit and Receive Files 10.008 secs (538 bytes/sec) Router1# Verify a successful upload transfer.250.

250.4 service timestamps debug datetime msec service timestamps log datetime msec no service password-encryption ! hostname Router1 ! boot-start-marker boot-end-marker ! enable secret 5 $1$D02B$AuX05n0HPT239yYRoQ0oE.250.252 duplex auto speed auto ! interface FastEthernet0/1 no ip address shutdown duplex auto speed auto ! interface Serial0/1/0 no ip address shutdown no fair-queue ! interface Serial0/1/1 no ip address shutdown clock rate 2000000 ! ip http server no ip http secure-server ! control-plane ! banner motd *** ABC COMPANY NETWORK DEVICE **** *** Authorized access only ***** *** Logging is enabled **** .255.250 255.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 331 Example 11-12 Configuration File ! version 12. ! no aaa new-model ip cef ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description connection to host1 ip address 10.255.

Configure the hostname of the router to TEST. Router1 fa0/0 must be configured with an IP address. as shown in Example 11-16.252 Router(config-if)# no shutdown Router(config-if)# exit *Mar 25 16:43:03. as shown in Example 11-13. and then reboot Router1. Example 11-13 Verify Empty NVRAM Router1# show startup-config startup-config is not present Router1# reload Proceed with reload? [confirm] <ENTER> Connectivity must be established with the TFTP server. Restore the Router1 configuration from the TFTP server.250. Example 11-14 Interface Configuration Router> enable Router# conf t Enter configuration commands.255. Verify that NVRAM is clear. Router(config)# interface fa0/0 Router(config-if)# ip address 10. and the interface must be enabled. . Example 11-15 Hostname Configuration Router(config-if)# exit Router(config)# hostname TEST Test(config-if)# end TEST# Verify connectivity using the ping command. as shown in Example 11-15. changed state to up End with CNTL/Z. as shown in Example 11-14. one per line.255.250 255.095: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console *Mar 25 16:43:04.332 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 11-12 Configuration File ! line con 0 password class login line aux 0 line vty 0 4 password class login ! continued scheduler allocate 20000 1000 End Step 5.967: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0.250.

. issue the Cisco IOS command show version. round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1ms Router# Download the Router1 configuration file from the TFTP server. the IOS can also be stored offline for future use. 1841 Software (C1841-ADVIPSERVICESK9-M).364 secs (115 bytes/sec) Router1# *Mar 25 16:55:26. efficient way to save and load Cisco IOS configuration files.1081 bytes] 1081 bytes copied in 9.249 Source filename []? router1-confg Destination filename [startup-config]? <ENTER> Accessing tftp://10. Example 11-17 File Transfer from the TFTP Server Test# copy tftp startup-config Address or name of remote host []? 10.249. Task 3: Reflection TFTP is a fast..250. RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc3) Technical Support: http://www.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 333 Example 11-16 Ping Test Test# ping 10.249 Type escape sequence to abort.250.!!!! Success rate is 80 percent(4/5). Compiled Fri 19-Jan-07 15:15 by prod_rel_team . and the router’s hostname should now be Router1. Reload the router. The configuration should be the same as what was configured in Task 1.250. Loading router1-confg from 10.250. To discover the IOS filename. Step 4. as shown in Example 11-17. Example 11-18 IOS Filename in Flash Router1# show version Cisco IOS Software.249/router1-confg by console Router1# View the configuration in NVRAM to verify an accurate transfer. Select no at the prompt that says “Configuration has been modified.4(10b).cisco.250. Task 4: Challenge Similar to uploading a configuration file.250.250.com/techsupport Copyright (c) 1986-2007 by Cisco Systems.250. timeout is 2 seconds: .” The previous configuration should be restored.250. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10. Inc.375: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from tftp://10.250. Sending 5.249/router1-confg. The filename is highlighted in Example 11-18.249 (via FastEthernet0/0): ! [OK .250. Version 12.250.

html If you require further assistance.bin]? !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!! 22063220 bytes copied in 59. export.564 secs (370412 bytes/sec) Router1# . Delivery of Cisco cryptographic products does not imply third-party authority to import. Cisco 1841 (revision 6. Version 12.com/wwl/export/crypto/tool/stqrg. 191K bytes of NVRAM. 62720K bytes of ATA CompactFlash (Read/Write) Configuration register is 0x2102 Router1# The commands to upload the IOS are similar to uploading the configuration file.0) with 174080K/22528K bytes of memory.334 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example 11-18 IOS Filename in Flash continued ROM: System Bootstrap. Processor board ID FHK110918KJ 2 Serial(sync/async) interfaces DRAM configuration is 64 bits wide with parity disabled.124-10b. A summary of U.124-10b. Importers.4(13r)T. RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) Router1 uptime is 17 minutes System returned to ROM by reload at 16:47:54 UTC Sun Mar 25 2007 System image file is “flash:c1841-advipservicesk9-mz. exporters. If you are unable to comply with U.124-10b. and local country laws.S. and local laws.com. return this product immediately.250. By using this product you agree to comply with applicable laws and regulations.cisco. distributors and users are responsible for compliance with U. contact Cisco by sending email to export@cisco. laws governing Cisco cryptographic products may be found at: http://www. as shown in Example 11-19.bin Address or name of remote host []? 10. Example 11-19 File Transfer to TFTP Server Router1# copy flash tftp Source filename []? c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.S. distribute or use encryption.bin” This product contains cryptographic features and is subject to United States and local country laws governing import.S.250. export. transfer and use.249 Destination filename [c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.

Click Add or Remove Applications.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 335 Task 5: Clean Up Before turning off power to the router. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. remove the NVRAM configuration file if it was loaded. Use the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config. Choose SolarWinds and click Remove. Accept the defaults. .pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Choose Start > Control Panel. restore host computer network connectivity. and leave the room ready for the next class. Packet Tracer Companion Packet Tracer Companion: Managing Device Configuration (11. and then turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab.2) You can now open the file LSG1-Lab11522. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. however. Remember.2. Remove the SolarWinds TFTP server from the host computer. Delete any configuration files saved on the host computers. that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment.5.

Configure the logical LAN topology. Figure 11-16 Topology for Lab 11-4 S1 Fa0/1 Fa0/2 1 2 Gather the necessary equipment and cables. . and rollover cables.1) Upon completion of this lab. Table 11-12 Lab Equipment and Hardware Requirements Hardware Quantity Description Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Category 5 or better straight-through UTP cables 1 1 2 2 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects computers Host1 and Host2 to Switch1 Scenario In this lab you will create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity. To reinforce student cable identification. Background Figure 11-16 shows the topology diagram for this lab.5. Mix crossover. Verify LAN connectivity.3. Configure the physical lab topology.336 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-4: Configure Host Computers for IP Networking (11. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection. straight-through. Table 11-12 lists the lab equipment and hardware requirements. have several different types of cables available for the students. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Design the logical lab topology.

168. Table 11-13 Addressing Table IP address: 192.176 192.65 192.168.169 192.254.78 192.168.254.168.38 192.254.135 192.168.119 192.168.62 192.168.134 192.144 192.254.254.113 192.168.168.49 192.168.168.254.254.255.168.168.254.105 192.168.254.48 192.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 337 Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Given an IP address of 192.254.168.166 192.41 192.0 192.254.168.254.168.73 192.168.168.182 192.9 192.254.254.111 192.254.47 192.168.254.40 192.7 192.168.168.168.143 192.168.254.89 192.168.168.70 192.161 192.168 192.168.110 192.168.136 192.254.6 192.168.168.254. and 5 bits used for subnets.248 Last Host Address Broadcast 192.168.168.86 192.254.168.168.94 192.254.8 192.254.254.254.87 192.168.254.22 192.168.17 192.63 192.88 192.127 192.168.168.168.168.129 192.254.168.168.254.168.1 192.168.254.80 192.254.72 192.254.254.168.168.254.150 192.254.168.254.168.254.33 192.55 192.64 192.168.254.254.175 192.168.168.168.96 192.168.254.168.159 192.168.23 192.168.254.254.254.168.254.168.168.112 192.254. fill in the following information: Maximum number of usable subnets (including the 0th subnet): 31 Number of usable hosts per subnet: 6 Use Table 11-13 to record the addressing scheme.14 192.168.254.254.254.128 192.254.168.158 192.254.168.168.168.254.254.168.254.0 Subnet First Host Address Subnet mask: 255.254.254.168.126 192.168.118 192.168.168.254.79 192.153 192.168.97 192.254.168.81 192.254.168.254.254.137 192.254.174 192.254.254.168.254.95 192.254.254.151 192.168.104 192.121 192.254.168.16 192.168.254.168.254.56 192.145 192.254.168.168.254.168.168.254.254.254.183 continues .254.168.254.168.25 192.254.30 192.24 192.254.54 192.254.254.167 192.120 192.152 192.102 192.168.168.254.254.15 192.254.103 192.168.39 192.254.254.168.168.57 192.160 192.168.31 192.255.168.0/24.254.254.168.32 192.254.254.46 192.254.177 192.168.254.168.254.254.254.254.142 192.168.254.71 192.

193 192.168.254.249 192.254.254.230 192. straightthrough cables are used.222 192.168.168.254.200 192. Step 2.168.255 Before proceeding.168.254. Visually inspect network connections.168.238 192.254 192.215 192.254. Write down the IP address information for each device in Table 11-14.168.168. Host computers will use the first two IP addresses in the subnetwork.232 192. Physically connect the devices.190 192.168. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot network connectivity issues later.168.168.168.168.168.168.206 192.225 192.254.254.247 192.198 192.209 192.168.255.168.254.254.254. take a moment to verify the connections. Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Step 1.168.168.168.254.192 192.338 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-13 Addressing Table IP address: 192.168.254.254.231 192.254.254.207 192.224 192.254.214 192.168.168.254.0 Subnet continued Subnet mask: 255.254.168.168.199 192.248 192.254. Is a crossover cable needed to connect host computers to the switch? Why or why not? No.254.233 192.168.254. Document logical network settings.208 192. The instructor will assign one subnetwork per student or team.216 192.254.241 192.168.240 192.254.254. If it’s not already enabled.168.254.246 192.254.168. verify your addresses with the instructor. Cable the network devices as shown earlier in Figure 11-16.254.254.168.248 Last Host Address Broadcast First Host Address 192.254. .185 192. Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology Step 1.168.168.239 192.168.168.191 192.254.168.254.223 192. After cabling the network devices.168.254.254.254.255.254.168. turn on power to all devices. Because computers and the switch are not wired the same for networking.254.184 192.201 192.217 192.

Refer to Figure 11-17 for Host1 IP address and gateway settings.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 339 Table 11-14 Logical Topology Device Subnetwork IP Address Mask Host1 Host2 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary 255.255.255. .255. Table 11-15 Host Addressing Table Host1 IP address IP mask Host2 IP address IP mask Step 2.248 Configure the Host1 computer. On the General tab.248 From the information given in Table 11-15. and then click the Properties button. and then click Close.255.255. and choose Properties. Record the output in Table 11-16. Verify proper configuration of Host1 with the ipconfig /all command. Right-click the LAN icon. click OK. choose Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. write down the IP network addressing for each computer. Answers will vary 255. On Computer1.255. The computer may require a reboot for changes to be effective. Figure 11-17 Host IP Address and Gateway Settings When you’re finished. choose Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).255.255.248 255.248 Answers will vary 255.

248 Unassigned Configure Host2. Use Table 11-18 to methodically verify connectivity with each network device. Table 11-17 Host ipconfig Output Setting Value Ethernet device Physical address IP address Subnet mask Default gateway Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary 255. which you filled out in Step 1.248 Unassigned Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Network connectivity can be verified with the Windows ping command. and retest. Table 11-18 Ping Results From To IP Address Ping Result Host1 Host2 Host2 Host1 Answers will vary Answers will vary Should be successful Should be successful Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails. Record the output in Table 11-17. choose Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall. To disable a Windows firewall.340 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-16 ipconfig Output Setting Value Ethernet device Physical address IP address Subnet mask Default gateway Step 3. .255. click Off. Note: If pings to host computers fail.255. temporarily disable the computer firewall. Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary 255.255. and then click OK. Repeat Step 2 for Host2 using IP address information from Table 11-15.255. Verify proper configuration.

If the solution fixed the problem. and leave the room ready for the next class. Task 7: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. perform a good visual inspection. Possible problems: IP addresses on different subnets Incorrect or faulty cable Faulty NIC Write down your proposed solution(s). Replace the computer with the faulty NIC. document the solution. continue troubleshooting. . List the problems. To fix the problems. restore the host computer network connectivity. Look for green link lights on Switch1. Problems can be either physical (the wrong UTP cable) or logical (the wrong IP address). Replace the cable. and then turn off power to the host computers. Use Table 11-18 to identify failed connectivity. Test your solution. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Correct the IP address configuration. Task 6: Challenge Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 341 Task 5: Reflection Review any physical or logical configuration problems encountered during this lab. and configure the IP address on the replacement computer. Make sure you have a thorough understanding of the procedures used to configure a Windows host computer. If the solution did not fix the problem.

Verify LAN connectivity. . Figure 11-18 Topology for Lab 11-5 Subnet A Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Subnet B Fa0/1 1 R1 Fa0/2 S1 Fa0/3 Subnet C Subnet D Subnet E Subnet F 2 3 Gather the necessary equipment and cables. consider configuring a loopback interface as an alternative to the FastEthernet 0/1. Table 11-19 lists the equipment and hardware requirements for this lab. Background Figure 11-18 shows the topology for this lab. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ ■ Design the logical lab topology. Configure the physical lab topology. Configure the logical LAN topology. and Host3 to Switch1 Connects Host1 to Router1 Connects Host1 to the Router1 console If you do not have a router that has two FastEthernet interfaces.1) Upon completion of this lab.4. Table 11-19 Lab Equipment and Hardware Requirements Hardware Quantity Description Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Category 5 or better straight-through UTP cables Category 5 crossover UTP cable Console (rollover) cable 1 1 3 3 1 1 Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects Router1.342 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-5: Network Testing (11.5. Host2. Another alternative would be to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the FastEthernet interfaces from each router.

the next-largest IP address block.20. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.255. Fill in Table 11-22 with the IP address information for Subnet C.0. Subnet D. and Subnet F are anticipated subnets.128 172. and rollover cables. Table 11-20 Addressing Requirements Subnet Number of Hosts Subnet A Subnet B Subnet C Subnet D Subnet E Subnet F As shown in the topology diagram Between 80 and 100 Between 40 and 52 Between 20 and 29 12 5 Note: Always start with the subnet that has the largest number of hosts. Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Given an IP address and mask of 172. design an IP addressing scheme that satisfies the requirements listed in Table 11-20.0/24 (address/mask). have several different types of cables available for the students. Table 11-21 Subnet B IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet C. The 0th subnet will be used. Therefore. and work your way down.0.0. Subnet A and Subnet B are subnets that are currently needed.255. Fill in Table 11-21 with the IP address information for Subnet B. Subnet C.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 343 Scenario In this lab. Begin the logical network design by satisfying the requirements of Subnet B. Design the Subnet B address block.126 172. you will create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity.20. Subnet E. pick the first address block that will support Subnet B. Mix crossover.127 Design the Subnet C address block. straight-through. . Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart. you should start with Subnet B and finish with Subnet A. Step 1.20. To reinforce student cable identification. not yet connected to the network. 255.20.0.1 172. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection. which requires the largest block of IP addresses.0. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet C.20.0 Step 2.

20.224 255.20.11000000 Step 3. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.255.255.255.20.11111111. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet E.0.240 172. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet E.11111111.11100000 Step 4.20.0. Fill in Table 11-24 with the Subnet E IP address information. Design the Subnet D address block.11110000 Step 5. . Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.20. Design the Subnet F address block.225 172.238 172.0.223 What is the bit mask? 11111111.222 172.20.191 What is the bit mask? 11111111.255.224 172. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet F.20.20.193 172. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet D. Table 11-23 Subnet D IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172. Design the Subnet E address block. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.1111111. Fill in Table 11-25 with the Subnet F IP address information.0. Table 11-24 Subnet E IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 172.20. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet D.11111111.20. the next-largest IP address block. the next-largest IP address block.129 172. the next-largest IP address block.239 What is the bit mask? 11111111.20.255.1111111.0. Fill in Table 11-23 with the Subnet D IP address information.255.0.20.0.0.0.192 172.344 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-22 Subnet C IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Last Host Broadcast 172.128 255.190 172.1111111.0. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet F.0.0.192 255.

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Table 11-25 Subnet F IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast

172.20.0.240

255.255.255.248

172.20.0.241

172.20.0.246

172.20.0.24

What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.11111111.11111000
Step 6.

Design the Subnet A address block. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet A, the smallest IP address block. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart, pick the next available address block that will support Subnet A. Fill in Table 11-26 with the Subnet A IP addressing table.

Table 11-26 Subnet A IP Addressing Table Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast

172.20.0.248

255.255.255.252

172.20.0.249

172.20.0.250

172.20.0.251

What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.11111111.11111100

Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology
Step 1.

Physically connect the lab devices. Cable the network devices as shown earlier, in Figure 11-18. Pay special attention to the crossover cable required between Host1 and Router1. If it’s not already enabled, turn on power to all devices.

Step 2.

Visually inspect the network connections. After cabling the network devices, take a moment to verify the connections. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot Layer 1 connectivity issues later.

Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology
Step 1.

Document logical network settings. On Subnet A, Host1 uses the first IP address in the subnet. Router1, interface Fa0/0, uses the last host address. On Subnet B, host computers use the first and second IP addresses in the subnet, respectively. Router1, interface Fa0/1, uses the last network host address. To properly route Layer 2 frames between LAN devices, Switch1 does not require Layer 3 configuration. The IP address assigned to Switch1, interface VLAN 1, is used to establish Layer 3 connectivity between external devices and the switch. Without an IP address, upper-layer protocols such as Telnet and HTTP will not work. The default gateway address

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permits the switch to respond to protocol requests from devices on distant networks. For example, the IP gateway address extends Layer 3 connectivity beyond Subnet B. Switch1 uses the next-to-last host address. Write down the IP address information for each device listed in Table 11-27.
Table 11-27 IP Address Information Device Subnet IP Address Mask Gateway

Host1 Router1-Fa0/0 Host2 Host3 Switch1 Router1-Fa0/1
Step 2.

172.20.0.248 172.20.0.248 172.20.0.0 172.20.0.0 172.20.0.0 172.20.0.0

172.20.0.249 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.126

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.252 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128

172.20.0.250 — 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.126 —

Configure host computers. On each computer, in turn, choose Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. Right-click the LAN icon, and choose Properties. On the General tab, choose Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and then click the Properties button. Verify that the Host1 Layer 3 IP address is on a different subnet than Host2 and Host3. Configure each host computer using the IP address information recorded in Step 1. Verify proper configuration of each host computer with the ipconfig command, and fill in Table 11-28.

Table 11-28 Host Configuration Device IP Address Mask Default Gateway

Host1 Host2 Host3
Step 3.

172.20.0.249 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 Configure Router1.

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128

172.20.0.250 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.126

From the Windows taskbar, start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. Configure HyperTerminal for access to Router1. Configuration for Router1 includes the following tasks:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Specify the router name: Router1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner.

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Configure Router1 interface Fa0/0:
■ ■ ■

Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Configure Router1 interface Fa0/1:
■ ■ ■

Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Save the configuration in NVRAM. What command do you use to display the contents of RAM? show running-config Record the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Hostname: Router1 Enable secret password: cisco Console access password: class Telnet access password: class MOTD banner: Answers will vary

What command do you use to display configuration information for interface Fa0/0? show interface Fa0/0 Record the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■

FastEthernet 0/0 status (up/down): Should be up Line protocol: Should be up MAC address: Answers will vary

What command do you use to display configuration information for interface Fa0/1? show interface Fa0/1 Record the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■

FastEthernet 0/0 status (up/down): Should be up Line protocol: Should be up MAC address: Answers will vary

What command do you use to display brief IP address information about each interface? show ip interface brief Record the configuration specifications:
Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/1 IP-Address 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.126 OK? Method Status YES manual up YES manual up Protocol up up

Take corrective action with any problems, and retest.

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Step 4.

Configure Switch1. Move the console cable from Router1 to Switch1. Press Enter until you receive a response. Configuration for Switch1 includes the following:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Specify a switch name: Switch1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/1:

Set the description.

Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/2:

Set the description.

Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/3:

Set the description.

Configure the management VLAN1 IP address:
■ ■ ■

Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Configure the default IP gateway address.

What command do you use to display the contents of RAM? show running-config Write the configuration specifications:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Hostname: Switch1 Enable secret password: cisco Console access password: class Telnet access password: class MOTD banner: Answers will vary Interface VLAN 1: 172.20.0.125 Default IP gateway address: 172.20.0.126

What command do you use to display configuration information for interface VLAN 1? show interface vlan1
■ ■

VLAN 1 status (up/down): Should be up Line protocol: Should be up

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Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity
Step 1.

Use the ping command to verify network connectivity. You can verify network connectivity using the ping command. It is very important that connectivity exist throughout the network. Corrective action must be taken if a failure occurs. Use Table 11-29 to methodically verify connectivity with each network device.

Table 11-29 Connectivity Testing From To IP Address Ping Result

Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3

LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP address Gateway (Router1, Fa0/0 Router1, Fa0/1 Switch1 Host2 Host3 LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP address Host3 Switch1 Gateway (Router1, Fa0/1) Router1, Fa0/0 Host1 LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP address Host2 Switch1 Gateway (Router1, Fa0/1) Router1, Fa0/0

127.0.0.1 172.20.0.249 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 127.0.0.1 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.249 127.0.0.1 172.20.0.2 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.250

Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful

Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails.
Note: If pings to host computers fail, temporarily disable the computer firewall, and retest. To disable a Windows firewall, choose Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall, click Off, and then click OK.

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Step 2.

Use the tracert command to verify local connectivity. From Host1, issue the tracert command to Host2 and Host3. Record the results:
■ ■

From Host1 to Host2: Answers should show success From Host1 to Host3: Answers should show success

Step 3.

Verify Layer 2 connectivity. If it’s not already connected, move the console cable from Router1 to Switch1. Press the Enter key until Switch1 responds. Issue the command show mac-address-table. This command displays static (CPU) and dynamic, or learned, entries. List the dynamic MAC addresses and their corresponding switch ports in Table 11-30.

Table 11-30 MAC Address Table MAC Address Switch Port

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary

Verify that there are three dynamically learned MAC addresses—one each from Fa0/1, Fa0/2, and Fa0/3.

Task 5: Reflection
Review any physical or logical configuration problems encountered during this lab. Make sure you have a thorough understanding of the procedures used to verify network connectivity.

Task 6: Challenge
Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room. Problems can be either physical (the wrong UTP cable) or logical (the wrong IP address or gateway). To fix the problems, perform a good visual inspection. Look for green link lights on Switch1. Use Table 11-18 to identify failed connectivity. List the problems. Possible answers include incorrect IP addressing and incorrect cabling. Write down your proposed solution(s). Possible solutions include correcting the IP address configuration and replacing the cable. Test your solution. If the solution fixed the problem, document the solution. If the solution did not fix the problem, continue troubleshooting.

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Task 7: Clean Up
Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, restore host computer network connectivity, and then turn off power to the host computers. Before turning off power to the router and switch, remove the NVRAM configuration file from each device with the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config. Carefully remove the cables, and return them neatly to their storage. Reconnect cables that were disconnected for this lab. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.

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Lab 11-6: Network Documentation with Utility Commands (11.5.5.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Design the logical lab topology. Configure the physical lab topology. Design and configure the logical LAN topology. Verify LAN connectivity. Document the network.

Background Figure 11-19 shows the topology for this lab.
Figure 11-19 Topology for Lab 11-6
Subnet A
Fa0/0 Fa0/1

Subnet B
Fa0/1

1

R1
Fa0/2

S1
Fa0/3

Subnet C

2

3

Gather the necessary equipment and cables. Table 11-31 lists the equipment and hardware requirements for this lab.
Table 11-31 Equipment and Hardware Requirements Hardware Quantity Description

Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Category 5 or better straight-through UTP cables Category 5 crossover UTP cable Console (rollover) cable

1 1 3 3 1 1

Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects Router1, Host1, and Host2 to Switch1 Connects Host1 to Router1 Connects Host1 to the Router1 console

If you do not have a router that has two FastEthernet interfaces, consider configuring a loopback interface as an alternative to FastEthernet 0/1. Another alternative would be to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the FastEthernet interfaces from each router.

Scenario Network documentation is a very important tool for the organization.165.255.240 209. Fill in Table 11-33 with the IP address information for Subnet C. .255. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection. A well-documented network enables network engineers to save significant time in troubleshooting and planning future growth. Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Given an IP address of 209.165. the largest IP address block. and rollover cables.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 353 In this lab. not yet connected to the network. the next-largest block of IP addresses. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet B.1111111.225 209. 2 Between 2 and 6 Between 10 and 12 Design the Subnet C address block. Design the Subnet B address block. The 0th subnet will be used.165. design an IP addressing scheme that satisfies the requirements listed in Table 11-32.11111111. have several different types of cables available for the students.200. pick the first address block that will support Subnet B. Subnet A and Subnet B are subnets that are currently needed.165.11110000 Step 2.224/27 (address/mask). straight-through.165. Mix crossover. Table 11-32 IP Addressing Requirements Subnet Number of Hosts Subnet A Subnet B Subnet C Step 1. In this lab you will create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity.200. router and host output will be copied from the devices and into Notepad for use in network documentation.200.200. Subnet C is an anticipated subnet.238 209. To reinforce student cable identification. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.224 255.200. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet C.239 What is the bit mask? 11111111. Table 11-33 Subnet C IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 209. Begin the logical network design by satisfying the requirements of Subnet C.

Visually inspect the network connections.255.165.165.200. the smallest IP address block. Table 11-34 Subnet B IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 209.165.200. The network router uses the last network host address.247 What is the bit mask? 11111111.200.111111000___ Step 3. After cabling the network devices.240 209. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot network connectivity issues later.255. pick the next available address block that will support Subnet A. Document the logical network settings.1111111. Write down the IP address information for each device in Table 11-36.165.200.1111111.11111111.165.165.255. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart.249 209.11111100 Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology Step 1.165. . take a moment to verify the connections.255. Physically connect lab devices.240 255. Step 2. Host computers use the first two IP addresses in the subnetwork.200.165. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet A.248 209.200. turn on power to all devices.200. If it’s not already enabled.354 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Fill in Table 11-34 with the IP address information for Subnet B. Cable the network devices as shown in Figure 11-19.11111111.252 209. Design the Subnet A address block.248 255.246 209.251 What is the bit mask? 11111111. Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Step 1. Pay special attention to the crossover cable required between Host1 and Router1. Table 11-35 Subnet A IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast 209.250 209. Fill in Table 11-35 with the IP address information for Subnet A.200.

Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 355 Table 11-36 IP Address Information Device Subnet IP Address Mask Gateway Router1 -FA0/0 Host1 Router1 -FA0/1 Host2 Host2 Switch Step 2.165. These are the configuration tasks for Router1: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Specify the router name: Router1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. Set the Layer 3 address.240 209.255. Configure each host computer using the IP address information recorded in Step 1. Issue the no shutdown command.255.165.246 — Configure the host computers.200. and choose Properties.249 209.241 209. Set the Layer 3 address.165.200. and name it Documentation_Lab11-6.242 — 255.246 209.255. right-click. start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal.165.246 209.200.200.200.255. choose Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. and choose Properties. Configure Router1 interface Fa0/0: ■ ■ ■ Set the description.240 209.200.248 209.200. Verify proper configuration of each host computer using the ipconfig /all command. Highlight the Local Area Connection device icon.165.200. Verify that the Host1 Layer 3 IP address is on a different subnetwork than Host2 and Host3. . Record your information in a separate document.165.252 255.255.165.200. 209.248 209.250 209.200. Step 3. Highlight Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).165.255. ■ Configure Router1 interface Fa0/1: ■ ■ ■ Set the description.165.255.200.255.240 — 209.165.248 — — 209.165.248 255.255.255. From the Windows taskbar.165.200.165. Configure Router1. Issue the no shutdown command.252 255.200. Configure HyperTerminal for access to Router1. On each computer in turn.250 — 209.248 255.

Copy the output of the show mac address-table command to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. choose Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall.356 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Specify the command you use to save the configuration in NVRAM: copy run start Specify the command you use to display the contents of RAM: show running-configuration Save the output of the configuration to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. and click OK. It is very important that connectivity exist throughout the network. temporarily disable the computer firewall. . Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails. Corrective action must be taken if a failure occurs. Move the console cable from Router1 to Switch1. To disable a Windows firewall. Copy the output of the show interface fa0/0 and show interface fa0/1 commands into your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. Use Table 11-37 to methodically verify connectivity with each network device. Configure Switch1. Configuration tasks for Switch1 are as follows: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Specify the switch name: Switch1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. Use the ping command to verify network connectivity. ■ Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/2: ■ Set the description. Step 4. Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/1: ■ Set the description. and retest. Specify the command you use to display the contents of RAM: show running-configuration Copy the output of the configuration to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. Network connectivity can be verified with the ping command. click OFF. ■ Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/3: ■ Set the description. Copy the output of the show ip interface brief command to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Step 1. Press Enter until you receive a response. Note: If pings to host computers fail.

265. Fa0/0 Router1. From Host3.0. .265.200.0.249 127.200.200. That is.0. Task 5: Document the Network With all the work performed so far.200.200. Record the results in your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. the tracert command may be used as a crude throughput tester for network baselining.200. From Host2. Results can be used to justify equipment upgrades or new purchases.165.1 209.1 209.200.241 209. Router1.265.265.265.200.246 209.249 209.1 209.265.165.265. issue the tracert command to Router1.200.241 209. The network was physically and logically configured and verified. In addition to connectivity testing.250 209.200.200. Host2.265.1) NIC IP address Host2 Gateway (Router1.241 209. and Host3. and Host1.242 209.0. it would seem that there is nothing left to do.265. Fa0/0 Host1 LocalHost (127. issue the tracert command to Host2. Fa0/0 Host1 127. Record the results in your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. Fa0/1 Host2 Host3 LocalHost (127.250 209.200.200. Fa0/1) Router1.200. and Host1.1) NIC IP Address Host3 Gateway (Router1.249 Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Use the tracert command to verify local connectivity.0.243 209. issue the tracert command to Host3. LocalHost (127. with minimal traffic. tracert results can be compared against periods of high traffic.246 209.200.0. Router1.265.0.265.0.0.246126 209. Fa0/1) Router1. Record the results in your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. and command output was copied into tables.1) NIC IP Address Gateway (Router1.242 127.0.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 357 Table 11-37 Connectivity Testing From To IP Address Ping Result Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Step 2.265.250 209.0.0.165. From Host1.

and submit it to your instructor. Task 7: Challenge Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you aren’t looking or are out of the lab room. Problems can be either physical (cables moved on the switch) or logical (the wrong IP address or gateway).) Who wrote the documentation? (Talent like this needs to be tracked. default gateways. Use your network documentation to troubleshoot and remedy the problems. or cables. continue troubleshooting. Note to Instructor: You could introduce problems into the network by changing IP addresses. Use your network documentation to make sure your configurations are correct: Answers will vary Write down your proposed solution(s): Answers will vary Test your solution. perhaps in a cover letter: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ When was the network created? When was the network documented? Were any significant challenges overcome? Who performed the configuration? (Talent like this needs to be tracked.) Be sure to include the following information: ■ ■ A copy of the physical topology A copy of the logical topology Prepare your documentation in a professional format. For example. If the solution did not fix the problem. Look for green link lights on Switch1. If the solution fixed the problem. answer the following questions in the documentation. Ensure that you understand the procedures used to verify network connectivity. subnet masks. As you organize. think about what might be needed six months or a year from now. Answers will vary . Perform a good visual inspection.358 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The last step in network documentation is to organize your output. Task 6: Reflection Review any physical or logical configuration problems you encountered during this lab. document the solution.

and leave the room ready for the next class.4 service timestamps debug datetime msec service timestamps log datetime msec no service password-encryption ! hostname Router1 ! boot-start-marker boot-end-marker ! enable secret 5 $1$sqIx$iKGfkjNa6IlaBVnPnGrVR0 ! no aaa new-model ip cef ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description connection to Host1 ip address 209.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 359 Task 8: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by the instructor. and return them neatly to their storage.200.165. then turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab. Before turning off power to the router and switch.255. Example Router 1 Configuration Router1 Configuration Current configuration : 1138 bytes ! version 12.246 255. restore host computer network connectivity.165. Reconnect cables that were disconnected for this lab.200. remove the NVRAM configuration file from each device using the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config.255.255. Instructors may find the following configuration examples helpful.248 duplex auto speed auto .255. Carefully remove the cables.252 duplex auto speed auto ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description connection to Switch1 ip address 209.250 255.

530c. address is 001b.530c. line protocol is up Hardware is Gt96k FE.cdee) Description: connection to Host1 .360 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example ! Router 1 Configuration continued interface Serial0/1/0 no ip address shutdown no fair-queue ! interface Serial0/1/1 no ip address shutdown clock rate 2000000 ! interface Vlan1 no ip address ! ip http server no ip http secure-server ! control-plane ! banner motd ^C **** ABC network device **** **** Authorized access only **** **** Logging is enabled ***** ^C ! line con 0 password class login line aux 0 line vty 0 4 password class login ! scheduler allocate 20000 1000 end Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/0 Configuration Router1# show interface fa0/0 Router1#sh int fa0/0 FastEthernet0/0 is up.cdee (bia 001b.

loopback not set Keepalive not set Auto-duplex. Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: fifo Output queue: 0/40 (size/max) 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec. 0 overrun. reliability 255/255. 100BaseTX/FX ARP type: ARPA. rxload 1/255 Encapsulation ARPA. 88733 bytes. 0 packets/sec . rxload 1/255 Encapsulation ARPA. ARP Timeout 04:00:00 Last input never. 0 packets/sec 54 packets input. BW 100000 Kbit. 0 deferred 0 lost carrier. output never. BW 100000 Kbit. 0 runts. DLY 100 usec.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 361 Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/0 Configuration continued Internet address is 209. output 00:00:02.530c. 0 giants. 0 late collision. 0 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec. 0 throttles 0 input errors.200. txload 1/255. ARP Timeout 04:00:00 Last input 00:01:27. 100Mb/s. 8915 bytes Received 44 broadcasts. 0 ignored 0 watchdog 0 input packets with dribble condition detected 277 packets output. Auto Speed. address is 001b.cdef (bia 001b. output hang never Last clearing of “show interface” counters never Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes). 0 frame. txload 1/255. line protocol is up Hardware is Gt96k FE. DLY 100 usec. 0 no carrier 0 output buffer failures.530c. reliability 255/255.250/30 MTU 1500 bytes.200. 0 CRC.165. loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) Full-duplex. 0 collisions.165.246/29 MTU 1500 bytes. Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: fifo Output queue: 0/40 (size/max) 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec. 0 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec. 0 underruns 0 output errors. 4 interface resets 0 babbles. 100BaseTX/FX ARP type: ARPA. 0 output buffers swapped out Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/1 Configuration Router1# show interface fa0/1 FastEthernet0/1 is up. output hang never Last clearing of “show interface” counters never Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes).cdef) Description: connection to Switch1 Internet address is 209.

0 deferred 0 lost carrier. 0 frame.250 YES manual up 209. Current configuration : 1862 bytesad 1/255 ! version 12.1 no service padARPA.246 YES manual up unassigned unassigned YES unset YES unset administratively down down administratively down down Example Switch 1 Configuration Building configuration. 0 throttles 0 input errors. 14481 bytes.165. 0 underruns 0 output errors.. 1 interface resets 0 babbles. loopback service timestamps debug uptime service timestamps log uptime no service password-encryption ! hostname Switch1 ! enable secret 5 $1$X9tO$93NSNcI66s8ESanQ/o3A60 ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description connection to Router1 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/2 description connection to Host2 no ip address . 0 late collision. 0 collisions. 0 runts. 0 CRC. 0 ignored 0 watchdog 0 input packets with dribble condition detected 91 packets output. 0 overrun. 0 output buffers swapped out Example Router 1 IP Address Configuration Router1# sh ip int brief Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/1 Serial0/1/0 Serial0/1/1 IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol up up 209. 0 no carrier 0 output buffer failures..200.200. 0 bytes Received 0 broadcasts.362 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example Router 1 Interface Fa0/1 Configuration continued 0 packets input.165. 0 giants.

Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 363 Example ! Switch 1 Configuration continued interface FastEthernet0/3 description connection to Host3 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/4 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/5 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/6 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/7 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/8 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/9 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/10 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/11 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/12 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/13 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/14 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/15 no ip address ! .

364 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Example Switch 1 Configuration continued interface FastEthernet0/16 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/17 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/18 no ip address ! Interface FastEthernet0/19 no ip address ! Interface FastEthernet0/20 no ip address ! Interface FastEthernet0/21 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/22 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/23 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/24 no ip address ! interface GigabitEthernet0/1 no ip address !s interface GigabitEthernet0/2 no ip address ! ip http server ! banner motd ^C **** ABC network device **** **** Authorized access only **** **** Logging is enabled ***** .

200. C:\> tracert 209. C:\> .242 Trace complete.165.0ccc.242 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 2 <1 ms 1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 209.530c.250 Tracing route to 209.cccd 0100.250 209.200.165.200.200. C:\> tracert 209.165.200.242 Tracing route to 209.3c3a 001b.200.8bb4.cdef Type -------STATIC STATIC STATIC STATIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC Ports ----CPU CPU CPU CPU Fa0/3 Fa0/2 Fa0/1 Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 7 Switch1# Example Traceroute Results Host1 C:\> tracert 209.250 209.0cdd.165.200.165.200.165.250 Trace complete.250 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 209.165.165.a76a 0018.200.165.200.6cc0 0100.cccc 0100.0ccc.241 Tracing route to 209.76ac.dddd 0016.241 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 2 <1 ms 1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 209.241 Trace complete.165.165.f79f.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 365 Example Switch 1 MAC Address Table Mac Address Table ------------------------------------------Vlan ---All All All All 1 1 1 Mac Address ----------000f.200.

2. Before executing a network protocol analyzer on a network that belongs to someone else.254/24 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0c:29:63:17:a5 IP Address: 10.2. network packet noise has been omitted from the captures.1/24 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0c:85:cf:66:41 IP Address: 10.com.5. PC_Client.6. How an Ethernet II frame is constructed. For brevity and clarity.251/24 R1 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 IP Address: 10.2.1.exe Scenario This exercise details the sequence of datagrams that are created and sent across a network between a web client. a network protocol analyzer.1.1) Upon completion of this exercise.pcap (reference only) wireshark.2.366 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Lab 11-7: Case Study: Datagram Analysis with Wireshark (11. and a web server.1. Figure 11-20 Topology for Lab 11-7 Client LAN: MAC Address: 00:02:3f:7e:37:da IP Address: 10.1. and install Wireshark on your computer if it is not already installed: ■ ■ ■ eagle1_web_client. Understanding the process involved in sequentially placing packets on the network will help you logically troubleshoot network failures when connectivity breaks. eagle1. and explain the frame fields. and explain the segment fields. Figure 11-20 shows the topology for this lab.250/24 DNS Server . How an IP packet is constructed. be sure to get permission in writing.pcap (discussed) eagle1_web_server.1. Download the following files from Eagle Server.1. Background This lab requires two captured packet files and Wireshark. The contents of an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Request and ARP Reply.255/24 Server S1 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0f:f7:9f:6c:c9 IP Address: 10.example. you will be able to demonstrate ■ ■ ■ ■ How a TCP segment is constructed. and explain the packet fields.

Refer to Figure 11-22 for changes to the default output.1. . and Packet Bytes. . .1. : Description . . . . . . . . . and the URL eagle1. . . . . : 255. To ensure that there is no automatic translation in MAC addresses.0 Default Gateway . .1 Subnet Mask . : Intel(R) PRO/1000 MT Network Connection Physical Address. Refer to Example 11-20. . . .255. . . . .1.1. . uncheck Name Resolution for MAC Layer and Transport Layer. .1. . . . . . Uncheck Main Toolbar.1. . . . . . : 10. . . as shown in Figure 11-21. . : 10. .250 C: > arp -a No ARP Entries Found C: > A web client is started. . . : 00:02:3f:7e:37:da Dhcp Enabled. . . : No IP Address. . Example 11-20 PC Client Initial Network State C: > ipconfig / all Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . . . . and it’s where the captured packets start. .255. Verify that Packet List and Packet Details are checked. . . . . . : 10. . . . . Start Wireshark on your computer. . .com is entered. you can display IP configuration information and the contents of the ARP cache. . This begins the communication process to the web server. .254 DNS Servers . .example. . . Figure 11-21 PC Client with Web Browser Task 1: Prepare the Lab Step 1.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 367 Using Microsoft command-line tools. . Filter Toolbar. . . .

each line that contains a plus sign next to it indicates that additional information is available. Data is included. There are also two separate data windows. The bottom window contains packet details. the transport layer protocol is TCP.pcap Task 2: Review the Process of Data Flowing Through the Network Step 1. important header information is added. 1085—and knows the well-known web server port address. Review transport layer operation. The top Wireshark window lists all captured packets. provided by the application layer. PC_Client generates an internal TCP port address—in this conversation. At each layer. When PC_Client builds the datagram for a connection with eagle1.com. a sequence number has been internally generated.pcap. Load the web client capture. A screen similar to Figure 11-23 appears.example. so it must be discovered using other network protocols. Likewise. Because this communication is from a web client. . 80.368 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Figure 11-22 Wireshark Default View Changes Step 2. In the bottom window. Figure 11-23 Wireshark with eagle1_web_client. eagle1_web_client. Consider the TCP segment shown in Figure 11-24. Some information is unknown to PC_Client. Various pull-down menus and submenus are available. the datagram travels down the various network layers.

it must be encapsulated inside a frame. Figure 11-26 Ethernet II Frame Fields Ethernet II Frame Format Source Frame Address Type 2 Octets Preamble Destination Address Data CRC 8 Octets 6 Octets 6 Octets 46–1500 Octets 4 Octets . The corresponding IP address must be discovered through Domain Name System (DNS). Review data link layer operation. but it must discover the destination MAC address. At the network layer.com. fields related to the upper-layer protocols are empty. Before this segment can move to the network layer. Figure 11-25 IP Packet Fields IP Packet 0 Version 4 IHL Identification TTL Protocol Source IP Address Destination IP Address Data 8 10 TOS Flags 16 Total Length Fragment Offset Header Checksum 31 The destination for this packet is eagle1.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 369 Figure 11-24 TCP Segment Field TCP Segment 0 4 7 Source Port Sequence Number Acknowledgment Number Data Offset Reserved ECN Checksum Options and Padding Data Control Bits Window Urgent Pointer 10 16 Destination Port 31 There is no acknowledgment number.example. as shown in Figure 11-25. as well as the source IP address. Step 3. Step 2. Before the datagram is placed on the physical medium. the IPv4 (IP) packet has several fields ready with information. For example. Until the upper-layer datagram is received. as shown in Figure 11-26. Review network layer operation. PC_Client knows the source MAC address. the TCP three-way handshake must be performed. the packet version (IPv4) is known.

What is the source MAC address for the ARP Request? 00:02:31:7e:73:da What is the destination MAC address for the ARP Request? ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff What is the unknown IP address in the ARP Request? 10.250 What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0806 (ARP) Step 3. Review the data flow sequence.1. A review of missing information will be helpful in following the captured packet sequence: ■ The TCP segment cannot be constructed because the acknowledgment field is blank. 2.1 Based on the observation of the ARP protocol. A TCP three-way handshake with eagle1. You can view the contents of the ARP Request by clicking the ARP Request line in the Packet Details window.com is unknown. 1. what can you infer about an ARP Request destination address and an ARP Reply destination address? The destination address for an ARP Request is a broadcast address. The MAC address for eagle1. The captured frame is an ARP Request.com.example.1. No. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. ■ ■ ■ Step 2. because PC_Client does not know the IP address for eagle1.com must first be completed.370 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 3: Analyze Captured Packets Step 1. Examine the ARP request. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to discover the MAC address for the DNS server. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to learn the destination MAC address for eagle1. What is the source MAC address for the ARP Reply? 00:0c:29:63:17:a5 What is the destination MAC address for the ARP Request? 00:02:31:7e:73:da What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0806 (ARP) What is the destination IP address in the ARP Reply? 10.1. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window.example. The DNS server sent an ARP Reply. This is resolved with a DNS request from PC_Client to the DNS server. because the MAC address for the DNS server is unknown. Examine the ARP reply.1.example. the source MAC address of the request is stored in the receiver’s ARP cache. . Why didn’t the DNS server have to send an ARP Request for the PC_Client MAC address? When an ARP Request is received. No. The DNS server cannot be queried. You can view the contents of the Ethernet II frame by clicking the checkbox in the second line of the Packet Details window. and the destination address for an ARP Reply is a unicast address.com.example. The TCP three-way handshake cannot occur.

A better approach would be to employ a stateful packet filter and create rules that permit established and related traffic through the firewall.1. Examine the DNS query response. MSS=1460. The DNS server sent a DNS query response to PC_Client. asks you if you can think of any reason why all UDP packets should not be blocked from entering the internal network.1. PC_Client sent a DNS query to the DNS server. employees could not translate names to IP addresses.example. 7. 3. Examine the TCP three-way handshake.example. When a TCP segment is transported over IPv4. This means that the TCP acknowledgment number sent is for the expected sequence number of the next packet.com? 10. eagle1.251 One of your colleagues. No.1. Examine the ARP Request. If all UDP packets were dropped at the firewall. If the initial TCP sequence value from PC_Client is 0.example. Because 10. Initially. answer the following questions: What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0800 (IP) What is the transport layer protocol. Is this IP address different from the IP address for eagle1. along with an acknowledgment of 1 and a sequence of 0. In the Packet List window is an unexplained value. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window.example respond with an acknowledgment of 1? TCP employs expectational acknowledgments. This value is sent during connection startup.251 is on a different network than 10. 6. port 53 Step 5. No.2. PC_Client sent an ARP Request to IP address 10. These captures contain the TCP three-way handshake between PC_Client and eagle1. No. and what is the destination port number? UDP.2.example. Examine the DNS query. 4. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window.1.0/24. and 9.2. only the TCP SYN flag is set on the datagram sent from PC_Client. Using the Packet Details window. Using the Packet Details window. answer the following questions: What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0800 (IP) What is the transport layer protocol.com? Explain. The ARP Reply was from the Gateway. port 1043 What is the IP address for eagle1. This is also when TCP sliding windows are negotiated. MSS stands for maximum segment size.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 371 Step 4. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. 5 and No. Refer to Wireshark’s Packet List window. Step 7. Step 6.com. . What is your response? DNS uses UDP for name translation.2.254. PC_Client must have the ARP address to the Gateway. Yes. sequence number 0. why did eagle1. and what is the destination port number? UDP. 8.com responds with the TCP ACK and SYN flags set. MSS is computed to be the maximum size of an IPv4 datagram minus 40 bytes. No. a firewall administrator.

.com must first be completed.com before PC_Client has sufficient information to send the original web client request to eagle1.com? Table 11-38 shows the TCP flag states. . 10. . . .0. . This is resolved with a DNS request from PC_Client to the DNS server. DNS server. . . . No. . . . the DNS query response The DNS server cannot be queried because the MAC address for the DNS server is unknown. . . .example.com. . . .0. . 4. . . . Reserved (not set) 1 . The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to discover the MAC address for the DNS server. No. 8. . It has taken a total of nine datagrams sent between PC_Client. . Don’t fragment (set) 0 . what TCP flag states are returned to eagle1. . and eagle1. . . Match the Wireshark output to the process. the TCP ACK response to eagle1. .com. . .example. . A TCP three-way handshake with eagle1.1. 9.example. Gateway.com The TCP three-way handshake cannot occur because PC_Client does not know the IP address for eagle1. Fill in the correct Wireshark Packet List window number that satisfies each of the following missing entries: ■ The TCP segment cannot be constructed because the acknowledgment field is blank.372 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide In eagle1. .0 Congestion Window Reduced ECN Echo Urgent ACK PSH SYN FIN Task 4: Complete the Final Analysis Step 1. No. .example.0. 2. .example. 9. This is shown in Wireshark’s Packet List. Wireshark’s Packet List. No. No. where PC_Client sent a web protocol GET request. More fragments (not set) When PC_Client completes the TCP three-way handshake.example. Table 11-38 TCP Flag States Bit Position Flag 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0.0. . . . the ARP response from the DNS server ■ ■ . what does the IP flag value of 0x04 mean? IP flag values: 8421 0 .example. . . No.com.

example. the ARP response from the Gateway Wireshark Packet List No. 12. To use this feature. highlight Wireshark Packet List No. there could be multiple causes.example.com. the same protocol analyzer can become an effective troubleshooting tool when the network fails. and the TCP session is closed. if a web browser could not connect to a web server. Step 2.com? No. When PC_Client is finished.com. What is the purpose of this datagram? This datagram is a TCP window update to expand the window size. A window similar to the one shown in Figure 11-27 appears. and expand the [SEQ/ACK analysis] frame. 13 The Wireshark Packet List No.example. No. scroll down to the bottom of the Detail List window. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to learn the destination MAC address for the gateway. Wireshark Packet List No. 6. 10. 14. For example.example. 11 is an acknowledgment from eagle1. .example. TCP ACK and FIN flags are sent.com responds with a TCP ACK.com to the PC_Client GET request. Use the Wireshark TCP stream. and unacknowledged packets. Wireshark Packet List No. 14 and 16 are ACK datagrams from PC_Client.example. To verify the ACK. and 15 are TCP segments from eagle1. 17 datagram is sent from PC_Client to eagle1. Next. Analyzing packet contents can be a daunting experience—time-consuming and errorprone. 18. Figure 11-27 Output of TCP Stream Task 5: Conclusion Using a network protocol analyzer can be an effective learning tool for understanding critical elements of network communication. Review the information in the [SEQ/ACK analysis] frame. A protocol analyzer shows unsuccessful ARP requests. Wireshark includes an option that constructs the TCP stream in a separate window.com is unknown. Next.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 373 ■ The MAC address for the gateway to reach eagle1. 13. eagle1. choose Analyze > Follow TCP Stream. unsuccessful DNS queries. Wireshark Packet List No. as shown in Wireshark Packet List No. The ACK datagram for Wireshark Packet List No. 14 is a response to which datagram from eagle1. As soon as the network administrator is familiar with communication protocols. first select a TCP datagram from the Wireshark Packet List. from Wireshark.

with the client issuing a TCP FIN flag. ARP. You have also developed a conceptual understanding of networking protocols and device algorithms.374 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Task 6: Summary In this exercise you have learned how a web client and web server communicate. Ethernet. Packet Tracer Challenge Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring and Analyzing Networks (11. building. Analyze the events involved in ■ ■ Requesting a web page (DNS. Integrate skills from throughout the course. test. ICMP. IP. Here is an opportunity to test yourself. configuring. and configure the entire lab network.1. Ethernet. the TCP session is destroyed in an orderly manner. TCP.3) Open file LSG01-PTSkills11. HDLC) Background Throughout this course.6.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. IP. Figure 11-28 Skills Integration Lab Topology 1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server 2960-24TT S1-Central 1841 R2-Central PC-PT 1A PC-PT 1B . UDP. Figure 11-28 shows the topology for this lab. you will be able to ■ ■ ■ Build. Behind-the-scenes protocols such as DNS and ARP are used to fill in missing parts of IP packets and Ethernet frames. Finally. See if you can complete this entire challenge (approximately 100 configurable components. and testing skills. you have been developing network planning. Upon completion of this activity. the TCP three-way handshake must build a reliable path and supply both communicating ends with initial TCP header information. Before a TCP session can begin. respectively. ARP. HDLC) Tracing the route to the web server (DNS. although some are quite easy) in less than 30 minutes. HTTP.

For R2-Central’s Fa0/0 interface. up to seven hosts (not yet implemented) Fifth subnet. You must provide for existing networks as well as future growth. connected to Fa0/24 on S1-Central) Second subnet. For hosts 1A and 1B.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 375 Task 1: Plan Use the standard Exploration lab topology as you plan your IP addressing scheme: ■ Two 1841 routers with WIC-2T interface cards. use the second-highest usable address on the student subnet. future student LAN. banners) should be entered exactly as specified in these instructions for the grading to work properly.0 /24. and connect them to the Fa0/1 and Fa0/2 interfaces on S1Central. which has a serial DCE WAN connection to R1ISP and an Fa0/0 LAN connection to S1-Central One 2960TT switch (S1-Central) Two PCs named 1A and 1B A server named Eagle_Server ■ ■ ■ Note that both the display names and hostnames for all devices must be configured exactly. In general. use the lowest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. which has a serial DCE WAN connection to R2-Central and an Fa0/0 LAN connection to Eagle_Server. point-to-point link (S0/0/0 on R1-ISP and S0/0/0 on R2-Central) ■ ■ ■ ■ IP address assignments: ■ ■ ■ For the server. existing ISP LAN. existing student LAN. For R2-Central’s S0/0/0 interface. configure the highest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. For R1-ISP’s S0/0/0 interface.3. You have been given an IP address block of 192. . up to 28 hosts (Fa0/0 on R2-Central. configure the second-highest usable IP address on the ISP LAN subnet. For the switch management interface. and connect it to the Fa0/24 interface on S1-Central. passwords. and one named R2-Central. all strings (names. use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. up to 14 hosts (Fa0/0 on R1-ISP) Fourth subnet.168. Subnet assignments: ■ First subnet. future ISP LAN. existing WAN. up to 28 hosts (not yet implemented) Third subnet. ■ ■ ■ ■ Use Table 11-39 to record your address information. use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet. installed in the slot on the right—one named R1-ISP. configure the highest usable IP address on the ISP LAN subnet. For R1-ISP’s Fa0/0 interface.

168. Whenever you configure a Cisco IOS device. Authorized access only. Hint: To configure static routes. Configure both routers.3.example. and Telnet passwords all set to cisco).255. Students need to understand these concepts to successfully complete this lab. console. the switch.3.97 192. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points via R1-ISP’s serial interface IP address.30 192.376 Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Table 11-39 Addressing Table Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway R1-ISP Fa0/0 S0/0/0 192. passwords.255. interfaces (FastEthernet and serial). banner (**This is lab switch S1-Central.3.77 255.3.com. and enable HTTP services. The static route on R1-ISP should point to the existing Student LAN subnet via R2-Central’s serial interface IP address.98 192. use the domain name eagle-server. On the switch. use ip route global configuration mode. For Hosts 1A and 1B.3.3.252 255. use “Reset Activity” and retime yourself doing the entire configuration again.240 — — 192. be sure to save your configuration.98 192. default route on R2-Central). use a clock rate of 64000 on the R1ISP S0/0/0 interface.255.240 255.** The interfaces should be configured as specified in Table 11-39. banner).255.255. taking care to make connections as specified. If you want more practice.78 R2-Central Fa0/0 S0/0/0 PC-1A PC-1B Eagle-Server NIC NIC NIC Task 2: Build and Configure the Network Build the network. Whenever you configure a Cisco IOS device. Note to Instructor: You might want to introduce students to the concepts of static routes and discuss the command syntax and default routes.168.168. The banners should say **This is lab router R1ISP. The following login passwords should all be set to cisco: enable.168.224 255.168.255.168.** and **This is lab router R2-Central.168.3. and routing (static route on R1-ISP. configure them to use DNS services. and management interface (int vlan1).30 192.252 255. login passwords for access (enable.255.98 192.255. Authorized access only.78 192.2 192.30 192.255. and the two PCs. use “Check Results” to see what components still need to be configured. and Telnet. You can use the CLI help function to determine the command syntax. the server.255. hostname.**).3. For the server.168.3.255. As you work.224 255.3.1 192. console.168. in addition to IP configuration.255. configure the display name.3. Configure the routers using the CLI to practice your skills.224 255. be sure to save your configuration. enable DNS services.168.168. . The router configuration must include “housekeeping” (display name.168.255.255.3. hostname. Authorized access only.

Your skills at modeling networks in Packet Tracer will serve you well in subsequent courses. Telnet. ARP. Again explain the entire process to a peer. As soon as you are convinced that your network is working. Examine how the trace is built from ICMP echo requests. HTTP. Then power-cycle the devices and reset the network. especially how IP is involved in everything. and routers. ICMP.Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network 377 Task 3: Test and Analyze It is good practice to test connectivity through ping and Telnet. request a web page while making the following protocols visible in the event list: DNS. Also note the algorithms used by hosts. Examine the packets as they are processed by the devices to study protocol behavior. switches. Task 4: Reflection Relate the processes observed in Task 3 to the TCP/IP Protocol Graph. Power-cycle the devices to clear the network again and. also in simulation mode. make sure you have saved your configurations on the Cisco IOS devices. . TCP. Explain the entire process to a peer. and to examine routing tables. In simulation mode. issue a traceroute to the server from one of the PCs. UDP.

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