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What are Fiber Optics
Long thin strands of very pure glass about the size of human hair
Arranged in bundles called optical cables
Used to transmit light signals over long distances Hundreds of thousands arranged in bundles to form optical cables
What is an Optical Fiber?
An optical fiber is a waveguide for light consists of : core cladding buffer jacket inner part where wave propagates outer part used to keep wave in core protective coating outer protective shield
Passage of light from a material with a high index of refraction(n1) to a material with a lower index of refraction(n2) At the critical angle light will not go into n2 but instead travel along the surface between the two media
These signals may be coded voice communications or computer data . usually about 120 micrometres in diameter.What are Optical Fibres ? • Optical Fibres are fibres of glass. which are used to carry signals in the form of pulses of light over distances up to 50 km without the need for repeaters.
with one fiber of the pair carrying a signal in each direction • Fibers. • The light transmitted through the fiber is confined due to total internal reflection within the material.• The optical fiber can be used as a medium for telecommunication and networking because it is flexible and can be bundled as cables. the light used is typically infrared light • Fibers are generally used in pairs. as they have only one strong propagation mode. like waveguides. • In telecommunications applications. can have various transmission modes. The fibers used for long-distance communication are known as single mode fibers. .
• single mode equipment is generally more expensive than multi-mode equipment. data rates of up to 40 Gbit/s are possible in real-world use on a single wavelength. Wavelength division multiplexing can then be used to allow many wavelengths to be used at once on a single fiber . resulting in dispersion of the transmitted signal. • single-mode optical fiber. where light transmitted in the different modes arrives at different times.• Multi-mode fibers.
Types of optical fibers • Single mode – – only one signal can be transmitted use of single frequency • Multi mode – – Several signals can be transmitted Several frequencies used to modulate the signal .
Types of Fibres Multi-mode step index nc nf nc Single-mode step index nc nc multi-mode graded index GRIN nc nf nc .
5 125 100 140 .Typical core and cladding diameters Type Core (mm) Single mode 8 Multimode 50 Cladding (mm) 125 125 62.
Launching the Light Factors that effect the Launching of Light •Intensity •Area •Acceptance Angle •Fresnell Loss .
Signal Production • Convert electrical input to modulated light 2 Basic Schemes On/Off Linear Variation 2 Common Devices used Light Emitting Diode (LED) Laser Diode (LD) .
Through the Wire Light Propagates through the wire due to total internal reflection .
Fibre can be bent!! Illustration of total internal reflection .
Total internal reflection Trapping light in the fiber .
sin θ c n i .sin θ t n t .s in θc nt ni n t .sin θ i n i .sin ( 90 ) n t .Total Internal Reflection n i .( 1 ) sin θ c .
Types of fiber ends beam patterns can be: spherical cylindrical .
which is not always desirable .Fibers carry modes of light number of modes ~ V 2 a mode is : • • a solution to the wave equation a given path/distribution of light higher # modes gives more light.
we see that we can reduce the number of modes in a fiber by reducing: (1) NA (2) diameter (wrt λ ) • This is exactly the case in single mode fibers.Controlling the # of Modes • From the V parameter. .
The V Parameter a V = 2π NA λo a = fiber radius λ o = incident wavelength •known as the “V-parameter” or the fiber parameter •an important parameter that governs the number of modes •parameters that relates yucky EM wave solutions for both core and cladding .
Snell’s Law! •Step index fibers: Total Internal Reflection .How Fibers Work • The classical understanding of fiber optics comes once again from out longtime friend.
Optical Fiber Bandwidth Bandwidth Limitation Light entering at different angles reach the end of the cable at different times • Smearing is produced: uncertainty of beginning and end of signal • • less smearing higher the bandwidth • smearing can be reduced by reducing the size of the fiber core .
however.Areas of Application • Telecommunication's • Local Area Networks (LAN's) – Optical fibres are now the standard point to point cable link between telephone substations. are also common. Fibre links to the desktop. . – Multimode fibre is commonly used as the "backbone" to carry signals between the hubs of LAN's from where copper coaxial cable takes the data to the desktop.
• Optical Fibre Sensors . as well as the other advantages mentioned above. – Closed circuit television security systems use optical fibre because of its inherent security.• Cable TV • CCTV – As mentioned above domestic cable TV networks use optical fibre because of its very low power consumption.
• Long-haul trunks common in telephone networks • Metropolitan trunks to join phone exchanges in metro areas • Rural exchange trunks connect exchanges of different phone companies .
• Subscriber loops central exchange to subscriber • LANs Can support hundreds of stations on a campus .
Other Applications .
Advantages of optical Fibres • • • • • • Can carry much more information Much higher data rates Much longer distances than co-axial cables Immune to electromagnetic noise Light in weight Unaffected by atmospheric agents .
Disadvantages of optical Fibres • expensive • need to convert electrical signal into optical signal when transmitting and convert it back to electrical signal when receiving .
The Optical Transmitter: • .
. • The most popular wavelengths of operation for optical transmitters are 850. • The transmitter converts an electrical analog or digital signal into a corresponding optical signal.• The source of the optical signal can be either a light emitting diode. 1300. or a solid state laser diode. or 1550 nanometers.
Optical Receivers Converts modulated light from the cable into the original signal • Photodiode: Pin or Avalanche type • High gain internal amplifiers • Large sensitive detecting area several microns thick .
. The detector of the optical signal is either a PIN-type photodiode or avalanche-type photodiode.The Optical Receiver: • The receiver converts the optical signal back into a replica of the original electrical signal.
Degradation of the Signal Glass must be extremely pure Most general purpose optical fiber Signal losses per km traveled • 850nm = 60-75% • 1300nm = 50-60% • 1550nm = 40% Excessive bending .
Signal Regeneration Optical regenerators spliced along the cable to boost weakened signals Optical Regenerator • Optical fibers with specially doped coating • Doped portion is pumped with a laser • When signals enters energy from the laser allows doped material to imitate lasers • Doped molecules now emit a stronger signal with the same initial characteristics .
Transmission Characteristics • Act as wave guide for 1014 to 1015 Hz • Light Emitting Diode (LED) – – – Cheaper Wider operating temp range Last longer – Portions of infrared and visible spectrum • Injection Laser Diode (ILD) • Wavelength Division Multiplexing .Optical Fiber .Multiple beams of light at different frequencies can be transmitted simultaneously – More efficient – Greater data rate .
Global crossing fibre networks .
Atlantic crossing networks .
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