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Development of Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machines is an outstanding contribution to the manufacturing industries. It has made possible the automation of the machining process with flexibility to handle small to medium batch of quantities in part production. Initially, the CNC technology was applied on basic metal cutting machine like lathes, milling machines, etc. Later, to increase the flexibility of the machines in handling a variety of components and to finish them in a single setup on the same machine, CNC machines capable of performing multiple operations were developed. To start with, this concept was applied to develop a CNC machining centre for machining prismatic components combining operations like milling, drilling, boring and taping. Further, the concept of multioperations was also extended for machining cylindrical components, which led to the development of turning centers.
ADVANTAGES OF CNC MACHINE
Higher flexibility Increased productivity Consistent quality Reduced scrap rate Reliable operation Reduced non productive time Reduced manpower Shorter cycle time High accuracy Reduced lead time Just in time (JIT) manufacture Automatic material handling Lesser floor space Increased operation safety
Machining of advanced material
Numerical control (NC) is a method employed for controlling the motions of a machine tool slide and its auxiliary functions with input in the form of numerical data. A computer numerical control (CNC) is a microprocessor-based system to store and process the data for the control of slide motions and auxiliary functions of the machine tools. The CNC system is the heart and brain of a CNC machine which enables the operation of various machine members such as slides, spindles, etc. as per the sequence programmed into it, depending on the machining operations. The main advantage of a CNC system lies in the fact that the skills of the operator hitherto required in the operation of a conventional machine is removed and the part production is made automatic. The CNC systems are constructed with a NC unit integrated with a programmable logic controller (PLC) and some times with an additional external PLC (non-integrated). The NC controls the spindle movement and the speeds and feeds in machining. It calculates the traversing path of the axes as defined by the inputs. The PLC controls the peripheral actuating elements of the machine such as solenoids, relay coils, etc. Working together, the NC and PLC enable the machine tool to operate automatically. Positioning and part accuracy depend on the CNC system's computer control algorithms, the system resolution and the basic mechanical machine accuracy. Control algorithm may cause errors while computing, which will reflect during contouring, but they are very negligible. Though this does not cause point to point positioning error, but when mechanical machine in accuracy are present, it will result in poorer part accuracy.
This chapter gives an overview of the configuration of the CNC system, interfacing and introduction to PLC programming.
CONFIGURATION OF THE CNC SYSTEM
Fig.1 shows a schematic diagram of the working principle of a NC axis of a CNC machine and the interface of a CNC control.
PL C NC
Spindle Head Encoder
Work piece Table
Tape Reader Tape Punch Other Devices Inputs • • • • •
Proximity switches Limit switches Relay coils Pressure switches Float switches
Fig.1 Schematic diagram of a CNC machine tool
2 gives the typical numerical control configuration of Hinumerik 3100 CNC system .6 A CNC system basically consists of the following: Central processing unit (CPU) Servo-control unit Operator control panel Machine control panel Other peripheral device Programmable logic controller (PLC) Fig.
7 Basic Blocks of the CNC Machines .
8 Central Processing Unit (CPU) The CPU is the heart and brain of a CNC system. It accepts the information stored in the memory as part program. All the compensations required for machine accuracy (like lead screw pitch error. backlash. This data is decoded and transformed into specific position control and velocity control signals. It also oversees the movement of the control axis or spindle whenever this does not match the programmed values. Speed Control Unit This unit acts in unison with the CPU for the movement of the machine axes. Servo-Control Unit . In case any safety conditions related to the axis are overruled during movement or otherwise they are reported to the CPU for corrective action. Also. The same will be taken care of during the generation of control signals for the axis movement. Whenever the situation goes beyond control of the CPU. some safety checks are built into the system through this unit and the CPU unit will provide continuous necessary corrective actions. a corrective action is taken. This also checks whether machine tool axis movement is at the same speed as directed by the CPU. tool wear out. etc. it takes the final action of shutting down the system in turn the machine.) are calculated by the CPU depending upon the corresponding inputs made available to the system. The CPU sends the control signals generated for the movement of the axis to the servo control unit and the servo control unit convert these signals into the suitable digital or analog signal to be fed to the machine tool axis movement.
). etc. This unit in turn generates suitable signals as command values. rotary encoders. The servo-drive unit converts the command values. The velocity feedback is generally obtained through tacho generators. which are interfaced with the axis and the spindle motors (Fig. generated by the CPU for the axis movement forms the input to the servo-control unit.1). resolves.9 The decoded position and velocity control signals. . The servo-control unit receives the position feedback signals for actual movement of the machine tool axes from the feedback devices (like linear scales.
e. The amount of movement and the rate of movement are controlled by the CNC system depending upon the type of feedback system used. Thus the servo-control unit performs the data communication between the machine tool and the CPU. Operator Panel.10 The feedback signals are passed on to the CPU for further processing. Closed-loop System The closed-loop system is characterized by the presence of feedback. the actual movements of the slides on the machine tool is achieved through servo drives.position feedback and velocity feedback. There are generally two types of feedback to a CNC system -. . the CNC system send out commands for movement and the result is continuously monitored by the system through various feedback devices. As explained earlier. In this system.3). i. closed-loop or open-loop system (Fig.
11 SINUMERIK SYSTEM 3 SIEMENS LSMLogic Sub module LSM2 LSM1 Emergency Stop X+ ZXZ+ Machine Control Panel Cycle POWER ON Machine Control Panel Expansion Power Supply PLC 2. external NC PLC1 Logic Unit Tape Puncher Tape Reader Fig.2 Typical numerical control configuration of Hinumerik 3100 CNC system .
12 POSITION FEEDBACK A closed-loop system. the system declares fault and initiates action for disabling the drives and if necessary. will constantly try to achieve and maintain a given position by self-correcting. regardless of the type of feedback device. If the actual rate is not as per the required rate. the system tries to correct it. Table Command Counter Subtraction Circuit Position Control Comparison Circuit Stop at Zero Amplifier Servo Motor Lead Screw Tape reader Controller Open-loop positioning control Error Signal Table Transducer Active Buffer Storage Count Comparator Amplifier Servo Motor Lead Screw Tape reader Position feedback signal Close-loop positioning control . its movement is fed back to the CNC system for determining the position of the slide to decide how much is yet to be traveled and also to decide whether the movement is as per the commanded rate. In case this is not possible. As the slide of the machine tool moves. switches off the machine.
3 Open-and Closed-loop positioning system VELOCITY FEEDBACK In case no time constraint is put on the system to reach the final programmed position. velocity feedback must be present along with the position feedback whenever CNC system are used for contouring. in order to produce correct interpolation and also specified acceleration and deceleration velocities. then the system may not produce the required path or the surface finish accuracy. they cannot counteract disturbances appearing during the operation. The actual rate of movement and direction depend upon the command signal from CNC system. The analog voltage is taken as speed feedback by the servo-controller and swift action is taken by the controller to maintain the speed of the motor within the required limits.13 Fig. OPEN-LOOP SYSTEM The open loop system lacks feedback. where loading torque on the axial motor is low and almost constant. The tacho generator used for velocity feedback is normally connected to the motor and it rotates whenever the motor rotates. Hence. In this system. the CNC system send out signals for movement but does not check whether actual movement is taking place or not. thus giving an analog output proportional to the speed of motor. Stepper motors are used for actual movement and the electronics of these stepper motors is run on digital pulses from the CNC system. SERVO-DRIVES As shown in Fig.1 the servo-drive receives signals from the CNC system and transforms it into actual movement on the machine. There are various . They can be utilized in point to point system. Since system controllers have no access to any real time information about the system performance.
spindle speed •Active G functions •Main program number.14 types of servo-drives. the motor and the electronics for driving the motor. Video display units may be of two types: 1. viz. user programs. The operator control panel provides the user interface to facilitate a two-way communication between the user. machine data. subroutine number •Display of all entered data. etc. A servo-drive consists of two parts. Color displays . Monochrome or black and white displays 2. namely. ac drives and stepper motor drives.4 shows a typical Hinumerik 3100 CNC system's operator control panel. CNC system and the machine tool. current feed rate. set or actual difference. user data. a few LEDs are generally provided to indicate important operating modes and status. OPERATOR CONTROL SYSTEM Fig.. It displays all current information such as: •Complete information of the block currently being executed •Actual position value. dc drives. This consists of two parts: •Video Display Unit (VDU) •Keyboard VIDEO DISPLAY UNIT (VDU) The VDU displays the status of the various parameters of the CNC system and the machine tool. •Alarm messages in plain text •Soft key designations In addition to a CRT.
4 Operator control panel of Hinumerik XCycle 3100 system .15 OPERATORS AND MACHINE PANEL SINUMERIK SYSTEM 3 SIEMENS Reset changeover Assignment of keys Cancel word Alter word Change to actual value display Basic display Change of display Tool compensation Zero offset Leaf forwards Program in progress Emergency Stop Feed hold Test Leaf backwards LED-indicator Position not yet reached Part program Right-Left Cursor For assignment (Machine in motion) ZPOWER ON CRT Of keys Alarm Control elements and indicators of the operator's panel Enter word Change over to customer display Operator guidance Yes.No X+ Delete input Start Address Keys/Numerical keyboard Z+ Fig.
depending upon the part program stored in the memory.5 shows the MCP of Hinumerik 3100 system. etc. •Execution of other toll functions. machine should first be prepared with some specific tasks like. zero offsets. •Execution of part programs. manual data input. enabling the operation of the machine through the CNC system. the CNC controls the axis motion. and machine parameters. Prior to the starting of the machine process. Fig. •Selection of different pages for viewing. . For these tasks. spindle function or tool function on a machine tool. •Establishing a correct reference point •Loading the system memory with the required part program •Loading and checking of tool offsets. •Selection of feed rate override and spindles speed override. the system must be operated in specific operating mode so that these preparatory functions can be established. During program execution. MACHINE CONTROL PANEL (MCP) It is the direct interface between operator and the NC system.16 KEYBOARD A keyboard is provided for the following purposes: •Editing of part programs.g. •Selection of operating modes. e. tool data.
The feed rate of the slide movement is prefixed.). etc.. The axis movement can also be achieved manually using a hand wheel .17 Control elements of the Machine Control Panel Mode selector Switch Emergency Stop Spindle speed override Rapid traverse activate Feedrate/rapid traverse override Direction keys Spindle OFF ON X+ ZXZ+ Feed Hold/Start Cycle start Cycle POWER ON NC ON Key operated switch for input inhibit Single block Block Dry Run Delete Rapid Traverse Override active Manual encoder active in X-and Z-axis resp. movement of a machine slide can carried out manually by pressing the particular jog button (+ or -). Z+. Z-. CNC system allows the axis to be jogged at high feed rate also.g. X+. MANUAL MODE In this mode. Y-. X-. etc.5 Machine control panel of Hinumerik 3100 system Modes of Operation Generally. The slide (axis) is selected through an axis selector switch or through individual switches (e. the CNC system can be operated in the following modes: Manual mode Manual data input (MDI) mode Automatic mode Reference mode Input mode Output mode. Y+. Block search Fig.
18 interface instead of jog buttons. In this mode slides can be moved in two ways: Continuous Incremental .
which is selectable.Tool offsets (TO) -----. MANUAL DATA INPUT (MDI) MODE In this mode the following operation can be performed: •Building a new part program •Editing or deleting of part program stored in the system memory •Entering or editing or deleting of: -----.Test data.key and will be limited to the no of increments selected even if the jog button is continuously pressed.19 CONTINUOUS MODE In this mode. For subsequent movement the jog button has to be released and once again pressed. TEACH-IN Some system allows direct manual input of a program block and execution of the same. INCREMENTAL MODE Hence the slide will move through a fixed distance. Normally. 1000. etc. system allows jogging of axes in 1. 10000. PLAYBACK .Zero offsets (ZO) -----. 100. It is initiated by pressing the proper jog+ or jog. Axis movement is at a prefixed feed rate. increments. 10. The blocks thus executed can be checked for correctness of dimensions and consequently transferred into the program memory as part program. the slide will move as long as the jog button is pressed.
Program start can be effected at any block in the program. Block retrace is allowed only when a cycle stop state is established. through the BLOCK SEARCH facility.g. switching functions and other auxiliary functions have to be added to the part program in program editing mode. Part program execution can resume and its execution begins with the retraced block. Many CNC systems make it compulsory to reference the slides of the machine to their home positions before a program is executed while others make it optional. stop the execution of the next block till it is initiated to do so (by pressing the start button). the axis can be traversed either through the direction keys or via the hand wheel. While one block is being executed. Many systems allow blocks (single or multiple) to be retraced in the opposite direction. teach-in and playback operating method allows a program to created during the first component prove out. INPUT MODE AND OUTPUT MODE (I/O MODE) ..20 In setting up modes like jog or incremental. The part program is executed block by block. AUTOMATIC MODE (AUTO AND SINGLE BLOCK) In this mode the system allows the execution of a part program continuously. and the end position can be transferred into the system memory as command values. pitch error compensation) can be properly applied. Execution of the program can be one block after another automatically or the system will execute a block. This is useful for tool inspection or in case of tool breakage. But the required feed rates. REFERENCE MODE Under this mode the machine can be referenced to its home position so that all the compensations (e. analyzed and kept ready for execution. Selection of part program execution continuously (Auto) or one block at a time (Single Block) is done through the machine control panel. Thus. Part programs are generally prepared in absolute mode with respect to machine zero. the next block is read by the system.
PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER (PLC) A PLC matches the NC to the machine. Fig. selector switches. unknown characters.6 gives an overview of the system with few peripheral devices. etc. The I/O structure of the PLCs is one of their major strengths. Fig. all the decisions are made relative to controlling a machine or a process. program already present in the memory. etc. etc. etc. printer. limit switches. performs logical decisions based upon stored programs and drives the outputs.21 In this mode. In the CPU. tape reader/puncher interface. PLCs were basically introduced as replacement for hard wired relay control panels. magnetic cassettes or floppy discs. can be loaded/unloaded into/from the memory of the system from external devices like programming units. some systems check for simple errors (like parity. Transfer of data is done through a RS232C or RS422C port. block length. proximity switches. more memory and large input/output capabilities. The inputs can be push buttons. tape format. float switches. tool offsets. During data input.7 gives the generalized PLC block diagram. machine setup data. The CPU receives input data. analog sensor. relay contacts. the part programs. The outputs can be motor starters. PLCs are now available with increased functions. provision for communication equipment. They were developed to be reprogrammed without hardware changes when requirements were altered and thus are reusable. programming units. solenoid . OTHER PERIPHERALS These include sensor interface. etc.). Connections to a computer for hierarchical control are done via the CPU.
current capacities and types of I/O modules are available. A wide variety of voltages. indicator lights. LED displays. The voltage level of the field devices thus normally determines the type of I/O. supplied and installed by the machine tool builder or the end user. The PLC power supply is designated and rated only to operate the internal portions of the I/O structures. power to actuate these devices must also be supplied external to the PLC. position valves. etc. and not the field devices. . So. relay coils.22 valves. The field devices are typically selected.
Proper grounding in electrical installation is most essential.23 Programming Units Tape Reader Tape Puncher Printers Fig. This reduces the effects of interference and guards .7 Generalized PLC block diagram INTERFACING Interconnecting the individual elements of both the machine and the CNC system using cables and connectors is called interfacing.6 System with peripheral devices Inputs Processor Programmer Logic memory Power Supply Storage memory Outputs Power Supply Field Devices Fig. Extreme care should be taken during interfacing.
.24 against electronic shock to personnel. It is also essential to properly protect the electronic equipment.
25 Cable wires of sufficiently large cross-sectional area must be used. signal cable requires additional protection. All the cable shields must be grounded at control only. the cause of the fault is stored and then displayed as an alarm. basic control also includes constantly active monitoring functions. If a fault occurs. In Hinumerik CNC system. This is in order to identify faults in the NC. the interface control and the machine at an large stage to prevent damages occurring to the work piece. Other noise reduction techniques include using suppression devices. Even though proper grounding reduces the effect of electrical interference. ferrous metal wire ways. for example. MONITORING In addition to the care taken by the machine tool builder during design and interfacing. etc. the PLC is informed that an NC alarm exits. proper cable separation. At the same time. This is generally achieved by using shielded cables. Electrical enclosures should be designed to provide proper ambient conditions for the controller. leaving other end free. the drives are stopped. tool or machine. the following can be monitored: •Read-in •Format •Measuring circuit cables •Position encoders and drives •Contour •Spindle speed •Enable signals •Voltage •Temperature •Microprocessors •Data transfer between operator control panel and logic unit •Transfer between NC and PLC •Change of status of buffer battery . first the machining sequence is interrupted.
which is machine specific. These data are fixed and entered during commissioning of the machine and generally left unaltered during machine operations. This simplifies trouble shooting considerably. feed rates. acceleration. adjustment of reference point. Kv factor.26 •System program memory •User program memory •Serial interfaces DIAGNOSTICS The control will generally be provided with test assistance for service purposes in order to display some status on the CRT such as: •Interface signals between NC and PLC as well as between PLC and machine •Flags of the PLC •Timers of the PLC •Counters of the PLC •Input/output of the PLC For the output signals. position control multiplication factor. which has to be matched with the particular machine to which the system is interfaced. a CNC system is designed as a general-purpose control unit. The NC and PLC machine data can be entered and changed by means of external equipment or manually by the keyboard. it is also possible to set and generate signal combinations for test purposes in order to observe how the machine react to a changed signal. Machine data entered is usually relevant to the axis travel limits. rapid traverse speeds and spindle speeds. MACHINE DATA Generally. drift compensation. backlash . The CNC is interfaced to the machine by means of data.
pitch error compensation is required. Also the optional features of the control system are made available to the machine tool builder by enabling some of the bits of machine data.8) Pitch error (um) Positive end limit Reference point To negative end limit FIG. these compensation are automatically added up by the CNC system (Fig. and is influenced by: o Geometric accuracy in the alignment of the slide ways o Deflection of the bed due to load o Temperature gradients on the machine o Accuracy of the screw thread of any drive screw and the amount of backlash (lost motion) o Amount of twist (wind up) of the shaft which will influence the measurement of rotary transducers The CNC systems offer compensation for machines' accuracy. etc.8 TYPICAL ERROR CURVE . Then the required compensation at predetermined points is fed in to the system. To begin with. pitch error compensation. COMPENSATIONS FOR MACHINE ACCURACY Machine accuracy is the accuracy of the movement of the carriage. the pitch error curve for the entire length of the screw is built up by physical measurement with the aid of an external device (like laser).27 compensation. These are detailed below: the various LEAD SCREW PITCH ERROR COMPENSATION To compensate for movements of the machine slide due to in accuracy of the pitch along the length of the ball screw. Whenever a slide is moved.
a compensation is provided by the CNC system for the motion lost due to reversal. there is some lost motion due to backlash between nut and the screw. extra movement is added into the actual movement whenever reversal takes place. While machining chamfers.10 . This has to be measured in advance and fed to the system. This extra movement is equal to backlash between the screw and the nut. This value keeps on varying due to wear of the ball screws. Compensations required along the length of the slide have to be physically measured and fed to the system.9 BACKLASH COMPENSATION SAG COMPENSATION Inaccuracy due to sag in the slide can be compensated by the system. As shown in Fig. it is necessary to make allowance for the tool tip radius. hence the compensation value has to be updated regularly from time to time Positive backlash (the Negative backlash usual case) Table Backlash Encoder Toothed wheel Backlash here Table M Ballscrew M Encoder Encoder actual value precedes the table movement Actual movement of the table precedes the encoder measurement FIG. The system automatically adds up the compensation to the movement of the slide.e. this radius is known as radius compensation. i. angles or turning curves. TOOL NOSE COMPENSATION Tool nose compensation normally used on tool for turning centers.28 BACKLASH COMPENSATION Whenever a slide is reversed.
29 (a). and the tool will follow the path AB and the taper produced will be incorrect. if the allowance is nit made. It is possible to adjust the relative position of cutter size and this adjustment is known as cutter diameter compensation. In order to obtain correct taper.10 Tool nose radius compensation CUTTER DIAMETER COMPENSATION The diameter of the used tool may be different from the actual value because of regrinding of the tool or due to nonavailability of the assumed tool.0 Fig. It is essential that the radius at the tip of the tool is fed to the system to make an automatic adjustment on the position and movement of the tool to get the correct taper on the work.0 Z0 X0 Datum Position A Xc Z -15. tool position has to be adjusted. In Fig.0 X 30. the edges of the tool tip radius would be positioned at the programmed X and Z coordinates. .0 B X 30.10 (b) the distance Xc is the adjustment necessary at the start of the cut and distance Zc is the adjustment at the end of the cut.0 Z -15.0 Datum Position X 20. Z0 X0 Tool Minimum radius of taper Z -25.0 Z0 Zc X 20.
2 FIG.11 explains the function of the tool offset. But during the actual mounting of tools on the machine.2 X offset for tool no. When a number of tools are used.1 ZR XR Tool no. it is .2 Z offset for tool no.30 Z0 ZR ZR=Setting distance for reference tool X0 XR=Setting distance for reference tool Reference tool Tool no. it is found that the size of the work piece (diameter or length) is not within tolerance due to wear of the tool. it is necessary to determine the tool offset of each tool and store it in the memory of the control unit. This is the difference in the positions of the centre line of the tool holder for different tools and the reference tool. shape and thickness as a reference tool.11 TOOL TOOL OFFSET OFFSETS A part program is generated keeping in mind a tool of a particular length. Normally. different tools of varying lengths. Fig. This is known as tool offset. A correction for dimension of the tools and movements of the work piece has to be incorporated to give the exact machining of the component. thickness and shapes may be available.
31 the possible to edit the value of offsets to obtain the correct size. . This is known as tool wear compensation.
2 1.12 (c) I 2.3 2. i. At the end of a scanning cycle.6 2. The PLC operates cyclically.2 Q 1. inputs and outputs. Fig. when a complete program has been scanned.e.1 . i. the processor the accesses this process image.6 (c) Ladder diagram LAD I 2. The program can be written and entered into the programmable controller as in: Statement list (STL).32 PLC PROGRAMMING The principle of operation of a PLC is determined essentially by the PLC program memory.1 O R I 3.3 Statement list STL A I A I O I = Q A Operation A I I I 2. the processor fetches one statement after another from the programming memory and executes it. Fig.12 (b) Ladder diagram (LAD). The program that determines PLC operation is stored in the internal PLC program memory. The processor then begins a new program scan. the processor transfers the contents of the process image output to the output modules and to the external timers and counters.3 I 4. STEP 5 programming language is used for writing user programs for SIMATIC S5 programmable controllers. the processor examines the signal status at all inputs as well as the external timers and counters and are stored in a process image input (PII). it starts again at the beginning of the program.1 3.3 4. To execute the program.3 Statement Operand Parameter I 3.2 A N D (b) Control system flow chart CSF (a) I 4.3 2. At the beginning of each cycle.12 (a) Control system flowchart (CSF). Fig. program completion. The results are constantly stored in the process image output (PIO) during the cycle.e. During subsequent program scanning. processor.
e.1. etc.g. Programming is considerably . byte address only. The statement is the smallest STEP 5 program component. I 5. i. e. For inputs.e. i. The statement may include absolute operands. i.e.g. I 4. what is to be done with? E. i. the parameter consists of the byte and bit addresses. F = flag.5.e. with the signal of input 4. or symbolic operand. what is to be done? E.12 PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLER The statement list describes the automation task by means of mnemonic function designations.g.) Parameter. the number of operand identifiers addressed by the statement. The control system flowchart is a graphic representation of the automation task. Q = output.e. A = AND operation (series connection) O= OR operation (parallel connection) S= SET operation (actuation) Operand. I LS1.5 The operand consists of: Operand identifier (I = input.33 Operand identifier FIG. outputs and flags (internal relay equivalents). It consists of the following: Operation. and for timers and counter.g. The ladder diagram uses relay ladder logic symbols to represent the automation task.
Typically. .34 simplified in the later case as the actual plant designation is directly used to describe the device connected to the input or output. a statement takes up one word (two bytes) in the program memory.
special OBs can be programmed by the user to react to interruptions during cyclic programming processing. messages. program block for transportation. arithmetic operations. Various software block types are available for constructing the user program. listing. sequence controls.g. The program in a function block is usually not written with absolute operands (e. These standard FBs for complex functions can be linked it the user program just like user . Such an interrupt can be triggered by a monitoring function if one or several monitored events occur.). Program blocks (PB) contain the user program broken down into technologically or functionally related sections (e. It is therefore possible to call PBs conditionally (depending on certain conditions). For even more complex functions. monitoring. In addition to the basic operations. operator communications. etc.5) but with symbolic operands. e. for individual controls. two step control loops. etc. the user has a extended operation at his disposal for developing function blocks. This enables a function block to be used several times over with different absolute operands. Further blocks. such as program blocks or function blocks can be called from a PB. Such FBs are available.g. standard function blocks are available from a program library. I 1.35 STRUCTURED PROGRAMMING The user program can be made more manageable and straightforward if it is broken down into relative sections. Organization contain block calls determining the sequence in which the PBs are to be processed.g. In addition. blocks (OB) Function block (FB) is block with programs for recurrent and usually complex function.
The Sequence block (SB)contain the step enabling conditions. . for example. monitoring times and conditions for the current step in sequence cascade.36 written FBs simply by means of a call along with the relevant parameters. The data blocks (DB) contain all fixed or variable data of the user program. Sequence blocks are employed. to organise the sequence cascade in communication with a standard FB.
once the relevant OB has been executed. For this purpose. every 100ms. TIME CONTROLLED PROGRAM EXECUTION Certain Obs are executed at the predetermined time intervals (e. and 5s).37 CYCLIC PROGRAM PROCESSING The blocks of the user program are executed in the sequence in which they specified in the organization block. 1s. The cyclic program execution is the resumed from the point at which it was interrupted.13 gives the organisation and execution of a structured user program. Fig. cyclic processing is interrupted at the next block boundary and an OB assigned to this event is started. 500ms.g. INTERRUPT DRIVEN PROGRAM PROCESSING When certain input signal changes occur. 200ms. cyclic program execution is interrupted at the block boundary and resumed again at this point. The user can formulate his response program to this interrupt in the OB. 2s. STRUCTURED PROGRAMMING OB1 PB1 FB2 PB2 FB3 Organisation block (OB) Cycle execution OB Program block (PB) Function block (PB) PB FB PB FB .
self contained functions. and understand the meaning of each instruction. Break down the complete machine auxiliary functions that are controlled by the PLC into individual. first go through the instruction set of the particular language used for the equipment. Indicate against each element the respective address as identifier during electrical interfacing of these elements with the PLC.39 INTERRUPT-DRIVEN EXECUTION OB PB FB Points at which interrupt-driven program can be inserted Start and finish of interrupt-driven program execution Fig. Write down the flow chart for the function. List down each individual element (field device) on the machine as Input/Output.13 Organisation and execution of a structured user program EXAMPLES OF PLC PROGRAM Before attempting to write a PLC program. Note down the address of the listed elements. Then study how to use these instructions in the program (through illustration examples given in the manual). take them one by one for writing the program. Follow the following steps to write a PLC program. . List down the preconditions required for the particular function separately. Identify each individual function as separate block (PBxx/FBxx) Once the PBs and FBs for each function are identified. then start writing the program. Once the familiarization task is over.
7 Door close Limit switch Q 4. Organize all the program blocks in the organization block depending upon the sequence in which they are supposed to be executed as per the main machine function flow chart.0 is identified for this .4 Drive unit I 2.7 Drive ready Input signal from Q 0.4 I 3.0 Lubrication ON PLC output bit Q 7. Check the complete program with all the blocks incorporated in the final program.40 Translate the flow chart into PLC program using the instructions already familiarized. Example 1: Spindle ON Preconditions Feedback elements Address indication Address Remark Tool clamp Pressure switch Q 2. Complete the program translation of all individual functions in similar lines. Whenever NC decodes the part program block.1 Job clamp Proximity switch Q 1. This function is required to be executed only when the spindle rotation is requested by the NC in the form of a block in the part program. Say Flag bit F 100. Check the individual blocks independently and correct the program to get the required results. it in turn informs the PLC through a fixed buffer location that spindle rotation is requested.7 Lamp Lamp Lamp Q 1.0 I 4.2 I 5.6 Lamp Lamp Fault PB 12 written is the individual function module for spindle ON for all the preconditions checked and found satisfactory.
41 information communication.0 JC PB12 …… …… BE Now. spindle ON function module can be recalled in the organization block OB1 as follows. Otherwise the function execution will be bypassed. OB 1 …… A F 100. With this data.0 is set. spindle ON function module PB12 will be executed only when F 100. .
6 67.4 = Q 2.6 = Q 0.2 5.7 1.7 = Q 4.3 2.0 4.42 FLOW CHART PB12 START Comments NO INDICATE FAULT TOOL CLAMP YES NO INDICATE FAULT JOB CLAMP AN I 3.4 Drive not ready Display fault lamp Exit STOP SPINDLE DO SPINDLE ON ON I ON I ON I ON Q ON I R Q BEC A I A I A I A Q A I S Q BE 2.7 Display fault lamp AN I 2.6 67.1 Tool not clamped Display fault lamp YES NO INDICATE FAULT DOOR CLOSED YES AN I 5.4 3.3 Tool not clamped Job not clamped Door not closed Lubrication not on Drive not ready Reset spindle enable bit Block end conditionally Tool clamped Job clamped Door closed Lubrication ON Drive ready Set spindle enable bit Block end END .0 Door not closed Display fault lamp NO INDICATE FAULT LUBRICATION ON YES NO INDICATE FAULT DRIVE READY YES YES ANY FAULT NO AN Q 1.0 Lubrication not on = Q 7.4 3.2 Job not clamped = Q 1.2 5.7 1.7 Display fault lamp AN I 4.0 4.
0403231005 .43 A PROJECT REPORT ON COMPUTER .NUMERICALLY CONTROLLED AT BHEL. Submitted By: Abhishek Mittal Roll No.Tech in Electronics & Communication Engineering. HARIDWAR Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of B.
45 A PROJECT REPORT ON COMPUTER .NUMERICALLY CONTROLLED MACHINES. HARIDWAR Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of B. Submitted By: Abhishek .Tech in Electronics & Communication Engineering. AT BHEL.
has COLLEGE GHAZIABAD undergone industrial training on “COMPUTER NUMERICALLY CONTROLLED COMPUTER MACHINES” w.B.E.S.e. HARIDWAR. 0403231004 STAMP OF AUTHENTICITY This is to certify that Mr. ENGINEERING COLLEGE. ABHISHEK MITTAL pursuing B. .46 Roll No.f. 16th June 2007 to 16th July 2007 at BHEL. GHAZIABAD.Tech in ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION from A.
C.47 Auth. My thanks to all the supporting staff at BHEL office for showing .R. I am very grateful to him for providing me with his precious time and helping me. BHEL. B. Haridwar ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The following project report on CNC Machine would not have materialized without the support and guidance of MR. Signature MR.Coordinator Vocational Training H.C.D. B. SHARMA. SHARMA Co.C.
Last but not the least I would like to thank my family members whose invaluable support made this whole project possible. properly . PREFACE With the ongoing revolution in Electronics and Communication Engineering where innovations are taking place at the blinks of an eye. It is the environment that makes sure that whether the result of this attitude is visible or otherwise. it is impossible to keep the pace with the emerging trends. A well planned.48 me around the various equipments in use. There is an attitude that the whole of the human race is born with.
49 executed and evaluated industrial training helps a lot inculcating a professional attitude. HARIDWAR gives opportunity to students of many disciplines in helping them prepare for the . I had the opportunity to have a real experience on many ventures which increased my sphere of knowledge to a great extent. HARIDWAR. The industrial training is of high importance in helping him physiologically for the transformation. first hand experience for working in the actual environment. I got a chance to learn many technologies and was also organization BHEL. Apart from this. the student gets an opportunity to learn the latest technology. It provides a linkage between the student and industry to develop an awareness of industrial approach to problem solving. the student get real. BHEL. During this period. based on a broad understanding of process and mode of operation of organization. Most of the theoretical knowledge that has been gained during the course of their studies is put to test here. which immensely helps them in building their career. Industrial training has become an important part in students curriculum as it now only makes him aware of working condition of an industry it also helps him in bridging the gap that exists between an institution and an industry.
The manager of the department helps the trainee in building an inside to the working of the department rotational programmed lasts for one week.50 big jump. which excel in their own fields of operations. They conduct training for organization. . which is a big help for the student. At the end of the duration the trainee is evaluated on the basis of his performance during this training period ad accordingly a certificate is awarded.
51 CONTENTS ≈ ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. ≈ PLC PROGRAMMING ≈ STRUCTURED PROGRAMMING. OPERATION ≈ INTERFACING. . ≈ BASIC BLOCKS ≈ MODES OF OF CNC MACHINE. ≈ COMPENSATION. ≈ MONITORING. ≈ INTRODUCTION TO BHEL. ≈ DIAGNOSTICS. ≈ PREFACE. ≈ CNC SYSTEM. ≈ STAMP OF AUTHENTICITY. ≈ TIME CONTROL PROGRAM EXECUTION.
Telecommunication. Transportation. over 100 project sites. The wide network of BHEL's 14 manufacturing divisions. engineering and manufacturing to international standards by acquiring and adapting some of the best .52 BHEL.. systems and services -efficiently and at competitive prices. today. BHEL was established more than 40 years ago. Power Generation & Transmission. eight service centers and 18 regional offices. Industry. The company has been earning profits continuously since 1971-72 and paying dividends since 1976-77. HARIDWAR BHEL is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India in the energyrelated/infrastructure sector.a dream that has been more than realized with a well-recognized track record of performance. Renewable Energy. four Power Sector regional centres. ushering in the indigenous Heavy Electrical Equipment industry in India . The high level of quality & reliability of its products is due to the emphasis on design. etc. enables the Company to promptly serve its customers and provide them with suitable products. BHEL manufactures over 180 products under 30 major product groups and caters to core sectors of the Indian Economy viz.
BHEL has Installed equipment for over 90.000 kms Railway network. Cement plants.000 MW of power generation -.25. Refineries. etc. Captive and Industrial users.53 technologies from leading companies in the world. Supplied Traction electrics and AC/DC locos to power over 12. Supplied over 2. Supplied over 25.for Utilities.000 Motors with Drive Control System to Power projects. Petrochemicals. Environmental Management Systems (ISO 14001) and Occupational Health & Safety Management Systems (OHSAS 18001) and is also well on its journey towards Total Quality Management.000 MVA transformer capacity and other equipment operating in Transmission & Distribution network up to 400 kV (AC & DC). . Fertilizer. together with technologies developed in its own R&D centres. Steel. BHEL has acquired certifications to Quality Management Systems (ISO 9001). Aluminum.
. career planning. Transportation. namely Power.600 employees. Every employee is given an equal opportunity to develop himself and grow in his career. This enables BHEL to have a strong customer orientation. Continuous training and retraining. quality and responsiveness.and Overseas Business. The company is striving to give shape to its aspirations and fulfill the expectations of the country to become a global player. a positive work culture and participative style of management – all these have engendered development of a committed and motivated workforce setting new benchmarks in terms of productivity. BHEL's vision is to become a world-class engineering enterprise. BHEL's operations are organised around three business sectors. Telecommunication & Renewable Energy . committed to enhancing stakeholder value. Industry including Transmission. to be sensitive to his needs and respond quickly to the changes in the market.54 Supplied over one million Valves to Power Plants and other Industries. The greatest strength of BHEL is its highly skilled and committed 42.
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