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(TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE OF INDIA) The most outstanding feature of the ancient texts on Hindu, architecture, the Shastras, in their classificatin oof the Temple into different 'orders'. The terms Nagara, Dravida and Vesara which are found in these texts do not function as all embracing stylistic categories, but indicate a general impulse to classify temples according to their typological features. Or, this nomenclature should certainly not be taken as all embracing but only as a handy modus-operandi of division of the temple groups. These terms in actuality, stands for temples which employ primarily the square, octagon and apse in their plan and which however might be resticted to any or all vertical parts of the profile of the temple conceived. Obviously these
three shapes together with two more, namely, ellipse and rectangle derive their origin from the five basic shapes enumarated in Brihat Samhita and later ramifying into 20 and 45 of Vishnudharmottara and Agni Purana. Nagara & Dravida temples are mostly identified with the Northern & Southern temple style, respectively. The other fundamental connotation of the Silpa & Vastu textsin the distinction that is discerningly made between Prasada & Vimana, the former being adopted essentially for the norther temple and the later for the sourther. Each temple style has its own distinct technical language, though some term are common but applied to different parts of the buildings in each style. This is based on the fundamental differences between the forms of these two and germane to this in the Varying import of the word ''Sikhara' itself in the northern &
southern parlance. This stylistic terminology is accompanied by distinct systems of proportionate measurement. In the description of the southern temple the Shastras take into ' account such variants as building whose elevation are based upon a single unit or a number of units vertically superimposed, temples with unlimited and progressive series of units are also described. For northern temple the Shastras list the horizontal divisions of the vertical profile of the buildings from the lease to the superstructure and its finial and classify temples according to these divisions, elaborated in the later texts into many subparts. Thus we can make profitalete use of the preferred usages employed by the textual data in dealing with norther, southern and central (versara style) religion and get a clear picture of the rationale behind textual classification, which doubtless was leased on physical (though also on geographical & other) features. The Nagara variety mostly belong to the North India. But this type of identification can not be given on a strict geographical basis since the northern or Magara order is found further south as well. The chief characteristic of this north Indian temple lie in their plan and elevation. In the interior the shrine is always square but on the outside projections adorn each of the four sides. The forerunner of such an outline may be traced back to the panels not tho center of each side of the cella wall in the Dasavatara temple at Deogarh, with a row of stupis (finials) along it ridge. Another part of the south Indian temple is the prakara or enclosure wall. Sometimes simple but frequently with a series of colls attached to it : At times there
are several of these prakaras -the shrine of Srirangam has seven. They enclose not only the main shrine but other smaller ones as weII as bathing pools mid shaded porticoes, not necessary in north but common in the hot climate of the south. In the classification of southern temples the text resort to the alpa, Jati and Mukhya grouping based on a single basic unit, a limited series, and an unlimited and progressive series. Thus ail temple which has four storeys are to be classfied as Jati (genre) nirmana but not Mukhya Vimanas. More than four storeys would entitle a temple to become a Mukhya type and it usually goes upto a limit of 12, although very few temples reach that limit. We have however an interesting tally of the maximum limit of 12 storeys (if the basal double unit or additional storey under the sikhara is not taken into account) and the limiting height of less than 200 feet in the case of great temple at Thanjavur, which is clearly one of the very very few Mukhya nirmanas of the south. The southern temple has usually the sixfold division of its profile into the Adhisthana. Pada, Prastara, Griva, Sikhara and Stupi. Rather than these two types of Hindu temple architecture we have another more temple type, called Vesara. According to Shastras the plan of this temple type is apsidal in plan. Apse of course include the circle also. In this way we can say that the Versara temple should be related to the apsidal and circular shrines. Actually wo can much more say that Vorsara stylo is the hybrid style of Nagara and Dravida style of architecture. The famous temple of Vijayalayacholisvaram at Narttamalai (Madras) which is circular in section from top to bottom in its main edifice is
obviously an ideal Vesara temple. This style consist of a simple cella in an open construction - a sort of verandah. Gradually developed into the mature Prasada and Vimana forms of temple, having a Mukha Mandpa, a closed Saleha Mandapa, an Antarala (antechamber) and a Pradakshina path. Sikhar can Me found both pyramidal and curvilinar and the height in proportionately shorter than Dravida or Nagara style.
the foot (Pa bhaga). Hindu temples are not simply place of worship but are objects of worship in themselves recreation of the "Divine cosmic creator . or ritual viewing of the deity the culmination of an act of worship. It that hoppens the man will never get rebirth again as has been described in Sastras "Rathe Tu Bamanam Drstva PunarJanma Na bidyate".CHAPTER-1 Orissan Temples Orissan temples consitute one of the most distinctive regional styles of religious architecture in South Asia. Parts of Man 1. Foot with fingers Parts of theTemple Padapitha 5 . this concept also finds expression in the technical terms used in the Sastras to designate the different parts of the structure. The meaning is. if one sees the Brahman (soul) in his own body (realises his soul) he will not appear again in this world or take a body in the world. For a Hindu to move through a temple is akin to entering the very body of the God to be glimpsed in the shrine room during the moment of darsana.being" or the particular deity enshrined within them. In Orissa. Like Christian churches or Muslim mosques. torsa (gandi) neck (kantha) head (mastaka) and so forth. Different parts of the body of a man resembles different parts of the temple to provide the temple a look of the human body. The temple is considered as a Ratha so also the human body. Shin (Jangha). In this context to have a darsana means to see and realise one's own soul within himself.
10. is crowned by the presiding deity's sacred weapon. The first and most impressive of these is the Deul. Above that the vessel of immortality.2. 6. Its intricately ribbed sides. A soaring curvilinear spire with a square base and rounded up. 8. the Deul symbolies the Divine mountain from which the sacred Ganga flows into the World. Lower part of keens Knee Upper part of knee Waist Belly Heart Shoulder Neck Mouth Forehead Upper part of the head Brahma randra Nimna Jangha Bandhana Upper Jangha Badanta Can/a fta/ia Visama Kantha Amalaka Khapuri Kalasa Ayudha The figure shows the different parts of the body related to different parts of the temples. 3. 9. while its top supports a lotus shaped spherical amala (a motif derived from an auspicious fruit used in Ayurvedic medicine as a purifying agent). the kalasa. 4. 5. 13. or sanctuary tower. 12. 11. Most temples are made up of two main sections. which in later buildings were divided in to rectangular projections known as "Rathas" usually house images of the accessory deities. a (visnu cakra) or trident (Siva's 6 . 7.
in the second (abarta) round of this Ksetra Kapatamocan Siva is seated. hence Lord Jagannatha allowed Siva to surround the temple being divided in to eight fold. Sakti temples. They are (1) Kapalamocana. Sarba manga la In Vayu corner. Sriksetra is just like a conch. To protect the antarvedi (the Ratnasimhasana) gouri (Paravati. The Simhasana (antarvedi) is protected by these furious Goddess of Sriksetra. (3) Khetrapala. in west Bimala. Siva temples. in Agnicorner. Nilakantha Mahadeva is seated. Nrsimha temples and Hanumana temples. Besides these there are also other temples which are not connected with the temple rituals. As per the Skanda purana the geography of Nitacala. Kataratri in South. (8) Batesvara temple. who is created from the tea of Mahafaksmf) divided herself in to eight saktis (as instructed by Mahalakshmt) seats in different direction of the temple. Lord Siva prayed Jagannatha to be in Nilacala. In the upperend of this ksetra. (7) Nilakantha. Canda rupa in Nairuta corner. 7 . Lambha in Aisanya corner. (2) Kama. (Dakhinabarta snakha) The head of this sankiia is towords the west. Maiicika in East. Ardhasini in North. They are Mangala in side the temple (near Kalpabata). The actual deity occupies a chamber in side the deul known in Oriya as the Grabha Grha or the inner sanctum. In Puri the temples scattered around the main temple are. (4) Yamesvara. (5) Markandesvara (6) Bisvesvara.Trisula). the shrine is shrouded in a womb-like dankness intended to focus the mind of the worshipper on the image of God.
Further Skanda Purana wirtes that God originally appeared in the form of Nrsimha at Sriksetra, Although Vasu Sabarwas worshipping the Lord in the form of Nila Madhavalhe deity vanished long before the King Indradyumna entered in to this place. Indradyumna could hear this from the King of Utkal and was disappointed. But Sage Narada who was all along with him console him and both of them ride to the top of Nilacala and could see the God in the form of Nrsimha. Number of times the temple was attacked by muslims during the period of muslim rule in India. It was an urgent need on the part of the King.of Orissa as well as hlndu Saints to protect -the Temple from Muslim invasion. As a result of which a group of young boys were trained in Yaga Aakhads (a place where training was imparted to protect the temple) They worship Hanumans as a symbo' (grea* Hero Mhavirs) before they start their training, and also in course of training. More over Ramananda, Saint of Ramanuja order come to Puri and established PancaAkhada in four directions of the temple to impart training to Young boys with a vow to protect the temple. He was a worshipper of Rama and Hanumana. Hanumana is placed as the symbol of Hero Worship from his days at Puri. Hanumana Temples are also placed in four directions of Snksetrale. Bedi Hanumana- east, Bargi Hanumana - west, Kanapata Hanumana - South, Siddha Hanuman north to protect the place from attack of Bergies, Bergles were devotees of Lord Hanumana. Therefore they used to leave the place where Hanumana is installed. There fore a good number of Hanumana temples are seen at Puri. Due to inflence of Sri Caitanya many Goudiya temples worshipping Krsna and
Radharaniare also installed at Puri. Hence one can see Siva Temples, Siva Temples, NrsimhaTemples, Hanumana Temples and Radha Krsna Temples arround Puri. Another intersting feature is that unlike four gate ways of the temple one also can see Siva, Hanumana and Nrshima, temples in ail the four directions (gate ways) of Ksetra. The temples seen in diff rent directions are as follows. East Visvasvaror Vilesvara West Lokanatha Bargi Hanumana Bedi Hanumana Cakra Nrsimha Nrsimha (near Bank) South Kapalamocana Yamesara North Nilakantha Kanapata Hanumana Siddha Hanumana Siva Temple Kapala Mocana Skanda Parana writes, on one occasion Mahadeva (Siva) became very angry on Brahma and he gave a slap to him as a result of which one head of Brahma was behaded and was linked with his hand. Mahadeva wondered different Lokasand worshipped Demi Gods to free him from this sin. But it was all invain. At last he reached Sriksetra. At Sriksetra the head fell down from his hand. The place at which the head touched the earth Siva sat there and worshipped Lord Pandu Nrsimha Yajna Nrsimha
Jagannatha. He became famous in the name of Brahma Kapala Mocana Siva or Kapala Mocana Siva. That place becomes a tirtha knwon as Manikamika tirtha. Now it remains in the from of a well. Skanda Purana also writes the place where Kapalamocana Siva sat, is in the second round circle of the conch. Devotees who worships Kapalamocana are made free from Brahmahatya sin. This temple is situated in the south side of Jagannatha Temple. It is situated at the bottom of 60 feet from the ground level. 1 2 steps are there to go inside the temple. In side the temple Kartikeya, Haraparvati, GangaDevi, Mahavira, Ramesvaraand Kalis'A as side deities (Parva devata). Rice Preparations are offered to the Lord everyday.The temple has connection with certain rituals of Sri Jagannatha Temple such as Candan Yatra, Sita! Sasti ( the next day of marriage of Siva and Pravatij. The temple is managed by a Committee. Markandesvara This Siva temple is situated in the north side of Jagannatha Temple in Ihe Markandesvara street of Puri. Skanda Purana writes during pralaya when Rsi Markandeya was floating in water, he could see a banian tree in Sriksetra. Immediately he rushed in to the place for help. At that time he could hear the voice of a boy who invited him to come to his side for rest. Markandeya reached the place where sound was comming and saw Bala Mukunda ( child Krsna) sleeping in a leaf of the Banian tree. He rushed in to the mouth of Balamukunda and could see 1 4 loka inside his body. Being released from his mouth he requested Balamukunda to stay at Sriksetra inorderto worship him. God instructed him to stay
at Vayu corner of Kalpabata. He excavated there a hole (Which is known as Markandeya Tank) and remain in the side of the tank in the form of Siva linga to worship Lord Jagannatha. From that day he is known as Markandeya Siva. Devotee by taking bath in the hoiy tank and worshipping Markandeya Siva would get the fruit of Asvameda Yajna. The Temple is connected with the rituals of Candan Yatra. Calabhadra Janma, Asram Bije of Laksmion the day of Rsi Pancami, Sitaa sasti, Kalia Dalaha rituals of Sri Jagannatha Temple. This temple is managed by a committee. There are ancient stone inscriptions in the temple preaching the glory of Ganga dynasty. In the gate way of Markandeya tank stone image of Sapta Matrka are there Yamesvara This temple is situated in the South of Sri Jagannatha Temple in Haracandi Sahi As per the description of Skanda Purana, Brahma, while worshipping Nilamadhaba at Sriksetra could see two wonderful incident. A crow flying in a distant sky became thirsty drowned in the holy water of Rohinikunda while drinking water in side. By that bath the crow took the form of four armed Visnu and sat near the Lord. Again he could see Varna, the God of Death reached Sriksetra and prayed Lord Jagannatha to relinquish his role as the God of Death as, he could not be able to perfrom the same in Sriksetra. Satisfired with his peayer lord instructed Mahalakshmi reveal the glory of Sriksetra to Yama and leave the place for devotees and rule in other places. Vamaraa being instructed by Mahaiaksmi
prayed Lord to stay at Sriksetra to worship him. In side the temple both Garuda and Brsaba (Bull) are seated side by side representating a synthesis of Har and Hara Cult.There are some similarities between rituals of Lingaraj Temple of Bhubanesvara and Yamesvara Temple of Puri. Here Tulasi leaves and Beta leavs are used for Puja like that of Lingaraj Temple. He also calculates the income and expenditure of the temple at this palce by coming three times to this plane in a year. Markandesvara. One can see eight Siva images inside the temple. Sudarsana deity from Sri Jagannatha Temple visits Lord Yamesvara on the day of Balabhadra Janma. There is a big Mahavira idol in the steps of this temple. Anna Prasada is also offered here like LingarajTemple. Bije Pratima (Representive) of Lord Yamesvara takes part in Candana Yatra. Nvakantha. Visvesvara. This temple is at 100 feet below the ground level. and Angesvara and Yamesvara himsetf. Car Festival is also observed here on the eve of Sital sasti (day following the mirrage of Siva & Parvati). The temple is managed by a Committee. This temple is connected with the rituals of Jagannatha Temple. Devotees worshipping Lord Yamesvara could achive the fruit of worshipping crores of Siva Linga's in many places. Sovakesvara. 12 . Being satisfied with his prayer Sri Jagannatha allowed him to stay and from that day he remained at Sriksetra in the name of Yamesvara at a place close to sea-shore. Lokanatha. They are Kapalamocana.
This is a Siva Temple and ranked next to Sri JagannathaTemple. Lokanatha Temple The Lokanatha temple is at a distance of about 2Krn to the west of the Jagannatha Temple. 13 . Siva took poison to protect the worid which arose from the churning of the sea by both Devata and Asura. Sabars presented him a lau (one type of vegetable) looking like a Siva Linga. At that time there was a Sabarpali nearby. From that day his name has become Nilakantha. The temple is connected with Candana Yatra and Sital Sasti rituals of Jagannatha Temple. Skanda Parana writes that in the upper side of Sankha (conch) Nilakantha Mahadeva is situated. Anna Bhoga is offered in this temple. From that day Sivalinga placed by Lord Rama was called Lokanatha and in course of time the name has been Lokanatha. As lau looked like Sivalinga.Nilakantha Temple This temple is situated in the back side of Gundica Temple. The representative deity of this temple remains at another Nilakantha Temple situated at Labnikhia Chaka. Legend says that Lord Rama on his way to Srilanka for searching Site reached Sriksetra and seated with a vow to see Siva there. The temple is Managed by a committee.' Rama put that as a replica of Sivalinga at this place and prayed Siva to fulfil his desire. In the Natamandira an image of Kali (the height of which is 3 feet) is sitting in front of Siva. The height of the temple is 1 2feet It has a Mukhasala of 1 5 feet and Natamandira of 20 feet hight.
Large number of devotees also gather here on the last-monday of Baisakha to worship the lord.The Linga of Lokanatha is submerged in water throughout the year and visible only on the night of Pankoddhar Ekadasi (3 days before Sivaratl) when the water is cleared for the purpose of cleaning. Sri Lokanatha is the guardian deity of Ratnabhandara (treasure house) of Sri Jagannatha Temple. The temple is managed by a trust board under the control of State Endowment Commissioner. The main temple is a rekha order which is around 30 feet high. On that-day a meet is arranged between Lokanatha (Hara) and Jagannatha (Hari). Markandesvara. Lokanatha. The porch in front of the temple is built in a pidha order. On Mahasivaratri lot of devotee arrive near the temple to offer their prayer to Lord Lokanatha. This enables the devotees to see the Linga of Lokanatha.Jhe union seems to be an assimilation of Vaisnaba and Saiba cult which at some time felt as enemy to each other. He is known as Bhandara Lokanatha: Lord Lokanatha's Bije Pratima accompany the Lord at the time of Candana Yatra. The temple of Panca Pandab are also there in side of the temple in front of Batamagala.The representative deities of these five Siva temple accompany Madanamohana and Rama Krsna during Candana Yatra festival of Jagannatha Temple. Yamesvara and Nilakantha are known as a Panca Pandaba in the temple Language of Puri. Madanmohana 14 . Kapalamocana. Anna Bhoga is offered in Lokanatha temple.
15 . More over it is also said that in Sriksetra there lies one crore of Sivalinga. Kalika Purana writes "Vimala. A Ksetra to be Sriksetra should have one crores of Sivalinga so that the Lord Visnu can sit tnere. Some people identify this place as Padapitha. The Udradesa later on which was identified as Orissa has been a sit of tantrics all along the olden days.with Sridevi and Bhudevisti in a Capa (boat) and Rama Krsna and Panca Pandava sit in another Capa (boat) for the purpose of Candana sports in Narendra Tank. Skanda Purana also makes a reference of Ardhasini or Ardhasosini who is commonly known as Mausima. Skanda Purana also writes that that Mahavedi is circumscribed by eight godesses who are engaged to protect it. Vairabi yatra Jagannathstu Vairsva". All these things prove that. Sriksetra is a Saktipitha (seat of Sakti). According to Devi Bhagavata the naval portion of Salt has fallen at this place when she was carried by Siva. More over Skanda Purana writes that Vimala resides in the 3rd circle of the conch. One thing is very clear from this discussion is that Sriksetra has become a synthesis of Saiba Cult and Vasnaba cuit. Sakti Temples at Puri Sriksetra is commonly known as a Saktipitha. These five Siva temples including the temple of Esanesvara and Patalesvara inside Jagannatha temple are near about 20 to 30 feet deep from the ground level. Vimala is known as Vairabi. Whose work is to sallow the water (Karanavari) in the begining of the Srsti (creation). Hence this place is known as Navipitha. Because of this situation sometimes it is also argued that Puri was Saiva Ksetra.
Mohantas of Mathas. Alamacandi is four handed Durga image. Batamangals at that time had shown the path. In the upper right hand she holds Sankha and upper left hand Trisula. During the time of Navakalevara Daru Brahma coming from diffrent places for construction of deities are placed here and entered with a procession. On the day of Sapatapuri Amabasya Saptapuri Is sent to this temple from Jagannatha Temple for bhoga. She has four hands. The temple is conected with Saptapuri Puja of Jagannatha Temple. in lower hands she has Abhaya and Varada pose. Legend says that Brahma while coming to Sriksetra to consecrate deities in Srimandira could not find the way to Ksetra.There are good number of Sakti Temples at Puri. away from Puri towords Bhubanesvar. From that day she has been engaged to show path to the devotees to Sriksetra. Ma Magala sits on a Lotus. Devotee while coming to Sriksetra offer their prayer to Batamangala and while leaving keep her as witness of their visit to Sriksetra. Alama Candi This goddes temple is at Atharanala gate of Sriksetra. sevayata of the temple. stay here for obtaining permission to enter in to Sriksetra Skanda Parana also has made a reference of 16 . The procession is accompanied by Ganapati Maharaja. The descriptions of these are given below. Batamangala This temple is situated in the PuriBhubansvar road near about 3 Km. Catra are placed on the Darubrahma and Camra are used in the procession. It is reported that in good old days Raja and Maharajas and other distinguished guest. Saints.
Alamacandi staying in north side of the temple to protect Ratna Vedi. where Cars for Lord Jagannatha. The legend says that when Jagannatha and Balabhadara left Srimandira being banished by Laksmi. Skanda Purana says goddess Ardhasosini or Ardhaslni allows the PralayaVari (Water) in the beginning of creation. Carpenters and Bhoi Sevaka engaged in the construction of cars also pray goddess Carcika at the time of construction of Chariots. She was usually worshipped by Gajapati Kings at the beginning of war performance. and Subhadra are constructed every year. She is aiso worshipped by Gajapati Maharaja of Puri. The temple is managed by a committee. She is also called Mausima (aunt) of Lord Jagannatha. Ardhasitii This temple is situated on all most mid ways of Srimandira and Gundica temple in the Grand Road. At present the temple administration bears the expenses of the daily rituals of ihe temple. Carcika This temple is situated near Jaganntha Temple office. Ardhasinion Mausima is also one of the eight Sakii engaged in the protection of Sriksetra. Subhadra left Srimandira and stayed with Mausima. On the return Car Festival day Jagannatha triad halt at this place for Podapitha bhoga (One kind of Cake) as a sense of love of their Mausi to them. The idol of Mausima is just like the idol of Subhadra. Carcika is the superintending deity of the construction of Nandighosa Ralha of Jagannatha. Balabhadara. Every year on the day of return Car Festival goddess Mahalaksimi usually meet Jagannatha at this place which is 17 .
Certain materials for preparation of bhoga for the deity of this temple are supplied by Sri JagannathaTemple administration. This is commonly described as Sakta Gundica. Maricika it is situated near Maricikota Chaka in Grand Road. Skanda Purana has made a reference of Maricika as a goddess who is in charge of guarding Ratnavediby sitting in the east side of the temple. in the premise of the present Srinahar (palace) of Maharaja of Puri which is in front of the Sri Jagannatha temple office. Narayani It is situated in the Dolamandap Sahi of Puri. sit in this place for the next 8 days. Kanaka Durga It is situated. During Durgapuj'a (Puja for 1 6 days in the month of Oct. Goddess Dakhinakali plays an important role in the rituals of Saptapuri Amabasya. Supakars (cooks) enter in to the kitchen with her (sindura) in forehead.commonly described as "Laksmi Naryana Bheta".) the images of Durga and Madhava after sitting eightdays in Vimala Temple. In Tantra literature Sri Jagannatha is also termed as Dakhinakaiika. 18 . Kanak Durga is the house deity of Gajapati Maharaja. This street is in front of the Lion'sgate. Dakhinakali Temple The temple of Goddess Dakhinakali is situated in the southside of Jagannatha temple towords the sea in Kalikadevi Sahi. She is the protector of the evils of-kitchen of Sri Jagannatha Temple.
Skanda Purana refers her as Kalaratri. Here canda rupa can be identified as Haracandi as she is in the south western corner of the temple. Varshi. Name of the Goddess 1.Skanda Parana has made a reference of Dakhinakaika who is incharge of protecting the Ratnavediby sitting in the southside of the temple. Syamakali Syamakali Temple is situated in the Balisahioi Puri which is in the southernside of the temple. Goddess Symakaliwas the presiding deity of old Raja Navara (old Palace of the king of Puri). Skanda Purana made a reference of Haracandi as one of the Sakti (Goddess) among eight Sakties who are engaged'to protect Rantavedi.The present palace in front of the Office of Temple Administration is a new one which was built only in 1 9th century. The list of these are given below. Gachakali Baseli Where situated Bali Sahi Baseli Sahi 19 . Skanda Purana writes a Sakti named Candarupa sitting in sourthern-west corner (Nairuta corner) of the temple is engaged to protect the Ratnavedi. 2. Haracandi The Haracandi temple is situated in the Haracandi Sahi of Puri which lies in the southern westernside of the temple. as she is Black in colour having a kharpara (sword) in her hand to kill the demons. Besides these Goddess temple there are also other Goddess temples in Puri.
Jaduani Jhadesvari Uttarkali Mangala - Kundeibenta Sahi Station Road Matimandap Sahi Vimanabadu Sahi 1 0. Baseli and Haracandi get daily Khei (Prasada) from the Kotha Bhoga (Bhoga of the temple administration). in the east Cakra Nrsimha and in the west side Nisa Nrsimha are placed in Sriksetra. Jayadurga temple of Bharati kotha Near Narendra Tank Goddess Varahi. More over Nrsimha temples are seen in different directions of Sriksetra. 4. in south Pandu Nrsimha. 9. Smasana Candi - Near Svargadvara (in the coast of Bay of Bengal) 6. Vana Durga Ramacandi - Manikamica Sahi Near Railway station and Ramacandi Sahi 5. 20 . Nrsimha Temples at Puri Nrsimha is considered as adideva of Sriksetra. 7. The expenses for the daily and periodical Bhoga of the Goddess Jayadurga of Bharati Kotha is borne entirely by Sri Jagannatha Temple administraion.3. When Nilamadhava vanished Nrsimha appeared in Sriksetra and was seen in the bottom of Krusnaguru vriksaya (Black sandal paste tree). In the North side Adi Nrsimha (near Gundica temple). 8.
Moreover Nrsimha in other places tears Hiranyakasipu putting him in his lap. In upper hand he is drawing the attery of Hiranyakasipu and place it as his upabita (sacred thread) and rest two hands one is placed on the head of the demon and other one he draws his leg. During Gundica Yatra the Chariot of Jagannatha rests front to front of this Nrsimha image.The height of this deity is five feet. This Nrsimha Is related to the rituals of Jagannatha Temple. who has written commentary on Srimada Bahagabata (Bhabartha dipika) was blessed by Yajna Nrsimha to write such commentary. Pandu Nrsimha is eight armed. Pandu Nrsimha Pandu Nrsimha temple is situated in the Kandu hermit of Gaurabada Sahi. but here he 21 . and other four hands are also engaged in this process. In upper two arms he holds (Sankha) conch and Sphere. (Cakra) and other two hands are placed on two laps. Skanda Purana writes that king Indradyumna started his fire sacrifice (Yajna) at this place to seek permission to place Jagannatha triad in Sriksetra. It is said that Acarya Sridhara Svami. The temple is managed by a committee. The Chariot Garuda sits in the feet of the deity. During festivals flower garlands (anjamala) are taken from Jagannatha and are kept here.Yajna Nrsimha Yanja Nrsimha temple is situated in the east side of Gundica temple. He is sitting on a lotus by holding Laksmi in his left lap. In two hands he holds sankha (conch) and cakra (sphere) other two hands are enaged in tearing the body of Hiranyakasipu. He is four armed.
Cakra Nrsimha Cakra Nrsimha temple is situated at the sea shore in the east side of Puri at Cakratiriha (Penthakata).places the demon on the head of his charioteer (Garuda) and is engaged in tearing the demon. such as Cakra Narayana Adi Narayana and Laksminaryanalntheform of Nrsimha are worshipped. On the birth day of Nrsimha flower garland (A/na mala) comes from this place and is placed at the Nrsimha 22 . There is a belief that if dead body passes by the side of the temple of Pandu Nrsimha the dead man directly goes to the abode of Visnu. This tempJe is also related to Jagannatha temple. Garuda is sitting on the feet of the deity with folding hands. At the time of collecting the log of wood (Mahadani) from BanklMuhana (where river malini flows in to the sea) the King Indrudyamna could see the image of the Nrsimha inside a sphere mark on the log of wood. Vtsnu Purana writes that the sage Kandu while meditating at the bank of river Gomatffell on love with Pumeca as a result of which he came to Purvsottama Ksetra and worshipped Nrsimha at this place. Ev. On the Fullmoon day of Margasira he could see Nrsimha at Purusottama Ksetra.ery year on Gobinda Dvadasi day holy people take a bath in the sea at Puri in order to mark the occasion of the collection of daru. At this place three deities. As a result of which the deity bacame famous in the name of Cakra Nrsimha from that-day. As per Indra Nilamanipurana the log of wood (Mahadafu) in which Jagannatha Triad carved was sailing at this Place on the 12th fullmoon day of Phalguna (Gobinda Dvadasi).
was worspping this deity at Puri. 23 . the Svamiot Dakhinaparva Matha. Singhada Nrsimha The king Anangabhima dev(\ 3th Century) has installed an image of Nrsimha in the Singhada tola (at Haracandi Sahi) who is now worshipped by Khuntia Nijoga. He got siddhi (full benefit of miditation) by worshipping Nrsimha here. later on the deity was removed near to Jaduaniliabraryof Kundeibenta Sahi as the place was destoryed in course of time. . Jejerama Nrsimha This deity has been installed by Nimnkaribaba Jejeram Punjab during the time of Raja Ranjit Singh at Grand Road Puri near Dodovalla Dharmasala. Barabati Nrsimha This deity has been installed by Samartha Rama Das. Cudanga Nrsimha Cudanga Nrsimha was installed by King Codaganga deva (12th century) at Cudanga Sahi. Therefore Cudanga Nrsimha is aiso called Sai Nrsimha. a types of sevaka engaged in watching. the Guru of Chatrapati Sivaji at Barabati Jaga of Puri at the fag end of his life.temple to observe the birthday celebration of Nrsimha. Bira Surendra Sai. an Oriya general of Sambalpur who fought against Britisher. Dinanatha Nrsimha Dinanatha Nrsimha has been installed by Somaja Matr Dinanatha. of Puri. decorating the deities inside the temple.
Siddha Mahavira Temple This temple is situated at a little distance behind the Gundica Temple. Because of his firm devotion Lord Rama appeared and blessed him to 24 . Nrsimha is the presiding deity of Mahiprakasa Matha. BrahmagiriRoadas perthe instruction of a Saint. In his absence the Sea again washed away the town. The lord ordered Hanuman lo prefect the sea from going through the town. As Hanumanis a devotee of Sri Rama once he left for Aiodhya. April 13th or 14th) ritual of the Jagannatha Temple. Hanuman Temple Dana Mahavira or Bedi Hanuman This temple on the sea-shore of Cakra-tirtha area (Balukhanda) is connected with Pana Samkranti(Maha Visuva Samkranti. Legend says that during grand old days the sea used to wash away the town. It is said that Saint Tulasldas during his visit to Sriksetra sat in a meditation to see Lord Rama in this place.Arka Nrsimha Arka Nrsimha is installed at Mahiprakasa Matha of Puri. Hanuman tied at this place is known as Bedi Hanuman (Bedi means tied with a chain). by Mahipraksh Brahmacari. Rendha Nrsimha Rendha Nrsimha has been installed by King Kapilendra Dev(\ 4th Century) at a place called Rendhain Puri. People of Puri brought this to the notice of Lord Jagannatha. Lord Jagannatha from that day tied up Hanuman in a chain so that he cannot leave the place further and continue to watch the sea (not to flow through the town).
Makardvaja Hanuman This Hanumana temple is situated in another gate way of Puri. The distance between the gate "of Jagannatha temple and Gundica temple is exactly 8327 feet (2688. (i. They used to leave the place where Hanumana is seated. Because of this. They were also a positive threat to Sriksetra. the most Important sanctuary of the Jagannatha is the Gundica Temple. History reveals that Bargies (the Marattha soldires) were oppressing the people. Kanapata Hanumana Kanapata Hanumana temple is situated in the southern gate way of the Jagannatha temple. To protect the Ksetra from the oppression of Bargies a Hanumana image was placed in the gate way of Puri near Lokanatha temple. Gundica Temple Next to the great Jagannatha Temple. It is believed that he absorbs the raoring sound of the sea facing towords south as a result of which the sound of the soa is not audible in the temple compound. Bargi Hanumana This Hanumana temple is situated in Lokanatha Road (Road from Srimandira leading to Lokanatha Temple). Hanumana placed in this place was named as Bargi Hanumana.preach his glory. Bargi Hanumana is the protector of Sriksetra. the temple was saved from the attack of Bargies.0696 meters) 25 . They are worshipper of Hanumana.e. Rama Carita Manas is the result of such blessing.) Atharanala gate to protec' the place from Bargies attack.
There is a strong belief that one will never have rebirth if he will see the Lord once in Srigundica temple. Jagamohana. and Bhoga Mandapa connected with kitchen room by a narrow passage.There is a plain raised seat. Nata Mandira. the birth place of Lord Jagannatha.e Vimana. 4 feet high and 19 feet long made of chlorite and this is also called Ratna Vedi. Every year during Ratha Yatra God . The temple is constructed in the style of Jagannatha Temple having for sections i.The tower . a construction of pidha type is 75 feet high with a base of 55 feet by 46 feet out side and 36 feet 8 inches by 27 feet inside. There is a temple kitchen at Srigundica temple like that of Badadeul. expect these few days it is unoccupied. During Ratha Yatra when deties are placed in Gundica temple bhogas are prepared in this kitchen. This is the throne on which the images are placed when brought to this temple.This is also known as Yajnavedi. In good old days it is said that there was an intervening river named Mattnibetween 26 . The Temple is surrounded by a wall and stands in the middle of the garden. Moreover one devotee can get the result of witnessing the Lord by hundered years for in Srimandira by just once seeing the Lord in Gundica temple (Niladro Sata Varsani Gundica Mandape dine).The kitchen style and Bhoga prepared are same as they are done in' Srimandira. used to go to this temple from Badadeula and stays there for seven days. Saradha Bali This is the place on the gate way of Gundica temple (Nakacanadvara) where cars start towords Srimandira on the day of Return Car Festival (Bahuda Yatra).
He named this place as Svargadvara and from that day it is so named. He could also see a path from Svrgadvara of puri to Vaikantha. In Darubrahmagita Santha Jagannatha Dasa writes. Three cars were earring the deities from Badadeulaio the side of river Maini. This is also the place where Brahma at the invitation of King Indradyumna got down to consecrate the image of Jagannatha Triad. This place is known as the gate way to heaven. after the name of Nrsimha Dev's Queen Saradha Devi.The sandy beach where lord passes at the time of Ratha Yatra has been renamed as Saradha ball. It was a branch river of Sankhua. King Narasimha deva (13 th Century) built a bridge over the river Sankhua. He sat on a meditation and could hear the voice of demi Gods in that place. allthough there is no sand here. ' 27 . After the construction of the bridge the river was filled up with sands. Due to construction of the bridge 3 cars were used. Now this place is commonly known as Saradha Bali. Before the bridge was built 6 cars were used to carry the Lord from Badadeula to Gundica temple. By that he came to the conclusion that this place cannot be compared with other holy place of the world.Srimandira and Gundica temple. Svargadvara This is in the south side of the temple at sea-shore. then another 3 cars from the beach of river Malini to Gundica temples. Sage Kandu after wondering different noli places of India came to Purusotiarna Ksetra by following the advice of demigods. Standing at the sea-shore when he looked above he could see Vaikuntha from that place.
Siddha Bakula This Asrama of Javan Hari Dasa is situated near Balisahi. Hence it has been selected as the cremation or burningGhat for the dead. The beach near Svargadvara is always crowded in the morning and evening. Leged says that Sri Caitanya was submerged here in the body of Srikrsna.people come here to bathe.) thousands of . It is believed that if a Hindu is cremated at this place. On the auspicious days and also on fullmoon day of Kartika ( Oct-Nov. From that day this has become a holy burrial ground. A dip in the sea near it is belived to secure heavenli bliss.Parana support that Pandavas cremated the body of Sr/Arsnaat this place. They heard the voice of the heaven not to engage themselves futile in this work as the soul (pinda) of the Lord can neither be destoryed by wind nor burnt by fire. he directly goes to haven and all his sin are brunt by the effect of tnis holy place. One marvallous deity of Krsna with Radha is worshipped here. Tota Gopinatha Tota Gopinatha temple is situated in the back of Jamesvara Mahadeva temple (Goudabada Sahi). Sunar Gouranga 28 . Legend says that Sri Caitanya has planted a Bakula tooth brush of Lord Jagannatha near Sadhak Hadi Dasa to protect him from the mid day sun hit. It is a pitha (seat) of Goudiya Vaisnaba's. Sidha Bakula tree surprises the devotees as it stands without its inner trunk.
Lingaraja Temple in Bhubanesvar The Administartion of Sri Jagannatha Temple. special puja is offered tothe deity. Mangala Temple It is situated in the Village Kakatpur in the district of Puri. Deuia Karana.Nayagarh) Before transportation of the timbers to Puri for construction of the Chariot. Bisvakarma and other Sevakas with Brahmin Pundits set out in search of Daru and proceed to this place. spares some car ropes for the Ashokastami car festival of Lord Lingaraja.Gania . the Daitas. This is a pitha of vaisnabas . Bada Raulai Thakurani (Baramula . Bali Haracandi It is a beautiful place near Brahmagiri. There they implore the mercy of the Goddess Mangala so that they would be able to spot out the trees for making the new bodies of the Lord. Patimohapatra. Bada Rautei. This temple has relation with Sri Jagannatha temple in respect of a ritual on the Mahanavami day in the month at Asvina. At the out set of the Navakalevar Festival.This temple is situated in Cakratirtha near Cakra NarayanaTemple. Images of Lord Krsna and Caitanya made of gold are worshipped here. The Rajaguru of Sri Jagannatha 29 . Maninaga Thakurani (Ranpur Area) Special Puja is offered to this Goddess before cutting of green timbers from the Ranpur forest area for construction of the cars for Raffia Yafras by Sri Jagannatha Temple Administration.
Temple praticipate in the Astaprahara a Pu/a in the Lingaraja Temple on the day of Sivaratri. Bharati Kotha Matha (in Cuttack) Situated near the High Court Square. This is a Visnu image-. Balesvar Mahadeva Temple It is situated in east of the Jagannatha Temple near seashore about 10 Km away from Sriksefra. AlarnathaTempIe of Brahmagiri It is situated at Brahmagiri. PancaTtrtha There are Five tirthas (Sacred Water) at Sriksetra. During Anavasara (Repair of the Deities before Ratha Yatra) Devotees visit Alaranatha as the replica of Lord Jagannatfia.K Purana says that Lord Srikrsra by putting a Bela fruit (a type of Indian fruit used as drink) in this place worshipped Lord Siva and prayed lord to protect the mankind from the attack of demons of pafa/a who enter through this gate way to the world and kill men.This temple is situated in the top of Sriksetra (Sankha Ksetra) Puri. 20 Km. Manikamika in the Manikamika street. away towards the west of the Jagannatha Temple. The lord is named as Alarnatha or the natha (resting place) of Devotees. It is under the management and control of the Sri Jagannatha Temple Administration. S. Markanda 30 . The Sacred Indradyumna tank near the Gundica temple.The Alarnatha Temple was built by the King Madan Mahadeva (The 4th king of the Ganga dynasty) in the year 1128.
North West South Indradyumna Markanda Siva Manikamika Sveta Ganga Niiakantha Siva Markandeya Kapalamochana Sveta Madhaba Matsya Madhaba. The Cakra Narayana Sage kandu Indradyumna Sage Markanda Kapalamochan Svata Madhab King Deity Established by 31 . Nabagraha South East Mohadadhi (the Sea) Indradyumna This tank is situated to the north-east of Gundica Temple. This tank is associated with the name of the King Indradyumna who has constructed the temple for Lord Jagannatha. Svetaganga towards the south of the Jagannatha temple in Balisahi together with the sea make the group Pancatirtha or Five sacred water at Puri in which piligrims are solemnly enjoined to take bath. the King Indradyumna donated countless cows to Brahmins. Direction Name of The Tirtha East.towards the north of the Jagannatha Temple at Markandesvar Sahi. All these tirthas are placed covering four direction of Sriksetra. A hole was formed by the leg of the countless cows those were brought by the King for offerings. Skanda Parana writes that at the time of consecration of lord JagannsthaTemple.
10 Markanda Tank Markanda tank is situated in the west side of the Jagannatha temple. Its side measures north' 350 fuel. Sraddha sacrifice for liberation of their forefathers at the bank of Indrudymna tank on this day. onst 508 foci. Because of this. This tank is also 32 . It is irregular in shape. All the northern ghat under a fig tree are placed eight stone images each four feet high representing the Astamatrkgs (the eight sacred mothers).hole was filled up with sacred water poured to the hands of Brahamins by the king while donating the cows. Devotees perform water sacrifice. Sage Markandeya after digging a hole near Kalpabata stays there to worship the Lord at Sriksetra. Skanda Parana writes that devotees by offering pinda (food) to their forefathers after taking bath at this tirtha benefit get the of Asvamedha Sacrifice. The Indradyumna tank is 396 feet in wide and 485 feet long. On the South west bank of the tank there is temple of Nilakanthesvara'. Markanda tank lined throughout wrth stones is covering an areas of nearly 1 Acre. It covers an area of four and a half acres. it is considered as most sacred tirtha of Puri. After taking holy bath at Indradyumna lank. It has several ghatas (steps to enter the tank) around it with a Siva temple (Markandesvara Siva) on the south side and is largely resorted to by pilgrims. worship Nilakanthesvara in the 5th bright fort nigbt of Asadha if it falls on Magha naksatra. devotees. South 385 foot. Skanda Parana writes. The figures are executed in a superior style in Chlorite and represent four handed females. seated on thrones and having each a child on her lap. find West 5-12 fool.
it is said that this kunda is filled with pralaya bari (Pralaya water). Manikarnica Manikarnika tirtha (Well) is situated near Kapalamocana Siva Temple. to the south of Jagannatha Temple. He made a lot of Tapasya to see the Lord. Rohini Kunda Skanda Purana includes. This is inside the temple. It is also mentioned in Skanda Purana that God has given a boon to the King Sveta Madhaba that the devotees who take Mahaprasada in his kingdom will never face immature death. On its bank there are two small temples. one dedicated to Sveta Madhava and the otherto Matsya Madhaba.The Skanda Purana says that Svetewasa king of Tretaya Yuga.associated with the festival of Lord Jagannatha. As a mank of his worship the tank is named as Svetaganga. There is also Alabapraftaimage. 33 . Skanda Parana writes devotees after taking bath and seeing Sveta Madhaba it they die. There is a belief that devotees after coming from Srimandira if they will wash their feet in Svetaganga they will be free from the sin of tread on Mahaprasada. He was a devotee of Lord Jagannatha. they will be liberated." It is also said that this tank is connected with the holy river Ganga. Rohini Kunda as a tirtha in place of Manikarnika. Svetaganga Svetaganga is a small tank. both forms of Visnu. The Kalia Dalan Ceremony is organised in this tank.
The Pancha tirthas Yatra becomes complete after seeing Jagannatha in the temple. such as Ganga. Hence this water is most sacred one.The Sea in Purils considered as the Sarvatirtha Maya. Godabari etc. On the day of Panca tirtha (5th day of dark fort night of Margasira) devotees go round the tirthas starting from the Jagannatha Temple. During the time-of new creation water gets absorbed in this place. Sarasvati. Just touching the holy water a devotee car be liberated. Skanda Purana also writes that Brahma when first visited Sriksetra saw two wonderfull things. since all these rivers flow to (he Sea. Yamuna. of this is. the assimilation of all the tirthas. One.Water at the time of Pralaya (destruction) flows from this place and covers the entire world. Wore over Mahadamon which images are carved was first collected from the sea on the 12th bright fort night of Phalguna (Govinda dvadasi). This tank is known as Narendra 34 . Sea is considered as "Sarvathirtha mays" (tirtha of all tirthas) Skanda Purana gives much importance on Sea bath and the darsan of Mahaprabhu near Aksaya bata. For all these reasons sea is considered as most important tirtha at Puri. a crow sitting or the branch on a tree above Rohinikunda felldown on the water of Rohinikunda and by virtue of this holy water it took the shape of four armed Vishnu. In other places of India rivers are consdiered as tirthas. Rohini Kunda is included in five holy warter (Tirthas) of Puri. Kaberi. Krisna. Narendra Besides all these tirthas another tank is also considered a sacred tirtha of Puri allthough reference are not available in literature.
240 hectares (8 acres).tank after the name of Raja Narendra Dev. On the concluding day of Candana Yatra they go round the tank for 21 times. In one bath Madanamohana sits with Bhudevi and Sridevi and In another both Rama Krsna sit with five Sivas. Devotees took their bath at Narendra tank during Candana and other day considering it as a tirtha. They go round the tank for two times. At the fag end of his career he also lived at the bank of this tank. One in the day time.) and sit for Candana bath. The Narendra tank is situated about three quarters of a mile north east of the Jagannatha Temple and covers an area of over 3. The tank has an island in its middle bearing a small temple connected'wilh the south bank with a bridge. Four Hermitages Besides these tirthas there are four hermits of four important sages at Puri. Five Sivas also sit in another place of the small temple for a water sports at this tank. Deities after bath in sandal water are dressed and decorated with garland. the son of the Kapilendra Dev. another in the night. Maharaja Narendra Dev has innovated the Narendra tank by spending all his means what he earned during his life time.-May. It is said that the foundation of the Great Jagannatha Temple was led from the NarendraTank. They 35 . to which Madanamohana the representive deity of Jagannatha with Bhudevi Sridevi brought during Candana Yatra (Apr. Two boats are prepared for water sports. Allthough Warendra tank is not included in tirtha. It is 834 feet by 873 feet in size. the tank has become sacred because of the water sports of deities.
Vrgu is also the son of sage Varuna. Vrgu) belong to Vedic period and two others (Kanduand Markandeya) belong to Puranicperiod. It is in the WestNorth side of the temple at Markandesvra sahi. Nrsimha (Commonly known as BadiNrsimha) goes round these four asramas on the 9th day of the dark fort night of Sravana and 11th day of the bright fort night to Caitra to 36 . Markandeya Asrama (after the name of sages Markandeya}. 3. Angira Asrama after Name of the Sage Angira It is situated in the East side of the temple at Dolamandap Sahi. Kandu Asrama (after the name of sage Kandu) !t is in the south west side of the temple at Haracandi Sahi 4.These asramas are considered as old as the Ksetra.are at four directions of Sriksetra. Skanda Purana also writes that the sage Markandeya has come to this place to see the Lord. As per Satapatha Brahmana the word Angira is evolved from the meditation of Varuna while he was meditating upon. 2. Vhrgu Asrama (after the name of the sage Vrgu) it is in the south side of the temple at Balisaht.There fore the Asramas of these great sages glorify the importance of Sriksetra. Fiamayana has made a reference of sage Kandu. As per his instruction he staged here. He is otherwise known as Vrgu Baruni. For that Agni is also known as Angira. They first discovered Agni. These asramas are 1. Angira group is known as founder of Agni (fire). Among them two sages (Angira. Wore overthese asramas are also related to the rituals of the temple.
Mahaiaksmi visits Kandu Asrama on the 5th day of dark fort night of Bhadraba to observe Rtsipancamt Vrata. Sudarsana moves round three Ashrams (excect Kandu Asrama which he visits on the day of RadhaAstami) on thefullmoon day of Sravana (Gamha Pumirna) and Kumar Purnima (full mood day of Asvina).protect the devotees from the effect of cholera. 37 .
Some historians arc of opinion that the construction was commenced during the reign of emperor Chodagangadeva. The temple consists of four structures called (a) the Vimana or Bada Deula (sanctum sanctorum) (b) the Jagamohan or Mukhasala (the porch). the temple chronicle of Puri that Anangabhima contemplated to construct a temple of Srivatsa khandasala type with 100 cubits in height. Out of the five Pagas or segments. 38 . But on the advice of the ministers and royal priests. the two flanking pagas as Anuraha and the two corners ad Kanika. Rekha is the name given to a type of temple with a curvilinear spire. (c) the Natamandir (the audience hall) and (d) the Bhogamandap (the hall for residuary offerings) built in a row in an axial alignment in east-west direction. the Gandi (trunk) and the Mastaka (the head). the founder of the dynastic rule in Orissa. the height was reduced to 90 cubits. the middle one in known as Raha. Babu Manamohan Ganguly has measured the height of the present temple by theodolite method and has concluded that it is 214 feet 8 inches. Like a full-fledged Orissan temple. the Bada (wall). i. the Pitha (pedestal). The temple faces the east. as it stands today.Chapter-2 The Architecture of Shri Jagannatha Temple The majestic temple of Lord Jagannatha at Puri is said to have been built by emperor Anangabhimadeva.e. Accordingly the temple was built. The Vimana is constructed in Pancharatha (temple containing five Pagas or segments) Rckha order. It is described in Madala Panji. historically identified as Angangabhima III belonging to Ganga dynasty. it has four-fold vertical divisions.
e. The sculptured friezes of the Pata depict procession of various animals. Similarly the Bada is Panchanga type i. upper . The Kumbha is designed like pitcher. Kumbha. The recesses between the Pagas are occupied by different types of Vidalas (figures of 39 . In each Paga it has a Kirita design and figures of royal personnel. The lower portion of Khura has been decorated with Vanalata designs and other types of scroll work. as aforesaid contains rich scroll-work and two female figures one above the other. The Pabhaga consists of five usual mouldings and these mouldings are connected with vertical bands in each Paga of the Bada. but the Pata and the Basanta are richly carved. which are richly carved. The' visible portion shows three mouldings. The Kani is plain.Tangha and Baranda. consisting of five elements -known respectively as Pabhaga (foot). The Khakhra-mundis of Kanika Pagas contain seated figures of eight Dikpalas (guardian deities). The vertical band. The Pata also displays a sculptured panel containing episodes from Gopallla of the Bhagavata Purana. lower . The lower Jangha has Khakhra-mundis (miniature temples of Khakhra order) in the Kanika and Anuraha Pagas.Tangha (shin). Bandhana (bond).The temple stands on a high pedestal though a major portion of it is buried in the ground. These five mouldings are known in the architectural texts as Khura. Kani and Basanta in ascending order. Pata. mostly war-animals intervened by procession of foot soldiers with the general sitting on a palanquin and giving certain directions. while those of the Anuraha depict seated Acharyas (teachers) teaching their pupils and disciples. The Khura is shaped like a horse hoof and contains inverted leaf designs with dotted borders.
an architectural text of Orissa. The Bandhana consists of three mouldings joined together at different places by vertical bands decorated with standing figures of Kanyas (maidens). except in the nature of the Mundis and of the figures in the recesses. The Baranda over the upper Jangha is made to ten carved mouldings of almost equal size. The latter is seen as taking out the entrails of Hiranyakasipu. The recesses between the Pagas contain figures of Kanyas in different postures. the god is seen as placing one of His feet set 40 . It contains large niches for the Parsva-devatas on different sides. It is interesting to note that all the sixteen Kanyas in such places are shown in the sixteen postures as prescribed in Silpaprakasa. These three images are made of chloride and are very exquisitely carved. There is a close similarity in the decorative plan between lower and upper Jangha.lion-on-elephant and lion with elephant trunk rampant on a warrior). The upper Jangha depicts Pidha-mundis (miniature temples of Pidha order) containing various deities mostly Vaisnavite in character including the ten incarnations of Visnu. the northern niche houses the Trivikrama image and the western niche shows the Nrsimha form of Visnu. the demon king. The programme of the Raha Paga is different. The size and decorative programme of the Mundis and the figures of Virala and Kanyas are almost equal. while his other two hands show his usual attributes. In the image of Trivikrama of Vamana. with two of this hands. While Varaha holds the goddess earth in his upraised left arm and a club in his right hand. Nrsimha is depicted in a ferocious form. The southern niche contains the Varaha incarnation.
which is difficult to recognise due to existence of the Nisa structure. rows of Chaitya medallions with intermittent spaces appear with five such medallions in each row. In the frontal Raha Paga (eastern side) there is a bigger Angasikhara at the Sandhisthala (joint of Vimana and Jagamohana) surmounted with a projecting Gajakranta. The Gandi or the body of the temple proper. Such Gajakrantas also appear on three other sides in the Raha above the Vajramastaka. small covered halls with a Sikhara (tower) of Pidha order have been constructed. there is a Bhumi Amla connected with six Bhumi Barandis (courses of stone) and Chaitya medallions are seen carved on them at intervals. A smaller projecting lion also appears on each side of the base of the Gandj. however.e. there is a large Vajramastaka at the base. which is a usual feature with most of the Orissan temples. i.firmly on the ground.. In the Raha Paga.the ground.e. lion-on-elcphant. These structures are plain and sometimes cover the. At the Kanika Paga of each ' Bhumi. The Anuraha Paga of each side is filled with three Angasikharas. In front of each of the three images of side deities. Amalaka (an Indian 41 . The Mastaka consists of the usual elements of Beki (neck). The upper portions of the Parsva-devata niches depict Dopichha lions (lions with one front and two hind portions). Above the Vajramastaka up to the height of the Gandi. sculptural beauty of the temple. which are called Nisa temples. while the other stretches upwards. Kanyas and one central image on each side. consists . miniature Rekha replicas with rich carvings. i. Naga-nagi: pilasters. All the three images have trefoil-shaped designs in the hack. of ten Bhumis or storeys.
There is nothing specific regarding the other elements of Mastaka. the shape of which is peculiar in Orissa as well as its name.e. Sterling.D. Madala Panji records such plastering to have been done in 1647 A. In the Beki are inserted four figures of Dopichha lions at each corner. The interior of the Vimana is entirely plain. Cakra). There is only one door leading to Jagamohan. Kalasa (jar) and Ayudha (weapon. The temple was plastered with a thick coat of lime sometime in the I6lh century A. But after the conservation of the temple has been handed over to the. while on the front sides there are images of Garuda. Thereafter successive plasters had been applied in 18th century for which. except that the weapon is called Nilachakra. Khapuri (skull). Quoting some temple records.fruit of the same name a little flattened). to protect its surface from decay caused by saline wind. Rajendralal Mitra says that the application of lime plaster was done for the first time during the reign of Prataparudra Oeva on both the Vimana and Jagamohana. It is called sanctum sanctorum or Garbhagruha and in the middle of the room there is Ratnasimhasana on which the images of worship have been installed. i.D. the temple looked like 'an ugly mass of stone and plaster' as observed by A. The famous exponent on Indian architecture James Fergusson. being unable to find detailed carvings on the body of the temple assumed that the art of Orissa had received a' total downward impetus' which Rajendralal Mitra has refuted with very strong arguments. 42 . The throne is about four feet high and there is a path for circumambulating the throne.
] 975. But the Gandi is made of thirteen Pidhas arranged in two Potalas or tiers of seven in the lower and six in the upper diminishing in size as these proceed''from bottom to top. .Archaeological Survey of India in .In each side and in each of the two Potalas there arc miniature Pidha Mastakas surmounted by Udyata lions. The Jagamohana seems to have stood on a Pitha or platform like the Vimana.e. the sculptural arts. But the details of carving on the Mundis or miniature temples and the niches of the Mundis including the images therein can not be seen due to application of plaster on them. the mouldings in different elements and even the architectural design due to such heavy pleastering. It is also not possible to know the decorative motifs. which is a disc. pilasters and images of Mandiracharini. Amalaka. 43 . Amla Beki.. The Bada is Pancharatha in plan and consists of five usual elements. for which the above detailed description of (ho . the lion in the upper tier being larger that of the lower. Deplastering of Jagamohana is yet to be taken up. The Kanthi recess in between the Potalas is decorated with Pidha-mundis. The Jagamohan or Mukhasala is a Pidha temple.. Kalasa and Ayudha. i. It consists of Pidhas or horizontal platforms receding in size as they go up-wards. a structure with pyramidal roof. The Maslaka consists of the usual elements of Beki. Ghania. removal of the plaster has been taken up and so far deplastering the Vimana is almost completed. but its (races are not visible owing to later constructions. The roof of Jagamohan stands on foursquare pillars..sculptural art of Vimana could be made possible.
It has two gates. one leading to the south and the other to Natamandir. 44 . Depiction of Krusna's entire life-story at the top of the pedestal in a row i. But the elements do not confirm to the specifications given in the architectural texts of Orissa. rowing of boats. Besides there are several more chlorite figures in different places of the Bada. Scholars are tempted to believe that the Jaya-Vijaya gate (main gate of Jagamohan) was reconstructed at the time of the construction of the present Natamandir. is a Pidha deula with a high pedestal. but the profuse ornamentation of Bada adds to the grandeur of the structure. Navagraha figures adorn the upper architraves. but the images of the Dvarapalas Jaya and Vijaya are conspicuous in their absence. Rather there is a similarity between this structure and the Natamandir of Konarka temple in Orissa. Siva jn Tandava dance posture etc. four and three Pidhas as we count from the bottom. Huge figures of projecting lions appear in each Potala. The latter is considered as the main entrance. JagannathaMahisamardini-Sivalinga worship. It is known as Jaya Vtjaya gate. The Potalas consist of five. ornately dejorated with different kinds of floral designs and Naga-Nagi figures. The Gandi is Pancharalha in plan like that of Jagamohana. Figures of Brahma and Siva on the southern gate are more prominent. The pedestal consists of five divisions. The door frames of both the gates are. carved on separate chlorite slabs.. The Bhogamandap (earlier Natamandir). though these arc richly carved.s quite striking. The projections in the Bada portion arc not quite prominent. There are figures of Rama Abhiseka. The Gandi shows a Pidha order with three Potalas.
The hall has two main gates. A monolithic pillar with the image of Garuda at the top . It is believed that a similar flight existed in south side too. The structure stands on four pillars and the interior is left entirely undecorated in contrast to the exterior decoratations. il was originally a structure on eight pillars and subsequently it has been expanded with addition of eight more pillars. leading towards the north and the south besides two subsidiary openings.stands towards the eastern part of the hall. Its roof is flat consisting of four layers of stone slabs. The hall is presently used for offering of prayers. the steps had to be removed at a subsequent period.The Mastaka is composed of the usual elements. Rajendralal Mitra says that the Bhogamahdap was constructed during the Maratha rule of Orissa (18th century) by an architect named Bhaskar Pandit 45 . It has a flight of steps to the north. The present Notamandir appears to he a relatively later structure standing on sixteen pillars. Rajendralal Mitra feels thai. Scholars say that the Vimana and the Jagamohan of the temple were originally constructed by Anantavarma Chodaganga Deva and the other two halls were added later. with an image of Jagannath as the ninth incarnation are more striking. The interior of the hall is well decorated with different types of stucco images and paintings. Scenes depicting the Kanchi-Kaveri expedition of Jagannath and Balabhadra and the ten incarnations of Visnu. but due to construction of the gangway from the kitchen to the Jagamohana. except that a brazen pot is placed on the top of fit.
Donaldson opines that the Natamandir was constructed in the 13th century while the Bhogamandap in the 15th century A. Bose on the. He goes the extent of informing that the entire structure was dismantled at Konark. Debala Mitra . although originally these names were meant to denote the particular type of the structure. The view is not acceptable. as Bhogamandap appears to have been constructed first.with an expenditure of about 40 lakh rupees in a period of 12 vears. a female and the joint (Sandhisthala) is called Gainthala. a knot tied in the garments of the bride and bridegroom at the time of marriage. the first two go almost side by side and form two component parts of one architectural scheme. known to local terminology as Rekha. In the words of Dr. So in Orissa the sanctum and the porch have almost become synon'ymous with the Rekha and Pidha temples respectively. It has been stated that the Rekha temple is the male and the Bhadra or Pidha. the temples resolve themselves into three broad orders.K. In a typical Orissa temple. by Purusottama Deva. Pida and Khakhara. though there may not be a great difference in the period between the construction of these two structures. Several additions and alterations have been carried out in the temple and works of 46 . a standard Orissan temple consists of a Vimana and a Jagamohana. In fact. brought to Puri and reassembled in the present site. Orissan architectural texts also recognise such identification as pointed out by N. But Madala Panji ascribes construction of Bhogamandap to Purusottama Deva.D.basis of some such texts prevalent in Orissa. wiih the malci ialx brought from the Sun-temple of Konark."Architecturally.
Interestingly. i. in addition to the original one. i. presently known as Natamandir was done subsequently by joining the Jagamohan with the present Bhogamandap. a little away from the temple originally as Natamandir. This gangway is stated to have been constructed by Gajapati Harekrusna Deva (1716-1720 A. because in this hall the devotees assemble 10 offer prayers Lo Jagannath and no dance and music are performed at present and it is used as audience hall.lagamohan. ID. Another notable addition is the gangway connecting the kitchen with the Jagamohana via the present Bhogamandap and Natamandir. the first addition seems to have been the present Bhogamandap. the Natamandir is popularly culled . The gangway entirely ² covers up the southern side of the Bhogamandap.) of Khuvda. meant for dance and Addition of the hail.. To the original twin structure of the Vimana and Jagamohana. Lhe original carvings of which are still visible through its southern door.such modification seem to have commenced not too far from the dates of original a Gtritrrre construction of the temple. a number of subsidiary shrines have been constructed within the premises of the temple over the years 47 . Besides. the original Jagamohan underwent a lot of changes (a) the balustraded windows on the south and north were removed. the slore of jewels) was built and (c) the southern window was completely demolished to convert it into a door.e. (b) on the north on extra-room (presently Ratna Bhandar. to facilitate carrying of food offerings for the deities. It is presumed that at the time of the construction of the present Natamandir. the hall and the hall was intended music.e.
besides . the inner and the outer. There are four juntos on all four sides in both the walls. ihe Ananda Bazar or the market for the Mahaprasada (north-east). Some of the modifications appear to have arisen out of necessity in connection with the performance of certain rituals within the precincts of the temple. The outer compound wall is called Meghanada Prachira. There is a propykm at the eastern gate from which start a flight of twenty two steps to reach the inner compound wall. thus forming two enclosures. without any planning. The inner enclosure is filled with a number of subsidiary shrines and various other structures utilised in connection with the observance of various rites and festivals. The main gate is called the Simha Dvara or the lions gate. and gardens including the Koili Vaikuntha. The outer enclosure consists of the kilchen (south-east). Devotees circumambulate the temple within the inner enclosure and seek 'Darsan of the minor deities in a prescribed 48 . Donaldson informs that such additions and alterations have been carried out down to the Maratha period in the 18'h century A. The temple is enclosed by two compound walls. named after a tortoise owing to its shape. Niladri Vihara.a few essential structures like Snana Vcdi and a few subsidiary shrines as well. because of the two huge statues of lions in front. Such modifications and additions may also be seen on both sides of Natamandir and Jagamohan as well. The inner compound wall is known as Kurma Prachira.D. since the sound of the waves of the ocean do not enter the temple premises by penetrating the walls.and some such shrines and other minor structures partly cover up ihe northern side of Bhogamandap.
49 . after which they enter the main temple through the northern entrance of the Natamandir.manner.
AnOrissaTemple is a combination of Dravidan Nagara style. Dravida and Nagara (a) Dravida type is seen in South India.2. 3. (1) Vimana. The Temples of Orissa are a synthesis of Dravida of South and Nagara style of North. BadaDeula. Garva guha. (Bhubanesvervaitala Temple is an example of this style). The pidha (base) is of Dravida style and the rest is of Nagara style (circular). The temple has four parts. Nagara Saili (Style) in the Nagara style the temple is erected in circular vertical style. (b) Nagaratype is seen in North India.CHAPTER-3 Temple style Indian temples are divided in to two kinds as per the Sipli Sastra. they followed the old pyramid style of Egypt. (Main temple) (2) Jagamohana (Hall of vistors) (3) Nata Mandapa ( Hall of Dance) (4) Bhoga Mandapa (Hall of offerings) The base of Viman and Jagamohana is square but the erected part of Vimana is cirular up to Kalasor Cuda (the (top) of the temple. The Jagamohana is like a pyramid structure in which the base is a square and it is 50 . Dravida Saili (Style) In Dravida style the base is a square.
about 20 feet above the Level of the surrounding area. 1 . by Ananta varman Chodaganga Dev (1078. In horizontal order five parts are (1 ) Bhumi (2) Bada (3) Gandi (4) Mastaka (5) Dvaja. Mastaka Dvaja Beki a Amalaka sila & Khapuri & Kalasa The Vimana is constructed in Rekha order.1147 AD) of the illustrious Ganga dynasty. (iii) Natamandira (Dancing Hall). The temple of Puri was rebuilt on a huge sand dune. The Vimana \s a three tier rekha temple with Curvilinear superstructure on a panca ratha plan. The main temple consists of four distinct buildings viz. Each part is vertically divided in to five portions such as .erected step by step. Bada Khura & Kumbha frPata & Kani & Basanta Pabhaga -J-Tatajangha &Bandhana&UperJangha & Varanda 3. Both in horizontal and vertical direction the temple is divided in to 5 parts (panca ratha). The Vimana of Jagannatha Temple is constructed in a panca ratha plan. resembling a dark or blue hillock (Nilasaila or Nilagiri). (ii) Jagamohana or the hall of Audience (Audience hall in front of the sanctum). (iv) Bhoga Mandapa (Refectory). It has four fold vertical division (i) Pitha (ii) Bada (vertical portion below the bada) (iii) Gandi (iv) Mastak.(i) Vimana or the great temple. Bhumi (Pabhaga) 2. Rekha is the name given to a type of 51 . Gandi Konika & Anuratha a Raha paga fr Anuratha & Konika 4. 5.
Bada The main components of the Bada are the pabhaga (Base corresponding to foot). 3. The Rekha (gandi)is also divided in to five parts (pagajvertically. like kaliya 52 .2. These mouldings being continuous add to the strength and diginty of the entire scheme. mostly war animals intervened by processions of foot soldiers with a general.temple with a curvilinear super structure. Pabhaga The pabhaga consists of five mouldings namely khura. kumbha. Vasanta is carved with the mythological stories of Srikrsna legends. The Deu! surface is 20 feet high from the road level. kani. pata. The sculptured friezes of the pata depict procession of various animals. sitting on a Palanquin and giving certain directions. in side the soil. The temple as the momenclature of some of its component parts shows.The middle one is known as Raha paga (Raha part).2.The kani is plain but pata and Vasanta are richly carved. Jangha and Baranda (a set of moulding demarcating the Bada from the gandi.The Jangha is Divided in to two. Both the sides of Raha paga is known as Anuraha paga and two corners as konika.2. Hence the height of the main temple is 194 feet 8 inches. The khumba is designed like a pitcher. and basanta.1. lower Jangha and upper by a set of moulding known as bandhana. The Bhumi Bhag'is. The height of the temple is 214 feet 8 inches from the surround ring road level1. is linked to human body. The Khura is shaped like a horse roof and contains inverted leaf design with dotted borders. 3.
in the company of Gopis. The size and decorative programme of the Mundis and the figures of Vidalas Kanyas are almost equal. Krsnas departure from Mathurasic. Varaha Vaman etc. Sakti. Kurma. The Varanda over the Upper Janghals made often carved mouldings of almost equal size.There is a close similarity in the decorative plan between Lower and Upper Jangha. Ganapati. Krsna's fight with Kamsa. The recesses between the papas (rathas) are occupied by different types of vidalas.kaliya). except in the nature of the Mundis and the figures in the recesses. (killing of snake demon . an architectural text of orissa. The upper Jangha has pidhamundis (minature temples of pidha order) even within lord Jagannatha temple complex.daman. Surya also justify its cosmopolitan character. (Figures of lion-on-eiephant and lion with elephant trunk rampant on warrior). The lower Janga has Khakaramundi (miniature temples of Khakara order) in the konika and Anuraha pagas. Giri goverdhana. While those of Anuraha depicts seated Acaryas (teachers) teaching their pupils and disciples. The Bandhana Consists of three mouldings joined together at different places by vertical bands decorated with standing figures of Kanyas (maidens). Bakasura badha. the temples dedicated to Siva. containing various deities including ten Avataras of Visnu such as Mafsya. It is interesting to note that the sixteen Kanyas in such places are shown in sixteen postures as described in Silpa Prakasa.The recesses between the pagas contain figures of Kanyas in different postures. Rasaiita. 53 .The Khakaramundi o\ Kanika pagas contain seated figures of eight Dikapalas (guardian deities). Krsna.
But in the pidha deul the gandi is made up of a number of pidhas diminishing in a pyramidal shape till the topmost pidha is reduced to about a halt of the lowest one. 24 miniature sikharss popularly known as angasikharas.projections. The important aspects of these shrines are that within the niche a sculpture is also incorporated. though externally they are broken by low offset. It is divided in to several pagas by the continuation of the projections of the bada. The pidha in this temple is usually grouped in to tiers called potalss.The most important among them are 54 . sealing the spire.Up to the Varanda there is hardly any distinction between the rekhadeol and the pidha deulexcept in the matter of relative proportions. Both the deuland Jagamohana may be divided in to four principal parts along with the vertical plane viz (1) the pista (platform) (2) Bada (perpendicular wall) (3) Gandi (trunk) and (4) the mastaka (head. the corner papa. are further subdivided into a number of horizontal sections or storeys (bhumi) by the miniature amala( ribbed disc resembling as amaiaka fruit) called bhumi-amala. Tower). After complete deplastering of the Sikhara (spire.The gandi ends with the bisama. but with the Gandi. (miniature representation of rekha on the spire of a temple) are exposed. separated from one another by recessed vertical walls called Kanti. The interior plans of both the rekha and pidha are square. crowning elements). the topmost course with or with out paga division. The gandi of the rekha deul inclines inwards in a convex curve this being more pronounced towords the top. known as Konika. the two orders assume their individual peculiarities. The central projection is known as anuratha.
Durarapalas are shown along with their consorts. Siva is carved inside the niche of central angasikara of north eastern corner. In course of depiastering of the front vertical walls of all the three miniature shrines.e Varaha on south. Nrsimha on West and Trivikrama of north are placed in small covered halls with a sikhara (tower) of pidha order (wihch are also called Nisa temple). All these incorporations of principal Hindu deities speak of novel composition of cosmopolition Hinduism. the Siva Ajaekapada Bhairava is incorporated. On the western side on the south west corner upper angasikhara goddesss Kalris enshrined. Ganesa. On the northen face of the Sikhara. The eastern side within the outerwail of the Central largest miniature shrines. Even on the southern face. Brahma and composite icons of Brahma Siva are incorporated within niches of miniature sikharas that are added on outer wall Anurahapagas. Three miniature shrines meant for parsva Devata i. These inconographic representations not only connected with Vaisnavism but also those of Hindu or cosmopolitan Hinduism as images of Siva.-These temples are in the bottom of the Pahapagas of the spire. with the exception that Yama Kuvera and Sukra or Agniioo have been repeated .The remaining niches are mostly occupied by Visnu. It is seen that images of the representatives of the popular 24 forms of Visnu are carved one above the other 55 .Caneslson the topmost angasikhara of south-west corner of southern face and Brahma incorporated on the middle shrine of south-east of southernface. Goddess Kali. On the eastern side on north-east corner top and the middle miniature shrines Anurage and Surya are incorporated.
having usual ornaments like Nupura. Kirita mukuta on head of both sides. artistic representation of Dhoti coming up to knees. as two of them are completely hidden within wall. Katibandha. bedecked with jewels. Kesava.. Visnu. On the southern side (Varaha side) out of 8 forms seven of them are indented as Madhava. Visnu is shown standing in Samapada pose (attention attitude). Acyuta. Damodar. Sridevi or Ayudha Purusa 56 . Samkarsana. Each jmage is shown standing on double petal lotus very artistically carved on the front part of the pedestal. Just above the Mukuta the figure of kirti mukha is carved. since -other six are badly mutilated covered within the the wall constructed on later date or completely obliterated. earrings. necklace. Similarly on the northen side (Shrine dedicated to Trivakarma form of Visnu) out of 8 sculptures six of them are identified as Padmanabha. On the comer above shoulder of Visnu Gandharva couple is shown in flying postures carrying garlands. Janardana. trace foil prabhabaliat back. Pradyumna and Vamana. Vanamala etc. In some cases on both sides of the figure of Visnu on a comparatively smaller lotus pedestal springing out from the main lotus pedestal of Visnu figures of Bhudevi. Yajnapavita. Trivikrama.on both sides of the walls. He is depicted with usual four arms. Krsna. One image shown in tribhanga pose on northern side but cannot be identified since hands including Ayudhas are completely damaged. Madhusudana and one badly mutilated. armlets. On the western side (Shrine dedicated to Nrsimha) out of 8 sculptures only two of them are identified as Sridhara and Hrsikesa.
It is believed that each of the letters of the celebrated Gayatri hymn (consisting of 24 letters) is represented by one of the twenty four forms of Visnu and while performing the daily rituals of samdhyas.e. Gada and Padma held in the four hands. Sarnkha. mace -dissolution (Gada samhara ±Bijam) and conch emancipation of the soul from bondage (Samkha mukiinibandhanam).The method adpoted in distingushing one from other of the twenty four forms is that . The importance of the discovery at Puri is that for the first time all the 24 forms of Visnu are depicted together in the form of sculptures on both sides of doorjambs speaks of the deep sense of the architects builders quality. The order of the twenty four form including their attributes of Ayudhas are as 57 . The names the twenty four forms are-idently selected out of the thousands names of Visnu given If 'Anusasanaparva of the Mahabarata.of skilful alternation of the four chief attributes of Visnu i. In daily rituals fo Samdhya it is customary to recite the 24 names of Visnu. discuss preservation (CakramSihitinibandhanam). It is the customary to recite the names of the twenty four forms and cansecrate the twenty four spots on the body (Tantra Sara). Lotus symbolizes creation (Srsti Bijam tatha Padmam).like Cakra Purusa and Gada Dew or devotee in kneeling pose in Anjali mudra are carved. The weapons symbolize the universal processes relevant to the divinity. Their sculptural depiction in Jagannatha temple is seen which is incarnation of Lord Visnu. Cakra.
8. Hrsikesa 11. Narasimha Padma 20. 6. Aniruddha 17. Adhoksaj'a 18. 2. 4. The Hupamandana text is teken by T. 24. the lotus is held in up right position even in the lower hand also. 9. they are shown down ward position but in case of Jagannatha temple. 23. Padmanabh a 12. Pradyumna 16. Purusoltama Padma 19. Acyuta Padma 21* &. 5. Samkarsana 14. Moreover in case of south India while the lotus is held in lower hands. 3.A. In this text the order of disposition 58 . Vasudeva 15. Kesava Narayana Madhava Govinda Visnu Upper Right Samkha Padma Cakra Gada Padma Upper Left Lower left Cakra Gada Samkha Padma Samkha Gada Cakra Padma Samkha Cakra Gada Samkha Padma Samkha Samkha Gada Cakra Cakra Padma Padma Padma Cakra Gada Samkha Sankha Gada Padma Gada Cakra Lower Right Padma Samkha Gada Cakra Gada Cakra Padma Samkha Padma Gada Samkha Padma Gada Gada Cakra Cakra Padma Cakra Cakra Gada Padma Samkha Samkha Samkha Madhusudana Samkha Padma Trivikrama Gada Cakra Cakra Cakra Cakra Padma Samkha Samkha Samkha Samkha Gada Gada Gada Gada Padma Cakra Gada Padma Cakra Gada Samkha Samkha Samkha Gada Cakra Samkha Cakra Padma Padma Vamana Sridhara 10. form No. Damodara 13. Upendra Janardana Han Krsna Cakra Gada Cakra Gada It is worthy of note that the number of possible formulations of four Ayudhas taken over at a time is exactly twenty four. Gopinath Rao as the basis to explain the forms.follwos : SI. 1. 7.
) the amalasil 59 . caturvargacintamanol Hemadn. Dharmasindhu. Sritattvanidhi and Tantra Sara.3. the Agnipurana. In between 7th and 9th century A D the twenty four forms had already been evolved and were gradually finding their way in to iconographical texts and sculptura! representations. also known as kantha or neck. Temple at Dola gada valley.of attributes starts from the upper right hands onward clockwise fashion.e. (recessed cylindrical portion above bisama. Siiparatna. The discovery is unique of its kind in the context of Visnu iconography in eastern India as so far no where in India all the 24 forms of Visnu are depicted within any known temples neither in south nor in north India. It is to be noted hare that the famous Chennakesava temple of the Hoyasala at Belurand i. The others are the Vrddhaharita Smrti. Devatamurti-prakarana. Nimayasindhu. the descriptions are identical in general.2. the oldest is the Abhtlasitarthacintamani (or manasollass) attributed to the western Calukya king somesvara Ill (A D 1126-38). The different varieties of Visnu images are primarily associated with the pancaratra doctrine of the Vyuhas. a veritable list of Late mediaeval'and comparatively modern works . 3. The Mastaka The Mastaka of the rekha deulls successively composed of the beki. on the outer walls of tho temple some of these forms are incorporated but not all the 24 foims as prominently carved in Lord Jagannatha temple walls. Rupamandana.padmapurana. Among the texts giving the iconographical details of 24 form of Visnu..Though in some cases the order may differ.
A.The amalaka slla is supported by dopicha lions at the corners and figures of Garuda in between them. Kalasa Ghadi. Kaissa dora .Sacred weapon of the deity to whom the temple is dedicated.fledged pidha deul The lower most member of the mastaka is the beki.In all Orissan temple the pataka is triangular. kalasa or waterpot. paddy and various kinds of treasures are kept here before the roof of the deul is sealed). however is circular. The shape of this stone is just like amala (Indian fruit of the same name little flattened). The name of the sphere is Nila Cakra (Blue wheel).A hole is created in a stone placed on the Kalasa to hold up the ayudha. Since temple is constructed like a fort the Dhvaja is placed on the temple symboiises the glory of the nation. Ayudha . Kalasa Paga . (usually gold. Khapuri .rope like construction in kalasa which adds to its beauty. the mastaka. above which the ghanta 60 . In grand old days the warriors used this triangular Dhvaja as the insignia of the nation. Ayudha of Sri Jagannatha temple is a Sphere.Is above the amalaka siia where the deul is closed up. The Bada and Gandi in both the rekha and the pidha orders are square all through in horizontal sections.A part of the Kalasa which is digged inside khapuri. In a full .a-ahuge stone on the deulto keep the stones joints of the roofs of the deulfirmty. Dhvaja (Pataka) .
sometimes ribbed) crowned by a succession of beki. 61 . above which is the ghanta an enormous bell-shaped member. It consists of pidhas or horizontal platforms receding in size as they go upwards. is 30feet x 30feet x 48 feet (high). Khapuri.shaped member. it is three-tier in structure. fa/a Jangha. The ground floor. The Jagamohana seems to have stood on a pitha or platform like the vimana. The bada consists of the usual five divisions of pabhaga. upper Jangha and baranda.2. Jagamohana The Jagamohana or Mukhasala is a pidha deul. 3. amala. but its traces are not visible. But the gandi is made of thirteen pidhas arranged in two pofa/as or tires of seven in the lower and six in the upper diminishing in size as these proceed from bottom to top. but the second floor is 28 feet x 28 feet x 30 feet (high) it is called sanctom sanctorum or garbha grha and in the middle of the room there is Ratnasimhasana on which the images of the lords have been installed. The Mastaka consists of the usual elements of Beki. the first floor is also 30 feet x 30 feet x 33 feet (high). some times ribbed) is crowned by a succession of bekiamala. khapuri. The throne is about four feet high and there is a path for circumambulating the throne. and Ayudha as in the rekha deal. The Kanthi recess in between the potalas is decorated with pidha-mundl.4. The roof of Jagamohana stands on four square pillars. The interior of the vimana is entirely plain. Bandhana. kalasa.This door is known as Kalahata duar (door).(an enormous bell . Kalasa and Ayudha as in the rekha deul. The deul has only one door leading to Jagamohana.
The varandas too have representations of dauls. Close by. on the east wall. The latter is considered as the main entrance. This represents the KanciAbhijanao lord Jagannatha and Balabhadra.2.The recesses between the pagas contain erotic figuers. the bandhanadoes not show any moulding. 3. Figures of Brahma and Siva as the southern gate are more prominent.The ten incarnations of Vishnu on the east side 62 . The pillars are square and devoid of decorative ornamentation. It is known as Jaya vijaya gate. Navagraha figures adorn the upper architraves. one leading to south and other to Natamandira. galasimha motifs and indolent damsels playing with various kinds of musical instruments. It presents a plain plastered apperance. The interior of the hall is well decorated with different types of images and paintings.The Jangha of the bada shows projections representating miniautre rekha temple. It has two gates.5 Natamandapa The Natamandapa or the dancing hall is believed to be a later addition. there is a relief painted in Orissan Patta style representating two mounted cavaliers. A Monolithic pillar with the image of Garuda at the top stands towards the eastern part of the Hall. with a milk maid standing before them holding tray in her head. The door frames of both the gates are ornately decorated with different kinds of floral designs and Naga ± Napi figures. Its roof is supported by horizontal anches springing each of the four rows of four pillars (total sixteen pillars). From architectural point of view the main shrine and the porch appearto have been costructed simultaneously.
(close to south) of the wall is more striking. 63 . Four small rooms attached to the sides are meant for worship some deities and the orchestra. . leading towards the north and the south besides few subsidiary openings. The Hall has two main gates.
The plain plastered surface led scholars to form various opinions that the Temple art was deteriorating and as a result superior workmanship is not achieved. The structural weakness and the problems of profused leakages of most of the temples and inability of the above committee to tackle it leads-the State Government to refer the matter to the Ministry of Culture Government of India. three large blocks of stone felldown from the inner of the 'garbhagrha'. Chief archaelogical Engineer. hence they are covered with plaster to achieve smooth surface applied with colour wash. Jagannatha temple of Puri and other subsidiary shrines are covered with plaster. Suprintendent of 64 .Onlhe 14th december 1903. Collector Puri. Government Orissa. On the 9th July 1875.M Desh Pandey. Repair work was carried out by the Rajas of Orissa and Puri.CHAPTER-4 Conservation of Jagannatha Temple Unlike other temples in Orissa. In the past blocks of stones and chunks of plasters ilad fallen many a times as would be evident from the available records. the then Director general of Archaeological survey of India as Chairman. another stone slab fell before the Ratna vedi. Secretary Culture. On behalf of the Government of India Archaeological Survey of India was directed to examine the whole matter. Up to 1974 the temple was looked after by the committee appointed by the Government of Orissa under Jagannatha Temple Act of 1954. In 1973 an expert committee was constituted on Sri Jagannath Temple at Puri with SriM. Chief Archaeological Chemist.
the Lord Jagannatha Temple complex Puri was declared as acentrally protected monument in 1975 by Archaeological Survey of India and it took up the conservation and repair work by an agreement dated 22. As recommended by the committee. Experts unanimously agreed that the present thick coat of plaster. Calcutta and Pundit Sadasiva Hath Sharma were members. In 1/3 places test checkings were made by removing the piaster and it was detected that underneath the thick coat of the lime plaster the beautiful carvings of the. which has become spongy and porous failed its very purpose of controlling leakage. On the other hand the plaster had put heavy pressure and weight on the Temple. Since beautiful original carved architectural pieces are hidden underneath the plaster. The meeting was held on 24th/25th September 73 and different aspects of problems on damages. 8.archaeofoagica! Survey of India Eastern circle. Temple are existing. It may be the reason for profused leakage. 79. it was decided that only skilled Mahararasor Sthapatisare to be employed for removal of the piaster and the work of deplastering and preservation has to be under taken with meticulous care and in 65 . the Collector Puri raised the question of protection of the Temple and felt that In the larger interest of the monument it would be desirable to have the monument protected by the Archaeological Survey of India. Since that time it was not a protected monument of Archaeological survey of India. Hence removal of plaster is absolutely necessary. leakages etc were discussed. During the first meeting the members minutely checked the stability of the Temple. The ASI formed an expert committee headed by its Dirceter General.
The external wall face of the Jagannattia temple was found to have been plastered having nine distinct layers. It is felt that the iron dowels used to keep the stone blocks in their proper position have been rusted and increased in volume as a result chunk of stones are reported coming out of different parts of theTemple. Archaeological survey of India took up the deplastering work of Lord Jagannatha temple. Since the temple is of a huge dimension. After complete deplastering . by underpinning etc. Even epoxy pointing and epoxy grouting is als'o recommended by the experts. it will not be possible to deplaster the whole temple of Lord Jagannatha within one or two years. by grouting the voids. It was properiy conserved by way of changing the missing or damaged architectural pieces. the experts also suggested to use epoxy resion in case of conservation of Jagannatha Temple. As a measure of experiment Achaelogical Survey of India in 1975 took up the deplastering work of Lakshmi Temple existing in the north most corner of Jagannatha Temple. since after removal of plaster all around the Temple as per prescribed limit. After completion of the work of Lakshmi Temple. all the exposed iron dowels were removed and replaced by copper or stainless steel dowels. which ensures that the concealed part of masonry containing sculptural surface is not damaged. Besides changing of dowels.slow process. the exposed surface is to be properly conserved by way of grouting 66 . the original beauty of the Temple with delicate carvings were brought to light. As per the recommendation of the 1st expert committee. It will take a longtime.
Phato documentation and detailed drawing were made. changing of dowels. Nrsimha Temple. Bhubanesvar facilitated to resume the' depiastering work. The committee there upon recommended depiastering of the St'khara to a height of 3. Accordingly. As per the direction of the Orissa High court a Technical Expert Committee was constituted in 1985. the work started from the ground level of the temple.underpinning. it was decided that besides depiastering of Jagannatha temple. Bhubanesvar circle took up the depiastering work of Lord Jagannatha 67 . one or two subsidiary shrines also to be taken up simulteneously for depiastering purpose. Detailed documentation.I to suspend its work many times and up to a height of 40' area all around the Temple wasdeplastered touching varanda or springing level. replacing of the damaged or womout architectural members by new stone blocks. Accordingly. In the subsequent meeting of the Expert Committee.00 metre from the springing level ai! around at a time and repeate it further year wise.S. priority was fixed and after Laksmt Temple. Accordingly in the end of year 1985 the injunction of the High court was vacated and Archaeological survey of India. Surya Temple and then Vimata Temple were decided to be taken up one after another In 1985. The hostilities of the Pandas and Public resentment on depiastering work and court cases compelled A. No sculptural portion should be reproduced but only floral patterns and other geometric details may be copied in out line before fixing them.
Some more Temples on the westen side such as Khiracora Gopinatha.The whole Kanikapaga of Surya Temple is got restored by new khondaiite stone. resetting the dislodged masonry with epoxy resin. The depiastering work of Surya Temple situated in the north west corner of Jagannatha Temple is taken up and the conservation work completed in all respects within 1 986-88. The deplastering and simultaneous conservation work of Vimala Temple is taken up from January 90 and it was completed in the same year. The 68 . in course of repair severe structural defects was detected in all the above referred Temples. removing the impregnated salts from the exposed stones and strengthening them with preservative coat. Sarasvatf and Nilamadhaba Temple have been depiasted and conservation work is also done.Temple above the varanda levei i. The south-west corner part of Surya Temple is found completely missing but filled up with small rubbles and piasters added over it to retain the original apperance. simultaneously the depiastering of Nrsimha temple is also taken up and completed by attending . The missing artitectural members of the Temple were got restored by new khondaiite stones.e above 40 feet. The vertical Gods were attended by dismantling the architectural members refixing them in proper plumb or grouted with combination mortar. Ganesa. TheTemple has been chemically treated after its conservation work. replacing the wornout and missing architectural members by newly carved stone blocks. The amalakas are shain shattered and suffering from depression.both structural and conservation and chemical preservation by plugging the leakgae.
major structural weaknesses were detected in the form of multiple damages. The damaged ornamental grill of Snana Mandapa (Bathing platfrom) existing on the northeast corner of the Ananda Bajara complex is also replaced by newly fabricated one as per original. The Jalakrida Mandapa existing in between Nrsimha and Ganesa temple on the southern side of Jagannatha Temple is also deplastered and chemically treated.C. The conservation work of the Vimana of Saragharls also attended by replacing the damaged asbestos roof with R. after removal of old one. The northernside damaged roof of the southern Burmibedha is taken up and relaying of fresh lime concrete. The whole Amala of Surya temple was dismantled and restored again as per original.e. One by one the underpinning work with newly carved stones are taken up and the work is completed. cracks and missing of architectural members. The damaged grill work are replaced fabricating new 69 . using new carved stones and replacing the worn out and damaged pieces. So far as Jagannatha Temple is concerned. The Ganesa Temple conservation work also completed removing the wornout and damaged pieces by new carved stones. after deplaslen'ng on the southern side.vertical gaps are attended by gently dismantling the architectural members and refixing them in its proper plumbs. Simhadvara having an iron grill cordoning. rectifying the damaged doors and windows etc.C. The Aruna stambha is existing just infront of eastern gate-way i. one and plastering flooring.
Many times over flow used to occur making the courty and floor between Laksmi Temple and Surya Temple dirty. After close examination by engineers and experts it is observed that hair crack devetped horizontally over the piece due to expansion of rusted iron dowels and weathering process in due course led it to become wide and loss of strength of the iron clip resulted in such a fall. jacks were also procured for the purpose. 1990 a piece of amala weighing about six tonnes has fallen from the western side of Jagannatha Temple. Besides giving bad smells in the complex. in July 1990 IX Expert Committee was convened and the experts unanimously recommended to refix the fallen piece by procuring a good quality khondalite black stone and after attending needful dressing/sizing and grooving the carved piece to be taken up and refixed. Heavy capacity lifting machine. it was lifted to a height about 1 80 feet and placed in the original position infebruary 1991. two kundas (water storage space) are existing where the used water om JagannthaTemple got stored. quality iron ropes. the new piece was taken inside the Temple complex. An underground drain to allow this water to flow gently underneath the floor to save this complex from prevailing dirtiness is constructed and it is functioning well.oranamental grill work. On the northernside of Jagannathu Temple. 70 . Accordingly a new piece is procured from Tapang quarry and after proper dressing and carving as per the original. This remained unnoticed due to covering of thick coat of cement plaster all around Amalaka. A strong tali scaffolding tower as high as the Temple was wade on the north west corner. On 14th June.
grouting with P.5 to 2mts. Directer General A. The vertical cracks found on both side wails inside the 'Garbha Grha. Khragapur.I. A joint venture of Centre and State Government helped in formation of a cordination committee with the secretary to Govt of Orissa in works department.C. The missing corbels were replaced by newly carved ones. A task force was formed to complete the Garbha Grha work by the end of May 1993. it was revealed that about 10 pieces of corbel stones were found missing on account of expansion of iron dowels and cracks.I. A.M. Experts from different parts of the country were invited to Puri to examine the structural stability and other connected problems. On examination by the experts.S.S. The repair and conservation work was taken upon a war footing under the close supervision of the Secretary to Government of Orissa. The surface of the inner wall was consolidated by drilling holes. Works department and Directer General A.On 13th Augest 1992. (polymer modified cement). The shifting was done on the 29th November 1992. RRL Bhubariesvarwere also invited. Conservation. liquid mortar.I. as members for determining the future course of action to be taken for conservation. the deities from the pedestal (Ratna vedi) were shifted to a temporary pedestal erected in a place in between the first wooden bar and the Jay-Vijaya door. Experts from SERC. I. were 71 . hole and sealing with epoxy mortar. For repair and conservation of Garbha Grha. CBRI Roorkee. NGR1 Hyderabad. two pieces of corbel stones sveighing about one tonne collapsed from its south west corner in side the 'Garbha Grha'. Corbels were anchored with strainless steel rods by drilling 1. A. Gaziabad.I.I Directer Science.S. Directer. Collecter Puri.T.S.
S.7. There was no passage to approach the second floor through the first floor. The ground floor and 1st floor are connected with a flight of steps and each floor is resting on carbel archs. One has to enter the second floor through the wind vents provided on 4 cardinal directions below the Beki from outside only. It was fabricated by the Orissa Small Industries Corpration ltd.tightened by strainless steel right angles by making grove and pinning them with the super structure. It is known that the expenditure borne by the A. towords conservation work of 'Garbha Grha'is 72 . The Deities shifted back to the original 'Ratna Vadi'on 2.I. It was detected that there are three floors.1993. Temporary support by tubular scaffoldings in the first and second floors ceilings were made as precautionary measures.R. Some broken corbel stones found laying on the second floor were removed and the surrounding walls were consolidated by grouting the core of the stone masonry.I. four feet dia hole was made by puncturing the floor slap to provide pipe connection within the first and second floor for ventilation purpose. Its design was done by prof A. Alter the conservation work of 'Garbha Grha' was over. Gupta of I. a strainless steel truss below the corbel to support the corbelled ceiling of 'Garbha Grha was erected. Two reputed farms of Calcutta namely Caltech and CICO did the grouting work. In two places of the second floor.T Kharagpur. one above the other within the Jagannatha Temple.I handed over it to the Temple Administration. In the ground floor 9 corbels and 139 stone blocks have been replaced to strengthen the inner walls of 'Garbha Grha' which were found out of plumb due to cracks caused by the pressure of rusted dowels.S. As second line of defence. the A.
Superintending Archaeologist.S. The piaster on upper part of the 'Sikhara' has not yet been completely removed. Though the 'Garbha Grha 'work has been completed but substantial work of conservation of outer walls remain unattended. In a report of the A.S.I released in november 1993. But all these works have not been completed to date.1995. Nata Mandapa and Bhoga Mandapa will be fixed and pinning and grouting of stones in the passage to kitchen (Rosaghara) would be completed by 31.about Rs1. pockets of Jagamohana.72 crores. Engineering .I. Timber supports in the triangular. conservation confirmed in the meeting that by February 1996. The 'Amalaka' which shows signs of distress has to be strengthened.I Orissa. 73 .4. The Director. A.chief -cum secretary to Government. all the renovation work of the main Temple would be completed.5. Law Secretery. Director of Conservation. The Honorable Chief Minister of Orissa reviewed progress of the Temple works in the Secretariat on 25.S. it was mentioned that the deplastering and conservation works of the main 'Sikhara' ot Lord Jagannatha temple would be completed within a couple of years.in . A system of pillsaters to support the 'Amla' will be introduced and the damaged portion of the Amala will be replaced. works department and other officials.1995. The damaged stones up to 'Beki' level will be replaced. Chief Secretary. The meeting was attened by the State Law Minister. A.
which has an aesthetical value and personal concept explore with through this object.Stupa. it vias the common pool of the Goodwill. In was the direct outcome of the growth of personal and social religion and is indeed part of unique system wherein. forms. Indian temple architecture evolved from the basic Buddhist architecture . the temple architecture _ points out the position of INDIA in the world map. Since its main motivation is based upon the magnificent character of the temple for the whole village or town or region. we have to forget the purposiveness and have to think about the external formal character of these two. Vihara and Mahavihara grows up as times goes on. on the Hindu side. Hindu temple architecture started around 6-7th century AD. Here the ceremony. For these varieties and for its vernacularly. So at the time of relating those two. Indian temple architecture is specifically renowned for its unique forms and varieties and also for its experimentation". Subsequently Chaitya. is formal monumental and canonical. worship of that God is done. personal religion did not come in the way of congregational from.CONCLUSION Indian temple architecture. The temple architecture is the process of making a construction for the living place of God. But sculpture is an object. In no way it is related with the social purpose except conveying message and giving enjoyment of mind. genius and economic resources of the entire community or citizen. Actually from this period as specifically Gupta period showed the proper-representation of the temple 74 .
The five elements of the universe and the vastu purva mandapa fully relate with each other to give the proper structure of the ground plan as well as the construction of the temple. According to the religioustic background of the temple structure the form shows the upliftment of the sensation. Temple is nothing but a 'tirtha' (source of release) in a concrete. geographical geological and even pedilogical and astronomical aspects of the effort.. Temple form is the most stable form. feature of a temple architecture that thought it is steeped in philosophical symbolism. The way between the temple construction is treated The cosmology shows the space as the 'way to the world' to the 'way of God. Though temples were made in a static material and show the stability but still it has a dynamics which was shown through the ornamentation or execution of the various comics & pillars. Temple construction is fully related with the mountain and cave form Again a significant as it started from this conception in the primary phase.architecture. it is primarily extrovert and inclusive. it is highly related with human Dozens of Shilpa and vastu text were compiled in order to bring into a well ordered layout of the temple. Again from the view of structure. arrangement of the temple plan also. Philosophicaliy this form is perfect to show the upliftment from earthy to non-earthy 75 . tangible form created by the human mind. form. The silpa texts consider the physics . As the temple construction was based on supernatural power and its worship so in most of the places temple is called as the 'abode' of God or the ruler of the universe.
Separation or classification were done. for the sake of my discussion I have taken the temples which are. division of various parts of vimana or superstructure. but still it shows the proper basic Nagara type like the sukanase curvilinear sikhara. tion of natural force . illusion and the light effect . The Indian temple architectural form been classified in 3 specific types . Lingaraja temple was taken to prove the nagara style.Sikhara. Space is also an important consideration as structure or architecture were made in open air. as this will be in an open air environment. projection or 76 .in the relation of form and space can be found when the space and form factors of the architecture is analysed.according to the outer formal structure of different parts of temple. either the highest maturity of the style or the highly experimental type. easily relate with this architecture. garbhagriha etc. amalakasila.Nagara (specific in North India). Open space or moreover universal spaco is being related with the architectural space. Depending on specific parts -like . sukanasa. The dynamic relationship and the transi-. As it is the typical orissan matured phase. Space.situation. form mass. temple tank. Experimentation were never done. of these three types . mature vimana with jagamohana. prakara. Dravida (South India) & Vesara (Deccan & Central India). manasutra. Elevation. Though these regional specification are not the proper style classifications but its a general categorization. without keeping the stylistic grammar of the style. gateway. But in the specific examples of these three types. I have discussed the specific characteristics of the 3 types of temples.all the sculptural terms can. square cella.
temple architecture the use of wall But in this rock cut (here the mountain in the side) as well as the gopuram ike gateway construction is there. crowning element on 'sikhara etc.space relationship. style.an overall sculptural quality. - 77 . nandi mandapa and gopurarn or doorway. Again the shape of vimana part and other specific character shows the proper mature dravidian. form textural quality on the temple plane.vimana. we can see the basic not the proper nature style. Similarly in the case of Kailasa temple. obviously the sense of mass volume and space volume and the proper utilization of solid & void space made this . illusionistic movement through the formation . Jagamohana and vimana (Nirandhra). The spatial composition through the scooping off the stone in three side made this temple unique and highly sculptural according to its form . the root of Dravidian temple architectural form. Nata mandapa. The 3 hill sided area with comparatively smooth texture contradict with the isolated mass rock which is highly decorative like the unique technique of carving it is also unique of the monolithic rock cut architecture and also unique in treating as a sculpture. Again the playfulness of light & shadow. According to the shape. pillared hall. Visun izing all we can not say il only an architecture 'from my sculptural point of view it is obviously a sculpture. Basically it is an arrange-rrent of sculptures or installation like work of art as a whole. The multi storoyed viman.specifically the temple complex as an whole shows the overall arrangement of sculptural form. shows the touch of the proper dravidian style. Obviously it shows the four parts like Bhog mandapa.
1 have gone through these.is During temple of Aihole. it was 78 . it situating on a high platform and these type of light effects gives it an airy effect of this architecture.. To get the zist of this philosophy and to give the form of it. keeping the basic stylistic grammar properly of the vesara type.The most experimental temple. The basic geometrical structure of the temple and the form of the God was merged up to establish the philosophy . The Hindu religioustic approach' or philosophy was explored through these architectures. Playfulness of light on the verandha pillars shows the effect of mass & void. how these temple architecture are being treated as a sculptural form. Here is' a great spatial function of the architectural form. thoroughly. A curvilinear short height sikhara on there of of the lower shrine is much more interesting. The influence of these typical Indian Hindu temple architectural form showed the pathway of my own sculpture. The psidal planning of the temple with a circumbulalory path rounded with pillar-portico like formation makes it different with other vesara temples. Inner space and outer space is a prominent mixing up in this architecture.' As architecture and art never separated in two parts.the temple is the sacred abode of God in this materialistic world i. Specifically. The religioustic approach and the mandala described ground plan formation gives the basic of my ideas. temple itself is an image of holistic philosophy.e. the germ-chamber or womb house of the temple with its idol image inspired me much more rather than any other. Convex outer pro-jected form and concave inner form make the proper sculptural form. The basic of all the discussion in.
according to my concept.visually and aesthetically. I have tried to evolve that aesthetical value which is hidden in the architecture. with aesthetical value . I have just showed this analytical discussion to prove that an architecture also consist all the general characteristics of sculpture . A sculpture . in architecture space is an important factor to be considered.inherently in the mind of the earlier architects. In the same way. The sculptural space. the universal space and the synthesis of space volume and mass-volume will show the proper sculptural value of an object. As sculpture based on forrnai character and visual satisfaction - architecture on this point being similar to the sculpture.can. Most of all in this contemporary period any form in our surroundings. Sculptural form-can be seen in any object .only the aesthetics sense should be there. 79 . sculpture also based on the various spatial relationship. architecture is a part of visual art (plastic). The art is always: hiding in it.monumental and also highly related with environment. Architecture is highly acceptable environmental sculptuie. be treated as sculpture. Most of all.
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