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Skeletal System

Skeletal System

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Published by: Vern Nuqui on Mar 12, 2011
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Skeletal System    Important in the study of morphology Reveals evolutionary trend of vertebrate phylogeny, specific adaptations of vertebrates essential

for their survival such as posture & locomotion. Since they are hard (calcified) & durable, skeleton are fossilized (unlike other tissues that could decay) study of past vertebrate life is possible.

Relationship to other organ systems      Origins & insertions of most skeletal muscles are on bones (basis for naming muscles), muscles marks are left to show position & extent of contraction. Skull foramen or foramina (openings): reveal various sizes and courses of cranial nerves (senses). Important blood vessels pass also through foramens for nutrient supply. Blood vessels leave traces on the skeleton. Braincase: reveal relative development of the different structures of the brain. Sense organs: housed also in the braincase such as nasal chambers (choanae), orbits (eye cavity) and otic (ear) cavities.

Main functions    Shape to the body; supports body weight. Acts as levers ± for muscle attachment; to produce contraction Protection for soft tissues: nerves, blood vessels & visceral organs.

As protective & supportive system:   Exoskeleton ± external hard covering o Skin-derived: epidermis gives rise to keratin, dermis gives rise to bones. Endoskeleton ± internal body framework o Formed from mesoderm, not directly from the integument

Based on position: Skeleton can be divided into:  Cranial skeleton o  Skull or Cranium

Postcranial skeleton o o Axial skeleton: notochord, vertebral column, ribs, sternum Appendicular skeleton: median fin skeletons (fishes), pectoral & pelvic girdles, paired fins skeleton, upper and lower limbs (tetrapods)

Skeleton: Composition    Mineralized CT (dentin, enamel, cartilage, bony model) - calcium source Mesenchyme (embryonic tissue) differentiated into scleroblasts Scleroblasts (blastema) ± anlagen of osteoblasts (bones), chondroblasts (cartilage), odontoblasts (dentin), ameloblasts (enamel)

calcium hydroxyapatite crystals (60% of the bone) provide compressive strength for the bone Organic component: Collagen (great tensile strength) Osteoblasts ± housed in lacunae with bony matrix Haversian system . since the haversian canal allows access to blood vessels for nutrient supply. cartilage or bone develop into either fibroblasts or osteoblasts Fibroblasts ± form collagen. comprise endoskeleton of Higher vertebrates Blastema ± differentiates into muscle.Bones        Special CT.osteon Types of Bones   Hard bone Spongy bone Haversian system     Lamellae ± concentric rings of matrix around the haversian canal Haversian canal ± passage for blood vessels and nerves Lacunae ± structures that contain each osteocyte Canaliculi ± tiny canals protruding from the lacunae connecting access to haversian canal via lamellae. Osteoblasts ± form bone cells Matrix: impregnated with calcium and inorganic salts (30% of bony tissue). Important functions of the Bone     Support & movement ± attachment of soft tissue & muscle Protects vital organs Hematopoiesis ± formation of blood cells (red marrow) Metabolism of minerals such as calcium & phosphorus Structural types of bones   Compact bone o Forms the periosteum (hard covering) o Location: SHAFT or DIAPHYSIS of the Long bone Cancellous (spongy) bone o Forms the marrow (soft portion) o Location: HEAD or EPIPHYSIS of the Long bone & fills the medullary cavity (marrow area) o .

The collagen fibers of the osteoid form a woven network of collagen fibers. are located in lacunae within the matrix. this type of bone is also called woven bone. The osteoid separates osteoblasts. At these sites. The initial site of bone deposition is called a primary ossification center. Intramembranous ossification     Occurs within a membranous.Bones: Appositional growth   Type of growth. which. condensed plate of mesenchymal cells. Further deposition and calcification of osteoid at sites where compact bone is needed leads to the formation of primitive compact bone. develops into chondrocyte or osteocyte Interstitial growth in chondrocytes  Forms isogenous group of chondrocytes . and lamellae are not present at this stage. since interstitial growth is inhibited by the presence of the rigid matrix Deposition of minerals and inorganic salts Endochondral ossification        Most bones are formed by the transformation of cartilage "bone models". NO CARTILAGE PLATE MODEL At the ossification centre: mesenchymal cells (osteoprogenitor cells) differentiate into osteoblasts. The bone deposited onto the cartilage scaffold is lamellar bone. A thin sheet of bone. The woven bone calcifies leading to the formation of primitive trabecular bone. The periosteal collar consists of woven bone. Invading osteoprogenitor cells mature into osteoblasts. the periosteal collar. which use the framework of calcified cartilage to deposit new bone. the cartilage is hypertrophied (very large lacunae and chondrocytes) and with partial calcification (leads to the death of the chondrocytes). The osteoblasts begin to deposit osteoid (the organic bone matrix). is deposited around the shaft of the cartilage model.   Cartilage      A model for the formation of endoskeleton in ALL vertebrates Blastema (mesenchymal cells) differentiates into chondroblasts (young cartilage cells) or osteoblasts (young bone cells) Chondroblasts & Osteoblasts ± housed in lacunae (spaces) Chondrocytes secrete a clear matrix Cellular division: Interstitial growth ± where each daughter cell forms matrix & cartilage grows. Secondary ossification centers occur in the future epiphyses of the bone. Because of the lack of a preferred orientation of the collagen fibers in the matrix. A periosteal bud invades the cartilage model and allows osteoprogenitor cells to enter the cartilage. a process called endochondral ossification.

base o dermatocranium ± bones.The initial structure is cartilage and this cartilage is replaced by bone.Fibrous attachment in between bones. Note the cartilage matrix does not ossify but is removed and then replaced by new matrix 2.most abundant type Organs: ribs (costal cartilages). Each chondrocyte is contained in a lacunae with matrix Types of cartilage  o  o o  o Hyaline cartilage .   Cranial Skeleton Framework of head o brain case . and attachment of tendons and ligaments. Endochondral or cartilage replacement bone . which then ossifies. visual & auditory o visceral skeleton 3 embryonic components o chondrocranium . roof o splanchnocranium ± cartilage (viscerocranium) Chondocranium  Cartilages that form anterior to and surrounding neural tube and ectodermal placodes. Dermal (or membrane) bone . epiglottis (controls air passage) Fibrocartilage .olfactory.Highly resilient and flexible tissue Contains more elastin fibers Organs: Exernal ear (auricle). The parts around the placodes are capsules. Organs: Intervertebral discs.cartilage to bone. articular surface (epiphyses) of bones. SKELETAL SYSTEM  AXIAL SKELETON o o o o  Cranial skeleton Jaw Centra & Vertebral Column Ribs & Sternum APPENDICULAR SKELETON o o Pectoral and Pelvic girdles Upper and Lower limbs A. The parts around the neural tube begin as cartilage struts or bars. These all fuse together to form the solid chondrocranium (or neurocranium) . larynx. trachea & bronchi (windpipe) Elastic cartilage .protects brain o sense capsules .The initial structure is a sheet of dense connective tissue (woven bone). attachment of tendons and ligaments Bone development There are several ways that bone can develop:   1.

the epipterygoid. the jaw muscles laterally.forms ventral floor. Otic capsule ± from ectodemal placodes: posterior side wall around otic capsule made of the prootic. the chondrocranium anteriorly. hypobranchials. Sphenoid complex . Dermatocranium   Membrane bone that covers the brain dorsally. . This is primitively. which could have function either (or both) in ventillation or feeding. the roof of the mouth ventrally. Series:       Facial Palatal Mandibular Vault Orbital Temporal Bone Series of Dermatocranium:       Dermal bones form the facial series surrounding the nostril.forms extreme posterior floor.    Jaws. Ossifies endochondrally.1. the structural support for the pharyngeal arches. ceratobranchials.cover the top of the mouth Mandibular series ± Meckel¶s cartilage encased in the mandibular series of the lower jaw Splanchnocranium   Also called the viscerocranium. Ethmoid region . and the lower jaw. and large dorsal hyomandibular. Orbital series encircles the eye Temporal series . 3.forms the anterior wall of the neurocranium.lateral wall of the eye Vault series (roofing bones) -top of the skull above the brain Palatal series . or mandibular arch: dorsal palatoquadrate cartilage and ventral Meckel's cartilage Hyoid arch: ventral-median basihyal. posterior walls. lateral walls and posterior wall of the orbit. and a small posterior roof of the occiput (posterior bone) (Note: the neurocranium does not roof most of the brain). Five gill (branchial) arches: from dorsal to ventral: pharyngobranchial. Occipital center . but there are major evolutionary transformations in its structure and function. epibranchials. basibranchial. opisthotic and epistotic. Splanchnocranium (yellow) ± gives rise to articular. hyomandibula & hyoid apparatus. intermediate ceratohyal. consist of ethmoid and nasal capsule 2. Does not fuse with the optic capsules. Note that the gills are lateral to the arches. The optic capsules (ectodermal placodes) contribute to the fibrous wall of the eyeball and to the sclerotic bones in birds. Contributions to the skull:   Chondrocranium (blue) ± establishes a supportive platform that is joined by the contributions from Splanchnocranium (yellow). quadrate. 4.

This type of fenestration apparently appeared only once in Diapsida. when the lower jaw muscles shorten. lower temporal fenestra: similar to the fenestra of synapsids.Lower and upper temporal fenestrae. usually bordered by the parietal.formed from epibranchial(premandibular arch) & Epibranchial & pharyngobranchial(mandibular arch) Meckel¶s cartilage . upper temporal fenestra: bordered by the postorbital. considered primitive (turtles & other primitive reptiles)  Diapsid presence of two temporal fenestrae . squamosal. or be suspended from. nothosaurs. Agnathans ± supported by splanchnocranium 2. partly because the origin of this condition has long been debated. the entire jaw would elevate toward the skull instead of the lower jaw relative to the upper jaw. palatoquadrate . o JAW Origin:    1.Ex: Placodonts. Ex: Icthyosaurs. and it is generally bordered by the same bones (the jugal.mandibular arch . Ostracoderms ± small particulate food 3. postorbital. therapsids & pelycosaurs=fin-backed lizard) In diapsids: this fenestra can be called a lower temporal fenestra. the postfrontal. Plesiosaurs (dinosaurs). they need some way to attach. the quadratojugal). Serial Theory .jaw formed from 1 anterior branchial arches 2. postorbital. and occasionally. possess only an upper temporal fenestra. Dermatocranium (red) ± encases most of the chondrocranium together with contributions from the splanchnocranium. .formed from several adjacent arches (neurocranium) o o o Jaw suspension Since the jaws are primitively separate from the neurocranium within the head skeleton. Acanthodians & Placoderms ± first jaw as food traps/ chewings Two theories:   1.formed from epi/cerato/hypobranchial (3rd gill arch) . postfrontal. (Ex: mammals.formed from ceratobranchial hyoid arch . and squamosal. the chondrocranium. parietal. and often. o o At present: This skull is modified from the diapsid condition. and squamosal. The quadratojugal and the parietal occasionally contribute to the edge of this fenestra. Plesiosaurs ± Parapsid (variation from diapsid & euryapsid) o  Synapsid o possess single temporal fenestra bordered by the jugal. squamosal. Otherwise. Types of Fenestra  Anapsid non-fenestrated. and plesiosaurs (marine reptiles of the Mesozoic era). Birds. Crocodiles. postorbital. Lizards  Euryapsid has been the most problematic. Composite Theory .

crossopterygians or lobe-finned fish) dual suspension by palatoquadrate and hyomandibula.dermal bone of the lower jaw).pre/anterior.2 centra (embolomerous-separated. Generally in tetrapods: the jaws are mostly dermal elements. some osteichthyes. Diplospondyly . centrum ± accommodate : a. and post/posterior 2.no centra 2.the ossification of the posterior part of Meckel's cartilage. Aspondyly . Modified Hyostyly ± in Teleosts.provides more mobile upper jaw Metautostyly: (most amphibians. The Meckel's cartilage and palatoquadrate ossifications are in the middle ear.dermal bone of the temporal region of the skull. The mammals jaws are completely dermal.Muscles elevating the lower jaw will simply elevate the entire jaw as a unit unless the upperjaw is attached to the chondrocranium somehow. Mammals have a dentary-squamosal jaw joint: (Squamosal . attached directly to skull but no hyoid arch support. Amphistyly: (primitive sharks.5 to 6 centra per segment . Dentary . 2 articulations with hyomandibula. Polyspondyly .1 centrum/segment (stereospondyly-separated intercentrum) 3. rib ± head(capitulum) by process (parapophysis) . arches ± neural arch (spinal cord) with neural spine . acanthodians) mandibular arch suspended by ligaments between chondrocranium and palatoquadrate. Support from quadrate and palatoquadrate bones Craniostyly: (mammals) entire upper jaw incorporated into braincase and lower jaw is suspended. supported also by the hyomandibula CENTRA & VERTEBRAL COLUMN Vertebral Column  Origin: notochord Structure 1.tetrapods: zygapophysis . Hyostyly: (modern sharks and actinopterygians): suspension by hyomandibula. reptiles) suspension by quadrate bone (ossification of posterior region of palatoquadrate cartilage). lateral process (transverse process) . Articular bone .intercentrum (anterior) .tuberculum by diapophysis b.haemal arch ( tail) surrounds blood vessels 3. processes primitive amphibian/amniotes : 2 centra .pleurocentrum (posterior) Types of Vertebra (according to centra) 1. Metautostyly frees up the hyomandibular for other functions (see below). equal-sized centra) 4. Monospondyly . supported by sympletic bone . This is done in several ways in the different vertebrates:            Paleostyly: (agnathans) no suspension to the skull Euautostyly: (placoderms.

snout of pigs 6. APPENDICULAR SKELETON o o o o o Pectoral girdle Fins Upper limbs Pelvic girdle Lower limbs Obturator foramen: Pelvic girdle modification Additional Bones 1.do not articulate with sternum. crest of birds 5.cartilaginous attachment for vertebrae .secure muscle attachment . segment) 6. 3.with costal & sternal ribs.numerous separate parts in each vert. baculum (penis) 3.form rib cage Types : 1.5. base of external ear(rodents) Types of Locomotion 1. Aspidospondyly . Vertebrosternal (true) ribs . Vertebrochondral (false) ribs .bats) . eyelids of crocodilians 4.centra/spine separate (rhachitomous . graviportal ± with great body weight (elephant) 2. centrum is pierced by Notochordal canal) RIBS & STERNUM Ribs .husk-shaped centrum.help suspend body . cursorial ± running (horse) 3.fused centra/spine (lepospondyly . volant ± gliding (flying squirrels. 2. sesamoid bones(knee cap/patella) 2. Holospondyly . articulate with sternum. Floating ribs ± do not articulate ventrally.

reduced thumb .functional digits.lost digit : 1 .2 or 1) .reduced digits : 2 & 5 .2 groups: 1.forward & backward movements . saltatorial ± jumping (kangaroos) 6.horses . aquatic ± swimming (whales) 7.metacarpals & metatarsals with pads .3.primitive type .retained digit : 3 (bear body weight) .reduced digits : 2 & 4 . cats 3. plantigrade .pigs 2. digitigrade .odd number of digits.rabbits. ungultigrade .lost digits : 1 & 5 . arboreal ± trees (monkeys) Types of Gait 1. artiodactyls . perissodactyls .even number of digits . aerial ± flying (bats) 5.elevated wrists & ankles .reduced digits (4. 3 & 4 .entire sole touches the ground . fossorial ± digging (moles) 8.4.tips of digits (hoofs) .humans 2. scansorial ± climbing (squirrels) 9.

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