II5ICA

UNIDAD I
UNIDADL5 DL MLDICICN

1ŦŴ unluAuLS lunuAMLn1ALLS SCn LAS unluAuLS uL LCnCl1uuţ MASA ? 1lLMÞCţ 1CuAS LCS uLMÁS
SL LLAMAn uL8lvAuASţ ? CuL SlLMÞ8L ÞuLuLn LxÞ8LSA8SL CCMC CCM8lnAClCnLS uL LAS uLMÁSŦ

2ŦŴ LL ML18C ÞA18Cn LS unA 8A88A uL ÞLA1lnC Ŷ l8lulC CuAnuC SL CCnS18u?C LL Þ8lML8 ML18C
ÞA18Cnţ SL 18A1C uL CuL 1uvlL8A LA LCnCl1uu uL LA ulLZMlLLCnLSlMA ÞA81L uL LA ulS1AnClA CuL
PA? CLn18C unC uL LCS ÞCLCS ? LL LCuAuC8ŦLA ?A8uA vALL Ln LCS LŦuŦ vALL 3600/3937 ÞA81LS uL
un ML18C ÞA18Cn ? LS1A ulvluluA Ln 36 ÞuLCAuASŦ

3ŦŴ LA unluAu ÞA18Cn uL MASAţ LS LL klLCC8AMCţ SL ulvluL Ln 1000 ÞA81LS lCuALLS LLAMAuAS
C8AMCSŦ LA Ll8lA ÞA18Cn SL LS1A8LLCL CCMC CuL Su MASA SL8Á lCuAL A 0Ŧ4336 kCŦ

4ŦŴ SL PAn CCnSluL8AuC SlLMÞ8L 18LS CLASLS uL 1lLMÞCţ Þ8lML8C LL 1lLMÞC SluL8ALţ SLCunuC LL
1lLMÞC SCLA8 AÞA8Ln1L ? 1L8CL8C LL 1lLMÞC SCLA8 MLulCŦ ulA SCLA8 MLulC LS LA uu8AClCn uL
1CuCS LCS ulAS SCLA8LS AÞA8Ln1LS uL un ARC SCLA8Ŧ

3ŦŴ SlS1LMA ML18lCC uLClMALť Ln LS1L SlS1LMA CCS SlCnlllCA CLn1lML18Cţ C8AMCţ SLCunuC ? MkC
SlCnlllCA ML18Cţ klLCC8AMCţ SLCunuCŦ


UNIDAD II
kAÞIDL2ţ VLLCCIDAD ¥ ACLLLkACICN

1ŦŴ MLCÁnlCAť 8AMA uL LA llSlCA CuL SL CCuÞA uL LS1uulA8 LCS MCvlMlLn1CS LS1AuCS uL LCS
CuL8ÞCS MA1L8lALLSŦ

2ŦŴ LA MLCÁnlCA SL ulvluL Ln ClnLMÁ1lCAť uLSC8l8L LCS vA8lCS 1lÞCS uL MCvlMlLn1CS ? LA
SLCunuA LLAMAuA ulnÁMlCA 18A1A uL LAS CAuSAS CuL PACLn CAM8lA8 LCS MCvlMlLn1CSŦ LA
ulnÁMlCA SL ulvluA Ln LS1Á1lCA ? ClnL1lCAŦ

3ŦŴ LA LS1Á1lCA LS1uulA LCS CuL8ÞCS Ln LS1AuC uL LCulLl88lCţ CCnulClCn ÞC8 luL8ZAS
LCulLl88AuASŦ LA ClnL1lCA LS1uulA LCS CAM8lCS uLL MCvlMlLn1C Þ8CuuCluCS ÞC8 unA C MÁS
luL8ZAS nC LCulLl88AuASŦ

4ŦŴ vLLCCluAuť LA vLLCCluAu SL uLllnL CCMC LA 8AÞluLZ uL CAM8lCS uL ÞCSlClCnŦ

˰˥ˬ. ˭˥ˤ˩o =
dìstuncìu ¡cco¡¡ìdu
tìcmpo
˰ =
d
t


3ŦŴ LAS CAn1luAuLS MLul8LLS CuL 1lLnLn MACnl1uu ? ul8LCClCnţ SCn LLAMAuCS vLC1C8lALLSţ
L!LMÞLCť uLSÞLAZAMlLn1Cţ vLLCCluAuţ ACLLL8AClCn ? luL8ZAŦ ? las MLuluAS LSCALA8LS SCn LAS
CAn1luAuLSť vCLuMLnţ uLnSluAu ? MASAŦ

6ŦŴ ACLLL8AClCn unllC8MLť SL uLllnL CCMC LA 8AÞluLZ CCn CuL CAM8lA LA vLLCCluAuŦ
oc˥ˬ˥roc˩on =
˰˥ˬ ˦˩noˬ -˰˥ˬ ˩n˩c˩oˬ
ˮ˩˥˭po


7ŦŴ lC8MuLA ÞA8A CALCuLA8 LA ulS1AnClA Ln un ÞLAnC lnCLlnAuC CCnCClLnuC ACLLL8AClCn ?
1lLMÞCŦ
ˤ =
ŵ
Ŷ

2



UNIDAD III
LL¥L5 DLL MCVIMILN1C DL NLW1CN

1ŦŴ ulnÁMlCAť LS1uulA LCS Þ8lnClÞlCS uL 8AÞluLZţ vLLCCluAu ? ACLLL8AClCnţ SL LS1A8LLCL Ln LAS
LLAMAuAS LL?LS uL nLW1CnŦ

2ŦŴ Þ8lML8A LL? uLL MCvlMlLn1C uL nLW1Cnť un CuL8ÞC Ln 8LÞCSC C CCn MCvlMlLn1C
unllC8MLţ SLCul8Á Ln 8LÞCSC C CCn MCvlMlLn1C unllC8ML A MLnCS CuL AC1uL SC88L LL unA
luL8ZA Lx1L8nAŦ

3ŦŴ lnL8ClAť LS ACuLLLA Þ8CÞlLuAu uLL CuL8ÞC CuL 1lLnuL A CÞCnL8SL A CuALCulL8 CAM8lC uL Su
LS1AuC uL 8LÞCSC C uL MCvlMlLn1CŦ

4ŦŴ MASAť LS LA MLuluA CuAn1l1A1lvA uL LA lnL8ClAţ SL MluL Ln C8AMCS C klLCC8AMCS Ln LL
SlS1LMA ML18lCCŦ

3ŦŴ luL8ZAť LS Þ8CuuCluA ÞC8 LA A18ACClCn uL LA C8AvLuAu SC88L LA MASA MŦ

6ŦŴ SLCunuA LL? uL MCvlMlLn1C uL nLW1Cnť CuAnuC SL AÞLlCA unA luL8ZA CCnS1An1L A un
CuL8ÞCţ LA ACLLL8AClCn CuL 8LSuL1Aţ LS Þ8CÞC8ClCnAL A LA luL8ZA ? LS lnvL8SAMLn1L
Þ8CÞC8ClCnAL A LA MASAŦ
o , =
˘
˭


o =
˘
˭

LCuAClCn uL LA luL8ZAť

˘ = ˭o

˘˯˥r˴o = ˭oso ˲ oc˥ˬ˥roc˩on

LA ACLLL8AClCn 1lLnL LA MlSMA ul8LCClCn CuL LA luL8ZA CuL AC1úAŦ

7ŦŴ ulnAť LS unA luL8ZA CuL AÞLlCAuA A unA MASA uL un C8AMCţ LL Þ8CuuCL unA ACLLL8AClCn
uL 1 CMŦ / SLC
2
Ln LL SlS1LMA CCS (cmţ aţ sea)
ŵ ˤ˩no = ŵ˧ ˲ ŵ

s˥˧
2


8ŦŴnLW1Cnť SL uLllnL CCMC LA luL8ZA CuL AL AÞLlCA8SL A unA MASA uL un klLCC8AMCţ LL
Þ8CuuCL unA ACLLL8AClCn uL 1 M/SLC
2
Ŧ
Ln LL SlS1LMA MkS (ML18Cţ klLCC8AMCţ SLCunuC)ţ LA LCuAClCn SL CCnvlL81L Lnť
ŵ n˥˱ˮon = ŵ ˫˧ ˲ ŵ
˭
s˥˧
2

9ŦŴ SLuCť LS LA MASA CuL ÞC8 LA ACClCn uL unA luL8ZA uL unA Ll88A 8LCl8L unA ACLLL8AClCn uL
1 l1/SLC
2

ŵ ˬ˩bro = ŵ sˬ˯˧ ˲ ŵ ˦ˮ¡s˥˧
2


10ŦŴ1L8CL8A LL? uLL MCvlMlLn1C uL nLW1Cnť A 1CuA luL8ZA uL ACClCn SL CÞCnL unA luL8ZA
lCuAL ? CÞuLS1A uL 8LACClCnţ LS lMÞC81An1L nC1A8 CuL LA luL8ZA uL LA ACClCn ? LA luL8ZA uL
8LACClCn uL LA 1L8CL8A LL? uL nLW1Cn AC1úAn SC88L CuL8ÞCS ullL8Ln1LSŦ


UNIDAD IV
CAIDA DL CULkÞC5ţ ÞkC¥LC1ILL5 ¥ LL¥ DL LA GkAVI1ACICN DL NLW1CN

1ŦŴ ACLLL8AClCn Þ8CuuCluA ÞC8 LA C8AvLuAuť LCS vALC8LS uL LA ACLLL8AClCn Þ8CuuCluA ÞC8 LA
C8AvLuAu Ln CLnL8AL Ln18L un MlnlMC uL 97 804 CM/ SLC
2
(32Ŧ09 l1/SLC2)
CAluA Ll88Lƹ vƹCŦ1
AL1u8A uƹ1/2 CŦ1
2


2ŦŴLAnZAMlLn1C vL81lCAL PAClA A88l8Ať CuAnuC SL LAnZA vL81lCALMLn1L PAClA A88l8A un
C8!L1C Su vLLCCluAu ulSMlnu?L 8ÁÞluAMLn1L PAS1A CuL Ln ClL81C Þun1C CuLuA
MCMLn1ÁnLAMLn1L Ln 8LÞCSC ? uLSÞuLS CAL C18A vLZ PAClA LA 1lL88Aţ AuCul8lLnuC LA MlSMA
vLLCCluAu CCn LA CuL luL LAnZAuC PAClA A88l8A Ln LL MCMLn1C CuL LLLCuL AL SuLLCŦ

3ŦŴ AnCuLC uL LLLvAClCn ? ALCAnCL uL un Þ8C?LC1lLť AL1u8A MÁxlMAŦ SL uLllnL CCMC LA MA?C8
AL1u8A vL81lCAL SC88L LL SuLLC CuL ALCAnZA LL Þ8C?LC1lLŦ

ALCAnCLŦ SL uLllnL CCMC LA ulS1AnClA PC8lZCn1AL uLSuL LL Þun1C uL LAnZAMlLn1C PAS1A LL
Þun1C uCnuL LL Þ8C?LC1lL 8LC8LSA uL nuLvC AL MlSMC nlvLLŦ

1lLMÞC uL vuLLCŦ SL uLllnL CCMC LL 1lLMÞC CuL nLCLSl1A LL Þ8C?LC1lL ÞA8A LLLCA8
nuLvAMLn1L AL nlvLL uLSuL LL CuAL luL LAnZAuCŦ

AnCuLC uL LAnZAMlLn1CŦ SlLMÞ8L SL MluL A ÞA81l8 uL LA PC8lZCn1AL ? SL LLAMA AnCuLC uL
LLLvAClCnŦ

lC8MuLAS ÞA8A Þ8C?LC1lLLS
Anaulo de elevŦ 0 AlLura máxlma h Alcance d 1lempo de vuelo L
0 0 0 0
30 v
2
/8a 0Ŧ866 v
2
/a v/a
43 2 v
2
/8a dƹ v
2
/a 1Ŧ41 v/a
60 3 v
2
/8a 0Ŧ866 v
2
/a 1Ŧ73 v/a
90 4 v
2
/8a 0 2 v/a

4ŦŴ LL? uL LA C8Avl1AClCn unlvL8SAL uL nLW1Cnť CuALCulL8 ÞA8 uL CuL8ÞCS SL A18ALn Ln18L Sl
CCn unA luL8ZA ul8LC1AMLn1L Þ8CÞC8ClCnAL AL Þ8CuuC1C uL SuS MASAS L lnvL8SAMLn1L
Þ8CÞC8ClCnAL AL CuAu8AuC uL LAS ulS1AnClAS CuL LC SLÞA8AŦ
˘,
˭
1
˭
2
ˤ
2


˘ = ˙
˭
1
˭
2
ˤ
2


LA CCnS1An1L nLW1CnlAnA uL LA C8Avl1AClCn Cţ Llene el valorť
˙ = Ŵ.ŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴŴźźź
˭
3
˫˧
2
s˥˧
2



UNIDAD V
IULk2A5ţ VLC1CkL5 ¥ CLN1kC DL GkAVLDAD

1ŦŴ LL ÞLSCť SL uL8L A LA A18ACClCn C8Avl1AClCnAL uL LA 1lL88A SC88L LCS CuL8ÞCSŦ

2ŦŴ luL8ZAť lnuLÞLnulLn1LMLn1L uL LA ul8LCClCn Ln CuL ÞuLuA AC1uA8 LA luL8ZA Su MACnl1uu
ÞuLuL LxÞ8LSA8SL Ln ulnASţ nLW1CnS C Ll88ASŦ
LAS luL8ZAS SCn vLC1C8lALLS ?A CuL 1lLnLn MACnl1uu ? ul8LCClCn ÞC8 LLLC SL SCML1Ln A LAS
8LCLAS uL LA CCMÞCSlClCn uL vLC1C8LSŦ

3ŦŴ luL8ZA 8LSuL1An1Lť SL ÞuLuL LnCCn18A8 LA luL8ZA 8LSuL1An1L ÞC8 CCMÞCSlClCn uL
vLC1C8LSŦ PA? uCS ML1CuCS C8ÁllCCS CLnL8ALLS ÞA8A C81LnL8 LA 8LSuL1An1L Þ8lML8C LL
ML1CuC uLL ÞA8ALLLCC8AMCţ SLCunuC LL ML1CuC uLL 18lAnCuLCŦ

4ŦŴ ML1CuC uLL ÞA8ALLLCC8AMCť


3ŦŴ ML1CuC uLL 18lAnCuLCť


6ŦŴ CCnulClCn uL LCulLl88lCť CuALCulL8 C8!L1C CuL SL CCnSL8vA Ln 8LÞCSC LS1A Ln LCulLl88lC
? LA 8LSuL1An1L uL 1CuCS LAS luL8ZAS CuL AC1úAn SC88L LL LS CL8CŦ

7ŦŴuLSCCMÞCSlClCn uL unA luL8ZA Ln SuS CCMÞCnLn1LSť ML1CuC uL LCS CCMÞCnLn1LSŦ

8ŦŴCLn18C uL MASAť LL CLn18C uL MASA uL CuALCulL8 C8!L1C C SlS1LMA uL C8!L1CS LS un Þun1C
1AL CuL Sl SL ÞASA CuALCulL8 ÞLAnC ÞC8 LL ţ LCS MCMLn1CS uL MASA uL unC ? C18C LAuC uLL
ÞLAnC SCn lCuALLSŦ

9ŦŴ CLn18C uL C8AvLuAuť LL CLn18C uL MASA LS ÞC8 LLLC un Þun1C Ln LL CuL SL ÞuLuL
CCnSluL8A8 CCnCLn18AuC 1CuC LL ÞLSCţ ÞC8 LS1C LS l8LCuLn1LMLn1L LLAMAuC CLn18C uL
C8AvLuAuŦ


UNIDAD VI
1kA8AICţ LNLkGIA ¥ ÞC1LNCIA

1ŦŴ ullL8LnClA Ln18L ÞLSC ? MASAť LL ÞLSC ? LA luL8ZA 1lLnLn MACnl1uu ? ul8LCClCn ? ÞC8 LC
1An1C SCn vLC1C8lALLSŦ LA MASA ÞC8 Su ÞA81L LS unA CAn1luAu LSCALA8 ?A CuL SCLC 1lLnL
MACnl1uuŦ

LA ullL8LnClA Ln18L ÞLSC ? MASA SL ÞuLuL lLuS18A8 CCMC LL CuL8ÞC Ln LL LSÞAClCţ ALL!AuC uL
C18CS CuL8ÞCS ? SuS A18ACClCnLS C8Avl1AClCnALLSţ APl 1Lnu8Á MASA ÞL8C nC 1Lnu8Á ÞLSCŦ

ˣ = ˭˧

ˣ ƹMASA MuL1lÞLlCAuA ÞC8 LL ÞLSC uL LA unluAu uL MASAŦ
˧ƹ ÞLSC uL LA unluAu uL MASA
lAC1C8LS uL CCnvL8SlCn

2ŦŴ18A8A!Cť
Ln Su lC8MA MAS SLnClLLA AL 18A8A!C MLCÁnlCC LS lCuAL AL Þ8CuuC1C uL LA luL8ZA ÞC8 LA
ulS1AnClA A LC LA8CC uL LA CuAL AC1úA LA luL8ZA Ŧ
ˠrobo˪o = ˘ ˲ ˤ
3ŦŴLA LnL8ClA MLCÁnlCA SL ulvluL Ln LnL8ClA ClnL1lCA ? LnL8ClA ÞC1LnClALŦ

4ŦŴ LnL8ClA ÞC1LnClALť SL ulCL CuL un CuL8ÞC 1lLnL LnL8ClA ÞC1LnClAL Sl uL8luC A Su ÞCSlClCn
C LS1AuC LS CAÞAZ uL LlLC1uA8 un 18A8A!C ţ SL MluL Ln L8ClCS ţ !uLlCS C ÞlL Ll88ASŦ
˗. ˜. = ˘ ˲ ˤ

3ŦŴ LnL8ClA ClnL1lCAť LA LnL8ClA ClnL1lCA uL un CuL8ÞC Ln MCvlMlLn1C SL uLllnL CCMC LA
CAÞACluAu uL 8LALlZA8 un 18A8A!C uL8luC AL MCvlMlLn1C CuL 1lLnLŦ
˥n˥r˧˩o c˩n˥ˮ˩co =
ŵ
Ŷ
˭˰
2


6ŦŴ ÞC1LnClA SL uLllnL CCMC LA 8AÞluLZ CCn CuL SL LlLC1úA un 18A8A!C
˜oˮ˥nc˩o =
ˮrobo˪o
ˮ˩˥˭po


˜ =
˘ ˲ ˤ
ˮ


7ŦŴ unluAuLS uL ÞC1LnClA ? 18A8A!C SlS1LMA MkS ? CCSŦŴ
SlS1LMA ML18lCCŦŴ
uCnuL LL 18A8A!C SL MluL Ln L8ClCS C !uLlCSţ LA ÞC1LnClA SL LxÞ8LSA Ln L8ClCS ÞC8 SLCunuC
C Ln !uLlCS ÞC8 SLCunuCŦ un [ullo por seaundo se llama vaLloţ unldad de poLenclať
ŵ
˪˯ˬ˩o
s˥˧
= ŵ ˰oˮ˩o

Ln lnCLnlL8lA MLuluC Ln ÞlL Ll88ASţ LA ÞC1LnClA SL LxÞ8LSA Ln ÞlL Ŷ Ll88AS x SLCunuC ? Ln
CA8ALLCS uL ÞC1LnClAť
ŵ ˨p = ŹŹŴ ˦ˮ
ˬb
s˥˧


UNIDAD VII
CCN5LkVACICN DL LA LNLkGIA ¥ DL LA CAN1IDAD DL MCVIMILN1C

1ŦŴ CLASLS uL LnL8ClAť LnL8ClA CALC8lCAţ LnL8ClA LLLC18lCAţ LnL8ClA CulMlCAţ LnL8ClA
LuMlnCSAţ LnL8ClA A1CMlCAţ ÞC1LnClAL ? ClnL1lCAŦ

2ŦŴ LxÞLlCA8 ullL8LnClA Ln18L LnL8ClA CALC8lCA ? LnL8ClA ÞC1LnClALť CCnSluL8L LA LnL8ClA CuL
1lLnL unA CASCAuAţ LL ACuA ÞC8 LnClMA uL LA CASCAuA 1lLnL unA LnL8ClA ÞC1LnClAL ţ Ln vl81uu
uL Su ÞCSlClCn LnClMA uL LA 8ASL ţ CCnlC8ML CAL PAClA A8A!C CCn vLLCCluAu CAuA vLZ MA?C8
Su LnL8ClA ClnL1lCA Z MŦv2 AuMLn1A MlLn18AS CuL LA LnL8ClA ÞC1LnClAL ulSMlnu?LŦ

3ŦŴ Þ8lnClÞlC uL LA CCnSL8vAClCn uL LA LnL8ClAť ºLA LnL8ClA nC SL C8LA nl uLS18u?L SCLC SL
18AnSlC8MA"Ŧ

4ŦŴ ºLL? uL CCnSL8vAClCn uL LA CAn1luAu uL MCvlMlLn1C"ť LS1A LL? LS1A8LLCL CuL LA CAn1luAu
1C1AL uL MCvlMlLn1C An1LS uLL lMÞAC1Cţ LS lCuAL A LA CAn1luAu 1C1AL uL MCvlMlLn1C
uLSÞuLS uLL MlSMCŦ

3ŦŴ LxÞLlCA8 LA CCLlSlCn ÞL8lLC1AMLn1L LLÁS1lCAť LAS CCLlSlCnLS nC SCn ÞL8lLC1AMLn1L
LLÁS1lCAS ţ Sl luL8An ÞL8lLC1AMLn1L LLÁS1lCAS SL LCC8A8lA LA CCnSL8vAClCn uL LA LnL8ClA
MLCÁnlCA A LA vLZ CuL LA CCnSL8vAClCn uL LA CAn1luAu uL MCvlMlLn1C ţ LCS CPCCuLS
ÞL8lLC1AMLn1L LLÁS1lCCS CCu88Ln Ln LCS Á1CMCS ? LAS MCLLCuLAS uL18AMlC8CSCCÞlCCS CuL
MAnL!AMCS Ln LA vluA ulA8lAŦ

UNIDAD VIII
MCVIMILN1C CIkCULAk

1ŦŴ L!L uL 8C1AClCnť CuAnuC SL ÞCnL Ln 8C1AClCn un CuL8ÞC 8lCluCţ Su MCvlMlLn1C SL
uLSC8l8L CLnL8ALMLn1L CCn 8LLAClCn AL L!L Ln 1C8nC AL CuAL Cl8A C L!L uL 8C1AClCnŦ

2ŦŴ l8LCuLnClA uL 8C1AClCnť nuML8C uL 8LvCLuClCnLS CCMÞLL1AS CuL LlLC1úA un CuL8ÞC Ln
unluAu uL 1lLMÞC ? SL LxÞ8LSA CCn LA LL18A l
˦ = n˯˭˥ro ˤ˥ r˥˰oˬ˯c˩on˥s por s˥˧. (rp˨)

3ŦŴ vLLCCluAu lnS1An1ÁnLAť LS1A vLLCCluAu 1lLnL LA MlSMA MACnl1uu CuL LA 8AÞluLZ ? unA
ul8LCClCn CuL Ln CuALCulL8 Þun1C LS LA uL LA 1AnCLn1L AL Cl8CuLCţ Sl LA 8AÞluLZ LS
CCnS1An1Lţ LA MACnl1uu uL LA vLLCCluAu LS CCnS1An1Lţ ÞL8C Su ul8LCClCn CAM8lA
CCn1lnuAMLn1LŦ

4ŦŴluL8ZA CLn18lÞL1A ? CLn18lluCAť CuAnuC SL PACL Cl8A8 unA ÞlLu8A Ln LL Lx18LMC uL unA
CuL8uA ţ PA8Á unA luL8ZA PAClA uLn18C L!L8CluA ÞC8 LA CuL8uA ? AC1uAnuC SC88L LA ÞlLu8A
LS1A luL8ZA SL LLAMA luL8ZA CLn18lÞL1Aţ ÞC8 LA 1L8CL8A LL? uL nLW1Cn SA8LMCS CuL LA
ÞlLu8A L!L8CL unA luL8ZA lCuAL ÞL8C CCn18A8lA SC88L LA CuL8uAţ LS1A SL LLAMA luL8ZA
CLn18lluCAŦ

3ŦŴ CAn1luAu uL MCvlMlLn1C Cl8CuLA8ť Ln LL MCvlMlLn1C Cl8CuLA8ţ LA MASA LS ACLLL8AuA
CCn1lnuAMLn1L PAClA LL CLn18Cţ SlLMÞ8L Ln AnCuLC 8LC1C CCn Su vLLCCluAu lnS1An1ÁnLA ?
ALL!ÁnuCLA uL LA 8LC1A 1AnCLn1Lţ A LC LA8CC uL LA CuAL vlA!A8lA Sl 88uSCAMLn1L SL LL uL!A Ln
Ll8L81AuŦ

6ŦŴMCvlMlLn1C AnCuLA8ţ CCnSL8vAClCnť LA CCnSL8vAClCn uLL MCvlMlLn1C AnCuLA8 LxlCL CuLť
˭˰
1
r
1
= ˭˰
2
r
2


?A CuL LA MASA nC SL AL1L8A Ln Su vALC8ţ LA CCnSL8vAClCn uL LA CAn1luAu uL MCvlMlLn1C
AnCuLA8 LxlCL CuL CuALCulL8 ulSMlnuClCn Ln 8 uL8A CCMÞLnSA8SL CCn un AuMLn1C Ln Su
8AÞluLZŦ
LS1C LS nLCLSA8lC ÞA8A CuL AM8CS MlLM88CS uL LA LCuAClCn SlCAn SlLnuC lCuALLS Ln18L SlŦ

UNIDAD Ik
MCVIMILN1C ÞLANL1AkIC ¥ 5A1LLI1L5Ŧ

1ŦŴ Þ8lML8A LL? uL kLÞLL8ť ºLCS ÞLAnL1AS SL MuLvLn Ln C88l1AS LLlÞ1lCAS CCn LL SCL Ln unC uL
SuS lCCCS"Ŧ

2ŦŴSLCunuA LL? uL kLÞLL8ť ºLA LlnLA 8LC1A CuL unL AL SCL ? CuALCulL8 ÞLAnL1A 8A88L Á8LAS
lCuALLS A ln1L8vALCS uL 1lLMÞC lCuALLS"Ŧ

3ŦŴ1L8CL8A LL? uL kLÞLL8ť ºLL CuAu8AuC uLL ÞL8lCuC C88l1AL uL LCS ÞLAnL1AS LS Þ8CÞC8ClCnAL
AL Cu8C uL SuS ulS1AnClAS MLulAS AL SCL ºŦ

UNIDAD k
1LCkIA A1CMICA DL LA MA1LkIA

1ŦŴ LS1AuCS uL LA MA1L8lAť
LL LS1AuC SCLluC
LL LS1AuC LlCuluC
LL LS1AuC CASLCSC

2ŦŴLLLMLn1Cť LS unA SuS1AnClA CuL CCn1lLnL SCLC Á1CMCS uL unA CLASL SL LLAMA LLLMLn1Cţ
MlLn18AS CuL ACuLLLCS CuL CCn1lLnLn MAS uL unA CLASL uL Á1CMCS SL uLnCMlnAn
CCMÞuLS1CSŦ

3ŦŴnuML8C A1CMlCC ? ÞLSC A1CMlCCť
nuML8C A1CMlCCŦ uAuC A LA lZCulL8uA uL LAS 1A8LAS LSÞLClllCA LA ÞCSlClCn CuL CCuÞA LL
LLLMLn1C CCn 8LSÞLC1C A LCS uLMÁSŦ
ÞLSC A1CMlCCŦ uAuC A LA uL8LCPA nCS Þ8CÞC8ClCnA LL ÞLSC Þ8CMLulC uL un Á1CMC uL LSL
LLLMLn1C Ln 8LLAClCn CCn LL uL un Á1CMC uL CxlCLnC ţ AL CuAL SL LL uA LL vALC8 uL 16Ŧ

4ŦŴ MCLLCuLAť CuAnuC SL Þ8CuuCL A18ACClCn AL ACL8CA8SL uCS C MAS Á1CMCS LS1CS ÞuLuLn
CCM8lnA8SL ÞA8A lC8MA8 unA MCLLCuLA ţ unA vLZ lC8MAuC unA MCLLCuLA LS1A AC1uA8A
CCMC Sl luL8A unA ÞA81lCuLA unluA ţ 8A!C ulvL8SAS CCnulClCnLS llSlCASŦ

3ŦŴ ÞLSC MCLLCuLA8ť LL ÞLSC MCLLCuLA8 uL unA SuS1AnClA SL uLllnL CCMC LA SuMA uL LCS
ÞLSCS A1CMlCCS uL LCS Á1CMCS CuL lC8MAn unA MCLLCuLA uL LSA SuS1AnClAŦ

6ŦŴLCS 18LS LS1AuCS uL LA MA1L8lAť CASLCSCţ LlCuluC ? SCLluC

7ŦŴMCvlMlLn1C 88CWnlAnCť SCn LCS MCvlMlLn1CS 8LSuL1An1LS uL ÞA81lCuLAS MA?C8LS CuL
Sul8Ln un CCn1lnuC 8CM8A8uLCŦ
LAS ÞA81lCuLAS ÞLCuLRAS SL MuLvLn A vLLCCluAuLS 8LLA1lvAMLn1L LLLvAuAS ? 8CM8A8uLAn
vlCC8CSAMLn1L A LAS ÞA81lCuLAS MAS C8AnuLS CuL Sl ÞuLuLn vL8SLŦ


UNIDAD kI
ÞkCÞILDADL5 DL LC5 5CLIDC5

1ŦŴ LL? uL PCCkLť LA uLlC8MAClCn uL un CuL8ÞC SCLluC LS Þ8CÞC8ClCnAL A LAS luL8ZAS CuL SL
LL AÞLlCAn"
ˣ = ˫˲

2ŦŴ LlMl1L uL LLAS1lCluAuť Sl SL LS1l8A8A un ALAM88L CuLuA8A ALA8CAuC ÞL8MAnLn1LMLn1L ?
nC vCLvL8Á A 1LnL8 Su LCnCl1uu C8lClnALŦ LL LS1l8AMlLn1C LS ul8LC1AMLn1L Þ8CÞC8ClCnAL A
LA luL8ZA AÞLlCAuAŦ

3ŦŴLSluL8ZC unl1A8lCť Ln lnCLnlL8lA SL 1lLnL LA CCS1uM88L uL uLSC8l8l8 LAS luL8ZAS
8LS1Au8AuC8AS uL un CuL8ÞC LLÁS1lCC uLlC8MAuC CCMC LCS LSluL8ZCS unl1A8lCS uAnuC A
LS1L 1L8MlnC LA uLllnlClCn CuAn1l1A1lvA uL luL8ZA ÞC8 unluAu uL Á8LAŦ

6ŦŴ CCMÞ8LSlCnť CuAnuC SL AÞLlCA unA CA8CA l AL Lx18LMC uL unA 8A88A ÞA8A CCMÞ8lMl8LAţ
LA ulSMlnuClCn uL LCnCl1uu 1Ŧ 1lLnL LL MlSMC vALC8 CuL LA LLCnCAClCn CuL Pu8lL8A
Sul8luC Sl SL AÞLlCA8A LSA MlSMA CA8CA CCMC unA 1LnSlCnŦ

7ŦŴ lLLxlCnť CuAnuC unA vA8lLLA C vlCA SL SCML1L A unA luL8ZA CuL 1lLnuL A uC8LA8LAţ LA
CAn1luAu uL uLSÞLAZAMlLn1C 18AnSvL8SAL CuL Sul8Lţ LS Þ8CÞC8ClCnAL A LA luL8ZA AÞLlCAuAŦ

8ŦŴ 1C8SlCnť CuAnuC SL ll!A ÞC8 un Lx18LMC unA vA8lLLA C unA 8A88A ? SL AÞLlCA un
MCvlMlLn1C uL 1C8SlCn (ÞC8 MC1C8) ÞC8 LL C18C Lx18LMC SL 1uL8CL ţ uLn18C uL SuS LlMl1LS
uL LLAS1lCluAuţ LL uLSÞLAZAMlLn1C AnCuLA8 LS Þ8CÞC8ClCnAL AL MCMLn1C uL 1C8SlCn
AÞLlCAuC L ţ uCnuLť
H = ˘ ˲ r

9ŦŴ 8LSlS1LnClA AL CPCCuLť SL uLllnL CCMC LA CAÞACluAu uL un CuL8ÞC ÞA8A Sul8l8 unA
CCMÞ8LSlCn ţ C uLlC8MAClCn 8ÁÞluAţ Sln CuL SL Þ8CuuZCAn unA uLlC8MAClCn ÞL8MAnLn1Lţ
LA 8LSlS1LnClA AL CPCCuL LS CÞuLS1A A LA l8AClLluAuŦ

10ŦŴCCLllClLn1L uL 8LS1l1uClCnť SL uLllnL CCMC LL nuML8C CuL LxÞ8LSA LA 8LLAClCn CuL PA?
Ln18L LA vLLCCluAu CCn CuL uCS CuL8ÞCS SL SLÞA8An uLSÞuLS uL un CPCCuL ? LA vLLCCluAu
CCn CuL SL AÞ8CxlMA8Cn An1LS uL LA CCLlSlCnŦ
r =
˰˥ˬoc˩ˤoˤ ˤ˥ s˥poroc˩on
˰˥ˬoc˩ˤoˤ ˤ˥ oc˥rco˭˩˥nˮo


r =
˰
2
˰
1



UNIDAD kII
ÞkCÞILDADL5 DL LC5 LICUIDC5

1ŦŴ Þ8LSlCnť SL Ln1lLnuL C uLllnL CCMC LA luL8ZA ÞC8 unluAu uL Á8LAŦ
pr˥s˩on =
˦˯˥r˴o ˮoˮoˬ
or˥o


2ŦŴÞ8LSlCn uLn18C uL un LlCuluCť Ln un LlCuluC Ln 8LÞCSCţ LA luL8ZA L!L8CluA ÞC8 LL LlCuluC
SC88L CuALCulL8 SuÞL8llClLţ LS ÞL8ÞLnulCuLA8 LSA SuÞL8llClLţ LA luL8ZA L!L8CluA Ln CuALCulL8
Þun1C SC88L un LLLMLn1C uL SuÞL8llClL LS lnuLÞLnulLn1L uL LA C8lLn1AClCn uL LSA
SuÞL8llClLŦ

3ŦŴMASA LSÞLClllCAť LS LA MASA uL LA unluAu uL vCLuMLnŦ
˭oso ˥sp˥c˩˦˩co =
˭oso
˰oˬ˯˭˥n


µ =
H
ˢ


4ŦŴ uLnSluAuť LA 8LLAClCn CuL PA? Ln18L LL ÞLSC uL un ClL81C vCLuMLn uL unA SuS1AnClA ?
LL ÞLSC uL un vCLuMLn lCuAL uL ACuAŦ
ˤ˥ns˩ˤoˤ =
p˥so ˤ˥ ˯no s˯sˮonc˩o
p˥so ˤ˥ ˩˧˯oˬ ˰oˬ. ˤ˥ o˧˯o


3ŦŴÞLSC LSÞLClllCCť LS LL ÞLSC uL LA unluAu uL vCLuMLn uL LA SuS1AnClA CCnSluL8AuAŦ
p˥so ˥sp˥c˩˦˩co =
p˥so
˰oˬ˯˭˥n

µ
o
=
ˣ
ˢ


6ŦŴ Þ8lnClÞlC uL A8CulMLuLSť LS1A8LLCL CuL un CuL8ÞC CuL lLC1A C SL SuML8CL Ln un LlCuluCţ
LS LMÞu!AuC PAClA A88l8A CCn unA luL8ZA lCuAL AL ÞLSC uLL LlCuluC uLSALC!AuC ÞC8 LL
C8!L1CŦ

7ŦŴ AuPLSlCnť SCn LAS luL8ZAS uL A18ACClCn Ln18L ullL8Ln1LS CLASLS uL MCLLCuLAS LS LLAMAuA
AuPLSlCnţ ? LA luL8ZA uL A18ACClCn Ln18L MCLLCuLAS uL LA MlSMA SuS1AnClA LS LLAMAuA
CCPLSlCnŦ

8ŦŴ 1LnSlCn SuÞL8llClALť LA SuÞL8llClL uL LCS LlCuluCS SL CCMÞC81A Ln 1CuC MCMLn1C CCMC
Sl LxlS1lL8A SC88L LLLA unA uLLCAuA MLM88AnA LS1l8AuA ? CCMC Sl LS1A MLM88AnA LS1uvlL8A
SCML1luA A unA 1LnSlCn ? 18A1A8A uL CCn18AL8SLŦ

9ŦŴ CAÞlLA8luAuť LL ACuA Su8L Ln LCS 1u8CS CAÞlLA8LSţ uL8luC A CuL LA luL8ZA uL AuPLSlCn uLL
vlu8lC CCn LL ACuA LS MA?C8 CuL LA luL8ZA uL CCPLSlCn uLL ACuAţ LAS MCLLCuLAS uLL ACuA
SL LLvAn1An ÞC8 CCPLSlCnŦ LCuAClCnť
˨ =
Ŷˠ
rµ˧

rƹ 8AulC uLL 1u8C Ln cm
µƹ MASA LSÞLClllCA uLL LlCuluC Ln a/cm
3

˧ƹ LA ACLLL8AClCn uL8luA A LA C8AvLuAu (980cm/sea
2
)


UNIDAD kIII
ÞkCÞILDADL5 DL LC5 GA5L5

1ŦŴ Þ8LSlCn A1MCSlL8lCA nC8MALť
ŵ Ŵŵŷ ŴŴŴ
ˤ˩nos

2

2ŦŴ LA Þ8LSlCn A1MCSlL8lCA nC8MALť
ŵ bor = ŵ ŴŴŴ ŴŴŴ
ˤ˩nos

2


ŵ ˭˩ˬ˩bor = ŵ ŴŴŴ
ˤ˩nos

2


ŵ oˮ˭os˦˥ro = ŵ Ŵŵŷ bor˥s

ŵ oˮ˭os˦˥ro = ŵ Ŵŵŷ ˭˩ˬ˩bor˥s


UNIDAD kIV
ILUIDC5 LN MCVIMILN1C

1ŦŴ vLLCCluAu uL SALluA ÞC8 un C8lllClCť
˰ = .Ŷ˧˨

1LC8LMA uL 1C88lCLLLlť ºLA vLLCCluAu uL SALluA uL un LlCuluC A CuALCulL8 Þ8ClunuluAu P
LCulvALL A LA vLLCCluAu CuL AuCul8l8lA ÞC8 CAluA Ll88L uLSuL LSA MlSMA AL1u8AŦ"

2ŦŴMLuluA uL LA vLLCCluAu uL unA CC88lLn1Lť
˨ =
˰
2
Ŷ˧


LL SLCunuC MlLM88C
¡
2
2g
SL LL LLAMA ÞC1LnClAL uL CAluA (AL1u8A ulnÁMlCA) uL LA CC88lLn1L Ln
MCvlMlLn1CŦ
hƹ MluL LA vLLCCluAu uL LA CC88lLn1L Ln MCvlMlLn1C

3ŦŴ lLu!C A 18AvLS uL unA 1u8L8lAť
˨
¡
=
˰
2
Ŷ˧


4ŦŴ vlSCCSluAu uL LCS LlCuluCSť LS LA 8LSlS1LnClA ln1L8nA uL un lLuluCţ CuAn1C MA?C8 LS LA
8LSlS1LnClA AL MCvlMlLn1Cţ MAS C8AnuL LS LA vlSCCSluAuŦ

3ŦŴMLuluA uL LA vlSCCSluAuť LL ML1CuC MAS CC88lLn1L ÞA8A MLul8 LL CCLllClLn1L uL vlSCCSluAu
uL LCS LlCuluCSţ SL uL1L8MlnA 8 LA 8AÞluLZ uLL lLu!C uLL LlCuluC A 18AvLS uL un 1u8C uL
C8lllClC 8LLA1lvAMLn1L LS18LCPCţ LL 8CZAMlLn1C Ln18L LAS SLCClCnLS Þ8CxlMAS uLL LlCuluC ?
LAS ÞA8LuLS uLL 1u8Cţ 1lLnuLn A uL1LnL8 LL LlCuluCŦ

6ŦŴ Þ8lnClÞlC uL 8L8nCuLLlť Ln LCS LuCA8LS uCnuL LA vLLCCluAu uLL lLuluC LS C8AnuL Su Þ8LSlCn
LS 8A!A ? uCnuL LA vLLCCluAu uLL lLuluC LS ÞLCuLRA LA Þ8LSlCn LS AL1AŦ

7ŦŴLL LlLC1C uL SCS1Lnť LA MA?C8 ÞA81L uLL LlLC1C uL SCS1Ln uLL ALA uL un AL8CÞLAnC SL
uL8L A Su SuÞL8llClL SuÞL8lC8Ŧ

UNIDAD kV
1LMÞLkA1UkA ¥ DILA1ACICN

1ŦŴ 1LMÞL8A1u8Ať LA 1LMÞL8A1u8A A8SCLu1A uL un CuL8ÞC LS Þ8CÞC8ClCnAL A LA LnL8ClA
MLulA uL LAS MCLLCuLAS CuL CCMÞCnLn LL CuL8ÞCŦ

2ŦŴ 1L8MCML18C uL ML8Cu8lCť CCnSlS1L Ln un uLLCAuC 1u8C uL vlu8lC (1u8C CAÞlLA8)ţ unluC
Ln Su Lx18LMC lnlL8lC8 A un ÞLCuLRC 8uL8C CuL 1lLnL Su Lx18LMC SuÞL8lC8 CL88AuC ţ LL
8uL8C ? unA ÞA81L uLL 1u8C CAÞlLA8 SL 8LLLLnAn uL ML8Cu8lC ? SL PACL LL vAClC Ln LA ÞA81L
8LS1An1L uLL 1u8Cţ CuAnuC Su8L LA 1LMÞL8A1u8Aţ LL ML8Cu8lC ? LL 1u8C uL vlu8lC SL ulLA1Anţ
CCMC LL ML8Cu8lC SL ulLA1A MAS CuL LL vlu8lCţ Su8L A un nlvLL MAS AL1C uLn18C uLL 1l8lC
CAÞlLA8Ŧ Ln LL vlu8lC SL C8A8A unA LSCALA ÞA8A LLL8 LA 1LMÞL8A1u8A

3ŦŴ LSCALAS uL 1LMÞL8A1u8Ať AC1uALMLn1L SL uSAn 18LS LSCALAS ullL8Ln1LS uL 1LMÞL8A1u8A
CuL SCn LA uL lAP8LnPLl1ţ LA uL 8AnklnLţ LA CLn1lC8AuA ? LA uL kLLvlnŦ

4ŦŴ LlLC1C 1L8MCLLLC18lCCť LA 8LSlS1LnClA CuL un ALAM88L CÞCnL AL ÞASC uL unA CC88lLn1L
LLLC18lCA A 18AvLS uL LLţ vA8lA CCn LA 1LMÞL8A1u8Aţ A MAS AL1A 1LMÞL8A1u8A LA 8LSlS1LnClA LS
MA?C8Ŧ

3ŦŴ 1L8MCÞA8ť SL unLn ÞC8 LCS Lx18LMCS uCS ÞlLZAS uL ALAM88Lţ unA uL CC88L ? C18A uL
PlL88Cţ ÞA8A lC8MA8 unA LSÞl8A CL88AuAţ CuAnuC unA uL LAS unlCnLS SL CALlLn1A ? LA C18A SL
MAn1lLnL l8lAţ lLu?L unA CC88lLn1L ÞC8 LA LSÞl8Aţ Ln LA ul8LCClCn lnulCAuA ÞC8 LAS lLLCPASţ
CuAn1C MA?C8 LS LA ullL8LnClA uL 1LMÞL8A1u8AS Ln18L LAS uCS unlCnLSţ MAS C8AnuL LS LA
CC88lLn1L LLLC18lCAŦ

7ŦŴ CCLllClLn1L LlnLAL uL ulLA1AClCn 1L8MlCAť SL uLllnL CCMC LL CAM8lC uL LCnCl1uu uL LA
unluAu uL LCnCl1uu C8lClnAL uL unA SuS1AnClA ÞC8 CAuA C8AuC uL LLLvAClCn uL
1LMÞL8A1u8AŦ
˥ˬo˧oc˩on = o ˲ ˬon˧˩ˮ˯ˤ ˲ ˥ˬ˥˰oc˩on ˤ˥ ˮ˥˭p˥roˮ˯ro

˥ = oH (ˮ
1
- ˮ
2
)

ˮ
1
ƹ 1LMÞL8A1u8A C8lClnAL uLL CuL8ÞC
ˮ
2
ƹ LA 1LMÞL8A1u8A A LA CuL SL LLLvA
Hƹ LCnCl1uu C8lClnAL

8ŦŴ ulLA1AClCn ullL8LnClALť SL CCLCCAn uCS Cln1AS uLLCAuAS uL ullL8Ln1L ML1ALLSţ unA !un1C
A C18A ? SL SuLLuAn A LC LA8CC CuAnuC SL CALlLn1Anţ un ML1AL SL ulLA1A MAS CuL LL C18Cţ
PAClLnuC CuL LA Cln1A SL lLLxlCnLţ CuAn1C MAS SL CALlLn1A MA?C8 LS Su lLLxlCnţ CuAnuC SL
Lnl8lLn vuLLvL A CuLuA8 8LC1C ? Sl SL Lnl8lA MAS SL lLLxlCnA Ln LA ul8LCClCn CÞuLS1AŦ

9ŦŴ SuS1AnClA lSC18CÞlCAť Ln LAS SuS1AnClAS lSC18CÞAS CCMC LL CC88Lţ LA ulLA1AClCn LlnLAL
1lLnL LuCA8 uLL MlSMC MCuC Ln 1CuAS ul8LCClCnLSţ SuS1AnClAS An1l lSC18CÞASŦ
CCMC LA MAuL8Aţ LA ulLA1AClCn ÞL8ÞLnulCuLA8 A LA vL1A LS Mu? ullL8Ln1L LA ulLA1AClCn
ÞA8ALLLA A LA MlSMAŦ

10ŦŴ ulLA1AClCn uL SuÞL8llClL ? uL vCLuMLnť ÞA8A LnCCn18A8 LL AuMLn1C uL Á8LA C uL
vCLuMLn uL LS1CS MA1L8lALLS uL8L AÞLlCA8SL Ln CAuA ul8LCClCn ÞC8 SLÞA8AuC LA lC8MuLA
uL LA ulLA1AClCn LlnLALŦ ÞA8A LA ulLA1AClCn uL Á8LA uL un MLulC lSC18CÞlCCť
o = Ŷo˓(ˮ
2

1
)

˓ƹ Á8LA C8lClnAL uL LA SuÞL8llClL
oƹ AuMLn1C uL Á8LA uL8luC A LA ulLA1AClCn
oƹ CCLllClLn1L LlnLAL uL ulLA1AClCn
ˮ
2

1
ƹ AuMLn1C uL 1LMÞL8A1u8A
ulLA1AClCn Cu8lCA uL un MLulC lSC18CÞlCCť
˰ = ŷoˢ(ˮ
2

1
)
ˢƹ vCLuMLn C8lClnAL uLL SCLluC
˰ƹ AuMLn1C uL vCLuMLn

11ŦŴCCMC SL C81lLnL LL CCLllClLn1L uL ulLA1AClCn 1L8MlCAŦ CCn LA LCuAClCnť
˰ = [ˢ(ˮ
2
- ˮ
1
)
˰ƹCAM8lC uL vCLuMLn
[ƹCCLllClLn1L uL ulLA1AClCn 1L8MlCA
ˢƹ vCLuMLn C8lClnAL ? ˮ
2
- ˮ
1
LL CAM8lC uL 1LMÞL8A1u8A

UNIDAD kVI
CAÞACIDAD 1LkMICA ¥ 1kAN5MI5ICN DL CALCk

1ŦŴCCnlC8ML A LA 1LC8lA ClnL1lCA uL LA MA1L8lAť LCS ullL8Ln1LS Á1CMCS uL LA MA1L8lA A 1CuAS
LAS SuS1AnClASţ SL LnCuLn18An Ln 8ÁÞluC MCvlMlLn1Cţ CuAnuC un CuL8ÞC SL CALlLn1A A MAS
AL1A 1LMÞL8A1u8Aţ LSL MCvlMlLn1C A1CMlCC AuMLn1A ? LL CuL8ÞC SL ulLA1AŦ

2ŦŴCALC8lAť LA CAn1luAu uL CALC8 nLCLSA8lA ÞA8A LLLvA8 LA 1LMÞL8A1u8A uL 1 C8AMC uL ACuAţ
1 C8AuC CLn1lC8AuC SL LLAMA CALC8lA (cal)ţ LA CAn1luAu uL CALC8 nLCLSA8lA ÞA8A LLLvA8 1 l LA
1LMÞL8A1u8A uL 1 L8 uL ACuA SL LLAMA 8Lu (unluAu 1L8MlCA 88l1ÁnlCA)Ŧ
ŵ ˔ˮ˯ = ŶŹŶ coˬ

3ŦŴ CAÞACluAu 1L8MlCAť LA CAÞACluAu 1L8MlCA uL unA SuS1AnClA SL uLllnL CCMC LL nuML8C uL
CALC8lAS nLCLSA8lAS ÞA8A LLLvA8 1 CC LA 1LMÞL8A1u8A uL l C8AMC uL LA SuS1AnClAţ LA
8LLAClCn Ln18L LA CAÞACluAu 1L8MlCA uL unA SuS1AnClA ? LA CAÞACluAu 1L8MlCA uLL ACuA SL
LLAMA CALC8 LSÞLClllCCŦ nuML8lCAMLn1L LL CALC8 LSÞLClllCC 1lLnL LL MlSMC vALC8 CuL LA
CAÞACluAu 1L8MlCA SlLnuC unA Þ8CÞC8ClCn nC 1lLnL ulMLnSlCnLSŦ

4ŦŴ 18AnSMlSlCn uLL CALC8ť
CCnuuCClCnť LS un Þ8CCLSC LLn1C ÞC8 LL CuAL SL 18AnSMl1L CALC8 A 18AvLS uL unA SuS1AnClA
ÞC8 AC1lvluAu MCLLCuLA8Ŧ
CCnvLCClCnť LS un Þ8CCLSC MÁS 8ÁÞluC Ln CuL ln1L8vlLnL LL Þ8CÞlC MCvlMlLn1C uL un Sl1lC A
C18C uL LA MA1L8lA CALLn1AuAŦ
8AulAClCnť LA 8AulAClCn uL CALC8 Ln18L uCS LuCA8LSţ SL 8LALlZA Ln LA MlSMA lC8MA ? CCn LA
MlSMA 8AÞluLZ CCn CuL SL Þ8CÞACA LA LuZ 300 000 km/sea ÞC8 SLCunuCŦ

3ŦŴ 1A8LA CCnuuC1lvluAu
susLancla k SusLancla k
Aaua 0Ŧ0014 Madera 0Ŧ0003
Alumlnlo 0Ŧ30 Mercurlo 0Ŧ02
Azule[o 0Ŧ0020 Þapel 0Ŧ0003
8ronce 0Ŧ26 ÞlaLa 0Ŧ97
Cobre 0Ŧ92 ÞlaLa alemana 0Ŧ08
Cuero 0Ŧ0004 Þlomo 0Ŧ08
hlerro 0Ŧ16 vldrlo 0Ŧ0023


UNIDAD kVII
CAM8IC5 DL L51ADC A 8AIA5 1LMÞLkA1UkA5

1ŦŴLvAÞC8AClCnť LS unA ulLA1AClCn Ll88L ACCMÞARAuA uL Lnl8lAMlLn1Cţ uL8luC A LCS
MCvlMlLn1CS l88LCuLA8LS uL LAS MCLLCuLASţ ALCunAS uL LLLAS C81lLnLn MCMLn1ÁnLAMLn1L
unA vLLCCluAu Mu? C8AnuLţ Sl unA MCLLCuLA SuÞL8llClAL LCC8A unA C8An vLLCCluAu PAClA
A88l8A ÞuLuL LSCAÞA8 AL Al8L ÞC8 LnClMA uLL LlCuluCţ ALCunAS MCLLCuLAS CuL LSCAÞAn
8LC8LSAn C18A vLZ AL LlCuluC ÞC8 LCS CPCCuLS lC81ul1CS CCn LAS MCLLCuLAS uL Al8L CuL
LS1Án ÞC8 LnClMA uL LA SuÞL8llClLţ ÞL8C MuCPAS uL LLLAS nC 8LC8LSAnŦ

2ŦŴPuMLuAuť
1emperaLura Aaua de vapor
0°C o 320l 4Ŧ8 a
3°C º 41°l 6Ŧ8 a
10°C º 30°l 9Ŧ3 a
13°C º39°l 12Ŧ7 a


uLClMCS CuL LL Al8L LS1A SLCC Sl CCn1lLnL Mu? ÞCCA C nlnCún vAÞC8 uL ACuAţ Sl CCn1lLnL
MuCPC vAÞC8 uLClMCS CuL LS1A PúMLuCŦ

3ŦŴ PuMLuAu A8SCLu1Ať LA CAn1luAu uL vAÞC8 uL ACuA Þ8LSLn1L Ln un ML18C Cu8lCC uL Al8Lţ
SL MluL ÞC8 LL nuML8C uL C8AMCS uL vAÞC8 Þ8LSLn1LS Ln un ML18C Cu8lCC uL Al8Lţ L!LMÞLCŤ
LA PuMLuAu A8SCLu1A ÞuLuL uLCl8SL CuL LS uL 14
g
m
3


4ŦŴ PuMLuAu 8LLA1lvAť SL uLllnL CCMC LA 8LLAClCn Ln18L LA CAn1luAu uL vAÞC8 uL ACuA
Þ8LSLn1L Ln un vCLuMLn uAuC uL Al8L ? LA CAn1luAu 8LCuL8luA uL vAÞC8 ÞA8A SA1u8A8 ulCPC
vCLuMLn uL Al8L A LA MlSMA 1LMÞL8A1u8AŦ

3ŦŴ1LnSlCn uL vAÞC8ť CCnlC8ML SL LvAÞC8A MAS ACuA AL Al8L LnClMA SL PACL MA?C8 CAuA vLZ
LA Þ8LSlCnţ uL8luC AL 8CM8A8uLC uL LAS ÞA8LuLS ÞC8 LAS MCLLCuLAS uL ACuAţ LLLCAnuC AL
MÁxlMC uL LA SA1u8AClCnŦ LAS MCLLCuLAS uL ACuA L!L8CLn Þ8LSlCn ? 1AM8lLn LAS MCLLCuLAS
uL Al8L LC L!L8CLn lnuLÞLnulLn1LMLn1L uL C18ASŦ LA 1LnSlCn uLL vAÞC8 SL LxÞ8LSA
CLnL8ALMLn1L Ln CLn1lML18CS uL ML8Cu8lC ? AL LLLCA8 A LA SA1u8AClCn SL LLAMA 1LnSlCn
uLL vAÞC8 SA1u8AuCŦ

6ŦŴL8uLLlClCnť LA L8uLLlClCn uL un LlCuluC nC LS MAS CuL un CASC uL LvAÞC8AClCn 8ÁÞluA
CCnlC8ML SL LLLvA LA 1LMÞL8A1u8A uLL ACuAţ SL AuMLn1A LA 8AÞluLZ uL LA LvAÞC8AClCn
PAS1A CuL LL LLLCA8 A LA 1LMÞL8A1u8A uL L8uLLlClCn LLLCA Aun MÁxlMCţ
CuAnuC PlL8vL LL ACuA A LA Þ8LSlCn A1MCSlL8lCA nC8MALţ SL Þ8CuuCL LA LvAÞC8AClCn Ln
1CuC LL LlCuluC AL MlSMC 1lLMÞC CuL Ln LA SuÞL8llClLŦ

7ŦŴ 1A8LA uL Þ8LSlCn A1MCSlL8lCA ? 1LMÞL8A1u8AS uL L8uLLlClCn A vA8lCS nlvLLLS ÞC8 LnClMA ?
uL8A!C uLL nlvLL uLL MA8Ŧ


8ŦŴ LlCuLlACClCnť LA Þ8CuuCClCn uL Plu8CCLnC LlCuluCţ nLCLSl1A uL C8AnuLS CAn1luAuLS uL
Al8L LlCuluCţ Þ8lML8C SL CCMÞ8lML LL Plu8CCLnC A unA Þ8LSlCn Mu? AL1A ? LuLCC SL Lnl8lA
MLulAn1L LL Al8L LlCuluCţ uLSÞuLS SL LL ÞL8Ml1L LxÞAnul8SL Ln un ln1L8CAM8lAuC8Ŧ


20°C º 68°l 17Ŧ1 a
23°C º 77°l 22Ŧ8 a
30°C º 86°l 30Ŧ0 a
33°C º 93°l 39Ŧ2 a

UNIDAD kVIII
VI8kACICNL5 ¥ CNDA5

1ŦŴMCvlMlLn1C ÞL8lCulCCť CuALCulL8 MCvlMlLn1Cţ SlMÞLL C CCMÞLL!C Sl SL 8LÞl1L Ln
ln1L8vALCS uL 1lLMÞC lCuALLS SL LLAMA MCvlMlLn1C ÞL8lCulCCŦ

2ŦŴMCvlMlLn1C A8MCnlCC SlMÞLLť CAuA unC uL LLLCS ÞuLuL uLSC8l8l8SL Ln lunClCn uLL
MCvlMlLn1C MÁS SlMÞLL uL 1CuCSţ LCS MCvlMlLn1CS ÞL8lCulCCSţ LL MCvlMlLn1C Cl8CuLA8
unllC8MLŦŴ
LL MCvlMlLn1C A8MCnlCC SlMÞLL SL uLllnL CCMC LA Þ8C?LCClCn SC88L CuALCulL8 ulÁML18Cţ
A8Ŧ uL un Þun1C CuL 8LCC88L unA Cl8CunlL8LnClA CCn 8AÞluLZ unllC8MLŦ

3ŦŴuLSÞLAZAMlLn1Cť uL un MCvlMlLn1C A8MCnlCC SlMÞLLţ SL uLllnL CCMC LA ulS1AnClA uLSuL LL
CLn18C C PAS1A LL Þun1C ÞŦ


4ŦŴAMÞLl1uuť SL uLllnL CCMC LL vALC8 MÁxlMC uLL uLSÞLAZAMlLn1C x

3ŦŴÞL8lCuCť SL uLllnL CCMC LL 1lLMÞC nLCLSA8lC ÞA8A LlLC1uA8 unA vl88AClCn CCMÞLL1AŦ

6ŦŴl8LCuLnClAť LS LL núML8C uL vl88AClCnLS CCMÞLL1AS LlLC1uAuAS Ln un SLCunuCŦ
p˥r˩oˤo =
ŵ
˦r˥c˯˥nc˩o


˦r˥c˯˥nc˩o =
ŵ
p˥r˩oˤo


ˠ =
ŵ
n
: n =
ŵ
ˠ


7ŦŴlMÞuLSC SlMÞLL uL CnuAť SuÞCnCAMCS CuL LL Lx18LMC LL!AnC uL unA CuL8uA SL ll!A A un
ÞCS1L ? CuL LL C18C Lx18LMC CuL SL 1lLnL Ln LA MAnCţ 8LCl8L un 88uSCC MCvlMlLn1C PAClA
A88l8A ? PAClA A8A!Cţ LA ÞL81u88AClCn LnvlAuA A LC LA8CC uL LA CuL8uA vlA!A PAS1A LLLCA8 AL
ÞCS1L ? SL 8LlLL!A uLSÞuLS vCLvlLnuC A LA MAnCţ LS1L 1lÞC uL CnuA SL LLAMA lMÞuLSC SlMÞLL
uL CnuAŦ

8ŦŴ CnuAS 18AnSvL8SALLSť LAS CnuAS 18AnSvL8SALLS SCn ACuLLLAS Ln CuL CAuA ÞA81lCuLA SL
MuLvL A unA LlnLA ÞL8ÞLnulCuLA8 A LA ul8LCClCn Ln CuL SL Þ8CÞACA LA CnuA 1CuAS LAS
ÞA81lCuLAS vl88An Ln un SCLC ÞLAnC A LC LA8CC uL unA LlnLA uL 18AnSMlSlCnŦ

9ŦŴ CnuAS LCnCl1uulnALLSť SCn ACuLLLAS Ln CuL LA vl88AClCn uL ClL81A ÞA81lCuLA 1lLnL LuCA8
A LC LA8CC uL unA LlnLA 8LC1A ÞA8ALLLA A LA ul8LCClCn Ln CuL SL Þ8CÞACA LA CnuAţ LAS CnuAS
SCnC8AS Ln LL Al8L SCn un L!LMÞLC uL CnuAS LCnCl1uulnALLSŦ

10ŦŴnCuCť

CCnlC8ML LLLCAn LAS CnuAS AL Lx18LMC ll!C uL LA CuL8uAţ SCn 8LlLL!AuAS ? AL 8LC8LSC
LnCuLn18An A LAS CnuAS CuL vlLnLn uL18ÁS uL LLLAS Sl LAS CnuAS 1lLnLn LA l8LCuLnClA
AÞ8CÞlAuAţ LA CuL8uA SCÞC81A8A LCS uCS 18LnLS uL CnuAS ulvlulLnuCSL Ln SLCClCnLS CCMC SL
vL Ln LA llCu8A ţ LCS Þun1CS uL Lţ A L7 uCnuL LA CuL8uA 1lLnL MÁxlMC MCvlMlLn1C PAClA
A88l8A ? A8A!C SCn LLAMAuCS An1lnCuCS ? LCS Þun1CS Sln MCvlMlLn1C CuL CuLuAn Ln18L
LLLCS SCn LLAMAuCS nCuCSŦ

11ŦŴLCnCl1uu uL CnuAť SL uLllnL CCMC LA ulS1AnClA Ln18L LCS Þun1CS SLML!An1LS uL uCS
CnuAS CCnSLCu1lvASŦ LA ulS1AnClA Ln18L LAS C8LS1AS uL CnuAS CCnSLCu1lvAS LS lCuAL A unA
LCnCl1uu uL CnuAŦ

12ŦŴ l8LCuLnClA uL un 18Ln uL CnuASť SL uLllnL CCMC LL nuML8C uL CnuAS CuL ÞASAn ÞC8 un
Þun1C uAuC Ln un SLCunuCţ SL ACCS1uM88A LxÞ8LSA8 LA l8LCuLnClA uL vl88AClCnLS ÞC8
SLCunuC C ClCLCS ÞC8 SLCunuCŦ

UNIDAD kIk
5CNIDC

1ŦŴLA 18AnSMlSlCn uLL SCnluCť uL un LuCA8 A C18C uL LA luLn1L AL 8LCLÞ1C8ţ 8LCuL8l8Á uL un
MLulC MA1L8lAL ÞC8 LL CuAL ÞuLuA AvAnZA8Ŧ LAS CnuAS SCnC8AS SCn vl88AClCnLS
LCnCl1uulnALLSţ LL MLulC ÞuLuL SL8 LCS CASLS C LL ACuA C LlCuluCSŦ

2ŦŴvLLCCluAu uLL SCnluCť
vLLCCluAu uLL SCnluC Ln ullL8Ln1LS SuS1AnClAS
SusLancla
velocldad
en m/sea
velocldad
en fL/sea
Alre (a 0°C) 331 1087
Pldroaeno 1269 4163
Aaua 1433 4708
Alcohol 1213 3890
Plerro 3130 16820
vldrlo 3000 16140

ˢ = ˢ
0
+ Ŵ.źŵ ˮ

ˢ
0
ƹvLLCCluAu Ln ML18CS ÞC8 SLCunuC A 0°C
ˮ ƹ 1LMÞL8A1u8A Ln C8AuCS CLn1lC8AuCS

ˢ = ˢ
0
+ ŵ.ŵ ˮ
ˢ
0
ƹ Sl LA vLLCCluAu LS1A Ln l1/SLC A 32 l
ˮ ƹ CAM8lC uL 1LMÞL8A1u8A Ln l uLSuL 32

3ŦŴ 1CnCť uL unA nC1A MuSlCAL SL 8LllL8L A Su ÞCSlClCn Ln LA LSCALA MuSlCAL ? SL uL1L8MlnA
Þ8lnClÞALMLn1L ÞC8 LA l8LCuLnClA uL LCS lMÞuLSCS uL SCnluC Þ8CuuCluCS ÞC8 LA luLn1L
vl88An1Lţ LL 1CnC uLÞLnuL uL LA l8LCuLnClAŦ

4ŦŴ l8LCuLnClAť LS unA MLulClCn llSlCA uLL nuML8C uL vl88AClCnLS ÞC8 SLCunuCŦ

3ŦŴ 8LSCnAnClAť LS1L lLnCMLnC CCu88L SCLC CuAnuC uCS C8!L1CS 1lLnLn LA MlSMA l8LCuLnClA
nA1u8AL uL vl88AClCnŦ
Sl SL AllnAn uCS CuL8uAS uL vlCLln CCn LA MlSMA l8LCuLnClA ? SL PACL vl88A8 unA uL LLLASţ LA
C18A CCLCCAuA A ALCunA ulS1AnClA 8LCCCL8Á LAS vl88AClCnLS ? 8LÞ8CuuCl8Á LA MlSMA nC1AŦ

6ŦŴ ÞuLSAClCnLSť CuAnuC SL PACLn SCnA8 !un1AS uCS nC1AS uL 1CnCS LlCL8AMLn1L ulS1ln1CSŦ
SL C?Ln ÞuLSAClCnLSţ LS1L lLnCMLnC SL uSA Ln LCS 1u8CS uL C8CAnCS ÞA8A Þ8CuuCl8 LL LlLC1C
LLAMAuC vl88A1CŦ SL uSAn ÞA8A CAuA nC1A uCS 1u8CS AllnAuCS CCn l8LCuLnClAS LlCL8AMLn1L
ullL8Ln1LSŦ

7ŦŴ ln1L8lL8LnClAť Sl SL 1l8An uCS ÞlLu8AS SlMuL1ÁnLAMLn1L AL ACuAţ SL Lx1lLnuLn uCS !uLCCS
uL CnuASţ AL C8uZA8SL LS1AS CnuAS unAS CCn C18AS AC1úAn Ln18L Sl Þ8CuuClLnuC LC CuL SL
LLAMA un ulAC8AMA uL ln1L8lL8LnClASŦ uCnuL SL !un1An LAS C8LS1AS uL uCS CnuAS Ln LA
ln1L8CLÞClCnLSţ SL LnCuLn18An Ln lASL ? SL AuMLn1A LA AL1u8A uL LA SuÞL8llClL uLL ACuAţ
uCnuL LA C8LS1A uL unA CnuA ? LL vALLL uL LA C18A SL 8LúnLn SL LnCuLn18A luL8A uL lASLţ LA
LLLvAClCn uL LA SuÞL8llClL uLL ACuA SL 8LuuCLŦ LAS 8LClCnLS Ln lASL SL MuLvLn PAClA AluL8A
A LC LA8CC uL LAS LlnLAS Þun1AuAS LC CuL SL LLAMA ln1L8lL8LnClA CCnS18uC1lvAţ LAS 8LClCnLS
luL8A uL lASL SL MuLvLn PAClA AluL8A ÞC8 LAS LlnLAS CCn1lnuAS CCMC A ? 8 ? APl 1LnLMCS LC
CuL SL LLAMA unA ln1L8lL8LnClA uLS18uC1lvAŦ


UNIDAD kk
IN51kUMLN1C5 MU5ICALL5

1Ŧ lnS18uMLn1CS uL CuL8uAť PA? uCS ullL8Ln1LS 8AZCnLS ÞA8A CuL LCS lnS18uMLn1CS uL
CuL8uA uL ullL8Ln1LS 1lÞCS 1LnCAn SCnluCS ulS1ln1CS Ln LC CuL SL 8LllL8L A LA CALluAu uLL
1CnC Ť Þ8lML8C LL 1AMARC ? lC8MA uLL lnS18uMLn1C ? SLCunuC LA lC8MA Ln CuL SL PACL
vl88A8 LAS CuL8uAS ţ Ln LL vlCLln u LL vlCLCnCLLC SL PACLn vl88A8 CCn A8CCS lC8MAuCS ÞC8
CuL8uAS LS1l8AuAS luL81LMLn1LŦ

2ŦŴA8MCnlAS ? SC88L1CnCSť CuAnuC un vlCLlnlS1A Þ8ClLSlCnAL 1CCA Ln A8MCnlCCSţ 1CCA
LlCL8AMLn1L LAS CuL8uAS Ln vA8lAS ÞA81LS ? ÞCnL A vl88A8 CAuA unA uL LLLAS Ln uCS C MAS
SLCMLn1CS Sl SL 1CCA unA CuL8uA Ln LL CLn18C SL lC8MA Ln LSL Þun1C un nCuC ? LA
l8LCuLnClA uL LA vl88AClCn SL PACL uC8LL CuL LC lunuAMLn1ALŦ Sl SL 1CCA LlCL8AMLn1L unA
CuL8uA Ln un Þun1C A un 1L8ClC uL ulS1AnClA uL Su Lx18LMCţ vl88A8 Ln 18LS SLCClCnLS ?
1Lnu8Á unA l8LCuLnClA 18lÞLL uL LA 8ÁSlCA


nC LS ulllClL PACL8 CuL unA CuL8uA vl88L CCn Su 1CnC lunuAMLn1AL ? CCn vA8lCS
SC88L1CnCS AL MlSMC 1lLMÞCŦ LS1C SL LCC8A 8ASCuLÁnuCLA C l8C1ÁnuCLA vlCC8CSAMLn1L
CCn LL A8CCŦ

3ŦŴ CCLuMnAS vl88An1LS uL Al8Lť


SL vLn LCS nCuCS Ln CuL ÞuLuLn vl88A8 LAS CCLuMnAS uL Al8L uL 1u8CS CL88AuCS C A8lL81CSţ
LMÞLZAnuC ÞC8 LA lZCulL8uAţ LL 1u8C A8lL81C ÞC8 LCS uCS Lx18LMCS ÞuLuL vl88A8 CCnť
1) l SCLC nCuC Ln MLulC ? un An1lnCuC Ln CAuA Lx18LMC
2) uCS nCuCS ? 18LS An1lnCuCS
3) CCn 18LS nCuCS ? 18LS An1lnCuCS
4) CCn 18LS nCuCS ? CuA18C An1lnCuCSţ L1CŦ
un 1u8C CL88AuC Ln un Lx18LMC ? A8lL81C Ln LL C18C ÞuLuL vl88A8 CCnţ
1) un nCuC ? un An1lnCuC
2) 2 nCuCS ? uCS An1lnCuCS
3) 3 nCuCS ? 18LS An1lnCuCS
Ln 1CuAS LAS CCLuMnAS vl88An1LS uL Al8L uL8Ln lC8MA8SL SlLMÞ8L un An1lnCuC Ln LCS
Lx18LMCS A8lL81CS ? un nCuC Ln LCS Lx18LMCS CL88AuCS

l8LCuLnClAS A8MCnlCAS uL unA CC8nL1A
Modo numero 2 3 4 3 6 8
lrecŦ Medla 233Ŧ4 349Ŧ9 467Ŧ3 387Ŧ7 706Ŧ2 498Ŧ6
lrecŦ
Armonlca
233Ŧ4 330Ŧ1 466Ŧ8 383Ŧ3 700Ŧ2 933Ŧ6
8elaclón 2Ŧ000 2Ŧ998 4Ŧ007 3Ŧ037 6Ŧ038 8Ŧ130

4ŦŴ1LC8lA uL LAS CCLuMnAS vl88An1LS uL Al8Lť LAS nC1AS Þ8CuuCluAS ÞC8 LA MA?C8lA uL LCS
lnS18uMLn1CS uL vlLn1C SL LCC8An vA8lAnuC LA LCnCl1uu uL LA CCLuMnA vl88An1L uL Al8Lţ
LS1C SL lLuS18A CCn LCS 1u8CS uL C8CAnCŦ
CuAn1C MAS LA8CC LS LL 1u8C MAS 8A!A LS LA l8LCuLnClA lunuAMLn1AL C LL 1CnC uL LA nC1Aţ
Ln un C8CAnC uL CCnClL81C 8LCuLA8ţ LCS 1u8CS vA8lAn uL LCnCl1uu uLSuL unCS CulnCL CM
ÞA8A LAS nC1AS MAS ACuuAS PAS1A 4Ŧ80 M1S ÞA8A LAS MAS C8AvLSŦ

6ŦŴlnS18uMLn1CS uL ÞL8CuSlCnť
8A88AS vl88An1LSŦ Sl SL LSCCCLn ÞLuAZCS uL MAuL8A uL MLuluAS CCnvLnlLn1LS SL uL!An CAL8
Ln un C8uLnţ SL C8SL8vA CuL CAuA ÞLuAZC uL MAuL8A Þ8CuuCL unA nC1A 8lLn uLllnluA ? CuL
ÞuLuLn SLLLCClCnA8SL LCS ÞLuAZCS uL MAuL8A uL MCuC CuL lC8MAn unA LSCALA MuSlCALţ
L!LMÞLC LL xlLClCnCţ LA MA8lM8A ? LL 18lAnCuLCŦ

7ŦŴ ÞLACAS vl88An1LSť LL 8uluC Þ8CuuCluC ÞC8 LL CuL8C uL un 1AM8C8 C LCS ÞLA1lLLCS uL un
ClM8ALCţ LS uL8luC Ln CLnL8AL A LA AL1A ln1LnSluAu uL ClL81CS SC88L1CnCS CA8AC1L8lS1lCCSţ
LS1CS SC88L1CnCS SL uL8Ln A Su vLZ Ln LAS lC8MAS Mu? CCMÞLlCAuAS Ln CuL vl88A LA luLn1L
uLL SCnluC
A LCS ÞLA1lLLCS uLL ClM8ALC ll!CS ÞL8MAnLn1LMLn1L ÞC8 LL CLn18C MLulAn1L un MAnCC SL LLS
lC8MA SlLMÞ8L APl un nCuC ? Ln LA ÞL8llL8lA LCS An1lnCuCSŦ

8ŦŴ CAMÞAnASť LS18lC1AMLn1L PA8LAnuC LAS CAMÞAnAS nC LS un lnS18uMLn1C MuSlCALţ LS1C
SL uL8L A CuL LAS vl88AClCnLS uL LA SuÞL8llClL uL LA CAMÞAnA SCn Mu? CCMÞLL!ASţ
Þ8CuuClLnuC MuCPCS SC88L1CnCS ln1LnSCSţ ALCunCS uL LS1CS SCn A8MCnlCCS uLL
lunuAMLn1AL ÞL8C C18CS nC LCS SCnŦ

UNIDAD kkI
kLILLkICNţ kLIkACCICN ¥ DI5ÞLk5ICN DL LA LU2

1ŦŴ 18LS ulvlSlCnLS uL LA CÞ1lCAŦ
1) CÞ1lCA CLCML18lCA
2) CÞ1lCA llSlCA
3) CÞ1lCA CuÁn1lCA
CÞ1lCA
CLCML18lCA
CÞ1lCA llSlCA CÞ1lCA CuÁn1lCA
8LlLLxlCn ull8ACClCn LlLC1C
lC1CLLLC18lCC
8Ll8ACClCn ln1L8lL8LnClA LlLC1C CCMÞ1Cn
ulSÞCSlClCn ÞCLA8lZAClCn Þ8CuuCClCn uL
ÞA8LS

2ŦŴLL? uL 8LlLLxlCnť LL AnCuLC CCn CuL CAL LL 8A?C uL LuZ SC88L LA SuÞL8llClL 8LlLLC1C8Aţ LS
LxAC1AMLn1L lCuAL AL AnCuLC CuL lC8MA LL 8A?C 8LlLL!AuC CCn LA MlSMA SuÞL8llClLŦ
Ln LuCA8 uL MLul8 LL AnCuLC uL lnCluLnClA ? LL AnCuLC uL 8LlLLxlCn A ÞA81l8 uL LA SuÞL8llClL
uLL LSÞL!C SL ACCS1uM88A A MLul8LCS uLSuL unA LlnLA ÞL8ÞLnulCuLA8 A LA SuÞL8llClL uLL
LSÞL!C LS1A LlnLA SL LLAMA LA nC8MALŦ
LA SLCunuA ÞA81L uL LS1A LL? LS1A8LLCL CuL LL 8A?C 8LlLL!AuC LS1A uLn18C uLL ÞLAnC uL
lnCluLnClA 8Lll8lLnuCSL LS1L ÞLAnC CCMC LL CuL CCn1lLnL LL 8A?C lnCluLn1L ? A LA nC8MALŦ
Ln C18AS ÞALA88ASţ LL 8A?C lnCluLn1Lţ LA nC8MAL ? LL 8A?C 8LlLL!AuC LS1Án 1CuCS CCn1LnluCS
Ln un MlSMC ÞLAnCŦ

3ŦŴ lMACLn vl81uALť LA lMACLn CuL unC vL Ln un LSÞL!C ÞLAnC nC LS unA lMACLn 8LALţ SlnC
vl81uALţ unA lMACLn vl81uAL LS ACuLLLA uL uCnuL ÞA8LCLn Þ8CCLuL8 LC S 8A?CS uL LuZţ ÞL8C
CuL Ln 8LALluAu nC vlLnLn uL LLLA

4ŦŴ lnulCL uL 8Ll8ACClCnť LA 8LLAClCn Ln18L LA vLLCCluAu uL LA LuZ Ln LL vAClC ? un MLulC SL
LLAMA LL lnulCL uL 8Ll8ACClCn uL ulCPC MLulC
˩nˤ˩c˥ ˤ˥ r˥˦rocc˩on =
˰˥ˬoc˩ˤoˤ ˤ˥ ˬo ˬ˯˴ ˥n ˥ˬ ˰oc˩o
˰˥ˬoc˩ˤoˤ ˤ˥ ˬo ˬ˯˴ ˥n ˯n ˭˥ˤ˩o


µ =
c
˰


3ŦŴ8Ll8ACClCnť CuAnuC LA LuZ CAL SC88L LA SuÞL8llClL 1L8SA uL unA SuS1AnClA 18AnSÞA8Ln1Lţ
CCMC LL ACuA C LL vlu8lC luL8A uL LA ul8LCClCn ÞL8ÞLnulCuLA8 ÞA81L uL LLLA SL 8LlLL!A uL
ACuL8uC CCn LAS LL?LS uL LA 8LlLLxlCn ? LL 8LS1C LS 8Ll8AC1AuA Ln18AnuC AL nuLvC MLulCŦ
LS1A SL uL8L AL CAM8lC uL LA vLLCCluAu uL LA LuZ AL Ln18A8 AL SLCunuC MLulCţ LA ul8LCClCn
uLL 8A?C 8Ll8AC1AuC SL MluL SlLMÞ8L MlulLnuC LL AnCuLC CuL lC8MA CCn LA nC8MALţ CCMC
SL PlZC CCn LL 8A?C lnCluLn1L ? LL 8A?C 8LlLL!AuCŦ

6ŦŴ LL? uL LA 8Ll8ACClCn uL SnLLLť Ln lunClCn uL LCS SLCMLn1CS 8A ? CuŦ
µ =
˔˓
˕˖




uLSvlAClCn uL un PAZ AL C8uZA8 vA8lCS Þ8lSMAS uLL MlSMC vlu8lCŦ

LA 8AZCn uL LA CCnS1AnClA uL LS1A 8LLAClCnţ LS CuL MlLn18AS LA LuZ vlA!A uL 8 A A Ln LL Al8Lţ
vlA!A8A Ln LL vlu8lC LA CC88LSÞCnulLn1L MAS CC81AŦ


7ŦŴlnulCL uL 8Ll8ACClCn ÞA8A LL ACuAţ LL Al8L ? LL vlu8lC
ACuA Mƹ1Ŧ33
vlu8lC Mƹ1Ŧ3
Al8Lƹ1

8ŦŴ 1LC8lA CuL LxÞLlCA LL A8CCl8lSť uLSuL LA An1lCuLuAu SL SA8L CuL LA LuZ uLL SCLŦ AL ÞASA8 A
18AvLS uL LCS C8lS1ALLS ? !C?AS 18AnSÞA8Ln1LSţ Þ8CuuCLn LuZ uL CCLC8LS 88lLLAn1LSţ LCS
Þ8lML8CS llLCSClCS 18A1A8Cn uL LxÞLlCA8 LS1L lLnCMLnC A18l8u?L8Cn LL C8lCLn uL LCS
CCLC8LS AL C8lS1AL Ln SlŦ luL nLW1Cn CulLn uSAnuC Þ8lSMASţ uLSCu88lC CuL LCS CCLC8LS ?A
LS1A8An Þ8LSLn1LS Ln LA LuZ 8LAnCA ? CuL LA lunClCn uLL Þ8lSMA L8A SLÞA8A8LCS AL
8Ll8AC1A8LCS Ln ulS1ln1AS ul8LCClCnLSŦ

9ŦŴ ML1CuC C8AllCC ÞA8A uL1L8MlnA8 LL AnCuLC uL 8Ll8ACClCn


10ŦŴLxÞLlCA8A LA 8Ll8ACClCn uL LA LuZ CCLC8 8LAnCA Ln Su LSÞLC18C uL CCLC8LS AL ÞASA8 ÞC8
un Þ8lSMA
SL ÞuLuL vL8 CCMC LA LuZ 8LAnCA SL 8Ll8AC1A CAuA CCLC8 Ln ulS1ln1C C8AuC CCn Su Þ8CÞlC
AnCuLC uL uLSvlAClCnŦ
LA LuZ 8C!A SL 8Ll8AC1A AL MlnlMC ? LA LuZ vlCLL1A AL MÁxlMCŦ LL LSÞA8ClMlLn1C AnCuLA8 uL
1CuCS LCS CCLC8LS Þ8CuuCluCS C8lClnA MA?C8 ulSÞL8SlCn AL MAnuA8 LA LuZ A 18AvLS uL un
Þ8lSMA CuL SL LLAMA ulSÞL8SlCn ? LA 8AnuA uL CCLC8LS ASl Þ8CuuCluA SL LLAMA LSÞLC18CŦ


11ŦŴ


12ŦŴulSÞL8SlCn Ln unA CC1A uL ACuAť


UNIDAD kkII
LA CILNCIA DLL CCLCk

1ŦŴ ASÞLC1CS uLL CCLC8 SuÞL8llClALŦ LCS 18LS ASÞLC1CS uLL CCLC8 uL SuÞL8llClL SCnť
1CnC C MA1lZţ LuMlnCSluAu (C 88lLLC) ? SA1u8AClCnŦ
LL 1CnC SL 8LllL8L AL nCM88L uLL CCLC8ţ LL 88lLLC A LA MACnl1uu 8LLA1lvA uL LA 8LSÞuLS1A
SLnSl1lvA ? LA SA1u8AClCn A LA Þu8LZA uLL CCLC8ţ

2ŦŴ CCnulClCn uL lLuMlnAClCn ÞA8A vL8 un C8!L1C Ln CCLC8 vL8uAuL8Cť ÞA8A vL8 un C8!L1C Ln
Su vL8uAuL8C CCLC8ţ uL8L lLuMlnA8SL CCn LuZ uLL MlSMC CCLC8ţ Sl ÞC8 L!LMÞLC SL CCLCCA unA
8CSA 8C!A 8A!C LCS ullL8Ln1LS CCLC8LS uLL LSÞLC18C ÞA8LCL8Á SL8 8C!A 88lLLAn1L Ln LA LuZ
8C!A ? C8lS C nLC8A Ln 1CuCS LCS uLMÁS CCLC8LSŦŴ

3ŦŴ 18LS CCLC8LS Þ8lMA8lCS Aul1lvCSť APC8A Þ8CCLuLMCS A ulvlul8 LL LSÞLC18C Ln 18LS ÞA81LS
lCuALLS CCMC SL vL Ln LA ÞA81L lnlL8lC8 lZCulL8uA ? A LS1AS LLS LLAMAMCS CCLC8LS Þ8lMA8lCS
Aul1lvCSŦ
LS1CS 18LS Þ8lMA8lCS Aul1lvCSţ 8C!Cţ vL8uL ? AZuL 1lLnLn LA AÞA8lLnClA uL LCS 18LS C8AnuLS
Cl8CuLCS CuL LS1Án Ln LA IIGŦ 22ŦI

LL SlCulLn1L ÞASC LS MLZCLA8 LCS CCLC8LS Þ8lMA8lCS uL uCS Ln uCS ? C8SL8vA8 LL CCLC8 uL LA
MLZCLAţ CuAnuC SL CCM8lnAn LL 8C!C ? LL vL8uL Þ8lMA8lCS Þ8CuuCLn un CCLC8 AMA8lLLCţ LL
8C!C ? AZuL C8lClnAn CCLC8 vlCLL1A ? LL vL8uL ? AZuLţ AZuL vL8uCSC LS1CS SL LLAMAn CCLC8LS
Þ8lMA8lCS Su8S18AC1lvCS


4ŦŴ18lAnCuLC uL CCLC8LS


3ŦŴCCLC8LS CCMÞLLMLn1A8lCSť LCS CCLC8LS CÞuLS1CS l8Ln1L A l8Ln1L Ln LL 18lAnCuLC uL
CCLC8LS SCn CCMÞLLMLn1A8lCSţ SL ulCL CuL uCS CCLC8LS SCn CCMÞLLMLn1A8lCSţ Sl AL
SuMA8SL Þ8CuuCLn 8LAnCCŦ LL MACLn1A ? vL8uL SCn CCMÞLLMLn1A8lCS ÞC8CuL AL SuMA8SL
CCn1lLnLn 1CuCS LCS CCLC8LS uLL LSÞLC18C uL LA LuZ 8LAnCAŦ

6ŴŦML1CuC Aul1lvC ÞA8A LA MLZCLA uL CCLC8LSť LL ML1CuC Aul1lvC LS unA MLZCLA uL LuCLS
CCLC8LAuAS

7ŦŴML1CuC Su8S18AC1lvCť LS1L LS LL ML1CuC MAS CCnCCluC uL 1CuCS uSAuC Ln LA MLZCLA uL
ÞlCMLn1CS ÞA8A Þ8CuuCl8 Þln1u8AS uL ullL8Ln1L CCLC8AClCnţ CCn LS1L Þ8CÞCSl1Cţ SL uSAn
Þ8lnClÞALMLn1L LCS Þ8lMA8lCS Su8S18AC1lvCS MACLn1Aţ AMA8lLLC ? AZuL vL8uCSC CCnCCluCS
ÞC8 LCS A81lS1AS CCMC 8C!Cţ AMA8lLLC ? AZuLŦ
LA MLZCLA uL CAn1luAuLS lCuALLS uL CuALCulL8 ÞA8 uL Þ8lMA8lCS Su8S18AC1lvCSţ Þ8CuuCl8Á LL
Þ8lMA8lC Aul1lvC CuL CuLuA Ln18L LLLCS Ln LL 18lAnCuLC uL LCS CCLC8LSţ CuAnuC SL MLZCLAn
Þln1u8AS AZuL vL8uCSC ? AMA8lLLC SL C81lLnL LL vL8uLŦ


UNIDAD 23
LLN1L5 L IN51kUMLN1C5 CÞ1ICC5

1ŦŴ ullL8LnClA Ln18L LLn1LS ulvL8CLn1LS ? CCnvL8CLn1LSť llCŦ 23 8Ŧ

SL vLn SLCClCnLS 18AnSvL8SALLS uL vA8lAS LLn1LS nC8MALLS LAS Þ8lML8AS 18LS LLn1LSţ CuL SCn
MAS C8uLSAS Ln LL CLn18C SCn LLAMAuAS LLn1LS CCnvL8CLn1LS C ÞCSl1lvASţ MlLn18AS CuL LAS
18LS uL1lMAS SCn MAS uLLCAuAS Ln LL CLn18C ? SL LLAMAn LLn1LS ulvL8CLn1LS C nLCA1lvASŦ

2ŦŴ SuS nCM88LS ÞA81lCuLA8LS SCnť CCnvL8CLn1L
1ŦŴ 8lCCnvLxA
2ŦŴÞLAnC CCnvLxA
3ŦŴ MLCÁnlCC CCnvLxA
ulvL8CLn1LS
4ŦŴ 8lCCnCAvA
3ŦŴÞLAnC CCnCAvA
6ŦŴMLnlSCC CCnCAvC

3ŦŴ ulS1AnClA lCCALť ÞC8 SlML18lA 1CuAS LAS LLn1LS 1lLnLn uCS lCCCS Þ8lnClÞALLS unC A CAuA
LAuC uL LA LLn1Lţ LA ulS1AnClA uLSuL LL lCCC Þ8lnClÞALţ uL LA LLn1L SL LLAMA ulS1AnClA lCCALŦ
CŦlŦƹ ulS1AnClA lCCAL
un ÞLAnC ÞL8ÞLnulCuLA8 AL L!L Þ8lnClÞAL CuL ÞASL A 18AvLS uL CuALCulL8A uL LCS lCCCS
Þ8lnClÞALLS SL LLAMA ÞLAnC lCCALţ LCS 8A?CS ÞA8ALLLCS uL LuZ CuL Ln18An Ln LA LLn1L Ln
CuALCulL8 ul8LCClCn ulS1ln1A uL LA SLRALAuA Ln LCS ulAC8AMASţ SL 8Lunl8Án Ln ALCún Þun1C
CCn1LnluC Ln LL ÞLAnC lCCALŦ LS1L SL LCCALlZA 8ÁÞluAMLn1L 8LCC8uAnuC CuL un 8A?C CuL
ÞASA ÞC8 LL CLn18C uL unA LLn1L nC CAM8lA uL ul8LCClCnţ

4ŦŴ lMÁCLnLS 8LALLS L lMAClnLS vl81uALLSť LAS lMÁCLnLS 8LALLS SL uLllnLn CCMC ACuLLLAS CuL
ÞuLuLn lC8MA8SL SC88L unA ÞAn1ALLA ? SL CA8AC1L8lZAn ÞC8 LL PLCPC uL CuL LCS 8A?CS uL
LuZ SL 8LúnLn 8LALMLn1L APl Ln un lCCCŦ
LAS lMÁCLnLS vl81uALLSţ nC SCn 8LALLSţ nC SL ÞuLuLn lC8MA8 SC88L unA ÞAn1ALLA ? LCS 8A?CS
Þ8CCLuLn1LS uLL C8!L1Cţ nC ÞASAn ÞC8 LCS Þun1CS CC88LSÞCnulLn1LS uL LA lMACLn Sl nC SuS
ÞCLA8lZAClCnLSŦ

3ŦŴCCnSL8vAClCn uL SlCnCS
PA? unA CCnvLnClCn uL SlCnC Mu? ú1lL ÞA8A PACL8 LCS ulAC8AMAS ? LCS Þ8C8LLMAS uL LLn1LS
uSAnuC LAS LCuAClCnLS
ŵ
p
+
ŵ
o
=
ŵ
˦
-- - ˳ - -- o =

p -˦

p ƹ ulS1AnClA uLL C8!L1C
o ƹulS1AnClA uL LA lMACLn
˦ ƹ ulS1AnClA lCCAL

CuL LS LA SlCulLn1Lť
1Ŧ un C8!L1C 8LAL SL 8LÞ8LSLn1A SlLMÞ8L CCLCCAuC A LA lZCulL8uA uL LA LLn1LŦ
2Ŧ LCS 8A?CS uL LuZ CuL Ln18An ? ÞASA ÞC8 LA LLn1L SL ul8u!An uL lZCulL8uA A uL8LCPAŦ
3Ŧ 1CuAS LAS ulS1AnClAS SCn MLuluAS uLSuL LL CLn18C uL LA LLn1LŦ
4Ŧ ÞA8A CuALCulL8 C8!L1C CCLCCAuC A LA lZCulL8uA uL LA LLn1Lţ LA ulS1AnClA uLL C8!L1C LS
ÞCSl1lvAŦ
3Ŧ ÞA8A CuALCulL8 lMACLn C81LnluA A LA uL8LCPA uL LA LLn1L LA ulS1AnClA uL lMACLn LS
ÞCSl1lvAŦ
6Ŧ ÞA8A CuALCulL8 lMACLn LnCCn18AuA A LA lZCulL8uA uL LA LLn1L LA ulS1AnClA uL LA
lMACLn LS nLCA1lvAŦ

6ŦŴLL nuML8C l uL unA LLn1Lť LL ulAl8ACMA l8lS SL uSA CCn LL Þ8CÞCSl1C uL ulSMlnul8 LA
A8L81u8A LlLC1lvA uL LA LLn1L ? ASl AuMLn1A8 Su nuML8C lţ LS1C LS CCnvLnlLn1L AL
lC1CC8AllA8 C8!L1CS lnAnlMAuCSţ ÞC8CuL CuAn1C MAS ÞLCuLRA LS LA A8L81u8A uL LA LLn1Lţ
MAS Þ8LClSC SL8A LL LnlCCuL uL C8!L1CS CL8CAnCS ? ulS1An1LSţ ASl CCMC uL LCS CLn18ALLS ?
ÞL8llL8lCCSŦ LL nuML8C l uL unA LLn1L LS lCuAL A Su ulS1AnClA lCCAL ulvluluA ÞC8 Su ulÁML18CŦ

7ŦŴCuL LS unA LLn1L CCuLA8ť LA LLn1L CCuLA8 LS LL C8lS1ALlnC

8ŦŴAMÞLlllCAClCn uL un 1LLLSCCÞlCť LA lunClCn uL LA SLCunuA LLn1L uLL An1LC!C LS AuMLn1A8
LA lMACLn lC8MAuA ÞC8 LL C8!L1lvCţ CCn LS1L lln SL uSA unA LLn1L LLAMAuA CCuLA8 CuL LS
CCnvL8CLn1L ? uL ulS1AnClA lCCAL CC81AŦ
LA AMÞLlllCAClCn uL un 1LLLSCCÞlC SL uLllnL CCMC LA 8LLAClCn Ln18L LL AnCuLC Su81LnuluC
Ln LL C!C ÞC8 LA lMACLn llnAL l ? LL AnCuLC Su81LnuluC Ln LL C!C ÞC8 LL Þ8CÞlC C8!L1CŦ


9ŦŴ8lnCCuLA8LSť
1ŦŴAMÞLlAClCn
2ŦŴCAMÞC vlSuAL
3ŦŴ LuMlnCSluAu
4ŦŴ SCn Mu? uSAuCS LCS 8lnCCuLA8LS CCn unA AMÞLlAClCn uL 67Ŧ8
3ŦŴ LL CAMÞC vlSuAL LS uL1L8MlnAuC Þ8lnClÞALMLn1L ÞC8 LA A8L81u8A uLL CCuLA8 ? uL8L SL8
1An C8AnuL CCMC SLA ÞCSl8LLţ ÞA8A 8lnCCuLA8LS CCn ÞCuL8 AMÞLlllCAuC8 uL 7ţ SL CCnSluL8A
C8AnuL un CAMÞC uL 6ŦŴ ?A CuL Ln LL CCuLA8 LSL CAMÞC SL Lx1lLnuL A un AnCuLC uL 7 x 6 C SLA
42 C8AuCSŦ
LL ulÁML18C uL CAuA C8!L1lvC uL1L8MlnA LA LuMlnCSluAu CuL LS lMÞC81An1L ÞC8 LA nCCPL
CuAnuC PA? ÞCCA LuZ ulSÞCnl8LLŦ

UNIDAD kkIV
DIIkACCICNţ IN1LkILkLNCIA ¥ ÞCLAkI2ACICN

1ŦŴ 1LC8lA CnuuLA1C8lA uL LA LuZ uL Pu?CLnSť 1CuCS PLMCS 1l8AuC ALCunA vLZ unA ÞlLu8A A
un LS1AnCuL 18AnCulLC uL ACuA ? C8SL8vAuC LAS CnuAS CuL SL Lx1lLnuLn LLn1AMLn1L PAClA
AluL8A Ln Cl8CuLCS CCnCLn18lCCS ? SlLMÞ8L C8LClLn1LSŦ Ln LL CASC AnÁLCCC uL unA luLn1L
Þun1uAL uL LuZţ LAS CnuAS C8LClLn1LS lC8MAn LSlL8AS CCnCLn18lCAS MCvlLnuCSL PAClA
AluL8A CCn unA vLLCCluAu Lx18LMAuAMLn1L AL1A uL 300 000 kM 7 SLCŦ

2ŦŴ LxÞL8lMLn1C uL ?CunC uL LA uC8LL 8Anu8Ať LA Þ8uL8A C8uClAL Ln18L LA 1LC8lA
CC8ÞuSCuLA8 uL nLW1Cn ? LA 1LC8lA CnuuLA1C8lA uL Pu?CCLnS LLLCA Ln 1801 CuAnuC
1PCMAS ?CunC
LlLC1úA Su lAMCSC LxÞL8lMLn1C uL ln1L8lL8LnClA llCŦ 24 uŦ

LA LuZ SCLA8 CuL Ln18A ÞC8 un ACu!L8C uL ALllLL8ţ SL PACL lnClul8 SC88L unA ÞAn1ALLA
ulS1An1L CuL CCn1lLnL uCS ACu!L8CS uL ALllLL8 S1 ? S2ţ LCS uCS !uLCCS uL CnuAS LSlL8lCAS CuL
LML8CLn uL LCS uCS ACu!L8CS SL ln1L8llL8Ln Ln18L Slţ uL 1AL MAnL8A CuL lC8MAn un
LSCuLMA SlML18lCC uL l8An!AS SC88L C18A LLAMAuA MnŦ

3ŦŴ ln1L8lL8CML18C uL MlCPLLSCnť LL ln1L8lL8CML18C uL MlCPLLSCn LS un AÞA8A1C CÞ1lCC CuL
LMÞLLA LL Þ8lnClÞlC uL LA ln1L8lL8LnClA uL uCS PACLS uL LuZţ Su LS1uulC ACul LS lMÞC81An1L
ÞC8CuL PlS1C8lCAMLn1L luL LC CuL LLLvC A LA 1LC8lA uL LA 8LLA1lvluAu uL LlnS1LlnŦ llCŦ 24PŦ


4ŦŴÞCLA8lZAClCnť Sl ÞC8 un MLulC u C18CŦ 1CuAS LAS CnuAS uL un PAZ uL LuZ SL PACLn vl88A8 Ln
ÞLAnCS ÞA8ALLLCS SL ulCL CuL LA LuZ LS1A ÞCLA8lZAuA Ln un ÞLAnC llCŦ 24l

LL ulAC8AMA 8LÞ8LSLn1A LA LuZ ÞCLA8lZAuA Ln un ÞLAnC vlA!AnuC PAClA LA uL8LCPA ?
vl88AnuC Ln un ÞLAnC vL81lCALţ MlLn18AS CuL LL SLCunuC ulAC8AMA (8) 8LÞ8LSLn1A un 8A?C
uL LuZ ÞCLA8lZAuA vl88AnuC Ln un ÞLAnC PC8lZCn1ALţ LA LlnLA Þun1LAuA lnulCAnuC LAS
CnuAS Ln LL ulAC8AMA (A) CLnL8ALMLn1L SL CMl1LŦ

3ŦŴ 8A?C C8ulnA8lC ? 8A?C Lx18AC8ulnA8lCť LA LuZ CuL Sul8L uC8LL 8Ll8ACClCn Ln LA CALCl1Aţ
Þ8CuuCL uCS 8A?CS ÞCLA8lZAuCS Ln un ÞLAnCţ unC u L LLLCS LL 8A?C C8ulnA8lCţ LS1A
ÞCLA8lZAuC CCn SuS vl88AClCnLS Ln un ÞLAnC ? LL C18C LLAMAuC 8A?C Lx18AC8ulnA8lCţ LS1A
ÞCLA8lZAuC Ln SuS vl88AClCnLS Ln un ÞLAnC ÞL8ÞLnulCuLA8 AL Þ8lML8CŦ

6ŦŴ LL? uL ulSÞL8SlCnť ºLA ulSÞL8SlCn LS lnvL8SAMLn1L Þ8CÞC8ClCnAL A LA CuA81A ÞC1LnClA uL
LA LCnCl1uu uL CnuA"
ˤ˩sp˥rs˩on = ˫
ŵ
z
4


7ŦŴ ÞCLA8lZAClCn ÞC8 A8SC8ClCn SLLLC1lvAť CuAnuC LA LuZ C8ulnA8lA Ln18A A un C8lS1AL uL
1u8MALlnA CCu88L LA uC8LL 8Ll8ACClCn Ln unA lC8MA Mu? SLML!An1L A LA CCu88luA Ln LA
CALCl1A ÞL8C CCn LS1C ullL8LnClAţ un 8A?C ţ LL LLAMAuC 8A?C Cţ LS A8SC88luC Ln1L8AMLn1L
ÞC8 LL C8lS1AL MlLn18AS CuL LL C18C 8A?C SALL AuLLAn1Lţ LS1L lLnCMLnC SL LLAMA A8SC8ClCn
SLLLC1lvA ţ ÞC8CuL LL C8lS1AL A8SC88L LAS CnuAS uL LuZ CuL vl88An Ln un ÞLAnC ? nC
A8SC88LŦ


UNIDAD kkV
kLLA1IVIDAD

1ŦŴ LL LxÞL8lMLn1C uL MlCPLLSCnŴMC8LL?ť luL 8LALlZAuC ÞC8 Þ8lML8A vLZ Ln 1881 ÞC8 LCS uCS
ClLn1lllCCS nC81LAML8lCAnCS MlCPLLSCn ? MC8LL?ţ 18A1AnuC uL uL1LC1A8 LL MCvlMlLn1C uL
LA 1lL88A Ln LL LSÞAClCŦ

2ŦŴ LA CCn18ACClCn LC8Ln1ZŴll1ZCL8ALuť Ln 8ASL AL LxÞL8lMLn1C uL MlCPLLSCnŴMC8LL?ţ Ln LL
ARC uL 1890ţ ll1ZCL8ALu LxÞLlCC CuL Sl LCS C8!L1CS SL MuLvLn Ln LL LSÞAClC 1lLnLn CuL
LMÞu!A8 CCn18A LL L1L8 lnMCvlLţ ASl CCMC LC8Ln1Z Þ8CÞuSC CuL 1CuA LA MA1L8lA LS1A
lC8MAuA uL Á1CMCS ? LCS Á1CMCS LS1Án lC8MAuAS ÞC8 ÞA81lCuLAS CA8CAuAS CuL Þ8CuuCLn
CAMÞCS LLLC18lCCS ? MACnL1lCCSŦ A ÞA81l8 uL LS1L Þ8lnClÞlC uL8lvC LA lC8MuLAŦ
ˬ = ˬ
0

ŵ -
˰
2
c
2

˰ ƹ velocldad del ob[eLo respecLo al eLer
ˬ
0
ƹ la lonalLud en reposo denLro del eLer
c ƹ la velocldad de la luz

3ŦŴ 1LC8lA LSÞLClAL uL LA 8LLA1lvluAu uL LlnS1Llnť LS1A SL ulvluL Ln uCS ÞA81LSţ Ln LA 1LC8lA
LSÞLClAL uL LA 8LLA1lvluAu ? Ln LA 1LC8lA CLnL8ALŦ LA 1LC8lA LSÞLClAL luL uLSA88CLLAuA ÞC8
LlnS1Lln Ln LL ARC uL 1903 ? LA 1LC8lA CLnL8AL Ln LL ARC uL 1913Ŧ

UNIDAD kkVI
LLLC1kICIDAD LN kLÞC5C

1ŦŴLLLC18lZAClCn ÞC8 l8C1AMlLn1Cť 1CuCS LCS CuL8ÞCS SL LLLC18lZAn AL l8C1A8SL Ln18L Slţ ?
CuL LL AM8A8 LS SCLC unA uL LAS MuCPAS Su8S1AnClAS CuL MuLS18An ln1LnSAMLn1L LS1L
LlLC1CŦ

2ŦŴ A18ACClCn LLLC18CS1A1lCAť LA ÞALA88A LLLC18CS1A1lCA SlCnlllCA LLLC18lCluAu Ln 8LÞCSCţ ? LA
ÞALA88A A18ACClCn SL 8LllL8L A LA luL8ZA L!L8CluA ÞC8 un CuL8ÞC SC88L C18Cţ LS1AnuC
SLÞA8AuCS ALCunA ulS1AnClAŦ

3ŦŴ CLASLS uL LLLC18lCluAuť
LLLC18lCluAu + ? ŶŦ
CuAnuC SL l8C1An Ln18L Sl uCS SuS1AnClAS ? LuLCC SL SLÞA8Anţ SL LnCuLn18A CuL LCS uCS SL
PAn LLLC18lZAuC CCn LLLC18lCluAu uL unA CLASL ? LA C18A CCn LLLC18lCluAu ulS1ln1Aţ unA SL
CA8CA8A CCn unA LLLC18lCluAu ÞCSl1lvA (+) ? LA C18A CCn unA LLLC18lCluAu nLCA1lvA (Ŵ)Ŧ

4ŦŴ LL? CLnL8AL ÞA8A LAS CA8CAS LLLC18lCASť ºLAS CA8CAS LLLC18lCAS lCuALLS SL 8LÞLLLn ? LAS
CCn18A8lAS SL A18ALnŦ"

3ŦŴ 1LC8lA uLL lLuluC uL l8AnkLlnť ºCuAnuC SL l8C1An Ln18L Sl uCS C8!L1CSţ unC uL LLLCS
ACuMuLA un LxCLSC uL lLuluC ? 8LSuL1A CA8CAuC ÞCSl1lvAMLn1L MlLn18AS CuL LL C18C ÞlL8uL
ALCC uL lLuluC ? CuLuA CCn CA8CA nLCA1lvAŦ"

6ŦŴ1LC8lA A1CMlCA uL LA MA1L8lAť º1CuAS LAS SuS1AnClAS LS1Án lC8MAuAS ÞC8 Á1CMCS ? ÞC8
MCLLCuLAS"
LCS Þ8C1CnLS SCn lCuALLS ? 1lLnLn LA MlSMA MASA ? LA MlSMA CA8CA ÞCSl1lvAŦ
LA CA8CA ÞCSl1lvA SL uL8L A LA Þ8LSLnClA uL LLLC18CnLSţ AL8LuLuC8 uL CAuA núCLLC A1CMlCC
PA? un nuML8C uL ÞA81lCuLAS CA8CAuAS nLCA1lvAMLn1L LLAMAuAS LLLC18CnLSŦ

7ŦŴ lunClCnAMlLn1C uL un LLLC18CSCCÞlCť Sl SL 1lLnL un LLLC18CSCCÞlC CCn CA8CA nLCA1lvA LL
ACL8CAMlLn1C uL unA CA8CA ÞCSl1lvA PACL CuL LA PC!A CAlCA ? LL ACL8CAMlLn1C uL un CuL8ÞC
CCn CA8CA nLCA1lvA LA PACL Su8l8Ŧ
Sl LL LLLC18CSCCÞlC LS1A CA8CAuC ÞCSl1lvAMLn1L CCu88L LA ACClCn lnvL8SAţ unA CA8CA
ÞCSl1lvA PACL CuL LA PC!A SL LLLvL ? unA CA8CA ÞCSl1lvA PACL CuL LA PC!A SL LLLvL ? unA CA8CA
nLCA1lvA LA PACL uLSCLnuL8Ŧ

8ŦŴ CuL LS un SLMl CCnuuC1C8 ? un AlSLAuC8ť CCMC 8LCLA CLnL8AL LCS ML1ALLS SCn 8uLnCS
CCnuuC1C8LS ? LCS nC ML1ALLS SCn MALCS CCnuuC1C8LSţ LCS ÞLC8LS CCnuuC1C8LS SCn
LLAMAuCS CLnL8ALMLn1L AlSLAuC8LS C nC CCnuuC1C8LSŦ
PA? un C8An nuML8C uL SuS1AnClAS CuL nC SCn nl 8uLnCS CCnuuC1C8LS nl 8uLnCS AlSLAuC8LS
uL LLLC18lCluAu LS1CS SL LLS LLAMA SLMlCCnuuC1C8LSŦ

9ŦŴLL? uL CCuLCM8 LA luL8ZA CuL AC1úA Ln18L uCS CA8CAS LS ul8LC1AMLn1L Þ8CÞC8ClCnAL AL
CuAu8AuC uL LAS ullL8LnClA Ln18L LLLAS
˘ = ˫
˝ ˝
ˤ
2

˘ ƹ LS LA luL8ZA
˝ ˳ ˝ ƹ SCn LAS CA8CAS
ˤ ƹ LS LA ulS1AnClA CuL SLÞA8A A LAS CA8CAS
˫ ƹ LA CCnS1An1L uL Þ8CÞC8ClCnALluAu

10ŦŴ ullL8LnClA uL ÞC1LnClAL ? SuS MLuluASť

11ŦŴCAMÞC LLLC18CS1Á1lCCť LA ln1LnSluAu uLL CAMÞC Ln CuALCulL8 Þun1C CL8CAnC A un
CuL8ÞC CA8CAuC LS lCuAL A LA luL8ZA L!L8CluA SC88L unA unluAu uL CA8CA ÞCSl1lvA CCLCCAuC
Ln LSL Þun1CŦ

12ŦŴ CAMÞC LLLC18CS1Á1lCC unllC8MLť LS un CAMÞC CCn MACnl1uu ? ul8LCClCn CCnS1An1L Ln
un vCLuMLn uLllnluC uLL LSÞAClCŦ


UNIDAD kkVII
LLLC1kICIDAD LN MCVIMILN1C

1ŦŴ ullL8LnClA Ln18L 8A1L8lA ? CLnL8AuC8ť LA 8A1L8lA LS un AÞA8A1C ÞC8 MLulC uLL CuAL SL
18AnSlC8MA LnL8ClA CulMlCA Ln LLLC18lCA
LL CLnL8AuC8 Sl8vL ÞA8A 18AnSlC8MA8 LnL8ClA MLCÁnlCA Ln LLLC18lCAţ

2ŦŴ AMÞL8Lť LS LL 1L8MlnC CCn CuL SL LxÞ8LSA LL lLu!C uL CCuLCM8lCS CAuA SLCunuC
ŵ o˭p˥r˩o =
ŵ co˯ˬo˭b
ŵ s˥˧˯nˤo


˩nˮ˥ns˩ˤoˤ ˤ˥ corr˩˥nˮ˥ =
conˮ˩ˤoˤ ˤ˥ cor˧o
ˮ˩˥˭po


I =
˝
ˮ


3ŦŴ CLLuA vCL1AlCA ? SuS ÞA81LSţ LS1A CCMÞuLS1A ÞC8 18LS ÞA81LSť un ÞA8 uL ÞLACAS ML1ÁLlCAS
ulS1ln1AS LLAMAuAS LLLC18CuCSţ unA SCLuClCn ACluA ulLuluA LLAMAuA LLLC18CLl1C ? un
8LClÞlLn1L nC CCnuuC1C8 LLAMAuC CLLuAŦ

4ŦŴ CuL LS un ÁnCuC ? CuL LS un CÁ1CuCť LL LLLC18CuC uL CA88Cn LLAMAuC ÁnCuCţ AuCul8l8lA
un ÞC1LnClAL ÞCSl1lvC ? LL LLLC18CuC uL ClnC LLAMAuC CÁ1CuC AuCulL8L un ÞC1LnClAL
nLCA1lvCŦ

3ŦŴluL8ZA LLLC18CMC18lZť CCn LL vCL1lML18C CCMÞLL1AnuC LL Cl8Cul1Cţ LA ACu!A SLRALA8A LA
ullL8LnClA uL ÞC1LnClAL Ln vCL1lCS ? A LS1A LA LLAMAMCS luL8ZA LLLC18CMC18lZŦ

6ŦŴullL8LnClA Ln18L ÞlLA SLCA ? ÞlLA PúMLuAť CuAnuC SL ACC1A LA LnL8ClA LLLC18lCA CuL ÞuLuL
uA8 unA ÞlLA SLCAţ LS1A SL uLSLCPAţ ÞC8 C18A ÞA81L un ACuMuLAuC8 LS1A CCMÞuLS1C uL LC
CuL SL LLAMA CLLuAS PúMLuAS ? CuAnuC SL ACC1A Su LnL8ClA ALMACLnAuA ÞuLuL 8LnCvA8SL C
8LCA8CA8SLŦ

7Ŧ SlCnlllCAuC uL LA CCnLxlCn Ln SL8lL uL 8A1L8lASť ÞC8 CCnLxlCn Ln SL8lL SL Ln1lLnuL CuL LA
1L8MlnAL + uL unA CLLuA SL CCnLC1A CCn LA 1L8MlnAL Ŷ uL LA SlCulLn1Lţ LL C8!L1C uL CCnLC1A8
unA C MAS CLLuAS Ln SL8lL LS C81LnL8 unA lLM MAS AL1A

8ŦŴCCnCLÞ1C SC88L LA CC88lLn1L uL LLLC18CnLSť AL PA8LA8 uLL lLu!C uL CC88lLn1L Ln un
ALAM88Lţ LC CCnSluL8AMCS CCMC un lLu!C uL LLLC18CnLS MCvlLnuCSL uL Ŷ A + ? LA
LLAMA8LMCS CC88lLn1L uL LLLC18CnLS C LLLC18CnlCAŦ

9ŦŴ LL? uL CPM ? LxÞ8LSlCn ALCL88AlCA
r˥s˩sˮ˥nc˩o =
ˤ˩˦˥r˥nc˩o ˤ˥ poˮ˥nc˩oˬ
corr˩˥nˮ˥


˞ =
ˢ
I


ŵo˨˭˩o =
ŵ ˰oˬˮ˩o
ŵ o˭p˥r˩o


10ŦŴ8LSlS1LnClA LLLC18lCAť SL ÞuLuL uLllnl8 LA 8LSlS1LnClA LLLC18lCA CCMC LA CÞCSlClCn
Þ8LSLn1AuA AL lLu!C uL CC88lLn1L ÞC8 un Cl8Cul1CŦ

11ŦŴ8LSlS1LnClAS Ln SL8lL ? Ln ÞA8ALLLCť CuAnuC SL CCnLC1An Ln SL8lL vA8lCS AÞA8A1CS
LLLC18lCCS LA 8LSlS1LnClA uL LA CCM8lnAClCn 8 LS lCuALA LA SuMAS uL LA 8LSlS1LnClA
lnulvluuALLS
˞ = ˞ŵ + ˞Ŷ + ˞ŷ + ˞Ÿ +˥ˮc.
Cl8Cul1CS Ln ÞA8ALLLC

12ŦŴ Þ8lML8A LL? uL kl8CPCll
ˢ = ˢŵ + ˢŶ +ˢŷ

13ŦŴ LL? uL kl8CPCll ÞA8A CC88lLn1LSť ºLA SuMA uL 1CuAS LAS CC88lLn1LS CuL LLLCAn A unA
CCnLxlCn LS lCuAL A LA SuMA uL 1CuAS LAS CC88lLn1LS CuL SALLn uL LLLA"


UNIDAD kkVIII
MAGNL1I5MC

1ŦŴ LxÞLlCA8 LAS Þ8CÞlLuAuLS uLL lMÁnť SL ÞuLuL uLMCS18A8 CuL LCS lMAnLS A18ALn A LAS
SuS1AnClAS MACnL1lCAS A ClL81A ulS1AnClA Aun CuAnuC PA? MA1L8lA Ln LL LSÞAClC Þ
ln1L8MLulCţ LA A18ACClCn MACnL1lCA SL MAnlllLS1A A 18AvLS uL CuALCulL8 SuS1AnClAŦ

2ŦŴ CCnS18uCClCn uL unA 88ú!uLAť Sl SL SuSÞLnuL un lMÁn MLulAn1L un PlLC CuLuA8A Ln
8LÞCSC Ln unA ÞCSlClCn CL8CAnA A LA ul8LCClCn nC81L Su8ţ LL Lx18LMC CuL SLRALA PAClA LL
nC81L SL8A LLAMAuC ÞC8 LSC ÞCLC 8uSCAuC8 uLL ÞCLC nC81L C ÞLC n ? LL C18C SL8A LL ÞCLC
8uSCAuC8 uLL ÞCLC Su8 C ÞLC Sţ LCS ÞCLCS lCuALLS SL 8LCPAZAn ? LCS ÞCLCS CCn18A8lCS SL
A18ALnţ

3ŦŴ ÞCLCS MACnL1lCCSť ML1lLnuC unA 8A88A lMAn1AuAţ 8LC1Aţ Ln LL ln1L8lC8 uL unA CA!A LLLnA
uL LlMAuu8AS uL PlL88Cţ SL C8SL8vA CuL LAS ÞLCuLRAS LlMAuu8AS SL AuPlL8Ln A LCS Lx18LMCS
uL LA 8A88AŦ LS1AS 8LClCnLS uL MA?C8 A18ACClCn SCn LCS ÞCLCS MACnL1lCCSŦ

4ŦŴCAMÞC MACnL1lCCť LS LL CAMÞC CuL 8CuLA A CAuA lMÁn

3ŦŴ LlnLA MACnL1lCA uL luL8ZAť

6ŦŴ CAMÞC ? ÞCLCS MACnL1lCCS uL LA 1lL88Ať CCMC LL L!L MACnL1lCC LS1A Ln unA ul8LCClCn
CuL lC8MA un AnCuLC CCn LL L!L ÞCLA8ţ LCS uCS ÞCLCS MACnL1lCCS uL LA 1lL88A nC CClnCluLn
CCn LCS ÞCLCS nC81L ? Su8 CLCC8ÁllCCS LS1CS úL1lMCS SCn LCS Þun1CS Sl1uAuCS Ln LCS
Lx18LMCS uLL L!L uL 8C1AClCn uL LA 1lL88Aţ LL ÞCLC nC81L MACnL1lCC LS1A Ln LL nC81L uL
CAnAuÁ ? LL ÞCLC Su8 3LS1A CASl ulAML18ALMLn1L CÞuLS1CŦ

7ŦŴAnCuLC uL uLCLlnAClCnť LL AnCuLC CuL SL uLSvlA LA 88ú!uLA uLL nC81L CLCC8ÁllCC 8LCl8L LL
nCM88L uL AnCuLC uL uLCLlnAClCnŦ
LlnLA lSClCnlCAŴ
LAS LlnLAS l88LCuLA8LS MAS C MLnCS vL81lCALLS unLn LCS Þun1CS uL lCuAL uLCLlnAClCn SL
LLAMAn LlnLAS lSClCnlCASŦ
LAS LlnLAS CuL unLn LCS Þun1CS uCnuL LA 88ú!uLA SLRALA LL nC81L vL8uAuL8Cţ 1lLnL 0
C8AuCS uL uLCLlnAClCn SL LLAMA ACCnlCAŦ
lnCLlnAClCn MACnL1lCAť Sl SL MCn1A unA ACu!A MACnL1lZAuA uL MAnL8A CuL 1LnCA Ll8L81Au
uL Cl8A8 Ln 1C8nC A un L!L PC8lZCn1ALţ LA ACu!A nC CuLuA8A Ln 8LÞCSC Ln LA ÞCSlClCn
PC8lZCn1AL Sl nC CuL SL lnCLlnA8A Ln ClL81C AnCuLCţ LC CuL lC8MA LL CAMÞC MACnL1lCC uL LA
1lL88A CCn LA SuÞL8llClL uL LS1A Ln LL Þun1C CCnSluL8AuCŦ
LlnLA lSCCLlnlCAť Ln LCS MAÞAS MACnL1lCCS SL unLn 1CuCS LCS Þun1CS CuL 1lLnLn LA MlSMA
lnCLlnAClCn MACnL1lCA MLulAn1L unA C vA8lAS LlnLAS CuL SL LLAMAn lSCCLlnlCASŦ

8ŦŴlnuuCClCn MACnL1lCA ? SuS unluAuLS MkSť A lln uL LSÞLClllCA8 LA luL8ZA L ln1LnSluAu uL un
CAMÞC MACnL1lCC Ln CuALCulL8 Þun1C uLL LSÞAClCţ SL uSA unA CAn1luAu vLC1C8lAL LLAMAuA
lnuuCClCn MACnL1lCAŴ

9ŦŴ MACnL1lZAClCn ÞC8 lnuuCClCnŦ

10ŦŴ 1LC8lA MCLLCuLA8 uLL lL88CMACnL1lSMCť un 18CZC uL PlL88C CCnSlS1L Ln MlLLS uL
ÞLCuLRCS lMAnLS LLLMLn1ALLSţ LS1CS lMAnLS uL18AMlC8CSCCÞlCCS ÞuLuLn CCnSlS1l8 Ln
Á1CMCS C MCLLCuLAS lnulvluuALLS C Ln C8uÞCS uL Á1CMCS ALlnLAuCS ÞA8A lC8MA8 C8lS1ALLS
LLLMLn1ALLS uL PlL88CŦ


UNIDAD kkIk
LILC1C5 DL LA CCkkILN1L LLLC1kICA

1ŦŴ LlLC1C 1L8MlCCť ÞA8A ALCunCS AÞA8A1CS LLLC18lCCS LS uLSLA8LL LL LlLC1C CALLn1AuC8
MlLn18AS CuL Ln C18CS LS CAuSA uL MCLLS1lAS ? Aun uL ÞLLlC8CŦ
L!LMÞLCţ ÞA88lLLAŦ 1CS1AuC8ţ ÞLAnCPA 1lLnLn CCMC C8!L1lvC LA Þ8CuuCClCn uL CALC8Ŧ
LlLC1C MACnL1lCCŦ
uLSCu8lL81C ÞC8 CLS1L8u Ln 1820

2ŦŴ8LCLA uL LA MAnC lZCulL8uAť LS1A uA SlLMÞ8L LA ul8LCClCn uL LA lnuuCClCn MACnL1lCA
uL8luA A LA CC88lLn1L uL LLLC18CnLS Ln un ALAM88L
LxÞL8lMLn1ALMLn1L SL ulCL CuL Sl SL 1CMA CCn LA MAnC lZCulL8uA LL ALAM88L CuL LLLvA
CC88lLn1Lţ SLRALAnuC LL uLuC ÞuLCA8 LA ul8LCClCn uL LA CC88lLn1L uL LLLC18CnLS (uL
nLCA1lvC A ÞCSl1lvC) LCS uLMÁS uLuCS SLRALAn LA ul8LCClCn uL LA lnuuCClCn MACnL1lCAŦ

3ŦŴ Þ8CÞlLuAuLS MACnL1lCAS uL un SCLLnCluLť Sl SL SCS1lLnL un SCLLnCluL CCn LCS uLuCSţ
AL8LuLuC8 uL LA 8C8lnAţ SLRALAnuC LA ul8LCClCn Ln CuL LA CC88lLn1L uL LLLC18CnLS uL Ŷ A+ LL
uLuC ÞuLCA8 SLRALA LA ul8LCClCn uL LAS LlnLAS ln1L8nAS uL lnuuCClCn ? LL ÞCLC nC81L

4Ŧ LLLC18ClMÁn

3ŦŴLlLC1C MLCÁnlCC uL LA CC88lLn1L LLLC18lCAť CuAnuC SL CCLCCA un ALAM88L CuL LLLvA
CC88lLn1L Ln LL CAMÞC uL un lMÁnţ SL L!L8CL unA luL8ZA MLCÁnlCA SC88L LL ALAM88L LS1L LS LL
Þ8lnClÞlC uLL MC1C8 LLLC18lCCŦ

6ŦŴ LL MC1C8 LLLC18lCCť LS un AÞA8A1C CuL 18AnSlC8MA LA LnL8ClA LLLC18lCA Ln LnL8ClA
MLCÁnlCA

7ŦŴ CC88lLn1L lnuuCluA lA8AuA? LnCCn18C CuL SL Þ8CuuCL unA CC88lLn1L LLLC18lCA CuAnuC SL
ln18CuuCL unA 8A88A lMAn1AuA 8LC1A uLn18C uL unA 8C8lnA uL ALAM88LŦ
LC CuL Þ8CuuCL LA CC88lLn1L LS LL MCvlMlLn1C 8LLA1lvC uL LA 8C8lnA ? uLL lMÁn ? nC lMÞC81A
Sl SL MuLvL LA 8C8lnAţ LL lMÁn C AM8CSŦ Ln CuALCulL8 CASC LA CC88lLn1L SL uL1lLnL CuAnuC
CLSA LL MCvlMlLn1C 8LLA1lvCŦ

8ŦŴ LL CLnL8AuC8 LLLC18lCCť un CLnL8AuC8 LLLC18lCC SL CCnS18u?L lCuAL CuL un MC1C8
LLLC18lCCţ Ln unA A8MAuu8A Cl8A1C8lA CuL CCn1lLnL 8C8lnAS uL ALAM88Lţ unAS ÞlLZAS
ÞCLA8LSţ LM8C8lnAuCS uL CAMÞCSţ LSCC8lLLAS ? CCnMu1AuC8ţ Ln vLZ uL uA8LL unA CC88lLn1L
uL LLLC18CnLS ÞA8A C81LnL8 8C1AClCn MLCÁnlCAţ SL uSA 18A8A!C MLCÁnlCC ÞA8A PACL8 Cl8A8
LA A8MAuu8A ? SL Þ8CuuCL unA CC88lLn1L LLLC18lCAŦ

9ŦŴCC88lLn1L AL1L8nAť LA ullL8LnClA Ln18L unA CC88lLn1L CCn1lnuA ? C18A AL1L8A LS CuL LA
CCn1lnuA lLu?L SlLMÞ8L Ln unA ul8LCClCn MlLn18AS CuL LA AL1L8nA lnvlL81L Su ul8LCClCn
ÞL8lCulCAMLn1LŦ ÞA8A MAnuA8 ÞA8A MAnuA8 unA CC88lLn1L CCn1lnuA A 18AvLS uL un
Cl8Cul1C LLLC18lCC SL nLCLSl1A unA luLn1L CAÞAZ uL Þ8CuuCl8 unA luL8ZA LLLC18CMC18lZ
CCnS1An1Lţ ÞA8A LS1L lln SL uSA unA 8A1L8lA C CLnL8AuC8 uL CC88lLn1L CCn1lnuAŦ
ÞA8A MAnuA8 unA CC88lLn1L AL1L8nA ÞC8 un Cl8Cul1Cţ ÞC8 C18A ÞA81L SL 8LCulL8L unA
luLn1L CAÞAZ uL lnvL81l8 Su lLM ÞA8A PACL8 LS1C SL uSA CLnL8ALMLn1L un CLnL8AuC8 uL
CC88lLn1L AL1L8nAŦ

10ŦŴ LL? uL LLnZť CuAnuC SL MuLvL un CCnuuC1C8 A 18AvLS uL un CAMÞC MACnL1lCCţ LA
CC88lLn1L LLLC18CnlCA lnuuCluA Ln LL ALAM88L LS uL 1AL ul8LCClCn CuL LL Þ8CÞlC CAMCÞl
MACnL1lCC CLnL8AuC ÞC8 LA CC88lLn1L AC1úA SC88L LL CAMÞC MACnL1lCC lnuuC1C8 uL MCuC
CuL SL CÞCnL AL MCvlMlLn1CŦ
LA ACClCn uL LCS uCS CAMÞCS MACnL1lCCSţ unC SC88L LL C18C LS SlLMÞ8L CÞCnL8SL AL
MCvlMlLn1C A CuALCulL8 CAM8lC Ln LAS CCnulClCnLS ?A LxlS1Ln1LSţ ÞuLS1C CuL Sl A?uuA8An AL
CAM8lCţ 1Lnu8lAMCS un MCvlMlLn1C ÞL8ÞL1uC ? unA vlCLAClCn uL LA LL? uL LA CCnSL8vAClCn
uL LA LnL8ClAŦŴ


UNIDAD kkk
LL DL5CU8kIMILN1C DL LC5 LLLC1kCNL5

1ŦŴ CAMÞC uL LS1uulC uL LA llSlCA MCuL8nAť LL LS1uulC uL LAS uLSCA8CAS LLLC18lCAS A 18AvLS
uL LCS CASLS ? LL uLSCu88lMlLn1C uL LCS Á1CMCS ? LCS LLLC18CnLS MA8CAn PlS1C8lCAMLn1L
LL Þ8lnClÞlC uL LA llSlCA MCuL8nA

2ŦŴ CuL LS un 1u8C uL uLSCA8CAť SCn 8LClÞlLn1LS uL vlu8lC ÞA8ClALMLn1L AL vAClC ÞA8A LL
LS1uulC uL LAS uLSCA8CAS LLLC18lCAS A 18AvLS uL CASLSţ Þ8CvlS1C uL CCnLxlCnLS LLLC18lCASŦŴ

3ŦŴAnCuC ? CÁ1CuCť AunCuL LA 8C8lnA uL lnuuCClCn nC Þ8CuuCL CC88lLn1L CCn1lnuA SuS
CA8AC1L8lS1lCAS SCn 1ALLS CuL LL ÞC1LnClAL LS MAS AL1C Ln un SLn1luC uL Su Cl8CuLAClCn ?
MLnCS LLLvAuC Ln LL SLn1luC CÞuLS1C ? ÞC8 LLLC LCS uCS LLLC18CuCS SL CCMÞC81An CASl
CCMC Sl SL uSA8A CC88lLn1L CCn1lnuA uL AL1A 1LnSlCnŦ LL LLLC18CuC nLCA1lvC SL LLAMA
CÁ1CuC ? LL LLLC18CuC ÞCSl1lvC ÁnCuC

4ŦŴullWL8LnClA Ln18L LL LSÞAClC CSCu8C uL lA8AuA? ? LL uL C8CCkLSť LL LSÞAClC CSCu8C uL
lA8AuA? SL ulvluL LA uLSCA8CA 88lLLAn1L Ln uCS CCLuMnASţ unA 8CSAuA C CCLuMnA ÞCSl1lvA ?
C18A AZuLAuA CC81A LLAMAuC 8LSÞLAnuC8 nLCA1lvC
Ln LL LSÞAClC CSCu8C uL C8CCkLS LA CCLuMnA ÞCSl1lvA SL ulvluL Ln unA SL8lL uL CAÞAS A
ln1L8vALCS unllC8MLS LLAMAuCS LS18lASŦ
Sl SL CCn1lnuA LL 8CM8LCţ LAS LS18lAS ? LL 8LSÞLAnuC8 nLCA1lvC SL vuLLvLn MAS 1LnuLS ? LL
LSÞAClC CSCu8C SL LnSAnCPA PAS1A CuL A unA Þ8LSlCn uL 0Ŧ01 MMţ LLLnA 1CuA LL 1u8Cţ
Ln1CnCLS LL 1u8C uL vlu8lC 88lLLA CCn unA 1LnuL LuZ vL8uCSAŦ

3ŦŴ8A?CS CA1CulCCSť LL 8LSÞLAnuC8 vL8uL uL LA L1AÞA llnAL uL LA uLSCA8CA CASLCSA An1L8lC8ţ
8LSuL1A SL8 uL8luC A unA lLuC8LSCLnClA uLL vlu8lC Þ8CuuCluA ÞC8 8A?CS lnvlSl8LLS CuL
LMAnAn uLL CÁ1CuCţ LS1CS SCn LCS LLAMAuCS 8A?CS CA1CulCCSŦ

6ŦŴLxÞL8lMLn1C uL MlLLlkAn Ln LA CC1A uL ACLl1Lť

7ŦŴ vLLCCluAu 1L8MlnALť LS LA vLLCCluAu A LA CuL CAL unA CC1A uL ACLl1L ţ Ln LL LxÞL8lMLn1C uL
MlLLlkAn ? uL un vALC8 1AL CuL LA ACClCn PAClA A8A!C uL LA C8AvLuAu LS CCn18A88LS1AuA
LxAC1AMLn1L ÞC8 LA luL8ZA uL 8LSlS1LnClA uLL Al8L PAClA A88l8AŦ

8ŦŴuL1L8MlnA8 LL vALC8 nuML8lCC MÁS Þ8C8A8LL uL LA CA8CA uLL LLLC18Cnť

9ŦŴ CALCuLA8 MASA uLL LLLC18Cnť

10ŦŴLS1A8LLCL8 LA 8LLAClCn Ln18L LA LnL8ClA ClnL1lCA uL LCS LLLC18CnLS Ln un 1u8C CASLCSC ?
LA ullL8LnClA uL ÞC1LnClAL AÞLlCAuAŦ LA vLLCCluAu uL LC LLLC18CnLS uLÞLnuL uLL ÞC1LnClAL
AÞLlCAuC Ln18L LL ÁnCuC ? LL CÁ1CuCţ CuAnuC MAS AL1C LS LA 1LnSlCnţ MA?C8 LS LA vLLCCluAu
uLL LLLC18CnŦ
uL1L8MlnA8 LA unluAu LLLC18CnŶvCL1Ŧ

UNIDAD kkkI
LL DL5CU8kIMILN1C DLL Á1CMC

1ŦŴ CCnCLÞ1C uL 8A?C CAnAL CCMC 8A?CS ÞCSl1lvCSť
8A?CS CAnALLSŦŴ LL nCM88L uL 8A?C CAnAL SL uL8lvA uLL ALLMÁn kAnAL S18APLL8 ? uLL PLCPC
uL CuL LCS 8A?CS AvAnZAnuC Ln LlnLA 8LC1A A 18AvLS uLL 1u8C uL vAClC Ln SLn1luC CÞuLS1C
AL uL LCS 8A?CS CA1CulCCSţ ÞASAn ? SALLn ÞC8 un ACu!L8C A8lL81C Ln LL CÁ1CuC
Ln 1896 WŦ 8lLn uLSvlC un PAZ uL 8A?CS CAnAL Ln un CAMÞC MACnL1lCC ? LLLCC A LA
CCnCLuSlCn uL CuL CCn1lLnLn ÞA81lCuLAS CA8CAuAS ÞCSl1lvAMLn1Lţ ÞC8 LS1C SL PAn PLCPC
MAS CCnCCluCS CCMC 8A?CS CA1CulCCSŦ

2ŦŴÞ8CCLSC uL lCnlZAClCnť SL PA LnCCn18AuC CuL LCS 8A?CS ÞCSl1lvCS SCn Á1CMCS CA8CAuCSŦ
uL ÞLSCS ullL8Ln1LSŦ
MlLn18AS LCS LLLC18CnLS uLL CÁ1CuC CC88Ln A LC LA8CC uLL 1u8C PAClA LL ÁnCuC CPCCAn
CCASlCnALMLn1L CCn LCS Á1CMCS ? MCLLCuLAS uL LA ÞLCuLRA CAn1luAu uL CAS 8LSluuAL ? LLS
A88AnCAn ALCunCS LLLC18CnLSţ LS1L Þ8CCLSC SL LLAMA lCnlZAClCnŦ

3ŦŴ LSÞLC18CC8AlC uL 1PCMÞSCnť Ln 1911 !Ŧ 1PCMÞSCn uLSA88CLLC un ML1CuC ÞA8A MLul8 LAS
MASAS 8LLA1lvAS uL ullL8Ln1LS Á1CMCS ? MCLLCuLAS uLSvlAnuC LCS 8A?CS ÞCSl1lvCS CCn un
CAMÞC MACnL1lCC ? LLLC18lCC LLAMAuC LSÞLC18CC8AlC uL MASAS

4ŦŴ CCnCLÞ1C uL Á1CMC uC8LLMLn1L lCnlZAuCS ACuLL CuL PA ÞL8uluC uCS LLLC18CnLS Ln vLZ
uL unC ? 1LnlLnuC unAS CA8CA ÞCSl1lvA uL uCS unluAuLS SL uLSlCnA CCn uCS (+) CCMC lnulCL
SuÞL8lC8

3ŦŴ CCnCLuSlCnLS Þ8lnClÞALLS uL 1PCMÞSCnť
1ŦŴ CuL LCS 8A?CS ÞCSl1lvCS C 8A?CS CAnAL SCn Á1CMCS C MCLLCuLAS CA8CAuAS uLL CAS CuL
LS1A Þ8LSLn1L uLn18C uLL AÞA8A1C
2ŦŴCuL LAS MCLLCuLAS uL Plu8CCLnC ? CxlCLnC 1lLnLn uCS vLCLS LL ÞLSC uL SuS Á1CMCS
SlMÞLLS ? CuL ÞC8 LC 1An1C SCn ulA1CnlCCS
3ŦŴ CuL un CCMÞuLS1C CulMlCC CCMC LL MCnCxluC uL CA88CnC LS1A lC8MAuC uL
MCLLCuLAS ulA1CnlCAS ţ CC
2
ţ CAuA unA uL LAS CuALLS ÞLSA LA SuMA uL LCS ÞLSCS uL SuS
Á1CMCSŦ

6ŦŴ 1A8LA ÞL8lCulCAţ nuML8C uL LLLMLn1CS ? C8uÞCSť 103 LLLMLn1CS ? 8 C8uÞCS

7ŦŴnuML8C A1CMlCCť LL nuML8C CuL Þ8LCLuL A CAu A88LvlA1u8A LS LL nuML8C uL C8uLn uLL
LLLMLn1C ? SL LLAMA nuML8C A1CMlCCŦ
ÞLSC A1CMlCCť LL ÞLSC Þ8CMLulC uL LCS Á1CMCS uL LS1L LLLMLn1C LS LLAMAuC ÞLSC A1CMlCCŦ

8ŦŴMLuluAS uL MASA 8LALlZAuAS ÞC8 AS1Cnť uLSA88CLLC un nuLvC 1lÞC uL LSÞLC18CC8AlC uL
MASAS ÞL8lLCClCnAuCŦ
1uvC uCS 8LSuL1AuCS lMÞC81An1LSŦ
1ŦŴ PlZC ÞCSl8LL C8SL8vA8 LCS lSC1CÞCS LSCASCS CuL uL LS1A MAnL8A ÞCu8lAn LSCAÞA8 A Su
uLSCu88lMlLn1CŦ
2ŦŴÞ8Cuu!C Ln LAS ÞLACAS lC1CC8ÁllCAS lMÁCLnLS MAS uLllnluAS uL LAS ullL8Ln1LS MASAS uL
MAnL8A CuL LS1AS ÞCulAn MLul8SL MAS LxAC1AMLn1LŦ
AS1Cn 1uvC 1An1C Lxl1C CCn SuS MLuluAS uL LAS MASAS ? SuS uL1L8MlnAClCnLS uL LCS
lSC1CÞCS uL LCS ullL8Ln1LS LLLMLn1CS CuL ln1Ln1C unA lnvLS1lCAClCn uL 1CuA LA 1A8LA
ÞL8lCulCAŦ

9ŦŴ lSC8A8C ? uLu1L8Cnť LCS Á1CMCS CuL 1lLnLn LA MlSMA MASAţ ÞL8C CuL ÞL81LnLCL A
ullL8Ln1L LLLMLn1C CulMlCC SCn LLAMAuCS lSC8A8CSŦ
LL núCLLC uLL Á1CMC uL uLu1L8lC SL LLAMA uLu1L8CnŦ

UNIDAD 32
L5ÞLC1kC5 A1CMICC5 ¥ L51kUC1UkA A1CMICA

1ŦŴ uLllnlClCn uL LSÞLC18CSť un LSÞLC18C ÞuLuL uLllnl8SL CCMC unA SuCLSlCn uL LCS
ullL8Ln1LS CCLC8LS C LCnCl1uuLS uL CnuA uL LA LnL8ClA 8AulAn1L LMl1luA ÞC8 unA luLn1L
LuMlnCSA ţ un LSÞLC18C CLnL8ALMLn1L SL Þ8CuuCL MAnuAnuC LuZ 8LAnCA A 18AvLS uL un
Þ8lSMA uL vlu8lCŦŴ


2ŦŴ CuA18C CLASLS uL LSÞLC18CSť
A) LSÞLC18CS CCn1lnuCS uL LMlSlCn
Sl SL CALlLn1A un ML1AL ? SL C8SL8vA A 18AvLS uL un Þ8lSMA SL C8SL8vAn ullL8Ln1LS LSÞLC18CS
A ullL8Ln1LS 1LMÞL8A1u8ASţ LC CuL PA PLCPC LL Þ8lSMA Ln LS1L LxÞL8lMLn1C LS SLÞA8A8 1CuAS
LAS CnuAS uL LuZţ uL ACuL8uC CCn Su LCnCl1uu uL CnuA CuLuAnuC Aun LAuC LAS CnuAS MAS
LA8CAS uL LuZ 8C!A ? AL C18C LAS CnuAS MAS CC81AS uL LA LuZ vlCLL1A ? CCn LAS CnuAS
ln1L8MLulAS Ln SuS LuCA8LS CC88LSÞCnulLn1LS Ln18L ACuLLLASţ PLCPC CuL LA CCLC8AClCn SLA
CCn1lnuA uLL 8C!C PAS1A LL vlCLL1AŦ
LS CA8AC1L8lS1lCA uLL LSÞLC18C uL 1CuCS LCS SCLluCS ? LlCuluCS ? SlCnlllCA CuL LS1A Þ8LSLn1L
unA SL8lL CCn1lnuA uL 1CuAS LAS ullL8Ln1LS LCnCl1uuLS uL CnuAŦŴ

8) LSÞLC18CS uL LlnLAS uL LMlSlCnŦŴ
LL LSÞLC18C uL LlnLAS uL8lvA Su nCM88L uLL PLCPC uL CuL An1LS uL Ln18A8 AL Þ8lSMAţ LA LuZ
ÞASA A 18AvLS uL unA 8Anu8A LS18LCPA ? CuL LAS ulS1ln1AS lMÁCLnLS CCLC8LAuAS uL LA
8Anu8A lC8MAuAS ÞC8 LA LLn1Lţ SCn LCS CuL CCnS1l1u?Ln LAS LlnLAS uLL LSÞLC18C
LAS luLn1LS MAS ln1LnSAS uL LSÞLC18CS uL LlnLAS SL C81lLnLn CCn A8CCS ? CPlSÞAS ML1ÁLlCASŦŴ
LCS LSÞLC18CS CCn1lnuCS uL LMlSlCn SL Þ8CuuCLn CCn SCLluCS lnCAnuLSCLn1LS MlLn18AS
CuL LCS LSÞLC18CS uL LlnLAS SlLMÞ8L SL C8lClnAn Ln unAS A AL1A 1LMÞL8A1u8AŦ

C) LSÞLC18CS CCn1lnuCS uL A8SC8ClCn
LCS LSÞLC18CS CCn1lnuCS uL A8SC8ClCn SCn CLnL8ALMLn1L Þ8CuuCluCS ÞASAnuC un LSÞLC18C
CCn1lnuC uL LMlSlCn A 18AvLS uL MA1L8lA Ln LS1AuC SCLluC C LlCuluCŦ
unA 8uLnA uLMCS18AClCn LS ÞASA8 LuZ 8LAnCA A 18AvLS uL un vlu8lC CCLC8LAuC CuAnuC
uLSÞuLS SL ulSÞL8SL LA LuZ MLulAn1L un Þ8lSMA lAL1A8An ALCunCS CCLC8LS CuL Ln CLnL8AL
Cu88Ln unA AMÞLlA 8AnuA uL LCnCl1uuLS uL CnuAŦ

u) LSÞLC18CS uL LlnLAS uL A8SC8ClCnŦŴ
SCn Þ8CuuCluCS MAnuAnuC LuZ 8LAnCA CCn1lnuA A 18AvLS uL un CASţ

3ŦŴ PlÞC1LSlS uL 8CP8 ÞA8A LL Á1CMC uL Plu8CCLnC

4ŦŴLS1AuC nC8MAL ? LxCl1AuC uLL LLLC18Cnť CuAnuC LL únlCC LLLC18Cn uLL Á1CMC uL
Plu8CCLnC LS1A Ln LA C88l1A MAS CL8CAnA uLL núCLLC nƹ 1 SL ulCL CuL LL Á1CMC LS1A Ln Su
LS1AuC nC8MALţ CCMC Su nCM88L LC lnulCA LS1A LS LA CCnulClCn uL LA MA?C8lA uL LCS
Á1CMCS Ll88LS uL Plu8CCLnC CASLCSA C A Þ8LSlCn ? 1LMÞL8A1u8A AM8lLn1LŦŴ

3ŦŴ MCuLLC uL CAÞAS uL 8CP8 ŶS1CnL8ť LS CCnSluL8AuC LL MAS lunuAMLn1AL uL LA nA1u8ALLZA
LAS C88l1AS AunCuL LS1Án CCnllnAuCS LCS LLLC18CnLSţ SCn LAS C88l1AS uL 8CP8 uLL nl18CCLnC
ÞA8A nƹ1ţ 2ţ3 L1CŦ ? SCn LLAMAuAS CAÞAS LLLC18CnlCASţ SlCulLnuC LA 1A8LA uL LLLMLn1CS ?
LMÞLZAnuC CCn LL Plu8CCLnCţ SL AC8LCAn LLLC18CnLS unC uLSÞuLS uL C18Cţ CCMÞLL1AnuC
unA CAÞA ? LuLCC C18Aţ unA CAÞA SL LLLnA SCLC CuAnuC CCn1lLnL un nuML8C uL LLLC18CnLS
uAu ÞC8 2n
2
ţ L!LMÞLC uL Þ8lML8A CAÞA nƹ1ţ SL CCMÞLL1A CuAnuC 1lLnL uCS LLLC18CnLSţ LA
SLCunuA n
2
ţ CuAnuC 1lLnL 8 LLLC18CnLS ŦL1CŦ


6ŦŴ MCuLLC uL CCCuSMl1P ? uLLn8LCP ÞA8A LL Á1CMC uL Plu8CCLnCť LCS LS1uulCS CuluAuCSCS
uL LlnLAS LSÞLC18ALLS Þ8CuuCluAS ÞC8 ullL8Ln1LS CLASLS uL Á1CMCS LLLvA8Cn AL MCuLLC uL
CuL 1CuCS LCS LLLC18CnLS ? Þ8C1CnLS LS1Án Cl8AnuC CCMC 18CMÞCS APC8A SL SA8L CuL LCS
Þ8C1CnLS Cl8An Ln 1C8nC A un L!L CCMC LA 1lL88AŦ

7ŦŴ 1LC8lA CnuuLA1C8lA uL LCulS uL 88CCLlLť uL8lvC unA LCuAClCn Þ8CnCS1lCAnuC CuL 1CuAS
LAS ÞA81lCuLAS A1CMlCAS 1lLnLn CnuAS uL unA LCnCl1uu uLllnluA ASCClAuCS CCn LLLCSţ Ln
C18AS ÞALA88ASţ un PAS uL CnuAS uL LuZ C un PAS uL lC1CnLSţ 8A!C CCnulClCnLS
LxÞL8lMLn1ALLSŦŴ

UNIDAD kkkIII
kA¥C5 k
LL LILC1C IC1CLLLC1kICC

1ŦŴ1u8CS uL 8A?CS xť Ln LL 1u8C CCCLluCL SL CCLCCA un llLAMLn1C uL WCLl8AMlC Ln LL CLn18C
uLL CÁ1CuC ? SL CALlLn1A PAS1A LA lnCAnuLSCLnClA CCn un ACuMuLAuC8 ? 18AnSlC8MAuC8
uL 8A!C vCL1A!LŦ LS1L llLAMLn1C CuL L S un LMlSC8 CCÞlCSC uL LLLC18CnLSţ Þ8CuuCL Ln LL
8LAnCC unA luLn1L uL 8A?CS x MuCPC MAS ln1LnSA CuL LCS CuL SL Þ8CuuCLn CCn LL CÁ1CuC
l8lCţ ÞA8A Lvl1A8 CuL SL lunuAnţ SL lnC8uS1A Ln LA CA8A uL un ÁnCuC uL CC88L SCLluCţ un
ML1AL uL Þun1C uL luSlCn LLLvAuC CCMC LL WCLl8AMlCţ LL MCLl8uLnC ÞA8A u1lLlZA8LC CCMC
8LAnCCţ SlLnuC 8uLn CCnuuC1C8 1L8MlCC LL CC88L A?uuA A ulSlÞA8 LL CALC8Ŧ

2ŦŴÞLnL18AClCn uL LCS 8A?CS xť PA? CuA18C Þ8CÞlLuAuLS ú1lLLS L lMÞC81An1LS uL LCS 8A?CS x
CuL SCn Su CAÞACluAu ÞA8AŦ
1) ÞLnL18A8 LA MA1L8lA SCLluA
2) PACL8 CuL ClL81CS CCMÞuLS1CS CulMlCCS SL vuLLvAn lLuC8LSCLn1LS
3) lCnlZA8 Á1CMCS
4) lMÞ8LSlCnA8 LAS ÞLACAS lC1CC8ÁllCASŦ
LA ÞLnL18AClCn uL LCS 8A?CS x uLÞLnuL uL uCS lAC1C8LS ŤÞ8lML8CŤ uLL vCL1A!L AÞLlCAuC Ln18L
LL ÁnCuC ? LL CÁ1CuC uLL 1u8C uL 8A?CS x ? SLCunuC uL LA uLnSluAu uL LA SuS1AnClA A 18AvLS
uL LA CuAL uL8Ln vlA!A8 LCS 8A?CS xţ A MA?C8 1LnSlCn AÞLlCAuA AL 1u8C MA?C8 A LA
ÞLnL18AClCn Ŧ LCS 8A?CS x uL C8An ÞLnL18AClCn SCn LLAMAuCS 8A?CS uu8CSţ MlLn18AS CuL
ACuLLLCS CuL 1lLnLn ÞCCC ÞCuL8 uL ÞLnL18AClCn SCn LLAMAuCS 8A?CS x 8LAnuCSŦŴ

3ŦŴ ÞCuL8 uL lCnlZAClCnť AL ÞASA8 LCS 8A?CS x A 18AvLS uL MA1L8lA SCLluAţ LlCuluA C CASLCSAţ SL
LnCuLn18A CuL lCnlZA A LCS Á1CMCS ? A LAS MCLLCuLASŦ
LCS 8A?CS x CuL ÞASAn A 18AvLS uLL LLLC18CSCCÞlC lCnlZAn LL Al8L Cul1AnuC LLLC18CnLS A
MuCPAS uL LAS MCLLCuLAS uL CxlCLnC ? nl18CCLnCţ AL CuLuA8 LS1A MCLLCuLAS CCn CA8CA
ÞCSl1lvAţ LCS LLLC18CnLS Ll8L8AuCS SL MuLvLn Ll88LMLn1L PAS1A CuL SCn 8LCCCluAS ÞC8
C18AS MCLLCuLAS nLu18AS A LAS CuL CCMunlCAn Su CA8CA nLCA1lvAŦ
AÞLlCAClCnLS Þ8ÁC1lCAS
L!LMÞLC
1ŦŴ LCCALlZAClCn uL unA 8ALA Ln LA ÞlL8nA uL un ÞAClLn1L
2ŦŴLA C8SL8vAClCn lC1CC8ÁllCA uL LA Cu8AClCn uL un PuLSC
3ŦŴ LCCALlZAClCn uL CCn18A8AnuC Ln LCulÞA!LS
4ŦŴ LA ullL8LnClAClCn uL CLMAS 8LALLS uL LAS lALSAS
3ŦŴLA LCCALlZAClCn uL ÞL8LAS lALSAS ? CS18AS
6ŦŴ LxAMLn uLL CCn1LnluC uL ÞACuL1LS ÞCS1ALLS

4ŦŴ LCS 8A?CS x SCn CnuASť Ln 1912 LCWL SuCl8lC A SuS CCLLCAS CuL 18A1A8An uL ull8AC1A8
LCS 8A?CS x ÞASÁnuCLCS A 18AvLS uL un C8lS1AL uLLCAuC C8L?LnuC CuL LA LS18uC1u8A
uL18AMlC8CSCCÞlCA uLL C8lS1AL LS C8uLnAMlLn1C 18lulMLnSlCnAL uL Á1CMCS 8LCuLA8LS
LSÞAClAuCSţ vCn LCWL ÞLnSC CuL LAS CAÞAS uL Á1CMCS lCuALMLn1L SLÞA8AuAS lunClCnA8lAn
CCMC LSÞL!CS ? 8LlLL!A8lAn LCS 8A?CS Ln ullL8Ln1LS ul8LCClCnLSŦ
LL Lxl1C uLL LxÞL8lMLn1C uL LCWL CCMÞ8uL8A CuL L8An CC88LC1CS LCS uCS ÞCS1uLAuCSŴ
1ŦŴLCS 8A?CS x SCn 8A?CS uL LuZ uL LCnCl1uu uL CnuA Mu? CC81A
2ŦŴLCS Á1CMCS uL C8lS1AL LS1Án C8uLnAuCS Ln unA ? C18A Ln LL ln1L8lC8 uLL Á1CMC

3ŦŴ LL LlLC1C lC1CLLLC18lCCť LA LuZ uL un A8CC uL CA88Cn SL LnlCCA MLulAn1L unA LLn1L uL
CuA8ZC SC88L unA ÞLACA uL ClnC ML1ÁLlCC 8LClLn ÞuLluCŦ CuAnuC LS1A LA ÞLACA CA8CAuA
nLCA1lvAMLn1L ? SL LnClLnuL LA LuZţ 8A!A LLn1AMLn1L LA PC!A uL C8C uLL LLLC18CSCCÞlC
ACCÞLAuCţ SL 8A!A ÞC8CuL LCS LLLC18CnLS 8A!C LA ACClCn uL LA LuZţ A8AnuCnA8Cn LA ÞLACA uL
ZlnC Ln LL Þun1C lLuMlnAuC ÞŦ CuAnuC LA ÞLACA LS1A CA8CAuA ÞCSl1lvAMLn1Lţ nC 8A!A LA PC!A
uL C8Cţ Þ8C8AnuC CuL LA ÞLACA 8L1lLnL LA CA8CAŦ

6ŦŴ LCuAClCn lC1CLLLC18lCA uL LlnS1Lln
˨˰ = ˣ +
˭˰
2
Ŷ


˨˰ ƹ LnL8ClA 1C1AL CCn1LnluA Ln un SCLC CuAn1C uL LuZ lnCluLn1L SC88L LA SuÞL8llClL
ML1ÁLlCAŦ
˨ƹ CCnS1An1L uL ACClCn uL ÞLAnCk
˰ƹ l8LCuLnClA
ˣ ƹ LnL8ClAţ lunClCn uL 18A8A!C uLL ML1AL

2
2
ƹ LnL8ClA ClnL1lCA

7ŦŴ LLLC18CnLS SLCunuA8lCSť CuAnuC CPCCAn LLLC18CnLS Ln LA SuÞL8llClL uL unA ÞLACA uL
ML1AL uLSÞ8LnuLn uL LA SuÞL8llClL uL unA ÞLACAţ uLSÞ8LnuLn uL LA SuÞL8llClL LLLC18CnLS
AulClCnALLS Ll88LSţ LS1CS SCn LLAMAuCS LLLC18CnLS SLCunuA8lCS ? LL Þ8CCLSC SL LLAMA
LMlSlCn SLCunuA8lAŦ

8ŦŴ1u8CS lC1CMuL1lÞLlCAuC8LSť LL Þ8CCLSC uL LMlSlCn SLCunuA8lA uL LLLC18CnLS LS uSAuC
AMÞLlAMLn1L Ln un 1lÞC LSÞLClAL uL CLLuA lC1CLLLC18lCA uSAuC Mu? l8LCuLn1LMLn1L Ln LA
uL1LCClCn uL LuZ 1LnuL LL AÞA8A1C LS CAÞAS uL 8LCl8l8 un PAS uL LuZ uL ln1LnSluAu vA8lA8LL ţ
LLAMAuC SLRAL LuMlnCSA ? Þ8CuuCl8 ÞC8 LL LlLC1C lC1CLLLC18lCC ? LA LMlSlCn SLCunuA8lAţ
unA CC88lLn1L LLLC18lCA Mu? luL81L CuL Su8L ? 8A!A uL ln1LnSluAu AL lCuAL CuL LA LuZ
lnCluLn1LS LL lMÞAC1C uL CAuA LLLC18Cn Ll8L8A n LLLC18CnLS SLCunuA8lCSţ Ln1CnCLS Ln un
1u8C uL k ÞASCS ţ LL nuML8C CuL LLLCA AL CCLLC1C8 SL8A n
k
ţ ÞC8 L!LMÞLC Sl nƹ6ţ k 3ţ Ln1CnCLS
nk ƹ 77 776 LLLC18CnLSŦ

UNIDAD kkkIV
kADIAC1IVIDAD

1ŦŴCCnCLÞ1C uL 8AulAC1lvluAuť ÞuLuL uLllnl8SL CCMC LA uLSln1LC8AClCn LSÞCn1AnLA uLL
núCLLC uL unC C MAS Á1CMCSţ lLnCMLnC uLSCu8lL81C ÞC8 8LCCuL8LL Ln 1896Ŧ

2ŦŴ Þ8CÞlLuAuLS uL LCS 8A?CS 8LCCuL8LLť 8LCCuL8LL uLSCu88lC CuL LS1CS 8A?CS ÞLnL18An1LS
L8An uL 18LS CLASLS 8lLn uLllnluASŦ
Sl SL CCLCCA unA ÞLCuLRA MuLS18A Ln LL lCnuC uL un ÞLCuLRC 1ALAu8C PLCPC Ln unA ÞlLZA
uL ÞLCMC LS1C Þ8CuuCL un PAZ LS18LCPC uL 8A?CS CuL SALLn ÞC8 LnClMA uL LA ÞlLZA uL
ÞLCMCţ ?A CuL LCS CuL ÞLnL18An ÞC8 LAS ÞA8LuLS SCn A8SC88luCSŦ
CuAnuC SL CCLCCA unA ÞLACA CA8CAuA uL LLLC18lCluAu A LCS LAuCS uL LS1L PAZŦ LAS
18A?LC1C8lAS uL ALCunCS 8A?CS SL lLLxlCnAn PAClA LA lZCulL8uA ? C18CS PAClA LA uL8LCPA ?
ALCunCS SlCuLn Sln uLSvlA8SLŦ un CAMÞC MACnL1lCC Þ8CuuCL LL MlSMC LlLC1CŦ ACuLLLAS
18A?LC1C8lAS CuL SL lnCLlnAn PAClA LA lZCulL8uA lnulCAn ÞA81lCuLAS CA8CAuAS ÞCSl1lvAMLn1L
LLAMAuAS 8A?CS ALlA C ÞA81lCuLAS Aţ ACuLLLAS CuL SL lLLxlCnAn PAClA LA uL8LCPA SLRALAn
CA8CA nLCA1lvA ? SCn uLnCMlnAuCS ÞA81lCuLAS 8L1A C 8A?CS 8 ? LCS SlCuLn Ln LlnLA 8LC1A
MuLS18An CuL nC LLLvAn CA8CA ? 8LCl8Ln LL nCM88L uL 8A?CS CAMA C lC1CnLSŦ

3ŦŴÞ8CÞlLuAuLS uLL 8AulCť LS unA luLn1L ÞCuL8CSA uL 8A?CS 8LCCuL8LL

4ŦŴuLSCu88lMlLn1C uL 8u1PL8lC8u SC88L LCS 8A?CS 8LCCuL8LLť uLMCS18C MLulAn1L unA SL8lL
uL LxÞL8lMLn1CSţ CuL CAuA 8A?C ALlA LS un Á1CMC uL PLLlC uC8LLMLn1L lCnlZAuCţ LS uLCl8 un
Á1CMC uL PLLlC AL CuL LL lAL1An LCS uCS LLLC18CnLSŦ
LnCCn18C 1AM8lLn CuL LCS 8A?CS 8L1A SCn LLLC18CnLS C8ulnA8lCS CCn unA MASA uL 1/ 1840
uL LA MASA uL un Þ8C1Cn C 1/736° uL LA MASA uL unA ÞA81lCuLA ALlA MlLn18AS CuL LCS 8A?CS
CAMA SCn CnuAS LLLC18CMACnL1lCAS uL l8LCuLnClA lCuAL C LlCL8AMLn1L MA?C8 CuL LCS
8A?CS xŦ

3ŦŴ LL ÞCuL8 uL lCnlZAClCn LCS 8A?CS 8LCCuL8LL ÞC8 PA8L8 SluC LAnZAuCS uL Su luLn1L
8AulCAC1lvA CCn vLLCCluAuLS Mu? LLLvAuASţ A88AnCAn LLLC18CnLS uL LCS Á1CMCS AL CPCCA8
CCn LLLCSŦ SCn ÞC8 1An1C ACLn1LS lCnlZAuC8LS ŦLL nuML8C uL Á1CMCS lCnlZAuCS Þ8CuuCluCS
A LC LA8CC uLL CAMlnC uL unA ÞA81lCuLA ALlA LS MuCPC MA?C8 CuL LL nuML8C C8LAuC ÞC8
unA ÞA81lCuLA 8L1A C ÞC8 un 8A?C CAMAţ

6ŦŴ ÞCuL8 uL ÞLnL18AClCn uL LCS 8A?CS ALlAţ 8L1A ? CAMAť LL ÞCuL8 uL ÞLnL18AClCn uL LCS 18LS
1lÞCS uL 8A?CS LS1A Ln Þ8CÞC8ClCn lnvL8SA AÞ8CxlMAuA CCn Su ÞCuL8 uL lCnlZAClCnŦ

ALlA 8L1A CAMA
ÞCuL8 8LLA1lvC uL lCnlZAClCn 10 000 100 1
ÞCuL8 8LLA1lvC uL ÞLnL18AClCn 1 100 10 000

7ŦŴ uL1LCClCn uL LCS 8A?CS 8LCCuL8LL
LLLC18CSCCÞlC uL PC!AS uL C8C
CÁMA8A uL nlL8LA uL WlLSCn
1uvC CCn1AuC8 uL CLlCL8ŴMuLLLL8
CCn1AuC8 uL Cln1lLAClCnLS (CLn1LLLLC)
CÁMA8A uL lCnlZAClCn

8ŦŴ18LS CCnulClCnLS uL LA CÁMA8A uL WlLSCn
1ŦŴ uL8L uL PA8L8 vAÞC8 uL ACuA Þ8LSLn1L
2ŦŴuL8L PA8L8 ÞA81lCuLAS uL ÞCLvC C lCnLS SC88L LCS CuALLS ÞuLuAn lC8MA8SL LAS CC1AS
3ŦŴLA 1LMÞL8A1u8A ? Þ8LSlCn uL8Ln LLLCA8 A un vALC8 uLllnluC

9ŦŴ18AnSMu1AClCn ÞC8 uLSln1LC8AClCn LSÞCn1AnLAť uLn18C uLL núCLLC uLL Á1CMC SL
Þ8CuuCLn 8A?CS ALlAţ 8L1A ? CAMA CuAnuC SL uLSln1LC8A un Á1CMC uL 8AulC AL LAnZA8 unA
ÞA81lCuLA ALlAţ LL núCLLC ÞlL8uL unA CA8CA ÞCSl1lvA uC8LL(+2) Ŧ?A CuL LL nuML8C uL CA8CAS
ÞCSl1lvAS uLL núCLLC uL1L8MlnA LL nuML8C LxAC1C uL LLLC18CnLS Lx1L8lC8LS uLL Á1CMC Ŧ LA
ÞL8uluA uL unA ÞA81lCuLA ALlAţ CCn uCS CA8CAS ÞCSl1lvASŦ lC8MA un nuLvC LLLMLn1C
CulMlCCŦ

10ŦŴÞL8lCuC uL MLulA vluAť LL ÞL8lCuC uL MLulA vluA uL un LLLMLn1C 8AulAC1lvCţ LS LL 1lLMÞC
nLCLSA8lC ÞA8A CuL LA Ml1Au uL unA CAn1luAu uAuA uL LSL LLLMLn1C SL uLSln1LC8L Ln un
LLLMLn1C nuLvC

11ŦŴ 18LS lC8MAS uL uL1L8MlnA8 LL ALCAnCL uL unA ÞA81lCuLA ALlAť LL ALCAnCL uL unA
ÞA81lCuLA ALlA SL uLllnL CCMC LA ulS1AnClA A LA CuL AvAnZA LS1A ÞA81lCuLA A 18AvLS uL Al8L
SLCC A LA Þ8LSlCn A1MCSlL8lCA nC8MALŦ
LL ALCAnCL uL LA ÞA81lCuLA ALlA SL PA uL1L8MlnAuC Ln 18LS lC8MAS ullL8Ln1LSŦŴ
1ŦŴCCn LA CÁMA8A uL nlL8LA uL WlLSCn
2ŦŴÞC8 LL núML8C uL lCnLS Þ8CuuCluCS A LC LA8CC uL Su CAMlnC
3ŦŴÞC8 LCS CLn1LLLLCS Þ8CuuCluCS Ln unA ÞAn1ALLA lLuC8LSCLn1LŦ

12ŦŴSL8lL 8AulCAC1lvA ? LCS CuA18C LLLMLn1CS CuL LA ln1LC8Anť


UNIDAD kkkV
CCLI5ICNL5 A1CMICA5 ¥ DL5IN1LGkACICNL5 NUCLLAkL5

1ŦŴ CCnCLuSlCn uL 8u1PL8lC8u ÞA8A LCS CPCCuLS Ln18L ÞA81lCuLAS ALlAť LA CCnCLuSlCn CuL
8u1PL8lC8u SACC uL LS1L 8LSuL1AuC luL CuL LAS ÞA81lCuLAS ALlA lnCluLn CCASlCnALMLn1L
SC88L un Á1CMC uL Plu8CCLnCŦ uL MCuC Mu? SLML!An1L A CCMC CPCCA unA ÞLLC1A CCn C18A
MAS LlCL8Aţ LAnZAnuC A LS1A CCn unA vLLCCluAu MA?C8ţ CAMAţ ÞC8 LC MlSMC CCn unA
vLLCCluAu MA?C8 uL ÞLnL18AClCnŦ
ALCunCS uL LCS MuCPCS Á1CMCS uL Plu8CCLnC CuL SL LnCuLn18An CCn LAS ÞA81lCuLAS ALlAţ
CPCCAn uL l8Ln1L ? SALLn ulSÞA8AuCS Ln LA ul8LCClCn CuL 18AlA LA ÞA81lCuLA ALlA CCn unA
C8An vLLCCluAu uL 1Ŧ6 vLCLS MA?C8 CuL LA uL ulCPA ÞA81lCuLA lnCluLn1LŦ

2ŦŴLL?LS uL CCnSL8vAClCn Ln un CPCCuL uL l8Ln1L Ln18L LSlL8AS LLÁS1lCASť ÞA8A unA CCLlSlCn
uL l8Ln1L Ln18L LSlL8AS ÞL8lLC1AMLn1L LLÁS1lCAS uL MASAS lCuALLSţ unA MCvlLnuCSL ? LA
C18A Ln 8LÞCSCţ LA ÞA81lCuLA lnCluLn1L LS uL1LnluA Ln LL CPCCuL ? LA SLCunuA SALL uLSÞLuluA
Ln LA MlSMA ul8LCClCn CuL SLCulA LA Þ8lML8A ? CCn 1CuA LA vLLCCluAu

3ŦŴ CCnCLuSlCnLS uL 8u1PL8lC8u ÞA8A LCS CPCCuLS Ln18L ÞA81lCuLAS ALlA ? CAS nl18CCLnCť
unA ÞA81lCuLA ALlA CL8CA uLL Þ8lnClÞlC uL Su 8LCC88luCţ uCnuL Su vLLCCluAu LS C8AnuLţ ÞuLuL
1LnL8 un CPCCuL uL l8Ln1L CCn un núCLLC uL nl18CCLnC ? SL8 CAÞ1u8AuAţ LS1A CAÞ1u8A LS
SLCuluA lnMLulA1AMLn1L ÞC8 unA uLSln1LC8AClCn Ln LA CuL LS LMl1luC un Þ8C1Cn CCn C8An
vLLCCluAuŦ

4ŦŴLxÞL8lMLn1C uL CPAuWlCkť Su LxÞL8lMLn1C CCnSlS1lC Ln 8CM8A8uLA8 un 8AnCC uL 8L8lLlC
CCn ÞA81lCuLAS ALlAţ LAS ÞA81lCuLAS ÞLnL18An1LS CuL SALlL8Cn uLL 8L8lLlCţ SL uL!A8Cn CAL8 Ln
unA ÞLACA uL ÞA8AllnA uL LA CuAL SL LnCCn18C CuL SALlAn Þ8C1CnLS CCn C8An vLLCCluAuţ
ÞC8 LCS CÁLCuLCS uL LnL8ClAţ ÞuuC uLMCS18A8 CuL LCS 8A?CS ÞLnL18An1LS L8An ÞA81lCuLAS nC
CA8CAuAS CCn LA MASA uL LCS Þ8C1CnLS ? CuL LL LLAMC nLu18CnLS

3ŦŴ nLu18Cnţ SuS CA8AC1L8lS1lCAS uL lCnlZAClCn ? ÞLnL18AClCnť LA 8AZCn uL CuL LCS nLu18CnLS
8ÁÞluCS 1LnCAn un ÞCuL8 1An C8AnuL uL ÞLnL18AClCnţ LS CuL nC SL uL1lLnLn A lCnlZA8
Á1CMCS AL ÞASA8 CL8CA uL LLLCSŦ
un Þ8C1Cnţ un LLLC18Cn C unA ÞA81lCuLA ALlA 1lLnLn CA8CA ? ÞuLuLn lCnlZA8 Á1CMCS
A18A?LnuC C 8LCPAZAnuC LCS LLLC18CnLS uLSuL ClL81A ulS1AnClAţ ÞL8C un nLu18Cnţ Sln
nlnCunA CA8CA ÞuLuL PACL8LCţ ÞA8A CuL SLA uL1LnluC C 8LuuZCA Su vLLCCluAu uL8L8Á
LlLC1uA8 un CPCCuL ul8LC1C CCn C18A ÞA81lCuLAŦŦŦ

6ŦŴ LL MCuLLC A1CMlCC uLSÞuLS uLL LxÞL8lMLn1C uL CPAuWlCkť APC8A C8LLMCS CuL LL núCLLC
CCn1lLnL SCLC uCS CLASLS uL ÞA81lCuLASţ nLu18CnLS ? Þ8C1CnLSţ
CAuA nLu18Cn 1lLnL unA MASA unluAu ? nÞ 1lLnL CA8CA MlLn18AS CuL CAuA Þ8C1Cn 1lLnL unA
MASA unluAu ? unA CA8CA ÞCSl1lvA unluAuŦ

7ŦŴuL1L8MlnA8 LL nuML8C uL nLu18CnLS Ln un núCLLC A ÞA81l8 uLL nuML8C A1CMlCC 2 ? LL
nuML8C uL MASA MŦ ?A CuL SCLC LCS Þ8C1CnLS 1lLnLn CA8CAţ CuALCulL8 núCLLC uAuC uL
nuML8C A1CMlCC 2 ? nuML8C uL MASA Mţ SL C8LL APC8A CuL 1lLnL uCS Þ8C1CnLS ? MŴ2
nLu18CnLSţ ? CuL un Á1CMC nLu18Cţ LL nuML8C uL LCS Þ8C1CnLS LS lCuAL AL nuML8C uL
LLLC18CnLS C88l1ALLS

8ŦŴ 8LLAClCn MASA LnL8ClA uL LlnS1Llnť SL LL CCnCCL CCMC ºLA LCuAClCn uL LA MASA ? LA
LnL8ClA uL LlnS1Lln"
˗ = H˕
2

Hƹ MASA
˕ƹ vLLCCluAu uL LA LuZ AL CuAu8AuC
˗ ƹ LCulvALLnClA uL LA MASA Ln LnL8ClA

9ŦŴ LAS 18LS lC8MAS uL LnL8ClA lnvCLuC8AuAS AL CPCCA8 unA ÞA81lCuLA ALlA CCn un núCLLCť
1ŦŴ LA LnL8ClA ClnL1lCA uL 1CuAS LAS ÞA81lCuLAS
2ŦŴ LA LnL8ClA ClnL1lCA uLL 8A?C CAMMA Sl ln1L8vlLnL
3ŦŴLnL8ClA uL MASA

10ŦŴ Þ8lnClÞlC uL CCnSL8vAClCn uL LA LnL8ClA Ln LAS 8LACClCnLS nuCLLA8LSŦ

UNIDAD kkkVI
kA¥C5 CC5MICC5

1ŦŴ CCnCLÞ1C uL 8A?CS CCSMlCCS ? Su ln1LnSluAuť SCn 8A?CS ÞLnL18An1LS Þ8CCLuLn1LS uLL
LSÞAClC Lx1L8lC8ţ CCn LLLC18CSCCÞlCS SLnSl8LLS SL PAn uL1LC1AuC 8A?CS CCSMlCCS CAÞACLS
uL ÞLnL18A8 PAS1A 600 M1S uL ACuA LS1A LS unA ÞC1LnClA MuCPC MA?C8 CuL LC CuL 1lLnLn
LCS 8A?CS x CCnCCluCS C LCS 8A?CS CAMAŦ

2ŦŴ LLLC18CSCCÞlC uL llLAMLn1CSŦ

3ŦŴ 8LSuL1AuCS uLL LxÞL8lMLn1C uL MlLLlkAn ? 8CWLnť SL uLSCu88lC CuL LCS 8A?CS CCSMlCCS
SCn uL MuCPC MA?C8 ÞC1LnClA uL ÞLnL18AClCn CuL LCS 8A?CS x

4ţŴLxÞLlCA LL ÞCuL8 uL ÞLnL18AClCn uL LCS 8A?CS CCSMlCCS Ln LL ACuA ? Su CCMÞA8AClCn CCn
LCS 8A?CS xť CCnlC8ML ÞLnL18An LCS 8A?CS CCSMlCCS A!C LA SuÞL8llClL LlCuluA ulSMlnu?L Su
nuML8C PAS1A CuL A unA Þ8ClunuluAu uL 30 M1S SL 8LuuCL Su ln1LnSluAu A unA
ulLZMlLLCnLSlMA uL LC CuL 1LnlA Ln LA SuÞL8llClLţ CCn LLLC18CSCCÞlCS LSÞLClALLS Mu?
SLnSl8LLS SL PAn uL1LC1AuC 8A?CS CCSMlCCS CAÞACLS PAS1A uL ÞLnL18A8 6CC M1S uL ACuAŦ

3ŦŴAÞA8A1CS uSAuCS ÞA8A uL1LC1A8 8A?CS CCSMlCCSť
LLLC18CSCCÞlCS
CÁMA8AS uL nlL8LA
CÁMA8A uL 8u88u!AS
CCn1AuC8LS CLlCL8 ŶMuLLLL8
CCn1AuC8LS uL CLn1LLLLCS
MLuluC8LS uL lCnlZAClCn

6ŦŴ CCn1AuC8 CLlCL8ŴMuLLLL8ť CCnSlS1L Ln un ClLlnu8C uL CC88L A8lL81C Ln SuS Lx18LMCS uL 3
PAS1A 7Ŧ3 CM uL LA8CCţ MCn1AuC uLn18C uL un 1u8C uL vlu8lC uL ÞA8LuLS uLLCAuAS ? un
ALAM88L llnC ? 1LnSC uL WCLl8AMlC A LC LA8CC uLL L!L uLL ClLlnu8Cţ uLSÞuLS CuL SL PA PLCPC
LL vAClC ÞA8ClAL AL 1u8C(LS CCnvLnlLn1L unA Þ8LSlCn uL Ln18L 3 ? 3 CM uL ML8Cu8lC) SL AÞLlCA
un ÞC1LnClAL uL unCS 1000 vCL1lCSţ CCn LL ÞCSl1lvC CCnLC1AuC AL ALAM88L CLn18AL ? LL
nLCA1lvC AL ClLlnu8C uL CC88Lţ
CuAnuC ÞASA ÞC8 LL 1u8C CLlCL8 MuLLLL8 un SCLC 8A?C CCSMlCC C unA ÞA81lCuLA A C8An
vLLCCluAuţ Þ8CCLuLn1L uL unA luLn1L 8AulAC1lvAţ LA Ll8L8AClCn uL LCS LLLC18CnLS uL LAS
MCLLCuLAS uL Al8L C8LAn lCnLS ţ LS1CS LLLC18CnLS Ll8L8AuCS SCn A18AluCS ÞC8 LL ALAM88L
CA8CAuC ÞCSl1lvAMLn1L ? SL MuLvLn PAClA LL AuCul8lLnuC ÞC8 Sl MlSMCS unA C8An vLLCCluAu
Ln unA ulS1AnClA Mu? CC81Aţ uL8luC A LS1A vLLCCluAuţ ÞuLuLn lCnlZA8 C18CS Á1CMCSţ
Ll8L8AnuC ASl MAS LLLC18CnLS ţ LS1A MuL1lÞLlCAClCn uL LAS CA8CAS SL 8LÞl1L ÞC8 Sl MlSMA Ln
SuCLSlCn 8ÁÞluA Þ8CuuClLnuC Ln un ln1L8vALC uL 1lLMÞC Mu? CC81C un ALuu uL LLLC18CnLS
PAClA LL ALAM88L CLn18ALţ LS1A 88uSCA AÞA8lClCn uL CA8CAS LS LCulvALLn1L AL lLu!C uL un
ÞLCuLRC lMÞuLSC uL CC88lLn1L A LC LA8CC uLL Cl8Cul1C LLLC18lCCŦ CuAnuC SL PA
ln1LnSlllCAuC LS1A CC88lLn1L ÞC8 MLulC uL un AMÞLlllCAuC8 SL ÞuLuL PACL8 CÞL8A8 un
ln1L88uÞ1C8 LLLC18lCCţ un AL1AvCZ uL 8AulC C CuALCulL8 CLASL uL AÞA8A1C LLLC18lCCŦŴ
CCn MuCPA l8LCuLnClA SL PACL CuL LCS lMÞuLSCS uLL 1u8C CLlCL8 ŶMuLLLL8 PACAn 18A8A!A8
un ÞLCuLRC AÞA8A1C CCn1AuC8Ŧ

7ŦŴ 1u8CS CLlCL8 Ln CClnCluLnClAť ÞA8A C8SL8vA8 LA ul8LCClCn uL LA MA?C8 ln1LnSluAu uL
8A?CS CCSMlCC SL uSA un 1LLLSCCÞlC uL 8A?CS CCSMlCCSţ LS1L 1LLLSCCÞlC SL PACL CCnLC1AnuC
uCS C MAS 1u8CS CLlCL8 MuLLL8 Ln CClnCluLnClA ? MCn1ÁnuCLCS Ln un MlSMC SCÞC81L CCn
unA CC81A ulS1AnClA uL SLÞA8AClCnŦ LCS 1u8CS Ln CClnCluLnClA SL CCnLC1An uL 1AL lC8MA CuL
lLul8Á unA CC88lLn1L Ln LL Cl8Cul1C LLLC18lCC CCMÞLLMLn1A8lC SCLC CuAnuC SL uLSCA8CuL
LCS uCS 1u8CS A un MlSMC 1lLMÞC

8ŦŴ CÁMA8A uL WlLSCn ? uCS CCn1AuC8LS CLlCL8ť unA AÞLlCAClCn lMÞC81An1L uLL AÞA8A1C
CL8CL8Ŧ MuLLLL8 LS CCLCCA8 unA CÁMA8A uL nlL8LA uL WlLSCn Ln18L uCS 1u8CS CCn1AuC8LS
CL8CL8 ? ASl 1CMA8 unA lC1CC8AllA uL CAuA 8A?C CCSMlCCŦ

9ŦŴ CCMÞCSlClCn Ln ÞC8CLn1A!L uL LCS LLAMAuCS 8A?CS CCSMlCCS Þ8lMA8lCSť LAS
C8SL8vAClCnLS LxÞL8lMLn1ALLS PACLn vL8 CuL LCS 8A?CS CCSMlCCS CuL Ln18An A nuLS18A
A1MCSlL8A LS1Án CCMÞuLS1CS CASl LxCLuSlvAMLn1L ÞC8 núCLLCS A1CMlCCS uL CA8CA ÞCSl1lvA
LAS uCS 1L8CL8AS ÞA81LS uL LS1CS 8A?CS CCSMlCCS LLAMAuCS Þ8lMA8lCS SCn Þ8C1CnLS ? uL LA
C18A 1L8CL8A ÞA81L (CALCuLAuC Ln MASA)ţ un 90Ʒ SCn ÞA81lCuLAS ALlA A ? un 10Ʒ SCn núCLLCS
nC ÞLSAuCS CCMC CA88CnCţ nl18CCLnCţ CxlCLnCţ PlL88Cţ L1CŦ

10ŦŴ CCMÞCSlClCn Ln ÞC8CLn1A!L uL LCS LLAMAuCS 8A?CS CCSMlCCS SLCunuA8lCS ? Su C8lCLnť AL
Ln18A8 Ln LA A1MCSlL8Aţ unA ÞA81lCuLA Þ8lMA8lA uL C8An LnL8ClAţ CPCCA Þ8Cn1C CCn C18C
núCLLC A1CMlCCţ 8CMÞlLnuCSL unA C LAS uCS ÞA81lCuLAS Ln vA8lCS l8ACMLn1CS nuCLLA8LS
MAS ÞLCuLRCSţ CAuA unC uL LCS CuALLS LLLvA ALCC uL LA LnL8ClA uL LAS ÞA81lCuLAS Þ8lMA8lASŦ
LS1AS ÞA81lCuLAS uL vLLCCluAu LLLvAuAţ CPCCAn A Su vLZ CCn C18CS núCLLCSţ ulvlulLnuC MAS
Su LnL8ClA ÞA8A Þ8CuuCl8 C18AS ÞA81lCuLAS Mu? 8ÁÞluAS 1CuAS LS1AS ÞA81lCuLAS LxCLÞ1C LAS
Þ8lMA8lAS SCn LLAMAuAS 8A?CS CCSMlCCS SLCunuA8lCSŦ

11ŦŴ LL ÞCSl18Cnť LL ÞCSl18Cn C LLLC18Cn ÞCSl1lvC luL uLSCu8lL81C Ln 1932 ÞC8 AnuL8SCnţ
lC1CC8AllAnuC PuLLLAS uL 8A?CS CCSMlCCSţ Ln unA CÁMA8A uL nlL8LA uL WlLSCnŦ 8A!C LA
lnlLuLnClL uL un CAMÞC MACnL1lCC ln1LnSC AÞLlCAuC ÞL8ÞLnulCuLA8MLn1L A unA CA8A uL LA
CÁMA8A uL nlL8LAţ LAS ÞA81lCuLAS CCn CA8CA ÞCSl1lvA uL8Ln uLSvlA8SL PAClA LA uL8LCPA ? LAS
CuL 1lLnLn CA8CAS nLCA1lvAS PAClA LA lZCulL8uAŦ

12ŦŴ Þ8LulCClCn uL ul8ACť Sl SL PAClA ÞASA8 CL8CA uLL núCLLC uL un Á1CMC un lC1Cn uL C8An
LnL8ClAţ LS uLCl8 un 8A?C x uL AL1A l8LCuLnClAţ LL CAMÞC LLLC18lCC uLL núCLLC SL8lA CAÞAZ uL
AnlCulLA8 LL 8A?C x ? C8LA8 Ln Su LuCA8 un ÞA8 uL ÞA81lCuLASţ un LLLC18Cn ? un ÞCSl18CnŦ
Þ8CvLlA LA 1LC8lA CuL LS1AS uCS ÞA81lCuLAS uL8lAn 1LnL8 LA MlSMA MASA ? CA8CAS lCuALLSţ
ÞL8C CÞuLS1ASŦ

13ŦŴ MLSCnLSť AnuL8SCn ? nCuL8ML?L8 uLSCu88lL8Cn Ln 1938ţ Ln LCS 8A?CS CCSMlCCS LA
Þ8LSLnClA uL ÞA81lCuLAS CA8CAuAS CuL 1lLnLn unA MASA ClLn1CS uL vLCLS SuÞL8lC8 A LA MASA
uL un LLLC18Cnţ ÞL8C Sln LM8A8CC MAS LlCL8AS CuL LL Þ8C1CnŦ LS1AS ÞA81lCuLAS APC8A
LLAMAuAS MLSCnLS SCn uL vA8lAS CLASLS ? SL SA8L ÞC8 uA1CS LxÞL8lMLn1ALLS 1CMAuCS ÞC8
CLC8CS ? AL8CÞLAnCS CuL LA MA?C8lA uL LLLCS SL Þ8CuuCLn Ln LAS CAÞAS SuÞL8lC8LS uL LA
A1MCSlL8A ÞC8 LCS CPCCuLS uL LCS 8A?CS CCSMlCCS CCn LCS núCLLCS A1CMlCCS uLL Al8LŦ
Ln LS1CS CPCCuLSţ SL Þ8CuuCLn MLSCnLS Þ CA8CAuCS ÞCSl1lvAMLn1L ? nLCA1lvAMLn1Lţ !un1C
CCn MLSCnLS Þ nLu18CSţ Þ8C1CnLS ? nLu18CnLSŦ

14ŦŴ Þ8LulCClCn uL ?ukAWAť PA8LA SC88L LA LxlS1LnClA A uLSln1LC8AClCn uL LCS MLSCnLSŦ 1CuCS
LCS MLSCnLS Þţ CA8CAuCS ÞA8LCLn 1LnL8 unA vluA MLulA uL 2x10
Ŵ8
SLC ? CAuA unC SL
uLSln1LC8A Ln un MLSCn Þ CA8CAuCţ A Su vLZ SL uLSln1LC8A CCn unA vluA MLulA uL 2x10
Ŵ6
SLC
Ln un LLLC18Cn ? uCS nLu18lnCSŦ

13ŦŴ uLSC8l8l8 LL nLu18lnC ? SuS CA8AC1L8lS1lCASť LL nLu18lnC nC LS unA ÞA81lCuLA Sln CA8CA
CuL nC PA SluC C8SL8vAuA nl uLSCu8lL81A ul8LC1AMLn1L Aun ÞC8 nAulLţ ÞL8C CuL PA SluC
ln18CuuCluA ÞC8 LCS llSlCCS A lln uL LxÞLlCA8 LCS lLnCMLnCS nuCLLA8LS 8LSÞL1AnuC LAS LL?LS
lunuAMLn1ALLS uL LA CCnSL8vAClCn uL LA LnL8ClA n uL LA CAn1luAu uL MCvlMlLn1CŦ

16ŦŴ CCMÞCSlClCn uL LCS 8A?CS CCSMlCC AL nlvLL uLL MA8ť LCS 8A?CS CCSMlCCS CA8CAuCS LS1Án
CCMÞuLS1CS un 70Ʒ ÞC8 MLSCnLS M ? un 29Ʒ uL LLLC18CnLS ? ÞCSl18CnLSţ CCn CL8CA uL un
ÞC8ClLn1C uL ÞA81lCuLAS MAS ÞLSAuASţ uLL 1lÞC uL Þ8C1CnLSţ nLu18CnLSţ ÞA81lCuLASŦ
18AnSMu1AClCn uL LCS LLLMLn1CSŦ

UNIDAD kkkVII

1ŦŴ uLSC8l8L LAS ÞA81lCuLAS Þ8C?LC1lL CuL SL uSAn ÞA8A 8CM8A8uLA8 MA1L8lALLS CuL nC uLSLAn
18AnSMu1A8ť SL uSAn Þ8C1CnLS C uLu1L8CnLS uL C8An LnL8ClA ÞA8A 8CM8A8uLA8 ullL8Ln1LS
LLLMLn1CS CCnCCluCSŦ

2ŦŴ Þ8CuuC1CS uL uLSln1LC8AClCn MÁS CCMunLS Ln LCS MA1L8lALLS Su!L1CS A 8CM8A8uLC uL
ÞA81lCuLASť LCS Þ8CuuC1CS uL uLSln1LC8AClCn CuL uL8L8lAn 8uSCA8SLţ ÞuLuLn SL8 Þ8C1CnLSţ
ÞA81lCuLAS Aţ nLu18CnLSţ 8A?CS l C 1AM8lLn LLLC18CnLSţ ÞCSl18CnLS ? MLSCnLSŦ

3ŦŴ 1lÞCS uL uL1LC1C8LS MÁS u1lLlZAuCSť
CCn1AuC8 CLlCL8
CÁMA8A uL nlL8LA uL WlLSCn
CÁMA8A uL lCnlZAClCn
CÁMA8A uL lCnlZAClCn ÞCCC Þ8ClunuA
CCnSlS1L Ln uA ÞLCuLRA CÁMA8A uL CC88L LLLnA uL Al8L C uL ALCún C18C CAS AÞ8CÞlAuCŦ
CuAnuC ÞASA un Þ8C1Cn C unA ÞA81lCuLA A A 18AvLS uL un vLn1AnA uL LAMlnA ML1ÁLlCA Mu?
uLLCAuA CuL LS1A Ln LL l8Ln1L uL LA CA!Aţ Þ8CuuCL MuCPCS lCnLS Ln LL ln1L8lC8Ŧ LCS lCnLS
ÞCSl1lvCS SCn A18AluCS PAClA unA ÞLACA CCn CA8CA nLCA1lvAţ CuL LS1A Ln LL CLn18Cţ uCnuL
Þ8CuuCL ÞLCuLRAS CC88lLn1LS LLLC18lCASţ CuL vAn ÞC8 LL ALAM88L A un 1u8C AMÞLlllCAuC8 uL
8AulCŦ LL AMÞLlllCAuC8 A Su vLZ ÞuLuL uSA8SL ÞA8A PACL8 lunClCnA8 un AÞA8A1C CCn1AuC8
uL18A8AÞluCŦ

4ŦŴ LnL8ClA 1C1AL Ll8L8AuA (C) Ln unA 8LACClCn nuCLLA8Ŧ

3ŦŴ uLSln1LC8AClCn MúL1lÞLLť LL LS1uulC uL ClL81CS LxÞL8lMLn1CS uL uLSln1LC8AClCnţ PACL vL8
CuL A vLCLS SL 8CMÞLn Ln MAS uL uCS núCLLCS LS1A8LLS LCS núCLLCS lnLS1A8LLS C8LAuCS AL
CAÞ1u8A8 LL Þ8C1Cn C un uLu1L8Cn ÞC8 un núCLLC LS1A8LLţ SL Þ8LSLn1An L!LMÞLCS uL LS1C
CuAnuC SL 8CM8A8uLA LL 8C8C CCn Þ8C1CnLS ? CuAnuC SL 8CM8A8uLA LL nl18CCLnC CCn
uLu1L8CnLSŦ

7ŦŴ lC8MA uL lnuuCl8 8AulAC1lvluAu Ln un MA1L8lAL 8AulAC1lvC lnlClALMLn1Lť LS1C luL PLCPC
ÞC8 LCS Cu8lLŴ!CLlC1ţ LS1uvlL8Cn LxÞCnlLnuC vA8lAS SuS1AnClAS A LCS 8A?CS A uL LLLMLn1CS
8AulAC1lvCS nA1u8ALLS ? PAn LS1uulAuC LAS uLSln1LC8AClCnLS CuL SL Þ8CuuCLnŦ Ln LL CASC
ÞA81lCuLA8 lnulCAuCţ 8CM8A8uLA8Cn ALuMlnlC CCn ÞA81lCuLAS A uLL ÞCLCnlC ? MlulL8Cn LA
LnL8ClA uL LCS nLu18CnLS LMl1luCS ÞC8 LL 8LCPAZC uL LCS Þ8C1CnLS uLSÞ8LnuluCS uL LA
ÞA8AllnAŦ
C8SL8vA8Cn CuL Aun uLSÞuLS uL CuL SL 8L1l8A8A LA luLn1L uL ÞCLCnlCţ LL uL1LC1C8 SLCulA
8LSÞCnulLnuC A ALCunA CLASL uL 8AulAClCn ÞLnL18An1Lţ AL lnvLS1lCA8 LA nA1u8ALLZA uL LS1A
8AulAClCnţ LnCCn18A8Cn CuL uLL ALuMlnlC Aun SALlAn LLLC18CnLS CCn CA8CA ÞCSl1lvAŦ

8ŦŴ Þ8CCLSC uL LAW8LnCL ÞA8A Þ8CuuCl8 SCulC 8AulAC1lvCť LAW8LnCL 8CM8A8uLC LL SCulC CCn
uLu1L8CnLS uL 2 MLv Þ8CuuCluCS ÞC8 LL ClCLC18Cn ? LnCCn18C CuL ACuLL 1AM8lLn lCuAL CuL
LL ALuMlnlCţ SL vCLvlA 8AulAC1lvCŦ

9ŦŴ ulSÞCSl1lvC LxÞL8lMLn1AL uL lLA1PL8ť LA Þ8lML8A uLSln1LC8AClCn Þ8CuuCluA uSAnuC
nLu18CnLS A C8An vLLCCluAu CCMC Þ8C?LC1lLLS luL AnunClAuC ÞC8 lLA1PL8 Ln 1932Ŧ lLA1PL8
ul!C CuL LCS nLu18CnLS uL 8L8lLlC Ln18A8An A unA CÁMA8A uL nlL8LA uL WlLSCn CuL CCn1LnlA
nl18CCLnC Þu8CŦ

10ŦŴ nLu18CnLS LLn1CS ÞA8A Þ8CuuCl8 unA 8LACClCn nuCLLA8ť LL PLCPC uL CuL LCS nLu18CnLS
Cu?AS vLLCCluAuLS SL PAn 8LuuCluC MuCPC SLAn CAÞACLS uL uLSln1LC8A8 ClL81CS Á1CMCSţ luL
uLSCu8lL81C L lnvLS1lCAuC ÞC8 LL llSlCC l1ALlAnC Ln8lCuL lL8Ml ? SuS CCLA8C8AuC8LSŦ un
nLu18Cn CuL SL ACL8CA AL núCLLC uL un Á1CMC nC Sul8L luL8ZA uL 8LÞuLSlCnţ CCMC LL
SuCLuL AL Þ8C1Cnţ AL uLu1L8Cn C A LA ÞA81lCuLA ALlA ? Ln CCnSLCuLnClA SuS Þ8C8A8lLluAuLS
uL ÞLnL18A8 ? SL8 CAÞ1u8AuC ÞC8 LL núCLLC SCn 8LLA1lvAMLn1L C8AnuLSŦ ÞC8 LS1A 8AZCnţ LCS
nLu18CnLS CCn MCvlMlLn1C LLn1C SCn CAÞACLS uL Þ8CuuCl8 uLSln1LC8AClCnLS CuL nC ÞuLuLn
C8lClnA8 LAS ÞA81lCuLAS CA8CAuAS CuL SL MuLvLn A ÞCCA vLLCCluAuŦ

11ŦŴ 1u8C CCn1AuC8 uL CLn1LLLLCť LS un AÞA8A1C Mu? SLnSl8LLţ uSAuC Þ8lnClÞALMLn1L ÞA8A
uL1LC1A8 ÞA81lCuLAS A1CMlCAS uL AL1A vLLCCluAuŦ Ln Þ8lnClÞlC SL 8ASC Ln LL vlL!C
uLSCu88lMlLn1C uL LA 8AulAC1lvluAu uL CuL LAS ÞA81lCuLAS A Þ8CuuCLn ÞLCuLRCS CPlSÞAZCS uL
LuZ CuAnuC CPCCAn Ln un MA1L8lAL lLuC8LSCLn1L CCMC LL SuLlu8C uL ZlnCŦ LS1CS CPlSÞAZCS
LLAMAuCS CLn1LLLLCS C Cln1lLAClCnLSţ ÞuLuLn vL8SL AuAÞ1AnuC LA vlS1A A LA CSCu8luAu C
ÞuLuLn uL1LC1A8SL CCn un 1u8C MuL1lÞLlCAuC8Ŧ

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