Elements of Jigs and Fixtures.

Various elements of jigs and fixtures and their details are follows. 1: Body 2: Locating devices 3: Clamping devices 4: Tool guide(jigs bushing)

1: Body:
The jig body is generally made of cost iron by casting process or fabricated by welding together various slabs and bars of mild steel. It may be heat treated to relief the stresses. Body is the most prominent feature of the jig. Its main purpose is to support and house the job. The various jig body are follows:

(A):Plane Type Jig:
Plane type jig is the simplest type, it is used when plane holes are to be drilled. It has either drill bushes for guiding the tools or the holes without bushes.

(B): Channel Type Jig:
Channel type is made up from standard steel channel section.

(C): Box type Jig:
Box type jig is used where a component requires drilling in more than one plane and the jig is to be provided with on equilant number of drill bush plates. One side of the box is fitted with a lid which can be opened for inserting the component and for unloading it. It should be made as light as possible.

(D): The Built Up Jig:
The built up jig used dowels and screws for fabricating member welded type. Standard steel sections are used in it for the limited numbers of details, which are secured by means of screws and dowels, the locating pins and the blocks are positioned so that the greatest dimensional variation of the work piece may be accommodated.

(E): Leaf Type Jig:
Leaf type jig is simple made from a block of steel fitted with two adjustable locating screws and a spring loaded plunger. It is used in case of measured large components where it may be both unnecessary and construct a jig to hold the complete component , where madding is purely confined to a local section of the work piece.

2:Locating Devices
The pins of various design and made of hardened steel are the most common locating devices used to locate a work piece in a jig or fixture. The shank of the pin is press fitted or driven into the body of jig or fixture. The locating diameter of the pin is made larger than the shank to prevent it from being forced into the jig or fixture body due to the weight of the work piece or cutting forces. Depending upon the mutual relation between the work piece and the pin. The pin may be classify as follows:

(A): Locating Pins:

these are two types of locating pins: Conical locating pins Cylindrical locating pins (B): Support Locating Pins: With these pins (also known as rest pins) buttons or pads the work piece with flat surfaces supported at convenient. For example sand casting. The spherical head or round head rest buttons are used for supporting rough surfaces (un machined and cast surfaces) because they provide a point support which may be stable under these circumstances. It would insure accurate and stable location.When reamed or finally finished holes are available in work piece. because more contact area is available during location. Support pins with flat head are usually employed and provided location and support to machine surface. these can be used for locating purpose of the manner as shown . In the fixed support pins the locating face is either ground flat or curved. Adjustable type support pins are used for work piece whose dimension can vary. . forging or unmachined faces. (C): Jack Pins: Jack pins or spring pins are also used to locate the work piece whose dimension are subjected to variation. When the location of the work piece is secured the pin is locked in this position by means of locking screw. The pin is allow to come up under spring pressure or conversely is pressed down by the work piece.

The typical hook bolt clamp is shown.3: Clamping devices: If the work piece can not be restrained by the locating devices or elements. it become necessary to clamp the work piece in jig or fixture body. The commonly used clamping devices are follows: (A): Clamping Screws: Clamping screws are used for light clamping. . The most common example of clamping devices is bench vice. In bench vice the movable jaw of the vice exert force on the work piece . their by holding it in correct position of location in the fixed jaw of the vice. Clamping screws are shown in fig. (B): Hook Bolt Clamp: This is very simple clamping device and is only suitable for light work and where usual tip of the clamp is inconvenient. The purpose of the clamping is to exert a pressure to press a work piece against the locating surfaces and hold it there in a position to the cutting forces.

by increasing the thickness around the hole. center stud and heel. The clamping force is applied by spring loaded nut. The design differ from simple bridge clamp in that a heel is provided at the outer end of the clamp to guide its sliding motion for loading and unloading the work piece. (E): Swinging Strap(Latch Clamp): . This trap should be strengthen at the point where the hole for the stud is cut out. (D): Heel Clamp: These consists of a rusted plate.(C): Bridge Clamp: It is very simple and reliable clamping device.

the locking nut is unscrewed by giving it about one turn and this releases the c. Jig bushes are used in drilling and boring. Headless type bushes are press fit into the hole of the job. were resistance and changeable.clamp. Different type of bushes are spot welded or screwed with the jig. For this the strap(latch or lid) can be swing out from the work piece. Sometime the bushes for guiding tools may be of cast iron. use is made of guiding parts such as jigs bushing and templates. a bush fits into the hole of the jig. When the clamp is removed or swing away the work piece can freely pass over the nut. To reverse procedure is adopted for loading the work piece. (F): C-Clamp: To unload the work piece. The diameter of the bush depends on the diameter of the drill.This is a special type of clamp which provides a means of intry for loading and unloading the work piece. Bushes are general made of a good grade of tool steel to insure hardening at a fairly no temperature and to lesson the danger of fire cracking. These must be precise. The typical swing strap or latch clamp is shown in figure. through which the drill passes. Then to locate the tool relative to the work. 4: Tool Guide or Jig Bushing: Sometimes the stiffness of the cutting tool may be in sufficient to perform certain machining operations. .

American standard bushes are classified in three categories. 3: Linear bushes: . These are of the flanged types and sliding fit into the linear bush. The renewable bushes must be prevented from rotating or lifting with the drill. One common method is to use a retaining screw. 1: press.Hardened steel bushes are always preferable for guiding drills. mating surface to the renewable bush.fit wearing bushes 2: renewable wearing bushes 3: linear wearing bushes Types of bushes (tool guide/jig bushes): 1: Press fit wearing bushes: These bushes are used when little importance in put on accuracy or finish and tool used is a twist drill. These bushing are installed directly in the jig body and are used mainly for short protection. The linear bush provides hardened wear resistance. Its replacement is simply by using a renewable bush. reamers and taps etc. There are two design of press fit bushing: > Plain or headless bush > Headed or flanged bush 2: Renewable bushes: When the guide bushes requires periodic replacement (due to wear of the inside diameter of the bush). which is installed press fitted into the jig plate.

3: Clearance: Clearance is provided in the jig or fixture body (A) to allow for any variation in component sizes specially casting and forging. are permanently fixed to the jig body. 1: Rigidity: Jigs and fixtures should be sufficiently stiff to secure the preset accuracy of machining. 2: Fool proofing: It can be defined as “ the incorporation of design feature in the jig or fixture that will make it possible to lead the work into jig and fixture. Jigs should be designed so that the removal of the work piece is not obstructed by these burr for this suitable clearance grooves or slots should be provided. Design principles Common to jigs and fixtures: There are some principles which are useful to design jigs and fixtures. . such as fooling pegs. but will not interfere with loading and unloading the work piece. blocks or pins which clears correctly position parts but prevent incorrectly loaded parts from entering the jig and fixture body. in an improper position .” There are many fool proofing devices . These bushes are be with or without head. These acts as guides for renewable type bushing.These bushes are also known as master bushing. 4: Burr Grooves: A burr raised on the work piece at the start of the cut is termed a minor burr and at the end of a cut is called a major burr. (B) To allow for hand movements so that the work piece can easily placed in the jig or fixture and removal after machining .

fiber . (A): Sharp corner on the body of jig and fixture should be avoided. 7: Design for Safety: Jigs and fixtures must be safe and convenient in use. a pin located under the work will remove the part radially.5: Ejectors: The use of ejection devices to force the work piece out from the jig or fixture is important in two positions. 6: Inserts: To avoid any damage to fragile and soft work piece and also to the finished surfaces of the work piece while clamping. (A) the work piece is heavy (B) machining pressure forces the work piece to the slides or based on the jig or fixture and the pressure and oil or coolant fill will cause the work to strick and difficult to remove on small jigs and fixtures . (B): Sighting surfaces should be cleared. leather . hard rubber and plastic should be fitted to the faces of the clamps. (C): Bolt and nut should be inside the body of jig or fixture and not protrude on the surface. Inserts of some soft material such as copper. following are the some Factors for the safety of worker working on jigs and fixtures. 8: Sighting Surface: . lead .

. They should be easily to set . To satisfy these conditions an economical balance has to be made. give high accuracy . 10: Economical: Jig and fixtures should be simple in construction.Machining on the work piece must be clearly visible to the worker. 9: Simplicity in design: Design of the jig and fixture should be a simple one. A completed design require a large maintenance. cheap in manufacture. He should not be required to bend is neck for seeing the work piece or work surfaces. be sufficiently rigid and lightly weight.