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Beginning Wine

Beginning Wine

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A brief history of wine including wine making instructions and recipes.

beginning wine

by Susan Clemente

Let your boat of life be light, packed with only what you need - a homely home and simple pleasures, one or two friends, worth the name, someone to love and someone to love you, a cat, a dog, and a pipe or two, enough to eat and enough to wear, and a little more than enough to drink; for thirst is a dangerous thing.

Jerome K. Jerome Three Men in a Boat

table of contents
preface 1 introduction to wine + steps in winemaking + history + major producers + wine classifications + wine grape varieties + climate + agricultural techniques. + review 2 before you begin + + + + important information about your equipment using your hydrometer review 22 23-24 25 26 5-6 7-10 11-12 13-14 15-16 17-18 19 20 4

3 making wine from a kit + wine kit ingredients + stages in wine making
primary fermentation secondary fermentation stabilizing and clearing clarifying bottling and corking

28 29
30 31 32 33 34

+ review 4 advanced wine making + + + + + + + making wine with fresh fruit fruit preparation adjusting the acid content red wine recipe white wine recipe review closing

36 37 38 39-40 41-42 43 44 44-45
2

wine log

That's all we shall know for truth Before we grow old and die. making wine from a kit. and sigh. equipment and hydrometer use will make your task much easier. It is necessary for you to understand this information before beginning your efforts. too technical or contained information that was unnecessary for the beginning winemaker. including several recipes for making wine making from fresh grapes. I look at you. you will be rewarded for your efforts with great taste. Section 2. A solid understanding of wine terms. A manual entitled. I searched many bookstores for a book which was concise and easy to understand. however such a book does not yet exist. As a result of making your own wine. Most books were too advanced. This manual is divided into the four sections. discusses advanced wine making techniques. .William Butler Yeats . includes basic information for you need to learn before you begin making wine. making wine from fresh fruit. giving you a general understanding of the history of making wine from the vineyard to the winery. an introduction to wine. The consequence of my frustration is that I have created a manual that would explain wine in the simplest.preface As a beginning home wine maker. would have been ideal. “Winemaking for Dummies”. explains to you the background of wine. Section 3. Making your own wine at home can be made easy by using my clear instructions. Section 1. ingredients and the stages in wine making. before you begin. and economy . includes important safety information. I lift the glass to my mouth. Section 4. This section will help you become a successful advanced wine maker. { 4 } Wine comes in at the mouth And love comes in at the eye.

berry shape. in cooking. white. sweet. usually having an alcoholic content of 14 percent or less. Sauvignon Blanc. the fermented juice of grapes. from which air is excluded to prevent oxidation and discourage the growth of bacteria. Adding sulfur dioxide or rapidly heating the juice which is also called must. wine grape varieties. skins and seeds are removed to achieve a lighter color and flavor. the skins. . still. made in many varieties. and disease resistance. { } wine. Fermentation takes place in large vats. and juice are fermented together. color. These varieties differ slightly from one another in size. mold and other naturally occurring organisms. Depending on the type of wine. crushed and the stems are removed. for use as a beverage. Chardonnay. The main steps in wine making are: harvesting crushing 1 2 3 juice fermentation separation 4 5 clarification 6 7 aging 8 bottling NOTE: When using a wine kit.000 varieties of grapes have been developed from this species. As many as 4. is used for most wine production worldwide. In white wine production. noun. and in religious rites. Steps in Winemaking All wines are similarly produced regardless of the wine type. major producers. ripening time. This information may also enable you to be a more effective wine consumer. Cabernet Sauvignon. history. such as red. Vitis vinifera. and sparkling. climate and agricultural techniques. 5 Wine is the fermented juice of grapes. dry. Pinot Noir.1 | introduction to wine | Section one is particularly important especially if you have no winemaking background. sugar content. wine classifications. the inner pulp may be separated from the skins to avoid getting skin pigmentation into the juice. This section includes general information regarding winemaking. The main varieties include: Riesling. steps one through four have already been prepared for you. wine yeast is added to convert the sugars to alcohol. Only about a dozen of Vitis vinifera variety are commonly used for wine making around the world. In red-wine production. suppresses the growth of wild yeast. seeds. To aid in fermentation. The grape species. Gewurztraminer. At the vineyard the grapes are harvested. and Muscat.

about 55o-65o F. this is called clarification or racking. it is moved from one container to another to remove the suspended particles through filtering. 6 . and the addition of an antiseptic agent to prevent microbe development. The barrel wood itself also contributes flavor of your wine. wine may require blending. the wine is separated from the sediment. it is ready for bottling. racking or clarification is performed when there are fresh deposits on the bottom of the vessel. vegetables or grains. depending on the variety. Following fermentation. Additional clarification takes place in the barrel. A severe change in temperature can kill the yeast and ruin the wine. The wood-aging process may last many months or several years. Other wine varieties Wine is also made from other fruits. controlling the wines temperature is necessary to promote yeast growth and to extract the flavors and colors from the skins. where the wine flavor and aroma is enhanced. Red wine flavors are enhanced with anywhere from two to twenty years of aging. depending on the variety. In racking the wine. Some wines are aged in bottles before being sold. Perry is produced from pears. There are also cherry and plum wines as well as wines made from various berries. This can take place at thirty to sixty day intervals. but other wines remain cloudy for longer periods. For example. When the wine is sediment free.The fermentation process can take from ten to thirty days. Fruit wines contain about 12 percent alcohol. fermented apple cider is considered a wine. filtration. The best temperature for yeast growth is about 70o-80o for red wines and lower temperatures are required for white wines. Some wines deposit their sediment quickly. Before bottling. During this process. The process allows oxygen to enter and water and alcohol to escape as acidity decreases. Wine is usually aged in wooden barrels made of oak or redwood. When home brewing.

The earliest scientific evidence of grapes were 60million-year-old fossilized vines. Romans became skilled pruners and began using irrigation and fertilization to increase grape yields. And as glassblowing became more common during this era. In medieval Europe. or fish sauce. Romans may also have been the first to use glass bottles for storage. observing and charting ripening characteristics.1 | introduction to wine | histor y mid east origins {} "Good wine is a good familiar creature if it be well used". In places such as Germany. probably held olive oil. 7 Wine is a natural phase of grape spoilage and was discovered by accident. A Roman invention. reconstructed and replaced where they fell. and Etruscan civilizations. which indicated that inhabitants appeared to have been aware of the effects of temperature on stored wine. Also. Greek. The Greeks were first vintners to add herbs and spices to wine to mask spoilage. Egyptians developed the first arbors and pruning methods. Wine was introduced to Europe by the Greeks around 1600 B. Archeological excavations have uncovered many sites with buried jars. Frequent references to wine in the Old Testament indacate the first wines originated in the Middle East. They began classifying grape varieties and colors. was a great advancement for wine storage and aging. . and recognizing soil-type preferences. wine. beer was banned and considered pagan while wine consumption was viewed as civilized and a sign of religious conversion. . greco roman origins Wine was also used by early Minoan. the start of viticulture in Western Europe was mainly due to the Romans’ influence. About 1000 BC. Greek merchants and doctors appear to have been the first to distribute wine. Egyptian records dating from 2500 BC refer to using grapes for wine making.C. Evidence found in archaeological sites suggested that wine production occurred in Georgia and Iran. the Christian Church was a staunch economic supporter of wine which was necessary for the celebration of the Catholic Mass that helped maintain the industry after the fall of the Roman Empire. Wine had previously been fermented in skins or jars. the wooden barrel. identifying diseases.Shakespeare These amphorae. between 6000 to 5000 BC.

Germany. the Rhine valley in Germany and the Danube River valley of Austria. conquests and new settlements. Later this fungus migrated to Europe causing widespread crop failure. Unfortunately none of the Mississippi valley plantings were successful. Each newly planted vineyard died off within two or three seasons due to phylloxera. Phylloxera was indigenous to the Mississippi River Valley but was unknown outside North America at that time. these regions began developing their own vineyards until the Roman Emperor forbid the import of French wines to eliminate the competition with local wines. Monastic wineries were responsible for establishing vineyards in Burgundy. Phylloxera. following the voyages of explorers. and California. Sacramental usage preserved wine industry methods and traditions through the dark ages. Wine was brought to Mexico. a fungus which invaded the roots and leaves of the plantings. France became the dominant world producer of wines. South America. England and France. Shortly thereafter. Grape cultivation was transported from the Old World to Mexico. economics and politics By the first century AD. 8 . beer was banned and considered pagan while wine consumption was viewed as civilized and a sign of religious conversion. Argentina and South Africa in the 1500s and 1600s due to exploration. and the Rhine Valley. there were many attempts to plant European vines along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of North America and in the Mississippi River basin valley. South Africa. During this period. In places such as Germany. Australia. Champagne. wine was being exported from Italy to Spain. Over the next few centuries.The Romans carried wine making into much of Western Europe. Today wine is produced on all continents. especially the Moselle valley in France.

This resulted in barrels of California wines were being regularly exported to Australia. from the selection of grapes to the bottling of finished wine. It was the first Bordeaux style vineyard in the United States. England. he became the wine chemist for the order's expanding wine operations at Mont La Salle located west of Napa. United States had a fully developed commercial wine producing industry. California during Prohibition. During his lifetime. He founded Buena Vista Winery and promoted the spread of vineyards over much of Northern California. Central America. but some funding came from California State grants. Father Serra established eight more missions and vineyards. made many trips to the finest vineyards in Europe to gather cuttings to transplant in California. { } Vinification is the process of wine production. He introduced several new techniques. Andre’s brother Timothy Tchelistcheff. Franciscan missionary Father Juniper Serra planted the first California vineyard at the Mission in San Diego. In 1889. California vineyards survived under the backing of the Catholic Church. Canada. Germany. cold fermentation. He was also active in the creation of the modern wine industry. the Founder of the California Wine Industry. 9 In 1879 Captain Gustave Niebaum established Inglenook Winery in Rutherford. California in Napa County. The variety of grapes he planted. his Inglenook wines won several gold medals at the World's Fair in Paris. Captain Niebaum's wines became known throughout the world. In the 1850s and '60s. Mexico and the Orient. The Christian Brothers grew grapes and produced sacramental wine in Benicia. . a former science teacher was a member of Congregation of Christian Brothers.1 | introduction to wine | histor y California As was the case in Europe. Agoston Harazsthy. such as aging wine in small French Oak barrels. His venture was primarily at his own expense. fostered the idea of nonirrigated vineyards and suggested redwood for casks when oak supplies were low. He innovated the use of caves for cellars and promoted hillside planting. Many California wines received medals in European competitions. In 1769. The wine industry in the United States was flourishing during the period when the Europeans were contending with phylloxera. André Tchelistcheff is credited with creating the modern era of winemaking in California. probably descended from Mexican plantings that became known as the Mission grape which dominated California wine production until about 1880. By 1900. He has been called the "Father of California Wine". In 1935. and vineyard frost prevention. The first documented imported European vines were planted in Los Angeles in 1833 by Jean-Louis Vignes.

he stated that California "was the catalyst and then the locomotive for change that finally pried open the ancient European wineland's rigid grip on the hierarchy of quality wine and led the way in proving that there are hundreds if not thousands of places around the world where good to great wine can be made. California. 10 . a blind tasting was held in Paris with an exclusive panel of French wine experts. the quality of California vintners' wines were outstanding. Chalone Vineyard came in third and Spring Mountain Vineyard fourth. and in particular. a prominent journalist and wine writer of the 1950s introduced labeling wines using varietal names such as Pinot Noir. The red wines evaluated in 1976 were retasted in two separate blind tasting (the French Culinary Institute Wine Tasting of 1986 and the Wine Spectator Wine Tasting of 1986)." He observed that "until the exploits of California's modern pioneers of the 1960's and '70's. Chablis. as did the region's reputation. Following the repeal of Prohibition. When reds were evaluated. This was the first new large-scale winery to be established in the valley since before prohibition. while the French reds lost their rankings. California wine makers were producing quality wines but had difficulty with marketing. Frank Schoonmaker. This competition focused on wines from the Napa Valley. California vintners continue to innovate to further enhance the quality of their products. Chardonnay. three of the top four were California wines." Backed by continuing research. After comparing six California Chardonnays with four French Chardonnays. Robert Mondavi was one of the first winemakers to label his wines using varietal names.and Rhine. On May 24. to be regarded as the only source of great wine in the world. Riesling. they branched out into the commercial production of wine and brandy and established Christian Brothers as one of the leading brands in the state's budding wine industry. 1976. Stag's Leap Wine Cellars were ranked number one. All nine judges ranked Chateau Montelena as the highest. In all retasting. France's vineyards.In 1965. Robert Mondavi broke away from his family's Charles Krug estate and founded his own winery in Oakville. In Oz Clarke's. “New Encyclopedia of Wine”. no-one had ever before challenged the right of Europe's. rather than names borrowed from European regions such as Burgundy. By the early 1970s. The number of wineries in the valley continued to grow following The Mondavi estate. a California red came in first.

Regions in the south were licensed by the Roman Empire to produce wines. California produces about 90% of the wine in the United States. the best vineyards were owned by the monasteries and their wines were superior. the nobility acquired extensive vineyards. Bordeaux wine. France France is one of the oldest wine-producing regions in Europe. the vines are trained along low supports. In others they climb as slender saplings. with more than one million vineyards under cultivation. those in Burgundy drank Burgundy. Many Italians drink wine with every meal and in-between. The advancement of the transportation systems with the spread of railroads and the improvement of roads. In some areas. France now produces the most wine by value in the world. During this time. reduced shipping costs and dramatically increased commercialization. for example. people in Bordeaux drank Bordeaux. 11 . Over time. Each region is proud of its carefully tended. Italy. neatly pruned vines. Saint Martin of Tours promoted both spreading Christianity and planting vineyards. the French Revolution led to the confiscation of many of the vineyards owned by the Church and private owners. but villagers make wine for their own use. People in Paris drank wine from the local vineyards. However. Bourgogne wine and Champagne are France’s most important agricultural products. During the Middle Ages. Villagers sometimes tread on the grapes with their bare feet to squeezed out the juice. Monasteries had the resources to produce a steady supply of wine both for celebrating mass and generating income. Most winemaking in Italy is done in modern wineries. monks maintained vineyards and held the wine making secrets. and the United States.1 | introduction to wine | major producers The top producing nations include France. and so on. Italy is the second largest wine producer in the world. Italy Wine is a the most popular beverage in Italy. Spain. Until about 1850 the majority of wine in France was consumed locally. The people of each region are intensely proud of the wine they produce from their grapes. Grapes are grown in almost every part of Italy.

These regions produce more wine varieties than any other region. which is produced in the region surrounding Jerez de. partly through the efforts of the viticultural research program established at the Davis branch of the University of California. Spain is known for the production of Sherry a fortified wine. the most famous of which is Napa. Other wine regions well known outside of Spain include: Rioja. Italian wines are believed to be a better accompaniment with food than wines from other countries. subdued in flavor and aroma. Spanish law permits the use of four red grape varieties in Rioja. a fertile area in the upper Ebro Valley. The United States The United States is sixth in wine production with nine tenths of North American wines coming from California. from vine growth through fermentation and bottling. a red moderately dry table wine.They believe this ancient method still makes the best wine. Ribera del Duero. Ohio. The primary grape is Tempranillo. Historically. Wines of good quality are also produced in New York. followed by Garnache . The most popular Spanish region is Rioja.The wine types are categorized by age. Graciano and Mazuelo. This program has enabled vast improvements in wine making technology. Priorato. dry and light-to-medium bodied. and Gran Reservas are aged minimum of five years. The California wine industry has grown rapidly since the 1970’s. Cava and Penedès. the Pacific Northwest. The most familiar Italian wine is the Tuscan Chianti. The wine regions of California include 12 counties. Reservas are aged three years. Spain Spain is the third largest producer of wine in the world. for instance Crianza wines are aged for two years. 12 . Pinor Noir and Zinfandel. California's best wines are Cabernet Sauvignon. and the dry white Soave.la Frontera. and other areas. Italian wines tend to be acidic. Barolo and Valpolicella. Italy's better products are the reds. Because of these characteristics.

such as Dubonne and Campari. Vermouth is an aromatic wine to which herbs have been added. The colors of fortified wines range from white. Fortified wines Wines receiving an extra dosage of alcohol during production. Table Wines Table wines come in three basic colors: white. with several intermediate varieties. amber. Alcohol content varies from 7 to 15 percent. red. Marsala. sweet wines. They range in taste from sweet to very dry. grapes and a different vivification process. This classification depends on the technique of production. The primary wine categories are table wines. They are marketed under brand names. ranging from 14 to 23 percent. Port. sparkling wines. After-dinner drinks are called digestif. usually with a grape brandy.1 | introduction to wine | wine classifications Wine experts classify wine into five major categories. without being bitter. Malaga. desert wines and cooking wines. bright red. Sherry has unique qualities that come from the soil. are called fortified wines. An aromatic is made by adding quinine and other ingredients to heavy. and certain aromatic wines. Other fortified wines include Madeira. with the distinction based on major differences in vinification. The alcohol content of fortified wines is higher than that of table wines. An aperitif is consumed before meals and is considered an aromatic. Sherry is the best known and most popular of the fortified wines. 13 . The flavor of sherry ranges from very sweet to very dry.It is both plentiful and economical. or dark red. called vivification. fortified wines. or rose. Table wines account for the bulk of the wine production throughout the world.

Sparkling wines Sparkling wines are usually white. most cooking authorities advise against using any wine one would find unacceptable to drink. and Beerenauslese from Germany and Austria. Champagne's are blends of wine from different grapes. but sparkling wines go through a double fermentation. the second of which takes place in the bottle. named for the region of France where it was first made in the 18th century by a Benedictine monk named Dom Pierre Perignon. Eiswein is made from grapes that are harvested while frozen. These include Sauternes from Bordeaux. are made from grapes that have been partially raisined after harvesting. a recent study has found that inexpensive wines work as well as expensive wine in cooking. to build up the pressure inside the bottle. The best-known sparkling wine is champagne. Numerous wines from Loire such as Bonnezeaux and Quarts de Chaume. but may be red or rose. Tokaji Aszú from Hungary. { } a recent study has found that inexpensive wines work as well as expensive wine in cooking. Sugar and yeast are added to the bottle before the second fermentation. and have an alcohol content similar to table wines. Late harvest wines such as Spätlese from Germany are made from over ripe grapes. Recioto and Vin Santo from Italy. Each producer has his own recipe to yield a desired blend. An excess of carbon dioxide causes the effervescence or bubbly quality of sparkling wines. Desert Wines Desert wines range from slightly to incredibly sweet. However. Contrarily. Carbon dioxide is produced in the fermentation of all wines. to produce carbon dioxide. Asti Spumante is an Italian sparkling wine. Botrytized wines are made from grapes infected by the mold Botrytis cinerea or noble rot. Cooking Wines Cooking wines typically contain a significant quantity of salt and are of such poor quality that it is unpalatable by itself and intended only for cooking. 14 .

soil amending. Quality and flavored are enhanced by the fermentation. pest and disease control. Many small producers use growing and production methods that preserve or accentuate both the aroma and taste of the wine. { } Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) refers to the cultivation of grapes. Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European Vinifera vines that have been grafted onto North American species rootstock. They are a hardy plant and are usually grown from cuttings. pink. Grape vines can be grown in a wide variety of soil types and climactic conditions. pruning. and aging processes. Grape varieties of Vitis vinifera have a great range of composition. This is a common practice developed because North American grape species are resistant to phylloxera. elevation. Vines can be grown on their own roots or grafted to another variety's root system (rootstock). To successfully grow a vine involves the construction of a trellis system. and the climate and seasonal conditions. reddish violet. the skin pigment colors vary from greenish yellow to russet. which have yet to be exposed to phylloxera. 15 . red. The broad range of factors lead to great variety of quality and flavor in wine products. The color of red wine comes from the skin. Grafting is done in every wine-producing country of the World except for Chile and Argentina. removal of buds and leaves from the trunk. weed control. disease. The juice is normally colorless. soil type and chemistry. Juice flavors vary from bland to strong. training to the trellis. and harvesting . grape variety. not the juice.1 | introduction to wine | wine grape varieties Wine grape varieties Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the European species. pests or any variety of potential problems. though some varieties have a pink to red color. planting. drought. Vitis vinifera. namely. and topography. finishing. Rootstock are chosen for their ability to be tolerant or resistant to moisture. or blue-black. often for use in the production of wine. The quality of the vineyards is determined by a complex interaction of numerous ecological factors. irrigation.

usually in the form of tartaric acid. The acid content is not a major concern as this can be added to the wine." Vêraison signifies the change from berry growth to berry ripening in grapevines. . The main determinant is color. This is called vêraison. succinic and acetic acid are present. { 16 } Vêraison is a French term. waxy layer containing millions of native yeast cells. Winter brings dormancy to the vines and at this stage they can be pruned to increase vine productivity. Trace amounts of citric.Glucose and fructose • Alcohols . flavor and sugar level. lactic. The fruitfulness of the vine is determined in the previous growing season and the number of potential bunches is related to the number of buds left after pruning.There may be trace amounts in damaged or botrytisaffected fruits • Acids . but has been adopted into the English literature on viticulture. At this stage the major components of the grape berry are: • Water (70-85%) • Carbohydrates . As the berries grow they are hard and contain mainly grape acids (malic and tartaric acids). Grapes are harvested either by hand or mechanically. As the grapes ripen they start to soften and change color and the sugar.Shortly after the spring budburst. flavor and water contents increase and acids decline. Neutral juice of low color and sugar will not produce an interesting wine. seeds and skin that has a thin. groups of flowers are produced and the fruit clusters develop from these groups. Harvest is determined by the winemaker taking into consideration the variety of wine to be made. The official definition of Vêraison is "change of color of the grape berries.Tartaric and malic acids are the major acids present. The grape berry is made up of pulp.

1 | introduction to wine | climate The quality of wine is directly related to soil type. each community of wine makers may have secret techniques that makes their wine different from all the others. WARM CLIMATES wine characteristics COOL CLIMATES high sugar low acidity low color low flavor high yields low sugar high acidity high color high flavor low yield 17 . The experienced winemaker spends most of his/her time in the vineyard. Changes in weather patterns from year to year also influence the quality of a vintage. The primary purpose of this system is to give grape growers a accurate estimate of when they can begin to harvest the grapes. topography. Degree days are a way of measuring the cumulative amount of heat absorbed by the plants. viticulture researchers divided California into 5 regions according to the number of degree days. At the University of California Davis. The number of degree days required by a vineyard varies with the type of variety grown. Climate Different types of grapes flourish in different regions and each regions climate and soil conditions greatly affect the quality of the grapes. In addition. and climate as well as the variety of grapes. Particular varieties excel only in certain climates and under specific soil conditions. Careful attention is given both to climate and soil conditions before planting vines. Below is a table that describes the characteristics of wine depending on warm or cool climates. The care of the grapes can greatly influence the final product.

tiny berries begin to grow but remain green until mid July. Propagation Vines are typically purchased from nurseries where they have already been grafted to prevent phylloxera infestation. As vêraison begins. the berries begin to develop color and to soften. 18 . However. The vines typically have a useful life of approximately 20 years. The water holding capacity of the soil strongly affects the final flavor of the wine. There are two common methods for measuring the sugar content. the amount of sugar in the grape must be measured. the vine flowers appear. These methods have been developed to aid in determining the harvest schedule to obtain the best possible grape. and the regional climate. Both measures provide indirect estimates of sugar content. the harvest date is largely dependent upon the variety.Soil The soil type is extremely important as it supports the vine and acts as a reservoir for holding nutrients and water. The vine cycle in California begins around April 1st when new shoots elongate. Around May 15th. the location. During April and May. New vines typically do not produce significant yields of fruit until the 3rd or 4th year. Before the wine grapes are harvested. Once the sugar content is measured. the wine maker can estimate the alcohol concentration of the finished product. The refractometer measures the refraction of light through the juice whereas the a hydrometer measures the density of the juice. The fruit is usually harvested around the middle of September. Har vest The vine cycle depends largely upon the regional climate.

not chemicals fertilize California vineyard. new york times difference between organic and biodynamic Any biodynamic produce is also organic and biodynamic farm operates the same as an organic farm using no pesticides. he did not believe this was only because of the chemical or biological properties. The term biodynamic was coined by Steiner's followers. Steiner considered the world and everything in it as simultaneously spiritual and material in nature. 19 . compost preparations.1 | introduction to wine | agricultural techniques biodynamic farming Biodynamics is an organic farming system based on the teachings of Rudolf Steiner in 1924. The horn is left to decompose during the winter and recovered the following autumn. However. However. uses an astrological calender to determine planting and harvesting times. A central aspect of biodynamics is that the farm as a whole an organism. and biodynamic produce is certified by Demeter and can be certified by an organic as well. As wineries change course drinkers are paying attention. For example.” -jim wilson. or herbicide. The manure mixture is then removed from the horns and spread onto the fields as fertilizer. The astrological calender is used to determine times of planting and harvesting. In field preparations. but also due to spiritual shortcomings in the chemical approach to farming. and therefore should be a closed self-nourishing system. “Watusi Cattle. to prepare the fields for stimulating humus formation includes filling the horn of a cow with a cow manure mixture and burying in the autumn. Steiner believed that the introduction of chemical farming was a major problem and was convinced that the quality of food was degraded and he believed the sources of the problem were both artificial fertilizers and pesticides. inorganic or mineral fertilizers are not allowed. there are various agricultural methods which are unique to biodynamic farming such as field preparations.

2) California 3) Riesling. The optimum harvest schedule is based on_______________. Beer drinking germans were considered________________. This information may also enable you to be a more effective wine consumer. Major wine producing countries are? __________________. to reinforce the concepts and facts you have learned. ___________________. __________________. major producers. no really. __________________. Five types are wine are?___________________. Wine does not cause intoxication? True or False Answers: 1) France. 1. _________________. history. true! 20 . What is the major wine producing state in the united states? ___________________. Italy. 2. Self review questions. Shown below are a eight questions for you to answer. __________________. wine classifications. What are two types of farming systems? ___________.. Muscat 4) Vitis vinifera 5) Region and climate 6) Pagan 7) Biodynamic and Organic 8) False. This main grape variety is_________________. __________________. wine grape varieties.1 | introduction to wine | review In section one you learned about beginning wine making as it will expanded your knowledge of winemaking. Sauvignon Blanc. 6. 3. __________________. Cabernet Sauvignon. Pinot Noir. 7. United States.____________ 8. Chardonnay.. 4. climate and agricultural techniques. Spain. 5. Gewurztraminer.

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j.2 | before you begin | important information Now that you have covered section one. it will not ferment or clear on schedule. important information Please read all instructions before starting. Also. section two should be more interesting for you. If you think you can forget this step. Also. Dip or spray your equipment with this solution and rinse thoroughly. NOTE: Please remember to remove the code number sticker from the wine box top and Equipment List: a. consider using bottled water. the wine can take as little as 30 days to produce. When bottling your wine have at least two partners. b. h. 22 . • Clean all of your equipment with an unscented winemaking detergent and rinse thoroughly with hot water to remove all residues. g. • When transferring your wine to the carboy it is recommend to get a partner. but it is recommend to wait a minimum of three to six months to achieve a better tasting wine. h. double check that the juice temperature is between 65-75°F. i. Keeping track of this information will help identify any problems you may have in making your wine. the final bottling stage can get messy so have plenty of rags at hand for clean up. k l. Before adding the yeast. • The starting temperature of your wine is critical. Every piece of equipment must be treated with sulphide. One six gallon batch of wine yields 30 bottles. you will waste a lot of time and money and end up with six gallons of vinegar. n. In this section you will learn the essentials of wine making beginning with sanitizing your equipment. • Please use good quality drinking water with this kit. Deposits and calcium content in household water can negatively affect your wine. the use of each piece of equipment will be highlighted for you.If the yeast is added to a kit that is too cold. m. fill out the wine log when starting your batch of wine. If you’re not sure of your water quality. e f. 7. d. • Sanitize your equipment by rinsing it with a solution of metabisulphite. o.5 gallon plastic fermented 6 gallon glass carboy airlock stoppers for fermented hydrometer wine thief auto siphon racking tube 5 feet of siphon tubing bottle filler digital thermometer 30 corks 30 bottles easy clean No-Rinse Cleanser long stirring spoon measuring cup and spoons attach it to your wine log on page 45. Dissolve 3 tablespoons of metabisulphite powder in one gallon of cool water. c. Leftover solution can be stored in a tightly sealed container for several months. Again.

the hydrometer is used to verify when your batch is ready to bottle. 7. During fermentation the wine needs room to foam. Alcohol content is determined by taking by taking readings before and after fermentation and comparing them. Also. The airlock is fitted into a rubber bung which sits in the neck of the carboy. hydrometer A hydrometer measures alcohol content which allows you to keep track of the fermentation progress. b d. Fill the airlock approximately half way with water. below). 6 gallon glass carboy The glass carboy is used for the secondary fermentation process. c a d b. carboy bung c The bung is the plug that is inserted into the carboy and works with the airlock. and d. below). Any food grade container with a lid will work.2 | before you begin | understanding your equipment a. airlock An airlock is a device which holds a sulphide solution. (see c. (see c. Attach a bung and an airlock at the beginning of the fermentation. NOTE: The second fermentation stage is about 10 days. d e. This is where fermentation gasses pass out of the carboy. NOTE: The first fermentation stage is about 5-7 days. e 23 . and d. NOTE: Additional hydrometer instructions on page 28.5 gallon plastic fermentor The primary fermentation vessel holds seven and a half gallons (when only 6 gallons of wine are produced). An advantage of using glass is you can view the fermentation process. The carboy must be fitted with a bung and an airlock. c.

f. digital thermometer Temperature control is critical to the wine making process. The siphon begins and wine flows to the other vessel. f g. h i i. When your bottle is full the bottle filler stops automatically with just enough room for cork space. 24 . Please keep accurate records in your wine log. Next. bottle filler Filling your bottles is easier with the bottle filler. This plunger action forces the liquid upward through the inner tube and into your attached siphon hose. Place cork into the plastic plunger corker. Requires 3/8 inch by five foot vinyl siphon hose. Submerge the tube of the wine thief into the wine. then insert one end into the carboy and pump the handle a couple of strokes. fit over the top of wine bottle and finally push the cork in. Attach the 3/8 inch siphon tubing to the top. Attach the racking tube to the auto siphon. During the fermentation process you need to maintain the temperature between 65-75°F. wine thief The wine thief allows you to take a hydrometer reading from the fermentor with no siphoning or pouring. auto siphon & hose The auto siphon easily starts the transfer of wine into another vessel. The plastic bottle filler is a clear shaft with an automatic foot-valve on the bottom end for quick and easy shut-off between bottles. fill and lift it out. depress the spring-loaded foot-valve against the bottom of the bottle and start filling. When you are finished just depress the wine thief relief valve against the side of the fermentor to return the sample. corker The plastic corker is an inexpensive way to cork your bottles. g h. A one-way valve will automatically lock your sample in the tube. j j. float the hydrometer inside the tube for a reading.

avoid testing samples that contain solid particles as this will distort the results. As the yeast turns the sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide. how to use the hydrometer It's easy to use the hydrometer. Draw a sample of wine using the wine thief . which represents a test cylinder full of wine before the yeast is added. 4. the hydrometer descends because wine becomes lighter (alcohol weighs less per unit volume than water).about 80% full. The specific gravity range for white wines. is between 1. regardless of the fruit used.2 | before you begin | using your hydrometer The hydrometer is used to take measurements of specific gravity indicating the potential sugar content in wine. The specific gravity range for red wines are between 1.095.070 and 1. See diagram 3. Fill the wine thief or test cylinder with enough liquid to float the hydrometer . 2. 5.080 and 1. See diagram 1.085. wine thief. At this point the hydrometer is floating relatively high because the liquid is heavy with sugar causing the hydrometer to be elevated. Diagram 2. since the specific gravity of the liquid depends upon temperature. Sanitize the hydrometer. NOTE: Always be sure to take good records of your readings and record them diagram 3 in your wine log 25 . This is important to winemakers because the readings will indicate when the fermentation has complete. Be sure the hydrometer doesn’t touch the sides of the test cylinder but floats freely. and test cylinder using a sulphite solution. Read across the bottom of the meniscus. Gently lower the hydrometer into the test cylinder or wine thief and spin the hydrometer as you release it so no air bubbles stick to the bottom of the hydrometer which can distort readings. just follow these simple steps: diagram 1 diagram 2 1. A hydrometer should be used in conjunction with a thermometer. Both the wine thief and test cylinder (diagram 1 & 2) can be used to take these measurements. represents a wine that has fermented and is lighter than water. how a hydrometer works An easy way to explain how a hydrometer works is with illustrations. 3.

Why is sanitation so important for your winemaking? _______________________________________________________________ 3. Its alright to use any type of water? _______________________________________________________________ 5. Answers: 1) metabisulphite 2) Bacteria can get into the wine and spoil and entire batch. you have learned the essentials of wine making beginning with sanitizing your equipment. however boiled tap water with low mineral content can be used as well. 3) Every time you use it. 1.2 | before you begin | review Now that you have covered section two. A hydrometer measures ________________________________? 6. How often do you sanitize your equipment? _______________________________________________________________ 4. A hydrometer floats low when the juice has a high sugar content? True or False 7. to reinforce the concepts and facts you have learned. Shown below are a seven questions for you to answer. 4) Spring water is preferred. 5) The hydrometer measures potential alcohol content. What agent is used for sanitation? ________________________________ 2. Now you know not to make a batch of vinegar. You have become familiar with the equipment you will use for making your wine. A digital thermometer gives analog reading? True or False. 6) False 7) False 26 . Self review questions.

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producing a strong odor of geranium which will ruin your wine. you can make some wine. bentonite. fining agent Sorbate is a chemical that stabilizes wine by inhibiting the activity or growth of yeast. In this section you will learn about the contents of your wine kit.3 | making your wine | wine kit ingredients Now that you have covered section two. and if too much sorbate is added you will taste this chemical. packet of yeast. All acids. Your wine kit includes a juice bag. Add 1/2 teaspoon per gallon of wine. Bacteria can react with sorbate if to much is added. Finings work either by sticking to particles making them heavy enough to sink or causing particles to stick to each other by making them settle to the bottom of the carboy. Good wine yeasts are sulphur tolerant. Finally you will bottle your wine. sugars. It is added directly to the juice in the first fermentation stage. The type most useful to wine making is the strain of saccharomyces cervisiae. except hydrometer readings. sorbate and a fining agent. pH. the various fermentation stages and how to process the juice in each phase. metabisulphite sorbate Bentonite is a refined clay sold as a powder and course granules. If inefficient sorbate is added to the wine it may begin to re-ferment. metabisulphite. therefore no additional testing is required. There are thousands of different types of yeasts. yeast bentonite Yeast is a fungus. This sulphite is essential in winemaking for sterilizing equipment and as a wine preservative. juice bag The juice bag contains pure varietal grape juice and grape concentrate. Some recommended high quality wine yeasts include both Lalvin and Red Star. Be careful when measuring and adding sorbate to your wine. and tannin levels are perfectly balanced. Bentonite is also valuable because it provides a nucleus in wine in which CO2 gas can form to aid in fermentation. Do not use bread yeast since it is designed to provide CO2 for raising bread. 28 .

1. spoon. Next. If your wine kit contains oak or elderflowers. Don’t forget to keep a wine making log.Add a half gallon of warm water to the bag to rinse out any remaining juice. 6. Draw a line with a permanent marker on the fermentor at the water level.3 | making your wine | primar y fermentation primar y fermentation (5-7 days) Ensure that your primary fermentor is capable of holding at least 8 gallons. 4. Top off the fermentor to the 6 gallon mark with cool water. 7. Open the package of yeast and sprinkle it onto the surface of the juice. and pour the contents into the primary fermentor. stir vigorously for 30 seconds. add them all. Add one-half gallon of hot water to the bottom of the sani- tized primary fermentor. 3. Pre-mark the primary fermentor at 6 gallons. carefully remove the cap. depending on the wine type. Stir for 30 seconds for even dispersal and to break up any clumps. It should read between 1. Draw a sample of the juice. 5. Use your hydrometer and test cylinder to check the specific gravity. hydrometer and test cylinder or wine thief. If any other volume is measured the wine will not turn out correctly. Clean and sanitize the primary fermentor and lid. 29 . Be sure to perform this step or the wine may become too thin. and any problems you may experience may not be solvable. sprinkle them into the primary fermentor now. This will be your fill level. Stir them into the liquid. Cover the primary fermentor and place in an area with a temperature of 65-75°F.085. Stir the water vigorously then slowly sprinkle the contents of bentonite package(s) onto the surface. 2. Fermentation should start within 24-48 hours. NOTE: Making the kit to a full 6 gallons is crucial to the functioning of the fining agents and the stability of the finished wine. Ensure that the temperature of the juice is maintained between 65-75°F. Grasp the neck of the large juice bag firmly. Rinsing is not necessary if you are using Easy Clean. If your kit has more than one package of oak. thermometer. Do not stir.070–1. then add it to the fermentor.

This space is required for stirring during stabilizing. It should be 1. wait (testing the gravity each day) until it is. Carefully siphon wine into a clean. 1. Don’t forget to keep a wine making log. Fill the airlock halfway with water. See page 45. After 5-7 days draw a sample of the juice and use your hydrometer and to check the specific gravity. 30 . Rinse well. wine thief. You must rack or transfer your wine into a 6 gallon carboy at this time. NOTE: The lower your fermentation temperature.010 or less. 4. If your gravity is not at or below this level. 2. Leave the carboy in fermentation area for another 10 days. Attach the airlock and bung to carboy.3 | making your wine | secondar y fermentation secondar y fermentation (7-10 days) Clean and Sanitize siphon rod and hose. sanitized 6 gallon car- boy. hydrometer and test cylinder. carboy. bung and airlocks. You need a partner for this step. Put the primary fermentor on a sturdy table at least three feet high. This will leave a space at the not top up at this stage. Leave most of the sediment behind. 3. the longer this stage will take.

Do n o t rack the wine before stabilizing and clearing.3 | making your wine | stabilizing & clearing stabilizing & clearing (14 days) Clean and sanitize hydrometer. The sedi- ment must be stirred back into suspension. Don’t forget to keep a wine making log. Add to the carboy and stir very vigorously for two minutes to disperse the stabilizers and expel the CO2. Again. Racking the wine off the sediment prior to fining will permanently prevent clearing. be sure to stir all of the sediment off the bottom. Dissolve contents of metabisulphite and sorbate packets in one half cup of cool water. be sure to stir the yeast sediment from the bottom of the carboy. 2. repeat this step everyday until the reading is stable. It should be 0. 3. After 10 days.996 or less. At each stirring. Remember to verify this reading or your wine may not clear! 1. Verify a stable gravity by checking again the next day. wine thief and spoon. the test cylinder. If the gravity has changed. check the specific gravity of the wine. Stirring vigorously during this stage is required. 31 . Without vigorous stirring the CO2 gas in the wine will prevent clearing. whip the wine until it stops foaming. Again. Use the opposite end of the spoon for stirring.

3. 2. Add the clarifier to the carboy using a measur- ing cup with a spout. After the 14 days check your wine for clarity by drawing a small sample into a wineglass and examining it in good light. 32 . At this stage you can leave your wine in the carboy for several months to age and develop better flavor. Top off carboy two inches from the bottom of the bung. Don’t forget to keep a wine making log. you are ready to proceed to bottling. allow another 7 days. Reserve this juice for topping off the carboy later. Use the reserve wine or cool water to fill the airlock halfway. 4. to ensure space for the clarifier. After 14 days. Remove two cups of wine from the carboy. Wait 14 days or more to finish clarifying. See page 45. Shake the clarifier. Again.3 | making your wine | clarifier add clarifier I. Do not bottle cloudy wine since it will not clear in the bottle. If it is not completely clear. Stir vigorously for another two minutes to drive off CO2 gas. your wine may not clear if the stirring is not vigorous.

you have finished making your batch of wine. store the bottles in a dark. dissolve 1/4 teaspoon of potassium metabisulphite powder in 1/2 cup cool water and gently stir it into wine.3 | making your wine | bottling bottling Clean and Sanitize 30 wine bottles. This will make the insertion with the plastic hand corker much easier. sanitized bottles. NOTE: If you are concerned about disturbing the sediment on the bottom of the carboy while bottling. bottling can be very messy. Be sure to leave two finger-widths of space between the bottom of the cork and the wine level in each bottle. 1. 2. and bottle from there. Again. Be sure to have plenty of rags at hand. 3. Don’t forget to keep a wine making log. Clean and sanitize a primary fermentor or carboy and rack the wine. hose and siphon filler. See page 45. Finally. Siphon your wine into clean. This extra sulphide will not affect flavor. Leave bottles upright for three days before laying them on their sides to age. To age the wine more than six months extra metabisulphite must be added to prevent oxidation. temperature-stable area. siphon rod. Rinse each bottle well. Warm the corks in hot water before insertion into the bottles. Use at least two partners for filling and bottling the wine. Your wine will be ready to drink in a minimum of three months. Congratulations. This allows the corks to seal properly. clean and sanitize a primary fermentor or carboy. cool. rack the wine into it. 33 .

Answers: 1) rising 2) 5-7 days 3) 4) Spring water is preferred. Shown below are a five questions for you to answer.996 or less. In this section you will learned about the contents of your wine kit. How many days are required for primary fermentation? ______________ days 3. 5) It should be 0. 34 . Yeast is a __________________ agent? 2.3 | making your wine | review Now you are ready to make some wine. however boiled tap water with low mineral content can be used as well. The specific gravity for red wine is? 4. the various fermentation stages and how to process the juice in each phase. Self review questions. to reinforce the concepts and facts you have learned. Do not sanitize your equipment for secondary fermentation? True or False 5. 1. Finally you will bottle your wine. Your wine is ready to bottle when the specific gravity is __________________ or less.

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The Vitis vinifera variety. depending on where you live. Whatever variety of grapes you use the techniques.. . colder climates you may not be able to find Vitis vinifera grapes grown locally. Hybrid's such as Vitis labrusca grapes. required additional equipment You will need a few additional pieces of winemaking equipment.the winemakers most important commandment. 36 Creating your own wine from fresh grapes is gratifying. You should be able to find this additional equipment at any home brewing or home winemaking supply shop.. and the Mid-Atlantic states. Or you can order grapes through your local winemaking shop or a produce wholesaler. The classic grape choice is the Vitis vinifera variety and this wine-grape family includes such varieties such as Chardonnay.. that is assuming you have already made wine from a kit and are familiar with the steps in the process. Early autumn is the best time of the year to make your batch of wine because grapes are at their peak ripeness. Zinfandel and Cabernet Sauvignon.. If you live in damp... You will have many varieties of grapes to choose from. • Large nylon straining bag • Cheesecloth • Acid titration kit • One gallon glass jug { } Thou shalt sanitize and rinse. Merlot. which are less susceptible to cold and disease..4 | advanced wine making | making wine from fresh fruit Making wine from fresh grapes will be easy. thrive in California and the Pacific Northwest as well as from New York to the Great Lakes. equipment and ingredients are the same. Thou shalt include your volunteers in tasting. may be grow in your area.

The grapes should taste sweet and ripe but slightly tart. Discard any rotten or suspicious grapes. For a red wine the sugar density should be around 1.085 specific gravity. winemaking demands a sanitary environment. Then measure the sugar density with your hydrometer. Wash all of your equipment thoroughly with hot water and a strong sulfite solution to rinse any equipment that comes in contact with your wine.070 and 1.4 | advanced wine making | fruit preparation and adjusting the juice inspecting your fruit Winemaking starts with inspecting your grapes. squish them in your hands straining the juice in to a clean cup. 37 .095 specific gravity and for a white wine the sugar density should be around 1. To assure that the grapes are ripe. Again. Also.080 and 1. The grapes also must be clean and free of insects. remove the stems since they will make your wine taste bitter.

5 to 7. To increase the acid content add tartaric acid in one gram increments. If your acid level is not within the acceptable range. Bring it to a boil in a saucepan and immediately remove from heat. then adjust by adding tartaric acid. make a simple syrup by dissolving one cup sugar into one-third cup of water. To increase your sugar concentration. simply dilute your juice with water. If your acid content is too high then add 10 percent increments of water. The temperature of your juice can also be adjusted to provide the perfect environment for the growth of the yeast cells.adjusting acid content Adjusting the acid content of your juice is critical. You also need to monitor the sugar level with your hydrometer. Add syrup in one tablespoon increments. The ideal acid level is 6 to 7 grams per liter for dry reds and 6. Cool before adding. You can measure the acid with a titration kit. For red wines add the yeast when the temperature reaches between 70° and 80° F. To decrease the sugar concentration. 38 .5 grams per liter for dry whites. until the desired specific gravity is reached. but for white wines add the yeast between 55° and 65° F.

Keep the skins under the juice at all times. set in a warm (area 65° to 75° F) and check that fermentation has begun within 24 hours. Take a sample of the juice from the pail and measure the acid content with your titration kit. Crush the camden tablet or1 teaspoon of sulfite crystals and sprinkle over the juice in the nylon bag. if necessary Table sugar. Below you'll find step-by-step recipes for a dry red and a dry white table wine. White wines are always pressed before fermentation. 3. It should be between 70° and 80° F. so only the grape juice winds up in the fermenting pail. Place the grape clusters into the nylon straining bag and deposit the bag into the bottom of the foodgrade pail.4 | advanced wine making | dr y red table wine recipe Now you're ready to begin making your first batch of wine. Dr y Red Table Wine Ingredients: 18 lbs. If the specific gravity isn't between 1. The recipes have similar steps and techniques. If your acid content is not between 6 to 7 grams per liter then adjust with tartaric acid. Cover the pail with cheesecloth. firmly crush the grapes. Using very clean hands or a sanitized tool such as a potato smasher. Dissolve the yeast in one pint of warm water (80° to 90° F) and let the yeast stand a few minutes until bubbly. Harvest your grapes once they have reached 22 to 24 percent sugar content. Red wines always are fermented with the skins and pulp.33g of potassium metabisulfite powder) Tartaric acid. When it's bubbling.080 and 1. See page 42 for adjustment information.095 then add a little bit of simple syrup as discussed on page 42. the solids are pressed after fermentation is complete. pour yeast solution directly on the juice and mix. if necessary one packet wine yeast 1. Check the specific gravity of the juice. . { } Red wines always are fermented with the skins and pulp. 5. 39 2. Mix twice daily. the solids are pressed and remain in the juice during the primary fermentation. Measure the temperature of the juice. Monitor fermentation progress and temperature regularly. red grapes yield one gallon of wine one camden tablet (or 0. 4. Cover the pail with cheesecloth and wait one hour. Sanitize all equipment. with one important difference.

Cover the pail loosely and let the wine settle for 24 hours. Cork with the hand-corker. Don’t forget to keep a wine making log. 40 . dark place and wait at least six months before drinking. After 10 days. Again. Then transfer the wine into clean. sanitized bottles. This "cap" will rise to the top. 8. topping off with grape juice or any dry red wine of a similar style. Note: Red wine is fermented with the pulp and skins. Once the juice has reached specific gravity of 0. Fit with a sanitized bung and fermentation lock. lift the nylon straining bag out of the pail and squeeze remaining juice into the pail. 7. 9. so you need to "punch it down" frequently with a sanitized utensil. siphon the clarified wine in a sanitized carboy. Store the bottles in cool. rack the wine into another sanitized jug. See page 46.998. After six months.6. Rack the wine into a sanitized carboy removing the sediment. Do not forget to invite your volunteers for your wine sampling. top off with dry red wine of a similar style.

set in a cool area (55° to 65° F). 4. removing any moldy clusters. 5. It should be between 55° to 65° F. if necessary one packet wine yeast 1. Take a sample of the juice in the pail and use your titration kit to measure the acid level. check to see that fermentation has begun. Measure the temperature of the juice. Adjust temperature as necessary. Crush the camden tablet or measure one teaspoon of sulfite and sprinkle over the crushed fruit in the bag.5 and 7. Squeeze the bag to extract as much juice as possible. then adjust with tartaric acid.070 and 1. Lift the nylon straining bag out of the pail. Monitor fermentation progression and temperature at least once daily. 6. if necessary Table sugar.085 specific gravity then add a little bit of simple syrup as discussed on page 42. leaves or stems. ripe white grapes yield 1 gallon of wine one camden tablet or 0. In 24 hours. Check the specific gravity of the juice.5 grams per liter. If it is not between 6. 41 2. Pick through the grapes. Dissolve a packet of yeast into one pint of warm water (80° to 90° F) and let stand until bubbly. Cover pail with cheesecloth. { } White wines are always pressed before fermentation. Place the grape clusters into a nylon straining bag and place the bag in bottom of the food-grade pail. so only the grape juice winds up in the fermenting pail. Cover pail and bag with cheesecloth and let sit for one hour. You should have about one gallon of juice in the pail. . Harvest grapes once they have reached 19 to 22 percent sugar.33g of potassium metabisulfite powder Tartaric acid.4 | advanced wine making | dr y white table wine recipe Dr y White Table Wine Ingredients: 18 lbs. Then pour the yeast solution directly onto the juice. insects. 7. If it isn't between 1. firmly crush up the grapes inside the nylon bag. 3. Using very clean hands or a sanitized tool like a potato masher. See page 42 for adjustment information.

Top up with wine again. Keep the container topped with white wine.998 specific gravity. After three months. rack the wine into another sanitized one-gallon jug. Quite often with certain varieties of wine. 42 . siphon the clarified wine off the sediment and into clean. See page 46. top off with dry white wine of a similar style. Don’t forget to keep a wine making log. After 10 days. 9.8. dark place and wait at least three months before drinking. Be sure the fermentation lock always has sulfite solution in it.Store bottles in cool. sanitized bottles and corks. 10. Once the juice has reached at least 0. Fit with a sanitized bung and fermentation lock. the longer you age the wine the better it will taste. rack the wine off the sediment into a sanitized one-gallon jug.

4 | advanced wine making | review In section four you were given procedures for successfully making wine from fresh grapes. Remember thou shall sanitize and rinse. there are several important differences. True or False 5. You also found other important differences in measurements. Fermentation is optimal at 32 F.. True or False 6. during fermentation. to reinforce the concepts and facts you have learned. True or False 4. Always use moldy grapes. While both processes for making both red and white wines are similar. 1. and fermentation temperatures. Do not sanitize your equipment unless you feel like it. True or False 2.. Shown below are a five questions for you to answer. Wine grapes are harvested in august. red wines include skins and seeds while white wines do not.one of the wine makers most important commandments. Your wine will be better when it is younger. What is the difference between a drunk and an alcoholic? 43 Answers: 1) false 2) false 3) false 4) false 5) false 6) the alcoholic goes to meetings . True or False 3. For example.

I assume you have successfully produced several batches of wine. the better you get! Sanitizing is critically important. Please be patient with the fermenting process. remember the longer you wait to drink your wine the better it will taste. Included on page 45-46 are wine logs for you to keep detailed records. Young wines taste bland and lack the complexity of wines that have aged longer. remember the older you get. 44 . Always keep all equipment clean and sanitized or you may end up with a batch of vinegar. By now.| wine making | closing Congratulations!!! It was my goal that you would find these instructions clear concise and easy to use.

wine log wine kit Batch 1: Wine Type: Date Started: primary fermentation: Date: Hydrometer reading: Temperature: Note: This step takes about 5-7 days secondary fermentation: Date: Hydrometer reading: Temperature: Note: This step takes about 10 days stabilizing and clearing: Note: This step takes about 14 days or more Date: Hydrometer reading: Temperature: Batch 2: Wine Type: Date Started: primary fermentation: Date: Hydrometer reading: Temperature: Note: This step takes about 5-7 days secondary fermentation: Date: Hydrometer reading: Temperature: Note: This step takes about 10 days stabilizing and clearing: Note: This step takes about 14 days or more Date: Hydrometer reading: Temperature: 45 .

wine log .fresh fruit Batch 3: Wine Type: Date Started: primary fermentation: Date: Hydrometer reading: Temperature: Note: This step takes about 5-7 days secondary fermentation: Date: Hydrometer reading: Temperature: Note: This step takes about 10 days stabilizing and clearing: Note: This step takes about 14 days Date: Hydrometer reading: Temperature: Batch 4: Wine Type: Date Started: primary fermentation: Date: Hydrometer reading: Temperature: Note: This step takes about 5-7 days secondary fermentation: Date: Hydrometer reading: Temperature: Note: This step takes about 10 days stabilizing and clearing: Note: This step takes about 14 days or more Date: Hydrometer reading: Temperature: 46 .

com (national geographic society) www.com www.J.wikipedia.ngs.com www.com www.dictionary.gettyone.com www.winemakermag.References: Books: The Joy of Home Winemaking. Terry Grey.com . Websites: www. Berry.istockphoto. C. Collins. First Steps in Winemaking.

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