Are you sure?
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Berkeley, California, USA
Version 8
January 2002
ETABS
®
Integrated Building Design Software
Concrete Frame Design Manual
Copyright Computers and Structures, Inc., 19782002.
The CSI Logo is a trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc.
ETABS is a trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc.
Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
Adobe and Acrobat are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated
Copyright
The computer program ETABS and all associated documentation are proprietary and
copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers and
Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of the program or reproduction of the documentation in
any form, without prior written authorization from Computers and Structures, Inc., is
explicitly prohibited.
Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from:
Computers and Structures, Inc.
1995 University Avenue
Berkeley, California 94704 USA
Phone: (510) 8452177
FAX: (510) 8454096
email: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions)
email: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions)
web: www.csiberkeley.com
DISCLAIMER
CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE
DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION OF ETABS. THE PROGRAM HAS
BEEN THOROUGHLY TESTED AND USED. IN USING THE PROGRAM,
HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY
IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS
ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THE PROGRAM.
THIS PROGRAM IS A VERY PRACTICAL TOOL FOR THE DESIGN/CHECK OF
CONCRETE STRUCTURES. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST THOROUGHLY READ
THE MANUAL AND CLEARLY RECOGNIZE THE ASPECTS OF CONCRETE
DESIGN THAT THE PROGRAM ALGORITHMS DO NOT ADDRESS.
THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE
PROGRAM AND MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS.
i
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN
Contents
General Concrete Frame Design Information
1 General Design Information
Design Codes 11
Units 11
Overwriting the Frame Design Procedure for a Con
crete Frame
11
Design Load Combinations 12
Design of Beams 12
Design of Columns 13
Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios 14
Second Order PDelta Effects 14
Element Unsupported Lengths 16
Analysis Sections and Design Sections 17
2 Concrete Frame Design Process
Concrete Frame Design Procedure 21
3 Interactive Concrete Frame Design
General 31
Concrete Design Information Form 31
4 Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model
Overview 41
Using the Print Design Tables Form 41
Design Input 42
Design Output 42
Concrete Frame Design Manual
ii
Concrete Frame Design Specific to UBC97
5 General and Notation
Introduction to the UBC 97 Series of Technical Notes 51
Notation 52
6 Preferences
General 61
Using the Preferences Form 61
Preferences 62
7 Overwrites
General 71
Overwrites 71
Making Changes in the Overwrites Form 73
Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default
Values
74
8 Design Load Combinations
9 Strength Reduction Factors
10 Column Design
Overview 101
Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces 102
Calculate Column Capacity Ratio 105
Determine Factored Moments and Forces 106
Determine Moment Magnification Factors 106
Determine Capacity Ratio 108
Required Reinforcing Area 1010
Design Column Shear Reinforcement 1010
Determine Required Shear Reinforcement 1014
Reference 1015
11 Beam Design
Overview 111
Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 111
Determine Factored Moments 112
Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement 112
Contents
iii
Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 1110
12 Joint Design
Overview 121
Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force 121
Determine the Effective Area of Joint 125
Check Panel Zone Shear Stress 125
Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios 126
13 Input Data
Input data 131
Using the Print Design Tables Form 133
14 Output Details
Using the Print Design Tables Form 143
Concrete Frame Design Specific to ACI31899
15 General and Notation
Introduction to the ACI31899 Series of Technical
Notes
151
Notation 152
16 Preferences
General 161
Using the Preferences Form 161
Preferences 162
17 Overwrites
General 171
Overwrites 171
Making Changes in the Overwrites Form 173
Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default
Values
174
18 Design Load Combinations
19 Strength Reduction Factors
Concrete Frame Design Manual
iv
20 Column Design
Overview 201
Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces 202
Calculate Column Capacity Ratio 205
Determine Factored Moments and Forces 206
Determine Moment Magnification Factors 206
Determine Capacity Ratio 209
Required Reinforcing Area 2010
Design Column Shear Reinforcement 2010
Determine Section Forces 2011
Determine Concrete Shear Capacity 2012
Determine Required Shear Reinforcement 2013
References 2015
21 Beam Design
Overview 211
Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 211
Determine Factored Moments 212
Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement 212
Design for TBeam 215
Minimum Tensile Reinforcement 218
Special Consideration for Seismic Design 218
Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 219
Determine Shear Force and Moment 2111
Determine Concrete Shear Capacity 2112
Determine Required Shear Reinforcement 2113
22 Joint Design
Overview 221
Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force 221
Determine the Effective Area of Joint 224
Check Panel Zone Shear Stress 224
Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios 226
23 Input Data
Input Data 231
Using the Print Design Tables Form 233
Contents
v
24 Output Details
Using the Print Design Tables Form 243
Design Codes Technical Note 1  1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA JANUARY 2002
CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN
Technical Note 1
General Design Information
This Technical Note presents some basic information and concepts helpful
when performing concrete frame design using this program.
Design Codes
The design code is set using the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete
Frame Design command. You can choose to design for any one design code
in any one design run. You cannot design some elements for one code and
others for a different code in the same design run. You can, however, perform
different design runs using different design codes without rerunning the
analysis.
Units
For concrete frame design in this program, any set of consistent units can be
used for input. You can change the system of units at any time. Typically, de
sign codes are based on one specific set of units.
Overwriting the Frame Design Procedure for a Concrete
Frame
The two design procedures possible for concrete beam design are:
Concrete frame design
No design
If a line object is assigned a frame section property that has a concrete ma
terial property, its default design procedure is Concrete Frame Design. A con
crete frame element can be switched between the Concrete Frame Design and
the "None" design procedure. Assign a concrete frame element the "None"
design procedure if you do not want it designed by the Concrete Frame De
sign postprocessor.
General Design Information Concrete Frame Design
Technical Note 1  2 Design Load Combinations
Change the default design procedure used for concrete frame elements by
selecting the element(s) and clicking Design menu > Overwrite Frame
Design Procedure. This change is only successful if the design procedure
assigned to an element is valid for that element. For example, if you select a
concrete element and attempt to change the design procedure to Steel Frame
Design, the program will not allow the change because a concrete element
cannot be changed to a steel frame element.
Design Load Combinations
The program creates a number of default design load combinations for con
crete frame design. You can add in your own design load combinations. You
can also modify or delete the program default load combinations. An unlim
ited number of design load combinations can be specified.
To define a design load combination, simply specify one or more load cases,
each with its own scale factor. For more information see Concrete Frame De
sign UBC97 Technical Note 8 Design Load Combination and Concrete Frame
Design ACI 31899 Technical Note 18 Design Load Combination.
Design of Beams
The program designs all concrete frame elements designated as beam sec
tions in their Frame Section Properties as beams (see Define menu >Frame
Sections command and click the Reinforcement button). In the design of
concrete beams, in general, the program calculates and reports the required
areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments, shears, load
combination factors, and other criteria, which are described in detail in Con
crete Frame UBC97 Technical Note Beam Design 11 and Concrete Frame ACI
31899 Technical Note 21 Beam Design. The reinforcement requirements are
calculated at each output station along the beam span.
All the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only.
Effects resulting from any axial forces, minor direction bending, and
torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independ
ently by the user.
In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment at a particular
section of a particular beam, the steps involve the determination of the
maximum factored moments and the determination of the reinforcing steel.
Concrete Frame Design General Design Information
Design of Beams Technical Note 1  3
The beam section is designed for the maximum positive and maximum nega
tive factored moment envelopes obtained from all of the load combinations.
Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases, the beam is al
ways designed as a rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce
bottom steel. In such cases, the beam may be designed as a rectangular or
Tbeam. For the design of flexural reinforcement, the beam is first designed
as a singly reinforced beam. If the beam section is not adequate, the required
compression reinforcement is calculated.
In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular set
of loading combinations at a particular station resulting from the beam major
shear, the steps involve the determination of the factored shear force, the
determination of the shear force that can be resisted by concrete, and the
determination of the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.
Design of Columns
The program designs all concrete frame elements designated as column sec
tions in their Frame Section Properties as columns (see Define menu
>Frame Sections command and click the Reinforcement button). In the
design of the columns, the program calculates the required longitudinal steel,
or if the longitudinal steel is specified, the column stress condition is reported
in terms of a column capacity ratio. The capacity ratio is a factor that gives an
indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of
the column. The design procedure for reinforced concrete columns involves
the following steps:
Generate axial forcebiaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the dif
ferent concrete section types of the model.
Check the capacity of each column for the factored axial force and bending
moments obtained from each load combination at each end of the column.
This step is also used to calculate the required reinforcement (if none was
specified) that will produce a capacity ratio of 1.0.
Design the column shear reinforcement.
The shear reinforcement design procedure for columns is very similar to that
for beams, except that the effect of the axial force on the concrete shear ca
pacity needs to be considered. See Concrete Frame UBC97 Technical Note 10
General Design Information Concrete Frame Design
Technical Note 1  4 Second Order PDelta Effects
Column Design and Concrete Frame ACI 31899 Technical Note 20 Column
Design for more information.
Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios
When the ACI 31899 or UBC97 code is selected, the program calculates the
ratio of the sum of the beam moment capacities to the sum of the column
moment capacities at a particular joint for a particular column direction, ma
jor or minor. The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength
factor, α, and including ϕ factors. The beam capacities are calculated for re
versed situations and the maximum summation obtained is used.
The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is
not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along
the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are
added to the summation.
The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column
below the joint. For each load combination, the axial force, P
u
, in each of the
columns is calculated from the program analysis load combinations. For each
load combination, the moment capacity of each column under the influence of
the corresponding axial load P
u
is then determined separately for the major
and minor directions of the column, using the uniaxial column interaction dia
gram. The moment capacities of the two columns are added to give the ca
pacity summation for the corresponding load combination. The maximum ca
pacity summations obtained from all of the load combinations is used for the
beam/column capacity ratio.
The beam/column flexural capacity ratios are only reported for Special Mo
mentResisting Frames involving seismic design load combinations.
See Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios in Concrete Frame UBC97 Techni
cal Note 12 Joint Design or in Concrete Frame ACI 31899 Technical Note 22
Joint Design for more information.
Second Order PDelta Effects
Typically, design codes require that second order PDelta effects be consid
ered when designing concrete frames. The PDelta effects come from two
sources. They are the global lateral translation of the frame and the local de
formation of elements within the frame.
Concrete Frame Design General Design Information
Second Order PDelta Effects Technical Note 1  5
Consider the frame element shown in Figure 1, which is extracted from a
story level of a larger structure. The overall global translation of this frame
element is indicated by ∆. The local deformation of the element is shown as δ.
The total second order PDelta effects on this frame element are those caused
by both ∆ and δ.
The program has an option to consider PDelta effects in the analysis. Con
trols for considering this effect are found using the Analyze menu > Set
Analysis Options command and then clicking the Set PDelta Parameters
button. When you consider PDelta effects in the analysis, the program does a
good job of capturing the effect due to the ∆ deformation shown in Figure 1,
but it does not typically capture the effect of the δ deformation (unless, in the
model, the frame element is broken into multiple pieces over its length).
In design codes, consideration of the second order PDelta effects is generally
achieved by computing the flexural design capacity using a formula similar to
that shown in Equation. 1.
M
CAP
= aM
nt
+ bM
lt
Eqn. 1
where,
M
CAP
= Flexural design capacity
∆
δ
Original position of frame
element shown by vertical
line
Position of frame element
as a result of global lateral
translation, ∆, shown by
dashed line
Final deflected position of
frame element that
includes the global lateral
translation, ∆, and the
local deformation of the
element, δ
Figure 1: The Total Second Order PDelta Effects on a Frame Element
Caused by Both ∆ ∆∆ ∆ and δ δδ δ
General Design Information Concrete Frame Design
Technical Note 1  6 Element Unsupported Lengths
M
nt
= Required flexural capacity of the member assuming there is
no translation of the frame (i.e., associated with the δ defor
mation in Figure 1)
M
lt
= Required flexural capacity of the member as a result of lateral
translation of the frame only (i.e., associated with the ∆ de
formation in Figure 1)
a = Unitless factor multiplying M
nt
b = Unitless factor multiplying M
lt
(assumed equal to 1 by the
program; see below)
When the program performs concrete frame design, it assumes that the factor
b is equal to 1 and it uses codespecific formulas to calculate the factor a.
That b = 1 assumes that you have considered PDelta effects in the analysis,
as previously described. Thus, in general, if you are performing concrete
frame design in this program, you should consider PDelta effects in the
analysis before running the design.
Element Unsupported Lengths
The column unsupported lengths are required to account for column slender
ness effects. The program automatically determines these unsupported
lengths. They can also be overwritten by the user on an elementbyelement
basis, if desired, using the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design >
View/Revise Overwrites command.
There are two unsupported lengths to consider. They are L
33
and L
22,
as
shown in Figure 2. These are the lengths between support points of the ele
ment in the corresponding directions. The length L
33
corresponds to instability
about the 33 axis (major axis), and L
22
corresponds to instability about the
22 axis (minor axis). The length L
22
is also used for lateraltorsional buckling
caused by major direction bending (i.e., about the 33 axis).
In determining the values for L
22
and L
33
of the elements, the program recog
nizes various aspects of the structure that have an effect on these lengths,
such as member connectivity, diaphragm constraints and support points. The
program automatically locates the element support points and evaluates the
corresponding unsupported length.
Concrete Frame Design General Design Information
Analysis Sections and Design Sections Technical Note 1  7
Figure 2: Major and Minor Axes of Bending
It is possible for the unsupported length of a frame element to be evaluated
by the program as greater than the corresponding element length. For exam
ple, assume a column has a beam framing into it in one direction, but not the
other, at a floor level. In this case, the column is assumed to be supported in
one direction only at that story level, and its unsupported length in the other
direction will exceed the story height.
Analysis Sections and Design Sections
Analysis sections are those section properties used to analyze the model
when you click the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command. The design
section is whatever section has most currently been designed and thus desig
nated the current design section.
Tip:
It is important to understand the difference between analysis sections and design sec
tions.
General Design Information Concrete Frame Design
Technical Note 1  8 Analysis Sections and Design Sections
It is possible for the last used analysis section and the current design section
to be different. For example, you may have run your analysis using a W18X35
beam and then found in the design that a W16X31 beam worked. In that
case, the last used analysis section is the W18X35 and the current design
section is the W16X31. Before you complete the design process, verify that
the last used analysis section and the current design section are the same.
The Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Verify Analysis vs De
sign Section command is useful for this task.
The program keeps track of the analysis section and the design section
separately. Note the following about analysis and design sections:
Assigning a beam a frame section property using the Assign menu >
Frame/Line > Frame Section command assigns the section as both the
analysis section and the design section.
Running an analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command
(or its associated toolbar button) always sets the analysis section to be the
same as the current design section.
Assigning an auto select list to a frame section using the Assign menu >
Frame/Line > Frame Section command initially sets the design section
to be the beam with the median weight in the auto select list.
Unlocking a model deletes the design results, but it does not delete or
change the design section.
Using the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Select Design
Combo command to change a design load combination deletes the design
results, but it does not delete or change the design section.
Using the Define menu > Load Combinations command to change a de
sign load combination deletes the design results, but it does not delete or
change the design section.
Using the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design
command to change any of the composite beam design preferences deletes
the design results, but it does not delete or change the design section.
Deleting the static nonlinear analysis results also deletes the design results
for any load combination that includes static nonlinear forces. Typically,
Concrete Frame Design General Design Information
Analysis Sections and Design Sections Technical Note 1  9
static nonlinear analysis and design results are deleted when one of the
following actions is taken:
9 Use the Define menu > Frame Nonlinear Hinge Properties com
mand to redefine existing or define new hinges.
9 Use the Define menu > Static Nonlinear/Pushover Cases com
mand to redefine existing or define new static nonlinear load cases.
9 Use the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Frame Nonlinear Hinges
command to add or delete hinges.
Again, note that these actions delete only results for load combinations that
include static nonlinear forces.
Concrete Frame Design Procedure Technical Note 2  1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN
Technical Note 2
Concrete Frame Design Process
This Technical Note describes a basic concrete frame design process using
this program. Although the exact steps you follow may vary, the basic design
process should be similar to that described herein. Other Technical Notes in
the Concrete Frame Design series provide additional information, including
the distinction between analysis sections and design sections (see Analysis
Sections and Design Sections in Concrete Frame Design Technical Note 1
General Design Information).
The concrete frame design postprocessor can design or check concrete col
umns and can design concrete beams.
Important note: A concrete frame element is designed as a beam or a col
umn, depending on how its frame section property was designated when it
was defined using the Define menu > Frame Sections command. Note that
when using this command, after you have specified that a section has a con
crete material property, you can click on the Reinforcement button and
specify whether it is a beam or a column.
Concrete Frame Design Procedure
The following sequence describes a typical concrete frame design process for
a new building. Note that although the sequence of steps you follow may
vary, the basic process probably will be essentially the same.
1. Use the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design
command to choose the concrete frame design code and to review other
concrete frame design preferences and revise them if necessary. Note
that default values are provided for all concrete frame design prefer
ences, so it is unnecessary to define any preferences unless you want to
change some of the default values. See Concrete Frame Design ACI
UBC97 Technical Notes 6 Preferences and Concrete Frame Design ACI
31899 Technical Notes 16 Preferences for more information.
Concrete Frame Design Process Concrete Frame Design
Technical Note 2  2 Concrete Frame Design Procedure
2. Create the building model.
3. Run the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis
command.
4. Assign concrete frame overwrites, if needed, using the Design menu >
Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. Note
that you must select frame elements before using this command. Also
note that default values are provided for all concrete frame design over
writes, so it is unnecessary to define any overwrites unless you want to
change some of the default values. Note that the overwrites can be as
signed before or after the analysis is run. See Concrete Frame Design
UBC97 Technical Note 7 Overwrites and Concrete Frame Design ACI
31899 Technical Note 17 Overwrites for more information.
5. To use any design load combinations other than the defaults created by
the program for your concrete frame design, click the Design menu >
Concrete Frame Design > Select Design Combo command. Note
that you must have already created your own design combos by clicking
the Define menu > Load Combinations command. See Concrete
Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 8 Design Load Combinations and
Concrete Frame Design ACI 31899 Technical Note 18 Design Load
Combinations for more information.
6. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start De
sign/Check of Structure command to run the concrete frame design.
7. Review the concrete frame design results by doing one of the following:
a. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display De
sign Info command to display design input and output information on
the model. See Concrete Frame Design Technical Note 4 Output Data
Plotted Directly on the Model for more information.
b. Right click on a frame element while the design results are displayed
on it to enter the interactive design mode and interactively design the
frame element. Note that while you are in this mode, you can revise
overwrites and immediately see the results of the new design. See
Concrete Frame Design Technical Note 3 Interactive Concrete Frame
Design for more information.
Concrete Frame Design Concrete Frame Design Process
Concrete Frame Design Procedure Technical Note 2  3
If design results are not currently displayed (and the design has been
run), click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Interac
tive Concrete Frame Design command and then right click a frame
element to enter the interactive design mode for that element.
8. Use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design com
mand to print concrete frame design data. If you select frame elements
before using this command, data is printed only for the selected ele
ments. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 14 Output
Details and Concrete Frame Design ACI 31899 Technical Note 24 Out
put Details for more information.
9. Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Change Design
Section command to change the design section properties for selected
frame elements.
10. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start De
sign/Check of Structure command to rerun the concrete frame design
with the new section properties. Review the results using the procedures
described in Item 7.
11. Rerun the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis
command. Note that the section properties used for the analysis are the
last specified design section properties.
12. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start De
sign/Check of Structure command to rerun the concrete frame design
with the new analysis results and new section properties. Review the re
sults using the procedures described above.
13. Again use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Change
Design Section command to change the design section properties for
selected frame elements, if necessary.
14. Repeat the processes in steps 10, 11 and 12 as many times as neces
sary.
15. Rerun the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis
command. Note that the section properties used for the analysis are the
last specified design section properties.
Concrete Frame Design Process Concrete Frame Design
Technical Note 2  4 Concrete Frame Design Procedure
Note:
Concrete frame design is an iterative process. Typically, the analysis and design will be
rerun multiple times to complete a design.
16. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start De
sign/Check of Structure command to rerun the concrete frame design
with the new section properties. Review the results using the procedures
described in Item 7.
17. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Verify Analysis
vs Design Section command to verify that all of the final design sec
tions are the same as the last used analysis sections.
18. Use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design com
mand to print selected concrete frame design results, if desired.
It is important to note that design is an iterative process. The sections used in
the original analysis are not typically the same as those obtained at the end
of the design process. Always run the building analysis using the final frame
section sizes and then run a design check using the forces obtained from that
analysis. Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Verify
Analysis vs Design Section command to verify that the design sections are
the same as the analysis sections.
General Technical Note 3  1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN
Technical Note 3
Interactive Concrete Frame Design
This Technical Note describes interactive concrete frame design and review,
which is a powerful mode that allows the user to review the design results for
any concrete frame design and interactively revise the design assumptions
and immediately review the revised results.
General
Note that a design must have been run for the interactive design mode to be
available. To run a design, click the Design menu > Concrete Frame De
sign > Start Design/Check of Structure command.
Right click on a frame element while the design results are displayed on it to
enter the interactive design mode and interactively design the element in the
Concrete Design Information form. If design results are not currently dis
played (and a design has been run), click the Design menu > Concrete
Frame Design > Interactive Concrete Frame Design command and then
right click a frame element to enter the interactive design mode for that ele
ment.
Important note: A concrete frame element is designed as a beam or a col
umn, depending on how its frame section property was designated when it
was defined using the Define menu > Frame Sections command and the
Reinforcement button, which is only available if it is a concrete section.
Concrete Design Information Form
Table 1 describe the features that are included in the Concrete Design Infor
mation form.
Interactive Concrete Frame Design Concrete Frame Design
Technical Note 3  2 Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form
Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form
Item DESCRIPTION
Story This is the story level ID associated with the frame element.
Beam This is the label associated with a frame element that has been
assigned a concrete frame section property that is designated
as a beam. See the important note previously in this Technical
Note for more information.
Column This is the label associated with a frame element that has been
assigned a concrete frame section property that is designated
as a column. See the important note previously in this Techni
cal Note for more information.
Section Name This is the label associated with a frame element that has been
assigned a concrete frame section property.
Reinforcement Information
The reinforcement information table on the Concrete Design Information form shows the
output information obtained for each design load combination at each output station
along the frame element. For columns that are designed by this program, the item with
the largest required amount of longitudinal reinforcing is initially highlighted. For columns
that are checked by this program, the item with the largest capacity ratio is initially high
lighted. For beams, the item with the largest required amount of bottom steel is initially
highlighted. Following are the possible headings in the table:
Combo ID This is the name of the design load combination considered.
Station location This is the location of the station considered, measured from
the iend of the frame element.
Longitudinal
reinforcement
This item applies to columns only. It also only applies to col
umns for which the program designs the longitudinal reinforc
ing. It is the total required area of longitudinal reinforcing steel.
Capacity ratio This item applies to columns only. It also only applies to col
umns for which you have specified the location and size of re
inforcing bars and thus the program checks the design. This
item is the capacity ratio.
Concrete Frame Design Interactive Concrete Frame Design
Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form Technical Note 3  3
Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form
Item DESCRIPTION
The capacity ratio is determined by first extending a line from
the origin of the PMM interaction surface to the point repre
senting the P, M2 and M3 values for the designated load com
bination. Assume the length of this first line is designated L1.
Next, a second line is extended from the origin of the PMM in
teraction surface through the point representing the P, M2 and
M3 values for the designated load combination until it intersects
the interaction surface. Assume the length of this line from the
origin to the interaction surface is designated L2. The capacity
ratio is equal to L1/L2.
Major shear
reinforcement
This item applies to columns only. It is the total required area of
shear reinforcing per unit length for shear acting in the column
major direction.
Minor shear
reinforcement
This item applies to columns only. It is the total required area of
shear reinforcing per unit length for shear acting in the column
minor direction.
Top steel This item applies to beams only. It is the total required area of
longitudinal top steel at the specified station.
Bottom steel This item applies to beams only. It is the total required area of
longitudinal bottom steel at the specified station.
Shear steel This item applies to beams only. It is the total required area of
shear reinforcing per unit length at the specified station for
loads acting in the local 2axis direction of the beam.
Overwrites Button Click this button to access and make revisions to the concrete
frame overwrites and then immediately see the new design re
sults. If you modify some overwrites in this mode and you exit
both the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form and the Con
crete Design Information form by clicking their respective OK
buttons, the changes to the overwrites are saved permanently.
When you exit the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form by
clicking the OK button the changes are temporarily saved. If
you then exit the Concrete Design Information form by clicking
the Cancel button the changes you made to the concrete frame
overwrites are considered temporary only and are not perma
nently saved. Permanent saving of the overwrites does not ac
tually occur until you click the OK button in the Concrete Design
Information form as well as the Concrete Frame Design Over
writes form.
Interactive Concrete Frame Design Concrete Frame Design
Technical Note 3  4 Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form
Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form
Item DESCRIPTION
Details Button
Clicking this button displays design details for the frame ele
ment. Print this information by selecting Print from the File
menu that appears at the top of the window displaying the de
sign details.
Interaction Button Clicking this button displays the biaxial interaction curve for the
concrete section at the location in the element that is high
lighted in the table.
Overview Technical Note 4  1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN
Technical Note 4
Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model
This Technical Note describes the input and output data that can be plotted
directly on the model.
Overview
Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info
command to display onscreen output plotted directly on the program model.
If desired, the screen graphics can then be printed using the File menu >
Print Graphics command. The onscreen display data presents input and
output data.
Using the Print Design Tables Form
To print the concrete frame input summary directly to a printer, use the File
menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the
check box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the OK button to send the
print to your printer. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to
cancel the print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the
Setup>> button to change printers, if necessary.
To print the concrete frame input summary to a file, click the Print to File
check box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the Filename>> button to
change the path or filename. Use the appropriate file extension for the de
sired format (e.g., .txt, .xls, .doc). Click the OK buttons on the Open File for
Printing Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the re
quest.
Note:
The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying out
put that is printed to a text file.
The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and
filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print
Design Tables form. Data will be added to this file. Or use the Filename
Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model Concrete Frame Design
Technical Note 4  2 Design Input
button to locate another file, and when the Open File for Printing Tables cau
tion box appears, click Yes to replace the existing file.
If you select a specific concrete frame element(s) before using the File menu
> Print Tables > concrete Frame Design command, the Selection Only
check box will be checked. The print will be for the selected steel frame ele
ment(s) only.
Design Input
The following types of data can be displayed directly on the model by select
ing the data type (shown in bold type) from the dropdown list on the Display
Design Results form. Display this form by selecting he Design menu > Con
crete Frame Design > Display Design Info command.
Design Sections
Design Type
Live Load Red Factors
Unbraced L_Ratios
Eff Length KFactors
Cm Factors
DNS Factors
DS Factors
Each of these items is described in the codespecific Concrete Frame Design
UBC97 Technical Note 13 Input Data and Concrete Frame Design ACI 31899
Technical Note 23 Input Data.
Design Output
The following types of data can be displayed directly on the model by select
ing the data type (shown in bold type) from the dropdown list on the Display
Design Results form. Display this form by selecting he Design menu > Con
crete Frame Design > Display Design Info command.
Concrete Frame Design Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model
Design Output Technical Note 4  3
Longitudinal Reinforcing
Shear Reinforcing
Column Capacity Ratios
Joint Shear Capacity Ratios
Beam/Column Capacity Ratios
Each of these items is described in the codespecific Concrete Frame Design
ACI 31899 Technical Note 24 Output Details and Concrete Frame Design
UBC97 Technical Note 14 Output Details.
General and Notation Technical Note 5  1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97
Technical Note 5
General and Notation
Introduction to the UBC97 Series of Technical Notes
The Concrete Frame Design UBC97 series of Technical Notes describes in de
tail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by this
program when the user selects the UBC97 Design Code (ICBO 1997). The
various notations used in this series are listed herein.
The design is based on userspecified loading combinations. The program
provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements
for the design of most building type structures. See Concrete Frame Design
UBC97 Technical Note 8 Design Load Combinations for more information.
When using the UBC 97 option, a frame is assigned to one of the following
five Seismic Zones (UBC 2213, 2214):
Zone 0
Zone 1
Zone 2
Zone 3
Zone 4
By default the Seismic Zone is taken as Zone 4 in the program. However, the
Seismic Zone can be overwritten in the Preference form to change the de
fault. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 6 Preferences for
more information.
When using the UBC 97 option, the following Framing Systems are recognized
and designed according to the UBC design provisions (UBC 1627, 1921):
Ordinary MomentResisting Frame (OMF)
General and Notation Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Technical Note 5  2 General and Notation
Intermediate MomentResisting Frame (IMRF)
Special MomentResisting Frame (SMRF)
The Ordinary MomentResisting Frame (OMF) is appropriate in minimal seis
mic risk areas, especially in Seismic Zones 0 and 1. The Intermediate Mo
mentResisting Frame (IMRF) is appropriate in moderate seismic risk areas,
specially in Seismic Zone 2. The Special MomentResisting Frame (SMRF) is
appropriate in high seismic risk areas, specially in Seismic Zones 3 and 4. The
UBC seismic design provisions are considered in the program. The details of
the design criteria used for the different framing systems are described in
Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 9 Strength Reduction Factors,
Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 10 Column Design, Concrete
Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 11 Beam Design, and Concrete Frame
Design UBC97 Technical Note 12 Joint Design.
By default the frame type is taken in the program as OMRF in Seismic Zone 0
and 1, as IMRF in Seismic Zone 2, and as SMRF in Seismic Zone 3 and 4.
However, the frame type can be overwritten in the Overwrites form on a
memberbymember basis. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note
7 Overwrites for more information. If any member is assigned with a frame
type, the change of the Seismic Zone in the Preferences will not modify the
frame type of an individual member that has been assigned a frame type.
The program also provides input and output data summaries, which are de
scribed in Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 13 Input Data and
Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 14 Output Details.
English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is
based on InchPoundSecond units. For simplicity, all equations and descrip
tions presented in this Technical Note correspond to InchPoundSecond
units unless otherwise noted.
Notation
A
cv
Area of concrete used to determine shear stress, sqin
A
g
Gross area of concrete, sqin
A
s
Area of tension reinforcement, sqin
Concrete Frame Design UBC97 General and Notation
General and Notation Technical Note 5  3
'
s
A
Area of compression reinforcement, sqin
A
s(required)
Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sqin
A
st
Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement, sqin
A
v
Area of shear reinforcement, sqin
C
m
Coefficient, dependent upon column curvature, used to calculate
moment magnification factor
D' Diameter of hoop, in
E
c
Modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi
E
s
Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 29,000,000 psi
(UBC 1980.5.2)
I
g
Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis,
neglecting reinforcement, in
4
I
se
Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of mem
ber cross section, in
4
L Clear unsupported length, in
M
1
Smaller factored end moment in a column, lbin
M
2
Larger factored end moment in a column, lbin
M
c
Factored moment to be used in design, lbin
M
ns
Nonsway component of factored end moment, lbin
M
s
Sway component of factored end moment, lbin
M
u
Factored moment at section, lbin
M
ux
Factored moment at section about Xaxis, lbin
M
uy
Factored moment at section about Yaxis, lbin
P
b
Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions, lb
General and Notation Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Technical Note 5  4 General and Notation
P
c
Critical buckling strength of column, lb
P
max
Maximum axial load strength allowed, lb
P
0
Acial load capacity at zero eccentricity, lb
P
u
Factored axial load at section, lb
V
c
Shear resisted by concrete, lb
V
E
Shear force caused by earthquake loads, lb
V
D+L
Shear force from span loading, lb
V
u
Factored shear force at a section, lb
V
p
Shear force computed from probable moment capacity, lb
a Depth of compression block, in
a
b
Depth of compression block at balanced condition, in
b Width of member, in
b
f
Effective width of flange (TBeam section), in
b
w
Width of web (TBeam section), in
c Depth to neutral axis, in
c
b
Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, in
d Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, in
d' Concrete cover to center of reinforcing, in
d
s
Thickness of slab (TBeam section), in
'
c
f
Specified compressive strength of concrete, psi
f
y
Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, psi
f
y
≤ 80,000 psi (UBC 1909.4)
Concrete Frame Design UBC97 General and Notation
General and Notation Technical Note 5  5
f
ys
Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, psi
h Dimension of column, in
k Effective length factor
r Radius of gyration of column section, in
α Reinforcing steel overstrength factor
β
1
Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete
β
d
Absolute value of ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to
maximum factored axial total load
δ
s
Moment magnification factor for sway moments
δ
ns
Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments
ε
c
Strain in concrete
ε
s
Strain in reinforcing steel
ϕ Strength reduction factor
General Technical Note 6  1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97
Technical Note 6
Preferences
This Technical Note describes the items in the Preferences form.
General
The concrete frame design preferences in this program are basic assignments
that apply to all concrete frame elements. Use the Options menu > Prefer
ences > Concrete Frame Design command to access the Preferences form
where you can view and revise the concrete frame design preferences.
Default values are provided for all concrete frame design preference items.
Thus, it is not required that you specify or change any of the preferences. You
should, however, at least review the default values for the preference items
to make sure they are acceptable to you.
Using the Preferences Form
To view preferences, select the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete
Frame Design. The Preferences form will display. The preference options
are displayed in a twocolumn spreadsheet. The left column of the spread
sheet displays the preference item name. The right column of the spreadsheet
displays the preference item value.
To change a preference item, left click the desired preference item in either
the left or right column of the spreadsheet. This activates a dropdown box or
highlights the current preference value. If the dropdown box appears, select
a new value. If the cell is highlighted, type in the desired value. The prefer
ence value will update accordingly. You cannot overwrite values in the drop
down boxes.
When you have finished making changes to the concrete frame preferences,
click the OK button to close the form. You must click the OK button for the
changes to be accepted by the program. If you click the Cancel button to exit
Preferences Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Technical Note 6  2 Preferences
the form, any changes made to the preferences are ignored and the form is
closed.
Preferences
For purposes of explanation in this Technical Note, the preference items are
presented in Table 1. The column headings in the table are described as fol
lows:
Item: The name of the preference item as it appears in the cells at the
left side of the Preferences form.
Possible Values: The possible values that the associated preference item
can have.
Default Value: The builtin default value that the program assumes for
the associated preference item.
Description: A description of the associated preference item.
Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value Description
Design Code Any code in
the program
UBC97 Design code used for design of
concrete frame elements.
Phi Bending
Tension
>0 0.9 Unitless strength reduction factor per
UBC 1909.
Phi Compres
sion Tied
>0 0.7 Unitless strength reduction factor per
UBC 1909.
Phi Compres
sion Spiral
>0 0.75 Unitless strength reduction factor per
UBC 1909.
Phi Shear >0 0.85 Unitless strength reduction factor per
UBC 1909.
Number Inter
action Curves
≥4.0 24 Number of equally spaced interaction
curves used to create a full 360degree
interaction surface (this item should be
a multiple of four). We recommend that
you use 24 for this item.
Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Preferences
Preferences Technical Note 6  3
Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value Description
Number Inter
action Points
Any odd value
≥1.0
11 Number of points used for defining a
single curve in a concrete frame
interaction surface (this item should be
odd).
Time History
Design
Envelopes or
StepbyStep
Envelopes Toggle for design load combinations
that include a time history designed for
the envelope of the time history, or
designed stepbystep for the entire
time history. If a single design load
combination has more than one time
history case in it, that design load
combination is designed for the
envelopes of the time histories,
regardless of what is specified here.
Overwrites Technical Note 7  1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97
Technical Note 7
Overwrites
General
The concrete frame design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only
to those elements to which they are assigned. This Technical Note describes
concrete frame design overwrites for UBC97. To access the overwrites, select
an element and click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design >
View/Revise Overwrites command.
Default values are provided for all overwrite items. Thus, you do not need to
specify or change any of the overwrites. However, at least review the default
values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. When
changes are made to overwrite items, the program applies the changes only
to the elements to which they are specifically assigned; that is, to the ele
ments that are selected when the overwrites are changed.
Overwrites
For explanation purposes in this Technical Note, the overwrites are presented
in Table 1. The column headings in the table are described as follows.
Item: The name of the overwrite item as it appears in the program. To
save space in the formes, these names are generally short.
Possible Values: The possible values that the associated overwrite item
can have.
Default Value: The default value that the program assumes for the asso
ciated overwrite item.
Description: A description of the associated overwrite item.
An explanation of how to change an overwrite is provided at the end of this
Technical Note.
Overwrites Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Technical Note 7  2 Overwrites
Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value Description
Element
Section
Element
Type
Sway Special,
Sway Interme
diate,
Sway
Ordinary
NonSway
Sway Special Frame type; see UBC 1910.11 to
1910.13.
Live Load
Reduction
Factor
>0
≤1.0
1. Used to reduce the live load contribu
tion to the factored loading.
Horizontal
Earthquake
Factor
>0
≤1.0
1.
Unbraced
Length Ratio
(Major)
>0
≤1.0
1.0
Unbraced
Length Ratio
(Minor)
>0
≤1.0
1.0
Effective
Length Factor
(K Major)
>0
≤1.0
1 See UBC 1910.12.1.
Effective
Length Factor
(K Minor)
>0
≤1.0
1 See UBC 1910.12.1.
Moment
Coefficient
(Cm Major)
>0
≤1.0
1 See UBC 1910.12.3.1 relates actual
moment diagram to an equivalent uni
form moment diagram.
Moment
Coefficient
(Cm Minor)
>0
≤1.0
1 See UBC 1910.12.3.1 relates actual
moment diagram to an equivalent uni
form moment diagram.
NonSway
Moment Factor
(Dns Major)
>0
≤1.0
1 See UBC 1910.12.
Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Overwrites
Overwrites Technical Note 7  3
Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value Description
NonSway
Moment Factor
(Dns Minor)
1 See UBC 1910.12.
Sway Moment
Factor
(Ds Major)
1 See UBC 1910.12.
Sway Moment
Factor
(Ds Minor)
1 See UBC 1910.12.
Making Changes in the Overwrites Form
To access the concrete frame overwrites, select an element and click the De
sign menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites com
mand.
The overwrites are displayed in the form with a column of check boxes and a
twocolumn spreadsheet. The left column of the spreadsheet contains the
name of the overwrite item. The right column of the spreadsheet contains the
overwrites values.
Initially, the check boxes in the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form are
all unchecked and all of the cells in the spreadsheet have a gray background
to indicate that they are inactive and the items in the cells cannot be
changed. The names of the overwrite items are displayed in the first column
of the spreadsheet. The values of the overwrite items are visible in the second
column of the spreadsheet if only one element was selected before the over
writes form was accessed. If multiple elements were selected, no values show
for the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet.
After selecting one or multiple elements, check the box to the left of an over
write item to change it. Then left click in either column of the spreadsheet to
activate a dropdown box or highlight the contents in the cell in the right col
umn of the spreadsheet. If the dropdown box appears, select a value from
Overwrites Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Technical Note 7  4 Overwrites
the box. If the cell contents is highlighted, type in the desired value. The
overwrite will reflect the change. You cannot change the values of the drop
down boxes.
When changes to the overwrites have been completed, click the OK button to
close the form. The program then changes all of the overwrite items whose
associated check boxes are checked for the selected members. You must click
the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. If you click the
Cancel button to exit the form, any changes made to the overwrites are ig
nored and the form is closed.
Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default Values
Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Reset All Overwrites
command to reset all of the steel frame overwrites. All current design results
will be deleted when this command is executed.
Important note about resetting overwrites: The program defaults for the
overwrite items are built into the program. The concrete frame overwrite val
ues that were in a .edb file that you used to initialize your model may be dif
ferent from the builtin program default values. When you reset overwrites,
the program resets the overwrite values to its builtin values, not to the val
ues that were in the .edb file used to initialize the model.
Design Load Combinations Technical Note 8  1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97
Technical Note 8
Design Load Combinations
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed
load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. For the UBC 97 code,
if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only, the stress
check may need only one load combination, namely 1.4 DL + 1.7 LL (UBC
1909.2.1). However, in addition to the dead and live loads, if the structure is
subjected to wind (WL) and earthquake (EL) loads, and considering that wind
and earthquake forces are reversible, the following load combinations may
need to be considered (UBC 1909.2).
1.4 DL (UBC 1909.2.1)
1.4 DL + 1.7 LL (UBC 1909.2.1)
0.9 DL ± 1.3 WL (UBC 1909.2.2)
0.75 (1.4 DL + 1.7 LL ± 1.7 WL) (UBC 1909.2.2)
0.9 DL ± 1.0 EL (UBC 1909.2.3, 1612.2.1)
1.2 DL + 0.5 LL ± 1.0 EL) (UBC 1909.2.3, 1612.2.1)
These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever
the UBC97 code is used.
Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live
load condition on an elementbyelement basis to reduce the contribution of
the live load to the factored loading. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Technical Note 7 Overwrites for more information.
Strength Reduction Factors Technical Note 9  1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97
Technical Note 9
Strength Reduction Factors
The strength reduction factors, ϕ, are applied on the nominal strength to ob
tain the design strength provided by a member. The ϕ factors for flexure, ax
ial force, shear, and torsion are as follows:
ϕ = 0.90 for flexure (UBC 1909.3.2.1)
ϕ = 0.90 for axial tension (UBC 1909.3.2.2)
ϕ = 0.90 for axial tension and flexure (UBC 1909.3.2.2)
ϕ = 0.75 for axial compression, and axial compression
and flexure (spirally reinforced column) (UBC 1909.3.2.2)
ϕ = 0.70 for axial compression, and axial compression
and flexure (tied column) (UBC 1909.3.2.2)
ϕ = 0.85 for shear and torsion (nonseismic design) (UBC 1909.3.2.3)
ϕ = 0.60 for shear and torsion (UBC 1909.3.2.3)
Overview Technical Note 10  1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97
Technical Note 10
Column Design
This Technical Note describes how the program checks column capacity or de
signs reinforced concrete columns when the UBC97 code is selected.
Overview
The program can be used to check column capacity or to design columns. If
you define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete
column section, the program will check the column capacity. Alternatively, the
program can calculate the amount of reinforcing required to design the col
umn. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the struc
ture involves the following steps:
Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the dif
ferent concrete section types of the model. A typical biaxial interaction
surface is shown in Figure 1. When the steel is undefined, the program
generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforce
ment1 to 8 percent for Ordinary and Intermediate moment resisting
frames (UBC 1910.9.1) and 1 to 6 percent for Special moment resisting
frames (UBC 1921.4.3.1).
Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the fac
tored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from
each loading combination at each station of the column. The target capac
ity ratio is taken as 1 when calculating the required reinforcing area.
Design the column shear reinforcement.
The following four subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated
with this process.
Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Technical Note 10  2 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces
Figure 1 A Typical Column Interaction Surface
Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces
The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series
of discrete points that are generated on the threedimensional interaction
failure surface. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending, the for
mulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations. A typical
interaction diagram is shown in Figure 1.
Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design
Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces Technical Note 10  3
The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear
strain in three dimensions on the section of the column. See Figure 2. The
linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain, ε
c
, at the extremity
of the section, to 0.003 (UBC 1910.2.3).
The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate
strength design (UBC 1910.3), and allows for any doubly symmetric rectan
gular, square, or circular column section.
The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel
modulus of elasticity, ε
s
E
s
, and is limited to the yield stress of the steel, f
y
(UBC 1910.2.4). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to
be placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm
does not assume any further simplifications with respect to distributing the
area of steel over the cross section of the column, such as an equivalent steel
tube or cylinder. See Figure 3.
The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a
stress value of 0.85
'
c
f (UBC 1910.2.7.1). See Figure 3. The interaction algo
rithm provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by
the reinforcement in the compression zone.
The effects of the strength reduction factor, ϕ, are included in the generation
of the interaction surfaces. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to
ϕP
n(max)
, where
ϕP
n(max)
= 0.85ϕ[0.85
'
c
f (A
g
A
st
)+f
y
A
st
] (spiral) (UBC 1910.3.5.1)
ϕP
n(max)
= 0.85ϕ[0.85
'
c
f (A
g
A
st
)+f
y
A
st
] (tied) (UBC 1910.3.5.2)
ϕ = 0.70 for tied columns (UBC 1909.3.2.2)
ϕ = 0.75 for spirally reinforced columns (UBC 1909.3.2.2)
The value of ϕ used in the interaction diagram varies from ϕ
min
to 0.9 based
on the axial load. For low values of axial load, ϕ is increased linearly from ϕ
min
to 0.9 as the nominal capacity ϕP
n
decreases from the smaller of ϕP
b
or
0.1
'
c
f A
g
to zero, where P
b
is the axial force at the balanced condition. In
cases involving axial tension, ϕ is always 0.9 (UBC 1909.3.2.2).
Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Technical Note 10  4 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces
Figure 2 Idealized Strain Distribution for Generation of Interaction Surfaces
Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design
Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 10  5
Figure 3 Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section
Calculate Column Capacity Ratio
The column capacity ratio is calculated for each loading combination at each
output station of each column. The following steps are involved in calculating
the capacity ratio of a particular column for a particular loading combination
at a particular location:
Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases
and the specified load combination factors to give P
u
, M
ux
, and M
uy
.
Determine the moment magnification factors for the column moments.
Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored moments. Deter
mine whether the point, defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial
moment set, lies within the interaction volume.
The factored moments and corresponding magnification factors depend on the
identification of the individual column as either “sway” or “nonsway.”
Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Technical Note 10  6 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio
The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with
this process.
Determine Factored Moments and Forces
The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying
the corresponding load factors to all the load cases, giving P
u
, M
ux
, and M
uy
.
The factored moments are further increased for nonsway columns, if re
quired, to obtain minimum eccentricities of (0.6 + 0.03h) inches, where h is
the dimension of the column in the corresponding direction (UBC
1910.12.3.2).
Determine Moment Magnification Factors
The moment magnification factors are calculated separately for sway (overall
stability effect), δ
s
, and for nonsway (individual column stability effect), δ
ns
.
Also the moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions are
in general different.
The program assumes that it performs a Pdelta analysis and, therefore, mo
ment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken as unity
(UBC 1910.10.2). For the Pdelta analysis, the load should correspond to a
load combination of 0.75 (1.4 dead load + 1.7 live load)/ϕ if wind load gov
erns, or (1.2 dead load + 0.50 live load)/ϕ if seismic load governs, where ϕ is
the understrength factor for stability, which is taken as 0.75 (UBC
1910.12.3). See also White and Hajjar (1991).
The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the
sway (M
s
) and the nonsway (M
s
) components. The nonsway components
which are identified by “ns” subscripts are predominantly caused by gravity
load. The sway components are identified by the “s” subscripts. The sway
moments are predominantly caused by lateral loads, and are related to the
cause of sidesway.
For individual columns or columnmembers in a floor, the magnified moments
about two axes at any station of a column can be obtained as
M = M
ns
+ δ
s
M
s
. (UBC 1910.13.3)
The factor δ
s
is the moment magnification factor for moments causing side
sway. The moment magnification factors for sway moments, δ
s
, is taken as 1
because the component moments M
s
and M
ns
are obtained from a “second or
der elastic (Pdelta) analysis.”
Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design
Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 10  7
The computed moments are further amplified for individual column stability
effect (UBC 1910.12.3, 1910.13.5) by the nonsway moment magnification
factor, δ
ns
, as follows:
M
c
= δ
ns
M
2
, where (UBC 1910.12.3)
M
c
is the factored moment to be used in design, and
M
2
is the larger factored and amplified end moment.
The nonsway moment magnification factor, δ
ns
, associated with the major or
minor direction of the column is given by (UBC 1910.12.3)
δ
ns
=
c
u
m
P
P
C
75 . 0
1 −
≥ 1.0, where (UBC 1910.12.3)
P
c
=
2
2
) (
u
kl
EI π
, (UBC 1910.12.3)
k is conservatively taken as 1; however, the program allows the user to
override this value.
EI is associated with a particular column direction given by:
EI =
d
g c
I E
β + 1
4 . 0
, (UBC 1910.12.3)
maximum factored axial dead load
β
d
= maximum factored axial total load and (UBC 1910.12.3)
C
m
= 0.6 + 0.4
b
a
M
M
≥ 0.4. (UBC 1910.12.3.1)
M
a
and M
b
are the moments at the ends of the column, and M
b
is numerically
larger than M
a
. M
a
/ M
b
is positive for single curvature bending and negative
for double curvature bending. The above expression of C
m
is valid if there is
no transverse load applied between the supports. If transverse load is present
on the span, or the length is overwritten, C
m
= 1. C
m
can be overwritten by
the user on an elementbyelement basis.
Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Technical Note 10  8 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio
The magnification factor, δ
ns
, must be a positive number and greater than 1.
Therefore, P
u
must be less than 0.75P
c
. If P
u
is found to be greater than or
equal to 0.75P
c
, a failure condition is declared.
The above calculations use the unsupported length of the column. The two
unsupported lengths are l
22
and l
33
, corresponding to instability in the minor
and major directions of the element, respectively. See Figure 4. These are the
lengths between the support points of the element in the corresponding di
rections.
Figure 4 Axes of Bending and Unsupported Length
If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member, the
user can explicitly specify values of δ
s
and δ
ns
.
Determine Capacity Ratio
The program calculates a capacity ratio as a measure of the stress condition
of the column. The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication
Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design
Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 10  9
of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the col
umn.
Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity, the
moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain P
u
,
M
ux
, and M
uy
. The point (P
u
, M
ux
, M
uy
.) is then placed in the interaction space
shown as point L in Figure 5. If the point lies within the interaction volume,
the column capacity is adequate; however, if the point lies outside the inter
action volume, the column is overstressed.
Figure 5 Geometric Representation of Column Capacity Ratios
This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the lo
cation of point C. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if
extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. This point is determined
by threedimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the
Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Technical Note 10  10 Required Reinforcing Area
failure surface. See Figure 5. The capacity ratio, CR, is given by the ratio
OC
OL
.
If OL = OC (or CR=1), the point lies on the interaction surface and the
column is stressed to capacity.
If OL < OC (or CR<1), the point lies within the interaction volume and the
column capacity is adequate.
If OL > OC (or CR>1), the point lies outside the interaction volume and the
column is overstressed.
The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is
reported for each check station of the column, along with the controlling P
u
,
M
ux
, and M
uy
set and associated load combination number.
Required Reinforcing Area
If the reinforcing area is not defined, the program computes the reinforce
ment that will give a column capacity ratio of one, calculated as described in
the previous section entitled "Calculate Column Capacity Ratio."
Design Column Shear Reinforcement
The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the ma
jor and minor directions of the column. The following steps are involved in
designing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular load
combination caused by shear forces in a particular direction:
Determine the factored forces acting on the section, P
u
and V
u
. Note that
P
u
is needed for the calculation of V
c
.
Determine the shear force, V
c
, that can be resisted by concrete alone.
Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.
For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (Ductile frames), the
shear design of the columns is also based on the probable and nominal mo
ment capacities of the members, respectively, in addition to the factored
Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design
Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 10  11
moments. Effects of the axial forces on the column moment capacities are
included in the formulation.
The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with
this process.
Determine Section Forces
In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment
resisting concrete frame, the forces for a particular load combination,
namely, the column axial force, P
u
, and the column shear force, V
u
, in a
particular direction are obtained by factoring the program analysis load
cases with the corresponding load combination factors.
In the shear design of Special moment resisting frames (i.e., seismic
design) the column is checked for capacityshear in addition to the re
quirement for the Ordinary moment resisting frames. The capacityshear
force in a column, V
p
, in a particular direction is calculated from the prob
able moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial
force acting on the column.
For each load combination, the factored axial load, P
u
, is calculated. Then,
the positive and negative moment capacities,
+
u
M and
−
u
M , of the column
in a particular direction under the influence of the axial force P
u
is calcu
lated using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction.
The design shear force, V
u
, is then given by (UBC 1921.4.5.1)
V
u
= V
p
+ V
D+L
(UBC 1921.4.5.1)
where, V
p
is the capacityshear force obtained by applying the calculated
probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting
in two opposite directions. Therefore, V
p
is the maximum of
1
P
V and
2
P
V ,
where
1
P
V =
L
M M
J I
+ −
+
, and
2
P
V =
L
M M
J I
− +
+
, where
Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Technical Note 10  12 Design Column Shear Reinforcement
− +
I I
M M , , = Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the
column using a steel yield stress value of αf
y
and no ϕ
factors (ϕ = 1.0),
− +
J J
M M , , = Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the
column using a steel yield stress value of αf
y
and no ϕ
factors (ϕ = 1.0), and
L = Clear span of column.
For Special moment resisting frames, α is taken as 1.25 (UBC 1921.0).
V
D+L
is the contribution of shear force from the inspan distribution of
gravity loads. For most of the columns, it is zero.
For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the shear capacity of the
column is also checked for the capacityshear based on the nominal mo
ment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads, in addition to
the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design
shear force is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal (ϕ =
1.0) moment capacity and factored shear force. The procedure for calcu
lating nominal moment capacity is the same as that for computing the
probable moment capacity for special moment resisting frames, except
that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25 (UBC 1921.0, 1921.8.3). The
factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors, except the
earthquake load factors are doubled (UBC 1921.8.3).
Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
Given the design force set P
u
and V
u
, the shear force carried by the concrete,
V
c
, is calculated as follows:
If the column is subjected to axial compression, i.e., P
u
is positive,
V
c
= 2
cv
g
u
c
A
A
P
f
+
000 , 2
1
'
, (UBC 1911.3.1.2)
where,
'
c
f ≤ 100 psi, and (UBC 1911.1.2)
Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design
Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 10  13
V
c
≤ 3.5
'
c
f
cv
g
u
A
A
P
+
500
1 . (UBC 1911.3.2.2)
The term
g
u
A
P
must have psi units. A
cv
is the effective shear area which is
shown shaded in Figure 6. For circular columns, A
cv
is not taken to be
greater than 0.8 times the gross area (UBC 1911.5.6.2).
Figure 6 Shear Stress Area, A
cv
Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Technical Note 10  14 Design Column Shear Reinforcement
If the column is subjected to axial tension, P
u
is negative, (UBC
1911.3.2.3)
V
c
= 2
'
c
f
+
g
u
A
P
500
1 A
cv
≥ 0 (UBC 1911.3.2.3)
For Special moment resisting concrete frame design, V
c
is set to zero
if the factored axial compressive force, P
u
, including the earthquake effect
is small (Pu <
'
c
f A
g
/ 20) and if the shear force contribution from earth
quake, V
E
, is more than half of the total factored maximum shear force
over the length of the member V
u
(V
E
≥ 0.5V
u
) (UBC 1921.4.5.2).
Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
Given V
u
and V
c
, the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or
ties within a spacing, s, is given for rectangular and circular columns by the
following:
A
v
=
d f
s V V
ys
c u
) / ( − ϕ
, for rectangular columns (UBC 1911.5.6.1, 1911.5.6.2)
A
v
=
'
) / ( 2
D f
s V V
ys
c u
− ϕ
π
, for circular columns (UBC 1911.5.6.1, 1911.5.6.2)
V
u
is limited by the following relationship.
(V
u
/ ϕV
c
) ≤ 8
'
c
f A
cv
(UBC 1911.5.6.8)
Otherwise redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here ϕ, the
strength reduction factor, is 0.85 for nonseismic design or for seismic design
in Seismic Zones 0, 1, and 2 (UBC 1909.3.2.3) and is 0.60 for seismic design
in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC 1909.3.4.1). The maximum of all the calcu
lated values obtained from each load combination are reported for the major
and minor directions of the column, along with the controlling shear force and
associated load combination label.
The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are
based purely on shear strength consideration. Any minimum stirrup require
ments to satisfy spacing considerations or transverse reinforcement volumet
Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design
Reference Technical Note 10  15
ric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the
user.
Reference
White. D. W., and J.F., Hajjar. 1991. Application of SecondOrder Elastic
Analysis in LRFD: Research in Practice. Engineering Journal. American
Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. Vol. 28, No. 4.
Overview Technical Note 11  1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97
Technical Note 11
Beam Design
This Technical Note describes how this program completes beam design when
the UBC97 code is selected. The program calculates and reports the required
areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments, shears, load
combination factors and other criteria described herein.
Overview
In the design of concrete beams, the program calculates and reports the re
quired areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments,
shears, load combination factors, and other criteria described below. The re
inforcement requirements are calculated at a userdefined number of
check/design stations along the beam span.
All beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only.
Effects caused by axial forces, minor direction bending, and torsion
that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by
the user.
The beam design procedure involves the following steps:
Design beam flexural reinforcement
Design beam shear reinforcement
Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement
The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at check/design stations
along the beam span. The following steps are involved in designing the flex
ural reinforcement for the major moment for a particular beam for a particu
lar section:
Determine the maximum factored moments
Determine the reinforcing steel
Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Technical Note 11  2 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement
Determine Factored Moments
In the design of flexural reinforcement of Special, Intermediate, or Ordinary
moment resisting concrete frame beams, the factored moments for each load
combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corre
sponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load fac
tors.
The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive
+
u
M and maxi
mum negative
−
u
M factored moments obtained from all of the load combina
tions
.
Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases, the beam is al
ways designed as a rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce
bottom steel. In such cases, the beam may be designed as a Rectangular or
a Tbeam.
Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement
In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the
tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added
when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of
a singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding the compres
sion reinforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the grade
of concrete.
The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as
shown in Figure 1 (UBC 1910.2). It is assumed that the compression carried
by concrete is less than 0.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced
condition (UBC 1910.3.3). When the applied moment exceeds the moment
capacity at this designed balanced condition, the area of compression rein
forcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried
by compression and additional tension reinforcement.
The design procedure used by the program for both rectangular and flanged
sections (L and Tbeams) is summarized below. It is assumed that the de
sign ultimate axial force does not exceed 0.1
'
c
f A
g
(UBC 1910.3.3); hence, all
the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only.
Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design
Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11  3
Figure 1 Design of a Rectangular Beam Section
Design for Rectangular Beam
In designing for a factored negative or positive moment, M
u
(i.e., designing
top or bottom steel), the depth of the compression block is given by a (see
Figure 1), where,
a = d 
b f
M
d
c
u
ϕ
−
'
2
85 . 0
2
,
where the value of ϕ is 0.90 (UBC 1909.3.2.1) in the above and the following
equations. Also β
1
and c
b
are calculated as follows:
β
1
= 0.85  0.05
J
J
J
`
'
'
(

−
000 , 1
000 , 4
'
c
f
, 0.65 ≤ β
1
≤ 0.85, (UBC 1910.2.7.3)
c
b
= d
f E
E
y s c
s c
+ ε
ε
=
y
f + 000 , 87
000 , 87
d. (UBC 1910.2.3, 1910.2.4)
Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Technical Note 11  4 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement
The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by
a
max
= 0.75β
1
c
b
. (UBC 1910.2.7.1, 1910.3.3)
If a ≤ a
max
, the area of tensile steel reinforcement is given by
A
s
=
J
J
`
'
(

− ϕ
2
a
d f
M
y
u
.
This steel is to be placed at the bottom if M
u
is positive, or at the top if M
u
is negative.
If a > a
max
, compression reinforcement is required (UBC 1910.3.3) and is
calculated as follows:
− The compressive force developed in concrete alone is given by
C = 0.85
'
c
f ba
max
, and (UBC 1910.2.7.1)
the moment resisted by concrete compression and tensile steel is
M
uc
= C
J
J
J
`
'
'
(

−
2
max
a
d ϕ.
− Therefore the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is
M
us
= M
u
 M
uc
.
− So the required compression steel is given by
'
s
A =
ϕ − ) ' (
'
d d f
M
s
us
, where
'
s
f = 0.003E
s
]
]
]
−
c
d c '
. (UBC 1910.2.4)
− The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is
Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design
Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11  5
A
s1
=
ϕ
]
]
]
−
2
max
a
d f
M
y
uc
, and
the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is given by
A
s2
=
ϕ − ) ' ( d d f
M
y
us
.
− Therefore, the total tensile reinforcement, A
s
= A
s1
+ A
s2
, and total com
pression reinforcement is
'
s
A . A
s
is to be placed at bottom and
'
s
A is to
be placed at top if M
u
is positive, and vice versa if M
u
is negative.
Design for TBeam
In designing for a factored negative moment, M
u
(i.e., designing top steel),
the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above, i.e., no TBeam
data is to be used. See Figure 2. If M
u
> 0, the depth of the compression
block is given by
a = d 
f c
u
b f
M
d
ϕ
−
'
2
85 . 0
2
.
The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by
a
max
= 0.75β
1
c
b
. (UBC 1910.2.7.1)
If a ≤ d
s
, the subsequent calculations for A
s
are exactly the same as previously
defined for the rectangular section design. However, in this case, the width of
the compression flange is taken as the width of the beam for analysis. Com
pression reinforcement is required if a > a
max
.
If a > d
s
, calculation for A
s
is performed in two parts. The first part is for bal
ancing the compressive force from the flange, C
f
, and the second part is for
balancing the compressive force from the web, C
w
, as shown in Figure 2. C
f
is
given by
C
f
= 0.85
'
c
f (bf  b
w
) d
s
.
Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Technical Note 11  6 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement
Figure 2 Design of a TBeam Section
Therefore, A
s1
=
y
f
f
C
and the portion of M
u
that is resisted by the flange is
given by
M
uf
= C
f
J
J
J
`
'
'
(

−
2
s
d
d ϕ .
Again, the value for ϕ is 0.90. Therefore, the balance of the moment, M
u
to be
carried by the web is given by
M
uw
= M
u
 M
uf
.
The web is a rectangular section of dimensions b
w
and d, for which the design
depth of the compression block is recalculated as
a
1
= d 
w c
uw
b f
M
d
ϕ
−
'
2
85 . 0
2
.
If a
1
≤ a
max
, the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by
Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design
Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11  7
A
s2
=
J
J
J
`
'
'
(

− ϕ
2
1
a
d f
M
y
uw
, and
A
s
= A
s1
+ A
s2
.
This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the Tbeam.
If a
1
> a
max
, compression reinforcement is required (UBC 1910.3.3) and is
calculated as follows:
− The compressive force in web concrete alone is given by
C = 0.85
'
c
f ba
max
. (UBC 1910.2.7.1)
− Therefore the moment resisted by concrete web and tensile steel is
M
uc
= C
J
J
J
`
'
'
(

−
2
max
a
d ϕ, and
the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is
M
us
= M
uw
 M
uc
.
− Therefore, the compression steel is computed as
'
s
A =
ϕ − ) ' (
'
d d f
M
s
us
, where
'
s
f = 0.003E
s
]
]
]
−
c
d c '
. (UBC 1910.2.4)
− The tensile steel for balancing compression in web concrete is
A
s2
=
ϕ
J
J
J
`
'
'
(

−
2
max
a
d f
M
y
uc
, and
the tensile steel for balancing compression in steel is
Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Technical Note 11  8 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement
A
s3
=
( )ϕ − ' d d f
M
y
us
.
− The total tensile reinforcement, A
s
= A
s1
+ A
s2
+ A
s3
, and total compres
sion reinforcement is
'
s
A . A
s
is to be placed at bottom and
'
s
A is to be
placed at top.
Minimum Tensile Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section in an Or
dinary moment resisting frame is given by the minimum of the two following
limits:
A
s
≥ max








¦

d b
f
d b
f
f
w
y
w
y
c
200
and
3
'
or (UBC 1910.5.1)
A
s
≥
3
4
A
s(required)
(UBC 1910.5.3)
Special Consideration for Seismic Design
For Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design), the beam de
sign satisfies the following additional conditions (see also Table 1 for compre
hensive listing):
The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both the top
and bottom. Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less
than A
s(min)
(UBC 1921.3.2.1).
A
s(min)
≥ max








¦

d b
f
d b
f
f
w
y
w
y
c
200
and
3
'
or (UBC 1910.5.1, 1921.3.2.1)
A
s(min)
≥
3
4
A
s(required)
. (UBC 1910.5.3, 1921.3.2.1)
The beam flexural steel is limited to a maximum given by
A
s
≤ 0.25 b
w
d. (UBC 1921.3.2.1)
Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design
Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11  9
Table 1 Design Criteria Table
Type of
Check/
Design
Ordinary Moment
Resisting Frames
(Seismic Zones 0&1)
Intermediate Moment
Resisting Frames
(Seismic Zone 2)
Special Moment
Resisting Frames
(Seismic Zones 3 & 4)
Column
Check
(interaction)
NLD
a
Combinations NLD
a
Combinations NLD
a
Combinations
Column
Design
(interaction)
NLD
a
Combinations
1% < ρ < 8%
NLD
a
Combinations
1% < ρ < 8%
NLD
a
Combinations
α = 1.0
1% < ρ < 6%
Column
Shears
NLD
a
Combinations
Modified NLD
a
Combinations
(earthquake loads doubled)
Column Capacity
ϕ = 1.0 and α = 1.0
NLD
a
Combinations and
Column shear capacity
ϕ = 1.0 and α = 1.25
Beam
Design
Flexure
NLD
a
Combinations NLD
a
Combinations
NLD
a
Combinations
ρ ≤ 0.025
ρ ≥
y y
c
f f
f
200
,
3
'
≥ ρ
Beam Min.
Moment
Override
Check
No Requirement
− +
≥
uEND uEND
M M
3
1
{ ¦
END u u uSPAN
M M M
− + +
≥ , max
5
1
{ ¦
END u u uSPAN
M M M
− + −
≥ , max
5
1
− +
≥
uEND uEND
M M
2
1
{ ¦
END u u uSPAN
M M M
− + +
≥ , max
4
1
{ ¦
END u u uSPAN
M M M
− − −
≥ , max
4
1
Beam
Design
Shear
NLD
a
Combinations
Modified NLD
a
Combinations
(earthquake loads doubled)
Beam Capacity Shear (Vp)
with α = 1.0 and ϕ = 1.0
plus VD+L
NLD
a
Combinations
Beam Capacity Shear (Vp)
with α = 1.25 and ϕ = 1.0
plus VD+L
Vc = 0
Joint
Design
No Requirement No Requirement Checked for shear
Beam/
Column
Capacity
Ratio
No Requirement No Requirement Reported in output file
NLD
a
= Number of specified loading
Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Technical Note 11  10 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
At any end (support) of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity
(i.e., associated with the bottom steel) would not be less than 1/2 of the
beam negative moment capacity (i.e., associated with the top steel) at
that end (UBC 1921.3.2.2).
Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity
at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the
maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam
end (support) stations (UBC 1921.3.2.2).
For Intermediate moment resisting concrete frames (i.e., seismic design), the
beam design would satisfy the following conditions:
At any support of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity would
not be less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end
(UBC 1921.8.4.1).
Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity
at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the
maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam
end (support) stations (UBC 1921.8.4.1).
Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at a user
defined number of stations along the beam span. The following steps are in
volved in designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a par
ticular load combination at a particular station resulting from the beam major
shear:
Determine the factored shear force, V
u
.
Determine the shear force, V
c
, that can be resisted by the concrete.
Determine the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.
For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (Ductile frames), the
shear design of the beams is also based on the probable and nominal moment
capacities of the members, respectively, in addition to the factored load de
sign.
Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design
Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 11  11
The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with
this process.
Determine Shear Force and Moment
In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment
resisting concrete frame, the shear forces and moments for a particular
load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring
the associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding load
combination factors.
In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames (i.e.,
seismic design), the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the
capacityshear associated with the probable moment capacities at the
ends and the factored gravity load. This check is performed in addition to
the design check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The ca
pacityshear force, V
p
, is calculated from the probable moment capacities
of each end of the beam and the gravity shear forces. The procedure for
calculating the design shear force in a beam from probable moment ca
pacity is the same as that described for a column in section “Design Col
umn Shear Reinforcement” in Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical
Note 10 Column Design. See also Table 1 for details.
The design shear force V
u
is then given by (UBC 1921.3.4.1)
V
u
= V
p
+ V
D+L
(UBC 1921.3.4.1)
where V
p
is the capacity shear force obtained by applying the calculated
probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting
in opposite directions. Therefore, V
p
is the maximum of
1
P
V and
2
P
V ,
where
1
P
V =
L
M M
J I
+ −
+
, and
2
P
V =
L
M M
J I
− +
+
, where
−
I
M = Moment capacity at end I, with top steel in tension, using a
steel yield stress value of αf
y
and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0),
Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Technical Note 11  12 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
+
J
M = Moment capacity at end J, with bottom steel in tension, using a
steel yield stress value of αf
y
and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0),
+
I
M = Moment capacity at end I, with bottom steel in tension, using a
steel yield stress value of αf
y
and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0),
−
J
M = Moment capacity at end J, with top steel in tension, using a
steel yield stress value of αf
y
and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0), and
L = Clear span of beam.
For Special moment resisting frames, α is taken as 1.25 (UBC 1921.0).
V
D+L
is the contribution of shear force from the inspan distribution of
gravity loads.
For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the shear capacity of the
beam is also checked for the capacity shear based on the nominal moment
capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads, in addition to the
check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design shear
force in beams is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal
moment capacity and factored shear force. The procedure for calculating
nominal (ϕ = 1.0) moment capacity is the same as that for computing the
probable moment capacity for Special moment resisting frames, except
that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25 (UBC 1921.0, 1921.8.3). The
factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors, except the
earthquake load factors are doubled (UBC 1921.8.3). The computation of
the design shear force in a beam of an Intermediate moment resisting
frame is also the same as that for columns, which is described in Con
crete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 10 Column Design. Also see
Table 1 for details.
Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
The allowable concrete shear capacity is given by
V
c
= 2
'
c
f b
w
d. (UBC 1911.3.1.1)
For Special moment resisting frame concrete design, V
c
is set to zero if both
the factored axial compressive force, including the earthquake effect P
u
, is
less than
'
c
f A
g
/20 and the shear force contribution from earthquake V
E
is
Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design
Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 11  13
more than half of the total maximum shear force over the length of the mem
ber V
u
(i.e., V
E
≥ 0.5V
u
) (UBC 1921.3.4.2).
Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
Given V
u
and V
c
, the required shear reinforcement in area/unit length is cal
culated as
A
v
=
d f
s V V
ys
c u
) / ( − ϕ
. (UBC 1911.5.6.1, 1911.5.6.2)
The shear force resisted by steel is limited by
(V
u
/ϕ  V
c
) ≤ 8
'
c
f bd. (UBC 1911.5.6.8)
Otherwise, redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here ϕ, the
strength reduction factor, is 0.85 for nonseismic design or for seismic design
in Seismic Zones 0, 1, and 2 (UBC 1909.3.2.3) and is 0.60 for seismic design
in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC 1909.3.4.1). The maximum of all the calcu
lated A
v
values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with
the controlling shear force and associated load combination number.
The beam shear reinforcement requirements displayed by the program are
based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup require
ments to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated
independently of the program by the user.
Overview Technical Note 12  1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97
Technical Note 12
Joint Design
This Technical Note explains how the program performs a rational analysis of
the beamcolumn panel zone to determine the shear forces that are gener
ated in a joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength.
Overview
To ensure that the beamcolumn joint of special moment resisting frames
possesses adequate shear strength, the program performs a rational analysis
of the beamcolumn panel zone to determine the shear forces that are gener
ated in the joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength.
Only joints having a column below the joint are designed. The mate
rial properties of the joint are assumed to be the same as those of the
column below the joint.
The joint analysis is completed in the major and the minor directions of the
column. The joint design procedure involves the following steps:
• Determine the panel zone design shear force,V
u
h
• Determine the effective area of the joint
• Check panel zone shear stress
The algorithms associated with these three steps are described in detail in the
following three sections.
Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force
Figure 1 illustrates the free body stress condition of a typical beamcolumn
intersection for a column direction, major or minor.
Joint Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Technical Note 12  2 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force
Figure1 BeamColumn Joint Analysis
Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Joint Design
Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Technical Note 12  3
The force V
u
h
is the horizontal panel zone shear force that is to be calculated.
The forces that act on the joint are P
u
, V
u
, M
u
L
and M
u
R
. The forces P
u
and V
u
are axial force and shear force, respectively, from the column framing into the
top of the joint. The moments M
u
L
and M
u
R
are obtained from the beams
framing into the joint. The program calculates the joint shear force V
u
h
by re
solving the moments into C and T forces. Noting that T
L
= C
L
and T
R
= C
R
,
V
u
h
= T
L
+ T
R
 V
u
The location of C or T forces is determined by the direction of the moment.
The magnitude of C or T forces is conservatively determined using basic prin
ciples of ultimate strength theory, ignoring compression reinforcement as fol
lows. The program first calculates the maximum compression, C
max
, and the
maximum moment, M
max
, that can be carried by the beam.
bd f C
c
'
max
85 . 0
2
max max
d
C M
Then the program conservatively determines C and T forces as follows:
J
J
J
`
'
'
(

− −
max
max
) (
1 1
M
M abs
C T C
The program resolves the moments and the C and T forces from beams that
frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor
directions of the column along the direction that is being investigated, thereby
contributing force components to the analysis. Also, the program calculates
the C and T for the positive and negative moments, considering the fact that
the concrete cover may be different for the direction of moment.
In the design of special moment resisting concrete frames, the evaluation of
the design shear force is based on the moment capacities (with reinforcing
steel overstrength factor, α, and no ϕ factors) of the beams framing into the
joint (UBC 1921.5.1.1). The C and T forces are based on these moment ca
pacities. The program calculates the column shear force V
u
from the beam
moment capacities, as follows:
Joint Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Technical Note 12  4 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force
H
M M
V
R
u
L
u
u
+
See Figure 2. It should be noted that the points of inflection shown on Figure
2 are taken as midway between actual lateral support points for the columns.
If there is no column at the top of the joint, the shear force from the top of
the column is taken as zero.
Figure 2 Column Shear Force V
u
Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Joint Design
Determine the Effective Area of Joint Technical Note 12  5
The effects of load reversals, as illustrated in Case 1 and Case 2 of Figure 1,
are investigated and the design is based on the maximum of the joint shears
obtained from the two cases.
Determine the Effective Area of Joint
The joint area that resists the shear forces is assumed always to be rectan
gular in plan view. The dimensions of the rectangle correspond to the major
and minor dimensions of the column below the joint, except if the beam
framing into the joint is very narrow. The effective width of the joint area to
be used in the calculation is limited to the width of the beam plus the depth of
the column. The area of the joint is assumed not to exceed the area of the
column below. The joint area for joint shear along the major and minor direc
tions is calculated separately (ACI R21.5.3).
It should be noted that if the beam frames into the joint eccentrically, the
above assumptions may be unconservative and the user should investigate
the acceptability of the particular joint.
Check Panel Zone Shear Stress
The panel zone shear stress is evaluated by dividing the shear force V
u
h
by
the effective area of the joint and comparing it with the following design shear
strengths (UBC 1921.5.3):
20ϕ
c
f '
for joints confined on all four sides
v = 15ϕ
c
f '
for joints confined on three faces or on two
opposite faces
¦
12ϕ
c
f '
for all other joints
where ϕ = 0.85 (by default). (UBC 1909.3.2.3,1909.3.4.1)
A beam that frames into a face of a column at the joint is considered in this
program to provide confinement to the joint if at least threequarters of the
face of the joint is covered by the framing member (UBC 1921.5.3.1).
Joint Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Technical Note 12  6 Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios
For lightweight aggregate concrete, the design shear strength of the joint is
reduced in the program to at least threequarters of that of the normal weight
concrete by replacing the
'
c
f with




¦
 '
,
4 / 3 , ' min
c c factor cs
f f f (UBC 1921.5.3.2)
For joint design, the program reports the joint shear, the joint shear stress,
the allowable joint shear stress and a capacity ratio.
Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios
At a particular joint for a particular column direction, major or minor, the pro
gram will calculate the ratio of the sum of the beam moment capacities to the
sum of the column moment capacities. For Special MomentResisting Frames,
the following UBC provision needs to be satisfied (UBC 1921.4.2.2).
∑M
e
≥
5
6
∑M
g
(UBC 1921.4.2.2)
The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength factor, α, and
including ϕ factors. The beam capacities are calculated for reversed situations
(Cases 1 and 2) as illustrated in Figure 1 and the maximum summation ob
tained is used.
The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is
not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along
the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are
added to the summation.
The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column
below the joint. For each load combination, the axial force, P
u
, in each of the
columns is calculated from the program analysis load combinations. For each
load combination, the moment capacity of each column under the influence of
the corresponding axial load P
u
is then determined separately for the major
and minor directions of the column, using the uniaxial column interaction dia
gram, see Figure 3. The moment capacities of the two columns are added to
give the capacity summation for the corresponding load combination. The
maximum capacity summations obtained from all of the load combinations is
used for the beam/column capacity ratio.
Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Joint Design
Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios Technical Note 12  7
The beam/column flexural capacity ratios are only reported for Special Mo
mentResisting Frames involving seismic design load combinations. If this ra
tio is greater than 5/6, a warning message is printed in the output file.
Figure 3 Moment Capacity M
u
at a Given Axial Load P
u
Input Data Technical Note 13  1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97
Technical Note 13
Input Data
This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design input data for
UBC97. The input can be printed to a printer or to a text file when you click
the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. A
printout of the input data provides the user with the opportunity to carefully
review the parameters that have been input into the program and upon which
program design is based. Further information about using the Print Design
Tables form is presented at the end of this Technical Note.
Input Data
The program provides the printout of the input data in a series of tables. The
column headings for input data and a description of what is included in the
columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.
Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Load Combination Multipliers
Combo Design load combination. See Technical Note 8.
Type
Load type: dead, live, superimposed dead, earthquake, wind,
snow, reduced live load, other.
Case Name of load case.
Factor Load combination scale factor.
Code Preferences
Phi_bending Bending strength reduction factor.
Phi_tension Tensile strength reduction factor.
Phi_compression
(Tied)
Compressive strength reduction factor for tied columns.
Phi_compression (Spi
ral)
Compressive strength reduction factor for reinforced columns.
Phi_shear Shear strength reduction factor.
Input Data Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Technical Note 13  2 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data
Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Material Property Data
Material Name Concrete, steel, other.
Material Type Isotropic or orthotropic.
Design Type
Modulus of Elasticity
Poisson's Ratio
Thermal Coeff Coefficient of thermal expansion.
Shear Modulus
Material Property Mass and Weight
Material Name Concrete, steel, other.
Mass Per Unit Vol Used to calculate selfmass of structure.
Weight Per Unit Vol Used to calculate selfweight of structure.
Material Design Data for Concrete Materials
Material Name Concrete, steel, other.
Lightweight Concrete
Concrete FC Concrete compressive strength.
Rebar FY Bending reinforcing steel yield strength.
Rebar FYS Shear reinforcing steel yield strength.
Lightwt Reduc Fact Shear strength reduction factor for light weight concrete; default
= 1.0.
Concrete Column Property Data
Section Label Label applied to section.
Mat Label Material label.
Column Depth
Column Width
Rebar Pattern Layout of main flexural reinforcing steel.
Concrete Cover Minimum clear concrete cover.
Bar Area Area of individual reinforcing bar to be used.
Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Input Data
Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 13  3
Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Concrete Column Design Element Information
Story ID Column assigned to story level at top of column.
Column Line Grid line.
Section ID Name of section assigned to column.
Framing Type Lateral or gravity.
RLLF Factor
L_Ratio Major Unbraced length about major axis.
L_Ratio Minor Unbraced length about minor axis.
K Major Effective length factor; default = 1.0.
K Minor Effective length factor; default = 1.0.
Concrete Beam Design Element Information
Story ID Story level at which beam occurs.
Bay ID Grid lines locating beam.
Section ID Section number assigned to beam.
Framing type Lateral or gravity.
RLLF Factor
L_Ratio Major Unbraced length about major axis.
L_Ratio Minor Unbraced length about minor axis.
Using the Print Design Tables Form
To print steel frame design input data directly to a printer, use the File menu
> Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the check
box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the OK button to send the print to
your printer. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the
print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button
to change printers, if necessary.
To print steel frame design input data to a file, click the Print to File check box
on the Print Design Tables form. Click the Filename>> button to change the
Input Data Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Technical Note 13  4 Using the Print Design Tables Form
path or filename. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format
(e.g., .txt, .xls, .doc). Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Ta
bles form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request.
Note:
The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying out
put that is printed to a text file.
The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and
filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print
Design Tables form. Data will be added to this file. Or use the Filename>>
button to locate another file, and when the Open File for Printing Tables cau
tion box appears, click Yes to replace the existing file.
If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print
Tables > Concrete Frame Design command, the Selection Only check box
will be checked. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.
Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output Technical Note 14  1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97
Technical Note 14
Output Details
This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design output for UBC97
that can be printed to a printer or to a text file. The design output is printed
when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design
command and select Output Summary of the Print Design Tables dialog box.
Further information about using the Print Design Tables dialog box is pre
sented at the end of this Technical Note.
The program provides the output data in a series of tables. The column
headings for output data and a description of what is included in the columns
of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.
Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Biaxial PM Interaction and Shear Design of ColumnType Elements
Story ID Column assigned to story level at top of column.
Column Line Grid lines.
Section ID Name of section assigned to column.
Station ID
Required Reinforcing
Longitudinal Area of longitudinal reinforcing required.
Combo Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.
Shear22 Shear reinforcing required.
Combo Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.
Shear33 Shear reinforcing required.
Output Details Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Technical Note 14  2 Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output
Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Combo Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.
Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Beam to Column Capacity Ratios and Joint Shear Capacity Check
Story ID Story level at which joint occurs.
Column Line Grid line.
Section ID Assigned section name.
BeamColumn Capacity Ratios
Major Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity.
Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment ca
pacity to column capacity is based.
Minor Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity.
Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment ca
pacity to column capacity is based.
Joint Shear Capacity Ratios
Major Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity.
Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus
allowed capacity is based.
Minor Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity.
Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus
allowed capacity is based.
Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Output Details
Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 14  3
Using the Print Design Tables Form
To print concrete frame design input data directly to a printer, use the File
menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the
check box on the Print Design Tables dialog box. Click the OK button to send
the print to your printer. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button
to cancel the print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the
Setup>> button to change printers, if necessary.
To print concrete frame design input data to a file, click the Print to File check
box on the Print Design Tables dialog box. Click the Filename>> button to
change the path or filename. Use the appropriate file extension for the de
sired format (e.g., .txt, .xls, .doc). Click the OK buttons on the Open File for
Printing Tables dialog box and the Print Design Tables dialog box to complete
the request.
Note:
The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying out
put that is printed to a text file.
The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and
filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print
Design Tables dialog box. Data will be added to this file. Or use the File
name>> button to locate another file, and when the Open File for Printing
Tables caution box appears, click Yes to replace the existing file.
If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print
Tables > Concrete Frame Design command, the Selection Only check box
will be checked. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.
Introduction to the ACI31899 Series of Technical Notes Technical Note 15  1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI31899
Technical Note 15
General and Notation
Introduction to the ACI31899 Series of Technical Notes
The ACI31899 Concrete Frame Design series of Technical Notes describes in
detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by
this program when the user selects the ACI31899 Design Code (ACI 1999).
The various notations used in this series are listed herein.
The design is based on userspecified loading combinations. The program
provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements
for the design of most building type structures. See Concrete Frame Design
ACI31899 Technical Note 18 Design Load Combination for more information.
The program provides options to design or check Earthquake resisting
frames; Ordinary, Earthquake resisting frames; Intermediate (moderate
seismic risk areas), and Earthquake resisting frames; Special (high seismic
risk areas) moment resisting frames as required for seismic design provisions.
The details of the design criteria used for the different framing systems are
described in Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Technical Note 19 Strength
Reduction Factors, Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Technical Note 20 Col
umn Design, Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Technical Note 21 Beam De
sign, and Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Technical Note 22 Joint Design.
The program uses preferences and overwrites, which are described in Con
crete Frame Design ACI31899 Technical Note 16 Preferences and Concrete
Frame Design ACI31899 Technical Note 17 Overwrites. It also provides in
put and output data summaries, which are described in Concrete Frame De
sign ACI31899 Technical Note 23 Input Data and Concrete Frame Design
ACI31899 Technical Note 24 Output Details.
English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. But the code
is based on InchPoundSecond units. For simplicity, all equations and de
scriptions presented in this chapter correspond to InchPoundSecond units
unless otherwise noted.
General and Notation Concrete Frame Design ACI31899
Technical Note 15  2 Notation
Notation
A
cv
Area of concrete used to determine shear stress, sqin
A
g
Gross area of concrete, sqin
A
s
Area of tension reinforcement, sqin
'
s
A
Area of compression reinforcement, sqin
A
s(required)
Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sqin
A
st
Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement, sqin
A
v
Area of shear reinforcement, sqin
C
m
Coefficient, dependent upon column curvature, used to calculate
moment magnification factor
E
c
Modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi
E
s
Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 29,000,000
psi (ACI 8.5.2)
I
g
Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis,
neglecting reinforcement, in
4
I
se
Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of
member cross section, in
4
L Clear unsupported length, in
M
1
Smaller factored end moment in a column, lbin
M
2
Larger factored end moment in a column, lbin
M
c
Factored moment to be used in design, lbin
M
ns
Nonsway component of factored end moment, lbin
M
s
Sway component of factored end moment, lbin
Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 General and Notation
Notation Technical Note 15  3
M
u
Factored moment at section, lbin
M
ux
Factored moment at section about Xaxis, lbin
M
uy
Factored moment at section about Yaxis, lbin
P
b
Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions, lb
P
c
Critical buckling strength of column, lb
P
max
Maximum axial load strength allowed, lb
P
0
Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity, lb
P
u
Factored axial load at section, lb
V
c
Shear resisted by concrete, lb
V
E
Shear force caused by earthquake loads, lb
V
D+L
Shear force from span loading, lb
V
u
Factored shear force at a section, lb
V
p
Shear force computed from probable moment capacity, lb
a Depth of compression block, in
a
b
Depth of compression block at balanced condition, in
b Width of member, in
b
f
Effective width of flange (TBeam section), in
b
w
Width of web (TBeam section), in
c Depth to neutral axis, in
c
b
Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, in
d Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, in
d' Concrete cover to center of reinforcing, in
General and Notation Concrete Frame Design ACI31899
Technical Note 15  4 Notation
d
s
Thickness of slab (TBeam section), in
'
c
f
Specified compressive strength of concrete, psi
f
y
Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, psi
f
y
≤ 80,000 psi (ACI 9.4)
f
ys
Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, psi
h Dimension of column, in
k Effective length factor
r Radius of gyration of column section, in
α Reinforcing steel overstrength factor
β
1
Absolute value of ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to
maximum factored axial total load
β
d
Absolute value of ratio or maximum factored axial dead load to
maximum factored axial total load
δ
s
Moment magnification factor for sway moments
δ
ns
Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments
ε
c
Strain in concrete
ε
s
Strain in reinforcing steel
ϕ Strength reduction factor
General Technical Note 16  1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI31899
Technical Note 16
Preferences
This Technical Note describes the items in the Preferences form.
General
The concrete frame design preferences in this program are basic assignments
that apply to all concrete frame elements. Use the Options menu > Prefer
ences > Concrete Frame Design command to access the Preferences form
where you can view and revise the concrete frame design preferences.
Default values are provided for all concrete frame design preference items.
Thus, it is not required that you specify or change any of the preferences. You
should, however, at least review the default values for the preference items
to make sure they are acceptable to you.
Using the Preferences Form
To view preferences, select the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete
Frame Design. The Preferences form will display. The preference options
are displayed in a twocolumn spreadsheet. The left column of the spread
sheet displays the preference item name. The right column of the spreadsheet
displays the preference item value.
To change a preference item, left click the desired preference item in either
the left or right column of the spreadsheet. This activates a dropdown box or
highlights the current preference value. If the dropdown box appears, select
a new value. If the cell is highlighted, type in the desired value. The prefer
ence value will update accordingly. You cannot overwrite values in the drop
down boxes.
When you have finished making changes to the composite beam preferences,
click the OK button to close the form. You must click the OK button for the
changes to be accepted by the program. If you click the Cancel button to exit
Preferences Concrete Frame Design ACI31899
Technical Note 16  2 Preferences
the form, any changes made to the preferences are ignored and the form is
closed.
Preferences
For purposes of explanation in this Technical Note, the preference items are
presented in Table. The column headings in the table are described as fol
lows:
Item: The name of the preference item as it appears in the cells at the
left side of the Preferences form.
Possible Values: The possible values that the associated preference item
can have.
Default Value: The builtin default value that the program assumes for
the associated preference item.
Description: A description of the associated preference item.
Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value Description
Design Code Any code in
the program
ACI 31899 Design code used for design of
concrete frame elements.
Phi Bending
Tension
>0 0.9 Unitless strength reduction factor per
ACI 9.3.
Phi Compres
sion Tied
>0 0.7 Unitless strength reduction factor per
ACI 9.3.
Phi Compres
sion Spiral
>0 0.75 Unitless strength reduction factor per
ACI 9.3.
Phi Shear >0 0.85 Unitless strength reduction factor per
ACI 9.3.
Number Inter
action Curves
≥4.0 24 Number of equally spaced interaction
curves used to create a full 360degree
interaction surface (this item should be
a multiple of four). We recommend that
you use 24 for this item.
Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Preferences
Preferences Technical Note 16  3
Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value Description
Number Inter
action Points
Any odd value
≥4.0
11 Number of points used for defining a
single curve in a concrete frame
interaction surface (this item should be
odd).
Time History
Design
Envelopes or
StepbyStep
Envelopes Toggle for design load combinations
that include a time history designed for
the envelope of the time history, or
designed stepbystep for the entire
time history. If a single design load
combination has more than one time
history case in it, that design load
combination is designed for the
envelopes of the time histories,
regardless of what is specified here.
Overwrites Technical Note 17  1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI31899
Technical Note 17
Overwrites
General
The concrete frame design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only
to those elements to which they are assigned. This Technical Note describes
concrete frame design overwrites for ACI31899. To access the overwrites,
select an element and click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design >
View/Revise Overwrites command.
Default values are provided for all overwrite items. Thus, you do not need to
specify or change any of the overwrites. However, at least review the default
values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. When
changes are made to overwrite items, the program applies the changes only
to the elements to which they are specifically assigned; that is, to the ele
ments that are selected when the overwrites are changed.
Overwrites
For explanation purposes in this Technical Note, the overwrites are presented
in Table 1. The column headings in the table are described as follows.
Item: The name of the overwrite item as it appears in the program. To
save space in the formes, these names are generally short.
Possible Values: The possible values that the associated overwrite item
can have.
Default Value: The default value that the program assumes for the asso
ciated overwrite item.
Description: A description of the associated overwrite item.
An explanation of how to change an overwrite is provided at the end of this
Technical Note.
Overwrites Concrete Frame Design ACI31899
Technical Note 17  2 Overwrites
Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value Description
Element
Section
Element
Type
Sway Special,
Sway Interme
diate,
Sway
Ordinary
NonSway
Sway Special Frame type per moment frame defini
tion given in ACI 21.1.
Live Load
Reduction
Factor
>0
≤1.0
1. Used to reduce the live load contribu
tion to the factored loading.
Horizontal
Earthquake
Factor
>0
≤1.0
1
Unbraced
Length Ratio
(Major)
>0
≤1.0
1.0
Unbraced
Length Ratio
(Minor)
>0
≤1.0
1.0
Effective
Length Factor
(K Major)
>0
≤1.0
1 See ACI 10.12, 10.13 and Figure
R10.12.1.
Effective
Length Factor
(K Minor)
>0
≤1.0
1 See ACI 10.12, 10.13 and Figure
R10.12.1.
Moment
Coefficient
(Cm Major)
>0
≤1.0
1 Factor relating actual moment diagram
to an equivalent uniform moment dia
gram. See ACI 10.12.3.
Moment
Coefficient
(Cm Minor)
>0
≤1.0
1 Factor relating actual moment diagram
to an equivalent uniform moment dia
gram. See ACI 10.12.3.
NonSway
Moment Factor
(Dns Major)
>0
≤1.0
1 See ACI 10.12.
Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Overwrites
Overwrites Technical Note 17  3
Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value Description
NonSway
Moment Factor
(Dns Minor)
1 See ACI 10.13.
Sway Moment
Factor
(Ds Major)
1 See ACI 10.13.
Sway Moment
Factor
(Ds Minor)
1 See ACI 10.13.
Making Changes in the Overwrites Form
To access the concrete frame overwrites, select an element and click the De
sign menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites com
mand.
The overwrites are displayed in the form with a column of check boxes and a
twocolumn spreadsheet. The left column of the spreadsheet contains the
name of the overwrite item. The right column of the spreadsheet contains the
overwrites values.
Initially, the check boxes in the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form are
all unchecked and all of the cells in the spreadsheet have a gray background
to indicate that they are inactive and the items in the cells cannot be
changed. The names of the overwrite items are displayed in the first column
of the spreadsheet. The values of the overwrite items are visible in the second
column of the spreadsheet if only one element was selected before the over
writes form was accessed. If multiple elements were selected, no values show
for the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet.
After selecting one or multiple elements, check the box to the left of an over
write item to change it. Then left click in either column of the spreadsheet to
activate a dropdown box or highlight the contents in the cell in the right col
umn of the spreadsheet. If the dropdown box appears, select a value from
Overwrites Concrete Frame Design ACI31899
Technical Note 17  4 Overwrites
the box. If the cell contents is highlighted, type in the desired value. The
overwrite will reflect the change. You cannot change the values of the drop
down boxes.
When changes to the overwrites have been completed, click the OK button to
close the form. The program then changes all of the overwrite items whose
associated check boxes are checked for the selected members. You must click
the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. If you click the
Cancel button to exit the form, any changes made to the overwrites are ig
nored and the form is closed.
Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default Values
Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Reset All Overwrites
command to reset all of the steel frame overwrites. All current design results
will be deleted when this command is executed.
Important note about resetting overwrites: The program defaults for the
overwrite items are built into the program. The concrete frame overwrite val
ues that were in a .edb file that you used to initialize your model may be dif
ferent from the builtin program default values. When you reset overwrites,
the program resets the overwrite values to its builtin values, not to the val
ues that were in the .edb file used to initialize the model.
Design Load Combinations Technical Note 18  1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI31899
Technical Note 18
Design Load Combinations
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed
load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. For the ACI 31899
code, if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only, the
stress check may need only one load combination, namely 1.4 DL + 1.7 LL
(ACI 9.2.1). However, in addition to the dead and live loads, if the structure is
subjected to wind (WL) and earthquake (EL) loads and considering that wind
and earthquake forces are reversible, the following load combinations should
be considered (ACI 9.2).
1.4 DL
1.4 DL + 1.7 LL (ACI 9.2.1)
0.9 DL ± 1.3 WL
0.75 (1.4 DL + 1.7 LL ± 1.7 WL) (ACI 9.2.2)
0.9 DL ± 1.3 * 1.1 EL
0.75 (1.4 DL + 1.7 LL ± 1.7 * 1.1 EL) (ACI 9.2.3)
These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever
the ACI 31899 code is used. The user is warned that the above load combi
nations involving seismic loads consider servicelevel seismic forces. Different
load factors may apply with strengthlevel seismic forces (ACI R9.2.3).
Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live
load condition on an elementbyelement basis to reduce the contribution of
the live load to the factored loading. See Concrete Frame Design ACI 31899
Technical Note 17 Overwrites for more information.
Strength Reduction Factors Technical Note 19  1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI31899
Technical Note 19
Strength Reduction Factors
The strength reduction factors, ϕ, are applied on the nominal strength to ob
tain the design strength provided by a member. The ϕ factors for flexure, ax
ial force, shear, and torsion are as follows:
ϕ = 0.90 for flexure (ACI 9.3.2.1)
ϕ = 0.90 for axial tension (ACI 9.3.2.2)
ϕ = 0.90 for axial tension and flexure (ACI 9.3.2.2)
ϕ = 0.75 for axial compression, and axial compression
and flexure (spirally reinforced column) (ACI 9.3.2.2)
ϕ = 0.70 for axial compression, and axial compression
and flexure (tied column) (ACI 9.3.2.2)
ϕ = 0.85 for shear and torsion (ACI 9.3.2.3)
Overview Technical Note 20  1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI31899
Technical Note 20
Column Design
This Technical Note describes how the program checks column capacity or de
signs reinforced concrete columns when the ACI31899 code is selected.
Overview
The program can be used to check column capacity or to design columns. If
you define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete
column section, the program will check the column capacity. Alternatively, the
program can calculate the amount of reinforcing required to design the col
umn. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the struc
ture involves the following steps:
Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the dif
ferent concrete section types of the model. A typical biaxial interaction
surface is shown in Figure 1. When the steel is undefined, the program
generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforce
ment 1 to 8 percent for Ordinary and Intermediate moment resisting
frames (ACI 10.9.1) and 1 to 6 percent for Special moment resisting
frames (ACI 21.4.3.1).
Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the fac
tored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from
each loading combination at each station of the column. The target capac
ity ratio is taken as one when calculating the required reinforcing area.
Design the column shear reinforcement.
The following four sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with
this process.
Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899
Technical Note 20  2 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces
Figure 1 A Typical Column Interaction Surface
Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces
The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series
of discrete points that are generated on the threedimensional interaction
failure surface. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending, the for
mulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations. A typical
interaction diagram is shown in Figure 1.
The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear
strain in three dimensions on the section of the column. See Figure 2. The
Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Column Design
Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces Technical Note 20  3
linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain, ε
c
, at the extremity
of the section, to 0.003 (ACI 10.2.3).
The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate
strength design (ACI 10.3), and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular,
square, or circular column section.
The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel
modulus of elasticity, ε
s
E
s
, and is limited to the yield stress of the steel, f
y
(ACI 10.2.4). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be
placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does
not assume any further simplifications with respect to distributing the area of
steel over the cross section of the column, such as an equivalent steel tube or
cylinder. See Figure 3.
The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a
stress value of 0.85
'
c
f (ACI 10.2.7.1). See Figure 3. The interaction algorithm
provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the
reinforcement in the compression zone.
The effects of the strength reduction factor, ϕ, are included in the generation
of the interaction surfaces. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to
ϕP
n(max)
, where
ϕP
n(max)
= 0.85ϕ[0.85
'
c
f (A
g
A
st
)+f
y
A
st
] spiral column, (ACI 10.3.5.1)
ϕP
n(max)
= 0.80ϕ[0.85
'
c
f (A
g
A
st
)+f
y
A
st
] tied column, (ACI 10.3.5.2)
ϕ = 0.70 for tied columns, and (ACI 9.3.2.2)
ϕ = 0.75 for spirally reinforced columns. (ACI 9.3.2.2)
The value of ϕ used in the interaction diagram varies from ϕ(compression) to
ϕ(flexure) based on the axial load. For low values of axial load, ϕ is increased
linearly from ϕ(compression) to ϕ(flexure) as the ϕP
n
decreases from the
smaller of ϕP
b
or 0.1
'
c
f A
g
to zero, where ϕP
b
is the axial force at the balanced
condition. The ϕ factor used in calculating ϕP
n
and ϕP
b
is the ϕ(compression).
In cases involving axial tension, ϕ is always ϕ(flexure), which is 0.9 by default
(ACI 9.3.2.2).
Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899
Technical Note 20  4 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces
Figure 2 Idealized Strain Distribution for Generation of Interaction Source
Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Column Design
Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 20  5
Figure 3 Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section
Calculate Column Capacity Ratio
The column capacity ratio is calculated for each load combination at each out
put station of each column. The following steps are involved in calculating the
capacity ratio of a particular column for a particular load combination at a
particular location:
Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases
and the specified load combination factors to give P
u
, M
ux
, and M
uy
.
Determine the moment magnification factors for the column moments.
Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored moments. Deter
mine whether the point, defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial
moment set, lies within the interaction volume.
The factored moments and corresponding magnification factors depend on the
identification of the individual column as either “sway” or “nonsway.”
The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with
this process.
Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899
Technical Note 20  6 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio
Determine Factored Moments and Forces
The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying
the corresponding load factors to all the load cases, giving P
u
, M
ux
, and M
uy
.
The factored moments are further increased for nonsway columns, if re
quired, to obtain minimum eccentricities of (0.6+0.03h) inches, where h is
the dimension of the column in the corresponding direction (ACI 10.12.3.2).
Determine Moment Magnification Factors
The moment magnification factors are calculated separately for sway (overall
stability effect), δ
s
and for nonsway (individual column stability effect), δ
ns
.
Also, the moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions are
in general different (ACI 10.0, R10.13).
The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the
sway (M
s
) and the nonsway (M
ns
) components. The nonsway components,
which are identified by “ns” subscripts, are predominantly caused by gravity
load. The sway components are identified by the “s” subscripts. The sway
moments are predominantly caused by lateral loads, and are related to the
cause of side sway.
For individual columns or columnmembers in a floor, the magnified moments
about two axes at any station of a column can be obtained as
M = M
ns
+ δ
s
M
s
. (ACI 10.13.3)
The factor δ
s
is the moment magnification factor for moments causing side
sway. The moment magnification factors for sway moments, δ
s
, is taken as 1
because the component moments M
s
and M
ns
are obtained from a “second or
der elastic (Pdelta) analysis” (ACI R10.10, 10.10.1, R10.13, 10.13.4.1).
The program assumes that it performs a Pdelta analysis and, therefore, mo
ment magnification factor δ
s
for moments causing sidesway is taken as unity
(ACI 10.10.2). For the Pdelta analysis, the load should correspond to a load
combination of 1.4 dead load + 1.7 live load (ACI 10.13.6). See also White
and Hajjar (1991). The user should use reduction factors for the moment of
inertias in the program as specified in ACI 10.11. The moment of inertia re
duction for sustained lateral load involves a factor β
d
(ACI 10.11). This β
d
for
sway frame in secondorder analysis is different from the one that is defined
later for nonsway moment magnification (ACI 10.0, R10.12.3, R10.13.4.1).
The default moment of inertia factor in this program is 1.
Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Column Design
Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 20  7
The computed moments are further amplified for individual column stability
effect (ACI 10.12.3, 10.13.5) by the nonsway moment magnification factor,
δ
ns
, as follows:
M
c
= δ
ns
M, where (ACI 10.12.3)
M
c
is the factored moment to be used in design.
The nonsway moment magnification factor, δ
ns
, associated with the major or
minor direction of the column is given by (ACI 10.12.3)
δ
ns
=
c
u
m
P
P
C
75 . 0
1 −
≤ 1.0, where (ACI 10.12.3)
C
m
= 0.6 +0.4
b
a
M
M
≥ 0.4, (ACI 10.12.3.1)
M
a
and M
b
are the moments at the ends of the column, and M
b
is
numerically larger than M
a
. M
a
/ M
b
is positive for single curvature
bending and negative for double curvature bending. The above ex
pression of C
m
is valid if there is no transverse load applied between
the supports. If transverse load is present on the span, or the length
is overwritten, C
m
=1. The user can overwrite C
m
on an elementby
element basis.
P
c
=
2
2
) (
u
kl
EI π
, where (ACI 10.12.3)
k is conservatively taken as 1; however, the program allows the
user to override this value (ACI 10.12.1).
l
u
is the unsupported length of the column for the direction of
bending considered. The two unsupported lengths are l
22
and l
33
,
corresponding to instability in the minor and major directions of
the element, respectively. See Figure 4. These are the lengths
Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899
Technical Note 20  8 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio
Figure 4 Axes of Bending and Unsupported Length
between the support points of the element in the corresponding
directions.
EI is associated with a particular column direction:
EI =
d
g c
I E
β + 1
4 . 0
, where (ACI 10.12.3)
maximum factored axial sustained (dead) load
β
d
=
maximum factored axial total load
(ACI 10.0,R10.12.3)
The magnification factor, δ
ns
, must be a positive number and greater than
one. Therefore, P
u
must be less than 0.75P
c
. If P
u
is found to be greater than
or equal to 0.75P
c
, a failure condition is declared.
Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Column Design
Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 20  9
The above calculations are performed for major and minor directions sepa
rately. That means that δ
s
, δ
ns
, C
m
, k, l
u
, EI, and P
c
assume different values for
major and minor directions of bending.
If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member, the
user can explicitly specify values of δ
s
and δ
ns
.
Determine Capacity Ratio
As a measure of the stress condition of the column, a capacity ratio is calcu
lated. The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the
stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column.
Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity, the
moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain P
u
,
M
ux
, and M
uy
. The point (P
u
, M
ux
, M
uy
) is then placed in the interaction space
shown as point L in Figure 5. If the point lies within the interaction volume,
the column capacity is adequate; however, if the point lies outside the inter
action volume, the column is overstressed.
This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the lo
cation of point C. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if ex
tended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. This point is determined by
threedimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the fail
ure surface. See Figure 5. The capacity ratio, CR, is given by the ratio
OC
OL
.
If OL = OC (or CR=1), the point lies on the interaction surface and the
column is stressed to capacity.
If OL < OC (or CR<1), the point lies within the interaction volume and the
column capacity is adequate.
If OL > OC (or CR>1), the point lies outside the interaction volume and
the column is overstressed.
The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is
reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling P
u
,
M
ux
, and M
uy
set and associated load combination number.
Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899
Technical Note 20  10 Required Reinforcing Area
Figure 5 Geometric Representation of Column Capacity Ratio
Required Reinforcing Area
If the reinforcing area is not defined, the program computes the reinforce
ment that will give a column capacity ratio of one, calculated as described in
the previous section entitled "Calculate Column Capacity Ratio."
Design Column Shear Reinforcement
The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination in the major
and minor directions of the column. The following steps are involved in de
signing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular load com
bination resulting from shear forces in a particular direction:
Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Column Design
Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 20  11
Determine the factored forces acting on the section, P
u
and V
u
. Note that
P
u
is needed for the calculation of V
c
.
Determine the shear force, V
c
, that can be resisted by concrete alone.
Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.
For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (Ductile frames), the
shear design of the columns is also based on the Probable moment and nomi
nal moment capacities of the members, respectively, in addition to the fac
tored moments. Effects of the axial forces on the column moment capacities
are included in the formulation.
The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with
this process.
Determine Section Forces
In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment
resisting concrete frame, the forces for a particular load combination,
namely, the column axial force, P
u
, and the column shear force, V
u
, in a
particular direction are obtained by factoring the program analysis load
cases with the corresponding load combination factors.
In the shear design of Special moment resisting frames (i.e., seismic
design), the column is checked for capacity shear in addition to the re
quirement for the Ordinary moment resisting frames. The capacity shear
force in a column, V
p
, in a particular direction is calculated from the prob
able moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial
force acting on the column.
For each load combination, the factored axial load, P
u
, is calculated. Then,
the positive and negative moment capacities,
+
u
M and
−
u
M , of the column
in a particular direction under the influence of the axial force P
u
is calcu
lated using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction.
The design shear force, V
u
, is then given by (ACI 21.4.5.1)
V
u
= V
p
+ V
D+L
(ACI 21.4.5.1)
where, V
p
is the capacity shear force obtained by applying the calculated
probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting
Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899
Technical Note 20  12 Design Column Shear Reinforcement
in two opposite directions. Therefore, V
p
is the maximum of
1
P
V and
2
P
V ,
where
1
P
V =
L
M M
J I
+ −
+
, and
2
P
V =
L
M M
J I
− +
+
, where
− +
I I
M M , , = Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the
column using a steel yield stress value of αf
y
and no ϕ
factors (ϕ = 1.0),
− +
J J
M M , , = Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the
column using a steel yield stress value of αf
y
and no ϕ
factors (ϕ = 1.0), and
L = Clear span of column.
For Special moment resisting frames α is taken as 1.25 (ACI 10.0,
R21.4.5.1). V
D+L
is the contribution of shear force from the inspan distri
bution of gravity loads. For most of the columns, it is zero.
For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the shear capacity of the
column is also checked for the capacity shear based on the nominal mo
ment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads, in addition to
the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design
shear force is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal (ϕ =
1.0) moment capacity and modified factored shear force. The procedure
for calculating nominal moment capacity is the same as that for comput
ing the probable moment capacity for special moment resisting frames,
except that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25 (ACI 21.10.3.a,
R21.10). The modified factored shear forces are based on the specified
load factors, except the earthquake load factors are doubled (ACI
21.10.3.b).
Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
Given the design force set P
u
and V
u
, the shear force carried by the concrete,
V
c
, is calculated as follows:
Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Column Design
Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 20  13
If the column is subjected to axial compression, i.e., P
u
is positive,
V
c
= 2
+
g
u
c
A
P
f
000 , 2
1
'
A
cv
, where (ACI 11.3.1.2)
'
c
f ≤ 100 psi, and (ACI 11.1.2)
V
c
≤ 3.5
'
c
f
+
g
u
A
P
500
1 A
cv
. (ACI 11.3.2.2)
The term P
u
/ A
g
must have psi units. A
cv
is the effective shear area, which
is shown shaded in Figure 6. For circular columns, A
cv
is taken to be equal
to the gross area of the section (ACI 11.3.3, R11.3.3).
If the column is subjected to axial tension, P
u
is negative
V
c
= 2
'
c
f
+
g
u
A
P
500
1 A
cv
≥ 0 (ACI 11.3.2.3)
For Special moment resisting concrete frame design, V
c
is set to zero
if the factored axial compressive force, P
u
, including the earthquake effect,
is small (P
u
<
'
c
f A
g
/ 20) and if the shear force contribution from earth
quake, V
E
, is more than half of the total factored maximum shear force
over the length of the member V
u
(V
E
≥ 0.5V
u
) (ACI 21.4.5.2).
Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
Given V
u
and V
c
, the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or
ties within a spacing, s, is given for rectangular and circular columns by
A
v
=
d f
s V V
ys
c u
) / ( − ϕ
, for rectangular columns and (ACI 11.5.6.1, 11.5.6.2)
A
v
=
) 8 . 0 (
) / (
D f
s V V
ys
c u
− ϕ
, for circular columns. (ACI 11.5.6.3, 11.3.3)
V
u
is limited by the following relationship.
(V
u
/ ϕV
c
) ≤ 8
'
c
f A
cv
(ACI 11.5.6.9)
Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899
Technical Note 20  14 Design Column Shear Reinforcement
Figure 6 Shear Stress Area, A
cv
Otherwise, redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here ϕ, the
strength reduction factor, is 0.85 (ACI 9.3.2.3). The maximum of all the cal
culated A
v
values obtained from each load combination are reported for the
major and minor directions of the column, along with the controlling shear
force and associated load combination label.
The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are
based purely on shear strength consideration. Any minimum stirrup require
ments to satisfy spacing considerations or transverse reinforcement volumet
ric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the
user.
Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Column Design
Reference Technical Note 20  15
Reference
White, D.W. and J.F. Hajjar. 1991. Application of SecondOrder Elastic Analy
sis in LRFD: Research to Practice. Engineering Journal. American In
stitute of Steel Construction, Inc. Vol. 28. No. 4.
Overview Technical Note 21  1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI31899
Technical Note 21
Beam Design
This Technical Note describes how this program completes beam design when
the ACI 31899 code is selected. The program calculates and reports the re
quired areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments,
shears, load combination factors and other criteria described herein.
Overview
In the design of concrete beams, the program calculates and reports the re
quired areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments,
shears, load combination factors, and other criteria described below. The re
inforcement requirements are calculated at a userdefined number of
check/design stations along the beam span.
All beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only.
Effects resulting from any axial forces, minor direction bending, and
torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independ
ently by the user.
The beam design procedure involves the following steps:
Design beam flexural reinforcement
Design beam shear reinforcement
Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement
The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at check/design stations
along the beam span. The following steps are involved in designing the flex
ural reinforcement for the major moment for a particular beam for a particu
lar section:
Determine the maximum factored moments
Determine the reinforcing steel
Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899
Technical Note 21  2 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement
Determine Factored Moments
In the design of flexural reinforcement of Special, Intermediate, or Ordinary
moment resisting concrete frame beams, the factored moments for each load
combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corre
sponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load fac
tors.
The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive
+
u
M and maxi
mum negative
−
u
M factored moments obtained from all of the load combina
tions
.
Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases, the beam is al
ways designed as a rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce
bottom steel. In such cases, the beam may be designed as a Rectangular or
a Tbeam.
Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement
In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the
tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added
when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of
a singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding the compres
sion reinforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the grade
of concrete.
The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as
shown in Figure 1 (ACI 10.2). It is assumed that the compression carried by
concrete is less than 0.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced
condition (ACI 10.3.3). When the applied moment exceeds the moment ca
pacity at this designed balanced condition, the area of compression rein
forcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried
by compression and additional tension reinforcement.
The design procedure used by this program for both rectangular and flanged
sections (L and Tbeams) is summarized below. It is assumed that the de
sign ultimate axial force does not exceed 0.1
'
c
f A
g
(ACI 10.3.3); hence, all the
beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only.
Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Beam Design
Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 21  3
Figure 1 Design of Rectangular Beam Section
Design for Rectangular Beam
In designing for a factored negative or positive moment, M
u
(i.e., designing
top or bottom steel), the depth of the compression block is given by a (see
Figure 1), where,
a = d 
b f
M
d
c
u
ϕ
−
1
2
85 . 0
2
, (ACI 10.2.7.1)
where, the value of ϕ is 0.90 (ACI 9.3.2.1) in the above and the following
equations. Also β
1
and c
b
are calculated as follows:
β
1
= 0.850.05
J
J
J
`
'
'
(

−
000 , 1
000 , 4
'
c
f
, 0.65 ≤ β
1
≤ 0.85, (ACI 10.2.7.3)
c
b
= d
f E
E
y s c
s c
+ ε
ε
=
y
f + 000 , 87
000 , 87
d. (ACI 10.2.3, 10.2.4)
Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899
Technical Note 21  4 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement
The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by
a
max
= 0.75β
1
c
b
. (ACI 10.2.7.1, 10.3.3)
If a ≤ a
max
, the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by
A
s
=
J
J
`
'
(

− ϕ
2
a
d f
M
y
u
.
This steel is to be placed at the bottom if M
u
is positive, or at the top if M
u
is negative.
If a > a
max
, compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.3.3) and is cal
culated as follows:
− The compressive force developed in concrete alone is given by
C = 0.85
'
c
f ba
max
, and (ACI 10.2.7.1)
the moment resisted by concrete compression and tensile steel is
M
uc
= C
J
J
J
`
'
'
(

−
2
max
a
d ϕ.
− Therefore the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel
is
M
us
= M
u
 M
uc
.
− So the required compression steel is given by
'
s
A =
ϕ − ) ' (
'
d d f
M
s
us
, where
'
s
f = 0.003E
s
]
]
]
−
c
d c '
. (ACI 10.2.4)
− The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is
Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Beam Design
Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 21  5
A
s1
=
ϕ
]
]
]
−
2
max
a
d f
M
y
uc
, and
the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is given by
A
s2
=
ϕ − ) ' ( d d f
M
y
us
.
− Therefore, the total tensile reinforcement, A
s
= A
s1
+ A
s2
, and total
compression reinforcement is
'
s
A . A
s
is to be placed at bottom and
'
s
A
is to be placed at top if M
u
is positive, and vice versa if M
u
is negative.
Design for TBeam
In designing for a factored negative moment, M
u
(i.e., designing top steel),
the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above, i.e., no TBeam
data is to be used. See Figure 2. If M
u
> 0, the depth of the compression
block is given by
a = d 
f c
u
b f
M
d
ϕ
−
'
2
85 . 0
2
.
The maximum allowed depth of compression block is given by
a
max
= 0.75β
1
c
b
. (ACI 10.2.7.1, 10.3.3)
• If a ≤ d
s
, the subsequent calculations for A
s
are exactly the same as previ
ously defined for the rectangular section design. However, in this case the
width of the compression flange is taken as the width of the beam for
analysis. Compression reinforcement is required if a > a
max
.
• If a > d
s
, calculation for A
s
is performed in two parts. The first part is for
balancing the compressive force from the flange, C
f
, and the second part
is for balancing the compressive force from the web, C
w
, as shown in Fig
ure 2. C
f
is given by
C
f
= 0.85
'
c
f (b
f
 b
w
)d
s
.
Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899
Technical Note 21  6 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement
Figure 2 Design of a TBeam Section
Therefore, A
s1
=
y
f
f
C
and the portion of M
u
that is resisted by the flange is
given by
M
uf
= C
f
J
J
J
`
'
'
(

−
2
s
d
d ϕ.
Again, the value for ϕ is ϕ(flexure), which is 0.90 by default. Therefore,
the balance of the moment, M
u
to be carried by the web is given by
M
uw
= M
u
 M
uf
.
The web is a rectangular section of dimensions b
w
and d, for which the de
sign depth of the compression block is recalculated as
a
1
= d 
w
i
c
uw
b f
M
d
ϕ
−
85 . 0
2
2
.
If a
1
≤ a
max
, the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by
A
s2
=
J
J
J
`
'
'
(

− ϕ
2
1
a
d f
M
y
uw
, and
Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Beam Design
Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 21  7
A
s
= A
s1
+ A
s2
.
This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the Tbeam.
If a
1
> a
max
, compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.3.3) and is
calculated as follows:
− The compressive force in web concrete alone is given by
C = 0.85
'
c
f ba
max
. (ACI 10.2.7.1)
− Therefore, the moment resisted by concrete web and tensile steel
is
M
uc
= C ϕ
J
J
J
`
'
'
(

−
2
max
a
d , and
the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is
M
us
= M
uw
 M
uc
.
− Therefore, the compression steel is computed as
'
s
A =
ϕ − ) ' (
'
d d f
M
s
us
, where
'
s
f = 0.003E
s
]
]
]
−
c
d c '
. (ACI 10.2.4)
− The tensile steel for balancing compression in web concrete is
A
s2
=
ϕ − )
2
(
max
a
d f
M
y
uc
, and
the tensile steel for balancing compression in steel is
A
s3
=
ϕ − ) ' ( d d f
M
y
us
.
Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899
Technical Note 21  8 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement
− The total tensile reinforcement, A
s
= A
s1
+ A
s2
+ A
s3
, and total
compression reinforcement is
'
s
A . A
s
is to be placed at bottom and
'
s
A is to be placed at top.
Minimum Tensile Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section in an Or
dinary moment resisting frame is given by the minimum of the two following
limits:
A
s
≥ max








¦

d b
f
d b
f
f
w
y
w
y
c
200
and
3
'
or (ACI 10.5.1)
A
s
≥ (4/3)A
s(required)
. (ACI 10.5.3)
Special Consideration for Seismic Design
For Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design), the beam de
sign satisfies the following additional conditions (see also Table 1):
The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both the top
and bottom. Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less
than A
s(min)
(ACI 21.3.2.1).
A
s(min)
≥ max








¦

d b
f
d b
f
f
w
y
w
y
c
200
and
3
'
or (ACI 10.5.1)
A
s(min)
≥
3
4
A
s(required)
. (ACI 10.5.3)
The beam flexural steel is limited to a maximum given by
A
s
≤ 0.025 b
w
d. (ACI 21.3.2.1)
At any end (support) of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity
(i.e., associated with the bottom steel) would not be less than 1/2 of the
beam negative moment capacity (i.e., associated with the top steel) at
that end (ACI 21.3.2.2).
Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity
at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the
Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Beam Design
Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 21  9
maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam
end (support) stations (ACI 21.3.2.2).
For Intermediate moment resisting concrete frames (i.e., seismic design), the
beam design would satisfy the following conditions:
At any support of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity would
not be less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end
(ACI 21.10.4.1).
Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity
at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the
maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam
end (support) stations (ACI 21.10.4.1).
Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at a user de
fined number of stations along the beam span. The following steps are in
volved in designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a par
ticular load combination at a particular station due to the beam major shear:
• Determine the factored shear force, V
u
.
• Determine the shear force, V
c
, that can be resisted by the concrete.
• Determine the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.
For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ductile frames), the
shear design of the beams is also based upon the probable and nominal mo
ment capacities of the members, respectively, in addition to the factored load
design.
The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with
this process.
Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899
Technical Note 21  10 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
Table 1 Design Criteria Table
Type of
Check/
Design
Ordinary Moment
Resisting Frames
(nonSeismic)
Intermediate Moment
Resisting Frames
(Seismic)
Special Moment
Resisting Frames
(Seismic)
Column
Check
(interaction)
NLD
a
Combinations NLD
a
Combinations NLD
a
Combinations
Column
Design
(interaction)
NLD
a
Combinations
1% < ρ < 8%
NLD
a
Combinations
1% < ρ < 8%
NLD
a
Combinations
α = 1.0
1% < ρ < 6%
Column
Shears
NLD
a
Combinations
Modified NLD
a
Combinations
(earthquake loads doubled)
Column capacity
ϕ = 1.0 and α = 1.0
NLD
a
Combinations
Column shear capacity
ϕ = 1.0 and α = 1.25
Beam
Design
Flexure
NLD
a
Combinations NLD
a
Combinations
NLD
a
Combinations
ρ ≤ 0.025
ρ ≥
y
c
f
f
'
3
, ρ ≥
y
f
200
Beam Min.
Moment
Override
Check
No Requirement
END u uEND
M M
− +
≥
3
1
{ ¦
END u u uSPAN
M M M
− + +
≥ , max
5
1
{ ¦
END u u uSPAN
M M M
− + −
≥ , max
5
1
END
u uEND
M M
− +
≥
2
1
{ ¦
END u u uSPAN
M M M
− + +
≥ , max
4
1
{ ¦
END u u uSPAN
M M M
− − −
≥ , max
4
1
Beam
Design
Shear
NLD
a
Combinations
Modified NLD
a
Combinations
(earthquake loads doubled)
Beam Capacity Shear (Vp)
with α = 1.0 and ϕ = 1.0
plus VD+L
NLD
a
Combinations
Beam Capacity Shear (Vp)
with α = 1.25 and ϕ = 1.0
plus VD+L
Vc = 0
Joint Design No Requirement No Requirement Checked for shear
Beam/Column
Capacity
Ratio
No Requirement No Requirement Reported in output file
NLD
a
= Number of specified loading
Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Beam Design
Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 21  11
Determine Shear Force and Moment
• In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment
resisting concrete frame, the shear forces and moments for a particular
load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring
the associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding load
combination factors.
• In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames (i.e.,
seismic design), the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the
capacity shear resulting from the probable moment capacities at the ends
and the factored gravity load. This check is performed in addition to the
design check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The capacity
shear force, V
p
, is calculated from the probable moment capacities of each
end of the beam and the gravity shear forces. The procedure for calculat
ing the design shear force in a beam from probable moment capacity is
the same as that described for a column in section “Design Column Shear
Reinforcement” of Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Technical Note 20
Column Design. See also Table 1 for details.
The design shear force V
u
is then given by (ACI 21.3.4.1)
V
u
= V
p
+ V
D+L
(ACI 21.3.4.1)
where V
p
is the capacity shear force obtained by applying the calculated
probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting
in two opposite directions. Therefore, V
p
is the maximum of
1
P
V and
2
P
V ,
where
1
P
V =
L
M M
J I
+ −
+
, and
2
P
V =
L
M M
J I
− +
+
, where
−
I
M = Moment capacity at end I, with top steel in tension, using a
steel yield stress value of αf
y
and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0),
+
J
M = Moment capacity at end J, with bottom steel in tension, using
a steel yield stress value of αf
y
and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0),
Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899
Technical Note 21  12 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
+
I
M = Moment capacity at end I, with bottom steel in tension, using
a steel yield stress value of αf
y
and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0),
−
J
M = Moment capacity at end J, with top steel in tension, using a
steel yield stress value of αf
y
and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0), and
L = Clear span of beam.
For Special moment resisting frames α is taken as 1.25 (ACI 21.0,
R21.3.4.1). V
D+L
is the contribution of shear force from the inspan distri
bution of gravity loads.
• For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the shear capacity of the
beam is also checked for the capacity shear based on the nominal moment
capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads, in addition to the
check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design shear
force in beams is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal
moment capacity and modified factored shear force. The procedure for
calculating nominal (ϕ = 1.0) moment capacity is the same as that for
computing the probable moment capacity for Special moment resisting
frames, except that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25 (ACI 21.10.3.a,
R21.10). The modified factored shear forces are based on the specified
load factors, except the earthquake load factors are doubled (ACI
21.10.3.b). The computation of the design shear force in a beam of an
Intermediate moment resisting frame is the same as described for col
umns in section “Determine Section Forces” of Concrete Frame Design
ACI31899 Technical Note 20 Column Design. See also Table 1 for details.
Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
The allowable concrete shear capacity is given by
V
c
= 2
'
c
f b
w
d. (ACI 11.3.1.1)
For Special moment resisting frame concrete design, V
c
is set to zero if both
the factored axial compressive force, including the earthquake effect P
u
, is
less than
'
c
f A
g
/20 and the shear force contribution from earthquake V
E
is
more than half of the total maximum shear force over the length of the mem
ber V
u
(i.e., V
E
≥ 0.5V
u
) (ACI 21.3.4.2).
Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Beam Design
Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 21  13
Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
Given V
u
and V
c
, the required shear reinforcement in area/unit length is cal
culated as
A
v
=
d f
s V V
ys
c u
) / ( − ϕ
. (ACI 11.5.6.1, 11.5.6.2)
The shear force resisted by steel is limited by
(V
u
/ ϕ  V
c
) ≤ 8
'
c
f bd. (ACI 11.5.6.9)
Otherwise, redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here, ϕ, the
strength reduction factor for shear, is 0.85 by default (ACI 9.3.2.3). The
maximum of all the calculated A
v
values, obtained from each load combina
tion, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load
combination number.
The beam shear reinforcement requirements displayed by the program are
based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup require
ments to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated
independently of the program by the user.
Overview Technical Note 22  1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI31899
Technical Note 22
Joint Design
This Technical Note explains how the program performs a rational analysis of
the beamcolumn panel zone to determine the shear forces that are gener
ated in a joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength.
Overview
To ensure that the beamcolumn joint of special moment resisting frames
possesses adequate shear strength, the program performs a rational analysis
of the beamcolumn panel zone to determine the shear forces that are gener
ated in the joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength.
Only joints having a column below the joint are designed. The material prop
erties of the joint are assumed to be the same as those of the column below
the joint.
The joint analysis is completed in the major and the minor directions of the
column. The joint design procedure involves the following steps:
Determine the panel zone design shear force, V
u
h
Determine the effective area of the joint
Check panel zone shear stress
The algorithms associated with these three steps are described in detail in the
following three sections.
Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force
Figure 1 illustrates the free body stress condition of a typical beamcolumn
intersection for a column direction, major or minor.
Joint Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899
Technical Note 22  2 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force
Figure 1 BeamColumn Joint Analysis
Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Joint Design
Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Technical Note 22  3
The force V
u
h
is the horizontal panel zone shear force that is to be calculated.
The forces that act on the joint are P
u
, V
u
, M
u
L
and M
u
R
. The forces P
u
and V
u
are axial force and shear force, respectively, from the column framing into the
top of the joint. The moments M
u
L
and M
u
R
are obtained from the beams
framing into the joint. The program calculates the joint shear force V
u
h
by re
solving the moments into C and T forces. Noting that T
L
= C
L
and T
R
= C
R
,
V
u
h
= T
L
+ T
R
 V
u
The location of C or T forces is determined by the direction of the moment.
The magnitude of C or T forces is conservatively determined using basic prin
ciples of ultimate strength theory, ignoring compression reinforcement as fol
lows. The program first calculates the maximum compression, C
max
, and the
maximum moment, M
max
, that can be carried by the beam.
bd f C c
'
max
85 . 0
2
max max
d
C M
Then the program conservatively determines C and T forces as follows:
J
J
J
`
'
'
(

− −
max
max
) (
1 1
M
M abs
C T C
The program resolves the moments and the C and T forces from beams that
frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor
directions of the column along the direction that is being investigated, thereby
contributing force components to the analysis. Also, the program calculates
the C and T for the positive and negative moments, considering the fact that
the concrete cover may be different for the direction of moment.
In the design of special moment resisting concrete frames, the evaluation of
the design shear force is based on the moment capacities (with reinforcing
steel overstrength factor, α, and no ϕ factors) of the beams framing into the
joint (ACI 21.5.1.1, UBC 1921.5.1.1). The C and T force are based on these
moment capacities. The program calculates the column shear force V
u
from
the beam moment capacities, as follows:
Joint Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899
Technical Note 22  4 Determine the Effective Area of Joint
H
M M
V
R
u
L
u
u
+
See Figure 2. It should be noted that the points of inflection shown on Figure
2 are taken as midway between actual lateral support points for the columns.
If there is no column at the top of the joint, the shear force from the top of
the column is taken as zero.
The effects of load reversals, as illustrated in Case 1 and Case 2 of Figure 1,
are investigated and the design is based on the maximum of the joint shears
obtained from the two cases.
Determine the Effective Area of Joint
The joint area that resists the shear forces is assumed always to be rectan
gular in plan view. The dimensions of the rectangle correspond to the major
and minor dimensions of the column below the joint, except if the beam
framing into the joint is very narrow. The effective width of the joint area to
be used in the calculation is limited to the width of the beam plus the depth of
the column. The area of the joint is assumed not to exceed the area of the
column below. The joint area for joint shear along the major and minor direc
tions is calculated separately (ACI R21.5.3).
It should be noted that if the beam frames into the joint eccentrically, the
above assumptions may be unconservative and the user should investigate
the acceptability of the particular joint.
Check Panel Zone Shear Stress
The panel zone shear stress is evaluated by dividing the shear force V
u
h
by
the effective area of the joint and comparing it with the following design shear
strengths (ACI 21.5.3, UBC 1921.5.3):
20ϕ
c
f '
for joints confirmed on all four sides
v = 15ϕ
c
f '
for joints confirmed on three faces or on two
opposite faces
¦
12ϕ
c
f '
for all other joints
Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Joint Design
Determine the Effective Area of Joint Technical Note 22  5
where ϕ = 0.85 (by default). (ACI 9.3.2.3, UBC 1909.3.2.3,1909.3.4.1)
A beam that frames into a face of a column at the joint is considered in this
program to provide confinement to the joint if at least threequarters of the
face of the joint is covered by the framing member (ACI 21.5.3.1, UBC
1921.5.3.1).
Figure 2 Column Shear Force V
u
Joint Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899
Technical Note 22  6 Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios
For lightweight aggregate concrete, the design shear strength of the joint is
reduced in the program to at least threequarters of that of the normal weight
concrete by replacing the
'
c
f
with




¦
 ' '
,
4 / 3 , min
c c factor cs
f f f (ACI 21.5.3.2, UBC 1921.5.3.2)
For joint design, the program reports the joint shear, the joint shear stress,
the allowable joint shear stress and a capacity ratio.
Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios
At a particular joint for a particular column direction, major or minor, the pro
gram will calculate the ratio of the sum of the beam moment capacities to the
sum of the column moment capacities (ACI 21.4.2.2).
∑M
e
≥
5
6
∑M
g
(ACI 21.4.2.2)
The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength factor, α , and
including ϕ factors. The beam capacities are calculated for reversed situations
(Cases 1 and 2) as illustrated in Figure 1 and the maximum summation ob
tained is used.
The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is
not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along
the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are
added to the summation.
The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column
below the joint. For each load combination, the axial force, P
u
, in each of the
columns is calculated from the program analysis load combinations. For each
load combination, the moment capacity of each column under the influence of
the corresponding axial load P
u
is then determined separately for the major
and minor directions of the column, using the uniaxial column interaction dia
gram; see Figure 3. The moment capacities of the two columns are added to
give the capacity summation for the corresponding load combination. The
maximum capacity summations obtained from all of the load combinations is
used for the beam/column capacity ratio.
Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Joint Design
Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios Technical Note 22  7
The beam/column flexural capacity ratios are only reported for Special Mo
mentResisting Frames involving seismic design load combinations. If this ra
tio is greater than 5/6, a warning message is printed in the output file.
Figure 3 Moment Capacity M
u
at a Given Axial Load P
u
Input Data Technical Note 23  1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI31899
Technical Note 23
Input Data
This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design input data for
ACI31899. The input can be printed to a printer or to a text file when you
click the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. A
printout of the input data provides the user with the opportunity to carefully
review the parameters that have been input into the program and upon which
program design is based. Further information about using the Print Design
Tables form is presented at the end of this Technical Note.
Input Data
The program provides the printout of the input data in a series of tables. The
column headings for input data and a description of what is included in the
columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.
Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Load Combination Multipliers
Combo Design load combination. See Technical Note 8.
Type
Load type: dead, live, superimposed dead, earthquake, wind,
snow, reduced live load, other.
Case Name of load case.
Factor Load combination scale factor.
Code Preferences
Phi_bending Bending strength reduction factor.
Phi_tension Tensile strength reduction factor.
Phi_compression
(Tied)
Compressive strength reduction factor for tied columns.
Phi_compression (Spi
ral)
Compressive strength reduction factor for reinforced columns.
Phi_shear Shear strength reduction factor.
Input Data Concrete Frame Design ACI31899
Technical Note 23  2 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data
Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Material Property Data
Material Name Concrete, steel, other.
Material Type Isotropic or orthotropic.
Design Type
Modulus of Elasticity
Poisson's Ratio
Thermal Coeff Coefficient of thermal expansion.
Shear Modulus
Material Property Mass and Weight
Material Name Concrete, steel, other.
Mass Per Unit Vol Used to calculate selfmass of structure.
Weight Per Unit Vol Used to calculate selfweight of structure.
Material Design Data for Concrete Materials
Material Name Concrete, steel, other.
Lightweight Concrete
Concrete FC Concrete compressive strength.
Rebar FY Bending reinforcing steel yield strength.
Rebar FYS Shear reinforcing steel yield strength.
Lightwt Reduc Fact Shear strength reduction factor for light weight concrete; default
= 1.0.
Concrete Column Property Data
Section Label Label applied to section.
Mat Label Material label.
Column Depth
Column Width
Rebar Pattern Layout of main flexural reinforcing steel.
Concrete Cover Minimum clear concrete cover.
Bar Area Area of individual reinforcing bar to be used.
Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Input Data
Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 23  3
Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Concrete Column Design Element Information
Story ID Column assigned to story level at top of column.
Column Line Grid line.
Section ID Name of section assigned to column.
Framing Type Lateral or gravity.
RLLF Factor
L_Ratio Major Unbraced length about major axis.
L_Ratio Minor Unbraced length about minor axis.
K Major Effective length factor; default = 1.0.
K Minor Effective length factor; default = 1.0.
Concrete Beam Design Element Information
Story ID Story level at which beam occurs.
Bay ID Grid lines locating beam.
Section ID Section number assigned to beam.
Framing type Lateral or gravity.
RLLF Factor
L_Ratio Major Unbraced length about major axis.
L_Ratio Minor Unbraced length about minor axis.
Using the Print Design Tables Form
To print concrete frame design input data directly to a printer, use the File
menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the
check box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the OK button to send the
print to your printer. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to
cancel the print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the
Setup>> button to change printers, if necessary.
To print concrete frame design input data to a file, click the Print to File check
box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the Filename>> button to change
Input Data Concrete Frame Design ACI31899
Technical Note 23  4 Using the Print Design Tables Form
the path or filename. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format
(e.g., .txt, .xls, .doc). Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Ta
bles form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request.
Note:
The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying out
put that is printed to a text file.
The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and
filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print
Design Tables form. Data will be added to this file. Or use the Filename>>
button to locate another file, and when the Open File for Printing Tables cau
tion box appears, click Yes to replace the existing file.
If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print
Tables > Concrete Frame Design command, the Selection Only check box
will be checked. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.
Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output Technical Note 24  1
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI31899
Technical Note 24
Output Details
This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design output for ACI31899
that can be printed to a printer or to a text file. The design output is printed
when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design
command and select Output Summary on the Print Design Tables form. Fur
ther information about using the Print Design Tables form is presented at the
end of this Technical Note.
The program provides the output data in a series of tables. The column
headings for output data and a description of what is included in the columns
of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.
Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Biaxial PM Interaction and Shear Design of ColumnType Elements
Story ID Column assigned to story level at top of column.
Column Line Grid lines.
Section ID Name of section assigned to column.
Station ID
Required Reinforcing
Longitudinal Area of longitudinal reinforcing required.
Combo Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.
Shear22 Shear reinforcing required.
Combo Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.
Shear33 Shear reinforcing required.
Output Details Concrete Frame Design ACI31899
Technical Note 24  2 Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output
Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Combo Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed.
Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION
Beam to Column Capacity Ratios and Joint Shear Capacity Check
Story ID Story level at which joint occurs.
Column Line Grid line.
Section ID Assigned section name.
BeamColumn Capacity Ratios
Major Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity.
Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment ca
pacity to column capacity is based.
Minor Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity.
Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment ca
pacity to column capacity is based.
Joint Shear Capacity Ratios
Major Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity.
Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus
allowed capacity is based.
Minor Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity.
Combo Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus
allowed capacity is based.
Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Output Details
Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 24  3
Using the Print Design Tables Form
To print concrete frame design input data directly to a printer, use the File
menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the
check box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the OK button to send the
print to your printer. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to
cancel the print. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the
Setup>> button to change printers, if necessary.
To print concrete frame design input data to a file, click the Print to File check
box on the Print Design Tables form. Click the Filename>> button to change
the path or filename. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format
(e.g., .txt, .xls, .doc). Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Ta
bles form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request.
Note:
The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying out
put that is printed to a text file.
The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and
filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print
Design Tables form. Data will be added to this file. Or use the Filename>>
button to locate another file, and when the Open File for Printing Tables cau
tion box appears, click Yes to replace the existing file.
If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print
Tables > Concrete Frame Design command, the Selection Only check box
will be checked. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.
ETABS
®
Integrated Building Design Software
Concrete Frame Design Manual
Computers and Structures, Inc. Berkeley, California, USA
Version 8 January 2002
19782002. Inc. Inc. Inc. Adobe and Acrobat are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated . 1995 University Avenue Berkeley. is explicitly prohibited. Inc.com (for technical support questions) web: www. ETABS is a trademark of Computers and Structures.com Copyright Computers and Structures..com (for general questions) email: support@csiberkeley. The CSI Logo is a trademark of Computers and Structures.. Unlicensed use of the program or reproduction of the documentation in any form. Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.csiberkeley. California 94704 USA Phone: (510) 8452177 FAX: (510) 8454096 email: info@csiberkeley. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers and Structures. Inc. without prior written authorization from Computers and Structures. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from: Computers and Structures. Inc.Copyright The computer program ETABS and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products.
.
HOWEVER. THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE PROGRAM AND MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS.DISCLAIMER CONSIDERABLE TIME. HOWEVER. EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION OF ETABS. THIS PROGRAM IS A VERY PRACTICAL TOOL FOR THE DESIGN/CHECK OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES. THE PROGRAM HAS BEEN THOROUGHLY TESTED AND USED. THE USER MUST THOROUGHLY READ THE MANUAL AND CLEARLY RECOGNIZE THE ASPECTS OF CONCRETE DESIGN THAT THE PROGRAM ALGORITHMS DO NOT ADDRESS. THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THE PROGRAM. . IN USING THE PROGRAM.
.
BERKELEY. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN Contents General Concrete Frame Design Information 1 General Design Information Design Codes Units Overwriting the Frame Design Procedure for a Concrete Frame Design Load Combinations Design of Beams Design of Columns Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios Second Order PDelta Effects Element Unsupported Lengths Analysis Sections and Design Sections Concrete Frame Design Process Concrete Frame Design Procedure Interactive Concrete Frame Design General Concrete Design Information Form Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model Overview Using the Print Design Tables Form Design Input Design Output 11 11 11 12 12 13 14 14 16 17 2 21 3 31 31 4 41 41 42 42 i . INC..©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.
Concrete Frame Design Manual Concrete Frame Design Specific to UBC97 5 General and Notation Introduction to the UBC 97 Series of Technical Notes Notation Preferences General Using the Preferences Form Preferences Overwrites General Overwrites Making Changes in the Overwrites Form Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default Values Design Load Combinations Strength Reduction Factors Column Design Overview Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Determine Factored Moments and Forces Determine Moment Magnification Factors Determine Capacity Ratio Required Reinforcing Area Design Column Shear Reinforcement Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Reference Beam Design Overview Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Determine Factored Moments Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement 51 52 6 61 61 62 7 71 71 73 74 8 9 10 101 102 105 106 106 108 1010 1010 1014 1015 11 111 111 112 112 ii .
Contents Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 12 Joint Design Overview Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Determine the Effective Area of Joint Check Panel Zone Shear Stress Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios Input Data Input data Using the Print Design Tables Form Output Details Using the Print Design Tables Form 1110 121 121 125 125 126 13 131 133 14 143 Concrete Frame Design Specific to ACI31899 15 General and Notation Introduction to the ACI31899 Series of Technical Notes Notation Preferences General Using the Preferences Form Preferences Overwrites General Overwrites Making Changes in the Overwrites Form Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default Values Design Load Combinations Strength Reduction Factors 151 152 16 161 161 162 17 171 171 173 174 18 19 iii .
Concrete Frame Design Manual 20 Column Design Overview Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Determine Factored Moments and Forces Determine Moment Magnification Factors Determine Capacity Ratio Required Reinforcing Area Design Column Shear Reinforcement Determine Section Forces Determine Concrete Shear Capacity Determine Required Shear Reinforcement References Beam Design Overview Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Determine Factored Moments Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement Design for TBeam Minimum Tensile Reinforcement Special Consideration for Seismic Design Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Determine Shear Force and Moment Determine Concrete Shear Capacity Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Joint Design Overview Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Determine the Effective Area of Joint Check Panel Zone Shear Stress Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios Input Data Input Data Using the Print Design Tables Form 201 202 205 206 206 209 2010 2010 2011 2012 2013 2015 21 211 211 212 212 215 218 218 219 2111 2112 2113 22 221 221 224 224 226 23 231 233 iv .
Contents 24 Output Details Using the Print Design Tables Form 243 v .
.
Overwriting the Frame Design Procedure for a Concrete Frame The two design procedures possible for concrete beam design are: Concrete frame design No design If a line object is assigned a frame section property that has a concrete material property. Typically. its default design procedure is Concrete Frame Design.. You can change the system of units at any time. You cannot design some elements for one code and others for a different code in the same design run. BERKELEY. perform different design runs using different design codes without rerunning the analysis. any set of consistent units can be used for input. Units For concrete frame design in this program. design codes are based on one specific set of units. You can. A concrete frame element can be switched between the Concrete Frame Design and the "None" design procedure. INC. Design Codes The design code is set using the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design command. Design Codes Technical Note 1 .©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. however.1 . Assign a concrete frame element the "None" design procedure if you do not want it designed by the Concrete Frame Design postprocessor. You can choose to design for any one design code in any one design run. CALIFORNIA JANUARY 2002 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN Technical Note 1 General Design Information This Technical Note presents some basic information and concepts helpful when performing concrete frame design using this program.
Design Load Combinations The program creates a number of default design load combinations for concrete frame design.2 Design Load Combinations . which are described in detail in Concrete Frame UBC97 Technical Note Beam Design 11 and Concrete Frame ACI 31899 Technical Note 21 Beam Design. This change is only successful if the design procedure assigned to an element is valid for that element. the program calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments. To define a design load combination. In the design of concrete beams. Design of Beams The program designs all concrete frame elements designated as beam sections in their Frame Section Properties as beams (see Define menu >Frame Sections command and click the Reinforcement button). You can add in your own design load combinations. minor direction bending. load combination factors. if you select a concrete element and attempt to change the design procedure to Steel Frame Design. For more information see Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 8 Design Load Combination and Concrete Frame Design ACI 31899 Technical Note 18 Design Load Combination. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each output station along the beam span. the steps involve the determination of the maximum factored moments and the determination of the reinforcing steel. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment at a particular section of a particular beam. You can also modify or delete the program default load combinations. in general. and other criteria. shears. An unlimited number of design load combinations can be specified. simply specify one or more load cases. each with its own scale factor.General Design Information Concrete Frame Design Change the default design procedure used for concrete frame elements by selecting the element(s) and clicking Design menu > Overwrite Frame Design Procedure. the program will not allow the change because a concrete element cannot be changed to a steel frame element. and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. Technical Note 1 . All the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. For example. Effects resulting from any axial forces.
the required compression reinforcement is calculated. Design the column shear reinforcement. the steps involve the determination of the factored shear force. the program calculates the required longitudinal steel. Design of Columns The program designs all concrete frame elements designated as column sections in their Frame Section Properties as columns (see Define menu >Frame Sections command and click the Reinforcement button). See Concrete Frame UBC97 Technical Note 10 Design of Beams Technical Note 1 .Concrete Frame Design General Design Information The beam section is designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moment envelopes obtained from all of the load combinations.3 . The design procedure for reinforced concrete columns involves the following steps: Generate axial forcebiaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model. In such cases. The capacity ratio is a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. Check the capacity of each column for the factored axial force and bending moments obtained from each load combination at each end of the column. If the beam section is not adequate. or if the longitudinal steel is specified. This step is also used to calculate the required reinforcement (if none was specified) that will produce a capacity ratio of 1. the determination of the shear force that can be resisted by concrete. and the determination of the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. the beam is first designed as a singly reinforced beam. The shear reinforcement design procedure for columns is very similar to that for beams.0. In the design of the columns.or Tbeam. For the design of flexural reinforcement. the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular set of loading combinations at a particular station resulting from the beam major shear. Negative beam moments produce top steel. the beam may be designed as a rectangular. In such cases. the column stress condition is reported in terms of a column capacity ratio. except that the effect of the axial force on the concrete shear capacity needs to be considered.
4 Second Order PDelta Effects . and including ϕ factors. They are the global lateral translation of the frame and the local deformation of elements within the frame. The PDelta effects come from two sources. The beam/column flexural capacity ratios are only reported for Special MomentResisting Frames involving seismic design load combinations. Pu. The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are added to the summation. using the uniaxial column interaction diagram. Technical Note 1 . major or minor. Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios When the ACI 31899 or UBC97 code is selected. For each load combination. Second Order PDelta Effects Typically. The beam capacities are calculated for reversed situations and the maximum summation obtained is used. the moment capacity of each column under the influence of the corresponding axial load Pu is then determined separately for the major and minor directions of the column. The moment capacities of the two columns are added to give the capacity summation for the corresponding load combination. The maximum capacity summations obtained from all of the load combinations is used for the beam/column capacity ratio. the axial force. The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column below the joint. See Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios in Concrete Frame UBC97 Technical Note 12 Joint Design or in Concrete Frame ACI 31899 Technical Note 22 Joint Design for more information. the program calculates the ratio of the sum of the beam moment capacities to the sum of the column moment capacities at a particular joint for a particular column direction. The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength factor.General Design Information Concrete Frame Design Column Design and Concrete Frame ACI 31899 Technical Note 20 Column Design for more information. α. in each of the columns is calculated from the program analysis load combinations. For each load combination. design codes require that second order PDelta effects be considered when designing concrete frames.
Controls for considering this effect are found using the Analyze menu > Set Analysis Options command and then clicking the Set PDelta Parameters button. MCAP where. consideration of the second order PDelta effects is generally achieved by computing the flexural design capacity using a formula similar to that shown in Equation. which is extracted from a story level of a larger structure. in the model. the frame element is broken into multiple pieces over its length). The overall global translation of this frame element is indicated by ∆. δ Figure 1: The Total Second Order PDelta Effects on a Frame Element Caused by Both ∆ and δ Consider the frame element shown in Figure 1.Concrete Frame Design General Design Information ∆ Original position of frame element shown by vertical line Position of frame element as a result of global lateral translation. shown by dashed line δ Final deflected position of frame element that includes the global lateral translation.5 . The local deformation of the element is shown as δ. MCAP = Flexural design capacity = aMnt + bMlt Eqn. and the local deformation of the element. The total second order PDelta effects on this frame element are those caused by both ∆ and δ. The program has an option to consider PDelta effects in the analysis. ∆. 1. In design codes. 1 Second Order PDelta Effects Technical Note 1 . ∆. the program does a good job of capturing the effect due to the ∆ deformation shown in Figure 1. When you consider PDelta effects in the analysis. but it does not typically capture the effect of the δ deformation (unless.
the program recognizes various aspects of the structure that have an effect on these lengths. in general. associated with the δ deformation in Figure 1) Required flexural capacity of the member as a result of lateral translation of the frame only (i. as previously described. such as member connectivity. see below) Mlt = a b = = When the program performs concrete frame design. The program automatically locates the element support points and evaluates the corresponding unsupported length. about the 33 axis).General Design Information Concrete Frame Design Mnt = Required flexural capacity of the member assuming there is no translation of the frame (i..e. In determining the values for L22 and L33 of the elements. Technical Note 1 . if desired. diaphragm constraints and support points. associated with the ∆ deformation in Figure 1) Unitless factor multiplying Mnt Unitless factor multiplying Mlt (assumed equal to 1 by the program. as shown in Figure 2. There are two unsupported lengths to consider.e. The program automatically determines these unsupported lengths.e. The length L22 is also used for lateraltorsional buckling caused by major direction bending (i. you should consider PDelta effects in the analysis before running the design. That b = 1 assumes that you have considered PDelta effects in the analysis. Thus. using the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. The length L33 corresponds to instability about the 33 axis (major axis). if you are performing concrete frame design in this program. These are the lengths between support points of the element in the corresponding directions.. Element Unsupported Lengths The column unsupported lengths are required to account for column slenderness effects. and L22 corresponds to instability about the 22 axis (minor axis). it assumes that the factor b is equal to 1 and it uses codespecific formulas to calculate the factor a. They can also be overwritten by the user on an elementbyelement basis. They are L33 and L22..6 Element Unsupported Lengths .
Analysis Sections and Design Sections Analysis sections are those section properties used to analyze the model when you click the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command.Concrete Frame Design General Design Information Figure 2: Major and Minor Axes of Bending It is possible for the unsupported length of a frame element to be evaluated by the program as greater than the corresponding element length. Tip: It is important to understand the difference between analysis sections and design sections. the column is assumed to be supported in one direction only at that story level. Analysis Sections and Design Sections Technical Note 1 . at a floor level. assume a column has a beam framing into it in one direction. The design section is whatever section has most currently been designed and thus designated the current design section. and its unsupported length in the other direction will exceed the story height. For example. but not the other.7 . In this case.
Before you complete the design process. Assigning an auto select list to a frame section using the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Frame Section command initially sets the design section to be the beam with the median weight in the auto select list. the last used analysis section is the W18X35 and the current design section is the W16X31. but it does not delete or change the design section. but it does not delete or change the design section. The program keeps track of the analysis section and the design section separately.8 Analysis Sections and Design Sections . Deleting the static nonlinear analysis results also deletes the design results for any load combination that includes static nonlinear forces. The Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Verify Analysis vs Design Section command is useful for this task. Note the following about analysis and design sections: Assigning a beam a frame section property using the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Frame Section command assigns the section as both the analysis section and the design section. Running an analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command (or its associated toolbar button) always sets the analysis section to be the same as the current design section. Typically. verify that the last used analysis section and the current design section are the same. Technical Note 1 . For example. but it does not delete or change the design section. you may have run your analysis using a W18X35 beam and then found in the design that a W16X31 beam worked. Using the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Select Design Combo command to change a design load combination deletes the design results.General Design Information Concrete Frame Design It is possible for the last used analysis section and the current design section to be different. Using the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design command to change any of the composite beam design preferences deletes the design results. In that case. Unlocking a model deletes the design results. but it does not delete or change the design section. Using the Define menu > Load Combinations command to change a design load combination deletes the design results.
Concrete Frame Design General Design Information static nonlinear analysis and design results are deleted when one of the following actions is taken: Use the Define menu > Frame Nonlinear Hinge Properties command to redefine existing or define new hinges. Use the Define menu > Static Nonlinear/Pushover Cases command to redefine existing or define new static nonlinear load cases.9 . Analysis Sections and Design Sections Technical Note 1 . Again. Use the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Frame Nonlinear Hinges command to add or delete hinges. note that these actions delete only results for load combinations that include static nonlinear forces.
.
BERKELEY. Note that although the sequence of steps you follow may vary.. Other Technical Notes in the Concrete Frame Design series provide additional information. See Concrete Frame Design ACI UBC97 Technical Notes 6 Preferences and Concrete Frame Design ACI 31899 Technical Notes 16 Preferences for more information.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Although the exact steps you follow may vary. INC. depending on how its frame section property was designated when it was defined using the Define menu > Frame Sections command. after you have specified that a section has a concrete material property. Concrete Frame Design Procedure Technical Note 2 . Important note: A concrete frame element is designed as a beam or a column. Concrete Frame Design Procedure The following sequence describes a typical concrete frame design process for a new building. so it is unnecessary to define any preferences unless you want to change some of the default values. Note that default values are provided for all concrete frame design preferences. you can click on the Reinforcement button and specify whether it is a beam or a column. including the distinction between analysis sections and design sections (see Analysis Sections and Design Sections in Concrete Frame Design Technical Note 1 General Design Information). the basic process probably will be essentially the same. 1. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN Technical Note 2 Concrete Frame Design Process This Technical Note describes a basic concrete frame design process using this program.1 . Note that when using this command. the basic design process should be similar to that described herein. The concrete frame design postprocessor can design or check concrete columns and can design concrete beams. Use the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design command to choose the concrete frame design code and to review other concrete frame design preferences and revise them if necessary.
Run the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command.Concrete Frame Design Process Concrete Frame Design 2. See Concrete Frame Design Technical Note 4 Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model for more information. so it is unnecessary to define any overwrites unless you want to change some of the default values. 4. using the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. if needed. 6. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info command to display design input and output information on the model. b. 3. Note that you must select frame elements before using this command. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to run the concrete frame design. Technical Note 2 . click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Select Design Combo command. Assign concrete frame overwrites. Note that while you are in this mode. Create the building model. you can revise overwrites and immediately see the results of the new design. To use any design load combinations other than the defaults created by the program for your concrete frame design. 7. Review the concrete frame design results by doing one of the following: a. Note that the overwrites can be assigned before or after the analysis is run. Note that you must have already created your own design combos by clicking the Define menu > Load Combinations command. 5. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 7 Overwrites and Concrete Frame Design ACI 31899 Technical Note 17 Overwrites for more information. Right click on a frame element while the design results are displayed on it to enter the interactive design mode and interactively design the frame element. Also note that default values are provided for all concrete frame design overwrites. See Concrete Frame Design Technical Note 3 Interactive Concrete Frame Design for more information. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 8 Design Load Combinations and Concrete Frame Design ACI 31899 Technical Note 18 Design Load Combinations for more information.2 Concrete Frame Design Procedure .
3 . Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Change Design Section command to change the design section properties for selected frame elements. 11. Note that the section properties used for the analysis are the last specified design section properties. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 14 Output Details and Concrete Frame Design ACI 31899 Technical Note 24 Output Details for more information. 10. Repeat the processes in steps 10. If you select frame elements before using this command.Concrete Frame Design Concrete Frame Design Process If design results are not currently displayed (and the design has been run). if necessary. 13. data is printed only for the selected elements. 8. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to rerun the concrete frame design with the new analysis results and new section properties. Rerun the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command. 9. 11 and 12 as many times as necessary. click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Interactive Concrete Frame Design command and then right click a frame element to enter the interactive design mode for that element. 12. Note that the section properties used for the analysis are the last specified design section properties. Again use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Change Design Section command to change the design section properties for selected frame elements. 14. Use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command to print concrete frame design data. Concrete Frame Design Procedure Technical Note 2 . 15. Review the results using the procedures described above. Review the results using the procedures described in Item 7. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to rerun the concrete frame design with the new section properties. Rerun the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command.
16.Concrete Frame Design Process Concrete Frame Design Note: Concrete frame design is an iterative process. 17. Typically.4 Concrete Frame Design Procedure . The sections used in the original analysis are not typically the same as those obtained at the end of the design process. Technical Note 2 . Review the results using the procedures described in Item 7. Use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command to print selected concrete frame design results. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Verify Analysis vs Design Section command to verify that all of the final design sections are the same as the last used analysis sections. Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Verify Analysis vs Design Section command to verify that the design sections are the same as the analysis sections. if desired. 18. Always run the building analysis using the final frame section sizes and then run a design check using the forces obtained from that analysis. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to rerun the concrete frame design with the new section properties. the analysis and design will be rerun multiple times to complete a design. It is important to note that design is an iterative process.
General Technical Note 3 . click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command.1 . BERKELEY. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN Technical Note 3 Interactive Concrete Frame Design This Technical Note describes interactive concrete frame design and review. Concrete Design Information Form Table 1 describe the features that are included in the Concrete Design Information form. General Note that a design must have been run for the interactive design mode to be available. Important note: A concrete frame element is designed as a beam or a column. INC. To run a design. click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Interactive Concrete Frame Design command and then right click a frame element to enter the interactive design mode for that element. If design results are not currently displayed (and a design has been run). Right click on a frame element while the design results are displayed on it to enter the interactive design mode and interactively design the element in the Concrete Design Information form. which is a powerful mode that allows the user to review the design results for any concrete frame design and interactively revise the design assumptions and immediately review the revised results.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. depending on how its frame section property was designated when it was defined using the Define menu > Frame Sections command and the Reinforcement button.. which is only available if it is a concrete section.
Interactive Concrete Frame Design Concrete Frame Design Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form Item Story Beam DESCRIPTION This is the story level ID associated with the frame element.2 Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form . It also only applies to columns for which the program designs the longitudinal reinforcing. For beams. For columns that are checked by this program. This item applies to columns only. It is the total required area of longitudinal reinforcing steel. the item with the largest capacity ratio is initially highlighted. Following are the possible headings in the table: Combo ID Station location Longitudinal reinforcement Capacity ratio This is the name of the design load combination considered. See the important note previously in this Technical Note for more information. This is the label associated with a frame element that has been assigned a concrete frame section property that is designated as a column. Column Section Name Reinforcement Information The reinforcement information table on the Concrete Design Information form shows the output information obtained for each design load combination at each output station along the frame element. This is the label associated with a frame element that has been assigned a concrete frame section property that is designated as a beam. Technical Note 3 . This item is the capacity ratio. For columns that are designed by this program. the item with the largest required amount of longitudinal reinforcing is initially highlighted. the item with the largest required amount of bottom steel is initially highlighted. This is the label associated with a frame element that has been assigned a concrete frame section property. See the important note previously in this Technical Note for more information. This is the location of the station considered. measured from the iend of the frame element. This item applies to columns only. It also only applies to columns for which you have specified the location and size of reinforcing bars and thus the program checks the design.
Permanent saving of the overwrites does not actually occur until you click the OK button in the Concrete Design Information form as well as the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form. It is the total required area of longitudinal bottom steel at the specified station. a second line is extended from the origin of the PMM interaction surface through the point representing the P. M2 and M3 values for the designated load combination until it intersects the interaction surface. When you exit the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form by clicking the OK button the changes are temporarily saved.3 . Assume the length of this first line is designated L1. If you then exit the Concrete Design Information form by clicking the Cancel button the changes you made to the concrete frame overwrites are considered temporary only and are not permanently saved. Major shear reinforcement Minor shear reinforcement Top steel Bottom steel Shear steel This item applies to columns only. This item applies to beams only. It is the total required area of shear reinforcing per unit length at the specified station for loads acting in the local 2axis direction of the beam. Assume the length of this line from the origin to the interaction surface is designated L2. It is the total required area of shear reinforcing per unit length for shear acting in the column major direction. Click this button to access and make revisions to the concrete frame overwrites and then immediately see the new design results. This item applies to beams only.Concrete Frame Design Interactive Concrete Frame Design Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form Item DESCRIPTION The capacity ratio is determined by first extending a line from the origin of the PMM interaction surface to the point representing the P. The capacity ratio is equal to L1/L2. M2 and M3 values for the designated load combination. It is the total required area of longitudinal top steel at the specified station. If you modify some overwrites in this mode and you exit both the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form and the Concrete Design Information form by clicking their respective OK buttons. It is the total required area of shear reinforcing per unit length for shear acting in the column minor direction. This item applies to columns only. the changes to the overwrites are saved permanently. Next. This item applies to beams only. Overwrites Button Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form Technical Note 3 .
4 Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form . Print this information by selecting Print from the File menu that appears at the top of the window displaying the design details.Interactive Concrete Frame Design Concrete Frame Design Table 1 Concrete Design Information Form Item Details Button DESCRIPTION Clicking this button displays design details for the frame element. Clicking this button displays the biaxial interaction curve for the concrete section at the location in the element that is highlighted in the table. Interaction Button Technical Note 3 .
CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN Technical Note 4 Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model This Technical Note describes the input and output data that can be plotted directly on the model.g. The onscreen display data presents input and output data. Click the Filename>> button to change the path or filename.txt. If desired. The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. Click the OK button to send the print to your printer. click the Print to File check box on the Print Design Tables form. The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Design Tables form. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e. Data will be added to this file.xls. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print.. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers. use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the check box on the Print Design Tables form. Overview Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info command to display onscreen output plotted directly on the program model. Or use the Filename Overview Technical Note 4 . . Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file. . the screen graphics can then be printed using the File menu > Print Graphics command. Using the Print Design Tables Form To print the concrete frame input summary directly to a printer.doc).©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. if necessary. . INC.. To print the concrete frame input summary to a file. Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request.1 . BERKELEY.
Display this form by selecting he Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info command. Display this form by selecting he Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info command. and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears. Technical Note 4 . click Yes to replace the existing file.2 Design Input . Design Output The following types of data can be displayed directly on the model by selecting the data type (shown in bold type) from the dropdown list on the Display Design Results form. Design Input The following types of data can be displayed directly on the model by selecting the data type (shown in bold type) from the dropdown list on the Display Design Results form.Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model Concrete Frame Design button to locate another file. The print will be for the selected steel frame element(s) only. If you select a specific concrete frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > concrete Frame Design command. the Selection Only check box will be checked. Design Sections Design Type Live Load Red Factors Unbraced L_Ratios Eff Length KFactors Cm Factors DNS Factors DS Factors Each of these items is described in the codespecific Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 13 Input Data and Concrete Frame Design ACI 31899 Technical Note 23 Input Data.
Concrete Frame Design Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model Longitudinal Reinforcing Shear Reinforcing Column Capacity Ratios Joint Shear Capacity Ratios Beam/Column Capacity Ratios Each of these items is described in the codespecific Concrete Frame Design ACI 31899 Technical Note 24 Output Details and Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 14 Output Details. Design Output Technical Note 4 .3 .
.
2214): Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 By default the Seismic Zone is taken as Zone 4 in the program. The various notations used in this series are listed herein. However. 1921): Ordinary MomentResisting Frame (OMF) General and Notation Technical Note 5 . See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 8 Design Load Combinations for more information.. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 6 Preferences for more information. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 5 General and Notation Introduction to the UBC97 Series of Technical Notes The Concrete Frame Design UBC97 series of Technical Notes describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by this program when the user selects the UBC97 Design Code (ICBO 1997). When using the UBC 97 option. the Seismic Zone can be overwritten in the Preference form to change the default. the following Framing Systems are recognized and designed according to the UBC design provisions (UBC 1627.1 . The design is based on userspecified loading combinations. When using the UBC 97 option. INC. BERKELEY. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. a frame is assigned to one of the following five Seismic Zones (UBC 2213.
English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 10 Column Design. and as SMRF in Seismic Zone 3 and 4. sqin Gross area of concrete. Notation Acv Ag As Area of concrete used to determine shear stress. However.2 General and Notation . By default the frame type is taken in the program as OMRF in Seismic Zone 0 and 1.General and Notation Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Intermediate MomentResisting Frame (IMRF) Special MomentResisting Frame (SMRF) The Ordinary MomentResisting Frame (OMF) is appropriate in minimal seismic risk areas. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 7 Overwrites for more information. The Special MomentResisting Frame (SMRF) is appropriate in high seismic risk areas. The UBC seismic design provisions are considered in the program. the frame type can be overwritten in the Overwrites form on a memberbymember basis. The details of the design criteria used for the different framing systems are described in Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 9 Strength Reduction Factors. The Intermediate MomentResisting Frame (IMRF) is appropriate in moderate seismic risk areas. as IMRF in Seismic Zone 2. all equations and descriptions presented in this Technical Note correspond to InchPoundSecond units unless otherwise noted. The code is based on InchPoundSecond units. For simplicity. especially in Seismic Zones 0 and 1. which are described in Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 13 Input Data and Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 14 Output Details. sqin Area of tension reinforcement. Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 11 Beam Design. The program also provides input and output data summaries. specially in Seismic Zones 3 and 4. sqin Technical Note 5 . the change of the Seismic Zone in the Preferences will not modify the frame type of an individual member that has been assigned a frame type. If any member is assigned with a frame type. and Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 12 Joint Design. specially in Seismic Zone 2.
neglecting reinforcement. in Modulus of elasticity of concrete.5. lbin Factored moment at section about Xaxis. in4 Clear unsupported length. lbin Sway component of factored end moment. sqin Area of steel required for tension reinforcement.000. lbin Factored moment at section about Yaxis.2) Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis. lbin Larger factored end moment in a column. in Smaller factored end moment in a column. lb As(required) Ast Av Cm D' Ec Es Ig Ise L M1 M2 Mc Mns Ms Mu Mux Muy Pb General and Notation Technical Note 5 . sqin Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement. in4 Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of member cross section. dependent upon column curvature.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 General and Notation ' As Area of compression reinforcement. used to calculate moment magnification factor Diameter of hoop. sqin Coefficient. psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. sqin Area of shear reinforcement. lbin Nonsway component of factored end moment. lbin Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions.000 psi (UBC 1980. lbin Factored moment to be used in design.3 . assumed as 29. lbin Factored moment at section.
psi fy ≤ 80. lb Factored axial load at section. lb Acial load capacity at zero eccentricity. in Width of web (TBeam section). in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. lb Shear force from span loading. in Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions. lb Shear force caused by earthquake loads. lb Factored shear force at a section. lb Depth of compression block. in Thickness of slab (TBeam section). in Specified compressive strength of concrete. lb Shear resisted by concrete. in Effective width of flange (TBeam section).General and Notation Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Pc Pmax P0 Pu Vc VE VD+L Vu Vp a ab b bf bw c cb d d' ds f c' fy Critical buckling strength of column. lb Maximum axial load strength allowed. lb Shear force computed from probable moment capacity. in Width of member.4 General and Notation . psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement.4) Technical Note 5 .000 psi (UBC 1909. in Depth to neutral axis. in Depth of compression block at balanced condition. in Concrete cover to center of reinforcing.
Concrete Frame Design UBC97 General and Notation fys h k r Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement.5 . in Reinforcing steel overstrength factor Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Absolute value of ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to maximum factored axial total load Moment magnification factor for sway moments Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Strength reduction factor α β1 βd δs δns εc εs ϕ General and Notation Technical Note 5 . in Effective length factor Radius of gyration of column section. psi Dimension of column.
.
select the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design. If you click the Cancel button to exit General Technical Note 6 . INC. The Preferences form will display. When you have finished making changes to the concrete frame preferences. at least review the default values for the preference items to make sure they are acceptable to you. General The concrete frame design preferences in this program are basic assignments that apply to all concrete frame elements.. The left column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item name. select a new value.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Thus. it is not required that you specify or change any of the preferences. left click the desired preference item in either the left or right column of the spreadsheet. You should. The preference options are displayed in a twocolumn spreadsheet. Use the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design command to access the Preferences form where you can view and revise the concrete frame design preferences.1 . If the cell is highlighted. You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. Default values are provided for all concrete frame design preference items. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 6 Preferences This Technical Note describes the items in the Preferences form. click the OK button to close the form. type in the desired value. To change a preference item. The right column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item value. BERKELEY. If the dropdown box appears. Using the Preferences Form To view preferences. You cannot overwrite values in the dropdown boxes. The preference value will update accordingly. however. This activates a dropdown box or highlights the current preference value.
Unitless strength reduction factor per UBC 1909. Preferences For purposes of explanation in this Technical Note.2 Preferences .7 0. Default Value: The builtin default value that the program assumes for the associated preference item.85 24 Technical Note 6 . Phi Bending Tension Phi Compression Tied Phi Compression Spiral Phi Shear Number Interaction Curves 0.0 Default Value UBC97 Description Design code used for design of concrete frame elements. Unitless strength reduction factor per UBC 1909. the preference items are presented in Table 1. Number of equally spaced interaction curves used to create a full 360degree interaction surface (this item should be a multiple of four).Preferences Concrete Frame Design UBC97 the form. We recommend that you use 24 for this item.9 0. any changes made to the preferences are ignored and the form is closed. Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences Item Design Code Possible Values Any code in the program >0 >0 >0 >0 ≥4. Possible Values: The possible values that the associated preference item can have. Unitless strength reduction factor per UBC 1909. The column headings in the table are described as follows: Item: The name of the preference item as it appears in the cells at the left side of the Preferences form. Description: A description of the associated preference item.75 0. Unitless strength reduction factor per UBC 1909.
3 . Toggle for design load combinations that include a time history designed for the envelope of the time history.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Preferences Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences Item Possible Values Default Value 11 Description Number of points used for defining a single curve in a concrete frame interaction surface (this item should be odd). regardless of what is specified here. or designed stepbystep for the entire time history.Any odd value action Points ≥1.0 Time History Design Envelopes or StepbyStep Envelopes Preferences Technical Note 6 . Number Inter. that design load combination is designed for the envelopes of the time histories. If a single design load combination has more than one time history case in it.
.
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. To save space in the formes. you do not need to specify or change any of the overwrites. BERKELEY. Possible Values: The possible values that the associated overwrite item can have. However. select an element and click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. An explanation of how to change an overwrite is provided at the end of this Technical Note. To access the overwrites. Item: The name of the overwrite item as it appears in the program. to the elements that are selected when the overwrites are changed. When changes are made to overwrite items. at least review the default values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. Default values are provided for all overwrite items. Overwrites Technical Note 7 . Description: A description of the associated overwrite item. This Technical Note describes concrete frame design overwrites for UBC97. Default Value: The default value that the program assumes for the associated overwrite item. INC. Overwrites For explanation purposes in this Technical Note. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 7 Overwrites General The concrete frame design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to those elements to which they are assigned. that is. The column headings in the table are described as follows.1 . these names are generally short.. the program applies the changes only to the elements to which they are specifically assigned. Thus. the overwrites are presented in Table 1.
1 See UBC 1910.1 relates actual moment diagram to an equivalent uniform moment diagram.1.1 relates actual moment diagram to an equivalent uniform moment diagram.0 >0 ≤1.12.0 1.3. See UBC 1910.0 1.0 >0 ≤1.0 >0 ≤1.13. Sway Special Frame type.0 >0 ≤1. See UBC 1910.2 Overwrites .0 >0 ≤1. 1.11 to 1910.3. Sway Ordinary NonSway >0 ≤1.1.12.12. 1 See UBC 1910.0 >0 ≤1.0 1 1 1 See UBC 1910.12.Overwrites Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites Item Element Section Sway Special.0 >0 ≤1.0 >0 ≤1. Possible Values Default Value Description Element Type Live Load Reduction Factor Horizontal Earthquake Factor Unbraced Length Ratio (Major) Unbraced Length Ratio (Minor) Effective Length Factor (K Major) Effective Length Factor (K Minor) Moment Coefficient (Cm Major) Moment Coefficient (Cm Minor) NonSway Moment Factor (Dns Major) Technical Note 7 . Sway Intermediate. see UBC 1910. Used to reduce the live load contribution to the factored loading. 1.12.
Initially.12.12. select a value from Overwrites Technical Note 7 . Making Changes in the Overwrites Form To access the concrete frame overwrites. The overwrites are displayed in the form with a column of check boxes and a twocolumn spreadsheet. check the box to the left of an overwrite item to change it.12. no values show for the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet. 1 See UBC 1910. 1 See UBC 1910. After selecting one or multiple elements. The right column of the spreadsheet contains the overwrites values. The left column of the spreadsheet contains the name of the overwrite item. select an element and click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. The values of the overwrite items are visible in the second column of the spreadsheet if only one element was selected before the overwrites form was accessed.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Overwrites Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites Item NonSway Moment Factor (Dns Minor) Sway Moment Factor (Ds Major) Sway Moment Factor (Ds Minor) Possible Values Default Value 1 Description See UBC 1910.3 . If multiple elements were selected. Then left click in either column of the spreadsheet to activate a dropdown box or highlight the contents in the cell in the right column of the spreadsheet. The names of the overwrite items are displayed in the first column of the spreadsheet. If the dropdown box appears. the check boxes in the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form are all unchecked and all of the cells in the spreadsheet have a gray background to indicate that they are inactive and the items in the cells cannot be changed.
If the cell contents is highlighted. Technical Note 7 . any changes made to the overwrites are ignored and the form is closed. You cannot change the values of the dropdown boxes. The overwrite will reflect the change.edb file used to initialize the model. When you reset overwrites. type in the desired value.edb file that you used to initialize your model may be different from the builtin program default values.Overwrites Concrete Frame Design UBC97 the box. click the OK button to close the form. Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default Values Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Reset All Overwrites command to reset all of the steel frame overwrites. All current design results will be deleted when this command is executed. The program then changes all of the overwrite items whose associated check boxes are checked for the selected members. If you click the Cancel button to exit the form. You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. the program resets the overwrite values to its builtin values. Important note about resetting overwrites: The program defaults for the overwrite items are built into the program. not to the values that were in the . The concrete frame overwrite values that were in a . When changes to the overwrites have been completed.4 Overwrites .
1) (UBC 1909.2. INC.2.7 LL 0.1) These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever the UBC97 code is used..2.2).9 DL ± 1.2.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.3. However.75 (1. in addition to the dead and live loads.3 WL 0. 1.4 DL 1.2. BERKELEY.2) (UBC 1909.3.5 LL ± 1.4 DL + 1.7 LL (UBC 1909.0 EL 1.7 WL) 0. For the UBC 97 code. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.2.1) (UBC 1909.4 DL + 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only.7 LL ± 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (UBC 1909.1) (UBC 1909.4 DL + 1. the stress check may need only one load combination.2. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 8 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed load cases for which the structure needs to be checked.2 DL + 0. 1612. 1612.1 . if the structure is subjected to wind (WL) and earthquake (EL) loads.2. See Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 7 Overwrites for more information.0 EL) (UBC 1909. Design Load Combinations Technical Note 8 . Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load condition on an elementbyelement basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.2.9 DL ± 1.1).2) (UBC 1909. namely 1.
.
3) ϕ ϕ ϕ Strength Reduction Factors Technical Note 9 .3.3.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. axial force.3.3.75 for axial compression. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 9 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors. shear.2.2) = 0.1 .90 for flexure = 0.. and axial compression and flexure (spirally reinforced column) (UBC 1909.70 for axial compression. ϕ.85 for shear and torsion (nonseismic design) = 0. INC.3.1) (UBC 1909. and torsion are as follows: ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ = 0. and axial compression and flexure (tied column) (UBC 1909.2) = 0.2) = 0.2.2.2.90 for axial tension = 0.3.2. are applied on the nominal strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member.2) (UBC 1909.90 for axial tension and flexure (UBC 1909. The ϕ factors for flexure.2.2.3.3) (UBC 1909. BERKELEY.60 for shear and torsion (UBC 1909.
.
BERKELEY. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 10 Column Design This Technical Note describes how the program checks column capacity or designs reinforced concrete columns when the UBC97 code is selected. the program will check the column capacity.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each station of the column. INC. Overview Technical Note 10 . The following four subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process. Design the column shear reinforcement..1). A typical biaxial interaction surface is shown in Figure 1. the program can calculate the amount of reinforcing required to design the column.9. Alternatively. If you define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section.3. the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement1 to 8 percent for Ordinary and Intermediate moment resisting frames (UBC 1910.4.1 . Overview The program can be used to check column capacity or to design columns.1) and 1 to 6 percent for Special moment resisting frames (UBC 1921. The target capacity ratio is taken as 1 when calculating the required reinforcing area. When the steel is undefined. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model.
Column Design
Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Figure 1 A Typical Column Interaction Surface
Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces
The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the threedimensional interaction failure surface. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending, the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations. A typical interaction diagram is shown in Figure 1.
Technical Note 10  2
Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces
Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Column Design
The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in three dimensions on the section of the column. See Figure 2. The linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain, εc, at the extremity of the section, to 0.003 (UBC 1910.2.3). The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate strength design (UBC 1910.3), and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular, square, or circular column section. The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity, εsEs, and is limited to the yield stress of the steel, fy (UBC 1910.2.4). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any further simplifications with respect to distributing the area of steel over the cross section of the column, such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder. See Figure 3. The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a stress value of 0.85 f c' (UBC 1910.2.7.1). See Figure 3. The interaction algorithm provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone. The effects of the strength reduction factor, ϕ, are included in the generation of the interaction surfaces. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to ϕPn(max), where ϕPn(max) = 0.85ϕ[0.85 f c' (AgAst)+fyAst] (spiral) ϕPn(max) = 0.85ϕ[0.85 f c' (AgAst)+fyAst] (tied) ϕ ϕ = 0.70 for tied columns = 0.75 for spirally reinforced columns (UBC 1910.3.5.1) (UBC 1910.3.5.2) (UBC 1909.3.2.2) (UBC 1909.3.2.2)
The value of ϕ used in the interaction diagram varies from ϕmin to 0.9 based on the axial load. For low values of axial load, ϕ is increased linearly from ϕmin to 0.9 as the nominal capacity ϕPn decreases from the smaller of ϕPb or 0.1 f c' Ag to zero, where Pb is the axial force at the balanced condition. In cases involving axial tension, ϕ is always 0.9 (UBC 1909.3.2.2).
Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces
Technical Note 10  3
Column Design
Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Figure 2 Idealized Strain Distribution for Generation of Interaction Surfaces
Technical Note 10  4
Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces
The factored moments and corresponding magnification factors depend on the identification of the individual column as either “sway” or “nonsway.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design Figure 3 Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section Calculate Column Capacity Ratio The column capacity ratio is calculated for each loading combination at each output station of each column. Determine whether the point. lies within the interaction volume. Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored moments.5 . and Muy. Mux.” Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 10 . defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial moment set. The following steps are involved in calculating the capacity ratio of a particular column for a particular loading combination at a particular location: Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and the specified load combination factors to give Pu. Determine the moment magnification factors for the column moments.
Determine Moment Magnification Factors The moment magnification factors are calculated separately for sway (overall stability effect). The nonsway components which are identified by “ns” subscripts are predominantly caused by gravity load. See also White and Hajjar (1991).10. moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway are taken as unity (UBC 1910. The sway components are identified by the “s” subscripts. The sway moments are predominantly caused by lateral loads.12.75 (1. (UBC 1910. Mux.50 live load)/ϕ if seismic load governs. δs.” Technical Note 10 .4 dead load + 1. giving Pu. For individual columns or columnmembers in a floor.3.2). where ϕ is the understrength factor for stability. and are related to the cause of sidesway. where h is the dimension of the column in the corresponding direction (UBC 1910.6 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio . and for nonsway (individual column stability effect). to obtain minimum eccentricities of (0. or (1.2 dead load + 0. Determine Factored Moments and Forces The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the corresponding load factors to all the load cases.13.Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process. if required.3) The factor δs is the moment magnification factor for moments causing side sway. δns.12.2). Also the moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions are in general different.75 (UBC 1910.3). which is taken as 0.6 + 0. is taken as 1 because the component moments Ms and Mns are obtained from a “second order elastic (Pdelta) analysis. The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the sway (Ms) and the nonsway (Ms) components. δs. the load should correspond to a load combination of 0.03h) inches. therefore. The factored moments are further increased for nonsway columns. For the Pdelta analysis. the magnified moments about two axes at any station of a column can be obtained as M = Mns + δsMs. The program assumes that it performs a Pdelta analysis and. and Muy.7 live load)/ϕ if wind load governs. The moment magnification factors for sway moments.
4E c I g 1 + βd .3) βd = maximum factored axial total load Cm = 0. as follows: Mc = δnsM2 .3) δns = Cm ≥ 1. The above expression of Cm is valid if there is no transverse load applied between the supports. Cm can be overwritten by the user on an elementbyelement basis. δns.12.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design The computed moments are further amplified for individual column stability effect (UBC 1910.3) k is conservatively taken as 1.3.75Pc π 2 EI (kl u )2 . and Mb is numerically larger than Ma.12.12.1) Ma and Mb are the moments at the ends of the column. Ma / Mb is positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending.4. δns.6 + 0. Cm = 1.13.7 .12. The nonsway moment magnification factor.3) (UBC 1910.4 Ma ≥ 0.12. Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 10 . or the length is overwritten. however.12.3) (UBC 1910. EI is associated with a particular column direction given by: EI = 0.0. Pu 1− 0.3. where (UBC 1910. If transverse load is present on the span.5) by the nonsway moment magnification factor. Mb maximum factored axial dead load and (UBC 1910. and M2 is the larger factored and amplified end moment. the program allows the user to override this value. 1910. associated with the major or minor direction of the column is given by (UBC 1910. (UBC 1910.12.3) Pc = (UBC 1910.12. where Mc is the factored moment to be used in design.
Determine Capacity Ratio The program calculates a capacity ratio as a measure of the stress condition of the column. The above calculations use the unsupported length of the column. the user can explicitly specify values of δs and δns.Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 The magnification factor. The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication Technical Note 10 . The two unsupported lengths are l22 and l33. See Figure 4. must be a positive number and greater than 1. These are the lengths between the support points of the element in the corresponding directions. Therefore.75Pc.75Pc. a failure condition is declared. respectively. Figure 4 Axes of Bending and Unsupported Length If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member. If Pu is found to be greater than or equal to 0. corresponding to instability in the minor and major directions of the element. δns. Pu must be less than 0.8 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio .
If the point lies within the interaction volume.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. the column is overstressed. Muy.) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in Figure 5. the moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain Pu. Mux. and Muy. Figure 5 Geometric Representation of Column Capacity Ratios This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C. Mux. however.9 . if the point lies outside the interaction volume. The point (Pu. the column capacity is adequate. This point is determined by threedimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 10 . The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity.
the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed. The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular load combination caused by shear forces in a particular direction: Determine the factored forces acting on the section. See Figure 5. If OL < OC (or CR<1). calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Calculate Column Capacity Ratio. respectively. Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 failure surface. the program computes the reinforcement that will give a column capacity ratio of one. OC If OL = OC (or CR=1). Note that Pu is needed for the calculation of Vc." Design Column Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each loading combination in the major and minor directions of the column. along with the controlling Pu. the shear design of the columns is also based on the probable and nominal moment capacities of the members. Pu and Vu. and Muy set and associated load combination number. If OL > OC (or CR>1). in addition to the factored Technical Note 10 . the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate. CR. Vc. The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column. that can be resisted by concrete alone. For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (Ductile frames). Required Reinforcing Area If the reinforcing area is not defined.10 Required Reinforcing Area . The capacity ratio. the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is stressed to capacity. is given by the ratio OL . Mux. Determine the shear force.
Then. Vp is the capacityshear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting in two opposite directions. Pu.5. the forces for a particular load combination. Vu. The design shear force. Vp is the maximum of VP1 and VP2 . Determine Section Forces In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame. The capacityshear force in a column. where L Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 10 . seismic design) the column is checked for capacityshear in addition to the requirement for the Ordinary moment resisting frames. Effects of the axial forces on the column moment capacities are included in the formulation. and L + − MI + M J . For each load combination. Vp.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design moments. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process. Pu.1) where.e. in a particular direction are obtained by factoring the program analysis load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. + − the positive and negative moment capacities.5.4. in a particular direction is calculated from the probable moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial force acting on the column.1) Vu = Vp + VD+L (UBC 1921. and the column shear force. Therefore. In the shear design of Special moment resisting frames (i.. Vu. is calculated. where VP1 = VP2 = − + MI + M J . namely. the column axial force. Mu and Mu .11 .4. the factored axial load. of the column in a particular direction under the influence of the axial force Pu is calculated using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction. is then given by (UBC 1921.
f c' ≤ 100 psi. α is taken as 1. The procedure for calculating nominal moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for special moment resisting frames.. For Special moment resisting frames. except that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.1. 1921.25 (UBC 1921. except the earthquake load factors are doubled (UBC 1921. it is zero. = Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the column using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1. For most of the columns.2) Acv .8. + − M J .0). The design shear force is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal (ϕ = 1. Vc. in addition to the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames.25 (UBC 1921. i. VD+L is the contribution of shear force from the inspan distribution of gravity loads. Pu is positive.0).8.000 Ag where.3).3. = Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the column using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1. is calculated as follows: If the column is subjected to axial compression.e.0) moment capacity and factored shear force.12 Design Column Shear Reinforcement . For Intermediate moment resisting frames.0).2) Technical Note 10 .3).Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 + − M I . Determine Concrete Shear Capacity Given the design force set Pu and Vu. The factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors.1. M I . and L = Clear span of column. the shear force carried by the concrete. the shear capacity of the column is also checked for the capacityshear based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads. Pu Vc = 2 f c' 1 + 2.0. and (UBC 1911. (UBC 1911. M J .
2) The term Pu must have psi units. Acv is the effective shear area which is Ag shown shaded in Figure 6. (UBC 1911.13 .8 times the gross area (UBC 1911. For circular columns.3.5 f c' 1 + Pu 500 Ag Acv . Acv is not taken to be greater than 0.6.2).5.2. Figure 6 Shear Stress Area. Acv Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 10 .Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design Vc ≤ 3.
the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or ties within a spacing. 1. along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination label.2).2) Av = (UBC 1911.2) Vu is limited by the following relationship.5.3.3. the strength reduction factor.1.85 for nonseismic design or for seismic design in Seismic Zones 0.4. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing considerations or transverse reinforcement volumet Technical Note 10 . and 2 (UBC 1909.5. including the earthquake effect is small (Pu < f c' Ag / 20) and if the shear force contribution from earthquake.1).1. Pu.8) Otherwise redimensioning of the concrete section is required.6.2. for rectangular columns f ys d 2 (Vu / ϕ − Vc )s . The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on shear strength consideration.3) and is 0.3) Pu Vc = 2 f c' 1 + 500 Ag Acv ≥ 0 (UBC 1911. is 0.2. VE.5Vu) (UBC 1921.6.6.14 Design Column Shear Reinforcement .5.Column Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 If the column is subjected to axial tension. 1911. Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given Vu and Vc. Vc is set to zero if the factored axial compressive force.2.5.5. Here ϕ.3.4. The maximum of all the calculated values obtained from each load combination are reported for the major and minor directions of the column.3. (Vu / ϕVc) ≤ 8 f c' Acv (UBC 1911.3) For Special moment resisting concrete frame design.5. 1911. is more than half of the total factored maximum shear force over the length of the member Vu(VE ≥ 0. (UBC 1911. Pu is negative. for circular columns f ys D' π (UBC 1911. s.6. is given for rectangular and circular columns by the following: Av = (Vu / ϕ − Vc )s .60 for seismic design in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC 1909.6.
4. Reference White. 28. W. D.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Column Design ric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Hajjar..F.15 . Reference Technical Note 10 . No.. Inc. 1991. Engineering Journal. American Institute of Steel Construction. Vol. Application of SecondOrder Elastic Analysis in LRFD: Research in Practice. and J.
.
shears. Effects caused by axial forces. minor direction bending. BERKELEY. The following steps are involved in designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment for a particular beam for a particular section: Determine the maximum factored moments Determine the reinforcing steel Overview Technical Note 11 . load combination factors. load combination factors and other criteria described herein.1 . CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 11 Beam Design This Technical Note describes how this program completes beam design when the UBC97 code is selected. INC. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design beam flexural reinforcement Design beam shear reinforcement Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at check/design stations along the beam span. shears. Overview In the design of concrete beams.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a userdefined number of check/design stations along the beam span.. and other criteria described below. The program calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments. the program calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based upon the beam moments. and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. All beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only.
In such cases. In such cases.3. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement. The design procedure used by the program for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.2 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . the width.3.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of Special. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel.2). Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. hence. + The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive M u and maxi− mum negative M u factored moments obtained from all of the load combina tions. all the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. or the grade of concrete. or Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame beams. It is assumed that the compression carried by concrete is less than 0. the beam may be designed as a Rectangular.3). The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.1 f c' Ag (UBC 1910. Technical Note 11 . It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed 0. Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this designed balanced condition. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown in Figure 1 (UBC 1910.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (UBC 1910. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Intermediate.and Tbeams) is summarized below.or a Tbeam.3). Negative beam moments produce top steel.
designing top or bottom steel).Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design Figure 1 Design of a Rectangular Beam Section Design for Rectangular Beam In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. d = ε c E s + fy 87.85. where the value of ϕ is 0. (UBC 1910.000 d.3) (UBC 1910. β1 = 0.7.e.3. 1910.3.2.2. where. Also β1 and cb are calculated as follows: f ' − 4.85 .05 c 1. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 1).4) Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11 .90 (UBC 1909.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.0.000 .2.3 .1) in the above and the following equations.2..000 cb = εc E s 87.85f c' ϕb .000 + f y 0. Mu (i. a=dd2 − 2 Mu 0.
(UBC 1910. or at the top if Mu is negative.3.1.85 f c' bamax.1) the moment resisted by concrete compression and tensile steel is a Muc = C d − max 2 − ϕ.3) If a ≤ amax.2. 1910.2. and (UBC 1910. − So the required compression steel is given by ' As = M us f s' (d − d' )ϕ .7. where c − d' f s' = 0.2.4) The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is Technical Note 11 . the area of tensile steel reinforcement is given by As = Mu a ϕf y d − 2 . Therefore the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is Mus = Mu . This steel is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive.003Es .3) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force developed in concrete alone is given by C = 0. c − (UBC 1910.Muc. compression reinforcement is required (UBC 1910. If a > amax.3.4 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement .7.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by amax = 0.75β1cb.
no TBeam data is to be used. the depth of the compression block is given by a = d . f y (d − d' )ϕ − Therefore. As = As1 + As2.75β1cb. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.85f c' ϕbf . designing top steel).1) If a ≤ ds. Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11 . If a > ds.bw) ds. and vice versa if Mu is negative. Compression reinforcement is required if a > amax. the width of the compression flange is taken as the width of the beam for analysis.. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.d2 − 2M u 0. Cf. the total tensile reinforcement. in this case. as shown in Figure 2. However. As is to be placed at bottom and As is to be placed at top if Mu is positive.85 f c' (bf .7. and total com' ' pression reinforcement is As . The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by amax = 0. Cw. i. the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above.5 .. (UBC 1910.e.e.2. Cf is given by Cf = 0. See Figure 2. Mu (i. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular section design. Design for TBeam In designing for a factored negative moment. calculation for As is performed in two parts. and the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is given by As2 = M us . If Mu > 0.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design As1 = Muc a f y d − max ϕ 2 .
6 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . the balance of the moment.85f c' ϕbw . The web is a rectangular section of dimensions bw and d.Muf. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as a1 = d d2 − 2M uw 0.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Figure 2 Design of a TBeam Section Therefore. Cf fy and the portion of Mu that is resisted by the flange is Again.90. As1 = given by d Muf = Cf d − s 2 ϕ . the value for ϕ is 0. Mu to be carried by the web is given by Muw = Mu . Therefore. If a1 ≤ amax. the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by Technical Note 11 .
This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the Tbeam.85 f c' bamax.7. compression reinforcement is required (UBC 1910. the compression steel is computed as ' As = M us f s' (d − d' )ϕ . If a1 > amax.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design As2 = M uw a ϕf y d − 1 2 . c − (UBC 1910.1) − Therefore the moment resisted by concrete web and tensile steel is a Muc = C d − max 2 ϕ.2.003Es .7 . (UBC 1910. where c − d' f s' = 0. and As = As1 + As2. − Therefore. and the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is Mus = Muw .3.3) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force in web concrete alone is given by C = 0.Muc.4) The tensile steel for balancing compression in web concrete is As2 = M uc a f y d − max 2 ϕ .2. and the tensile steel for balancing compression in steel is Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11 .
1) The beam flexural steel is limited to a maximum given by As ≤ 0. As is to be placed at bottom and As is to be placed at top.3. f y (d − d')ϕ − The total tensile reinforcement. As = As1 + As2 + As3.5. 1921.1.5.3) Special Consideration for Seismic Design For Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design).3.2. Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less than As(min) (UBC 1921.3. 1921.1).5.5.3.3.1) (UBC 1910. 3 f ' 200 c As(min) ≥ max bw d and bw d or fy fy As(min) ≥ 4 As(required).1) Technical Note 11 . (UBC 1921.2.25 bwd. the beam design satisfies the following additional conditions (see also Table 1 for comprehensive listing): The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both the top and bottom.8 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement .2. 3 (UBC 1910.2.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 As3 = Mus . and total compres' ' sion reinforcement is As .1) (UBC 1910. Minimum Tensile Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section in an Ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the minimum of the two following limits: 3 f ' 200 c As ≥ max bw d and bw d or fy fy As ≥ 4 As(required) 3 (UBC 1910.
Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design Table 1 Design Criteria Table Type of Check/ Design Column Check (interaction) Column Design (interaction) Column Shears Ordinary Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic Zones 0&1) NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations 1% < ρ < 8% Intermediate Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic Zone 2) NLDa Combinations Special Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic Zones 3 & 4) NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations α = 1.0 1% < ρ < 6% NLDa Combinations and Column shear capacity ϕ = 1.025 ρ≥ 3 f c' fy .0 plus VD+L No Requirement NLDa Combinations Beam Capacity Shear (Vp) with α = 1. Mu 4 { { } } END END Beam Design Shear Joint Design Beam/ Column Capacity Ratio NLDa Combinations Modified NLDa Combinations (earthquake loads doubled) Beam Capacity Shear (Vp) with α = 1.25 NLDa Combinations ρ ≤ 0.0 and ϕ = 1.9 .0 plus VD+L Vc = 0 Checked for shear No Requirement No Requirement No Requirement Reported in output file NLDa = Number of specified loading Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 11 .0 NLDa Combinations Beam Design Flexure NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations Beam Min.ρ ≥ 200 fy NLDa Combinations 1% < ρ < 8% Modified NLDa Combinations (earthquake loads doubled) Column Capacity ϕ = 1. M u 5 { } END 1 + − max Mu .25 and ϕ = 1. Mu 4 1 − − ≥ max Mu . Moment Override Check + M uEND ≥ No Requirement + M uSPAN − M uSPAN 1 − M uEND 3 1 + − ≥ max M u . M u 5 + MuEND ≥ { } 1 − MuEND 2 END + MuSPAN ≥ − MuSPAN ≥ 1 + − max M u .0 and α = 1.0 and α = 1.
the shear design of the beams is also based on the probable and nominal moment capacities of the members. the beam positive moment capacity would not be less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end (UBC 1921. the beam design would satisfy the following conditions: At any support of the beam.2).2).1). associated with the bottom steel) would not be less than 1/2 of the beam negative moment capacity (i. Vc. respectively...8.e.10 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement .2. the beam positive moment capacity (i.2. Vu. seismic design). The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular load combination at a particular station resulting from the beam major shear: Determine the factored shear force.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 At any end (support) of the beam. Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (UBC 1921. For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (Ductile frames). Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (UBC 1921.8.1).e.3.3. associated with the top steel) at that end (UBC 1921. Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at a userdefined number of stations along the beam span. Determine the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. For Intermediate moment resisting concrete frames (i.4.. Technical Note 11 .4. that can be resisted by the concrete.e. Determine the shear force. in addition to the factored load design.
Determine Shear Force and Moment In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame. and L + − MI + M J . The procedure for calculating the design shear force in a beam from probable moment capacity is the same as that described for a column in section “Design Column Shear Reinforcement” in Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 10 Column Design.4. The capacityshear force. with top steel in tension.3.3.1) where Vp is the capacity shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting in opposite directions.1) Vu = Vp + VD+L (UBC 1921. This check is performed in addition to the design check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. is calculated from the probable moment capacities of each end of the beam and the gravity shear forces.0). In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames (i.11 . Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 11 . the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the capacityshear associated with the probable moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity load. The design shear force Vu is then given by (UBC 1921.e. seismic design). See also Table 1 for details. where L = Moment capacity at end I. where VP1 = VP2 = − MI − + MI + M J . using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1. Vp.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Beam Design The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process. the shear forces and moments for a particular load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding load combination factors. Vp is the maximum of VP1 and VP2 ..4. Therefore.
The design shear force in beams is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal moment capacity and factored shear force. except the earthquake load factors are doubled (UBC 1921.8. with bottom steel in tension. The procedure for calculating nominal (ϕ = 1.0).3. using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.25 (UBC 1921. Also see Table 1 for details. For Intermediate moment resisting frames.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 + MJ = Moment capacity at end J. The factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors.1) For Special moment resisting frame concrete design.12 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement .0).3).3).8. which is described in Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Technical Note 10 Column Design. using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.25 (UBC 1921.0). using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.1. − MJ = Moment capacity at end J. The computation of the design shear force in a beam of an Intermediate moment resisting frame is also the same as that for columns. with top steel in tension. VD+L is the contribution of shear force from the inspan distribution of gravity loads. with bottom steel in tension. + MI = Moment capacity at end I. α is taken as 1. (UBC 1911. in addition to the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames.0. 1921.0). Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The allowable concrete shear capacity is given by Vc = 2 f c' bwd. Vc is set to zero if both the factored axial compressive force. the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the capacity shear based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads. is less than f c' Ag/20 and the shear force contribution from earthquake VE is Technical Note 11 . For Special moment resisting frames. and L = Clear span of beam.0) moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for Special moment resisting frames. including the earthquake effect Pu. except that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.
Concrete Frame Design UBC97
Beam Design
more than half of the total maximum shear force over the length of the member Vu (i.e., VE ≥ 0.5Vu) (UBC 1921.3.4.2).
Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
Given Vu and Vc, the required shear reinforcement in area/unit length is calculated as Av = (Vu / ϕ − Vc )s . f ys d (UBC 1911.5.6.1, 1911.5.6.2)
The shear force resisted by steel is limited by (Vu/ϕ  Vc) ≤ 8 f c' bd. (UBC 1911.5.6.8)
Otherwise, redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here ϕ, the strength reduction factor, is 0.85 for nonseismic design or for seismic design in Seismic Zones 0, 1, and 2 (UBC 1909.3.2.3) and is 0.60 for seismic design in Seismic Zones 3 and 4 (UBC 1909.3.4.1). The maximum of all the calculated Av values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number. The beam shear reinforcement requirements displayed by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.
Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
Technical Note 11  13
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97
Technical Note 12 Joint Design
This Technical Note explains how the program performs a rational analysis of the beamcolumn panel zone to determine the shear forces that are generated in a joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength.
Overview
To ensure that the beamcolumn joint of special moment resisting frames possesses adequate shear strength, the program performs a rational analysis of the beamcolumn panel zone to determine the shear forces that are generated in the joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength. Only joints having a column below the joint are designed. The material properties of the joint are assumed to be the same as those of the column below the joint. The joint analysis is completed in the major and the minor directions of the column. The joint design procedure involves the following steps: • • • Determine the panel zone design shear force,Vuh Determine the effective area of the joint Check panel zone shear stress
The algorithms associated with these three steps are described in detail in the following three sections.
Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force
Figure 1 illustrates the free body stress condition of a typical beamcolumn intersection for a column direction, major or minor.
Overview
Technical Note 12  1
2 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force .Joint Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Figure1 BeamColumn Joint Analysis Technical Note 12 .
Mmax. The C and T forces are based on these moment capacities. The forces that act on the joint are Pu. Also.1.85f c' bd Mmax = C max d 2 Then the program conservatively determines C and T forces as follows: abs( M ) C = T = C max 1 − 1 − M max The program resolves the moments and the C and T forces from beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor directions of the column along the direction that is being investigated.5. and the maximum moment. The magnitude of C or T forces is conservatively determined using basic principles of ultimate strength theory. The program calculates the column shear force Vu from the beam moment capacities.3 . Vu. as follows: Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Technical Note 12 . Vuh = TL + TR . The program calculates the joint shear force Vuh by resolving the moments into C and T forces. The program first calculates the maximum compression. the evaluation of the design shear force is based on the moment capacities (with reinforcing steel overstrength factor. ignoring compression reinforcement as follows. Noting that TL = CL and TR = CR.1). The forces Pu and Vu are axial force and shear force. respectively. In the design of special moment resisting concrete frames. C max = 0. The moments MuL and MuR are obtained from the beams framing into the joint. and no ϕ factors) of the beams framing into the joint (UBC 1921. α. from the column framing into the top of the joint. considering the fact that the concrete cover may be different for the direction of moment. Cmax.Vu The location of C or T forces is determined by the direction of the moment. the program calculates the C and T for the positive and negative moments.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Joint Design The force Vuh is the horizontal panel zone shear force that is to be calculated. that can be carried by the beam. MuL and MuR. thereby contributing force components to the analysis.
4 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force . the shear force from the top of the column is taken as zero. It should be noted that the points of inflection shown on Figure 2 are taken as midway between actual lateral support points for the columns.Joint Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Vu = Mu + Mu H L R See Figure 2. If there is no column at the top of the joint. Figure 2 Column Shear Force Vu Technical Note 12 .
The area of the joint is assumed not to exceed the area of the column below.1909.5.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Joint Design The effects of load reversals.1).4.3. The effective width of the joint area to be used in the calculation is limited to the width of the beam plus the depth of the column.5.5.5 . Determine the Effective Area of Joint Technical Note 12 . Check Panel Zone Shear Stress The panel zone shear stress is evaluated by dividing the shear force Vuh by the effective area of the joint and comparing it with the following design shear strengths (UBC 1921.3.3. It should be noted that if the beam frames into the joint eccentrically.85 (by default).3.1) A beam that frames into a face of a column at the joint is considered in this program to provide confinement to the joint if at least threequarters of the face of the joint is covered by the framing member (UBC 1921. (UBC 1909. The dimensions of the rectangle correspond to the major and minor dimensions of the column below the joint. The joint area for joint shear along the major and minor directions is calculated separately (ACI R21. as illustrated in Case 1 and Case 2 of Figure 1. Determine the Effective Area of Joint The joint area that resists the shear forces is assumed always to be rectangular in plan view. the above assumptions may be unconservative and the user should investigate the acceptability of the particular joint. except if the beam framing into the joint is very narrow.3). are investigated and the design is based on the maximum of the joint shears obtained from the two cases.3): v = { 20ϕ 15ϕ 12ϕ f 'c f 'c f 'c for joints confined on all four sides for joints confined on three faces or on two opposite faces for all other joints where ϕ = 0.2.
2) For joint design.2) The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength factor.4. factor f ' c .2.3. The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are added to the summation. the allowable joint shear stress and a capacity ratio. α. the axial force.4. Technical Note 12 . For each load combination. For Special MomentResisting Frames. the program reports the joint shear. ∑Me ≥ 6 ∑Mg 5 (UBC 1921. The moment capacities of the two columns are added to give the capacity summation for the corresponding load combination.2. and including ϕ factors. major or minor. the program will calculate the ratio of the sum of the beam moment capacities to the sum of the column moment capacities.5.Joint Design Concrete Frame Design UBC97 For lightweight aggregate concrete. using the uniaxial column interaction diagram. the design shear strength of the joint is reduced in the program to at least threequarters of that of the normal weight concrete by replacing the minf cs. The beam capacities are calculated for reversed situations (Cases 1 and 2) as illustrated in Figure 1 and the maximum summation obtained is used. in each of the columns is calculated from the program analysis load combinations. For each load combination. see Figure 3.2). the following UBC provision needs to be satisfied (UBC 1921. Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios At a particular joint for a particular column direction.3 / 4 f c' f c' with (UBC 1921. the moment capacity of each column under the influence of the corresponding axial load Pu is then determined separately for the major and minor directions of the column. The maximum capacity summations obtained from all of the load combinations is used for the beam/column capacity ratio. Pu. The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column below the joint. the joint shear stress.6 Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios .
If this ratio is greater than 5/6. Figure 3 Moment Capacity Mu at a Given Axial Load Pu Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios Technical Note 12 .7 . a warning message is printed in the output file.Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Joint Design The beam/column flexural capacity ratios are only reported for Special MomentResisting Frames involving seismic design load combinations.
.
wind. Bending strength reduction factor. BERKELEY. snow. Load combination scale factor. Further information about using the Print Design Tables form is presented at the end of this Technical Note. other. Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING Combo Type Case Factor DESCRIPTION Design load combination. earthquake.1 . superimposed dead. Shear strength reduction factor. INC. The input can be printed to a printer or to a text file when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. Load type: dead. The column headings for input data and a description of what is included in the columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note. Compressive strength reduction factor for reinforced columns. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 13 Input Data This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design input data for UBC97. A printout of the input data provides the user with the opportunity to carefully review the parameters that have been input into the program and upon which program design is based. Tensile strength reduction factor.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Name of load case. reduced live load. live. Load Combination Multipliers Code Preferences Phi_bending Phi_tension Phi_compression (Tied) Phi_compression (Spiral) Phi_shear Input Data Technical Note 13 . Input Data The program provides the printout of the input data in a series of tables.. See Technical Note 8. Compressive strength reduction factor for tied columns.
Material Property Data Material Name Material Type Design Type Modulus of Elasticity Poisson's Ratio Thermal Coeff Shear Modulus Coefficient of thermal expansion. steel. Used to calculate selfmass of structure. steel. Concrete. Shear strength reduction factor for light weight concrete. other. Shear reinforcing steel yield strength. Concrete. Technical Note 13 . default = 1. Minimum clear concrete cover. Used to calculate selfweight of structure. Area of individual reinforcing bar to be used. Isotropic or orthotropic.0. Label applied to section. Material label. Material Property Mass and Weight Material Name Mass Per Unit Vol Weight Per Unit Vol Material Name Lightweight Concrete Concrete FC Rebar FY Rebar FYS Lightwt Reduc Fact Concrete compressive strength.Input Data Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Concrete.2 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data . Material Design Data for Concrete Materials Concrete Column Property Data Section Label Mat Label Column Depth Column Width Rebar Pattern Concrete Cover Bar Area Layout of main flexural reinforcing steel. steel. Bending reinforcing steel yield strength. other. other.
Concrete Column Design Element Information Concrete Beam Design Element Information Using the Print Design Tables Form To print steel frame design input data directly to a printer. click the Print to File check box on the Print Design Tables form. if necessary. Effective length factor. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print. Click the Filename>> button to change the Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 13 .Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Input Data Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING Story ID Column Line Section ID Framing Type RLLF Factor L_Ratio Major L_Ratio Minor K Major K Minor Story ID Bay ID Section ID Framing type RLLF Factor L_Ratio Major L_Ratio Minor Unbraced length about major axis. use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the check box on the Print Design Tables form. Name of section assigned to column. Story level at which beam occurs.0. Unbraced length about major axis. To print steel frame design input data to a file.0. Lateral or gravity.3 . DESCRIPTION Column assigned to story level at top of column. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers. Grid lines locating beam. Lateral or gravity. Unbraced length about minor axis. Effective length factor. Section number assigned to beam. Click the OK button to send the print to your printer. default = 1. Unbraced length about minor axis. Grid line. default = 1.
doc).txt. click Yes to replace the existing file. the Selection Only check box will be checked.g.Input Data Concrete Frame Design UBC97 path or filename. . The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Design Tables form. Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file. Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request. and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only.4 Using the Print Design Tables Form . The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. . . Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e. If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. Or use the Filename>> button to locate another file. Data will be added to this file..xls. Technical Note 13 .
The design output is printed when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and select Output Summary of the Print Design Tables dialog box.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. The program provides the output data in a series of tables. Grid lines. Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output COLUMN HEADING Story ID Column Line Section ID Station ID DESCRIPTION Column assigned to story level at top of column. The column headings for output data and a description of what is included in the columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note. Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output Technical Note 14 . Biaxial PM Interaction and Shear Design of ColumnType Elements Required Reinforcing Longitudinal Combo Shear22 Combo Shear33 Area of longitudinal reinforcing required.1 . Shear reinforcing required. Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed. BERKELEY. Name of section assigned to column.. Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed. Further information about using the Print Design Tables dialog box is presented at the end of this Technical Note. INC. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN UBC97 Technical Note 14 Output Details This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design output for UBC97 that can be printed to a printer or to a text file. Shear reinforcing required.
Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Beam to Column Capacity Ratios and Joint Shear Capacity Check Story ID Column Line Section ID Story level at which joint occurs. Grid line.2 Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output . Assigned section name. Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity is based. Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity is based. Minor Combo Technical Note 14 . Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity. Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity is based. Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity. BeamColumn Capacity Ratios Major Combo Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity.Output Details Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output COLUMN HEADING Combo DESCRIPTION Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed. Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity is based. Minor Combo Joint Shear Capacity Ratios Major Combo Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity.
txt. use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the check box on the Print Design Tables dialog box. Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 14 . if necessary.3 . Click the Filename>> button to change the path or filename.. the Selection Only check box will be checked. Click the OK button to send the print to your printer. . click the Print to File check box on the Print Design Tables dialog box. .Concrete Frame Design UBC97 Output Details Using the Print Design Tables Form To print concrete frame design input data directly to a printer. The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file.g. and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears. Or use the Filename>> button to locate another file.xls. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only. If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e. To print concrete frame design input data to a file. The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Design Tables dialog box. Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables dialog box and the Print Design Tables dialog box to complete the request. Data will be added to this file. click Yes to replace the existing file. .doc). Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print. Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file.
.
Earthquake resisting frames. Ordinary. See Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Technical Note 18 Design Load Combination for more information. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI31899 Technical Note 15 General and Notation Introduction to the ACI31899 Series of Technical Notes The ACI31899 Concrete Frame Design series of Technical Notes describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by this program when the user selects the ACI31899 Design Code (ACI 1999).. The design is based on userspecified loading combinations. and Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Technical Note 22 Joint Design. For simplicity. The program provides options to design or check Earthquake resisting frames. Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Technical Note 20 Column Design. Introduction to the ACI31899 Series of Technical Notes Technical Note 15 . all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to InchPoundSecond units unless otherwise noted. Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Technical Note 21 Beam Design. But the code is based on InchPoundSecond units. The details of the design criteria used for the different framing systems are described in Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Technical Note 19 Strength Reduction Factors.1 . which are described in Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Technical Note 23 Input Data and Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Technical Note 24 Output Details. The various notations used in this series are listed herein. and Earthquake resisting frames. INC. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. Special (high seismic risk areas) moment resisting frames as required for seismic design provisions. BERKELEY. which are described in Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Technical Note 16 Preferences and Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Technical Note 17 Overwrites. It also provides input and output data summaries. The program uses preferences and overwrites. Intermediate (moderate seismic risk areas).
5.General and Notation Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Notation Acv Ag As ' As Area of concrete used to determine shear stress. sqin Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. lbin As(required) Ast Av Cm Ec Es Ig Ise L M1 M2 Mc Mns Ms Technical Note 15 . in4 Clear unsupported length. sqin Area of compression reinforcement. in Smaller factored end moment in a column. in4 Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of member cross section. neglecting reinforcement. dependent upon column curvature. psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement.2) Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis. assumed as 29. lbin Nonsway component of factored end moment.2 Notation . sqin Coefficient. sqin Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement.000. used to calculate moment magnification factor Modulus of elasticity of concrete. sqin Area of shear reinforcement. lbin Larger factored end moment in a column. lbin Factored moment to be used in design. sqin Area of tension reinforcement. sqin Gross area of concrete.000 psi (ACI 8. lbin Sway component of factored end moment.
in Width of member. lb Maximum axial load strength allowed. lb Shear force computed from probable moment capacity. in Concrete cover to center of reinforcing. in Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions.3 . in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement.Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 General and Notation Mu Mux Muy Pb Pc Pmax P0 Pu Vc VE VD+L Vu Vp a ab b bf bw c cb d d' Factored moment at section. lbin Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions. lbin Factored moment at section about Xaxis. lb Factored shear force at a section. in Width of web (TBeam section). lb Critical buckling strength of column. lb Depth of compression block. lb Shear force from span loading. in Effective width of flange (TBeam section). in Depth of compression block at balanced condition. in Notation Technical Note 15 . lb Shear resisted by concrete. in Depth to neutral axis. lb Factored axial load at section. lb Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity. lb Shear force caused by earthquake loads. lbin Factored moment at section about Yaxis.
4) Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. in Specified compressive strength of concrete.General and Notation Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 ds f c' fy Thickness of slab (TBeam section). in Reinforcing steel overstrength factor Absolute value of ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to maximum factored axial total load Absolute value of ratio or maximum factored axial dead load to maximum factored axial total load Moment magnification factor for sway moments Moment magnification factor for nonsway moments Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Strength reduction factor fys h k r α β1 βd δs δns εc εs ϕ Technical Note 15 .4 Notation . in Effective length factor Radius of gyration of column section. psi fy ≤ 80. psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement.000 psi (ACI 9. psi Dimension of column.
©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001
CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI31899
Technical Note 16 Preferences
This Technical Note describes the items in the Preferences form.
General
The concrete frame design preferences in this program are basic assignments that apply to all concrete frame elements. Use the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design command to access the Preferences form where you can view and revise the concrete frame design preferences. Default values are provided for all concrete frame design preference items. Thus, it is not required that you specify or change any of the preferences. You should, however, at least review the default values for the preference items to make sure they are acceptable to you.
Using the Preferences Form
To view preferences, select the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design. The Preferences form will display. The preference options are displayed in a twocolumn spreadsheet. The left column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item name. The right column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item value. To change a preference item, left click the desired preference item in either the left or right column of the spreadsheet. This activates a dropdown box or highlights the current preference value. If the dropdown box appears, select a new value. If the cell is highlighted, type in the desired value. The preference value will update accordingly. You cannot overwrite values in the dropdown boxes. When you have finished making changes to the composite beam preferences, click the OK button to close the form. You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. If you click the Cancel button to exit
General
Technical Note 16  1
Preferences
Concrete Frame Design ACI31899
the form, any changes made to the preferences are ignored and the form is closed.
Preferences
For purposes of explanation in this Technical Note, the preference items are presented in Table. The column headings in the table are described as follows: Item: The name of the preference item as it appears in the cells at the left side of the Preferences form. Possible Values: The possible values that the associated preference item can have. Default Value: The builtin default value that the program assumes for the associated preference item. Description: A description of the associated preference item.
Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences
Item Design Code Possible Values Any code in the program >0 >0 >0 >0 ≥4.0 Default Value ACI 31899 Description Design code used for design of concrete frame elements. Unitless strength reduction factor per ACI 9.3. Unitless strength reduction factor per ACI 9.3. Unitless strength reduction factor per ACI 9.3. Unitless strength reduction factor per ACI 9.3. Number of equally spaced interaction curves used to create a full 360degree interaction surface (this item should be a multiple of four). We recommend that you use 24 for this item.
Phi Bending Tension Phi Compression Tied Phi Compression Spiral Phi Shear Number Interaction Curves
0.9 0.7 0.75 0.85 24
Technical Note 16  2
Preferences
Concrete Frame Design ACI31899
Preferences
Table 1: Concrete Frame Preferences
Item Possible Values Default Value 11 Description Number of points used for defining a single curve in a concrete frame interaction surface (this item should be odd). Toggle for design load combinations that include a time history designed for the envelope of the time history, or designed stepbystep for the entire time history. If a single design load combination has more than one time history case in it, that design load combination is designed for the envelopes of the time histories, regardless of what is specified here.
Number Inter Any odd value action Points ≥4.0 Time History Design Envelopes or StepbyStep
Envelopes
Preferences
Technical Note 16  3
.
select an element and click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. to the elements that are selected when the overwrites are changed. To access the overwrites. Description: A description of the associated overwrite item.. Overwrites Technical Note 17 . you do not need to specify or change any of the overwrites. Default values are provided for all overwrite items. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI31899 Technical Note 17 Overwrites General The concrete frame design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to those elements to which they are assigned. Possible Values: The possible values that the associated overwrite item can have. that is. Item: The name of the overwrite item as it appears in the program. Default Value: The default value that the program assumes for the associated overwrite item. the program applies the changes only to the elements to which they are specifically assigned. An explanation of how to change an overwrite is provided at the end of this Technical Note. BERKELEY. these names are generally short. When changes are made to overwrite items. However.1 . To save space in the formes.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. at least review the default values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. The column headings in the table are described as follows. the overwrites are presented in Table 1. This Technical Note describes concrete frame design overwrites for ACI31899. Thus. Overwrites For explanation purposes in this Technical Note. INC.
10. See ACI 10.0 >0 ≤1. Sway Special Frame type per moment frame definition given in ACI 21.3.12.1.12.12. Factor relating actual moment diagram to an equivalent uniform moment diagram.3.1.13 and Figure R10.0 >0 ≤1.13 and Figure R10.2 Overwrites . Sway Intermediate. See ACI 10. Possible Values Default Value Description Element Type Live Load Reduction Factor Horizontal Earthquake Factor Unbraced Length Ratio (Major) Unbraced Length Ratio (Minor) Effective Length Factor (K Major) Effective Length Factor (K Minor) Moment Coefficient (Cm Major) Moment Coefficient (Cm Minor) NonSway Moment Factor (Dns Major) Technical Note 17 . Factor relating actual moment diagram to an equivalent uniform moment diagram.0 1 1 1 1 1 See ACI 10. Used to reduce the live load contribution to the factored loading.0 >0 ≤1.1.0 >0 ≤1. See ACI 10. 1. Sway Ordinary NonSway >0 ≤1.12.0 1.12.Overwrites Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites Item Element Section Sway Special.12. 10.0 >0 ≤1.12.0 >0 ≤1.0 >0 ≤1.0 1 1. See ACI 10.0 >0 ≤1.
3 . The values of the overwrite items are visible in the second column of the spreadsheet if only one element was selected before the overwrites form was accessed. Then left click in either column of the spreadsheet to activate a dropdown box or highlight the contents in the cell in the right column of the spreadsheet. If the dropdown box appears. After selecting one or multiple elements. check the box to the left of an overwrite item to change it. select an element and click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. 1 See ACI 10. The overwrites are displayed in the form with a column of check boxes and a twocolumn spreadsheet. Initially.13. no values show for the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet. the check boxes in the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form are all unchecked and all of the cells in the spreadsheet have a gray background to indicate that they are inactive and the items in the cells cannot be changed. The left column of the spreadsheet contains the name of the overwrite item. The names of the overwrite items are displayed in the first column of the spreadsheet. select a value from Overwrites Technical Note 17 .13. The right column of the spreadsheet contains the overwrites values. Making Changes in the Overwrites Form To access the concrete frame overwrites. If multiple elements were selected. 1 See ACI 10.13.Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Overwrites Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Overwrites Item NonSway Moment Factor (Dns Minor) Sway Moment Factor (Ds Major) Sway Moment Factor (Ds Minor) Possible Values Default Value 1 Description See ACI 10.
You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. The program then changes all of the overwrite items whose associated check boxes are checked for the selected members. The overwrite will reflect the change.4 Overwrites . not to the values that were in the . All current design results will be deleted when this command is executed. If the cell contents is highlighted. If you click the Cancel button to exit the form.edb file used to initialize the model. When you reset overwrites. The concrete frame overwrite values that were in a . the program resets the overwrite values to its builtin values. When changes to the overwrites have been completed.edb file that you used to initialize your model may be different from the builtin program default values. click the OK button to close the form. any changes made to the overwrites are ignored and the form is closed. Resetting Concrete Frame Overwrites to Default Values Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Reset All Overwrites command to reset all of the steel frame overwrites. You cannot change the values of the dropdown boxes.Overwrites Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 the box. Technical Note 17 . type in the desired value. Important note about resetting overwrites: The program defaults for the overwrite items are built into the program.
1. However.3) These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever the ACI 31899 code is used. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load condition on an elementbyelement basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.9 DL ± 1.4 DL + 1. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI31899 Technical Note 18 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. the following load combinations should be considered (ACI 9.7 LL 0.3).4 DL 1. INC.1). The user is warned that the above load combinations involving seismic loads consider servicelevel seismic forces.4 DL + 1..2. in addition to the dead and live loads. See Concrete Frame Design ACI 31899 Technical Note 17 Overwrites for more information.1) (ACI 9.2. For the ACI 31899 code. BERKELEY.75 (1. Design Load Combinations Technical Note 18 .1 EL) (ACI 9.2.2) (ACI 9.7 LL ± 1.7 LL (ACI 9. the stress check may need only one load combination. if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only.4 DL + 1. Different load factors may apply with strengthlevel seismic forces (ACI R9.9 DL ± 1.7 WL) 0.1 .7 LL ± 1. namely 1.75 (1.1 EL 0.3 WL 0.2).7 * 1.2. if the structure is subjected to wind (WL) and earthquake (EL) loads and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.2.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.3 * 1.4 DL + 1.
.
2) = 0. INC.3) ϕ ϕ Strength Reduction Factors Technical Note 19 .2.85 for shear and torsion (ACI 9.2.2. and axial compression and flexure (spirally reinforced column) (ACI 9.3.1 . BERKELEY.3.3.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. axial force.90 for flexure = 0.90 for axial tension = 0. and torsion are as follows: ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ = 0.2.3. shear.2) = 0.70 for axial compression. and axial compression and flexure (tied column) (ACI 9.2..90 for axial tension and flexure (ACI 9. ϕ.3.2.75 for axial compression.1) (ACI 9.3.2) = 0. The ϕ factors for flexure.2) (ACI 9. are applied on the nominal strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI31899 Technical Note 19 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.
.
1). the program will check the column capacity. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI31899 Technical Note 20 Column Design This Technical Note describes how the program checks column capacity or designs reinforced concrete columns when the ACI31899 code is selected.3. the program can calculate the amount of reinforcing required to design the column. INC. Design the column shear reinforcement.. If you define the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section. the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement 1 to 8 percent for Ordinary and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ACI 10. When the steel is undefined.9. The following four sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process. Overview Technical Note 20 .©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Overview The program can be used to check column capacity or to design columns. BERKELEY.1 .4. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps: Generate axial force/biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model. The target capacity ratio is taken as one when calculating the required reinforcing area. A typical biaxial interaction surface is shown in Figure 1. Alternatively.1) and 1 to 6 percent for Special moment resisting frames (ACI 21. Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each station of the column.
the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations.2 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces . See Figure 2. The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in three dimensions on the section of the column. A typical interaction diagram is shown in Figure 1. The Technical Note 20 . In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending.Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Figure 1 A Typical Column Interaction Surface Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the threedimensional interaction failure surface.
where ϕPn(max) = 0. or circular column section. In cases involving axial tension.Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Column Design linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain.85 f c' (AgAst)+fyAst] spiral column.3. εc. The ϕ factor used in calculating ϕPn and ϕPb is the ϕ(compression).2. εsEs.3 .5.9 by default (ACI 9.3.2. See Figure 3.2). with a stress value of 0. The interaction algorithm provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone.2. where ϕPb is the axial force at the balanced condition.003 (ACI 10. Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces Technical Note 20 . (ACI 10. The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be placed at the actual location of the center of the bar and the algorithm does not assume any further simplifications with respect to distributing the area of steel over the cross section of the column.2) The value of ϕ used in the interaction diagram varies from ϕ(compression) to ϕ(flexure) based on the axial load.85 f c' (AgAst)+fyAst] tied column.2) (ACI 9. ϕPn(max) = 0.2) (ACI 9. fy (ACI 10. to 0. which is 0. such as an equivalent steel tube or cylinder.80ϕ[0. ϕ ϕ = = 0. and 0. The effects of the strength reduction factor.1) (ACI 10. The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity. For low values of axial load.3.3. The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular.1 f c' Ag to zero.85 f c' (ACI 10.2. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to ϕPn(max). and allows for any doubly symmetric rectangular. at the extremity of the section.70 for tied columns. square.3).75 for spirally reinforced columns.1).2.2.3.7. ϕ is increased linearly from ϕ(compression) to ϕ(flexure) as the ϕPn decreases from the smaller of ϕPb or 0.3). and is limited to the yield stress of the steel. ϕ is always ϕ(flexure).5. The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate strength design (ACI 10.85ϕ[0. are included in the generation of the interaction surfaces. See Figure 3. ϕ.4).
Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Figure 2 Idealized Strain Distribution for Generation of Interaction Source Technical Note 20 .4 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces .
Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored moments. and Muy. defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial moment set. Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 20 . Determine whether the point. lies within the interaction volume. Mux. The factored moments and corresponding magnification factors depend on the identification of the individual column as either “sway” or “nonsway.” The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process.5 .Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Column Design Figure 3 Idealization of Stress and Strain Distribution in a Column Section Calculate Column Capacity Ratio The column capacity ratio is calculated for each load combination at each output station of each column. Determine the moment magnification factors for the column moments. The following steps are involved in calculating the capacity ratio of a particular column for a particular load combination at a particular location: Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis load cases and the specified load combination factors to give Pu.
The sway components are identified by the “s” subscripts.3) The factor δs is the moment magnification factor for moments causing side sway. (ACI 10.13.6+0. This βd for sway frame in secondorder analysis is different from the one that is defined later for nonsway moment magnification (ACI 10. For the Pdelta analysis.7 live load (ACI 10. which are identified by “ns” subscripts. The nonsway components. The default moment of inertia factor in this program is 1.12.1).3.12. See also White and Hajjar (1991).13. The program assumes that it performs a Pdelta analysis and. the magnified moments about two axes at any station of a column can be obtained as M = Mns + δsMs.2).4.0. 10. therefore. are predominantly caused by gravity load. The sway moments are predominantly caused by lateral loads. δs. Mux. to obtain minimum eccentricities of (0. is taken as 1 because the component moments Ms and Mns are obtained from a “second order elastic (Pdelta) analysis” (ACI R10. Determine Moment Magnification Factors The moment magnification factors are calculated separately for sway (overall stability effect). The moment magnification factors for sway moments. For individual columns or columnmembers in a floor. R10.10.Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Determine Factored Moments and Forces The factored loads for a particular load combination are obtained by applying the corresponding load factors to all the load cases. moment magnification factor δs for moments causing sidesway is taken as unity (ACI 10.2). δs and for nonsway (individual column stability effect). where h is the dimension of the column in the corresponding direction (ACI 10. The factored moments are further increased for nonsway columns. δns. R10.13.13.10.0. giving Pu.1.4.6). The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the sway (Ms) and the nonsway (Mns) components. and are related to the cause of side sway.03h) inches.3.13.11). the moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions are in general different (ACI 10. 10. The moment of inertia reduction for sustained lateral load involves a factor βd (ACI 10.4 dead load + 1. R10.13).1). if required. The user should use reduction factors for the moment of inertias in the program as specified in ACI 10. Technical Note 20 . and Muy.10. R10.6 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio . the load should correspond to a load combination of 1.11. Also.
δns.6 +0.Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Column Design The computed moments are further amplified for individual column stability effect (ACI 10.4. The user can overwrite Cm on an elementbyelement basis. Cm=1.12. corresponding to instability in the minor and major directions of the element.13. Ma / Mb is positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending.12. lu is the unsupported length of the column for the direction of bending considered.3) Mc is the factored moment to be used in design. These are the lengths Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 20 .0. respectively.12. The nonsway moment magnification factor. Mb (ACI 10. δns. 10.4 (ACI 10.12.5) by the nonsway moment magnification factor.12.75Pc Ma ≥ 0. or the length is overwritten.3) Cm = 0. If transverse load is present on the span. the program allows the user to override this value (ACI 10. however. where (ACI 10. associated with the major or minor direction of the column is given by (ACI 10. as follows: Mc = δnsM.3. where (ACI 10. The above expression of Cm is valid if there is no transverse load applied between the supports.12.12. and Mb is numerically larger than Ma.1). Pc = π 2 EI (kl u )2 . where Pu 1− 0.3.1) Ma and Mb are the moments at the ends of the column. The two unsupported lengths are l22 and l33. See Figure 4.3) k is conservatively taken as 1.7 .3) δns = Cm ≤ 1.
If Pu is found to be greater than or equal to 0. must be a positive number and greater than one. δns.75Pc.R10.Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Figure 4 Axes of Bending and Unsupported Length between the support points of the element in the corresponding directions. where (ACI 10. Pu must be less than 0. Technical Note 20 . Therefore. a failure condition is declared.0.3) The magnification factor.75Pc.12.4E c I g 1 + βd .12. EI is associated with a particular column direction: EI = 0.3) βd = maximum factored axial sustained (dead) load maximum factored axial total load (ACI 10.8 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio .
OC If OL = OC (or CR=1). the moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain Pu. if the point lies outside the interaction volume. δns.9 . a capacity ratio is calculated. the column capacity is adequate. Cm. and Muy set and associated load combination number. The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling Pu. That means that δs. The point (Pu. Mux. Calculate Column Capacity Ratio Technical Note 20 . the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed. The point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. is given by the ratio . and Pc assume different values for major and minor directions of bending. If OL > OC (or CR>1). If the point lies within the interaction volume. CR. See Figure 5. and Muy. Mux. the user can explicitly specify values of δs and δns. however. the column is overstressed. lu. Determine Capacity Ratio As a measure of the stress condition of the column. EI. k. Mux. The capacity ratio. Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity. This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C. This point is determined by threedimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failOL ure surface. The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. Muy) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in Figure 5. If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member. the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is stressed to capacity.Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Column Design The above calculations are performed for major and minor directions separately. If OL < OC (or CR<1). the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate.
The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular load combination resulting from shear forces in a particular direction: Technical Note 20 . calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Calculate Column Capacity Ratio.Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Figure 5 Geometric Representation of Column Capacity Ratio Required Reinforcing Area If the reinforcing area is not defined. the program computes the reinforcement that will give a column capacity ratio of one.10 Required Reinforcing Area ." Design Column Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination in the major and minor directions of the column.
Pu. Determine Section Forces In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame. The capacity shear force in a column. is calculated. Mu and Mu .5. For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (Ductile frames).1) where.Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Column Design Determine the factored forces acting on the section.4.5. namely. in a particular direction are obtained by factoring the program analysis load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. respectively. in a particular direction is calculated from the probable moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial force acting on the column. the shear design of the columns is also based on the Probable moment and nominal moment capacities of the members. Pu and Vu. Vc. For each load combination. In the shear design of Special moment resisting frames (i. that can be resisted by concrete alone. Vp. the column is checked for capacity shear in addition to the requirement for the Ordinary moment resisting frames. Vu. Pu. and the column shear force. Note that Pu is needed for the calculation of Vc. Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.e.11 . seismic design). Vu. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process. in addition to the factored moments. the forces for a particular load combination. Vp is the capacity shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 20 .4. Determine the shear force. + − the positive and negative moment capacities. of the column in a particular direction under the influence of the axial force Pu is calculated using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction.1) Vu = Vp + VD+L (ACI 21. the column axial force.. Then. Effects of the axial forces on the column moment capacities are included in the formulation. is then given by (ACI 21. The design shear force. the factored axial load.
The modified factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors. in addition to the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. it is zero.25 (ACI 10.0. VD+L is the contribution of shear force from the inspan distribution of gravity loads. For Special moment resisting frames α is taken as 1. the shear force carried by the concrete.a. Vc.b). = Positive and negative moment capacities at end I of the column using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1. MI . except the earthquake load factors are doubled (ACI 21. Determine Concrete Shear Capacity Given the design force set Pu and Vu. R21. The design shear force is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal (ϕ = 1.10.5. MJ .3.12 Design Column Shear Reinforcement . where VP1 = VP2 = − + MI + M J .1).0).25 (ACI 21. Therefore.Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 in two opposite directions.0) moment capacity and modified factored shear force. and L = Clear span of column. = Positive and negative moment capacities at end J of the column using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.3. The procedure for calculating nominal moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for special moment resisting frames. R21. except that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.10). + − MJ . the shear capacity of the column is also checked for the capacity shear based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads. and L + − MI + M J . For most of the columns.10. Vp is the maximum of VP1 and VP2 . where L + − MI .4.0). For Intermediate moment resisting frames. is calculated as follows: Technical Note 20 .
and Vc ≤ 3.2) Av = (ACI 11. Pu is negative Vc = 2 f c' 1 + Pu 500 Ag Acv ≥ 0 (ACI 11.e.4.6.6. 11.6. i.5. Pu.8D) (ACI 11.3.3) For Special moment resisting concrete frame design. Vc is set to zero if the factored axial compressive force.2) (ACI 11..Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Column Design If the column is subjected to axial compression.2).5 f c' 1 + Pu 500 Ag Acv.5. Acv is taken to be equal to the gross area of the section (ACI 11. including the earthquake effect.2.3).1. s.5.3.13 . the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or ties within a spacing.6.3) Vu is limited by the following relationship. for rectangular columns and f ys d (Vu / ϕ − Vc )s . Acv. (Vu / ϕVc) ≤ 8 f c' Acv (ACI 11. is more than half of the total factored maximum shear force over the length of the member Vu (VE ≥ 0.5.3. which is shown shaded in Figure 6. If the column is subjected to axial tension.3. R11. Acv is the effective shear area.3. is small (Pu < f c' Ag / 20) and if the shear force contribution from earthquake. 11.1. is given for rectangular and circular columns by Av = (Vu / ϕ − Vc )s .2) (ACI 11.2.5. where (ACI 11. VE. for circular columns.3.2) The term Pu / Ag must have psi units.000 Ag f c' ≤ 100 psi.9) Design Column Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 20 .1. For circular columns. Pu is positive. f ys (0. Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given Vu and Vc. Pu Vc = 2 f c' 1 + 2.3.5Vu) (ACI 21.3.
along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination label.2.3). Technical Note 20 . the strength reduction factor.85 (ACI 9.Column Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Figure 6 Shear Stress Area. Here ϕ. redimensioning of the concrete section is required.14 Design Column Shear Reinforcement . Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing considerations or transverse reinforcement volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.3. is 0. The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on shear strength consideration. The maximum of all the calculated Av values obtained from each load combination are reported for the major and minor directions of the column. Acv Otherwise.
and J. Inc. Application of SecondOrder Elastic Analysis in LRFD: Research to Practice. Hajjar.15 . 28.Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Column Design Reference White. No. Reference Technical Note 20 . 1991. American Institute of Steel Construction.F. Vol. Engineering Journal. D. 4.W.
.
All beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. INC. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a userdefined number of check/design stations along the beam span..1 . CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI31899 Technical Note 21 Beam Design This Technical Note describes how this program completes beam design when the ACI 31899 code is selected. The program calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments. shears. the program calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments. shears. load combination factors. and torsion that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design beam flexural reinforcement Design beam shear reinforcement Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at check/design stations along the beam span. BERKELEY.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. and other criteria described below. Effects resulting from any axial forces. load combination factors and other criteria described herein. Overview In the design of concrete beams. minor direction bending. The following steps are involved in designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment for a particular beam for a particular section: Determine the maximum factored moments Determine the reinforcing steel Overview Technical Note 21 .
hence. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. the beam may be designed as a Rectangular. the width. The design procedure used by this program for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. or the grade of concrete. In such cases. Technical Note 21 . the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors.2). Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.and Tbeams) is summarized below.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (ACI 10. Negative beam moments produce top steel. all the beams are designed for major direction flexure and shear only. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block as shown in Figure 1 (ACI 10. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed 0.or a Tbeam. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this designed balanced condition. or Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame beams. + The beam section is then designed for the maximum positive M u and maxi− mum negative M u factored moments obtained from all of the load combina tions.3). the beam is always designed as a rectangular section. It is assumed that the compression carried by concrete is less than 0. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement.1 f c' Ag (ACI 10.3. Intermediate. In such cases.2 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . Positive beam moments produce bottom steel.3. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.3).Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of Special. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.
1) where. designing top or bottom steel).850.e.000 d = d.2. Mu (i.3) (ACI 10.7.85.05 c 1.7.1) in the above and the following equations.85f c ϕb . 0.000 cb = εc Es 87.2. (ACI 10. β1 = 0.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.3 ..2. Also β1 and cb are calculated as follows: f ' − 4.2.2.3.000 .4) Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 21 . where. a=dd2 − 2 Mu 1 0.90 (ACI 9. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 1).000 + f y ε c E s + fy (ACI 10. the value of ϕ is 0. 87.Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Beam Design Figure 1 Design of Rectangular Beam Section Design for Rectangular Beam In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.3. 10.
compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.2.4) The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is Technical Note 21 . where c − d' f s' = 0. c − (ACI 10.2. If a > amax. and (ACI 10.3. 10.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 The maximum allowed depth of the compression block is given by amax = 0.3) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force developed in concrete alone is given by C = 0.7.2. This steel is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive.7.75β1cb. − So the required compression steel is given by ' As = M us f s' (d − d' )ϕ .003Es .85 f c' bamax.1.3. or at the top if Mu is negative.1) the moment resisted by concrete compression and tensile steel is a Muc = C d − max 2 − ϕ.4 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement .3) If a ≤ amax. the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by As = Mu a ϕf y d − 2 . Therefore the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is Mus = Mu .Muc. (ACI 10.
3.. calculation for As is performed in two parts. 10.1. the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as above.7. See Figure 2. and vice versa if Mu is negative. the total tensile reinforcement.e. Mu (i. Compression reinforcement is required if a > amax. and total ' ' compression reinforcement is As .75β1cb. designing top steel).2. The maximum allowed depth of compression block is given by amax = 0. Design for TBeam In designing for a factored negative moment. • Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 21 ..85 f c' (bf . i.3) • If a ≤ ds. and the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is given by As2 = M us .e. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. f y (d − d' )ϕ − Therefore. (ACI 10.bw)ds. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular section design.Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Beam Design As1 = M uc a f y d − max ϕ 2 . As is to be placed at bottom and As is to be placed at top if Mu is positive. the depth of the compression block is given by a=dd2 − 2Mu 0. However.5 . As = As1 + As2. Cw. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. no TBeam data is to be used. Cf. in this case the width of the compression flange is taken as the width of the beam for analysis. Cf is given by Cf = 0.85f c' ϕbf . as shown in Figure 2. If Mu > 0. If a > ds.
the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by As2 = Muw a ϕf y d − 1 2 . the value for ϕ is ϕ(flexure).6 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as a1 = d d2 − 2Muw 0. Cf fy and the portion of Mu that is resisted by the flange is If a1 ≤ amax. the balance of the moment.90 by default. As1 = given by d Muf = Cf d − s ϕ. Mu to be carried by the web is given by Muw = Mu . and Technical Note 21 . which is 0. The web is a rectangular section of dimensions bw and d.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Figure 2 Design of a TBeam Section Therefore.85f ci ϕbw .Muf. 2 Again. Therefore.
2. and 2 the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is Mus = Muw . This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the Tbeam.2.4) The tensile steel for balancing compression in web concrete is As2 = Muc . compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Beam Design As = As1 + As2.Muc.3) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force in web concrete alone is given by C = 0. If a1 > amax.7. − Therefore. where c − d' f s' = 0.1) − Therefore.7 . and amax )ϕ f y (d − 2 the tensile steel for balancing compression in steel is As3 = Mus . (ACI 10. the moment resisted by concrete web and tensile steel is a Muc = C d − max ϕ . the compression steel is computed as ' As = Mus f s' (d − d' )ϕ . c − (ACI 10.3.85 f c' bamax. f y (d − d' )ϕ Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement Technical Note 21 .003Es .
Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 − The total tensile reinforcement.3) The beam flexural steel is limited to a maximum given by As ≤ 0. As is to be placed at bottom and ' As is to be placed at top. associated with the top steel) at that end (ACI 21.3) Special Consideration for Seismic Design For Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design).5.1) (ACI 10.e. associated with the bottom steel) would not be less than 1/2 of the beam negative moment capacity (i. 3 (ACI 10.. As = As1 + As2 + As3..5.1) At any end (support) of the beam.1). Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less than As(min) (ACI 21.3.2. the beam design satisfies the following additional conditions (see also Table 1): The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both the top and bottom. (ACI 10.2.3.5. 3 f ' 200 c As(min) ≥ max bw d and bw d or fy fy As(min) ≥ 4 As(required). Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the Technical Note 21 .2.2).3.8 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement . and total ' compression reinforcement is As . (ACI 21. the beam positive moment capacity (i.5.e. Minimum Tensile Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile steel provided in a rectangular section in an Ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the minimum of the two following limits: 3 f ' 200 c As ≥ max bw d and bw d or fy fy As ≥ (4/3)As(required).025 bwd.1) (ACI 10.
9 . Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (ACI 21. Determine the shear force. the shear design of the beams is also based upon the probable and nominal moment capacities of the members. seismic design).Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Beam Design maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (ACI 21.1). For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (ductile frames). For Intermediate moment resisting concrete frames (i.3. The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular load combination at a particular station due to the beam major shear: • • • Determine the factored shear force. Determine the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.e. the beam design would satisfy the following conditions: At any support of the beam. Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 21 .2). Vc. Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at a user defined number of stations along the beam span.2. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process.. respectively. in addition to the factored load design.10. Vu.4.10.4.1). that can be resisted by the concrete. the beam positive moment capacity would not be less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end (ACI 21.
0 plus VD+L Vc = 0 Checked for shear Joint Design Beam/Column Capacity Ratio No Requirement No Requirement No Requirement Reported in output file NLDa = Number of specified loading Technical Note 21 .10 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement .25 and ϕ = 1.Beam Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Table 1 Design Criteria Table Type of Check/ Design Column Check (interaction) Column Design (interaction) Ordinary Moment Resisting Frames (nonSeismic) NLDa Combinations Intermediate Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic) NLDa Combinations Special Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic) NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations 1% < ρ < 8% NLDa Combinations 1% < ρ < 8% Modified NLDa Combinations (earthquake loads doubled) Column capacity ϕ = 1.0 and α = 1. Moment Override Check + M uEND ≥ No Requirement + MuSPAN − M uSPAN { 1 ≥ max{ M 5 1 − M u END 3 1 + − ≥ max M u .0 NLDa Combinations α = 1.025 ρ≥ 3 f c' fy Column Shears NLDa Combinations Beam Design Flexure NLDa Combinations NLDa Combinations .0 and α = 1.25 NLDa Combinations ρ ≤ 0.0 and ϕ = 1. M } M 4 − u 1 − M u END 2 1 + − ≥ max Mu .0 1% < ρ < 6% NLDa Combinations Column shear capacity ϕ = 1. M u END } } END + MuSPAN − MuSPAN { } 1 ≥ max{ . Mu 4 END − u END Beam Design Shear NLDa Combinations Modified NLDa Combinations (earthquake loads doubled) Beam Capacity Shear (Vp) with α = 1.0 plus VD+L No Requirement NLDa Combinations Beam Capacity Shear (Vp) with α = 1. ρ ≥ 200 fy Beam Min. M u 5 + M uEND ≥ + − u .
11 .. where VP1 VP2 − MI = − + MI + MJ . + MJ = Moment capacity at end J.Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Beam Design Determine Shear Force and Moment • In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame. This check is performed in addition to the design check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the capacity shear resulting from the probable moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity load. Vp.e.3.4. The capacity shear force.4. Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Technical Note 21 . See also Table 1 for details.1) • where Vp is the capacity shear force obtained by applying the calculated probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting in two opposite directions. seismic design). is calculated from the probable moment capacities of each end of the beam and the gravity shear forces. The procedure for calculating the design shear force in a beam from probable moment capacity is the same as that described for a column in section “Design Column Shear Reinforcement” of Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Technical Note 20 Column Design. where L = = Moment capacity at end I. with bottom steel in tension. Vp is the maximum of VP1 and VP2 . the shear forces and moments for a particular load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding load combination factors.3. with top steel in tension.1) Vu = Vp + VD+L (ACI 21. using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0). and L + − MI + MJ . In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames (i. The design shear force Vu is then given by (ACI 21. Therefore. using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0).
Beam Design
Concrete Frame Design ACI31899
+ MI
= Moment capacity at end I, with bottom steel in tension, using a steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0),
− MJ
= Moment capacity at end J, with top steel in tension, using a
steel yield stress value of αfy and no ϕ factors (ϕ = 1.0), and = Clear span of beam.
L
For Special moment resisting frames α is taken as 1.25 (ACI 21.0, R21.3.4.1). VD+L is the contribution of shear force from the inspan distribution of gravity loads.
•
For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the capacity shear based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads, in addition to the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design shear force in beams is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal moment capacity and modified factored shear force. The procedure for calculating nominal (ϕ = 1.0) moment capacity is the same as that for computing the probable moment capacity for Special moment resisting frames, except that α is taken equal to 1 rather than 1.25 (ACI 21.10.3.a, R21.10). The modified factored shear forces are based on the specified load factors, except the earthquake load factors are doubled (ACI 21.10.3.b). The computation of the design shear force in a beam of an Intermediate moment resisting frame is the same as described for columns in section “Determine Section Forces” of Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Technical Note 20 Column Design. See also Table 1 for details.
Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
The allowable concrete shear capacity is given by Vc = 2 f c' bwd. (ACI 11.3.1.1)
For Special moment resisting frame concrete design, Vc is set to zero if both the factored axial compressive force, including the earthquake effect Pu, is less than f c' Ag/20 and the shear force contribution from earthquake VE is more than half of the total maximum shear force over the length of the member Vu (i.e., VE ≥ 0.5Vu) (ACI 21.3.4.2).
Technical Note 21  12
Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
Concrete Frame Design ACI31899
Beam Design
Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
Given Vu and Vc, the required shear reinforcement in area/unit length is calculated as Av = (Vu / ϕ − Vc )s . f ys d (ACI 11.5.6.1, 11.5.6.2)
The shear force resisted by steel is limited by (Vu / ϕ  Vc) ≤ 8 f c' bd. (ACI 11.5.6.9)
Otherwise, redimensioning of the concrete section is required. Here, ϕ, the strength reduction factor for shear, is 0.85 by default (ACI 9.3.2.3). The maximum of all the calculated Av values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination number. The beam shear reinforcement requirements displayed by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.
Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
Technical Note 21  13
CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI31899 Technical Note 22 Joint Design This Technical Note explains how the program performs a rational analysis of the beamcolumn panel zone to determine the shear forces that are generated in a joint. the program performs a rational analysis of the beamcolumn panel zone to determine the shear forces that are generated in the joint. Overview Technical Note 22 . major or minor. The joint design procedure involves the following steps: Determine the panel zone design shear force. The material properties of the joint are assumed to be the same as those of the column below the joint. The joint analysis is completed in the major and the minor directions of the column. Only joints having a column below the joint are designed. The program then checks this against design shear strength. Vuh Determine the effective area of the joint Check panel zone shear stress The algorithms associated with these three steps are described in detail in the following three sections.1 . BERKELEY. Overview To ensure that the beamcolumn joint of special moment resisting frames possesses adequate shear strength. The program then checks this against design shear strength. Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Figure 1 illustrates the free body stress condition of a typical beamcolumn intersection for a column direction. INC..©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.
Joint Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Figure 1 BeamColumn Joint Analysis Technical Note 22 .2 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force .
The forces that act on the joint are Pu. from the column framing into the top of the joint.1. Also. The program calculates the joint shear force Vuh by resolving the moments into C and T forces. Noting that TL = CL and TR = CR. Vuh = TL + TR .1). that can be carried by the beam. as follows: Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Technical Note 22 .Vu The location of C or T forces is determined by the direction of the moment. respectively. α. The program calculates the column shear force Vu from the beam moment capacities. and the maximum moment. The C and T force are based on these moment capacities. and no ϕ factors) of the beams framing into the joint (ACI 21. The magnitude of C or T forces is conservatively determined using basic principles of ultimate strength theory. the program calculates the C and T for the positive and negative moments.3 . MuL and MuR. the evaluation of the design shear force is based on the moment capacities (with reinforcing steel overstrength factor.5.1. thereby contributing force components to the analysis. considering the fact that the concrete cover may be different for the direction of moment. The program first calculates the maximum compression. UBC 1921. ignoring compression reinforcement as follows. C max = 0.85f ' c bd Mmax = C max d 2 Then the program conservatively determines C and T forces as follows: abs( M ) C = T = C max 1 − 1 − M max The program resolves the moments and the C and T forces from beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor directions of the column along the direction that is being investigated.5. Vu. In the design of special moment resisting concrete frames. The moments MuL and MuR are obtained from the beams framing into the joint. The forces Pu and Vu are axial force and shear force.1.Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Joint Design The force Vuh is the horizontal panel zone shear force that is to be calculated. Mmax. Cmax.
It should be noted that the points of inflection shown on Figure 2 are taken as midway between actual lateral support points for the columns.Joint Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Vu = Mu + Mu H L R See Figure 2. except if the beam framing into the joint is very narrow.5. The effective width of the joint area to be used in the calculation is limited to the width of the beam plus the depth of the column.5. Determine the Effective Area of Joint The joint area that resists the shear forces is assumed always to be rectangular in plan view.3.3).3): v = { 20ϕ 15ϕ 12ϕ f 'c f 'c f 'c for joints confirmed on all four sides for joints confirmed on three faces or on two opposite faces for all other joints Technical Note 22 .5. are investigated and the design is based on the maximum of the joint shears obtained from the two cases. the shear force from the top of the column is taken as zero.4 Determine the Effective Area of Joint . It should be noted that if the beam frames into the joint eccentrically. The joint area for joint shear along the major and minor directions is calculated separately (ACI R21. The area of the joint is assumed not to exceed the area of the column below. If there is no column at the top of the joint. Check Panel Zone Shear Stress The panel zone shear stress is evaluated by dividing the shear force Vuh by the effective area of the joint and comparing it with the following design shear strengths (ACI 21. as illustrated in Case 1 and Case 2 of Figure 1. The effects of load reversals. The dimensions of the rectangle correspond to the major and minor dimensions of the column below the joint. the above assumptions may be unconservative and the user should investigate the acceptability of the particular joint. UBC 1921.
3.5.3.4.3.1909.3.2. UBC 1909.2.Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Joint Design Figure 2 Column Shear Force Vu where ϕ = 0.1). (ACI 9.5 .1) A beam that frames into a face of a column at the joint is considered in this program to provide confinement to the joint if at least threequarters of the face of the joint is covered by the framing member (ACI 21. UBC 1921.3.1.3.85 (by default).3. Determine the Effective Area of Joint Technical Note 22 .5.
The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column below the joint. For each load combination. UBC 1921. α . the program will calculate the ratio of the sum of the beam moment capacities to the sum of the column moment capacities (ACI 21.5.2. see Figure 3.Joint Design Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 For lightweight aggregate concrete. The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are added to the summation. Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios At a particular joint for a particular column direction. The maximum capacity summations obtained from all of the load combinations is used for the beam/column capacity ratio.2. Pu.4. in each of the columns is calculated from the program analysis load combinations. the design shear strength of the joint is reduced in the program to at least threequarters of that of the normal weight concrete by replacing the f c' with (ACI 21.3. the joint shear stress. the allowable joint shear stress and a capacity ratio. and including ϕ factors. the axial force. The beam capacities are calculated for reversed situations (Cases 1 and 2) as illustrated in Figure 1 and the maximum summation obtained is used. the program reports the joint shear.2).2) The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength factor. The moment capacities of the two columns are added to give the capacity summation for the corresponding load combination.4. the moment capacity of each column under the influence of the corresponding axial load Pu is then determined separately for the major and minor directions of the column. factor f c' .6 Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios .2. ∑Me ≥ 6 ∑Mg 5 (ACI 21.2) minf cs. Technical Note 22 . major or minor. using the uniaxial column interaction diagram.5.3.3 / 4 f c' For joint design. For each load combination.
If this ratio is greater than 5/6. Figure 3 Moment Capacity Mu at a Given Axial Load Pu Beam/Column Flexural Capacity Ratios Technical Note 22 .7 .Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Joint Design The beam/column flexural capacity ratios are only reported for Special MomentResisting Frames involving seismic design load combinations. a warning message is printed in the output file.
.
Load Combination Multipliers Code Preferences Phi_bending Phi_tension Phi_compression (Tied) Phi_compression (Spiral) Phi_shear Input Data Technical Note 23 . Load type: dead. Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING Combo Type Case Factor DESCRIPTION Design load combination. snow. The column headings for input data and a description of what is included in the columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note. Name of load case. Compressive strength reduction factor for reinforced columns. superimposed dead. wind. The input can be printed to a printer or to a text file when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. Further information about using the Print Design Tables form is presented at the end of this Technical Note. Tensile strength reduction factor. Bending strength reduction factor.1 . A printout of the input data provides the user with the opportunity to carefully review the parameters that have been input into the program and upon which program design is based. INC. Compressive strength reduction factor for tied columns. other. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI31899 Technical Note 23 Input Data This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design input data for ACI31899. earthquake.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Shear strength reduction factor. reduced live load. live. See Technical Note 8. Input Data The program provides the printout of the input data in a series of tables. BERKELEY. Load combination scale factor..
Material Property Mass and Weight Material Name Mass Per Unit Vol Weight Per Unit Vol Material Name Lightweight Concrete Concrete FC Rebar FY Rebar FYS Lightwt Reduc Fact Concrete compressive strength. Material label. Material Property Data Material Name Material Type Design Type Modulus of Elasticity Poisson's Ratio Thermal Coeff Shear Modulus Coefficient of thermal expansion. steel.0. Used to calculate selfmass of structure. Shear reinforcing steel yield strength. steel. Bending reinforcing steel yield strength. default = 1.2 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data . Used to calculate selfweight of structure. Area of individual reinforcing bar to be used. other. Isotropic or orthotropic. other. Shear strength reduction factor for light weight concrete. Technical Note 23 . Concrete. Label applied to section. steel.Input Data Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Concrete. other. Concrete. Minimum clear concrete cover. Material Design Data for Concrete Materials Concrete Column Property Data Section Label Mat Label Column Depth Column Width Rebar Pattern Concrete Cover Bar Area Layout of main flexural reinforcing steel.
default = 1.Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Input Data Table 1 Concrete Frame Design Input Data COLUMN HEADING Story ID Column Line Section ID Framing Type RLLF Factor L_Ratio Major L_Ratio Minor K Major K Minor Story ID Bay ID Section ID Framing type RLLF Factor L_Ratio Major L_Ratio Minor Unbraced length about major axis.0. Concrete Column Design Element Information Concrete Beam Design Element Information Using the Print Design Tables Form To print concrete frame design input data directly to a printer. use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the check box on the Print Design Tables form. Story level at which beam occurs. Unbraced length about minor axis. Lateral or gravity. Unbraced length about major axis. Effective length factor.3 . click the Print to File check box on the Print Design Tables form. Section number assigned to beam. Unbraced length about minor axis. Click the Filename>> button to change Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 23 . DESCRIPTION Column assigned to story level at top of column. Grid lines locating beam. Name of section assigned to column. To print concrete frame design input data to a file. Lateral or gravity. Grid line. Effective length factor. default = 1. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers. Click the OK button to send the print to your printer. if necessary.0. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print.
Input Data Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 the path or filename. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only. Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file. . If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. the Selection Only check box will be checked. .. Data will be added to this file.4 Using the Print Design Tables Form . Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e. . The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file.xls. and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears. click Yes to replace the existing file. Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request.doc).txt. Or use the Filename>> button to locate another file. Technical Note 23 .g. The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Design Tables form.
The column headings for output data and a description of what is included in the columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note. The design output is printed when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and select Output Summary on the Print Design Tables form. Further information about using the Print Design Tables form is presented at the end of this Technical Note. Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed. Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output COLUMN HEADING Story ID Column Line Section ID Station ID DESCRIPTION Column assigned to story level at top of column.. Biaxial PM Interaction and Shear Design of ColumnType Elements Required Reinforcing Longitudinal Combo Shear22 Combo Shear33 Area of longitudinal reinforcing required. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 CONCRETE FRAME DESIGN ACI31899 Technical Note 24 Output Details This Technical Note describes the concrete frame design output for ACI31899 that can be printed to a printer or to a text file. BERKELEY.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.1 . INC. Name of section assigned to column. The program provides the output data in a series of tables. Shear reinforcing required. Grid lines. Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed. Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output Technical Note 24 . Shear reinforcing required.
Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity. Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Beam to Column Capacity Ratios and Joint Shear Capacity Check Story ID Column Line Section ID Story level at which joint occurs. Minor Combo Joint Shear Capacity Ratios Major Combo Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity. Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity is based. Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity is based. Assigned section name. BeamColumn Capacity Ratios Major Combo Ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity.Output Details Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Table 1 Concrete Column Design Output COLUMN HEADING Combo DESCRIPTION Load combination for which the reinforcing is designed. Grid line. Load combination upon which the ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity is based. Minor Combo Technical Note 24 . Ratio of factored load versus allowed capacity. Load combination upon which the ratio of beam moment capacity to column capacity is based.2 Table 2 Concrete Column Joint Output .
Click the OK button to send the print to your printer. . To print concrete frame design input data to a file. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e. The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Design Tables form. Or use the Filename>> button to locate another file. the Selection Only check box will be checked. Click the Filename>> button to change the path or filename. Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables form and the Print Design Tables form to complete the request.3 . Data will be added to this file. and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears..Concrete Frame Design ACI31899 Output Details Using the Print Design Tables Form To print concrete frame design input data directly to a printer. Using the Print Design Tables Form Technical Note 24 .doc). The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. use the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command and click the check box on the Print Design Tables form.g. . The print will be for the selected beam(s) only. click Yes to replace the existing file. Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file. .txt. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print.xls. If you select a specific frame element(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > Concrete Frame Design command. if necessary. click the Print to File check box on the Print Design Tables form.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?