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TPM Basic Awareness

and
Autonomous Maintenance

ANAND U 1
A Brief History-TPM
Total Productive
Maintenance
1971 - Present

Breakdown Preventive Corrective Maintenance


MaintenanceMaintenance Maintenance Prevention
< 1950 1950 - 1970 1957 - 1978
ANAND U
1960 - 1980
2
Meaning of T-P-M
•Total Efficiency Maximisation
T - TOTAL •Total Lifecycle of Production Sys
•Total Manpower Coverage

Productivity Maximisation by :
P - PRODUCTIVE
•Zero Accident
•Zero Defect
•Zero Breakdown

Maintenance Covers Life Cycle


M - MAINTENANCE Of Prod. System:
•Individual Processes
•Plants
•Prod. Management System
ANAND U 3
Focussed
Improvement

Autonomous
Maintenance

Planned
Maintenance

Education &
Training
Pillars of TPM

ANAND U
Early Equipment
Management
8 Pillars of TPM

(1989 – Present)

Quality
Maintenance

Indirect
Department

Safety & Environ.


Management
4
Calculating Equipment Loss
Overall
EquipmentOperating
= Rate X Performance X Rate of
Efficiency Efficiency Qlty Prdts.

Operating Performance Rate of


Rate Efficiency Quality Pdts.

Function of Total Time Function


Vs of Std. Cycle Time
Function of Good O/Put
Down Time : Vs. Actual Cycle Time: Vs. Defective O/Put :
•Scheduled •Operation Stability •Rejections
•Planned Mtn •Minor Stoppages •Rework
•B/Down Mtn
•C/Over
•Tool Change ANAND U 5
Calculating Equipment Loss
Overall
EquipmentOperating
= Rate X Performance X Rate of
Efficiency Efficiency Qlty Prdts.

Operating Performance Rate of


Rate Efficiency Quality Pdts.

87% 50% 98%


Goal : > 85%
OEE = 43 %
ANAND U 6
Breakdown

Defects

Minor Stoppages

ANAND U
C/Over & Adj

Seven Big Losses


Tool Change

Reduced
Speed

Start-up
Loss
7

------------ Cumulative % --------------


0%
100 %
Types of Deterioration

Natural Forced
Deterioration Deterioration

Ageing under Artificially Accelerated


Standard because of Non-Standard
Operating Operating Conditions
Conditions
Breakdown Attracts
ANAND U
Breakdown ! 8
Basic Approach to
Zero Breakdown
•Breakdowns Occur ! •Zero Breakdowns !
•Equipment Fails ! •We will not Cause
Equipment Failure !

Breakdowns !

Anand Hidden Defects


•Physical
•Dust / Dirt
•Abrasion, Play, Looseness. Leakage
•Psychological
•Corrosion, Scratches, Deformation
•Temp, Vibration, Noise
ANAND U 9
Transformation – Phase 1
Operator : Possess ability to do
Self Initiated Maintenance

Maintenance Person :
Possess ability to do Maintenan
on all types of Equipment

TSG : Possess ability to do design


such equipment that require
no maintenance
ANAND U 10
Definition:
A set of activities for
restoring equipment to its
optimal condition and
changing the work
environment to maintain
those conditions through
daily maintenance activities.

ANAND U 11
Objective:
To restructure the
corporate culture
through behavioral
changes and equipment
improvements.
TE
AR LL
DOW WA
N
THE

ANAND U 12
Intent:

To upgrade the capabilities


of all company members
through education, training,
and participation.
TPM

ANAND U 13
Purpose:
To identify productivity
losses and involve all
members of the company
in loss elimination
programs.

L O S S

ANAND U 14
What Are The Benefits ?

 Safe Work Environment


 Job Security
 Improved Quality
 Increased Productivity
 Improved Skills

ANAND U 15
What Can Be Expected?
Productivity:
Valueadded improvement 1.5 to 2 times.
40% reduction in breakdowns.
Overall equipment efficiency up 1.5 to 2 times

Quality:
Reduction in Work-In-Process (WIP) defects.
Reduction in Parts Per Million (PPM).

Cost:
Production costs reduced by 30%.
Quality cost reduced by 30%.
ANAND U 16
What Can Be Expected?
Delivery:
Reduced finished goods inventory by 50%.
100% on-time delivery.
Reduced premium freight by 60%.

Safety & Morale:


Zero accidents.
5 -- 10 suggestions per employee.

Education:
Skill upgrading of employees.
ANAND U 17
Equipment Failure Statistic

Autonomous Maint.
Lubrication Method Role in B/D
Reduction
13%
Lack Of Cleaning
Dirt Lubricant
12% 24% Lubrication

Inspection
Loose Parts
8% Tightening

Other Equip.
Failures
43% Source: JIPM

ANAND U 18
Overview of Eight Pillars

ANAND U 19
Pillar : Planned maintenance

Aim : Realise efficiency in maintenance department to


eliminate 8 major losses

Method: Daily maintenance


TBM, CBM, Improvement for increasing the service
life expectancy, control for replacement of parts, failure
analysis and prevention of re-occurrence, Lubrication control

Who : Operator and maintenance men

ANAND U 20
Pillar : Focused Improvement

Aim :
•To focus on specific losses & Increase productivity, ease of
operation & Standardization of methods
•To ensure adequate methods for identification of losses &
countermeasure implementation
•To increase ease of detecting / correcting deterioration of
equipment

Method: Repeated Equipment Breakdown Analysis &


Countermeasures, CAP-Do for Minor Stoppages, CAP-Do for
Change-over, CAP_Do for Defects

Who : Operator and Technical Services Group


ANAND U 21
Pillar : Education and training

Aim : Raise the technical skill level of operators and


maintenance men

Method: Basic maintenance steps- nuts & bolts - key mating -


Bearings- Gear Transmission- Leakage prevention
- Hyd & Pneumatic eqpt -Electrical control systems

Who : Operators and maintenance men

ANAND U 22
Pillar : Initial flow control

Aim : Shorten the trial period for new product, design of new
equipment, and run-up time for stable launching of
products

Method:
•Set forth development and design targets
•Easy to manufacture, maintain and reliable equipment
•Study of LCC
•Review of design methodologies

Who : R & D / Production Engg Staff

ANAND U 23
Pillar : Quality Maintenance

Aim : Realise ‘Zero’ defects through observing the required


equipment maintenance
Method: Conformation to the standards for quality
characteristics and recognise the defect symptom and actual
defect record. Assure product quality, investigate the unit
process material and energy utilisation eqpt condition and
production methods. Investigation, analysis and kaizens for
fuguai conditions . Set forth 3 M conditions and inspection
reference values. Standardisation of the rules to be observed and
trend control
Who : Staff and cell leaders

ANAND U 24
Pillar : Safety

Aim : Attain and keep the Zero accident level


Create a healthy and clean working area
Method: Safety measures to protect the operators from equipment accidents
Make the operation safe
Improve the working environment - noise, dust
Measures to achieve environment protection.
Attention to the health and hygiene of the employees
Promotion of cheerful working environment.

Who : Managers & staff

ANAND U 25
Pillar : Office TPM

Aim : Realise Zero functional loss


Organise high efficiency
Render service and support function to the service
departments

Method: By 5 pillar activities

Who : Members of sales and administrative departments

ANAND U 26
TPM General Master Plan
Kick off TPM Award

Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 Q10 Q11 Q12 Q13


INTRO TRAINING
Self CRI. M/C -S1 CM–S3
CRI. M/C –S2
Mainten IMPORTANT M/C –S1 / 2 / 3
ance PILOT M/C
ALL M/C –S1 / 2 / 3
S4

DATA MGT.
TPM DATA MONITORING ON EACH LINE
Individual
Improve ANALYSIS OF B/DOWN & MINOR STOPS

ments IMPROVEMENT FOR CHANGE OVER


ANALY. CHRONIC LOSSES

BREAKDOWN ANALYSIS
Planned IMPROVE WEAK POINT PARTS
Mainten ESTABLISH PM STANDARDS
ance
PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE
ANAND U 27
Understanding
Losses

ANAND U 28
16 Major Losses
Which Obstruct Production Efficiency

 5 Major Losses Obstructing


Manpower Efficiency

 3 Major Losses Obstructing Material


& Energy Utilization

 8 Major Losses Obstructing


Equipment Efficiency

ANAND U 29
16 Major Losses - Continued

5 Major Losses Obstructing Manpower Efficiency:

1. Management Loss
2. Operating Motion Loss
3. Line Organization Loss
4. Logistics Loss
5. Measurement &
Adjustment Loss

ANAND U 30
16 Major Losses - Continued

3 Major Losses Obstructing Material & Energy Utilization:

1. Energy Loss
2. Die, Tool, & Fixture Loss
3. Material Loss

ANAND U 31
16 Major Losses - Continued
8 Major Losses Obstructing Equipment Efficiency:

1. Equipment Failure Loss: Largest failure of all losses.


Two types:
a. Function-Stoppage:
Failure occurs unexpectedly
b. Function-Deterioration:
Decreases over time

2. Set-Up & Adjustment Loss


Set-Up: Losses due to changeover
Adjustment: Minor process adjustments

ANAND U 32
16 Major Losses - Continued
8 Major Losses Obstructing Equipment Efficiency:
3. Consumable Parts Change Loss: Weld tip, weld liners,
cutting bits

4. Start-Up Loss: Equipment warm-up


and stabilization

5. Minor Stoppage & Idling Loss: Losses we have a tendency


to “put up with”
- part hanging
- pushing re-set button

ANAND U 33
16 Major Losses - Continued

8 Major Losses Obstructing Equipment Efficiency:

6. Speed Loss: Slowing the equipment


down to produce good
quality

7. Defect & Rework Loss: Time and manpower lost


in both types

8. Shutdown Loss: Planned stoppage of


equipment

ANAND U 34
Autonomous
Maintenance

ANAND U 35
Autonomous Maintenance
 Purpose:
 Prevent equipment from forced deterioration
 Keeping one's own equipment in good condition by
oneself
 Members:
 Operator, Cell Coordinator
 Activities:
 Initial cleanup
 Countermeasure for HTA & SOC
 Creation of autonomous standards for equipment
 Daily CLIT activity
 Training of operators proficient in equipment
 Adequate compliances with basic and usage
requirements of equipment

ANAND U 36
Autonomous Maintenance

Activities where each operator


performs timely inspection,
lubrication, consumable parts
replacement, repair,
troubleshooting, accuracy checks,
etc. . . . . on their own equipment.

ANAND U 37
The Goal Of
Autonomous Maintenance

Keeping one's own


equipment in good
condition by oneself.

ANAND U 38
Types of Deterioration

Natural Forced
Deterioration Deterioration

Ageing under Artificially Accelerated


Standard because of Non-Standard
Operating Operating Conditions
Conditions
Breakdown Attracts
ANAND U
Breakdown ! 39
Basic Approach to
Zero Breakdown
•Breakdowns Occur ! •Zero Breakdowns !
•Equipment Fails ! •We will not Cause
Equipment Failure !

Breakdowns !

Anand Hidden Defects


•Physical
•Dust / Dirt
•Abrasion, Play, Looseness. Leakage
•Psychological
•Corrosion, Scratches, Deformation
•Temp, Vibration, Noise
ANAND U 40
Activities
Performed By The
Operator

Prevent Measure Restore


Deterioration Deterioration Deterioration

ANAND U 41
TPM Roles Of

Establish Keep Prevent Improve


Improve
Basic Operation Machine Weak
Skill
Conditions Conditions From Points In
Deteriorating Design

Operators Maintenance

Management

ANAND U 42
Seven Steps of
Autonomous Maintenance

Autonomous Maintenance

Standardization

Autonomous Inspection
General Inspection

Prepare Temporary Standard

Countermeasure for HTA & SOC

Initial Cleanup

ANAND U 43
AM Step Zero
 Preparation for Step 1
 Safety education about equipment
 Basic knowledge about machine
structure
 Arrangement of cleaning material

 Arrangement of white and red tags

ANAND U 44
ANAND U 45
ANAND U 46
Machine / Lock Photo

ANAND U 47
AM Step One

Initial
Cleaning
ANAND U 48
Initial Cleaning Cleaning is
Inspection

 Take pictures to show “Before Conditions”


 Safety first
 Thoroughly clean dirt accumulated over
years
 Open covers and guards to clean inside
 Also clean the environment around the
equipment
 Cleaning becomes a normal part of the
operator responsibility

ANAND U 49
Cleaning is
Initial Cleaning – Continued...... Inspection

Attach tags to problem location TPM

Tags to be filled out by all operators

Each problem requires its own tag

White TAG -- Operator responsible


to repair
RED TAG -- Maintenance group
responsible for repairs

ANAND U 50
TPM Tags

TPM
Autonomous Maintenance TPM
Autonomous Maintenance
Step. No. 12 3 4 5 Step. No. 12 3 4 5
Problem Found Here Problem Found Here
Equipment: Equipment:
A
: sset No.: A
: sset No.:
Date Found: Date Found:
Found By: Found By:
Description of Problem: Description of Problem:

REMOVE THIS SHEET AFTER ATTACHING


ATTACH THIS SHEET TO EQUIPMENT
TAG AND USE IT AS COPY
Page 1 Page 2

ANAND U 51
Tag History
Upon completion of the repair, log or file
tags for future reference.
Keep the information at the cell.
Red tag history highlights:
 Recurring problems
 Repair history
 Maintenance response
White tag history highlights:
 Operator repairs and minor stoppages
 Recurring problems that need to be red tagged

ANAND U 52
Things to Look for During Cleaning

 Looseness
 Breakage, Deformation, Crack
 Wear & Tear
 Play, Slack
 Misalignment
 Poor soldering
 Poor wiring
 Rust
 Contamination
 Oil leaks
 Unwanted parts

ANAND U 53
AM Step Two

Counter Measures for


Hard-to-Access
&
Source of Contamination

ANAND U 54
Countermeasures For
Hard-to-Access Areas

1. Relocate for better access


2. Plexi-glass covers
3. Windows or guards
4. Fill unused or unnecessary
holes/groove

Note: Always use approved and


permanent countermeasures.

ANAND U 55
Countermeasures For
Source of Contamination

Eliminate Sources That Make The Equipment


Dirty.
1. Repair or tag leaks
2. Create ways to remove slag, shavings etc.
3. Use filters where necessary
4. Check for exhaust fan possibilities
5. If the source can not be eliminated, contain the
source, until it is eliminated

Note: Always use approved and permanent


countermeasures.

ANAND U 56
Steps In Preparing A Temporary Guard
Observe Line

Think Of A Way To Control


The Source Of
Contamination

Make A Model Using


Corrugated Cardboard
3
2
Try 1
Improvement
Fabricate Temporary Device
Using Galvanized Steel Or
Other Material

Produce Final Device

Suggest As
Standardization And
Future Design Information
ANAND U 57
Hard-To-Access & Source Of Contamination Areas
Equipment Asset Page
No.:____________________
Name:____________________ No.:____________________

Type Description Item Completion


Counter- Who Who
Of
Cleaning, measure Found Responsible
HTA SOC Problem Lubrication,
Inspection Target Actual

ANAND U 58
AM Step Two: Benefits
 Contamination is stopped at source.
 Contamination is controlled/
minimized .
 Access is improved to areas that are
difficult to Clean, Lubricate, Inspect
and Tighten.
 Time taken for CLIT activities is
reduced.

ANAND U 59
AM Step Three

Preparation
Of
Temporary
Standard
This step is to enhance the equipment
reliability & maintainability
ANAND U 60
Temporary Check Sheet for CLIT

 What items need to be check.


 Who will perform the check.
 Where the location is to be checked.
 What to use for the inspection or
cleaning.
 Target time to complete the task.

ANAND U 61
Temporary Standard - C L I T Sheet
Autonomous Maintenance – Step 3
SN What Item What to do How When Who Target
Time

1 Outer Portion of Cleaning Hand Daily Operator 2 Min


Motor and Pump

2 Foundation Bolt Check whether Hand Daily Operator 1 Min


properly Tight

3 Belt Tension Proper Hand Daily Operator 1 Min

4 Leakage No leakage Visual Daily Operator 2 Min

5 Crank case Check oil level Visual Daily Operator 1 Min

6 Pulley, Guard Cleaning Hand Weekly Operator 5 Min


and Belt

7 Pulley Guard Check whether proper Hand Daily Operator 1 Min


tight

8 Complete Pump Functioning Properly Visual Daily Operator 2 Min

Total Time Required – Daily 10 minutes and additionally weekly 5 minutes

ANAND U 62
Visual Control to Support AM Step 3

 Gauges should be marked for high


and low operating ranges

 Points of lubrication should be marked


and color coded for quick, accurate
identification

ANAND U 63
Visual Control to Support AM Step 3

ANAND U 64
Equipment Failure Statistic

Autonomous Maint.
Lubrication Method Role in B/D
Reduction
13%
Lack Of Cleaning
Dirt Lubricant
12% 24% Lubrication

Inspection
Loose Parts
8% Tightening

Other Equip.
Failures
43% Source: JIPM

ANAND U 65
One Point Lesson
 Tool to convey information regarding
knowledge and skill of equipment, and
about trouble/improvement cases.
 Designed to help enhance knowledge and
skill in a short period of time at just the
right time whenever required.
 To upgrade the level of expertise of whole
circle.
 To encourage every member to think,
study and prepare OPL and teach to all
the team members.

ANAND U 66
One Point Lesson
 Correct usage of part of equipment
 Generating sources
 Difficult to access location
 Structure and function of machine
 Inspection method

ANAND U 67
Key Points For Success In Implementation

 Cooperation Between All Departments


 Maintenance understanding and support
 Led By Work Teams
 Operator Input and Decision on Check
Sheet Items
 TPM Activities Become Part Of The Daily
Routine

ANAND U 68
Key Points For Success In Implementation

 Transmission Of Education
 One Point Lesson Sheet
 Standardization

 Activities Board:
Timing Chart One Point Lessons
# Of Equipment Failures Defect Rate
# Of Minor Stoppages Current Step In Progress
Changeover Time Problem Tag Data
"Before" & "After" Pictures Downtime Data
Clean-up Time Equipment Check Time
Maintenance Costs Accidents

ANAND U 69
Key Points For Success In Implementation

 Quick Repair
 TPM Meetings
 Step System
 Step Audit
 Promote Success Stories

ANAND U 70
Autonomous Maintenance Audit

Upon completion of each step, the work teams will


request an audit of the step just completed.

Thisaudit will allow managers to confirm whether the


Autonomous Activities are being followed to their intent.

ANAND U 71
AM Step Four

General
Inspection

ANAND U 72
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ThisisisTrg
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for
AM
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Thisisis
This
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Helps
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Doing
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Maint.
Maint. Machine
Machine Pune
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Mechanism
Mechanism
Training
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for This
Thisisisaa
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Production 33Days
Days
OEs
OEs Program
Program

ANAND U 73
AM Step 4 – General Inspection
 This is three days training module
conducted by Anand U Pune Team.
 This consist of basic knowledge of
Electrical, Electronics, Hydraulics,
Pneumatics, Bearing & Lubrication,
Fasteners and Power Transmission
Devices.
 How to do day-to-day maintenance of
machine elements.
 Dos and Don’ts of machine operation.

ANAND U 74
General Inspection

ANAND U 75
Skill Assessment

SN Name Hydrau Pneum Electric


lics atics al

1 Ashok
2 Mohan

ANAND U 76
Machine Mechanism
Training

Hydraulics

Pressure gauge

4
3 5
2 6
Lubrication Pneumatics 1 bar 7

Operators
Skill
&
Knowledge
3
Water Oil

Fasteners Electrical

ANAND U 77
Use of Five Senses:
•Abnormal Sound
•Vibration
•Excess Heat
•Abnormal Smell
Hydraulics:
Lubrication: •Hydraulic oil level
•What to lubricate
•Room temp.
•When to lubricate
•Types of lubricants
•Pressure
for each point •Relief valve
•How to lubricates •Pump
•Cleanliness of •Filter
lubricants Regular •Leakage
Inspection
of
Machine
Pneumatics:
Elect & Electro •Air pressure
•Current •Air filter
•Voltage •Regulator
•Loose connections •Lubricator
•Equipment safety •Drain point
•Self safety •Air leakage

ANAND U 78
Training Program
by

Subject Maintenance
Faculty Team

Supervisor / Cell Leader

Operator

ANAND U 79
Operators’ Training

Machine
Process
Mechanism
Training
Training

Common M/C Specific M/C


Elements Elements

ANAND U 80
Hydraulics

Proximity
Pneumatics
Sensors

Topics
Electrical
Identified Bearing &
For Lubrication
Training

Drives Safety

Fasteners

ANAND U 81
e r s
te n
Fas

ANAND U 82
ANAND U 83
AM Step Five

Autonomous Inspection

ANAND U 84
Autonomous Inspection
 Draft autonomous inspection check sheet
(Formal/Final Jishu Hozen Standard) for
Cleaning, Lubrication, Inspection and
Tightening of equipments.
 This final standard will be based on
tentative standard drafted during AM
step 3.
 Consider the results of AM step 4, in
drafting final Jishu Hozen standard.
 Clarify and define the role of production
and maintenance department in
preventive maintenance of equipments.

ANAND U 85
PM Implementation

Role Role
.
of of .

Prod. Maint.

•Improve operator’s skill of


equipment inspection •Improve maintenance skills.
and operation.
•Provide technical support to
•Ensure adequate Jishu Hozen activities.
compliances with basic
requirements. •Restore machine condition.

•Compliances with usages •Identify design weaknesses.


requirement.

•Detect abnormality using five


human senses.
ANAND U 86
Preventive Role of Production
Maintenance Department

• Selection of critical • Machine mechanism


locations in the m/c training to the operators

• Development of PM plan • Day to day preventive


maintenance
• Quick and correct
• Regular m/c inspection information to the maint
deptt
• Involvement of operator • Ideas to improve maint
in repair activity activities

ANAND U 87
Preventive Role of Maintenance
Maintenance Department

• Selection of critical • Machine mechanism


locations in the m/c training to the operators

• Support to Jishu Hozen


• Development of PM plan
– Red tag removal

• Scheduled preventive
• Spare parts management
maintenance

• Monitoring maint
• Breakdown analysis
measures as MTBF, MTTR

• Activities to prevent • Improvements in design


reoccurrence of problem weaknesses
ANAND U 88
Production Maintenance
Department Department

Aim Should be
Productivity Improvement

ANAND U 89
1.
1.
Cleaning
Cleaning
7.
7.
Early
Early 2.
2.
Detection
Detection Lubrication
Lubrication
of
ofm/c
m/c
Abnormality
Abnormality
Job
Jobofof
Operator
Operator
6.
6.
in
in
Prev 3.
3.
Minor
Minor PrevMaint
Maint Inspection
Repairs Inspection
Repairs

5.
5. 4.
4.
Proper
Proper Tightening
Tightening
Operation
Operation

ANAND U 90