ORAL HYGIENE INDEX SIMPLIFIED

To be submitted to: Professor Olegario G. Clemente, Jr.

Submitted by: Jhoana Camille B. Quilang Kristina Corazon L. Robles CDH-120 DBC

and varies in color from greyish white to green or orange. bacteria and desquamated epithelial cells. It consists of mucin. - Oral Debris –The soft foreign matter loosely attached to the teeth. the more severe the disease) To be reliable. the index must give the same results. Should have the properties of validity and reliability Is considered valid when it accurately reflects the extent or degree to which the disease or condition is present. bacteria and food.g.TERMINOLOGY Dental index . Oral calculus – Deposit of inorganic salts composed primarily of calcium carbonate and phosphate mixed with food debris. the higher the.an objective mathematical description of a disease or condition based on carefully determined criteria under specified circumstances A numeric score that quantifies the magnitude of the disease measured. with very limited degrees of tolerance each time it is applied. usually white to yellowish-brown in color Sublingual calculus – deposits apical to the free gingival margin. These deposits usually are light brown to black in color. • • Supragingival calculus – deposits. . (e.

It is easy to use because the criteria are objective. in clinical trials. Used to evaluate an individual’s level of oral cleanliness and. the examination may be performed quickly. Used in evaluating the cleansing efficiency of tooth brushes. the debris index and the calculus index. USES OF OHI-S: • • It has been widely used in studies of the epidemiology of periodontal disease. This index sets forth a simple method for quantifying the amount of plaque and calculus in its two components. Used as a standard companion of the Periodontal Index in the world wide studies of the interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense (ICNND). • • • • ADVANTAGES OF OHI-S: • • • • It is good for small and large epidemiologic surveys. well-defined criteria and scoring system. Its well defined criteria for both tooth selection and scoring make it an index that can be determined rapidly and consistently. and a high level of reproducibility is possible with a minimum of training sessions. Useful in evaluation of dental health education programs in public school systems. This simplified index is based on the six surfaces scored from four posterior and two anterior teeth. Quantify biological phenomenon Measure disease level . to a more limited extent.ORAL HYGIENE INDEX-SIMPLIFIED The Simplified Oral Hygiene Index or OHI-S is a reversible index used to measure oral hygiene status.

Even though the original OHI was determined to be simple. is based on numerical determinations representing the amount of debris or calculus found on the preselected tooth surfaces. are used for the examination. which can be obtained. the developers of the original OHI. and useful. like the OHI. Greene and Jack R. middle. . and incisal thirds. Each tooth surface is divided horizontally into gingival. the method of selecting the surfaces to be scored. and the scores. PROCEDURE AND MATERIALS • • Only a mouth mirror and a shepherd’s crook or sickle type dental explorer.• • Assess individual improvement Program evaluation DEVELOPING THE INDEX The Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) differs from the original OHI (The Oral Hygiene Index) in the number of the tooth surfaces scored (6 rather than 12). An effort was made to develop another equally sensitive index which would reduce both the number of decisions required on the part of the examiner and the time required for the inspection. The criteria used for assigning scores to the tooth surfaces are the same as those for the OHI (The Oral Hygiene Index). Each of these indexes. the Simplified Debris Index (DI-S) and the Simplified Calculus Index (CI-S). and no disclosing agent. in turn. Vermillion. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The Simplified Oral Hygiene Index was developed in 1964 by John C. The OHI-S. has two components. sensitive. it was time consuming and required more decision making.

is examined. In the absence of either of these anterior teeth. usually the first molar (16) but sometimes the second (17) or third molar (18). the central incisor (21 or 41 respectively) on the opposite side of the midline is substituted. Tooth Surfac es 16 – Maxillary right first molar Buccal 11 – Maxillary right central Labial incisor 26 – Maxillary left first molar Buccal 36 – Mandibular left first molar Lingual 31 – Mandibular left central Labial incisor 46 – Mandibular right first molar Lingual • For the OHI-S. A tooth is considered fully erupted when the occlusal or incisal suface has reached the occlusal plane. An alternate tooth is examined instead. recorded. Natural teeth with full crown restorations and surfaces reduced in height by caries or trauma are not scored. and computed for the DI-S and CI-S respectively. Also. then the scores are determined. The buccal surfaces of the selected upper molars and the lingual surfaces of the selected lower molars are inspected. . the labial surfaces of the upper right (11) and the lower left central incisors (31) are scored. • After the six possible tooth surfaces are selected. each surface. In the anterior portion of the mouth. only fully erupted permanent teeth are scored. is considered half the tooth circumference. the first fully erupted tooth distal to the second bicuspid (15).The six surfaces examined for the OHI-S are selected from four posterior and two anterior teeth. buccal or lingual. • In the posterior portion of the dentition.

Criteria for classifying debris Score s 0 1 Criteria No debris or stain present Soft debris covering not more than one third of the tooth surface. A dental explorer is placed on the incisal third of the tooth and moved toward the gingival third. but not more than two thirds. Soft debris covering more than two thirds of the exposed tooth surface. The occlusal or incisal extent of the debris is noted as it is removed. of the exposed tooth surface. The DI-S score per person is obtained by totaling the debris score per tooth surface and dividing by the number of surfaces examined. or presence of extrinsic stains without other debris regardless of surface area covered Soft debris covering more than one third.• The OHI-S score per person is the total of the DI-S and CI-S scores per person. • Procedure for Simplified Debris Index (DI-S) 1. 2. 2 3 .

Criteria for classifying calculus Scores 0 1 Criteria No calculus present Supragingival calculus covering not more than third of the exposed tooth surface. 5 explorer ( Shepard’s hook) is used to estimate the surface area covered by the supragingival calculus and to probe for subgingival calculus The CI-S score per person is obtained by totaling the calculus scores per tooth surface and dividing by the number of surfaces examined. 1. The CI-S assessment is performed by gently placing a dental 2. The No.• Procedure for Simplified Calculus Index (CI-S) : explorer into the distal gingival crevice and drawing it subgingivally from the distal contact area to the mesial contact area. Supragingival calculus covering more than two third of the exposed tooth surface or a continuous heavy band of subgingival calculus around the cervical portion of the tooth or both. Supragingival calculus covering more than one third but not more than two thirds of the exposed tooth surface or the presence of individual flecks of subgingival calculus around the cervical portion of the tooth or both. 2 3 .

0-1.0 3.3-3.0 CALCULATION EXAMPLE: After the scores for debris and calculus are recorded. At least two of the six possible surfaces must have been examined. For a certain group of individuals.7-1. The average individual or group debris and calculus scores are .6 0.EVALUATION The clinical levels of oral cleanliness for debris that can be associated with group DI-S or CI-S scores are as follows: Good Fair Poor 0. the Index values are calculated. The average individual or group score is known as the DI-S or CI-S.0-0. the debris and calculus scores are totaled and divided by the number of surfaces scored.2 1.1-6. scores are obtained by computing the average of the individual scores.8 1.9-3.0 The clinical levels of oral hygiene that can be associated with group OHI-S scores are as follows Good Fair Poor 0. For each individual.

Debris Right molar Bucc al Uppe r Lowe r 3 Lingu al Anterior Left molar Lingu al Total Bucc al 8 Lingu al - Labia Labia Bucc l l al 2 3 - 2 - 1 - 2 1 4 Debris Index = (The buccal-scores) + (The lingual-scores) / (Total number of examined buccal and lingual surfaces). The scores for debris and calculus should be tabulated separately and index for each calculated independently. the OHI-S values from 0 to 6. The CI-S and DI-S values may range from 0 to 3. These values are just half the score magnitude possible with the OHI (Oral Hygiene Index). Debris Index = (9+4) / 6 = 2.combined to obtain the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index. The following example shows how to calculate the index. but in the same manner.2 Calculus Right molar Bucc Lingu Anterior Left molar Lingu Total Bucc Lingu Labia Labia Bucc .

Oral Index Hygiene = Debris Index Index + Calculus 2.4 .2 + 1. as follows.al Uppe r Lowe r 1 al - l 0 l - al 1 al - al 2 al - - 1 - 2 - 2 2 3 Calculus Index = (The buccal-scores) + (The lingual-scores) / (Total number of examined buccal and lingual surfaces).2 The average individual or group debris and calculus scores are combined to obtain simplified Oral Hygiene Index. Calculus Index = (4+3) / 6= 1.2 = 3.

Peter.B. (2nd ed. Library of Congress Catalogue.whocollab.). O. (3rd ed. Moslehzadeh.. Theory.. M. 2011.html 17. A. (1993).). S. (1990). Primary Preventive Dentistry. K.). from . Dental Hygiene. Retrieved February www. Glickman's Clinical Periodontology.BIBLIOGRAPHY • • • • • • Wong. F. & Christen. Community Dental Health. G. and Practice.mah. M.. L. Harris. & Walsh. A. M. Carranza Jr. (4th ed. Toronto: W. Darby. (7th ed. New Delhi: Arya Publishing House.). WB Saunders Company. N.se/expl/ohisgv64. Saunders Company.od. Connecticut: Appleton and Lange. Essentials of Preventive and Community Dentistry.

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