Development of Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machines is an outstanding contribution to the manufacturing industries. It has made possible the automation of the machining process with flexibility to handle small to medium batch of quantities in part production. Initially, the CNC technology was applied on basic metal cutting machine like lathes, milling machines, etc. Later, to increase the flexibility of the machines in handling a variety of components and to finish them in a single setup on the same machine, CNC machines capable of performing multiple operations were developed. To start with, this concept was applied to develop a CNC machining centre for machining prismatic components combining operations like milling, drilling, boring and taping. Further, the concept of multioperations was also extended for machining cylindrical components, which led to the development of turning centers.

              Higher flexibility Increased productivity Consistent quality Reduced scrap rate Reliable operation Reduced non productive time Reduced manpower Shorter cycle time High accuracy Reduced lead time Just in time (JIT) manufacture Automatic material handling Lesser floor space Increased operation safety


 Machining of advanced material



Numerical control (NC) is a method employed for controlling the motions of a machine tool slide and its auxiliary functions with input in the form of numerical data. A computer numerical control (CNC) is a microprocessor-based system to store and process the data for the control of slide motions and auxiliary functions of the machine tools. The CNC system is the heart and brain of a CNC machine which enables the operation of various machine members such as slides, spindles, etc. as per the sequence programmed into it, depending on the machining operations. The main advantage of a CNC system lies in the fact that the skills of the operator hitherto required in the operation of a conventional machine is removed and the part production is made automatic. The CNC systems are constructed with a NC unit integrated with a programmable logic controller (PLC) and some times with an additional external PLC (non-integrated). The NC controls the spindle movement and the speeds and feeds in machining. It calculates the traversing path of the axes as defined by the inputs. The PLC controls the peripheral actuating elements of the machine such as solenoids, relay coils, etc. Working together, the NC and PLC enable the machine tool to operate automatically. Positioning and part accuracy depend on the CNC system's computer control algorithms, the system resolution and the basic mechanical machine accuracy. Control algorithm may cause errors while computing, which will reflect during contouring, but they are very negligible. Though this does not cause point to point positioning error, but when mechanical machine in accuracy are present, it will result in poorer part accuracy.


This chapter gives an overview of the configuration of the CNC system, interfacing and introduction to PLC programming.

Fig.1 shows a schematic diagram of the working principle of a NC axis of a CNC machine and the interface of a CNC control.

CNC system
Command value

Servo Drive

Servo Motor

Spindle Head Encoder

Velocity Feedback

Tacho Generator

Lead Screw

Work piece Table

Tape Reader Tape Punch Other Devices Inputs • • • • •

Position Feedback

Machine Elements


Proximity switches Limit switches Relay coils Pressure switches Float switches

Fig.1 Schematic diagram of a CNC machine tool

2 gives the typical numerical control configuration of Hinumerik 3100 CNC system .6 A CNC system basically consists of the following:       Central processing unit (CPU) Servo-control unit Operator control panel Machine control panel Other peripheral device Programmable logic controller (PLC) Fig.

7 Basic Blocks of the CNC Machines .

In case any safety conditions related to the axis are overruled during movement or otherwise they are reported to the CPU for corrective action. Whenever the situation goes beyond control of the CPU. This also checks whether machine tool axis movement is at the same speed as directed by the CPU. It also oversees the movement of the control axis or spindle whenever this does not match the programmed values.  Servo-Control Unit . This data is decoded and transformed into specific position control and velocity control signals. some safety checks are built into the system through this unit and the CPU unit will provide continuous necessary corrective actions. a corrective action is taken. The same will be taken care of during the generation of control signals for the axis movement. etc. The CPU sends the control signals generated for the movement of the axis to the servo control unit and the servo control unit convert these signals into the suitable digital or analog signal to be fed to the machine tool axis movement. backlash.8  Central Processing Unit (CPU) The CPU is the heart and brain of a CNC system. Also. All the compensations required for machine accuracy (like lead screw pitch error.  Speed Control Unit This unit acts in unison with the CPU for the movement of the machine axes. it takes the final action of shutting down the system in turn the machine. tool wear out.) are calculated by the CPU depending upon the corresponding inputs made available to the system. It accepts the information stored in the memory as part program.

The servo-drive unit converts the command values.1). . which are interfaced with the axis and the spindle motors (Fig. The velocity feedback is generally obtained through tacho generators. This unit in turn generates suitable signals as command values. generated by the CPU for the axis movement forms the input to the servo-control unit. rotary encoders. etc. resolves. The servo-control unit receives the position feedback signals for actual movement of the machine tool axes from the feedback devices (like linear scales.9 The decoded position and velocity control signals.).

10 The feedback signals are passed on to the CPU for further processing. There are generally two types of feedback to a CNC system -. The amount of movement and the rate of movement are controlled by the CNC system depending upon the type of feedback system used. As explained earlier. Thus the servo-control unit performs the data communication between the machine tool and the CPU.  Closed-loop System The closed-loop system is characterized by the presence of feedback. In this system.3). . i.position feedback and velocity feedback. the actual movements of the slides on the machine tool is achieved through servo drives. Operator Panel.e. closed-loop or open-loop system (Fig. the CNC system send out commands for movement and the result is continuously monitored by the system through various feedback devices.

2 Typical numerical control configuration of Hinumerik 3100 CNC system . external NC PLC1 Logic Unit Tape Puncher Tape Reader Fig.11 SINUMERIK SYSTEM 3 SIEMENS LSMLogic Sub module LSM2 LSM1 Emergency Stop X+ ZXZ+ Machine Control Panel Cycle POWER ON Machine Control Panel Expansion Power Supply PLC 2.

regardless of the type of feedback device. Table Command Counter Subtraction Circuit Position Control Comparison Circuit Stop at Zero Amplifier Servo Motor Lead Screw Tape reader Controller Open-loop positioning control Error Signal Table Transducer Active Buffer Storage Count Comparator Amplifier Servo Motor Lead Screw Tape reader Position feedback signal Close-loop positioning control . In case this is not possible. As the slide of the machine tool moves. If the actual rate is not as per the required rate.12  POSITION FEEDBACK A closed-loop system. the system declares fault and initiates action for disabling the drives and if necessary. the system tries to correct it. will constantly try to achieve and maintain a given position by self-correcting. switches off the machine. its movement is fed back to the CNC system for determining the position of the slide to decide how much is yet to be traveled and also to decide whether the movement is as per the commanded rate.

Stepper motors are used for actual movement and the electronics of these stepper motors is run on digital pulses from the CNC system. in order to produce correct interpolation and also specified acceleration and deceleration velocities.3 Open-and Closed-loop positioning system  VELOCITY FEEDBACK In case no time constraint is put on the system to reach the final programmed position. the CNC system send out signals for movement but does not check whether actual movement is taking place or not. they cannot counteract disturbances appearing during the operation. They can be utilized in point to point system.1 the servo-drive receives signals from the CNC system and transforms it into actual movement on the machine. The analog voltage is taken as speed feedback by the servo-controller and swift action is taken by the controller to maintain the speed of the motor within the required limits. where loading torque on the axial motor is low and almost constant. velocity feedback must be present along with the position feedback whenever CNC system are used for contouring.13 Fig.  SERVO-DRIVES As shown in Fig. thus giving an analog output proportional to the speed of motor. Hence.  OPEN-LOOP SYSTEM The open loop system lacks feedback. There are various . then the system may not produce the required path or the surface finish accuracy. The tacho generator used for velocity feedback is normally connected to the motor and it rotates whenever the motor rotates. In this system. Since system controllers have no access to any real time information about the system performance. The actual rate of movement and direction depend upon the command signal from CNC system.

user programs.. machine data. The operator control panel provides the user interface to facilitate a two-way communication between the user.4 shows a typical Hinumerik 3100 CNC system's operator control panel. the motor and the electronics for driving the motor. Color displays . current feed rate. Video display units may be of two types: 1. set or actual difference. This consists of two parts: •Video Display Unit (VDU) •Keyboard  VIDEO DISPLAY UNIT (VDU) The VDU displays the status of the various parameters of the CNC system and the machine tool. a few LEDs are generally provided to indicate important operating modes and status.14 types of servo-drives. subroutine number •Display of all entered data.  OPERATOR CONTROL SYSTEM Fig. viz. ac drives and stepper motor drives. A servo-drive consists of two parts. dc drives. user data. It displays all current information such as: •Complete information of the block currently being executed •Actual position value. etc. Monochrome or black and white displays 2. CNC system and the machine tool. spindle speed •Active G functions •Main program number. •Alarm messages in plain text •Soft key designations In addition to a CRT. namely.

No X+ Delete input Start Address Keys/Numerical keyboard Z+ Fig.4 Operator control panel of Hinumerik XCycle 3100 system .15  OPERATORS AND MACHINE PANEL SINUMERIK SYSTEM 3 SIEMENS Reset changeover Assignment of keys Cancel word Alter word Change to actual value display Basic display Change of display Tool compensation Zero offset Leaf forwards Program in progress Emergency Stop Feed hold Test Leaf backwards LED-indicator Position not yet reached Part program Right-Left Cursor For assignment (Machine in motion) ZPOWER ON CRT Of keys Alarm Control elements and indicators of the operator's panel Enter word Change over to customer display Operator guidance Yes.

•Selection of different pages for viewing.  MACHINE CONTROL PANEL (MCP) It is the direct interface between operator and the NC system. depending upon the part program stored in the memory.16  KEYBOARD A keyboard is provided for the following purposes: •Editing of part programs. Fig. etc. . enabling the operation of the machine through the CNC system. tool data. the system must be operated in specific operating mode so that these preparatory functions can be established. •Selection of feed rate override and spindles speed override. During program execution. •Selection of operating modes. •Establishing a correct reference point •Loading the system memory with the required part program •Loading and checking of tool offsets. e. For these tasks. zero offsets. •Execution of part programs.g.5 shows the MCP of Hinumerik 3100 system. spindle function or tool function on a machine tool. Prior to the starting of the machine process. machine should first be prepared with some specific tasks like. and machine parameters. •Execution of other toll functions. manual data input. the CNC controls the axis motion.

Z-. Y-.).17 Control elements of the Machine Control Panel Mode selector Switch Emergency Stop Spindle speed override Rapid traverse activate Feedrate/rapid traverse override Direction keys Spindle OFF ON X+ ZXZ+ Feed Hold/Start Cycle start Cycle POWER ON NC ON Key operated switch for input inhibit Single block Block Dry Run Delete Rapid Traverse Override active Manual encoder active in X-and Z-axis resp. X-. movement of a machine slide can carried out manually by pressing the particular jog button (+ or -). etc. etc. Y+. The feed rate of the slide movement is prefixed. X+. The axis movement can also be achieved manually using a hand wheel . the CNC system can be operated in the following modes:  Manual mode  Manual data input (MDI) mode  Automatic mode  Reference mode  Input mode  Output mode.. Z+.g.5 Machine control panel of Hinumerik 3100 system  Modes of Operation Generally. The slide (axis) is selected through an axis selector switch or through individual switches (e. MANUAL MODE In this mode. CNC system allows the axis to be jogged at high feed rate also. Block search Fig.

18 interface instead of jog buttons. In this mode slides can be moved in two ways:  Continuous  Incremental .

19 CONTINUOUS MODE In this mode. 10000. which is selectable. 10. the slide will move as long as the jog button is pressed.Zero offsets (ZO) -----. For subsequent movement the jog button has to be released and once again pressed. 1000. Normally.key and will be limited to the no of increments selected even if the jog button is continuously pressed. TEACH-IN Some system allows direct manual input of a program block and execution of the same. 100. The blocks thus executed can be checked for correctness of dimensions and consequently transferred into the program memory as part program. system allows jogging of axes in 1. PLAYBACK .Test data. increments. MANUAL DATA INPUT (MDI) MODE In this mode the following operation can be performed: •Building a new part program •Editing or deleting of part program stored in the system memory •Entering or editing or deleting of: -----. etc. It is initiated by pressing the proper jog+ or jog. INCREMENTAL MODE Hence the slide will move through a fixed distance. Axis movement is at a prefixed feed rate.Tool offsets (TO) -----.

But the required feed rates. This is useful for tool inspection or in case of tool breakage. the next block is read by the system.g. switching functions and other auxiliary functions have to be added to the part program in program editing mode. The part program is executed block by block. INPUT MODE AND OUTPUT MODE (I/O MODE) . and the end position can be transferred into the system memory as command values. through the BLOCK SEARCH facility.20 In setting up modes like jog or incremental. analyzed and kept ready for execution. Thus. While one block is being executed. teach-in and playback operating method allows a program to created during the first component prove out. pitch error compensation) can be properly applied. Part programs are generally prepared in absolute mode with respect to machine zero. REFERENCE MODE Under this mode the machine can be referenced to its home position so that all the compensations (e. Execution of the program can be one block after another automatically or the system will execute a block. Many systems allow blocks (single or multiple) to be retraced in the opposite direction. Program start can be effected at any block in the program. AUTOMATIC MODE (AUTO AND SINGLE BLOCK) In this mode the system allows the execution of a part program continuously. Selection of part program execution continuously (Auto) or one block at a time (Single Block) is done through the machine control panel.. Many CNC systems make it compulsory to reference the slides of the machine to their home positions before a program is executed while others make it optional. stop the execution of the next block till it is initiated to do so (by pressing the start button). Block retrace is allowed only when a cycle stop state is established. Part program execution can resume and its execution begins with the retraced block. the axis can be traversed either through the direction keys or via the hand wheel.

In the CPU. PLCs are now available with increased functions. magnetic cassettes or floppy discs. printer. float switches.). all the decisions are made relative to controlling a machine or a process. The outputs can be motor starters. tool offsets. programming units. etc. selector switches. some systems check for simple errors (like parity. block length.  OTHER PERIPHERALS These include sensor interface. machine setup data. etc. can be loaded/unloaded into/from the memory of the system from external devices like programming units. program already present in the memory. provision for communication equipment. Fig.21 In this mode. tape reader/puncher interface. The inputs can be push buttons. etc. limit switches. PLCs were basically introduced as replacement for hard wired relay control panels. etc. During data input. They were developed to be reprogrammed without hardware changes when requirements were altered and thus are reusable. proximity switches.  PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER (PLC) A PLC matches the NC to the machine. more memory and large input/output capabilities. tape format. analog sensor. the part programs. etc. solenoid . The I/O structure of the PLCs is one of their major strengths. The CPU receives input data.6 gives an overview of the system with few peripheral devices. Connections to a computer for hierarchical control are done via the CPU. relay contacts. Fig. unknown characters. Transfer of data is done through a RS232C or RS422C port. performs logical decisions based upon stored programs and drives the outputs.7 gives the generalized PLC block diagram.

The voltage level of the field devices thus normally determines the type of I/O. etc. A wide variety of voltages. indicator lights. So. The PLC power supply is designated and rated only to operate the internal portions of the I/O structures. position valves. . supplied and installed by the machine tool builder or the end user. LED displays.22 valves. current capacities and types of I/O modules are available. and not the field devices. The field devices are typically selected. relay coils. power to actuate these devices must also be supplied external to the PLC.

Proper grounding in electrical installation is most essential.6 System with peripheral devices Inputs Processor Programmer Logic memory Power Supply Storage memory Outputs Power Supply Field Devices Fig.23 Programming Units Tape Reader Tape Puncher Printers Fig.7 Generalized PLC block diagram INTERFACING Interconnecting the individual elements of both the machine and the CNC system using cables and connectors is called interfacing. This reduces the effects of interference and guards . Extreme care should be taken during interfacing.

. It is also essential to properly protect the electronic equipment.24 against electronic shock to personnel.

first the machining sequence is interrupted. etc. At the same time. basic control also includes constantly active monitoring functions. leaving other end free. Even though proper grounding reduces the effect of electrical interference. tool or machine. MONITORING In addition to the care taken by the machine tool builder during design and interfacing. proper cable separation. the cause of the fault is stored and then displayed as an alarm. signal cable requires additional protection. the PLC is informed that an NC alarm exits. This is in order to identify faults in the NC. Electrical enclosures should be designed to provide proper ambient conditions for the controller. the drives are stopped. the interface control and the machine at an large stage to prevent damages occurring to the work piece. ferrous metal wire ways. Other noise reduction techniques include using suppression devices. In Hinumerik CNC system. This is generally achieved by using shielded cables. the following can be monitored: •Read-in •Format •Measuring circuit cables •Position encoders and drives •Contour •Spindle speed •Enable signals •Voltage •Temperature •Microprocessors •Data transfer between operator control panel and logic unit •Transfer between NC and PLC •Change of status of buffer battery . for example. All the cable shields must be grounded at control only.25 Cable wires of sufficiently large cross-sectional area must be used. If a fault occurs.

These data are fixed and entered during commissioning of the machine and generally left unaltered during machine operations. which is machine specific. acceleration. The NC and PLC machine data can be entered and changed by means of external equipment or manually by the keyboard. rapid traverse speeds and spindle speeds. backlash . drift compensation. MACHINE DATA Generally. it is also possible to set and generate signal combinations for test purposes in order to observe how the machine react to a changed signal. which has to be matched with the particular machine to which the system is interfaced. a CNC system is designed as a general-purpose control unit. This simplifies trouble shooting considerably. adjustment of reference point. position control multiplication factor. Kv factor. feed rates. The CNC is interfaced to the machine by means of data.26 •System program memory •User program memory •Serial interfaces DIAGNOSTICS The control will generally be provided with test assistance for service purposes in order to display some status on the CRT such as: •Interface signals between NC and PLC as well as between PLC and machine •Flags of the PLC •Timers of the PLC •Counters of the PLC •Input/output of the PLC For the output signals. Machine data entered is usually relevant to the axis travel limits.

Then the required compensation at predetermined points is fed in to the system. etc.27 compensation. the pitch error curve for the entire length of the screw is built up by physical measurement with the aid of an external device (like laser). and is influenced by: o Geometric accuracy in the alignment of the slide ways o Deflection of the bed due to load o Temperature gradients on the machine o Accuracy of the screw thread of any drive screw and the amount of backlash (lost motion) o Amount of twist (wind up) of the shaft which will influence the measurement of rotary transducers The CNC systems offer compensation for machines' accuracy. These are detailed below: the various LEAD SCREW PITCH ERROR COMPENSATION To compensate for movements of the machine slide due to in accuracy of the pitch along the length of the ball screw. Also the optional features of the control system are made available to the machine tool builder by enabling some of the bits of machine data. pitch error compensation is required.8 TYPICAL ERROR CURVE . COMPENSATIONS FOR MACHINE ACCURACY Machine accuracy is the accuracy of the movement of the carriage. pitch error compensation. Whenever a slide is moved. these compensation are automatically added up by the CNC system (Fig. To begin with.8) Pitch error (um) Positive end limit Reference point To negative end limit FIG.

The system automatically adds up the compensation to the movement of the slide. This has to be measured in advance and fed to the system.28 BACKLASH COMPENSATION Whenever a slide is reversed. i.10 . hence the compensation value has to be updated regularly from time to time Positive backlash (the Negative backlash usual case) Table Backlash Encoder Toothed wheel Backlash here Table M Ballscrew M Encoder Encoder actual value precedes the table movement Actual movement of the table precedes the encoder measurement FIG. This extra movement is equal to backlash between the screw and the nut. it is necessary to make allowance for the tool tip radius. a compensation is provided by the CNC system for the motion lost due to reversal. extra movement is added into the actual movement whenever reversal takes place. angles or turning curves. there is some lost motion due to backlash between nut and the screw. This value keeps on varying due to wear of the ball screws.9 BACKLASH COMPENSATION SAG COMPENSATION Inaccuracy due to sag in the slide can be compensated by the system. Compensations required along the length of the slide have to be physically measured and fed to the system. TOOL NOSE COMPENSATION Tool nose compensation normally used on tool for turning centers.e. this radius is known as radius compensation. While machining chamfers. As shown in Fig.

and the tool will follow the path AB and the taper produced will be incorrect. Z0 X0 Tool Minimum radius of taper Z -25.0 B X 30. the edges of the tool tip radius would be positioned at the programmed X and Z coordinates.29 (a). It is possible to adjust the relative position of cutter size and this adjustment is known as cutter diameter compensation. In Fig. . tool position has to be adjusted. It is essential that the radius at the tip of the tool is fed to the system to make an automatic adjustment on the position and movement of the tool to get the correct taper on the work.0 Z0 X0 Datum Position A Xc Z -15. if the allowance is nit made.10 Tool nose radius compensation CUTTER DIAMETER COMPENSATION The diameter of the used tool may be different from the actual value because of regrinding of the tool or due to nonavailability of the assumed tool.0 Datum Position X 20. In order to obtain correct taper.0 Z0 Zc X 20.0 X 30.0 Z -15.0 Fig.10 (b) the distance Xc is the adjustment necessary at the start of the cut and distance Zc is the adjustment at the end of the cut.

it is found that the size of the work piece (diameter or length) is not within tolerance due to wear of the tool. shape and thickness as a reference tool. it is necessary to determine the tool offset of each tool and store it in the memory of the control unit.11 explains the function of the tool offset. Fig.2 Z offset for tool no. it is .2 X offset for tool no. This is known as tool offset.2 FIG. A correction for dimension of the tools and movements of the work piece has to be incorporated to give the exact machining of the component. When a number of tools are used. But during the actual mounting of tools on the machine. different tools of varying lengths.11 TOOL TOOL OFFSET OFFSETS A part program is generated keeping in mind a tool of a particular length. Normally.1 ZR XR Tool no.30 Z0 ZR ZR=Setting distance for reference tool X0 XR=Setting distance for reference tool Reference tool Tool no. thickness and shapes may be available. This is the difference in the positions of the centre line of the tool holder for different tools and the reference tool.

. This is known as tool wear compensation.31 the possible to edit the value of offsets to obtain the correct size.

The program can be written and entered into the programmable controller as in: Statement list (STL).e. i. At the beginning of each cycle.12 (b) Ladder diagram (LAD). it starts again at the beginning of the program. when a complete program has been scanned. The results are constantly stored in the process image output (PIO) during the cycle. During subsequent program scanning. To execute the program. inputs and outputs.1 . At the end of a scanning cycle.6 (c) Ladder diagram LAD I 2.3 I 4.12 (a) Control system flowchart (CSF).2 Q 1. The PLC operates cyclically.1 O R I 3. the processor transfers the contents of the process image output to the output modules and to the external timers and counters.2 1. i. processor. the processor the accesses this process image.12 (c) I 2. The program that determines PLC operation is stored in the internal PLC program memory. the processor fetches one statement after another from the programming memory and executes it.1 3.3  Statement list STL A I A I O I = Q A Operation A I I I 2.3 4. program completion.3 2. The processor then begins a new program scan. Fig.32 PLC PROGRAMMING The principle of operation of a PLC is determined essentially by the PLC program memory.3 2. the processor examines the signal status at all inputs as well as the external timers and counters and are stored in a process image input (PII).e.3 Statement Operand Parameter I 3. Fig. Fig.2 A N D (b) Control system flow chart CSF (a) I 4.6 2. STEP 5 programming language is used for writing user programs for SIMATIC S5 programmable controllers.

etc. It consists of the following: Operation.e. e.  The statement may include absolute operands. Programming is considerably . i. what is to be done? E. I 5.5 The operand consists of: Operand identifier (I = input. what is to be done with? E.33 Operand identifier FIG.e. A = AND operation (series connection) O= OR operation (parallel connection) S= SET operation (actuation) Operand. e.g. For inputs. The ladder diagram uses relay ladder logic symbols to represent the automation task.e. i.) Parameter. I 4.5.g. i. F = flag. I LS1.12 PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLER The statement list describes the automation task by means of mnemonic function designations. outputs and flags (internal relay equivalents). The control system flowchart is a graphic representation of the automation task.g.e. the parameter consists of the byte and bit addresses. The statement is the smallest STEP 5 program component. the number of operand identifiers addressed by the statement. with the signal of input 4. byte address only. and for timers and counter. or symbolic operand. Q = output.g.1. i.

a statement takes up one word (two bytes) in the program memory. . Typically.34 simplified in the later case as the actual plant designation is directly used to describe the device connected to the input or output.

program block for transportation. The program in a function block is usually not written with absolute operands (e. etc. messages.5) but with symbolic operands. arithmetic operations. Further blocks. for individual controls.). blocks (OB) Function block (FB) is block with programs for recurrent and usually complex function.g. such as program blocks or function blocks can be called from a PB. etc. In addition. Various software block types are available for constructing the user program. Organization contain block calls determining the sequence in which the PBs are to be processed. monitoring. Such FBs are available. Such an interrupt can be triggered by a monitoring function if one or several monitored events occur. special OBs can be programmed by the user to react to interruptions during cyclic programming processing. e. For even more complex functions. two step control loops.g. It is therefore possible to call PBs conditionally (depending on certain conditions). the user has a extended operation at his disposal for developing function blocks. operator communications.35 STRUCTURED PROGRAMMING The user program can be made more manageable and straightforward if it is broken down into relative sections. In addition to the basic operations. This enables a function block to be used several times over with different absolute operands. listing. Program blocks (PB) contain the user program broken down into technologically or functionally related sections (e. I 1. These standard FBs for complex functions can be linked it the user program just like user .g. standard function blocks are available from a program library. sequence controls.

monitoring times and conditions for the current step in sequence cascade. Sequence blocks are employed. The Sequence block (SB)contain the step enabling conditions. .36 written FBs simply by means of a call along with the relevant parameters. for example. to organise the sequence cascade in communication with a standard FB. The data blocks (DB) contain all fixed or variable data of the user program.

Fig. STRUCTURED PROGRAMMING OB1 PB1 FB2 PB2 FB3 Organisation block (OB) Cycle execution OB Program block (PB) Function block (PB) PB FB PB FB .13 gives the organisation and execution of a structured user program. cyclic processing is interrupted at the next block boundary and an OB assigned to this event is started.g. 2s. 200ms. cyclic program execution is interrupted at the block boundary and resumed again at this point. For this purpose. 1s. INTERRUPT DRIVEN PROGRAM PROCESSING When certain input signal changes occur. 500ms. The user can formulate his response program to this interrupt in the OB. and 5s). once the relevant OB has been executed. every 100ms. The cyclic program execution is the resumed from the point at which it was interrupted. TIME CONTROLLED PROGRAM EXECUTION Certain Obs are executed at the predetermined time intervals (e.37 CYCLIC PROGRAM PROCESSING The blocks of the user program are executed in the sequence in which they specified in the organization block.

38 .

13 Organisation and execution of a structured user program EXAMPLES OF PLC PROGRAM Before attempting to write a PLC program.  Note down the address of the listed elements. self contained functions.  Write down the flow chart for the function.  Indicate against each element the respective address as identifier during electrical interfacing of these elements with the PLC. then start writing the program.  Identify each individual function as separate block (PBxx/FBxx)  Once the PBs and FBs for each function are identified. Then study how to use these instructions in the program (through illustration examples given in the manual).39 INTERRUPT-DRIVEN EXECUTION OB PB FB Points at which interrupt-driven program can be inserted Start and finish of interrupt-driven program execution Fig. and understand the meaning of each instruction. Once the familiarization task is over. Follow the following steps to write a PLC program.  List down each individual element (field device) on the machine as Input/Output.  List down the preconditions required for the particular function separately. . take them one by one for writing the program.  Break down the complete machine auxiliary functions that are controlled by the PLC into individual. first go through the instruction set of the particular language used for the equipment.

it in turn informs the PLC through a fixed buffer location that spindle rotation is requested.7 Drive ready Input signal from Q 0.1 Job clamp Proximity switch Q 1. Example 1: Spindle ON Preconditions Feedback elements Address indication Address Remark Tool clamp Pressure switch Q 2.2 I 5.6 Lamp Lamp Fault PB 12 written is the individual function module for spindle ON for all the preconditions checked and found satisfactory. This function is required to be executed only when the spindle rotation is requested by the NC in the form of a block in the part program. Say Flag bit F 100.0 I 4.4 Drive unit I 2.7 Lamp Lamp Lamp Q 1.  Check the complete program with all the blocks incorporated in the final program.0 is identified for this .  Complete the program translation of all individual functions in similar lines. Whenever NC decodes the part program block.  Organize all the program blocks in the organization block depending upon the sequence in which they are supposed to be executed as per the main machine function flow chart.7 Door close Limit switch Q 4.  Check the individual blocks independently and correct the program to get the required results.40  Translate the flow chart into PLC program using the instructions already familiarized.4 I 3.0 Lubrication ON PLC output bit Q 7.

. With this data.0 JC PB12 …… …… BE Now.0 is set. spindle ON function module PB12 will be executed only when F 100.41 information communication. spindle ON function module can be recalled in the organization block OB1 as follows. Otherwise the function execution will be bypassed. OB 1 …… A F 100.

7 Display fault lamp AN I 2.6 = Q 0.42 FLOW CHART PB12 START Comments NO INDICATE FAULT TOOL CLAMP YES NO INDICATE FAULT JOB CLAMP AN I 3.7 1.1 Tool not clamped Display fault lamp YES NO INDICATE FAULT DOOR CLOSED YES AN I 5.6 67.7 1.2 5.4 3.2 Job not clamped = Q 1.0 4.6 67.4 = Q 2.0 Door not closed Display fault lamp NO INDICATE FAULT LUBRICATION ON YES NO INDICATE FAULT DRIVE READY YES YES ANY FAULT NO AN Q 1.3 2.7 = Q 4.0 Lubrication not on = Q 7.4 Drive not ready Display fault lamp Exit STOP SPINDLE DO SPINDLE ON ON I ON I ON I ON Q ON I R Q BEC A I A I A I A Q A I S Q BE 2.7 Display fault lamp AN I 4.3 Tool not clamped Job not clamped Door not closed Lubrication not on Drive not ready Reset spindle enable bit Block end conditionally Tool clamped Job clamped Door closed Lubrication ON Drive ready Set spindle enable bit Block end END .2 5.0 4.4 3.

0403231005 .Tech in Electronics & Communication Engineering. HARIDWAR Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of B.NUMERICALLY CONTROLLED AT BHEL.43 A PROJECT REPORT ON COMPUTER . Submitted By: Abhishek Mittal Roll No.

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AT BHEL.45 A PROJECT REPORT ON COMPUTER .NUMERICALLY CONTROLLED MACHINES. Submitted By: Abhishek .Tech in Electronics & Communication Engineering. HARIDWAR Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of B.

0403231004 STAMP OF AUTHENTICITY This is to certify that Mr. GHAZIABAD. HARIDWAR.46 Roll No. .E. 16th June 2007 to 16th July 2007 at BHEL. ABHISHEK MITTAL pursuing B. has COLLEGE GHAZIABAD undergone industrial training on “COMPUTER NUMERICALLY CONTROLLED COMPUTER MACHINES” w. ENGINEERING COLLEGE.Tech in ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION from A.S.e.B.f.

BHEL. B. B. I am very grateful to him for providing me with his precious time and helping me. SHARMA.R. SHARMA Co.C.C.C. Signature MR. My thanks to all the supporting staff at BHEL office for showing .Coordinator Vocational Training H.D. Haridwar ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The following project report on CNC Machine would not have materialized without the support and guidance of MR.47 Auth.

it is impossible to keep the pace with the emerging trends. PREFACE With the ongoing revolution in Electronics and Communication Engineering where innovations are taking place at the blinks of an eye. properly .48 me around the various equipments in use. A well planned. It is the environment that makes sure that whether the result of this attitude is visible or otherwise. There is an attitude that the whole of the human race is born with. Last but not the least I would like to thank my family members whose invaluable support made this whole project possible.

Industrial training has become an important part in students curriculum as it now only makes him aware of working condition of an industry it also helps him in bridging the gap that exists between an institution and an industry. BHEL. HARIDWAR. Most of the theoretical knowledge that has been gained during the course of their studies is put to test here. HARIDWAR gives opportunity to students of many disciplines in helping them prepare for the .49 executed and evaluated industrial training helps a lot inculcating a professional attitude. It provides a linkage between the student and industry to develop an awareness of industrial approach to problem solving. Apart from this. During this period. which immensely helps them in building their career. based on a broad understanding of process and mode of operation of organization. first hand experience for working in the actual environment. the student get real. I had the opportunity to have a real experience on many ventures which increased my sphere of knowledge to a great extent. the student gets an opportunity to learn the latest technology. The industrial training is of high importance in helping him physiologically for the transformation. I got a chance to learn many technologies and was also organization BHEL.

They conduct training for organization. which is a big help for the student. The manager of the department helps the trainee in building an inside to the working of the department rotational programmed lasts for one week. At the end of the duration the trainee is evaluated on the basis of his performance during this training period ad accordingly a certificate is awarded.50 big jump. which excel in their own fields of operations. .


systems and services -efficiently and at competitive prices. enables the Company to promptly serve its customers and provide them with suitable products. today. engineering and manufacturing to international standards by acquiring and adapting some of the best . ushering in the indigenous Heavy Electrical Equipment industry in India . Power Generation & Transmission. Renewable Energy. BHEL was established more than 40 years ago. BHEL manufactures over 180 products under 30 major product groups and caters to core sectors of the Indian Economy viz.. The company has been earning profits continuously since 1971-72 and paying dividends since 1976-77.52 BHEL. over 100 project sites. Industry. Telecommunication. The wide network of BHEL's 14 manufacturing divisions. HARIDWAR BHEL is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India in the energyrelated/infrastructure sector. etc.a dream that has been more than realized with a well-recognized track record of performance. eight service centers and 18 regional offices. The high level of quality & reliability of its products is due to the emphasis on design. Transportation. four Power Sector regional centres.

000 MW of power generation -. Fertilizer. Steel. Aluminum.000 Motors with Drive Control System to Power projects. Cement plants.000 MVA transformer capacity and other equipment operating in Transmission & Distribution network up to 400 kV (AC & DC). Refineries. . Environmental Management Systems (ISO 14001) and Occupational Health & Safety Management Systems (OHSAS 18001) and is also well on its journey towards Total Quality Management.for Utilities. Supplied Traction electrics and AC/DC locos to power over 12. Petrochemicals. etc.000 kms Railway network. Supplied over 2. BHEL has acquired certifications to Quality Management Systems (ISO 9001). BHEL has Installed equipment for over 90.53 technologies from leading companies in the world. Supplied over 25. Captive and Industrial users.25. together with technologies developed in its own R&D centres.

and Overseas Business. BHEL's vision is to become a world-class engineering enterprise. a positive work culture and participative style of management – all these have engendered development of a committed and motivated workforce setting new benchmarks in terms of productivity. This enables BHEL to have a strong customer orientation. career planning. . Industry including Transmission.600 employees. The greatest strength of BHEL is its highly skilled and committed 42. quality and responsiveness. Continuous training and retraining. to be sensitive to his needs and respond quickly to the changes in the market.54 Supplied over one million Valves to Power Plants and other Industries. Transportation. The company is striving to give shape to its aspirations and fulfill the expectations of the country to become a global player. Every employee is given an equal opportunity to develop himself and grow in his career. Telecommunication & Renewable Energy . namely Power. committed to enhancing stakeholder value. BHEL's operations are organised around three business sectors.

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