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samotharacian language

samotharacian language

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A Note on the Samothracian Language G. Bonfante Hesperia, Vol. 24, No. 2. (Apr. - Jun., 1955), pp. 101-109.

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R.. with bibl. they have nothing to do with each other. Tyrrhener. see. . only three examples but. " A Select Bibliography of the Anatolian Languages..E. 144.V. On the Thracian language see the bibliography here below in note 15. 139). Brandenstein believes the four new Leninian texts to be Thracian. Both voiced occlusives and the vowel o are rather frequent in our inscriptions. Tyrrhener. . Della Seta (op. Fredrich. . although it has several 0's. 2225 : " Als Bewohner folgten auf die Karer. 23) und das Relief in1 Louvre. however. acac. is apparent : these texts are certainly not Etruscan. . . in Thracian." Bulletin of the New E'ork Public Library. Della Seta. col. *dh. . ibid. A sharp distinction should be made anyhow between Tyrrhenians and Pelasgians . das beweisen auch Terrakotten samischer Art (Ath." See.. 1948.V. Kleinnsiatische Spraclzdenkmaler. 1912. cit. Thraker. XXX. *bh lose their aspiration and fuse with Indo-European *g. *b (Jokl.C. Kern. col. the new inscriptions agree with the Lemnian stele in ignoring all three voiced occlusives (y. 21 ff. which he takes to be IXth-VIIIth centuries B. also. cols. we should v . B. 1913: " fur Samothrake gibt es nur einen Indizienbeweis " [for " Tyrrhenians " G. pp.A NOTE ON THE SAMOTHRACIAN LANGUAGE ERY little can be said about the texts found in Samothrace. Since. 216 ff. one is acutely aware of our ignorance concerning the ancient languages of the Balkan region. S. IG XI1 8. 1932. p. which Etruscan lacks (p.. col. though with considerable hesitation (R. also. also. cit. suppl. p. New York. and Brandenstein. 289).E. b) nor had it voiced aspirates nor the sound o. nach ihnen wurde die Insel auch Sadvvrluosoder 2aw~ls genannt und der hochste Berg Sdos. XXIX. now Brandenstein. the material is not of aspirates ( X in the form of 't' and V .. vol. . 36 f. Berlin. " Iscrizioni tirreniche di Lemno. Reallex.. 1922. . col.c. S. p ) . Phonetically. 89 ff. Della Seta also lists the differences between Thracian and Leninian. dort sind auch die andern mythischen Namen der Insel aufgezahlt). Confronted with such a discovery." Scritti in olzore di Nogara. 37. Mitt. Etruscan.E. 1918) because of their date. deren Sprache der Name der Insel angehort [ ? G. the Indo-European aspirates *gh. I r a oh a[€ mph~pXoo~ vapt'ap~[a-. pp. der Vorg. but having 0. See. .: ap[tp (or aphlp). R. XXXIV. * d .. pp. vgl. one 0) Samothrace was.E. Swanson. D. also. col. For historical sources concerning the Tyrrhenians at Leninos. The alphabet has no relation whatsoever to the Etruscan : Ho. d.. had no voiced occlusives ( g . as is well known. die auch am Festlande gegenuber sassen . On the stele see. 1943. p. col. One negative result. C. Kabeiros. For the bibliography of Lemnian up to 1948 see.V. S. pp. col. Thraker vom Stamme der Saier.]. though it is certainly not Etruscan tout cozwt-has no voiced occlusives. (IG .. alphabet (p. as it seems. 119 ff. 1919 ff.] ). 133). B. VI. 178.E. nor are they in any way connected with that language.. in fact. s. See the text in Friedrich. Leinnian has nothing to do with Thracian according to Kretschmer. R. of. 1401 : " Tyrsener haben aber nie auf Samothrake gesessen. R. Glotta. Sdov oder S a h ~ ~ XI1 8. never occupied by the Etruscans-or Tyrrhenians.V.' Even the Lemnian stele 2-granted that it may be somehow related to Etruscan. and Kretschnier. .. See. 1937. wohl aber Leninos und Imbros urn 700 erobert.. Die Tyrsener nahmen Samothrake nicht . 132). 6. Fredrich. not " Tyrrhenian " (col. Samothrake. 1942. Citth del Vaticano.' I n the new Samothracian inscriptions there are. after all. Brandenstein.v. S. Della Seta also publishes four new inscriptions on vases of the VIIth and VIth centuries B." Brandenstein expresses a different opinion.

100.' Professor Lehmann has already observed that all the endings of the lines on the stele are vowels. however. always ends his words in a vowel. This seems to correspond to a special articulation of these two series of sounds which is preserved in modern Albanian (Jokl. perhaps ?L.9). One characteristic that strikes me as important is the high frequency of vowels in proportion to consonants. col.32. etc.5. Greek. Above. Jokl. According to G. however. Japanese). Old Rumanian. and London. I. The proportion varies in favor of the consonants. and including F (w). Heidelberg. vowels 39. we find all Greek sounds with exception of 6. not h. with bibl. lo I t is very interesting to observe that. vowels 35. according to most and the best manuscripts. Even these examples are not certain.. 253. including H= q. theoretically find no aspirates in Thracian (cf. mouse. Indog~rmanischeGrammatik. 1921. deed. the percentage of consonants is certainly even higher than it was in Gothic. Relativ (sic) frequelzcy of English soutzds. because of the many silent vowels as in shake.5 (in the spelli^pzgthe percentages are different. W e find there 79 consonants and 71 vowels. I reach: consonants 60. the total for Samothrace remains. Otherwise. the percentage of the vowels should be higher: making the necessary proportional changes. Above. 100. of course. p. they are a well-known feature of IndoEuropean languages. I also take from Hirt's book the percentages of each vowel for Greek (see note 14 below). the absence of which may be merely accidental.).90.10. food: consonants 58. I n the first nine fragmentary lines of the stele-the last three may be Greek. Birds.XE is quite certain. 1679). diphthongs 2. Since.000 words of representative English ") the relative frequency for English sounds is (in percentages) : consonants 62. p. But the voiceless stops of Indo-European (*k. Mass. * p ) are sometimes transcribed with aspirates (cf.6 The respective perceiltages in Sanscrit. But. vowels 41. p. Latin. No. 125 (" A classified quantitative analysis of the commoner words and syllables of every sound of 100. the Thracian (Triballian) who is massacring Greek in Aristophanes. I should add that the restoration of an o in SEVT. Cambridge.58. the dPv~70 for DY~YLBLn the words of the i Thracian. p. here are the words with the verses: ( PaPo. if we include all the other inscriptions and the two remaining words of the stele. The H of the stele and of No. Aristophanes. Birds. 98 consonants and 97 vowels-a very high percentage of vowels in any case. Old Church-Slavic. in fact. this may be purely accidental in the present instance. *t. Diphthongs (a&. ibid. BONFANTE extensive. 290). therefore vowels $ diphthongs 37. and of the double writings such as dead.. pa/3a~a~paC? Papal ua~pad? papa~ua~pad?) 1615 va' pa~ua~pedo r : va/3a~ua~~ed? cra~pad? @ . as Professor Lehmann says '--I count nineteen consonants and twenty-six vowels. EU. 33) are certainly present. Dewey. 1923.1. every diphthong contains two vowels (according to the general opinion). and Gothic follow according to Hirt : Consonants : Vowels : Sanscrit 58 42 Greek 54 46 Latin 56 44 Gothic 59 41 In the modern Germanic languages.102 G. 33 is probably long 8. EL.1° a phenomenon rather rare in the world (compare Italian.

1678 f.. Cl. 100 ff. Phil. and in the stele E. Acharnians. M. XLVII. in the other texts. o ( 2 ) . a. 139. Blaydes (Halis Saxonum. Cf. find there 31 vowels and 30 consoilants within a total of 61 letters. Persian). Coulon and H . 1082 ff. 1952. on the other hand. v ( 1 ) . l1 Op. e. r ) ( 3 ) . Thesmoph. u. Whatmough.-Notice the frequency of a in these passages. Listing the letters in order of frequency. v. The frequency of individual vowels on the ring from Ezerovo is as follows: E ( l o ) .?ao&X~vai? ~ ~ a i dPv1~o a ~ a 8 l 8 w . p.u*. inore than half are vowels. Van Daele (Paris. See also J. uaG v&Ka P U K T I ? K L O ~~ ~ U U " Aegean " languages as (= u G vdKl1v PafcrrlplaLKpo&ow) o ~ a h d vK ~ ' ~ u W U .. a.o. H. r). In fact. w .u (w is not represented). o. 1940).a." The total figures for all the Samothracian inscriptions (reading H as r). 1882) with the variants and the commentary at the end. the edition of Fr. not h ) with the exception of the stele are : '" For the stele. noiz-Thracian peoples (Scythian. by V. I t is interesting to coinpare the vocalism of our language with that of other languages of the area. The total for all the Samothracian inscriptions is : or.q ( ?). the "broken Greek" of other. including 7) under E and o under o: The order in frequency of use is E. a ( l o ) . . i.A N O T E ON T H E SAMOTHRACIAN LANGUAGE 103 This high vocalic percentage appears again in the only known Thracian inscription.. which admits final consonants. 26. 1001. the figures are : I keep the stele apart from the other inscriptions for. the repetition of the same forinula or formulas may give a distorted picture of the vocalic system. Della Seta lists the frequency of occurrence in other follows : 1628 f. L. p. on the ring of Ezerovo which is contemporary. using the statistics of Della Seta. ~ See. L.Ekv ~ u~ i OYPvlt9~ a ~ a S l S w ~ ~ ) . 1005. and the Belles Lettres edition.. o (both in equal number). L (S).(= ~ a h $ vKdpCLv ~ a pcy&hqv pao~X*.. result from such repetition. especially. 1176. in the latter.Eydha/. the surprising frequency of L is not found on the stele and may. we obtain in these inscriptions the following order: E.. l 2 The numbers in parenthesis are the readings that are absolutely certain. cit. being of the Vth c e n t ~ r y we . L.

~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ v is ~written~in a ~ .. some changed it to 2. ilda?aztal de pro9iufzc. Brandenstein. D.C. has absorbed Indo-Eur. Sofia. l 3 I believe the reader will like to have the text here in transcription (from Friedrich. Some Thracian dialects preserved 6. it seems.19. n 8. I was unfortunately unable to see D. Zeitschrift f3r vergleiclze~zdeSpmclzforsclzung. a 0. which I op. Thraker. Matescu. While there is a strong divergence in the frequency of L between the two classes of Samothracian documents (fourth place on the stele. 109. which engulfed Iranian. L occupies an intermediary place (the third) in the inscription from Ezerovo. 163 ff. a s ~ (see. Soc. for Sanscrit (where ( .85. T. Jokl. Baltic. s. Idem. For the Romance languages see S. cit. *a' to *Q. o 19 (0 13 and 6 ) . Latin. pp. pp. 35 ff.. pp. also give data for the consonants..v. becomes a in tnany Thracian dialects). There is no division of words. 114 f. Celtic. o occupies the same (third) place in the average of all the Samothracian texts. col. W. ~ P Greek. 1853.v.~ appears in southern Bulgaria and.. l4 The numerical percentages for Greek are: E 32 ( e 19 and 7 13).r l a . Detschew.. On Thracian personal names see also G. Phrygian. 1923. a position not very far from that (second) in the inscription on the ring. 1852.61. 1943. der Yorg. 89-92 . and Italic at all. pp. 1952. of. reached only the northern Thracian and Illyrian area. It ~ a p r l P an Ionian alphabet of the Vth century B.P a ~ ~ 6 a ~ p .G . This rather high percentage of o in cornparison to a. and Wl~itney.. r 1. BONFANTE Lemnian : Phrygian : Carian : Lycian : Lydian : Thracian (Ezerovo) : Eteocretan : Greek : with which we compare : Stele : All the other inscriptions : General average : a a E E L E a L L o o o a E L L E L u u L u v (0) o a E a E a E o o L v u u l4 o a E o L a L u E E L a o o a v u l5 Two characteristics are common to the stele. second place in the other texts). Forstemann. L 7. I. the other Samothracian inscriptions and the ring from Ezerovo: E is the most frequent and v is the least frequent of all vowels. 74f. 4th edit. p. Die ruzzt. have not counted. 11. *a) > . 150. i 4.1.. and the word K ~ ? ] F6. 1932.. Ephemeris dacoro?fia~za. Or. Note that ~ d a K~ . Probably the *a' Q wave. It n ~ a y have two hexameters. p. Whitney. p. 1 . X. for Spanish in particular. v 6 . 148) : p o h l u r € v € a u v . p. Germanic and. Navarro Totnis. in the soz~therlzsection of the Thracian area. Jourfial A74z. esp. Thraker. Puqcariu. p.€ p € v € a ~ ~ h ~ ~ a v v ~ o a . 410.73.19. 57 ff. *iand 1 a 19. Sfr. It did not reach the southernmost languages. Sprache.. Leipzig and Boston..78. See N. 1896. in Samothrace. partly. zt 2. Cf. that is. cit. below. a 17. 3d ed.. Sanscrit Gmmwzar. Madrid. Reallex. Leipzig. 285. s. seem to indicate that the Samothracian dialect did not change Indo-Eur. Charalzteristik der thrakischen Sprache. pp. Slavic. 26.

Haas. LE. 11. of course." etc.. 1929. in general.~E. W e have in the inscription from Ezerovo: Ea (51. the vocalic structure of Sanlothracian is siniilar-though I should hesitate to call it a striking similarity-to that of the Thracian inscription on the ring from Ezerovo. pp. The clusters P and p v are particularly remarkable. cv.tzem ne ferat sit [ ?G. . oa (11. The . VTT. As to consonants. in Indo-European. as one would. 35 is dubiotts. I<leinasiatisclze Sprachde~zkwaler. indeed. see Marstrander. part) : a K K E OL ~ E K O SCCKKCIXOS. pp. 1946. 80 Bergk.&PEIT arnq K ' E ~ L ~ T E ~ L K ~ E ELTOV VOS " ei pa. l8 Wiener ZeitscZzriJt 2u. Samothracian has XPV [Pv?). I should prefer. 299 (who proposes a different IndoEuropean etyillology : Arm. possibly. as Professor Lehniann observed independently of me. X X possibly a x ?). CTF. La/E (1) and in Samotlirace : EV. rp (stele).) l7Friedrich. 2 to be Phrygian and having the meaning " bread " and.. l6 For the etymology of P~KOF. . I t looks very much like the P i ~ o attested by s Herodotos. fr. 33 and 86. Bonfante.r Kunde des Morgenlandes. 7?). A word that looks rather familiar to every Indo-European scholar is the P E K ~ (so separated from the preceding word by a dot) of line 7 of the stele. 128 f.B. Friedrich 76 is identical in this passage). o. The word occurs twice in Neo-Phrygian inscriptions l7 for which I give the translations offered by 0. Nos. with bibl. 24.'' (33. bekanem " I break. Xr. (or several times but. 88 f. 11. consonantic clusters are certainly not uncommon in either language-nor. the inscription on the ring has the clusters UK. VE. Norsk Tidskrift jor Sprogvidenskap. I. with Pisani.T L ~ P E Y ~ O V E MOV V " Brot und Wasser sollen ihm ungenieszbar worden " (the Inscr. Armenian Quarterly. All in all. a46 (twice). \CI (?stele. LO. . p ~ TX. XLV.aoq. €770. etymologically related to English (' bake. c r . part) : OL PEKOS .a€. Xi? (No. expect in a language having such a very high percentage of vowels. Xu." ' V t also appears in a verse by Hipponax (fr. AX. also. EL.A N O T E O N T H E SAMOTIIRACIAN LANGUAGE 105 Diphthongs and groups of vowels are frequent both in Thracian and in Samothracian. 1938. v In general. VT (in SLVTOXE on the stele). to write hivzc). p. P (stele). in one instance. aam ( ?).] stigwzatiasque itato " (Instead of sit which makes no sense. (86. 75 Diehl) : which also proves the word to be Cypriote-and Cyprus is not very far from Phrygia.up in No.

.-if we isolate that as a word. But the meaning of / % K O $ bread seeins to be documented. Rhei~zischesMuseum. A ~ L ~ K E ~ U O Q ' to ALO( = * A L ~ ~ S ) . p. in agreement with Professor Lehmanq20 that the character of the stele and the probably poetical form of the text indicate rather a religious hymn than a curse.." I n this instance.M. Lat.~ P X o a q o (ibid. p. 2 6 ) . can well be morphologically related to Phrygian PEr~os.. -uro (No. o. 100. I.which n-P~crr~$iEL. n. I. 22 f. Rhod. pp.lder in M. which is only a guessone might think of Lat. Ramsay. I think. I. As for ETOTEX (No. One may ro consider the possibility that such forms as . slavery) . according to the Schol. -vela.~v~s I(aup2Xos 6 'Epp$s EUTLV h s iurop~i rCrapros l9 See. 917. 3 ) . Defixionum Tabellae. 1928. C. Apoll. p. ) 8~uro-(NO. I ) . Wiener Akad. Ca.. XXXIII. 1878. . and Ovid's Ibis. . pdtus.H. p. D. for example. 0st. also. Paris. Curses aiming a t the prevention of eating and drinking are found in several languages. B ~ [ K ] LPEKOS . it offers a link between Samothracian and Phrygian. -apKaLE (No. 2+ayov?] the bread ( ? of cf. Audollent. Buecheler. If accepted as such. p. Another connection with Phrygian will be mentioned later I do not dare to attempt any interpretation of these poor remnants. '~fi&pos Ar). p. M. J.. col. -8~uro ( ? NO. Jahreshefte. P E K ~ . da whether a Christian " panem ~ Z O S ~ Y Z . --€Kale (No. A Gramznar of Oscalz and Umbrian." One must admit that Haas's interpretation is little more than guessas work. Armenian and in several " Aeolic " dialects (lato sensu) that were once in close c0ntac.~ ~ u ~ v a a u(No. certainly in Phrygian. 95. . 40 ff. Gr." Certainly P E K ~ . 2 ) . 1946. 93 and note 3. 1926. 17). For these inscriptions see.. 21 See. Armenian Quarterly. ~ E P E("V ] p~ oL ~ E [ or Pep€[u] ") and translates " may he eat [ P ~ K L O L . Sitzungsber.. 1) look as if they were related forms. locif: loco). 244. 31) and . 44). this appears perhaps in Thracian (Tomaschek. 30). 96. XLVI. Cf. The --rpa of -oXarpa could be the frequent Indo-European instrumental suffix .t with those peoples in Thessaly and Macedonia (s.K a e (No. appearing sometiines as Gev~(ohe)sometimes as BLVT(O~E) obvious oscillation between d and i before nasals . 1928. 128. 40). Boston. a neuter plural.S. -oXe~rpa. BONFANTE W. are. . The latter are written on tombs and on less conspicuous material.A. I ) on a drinking vessel. -6aoyro (No. 212. -vroXa (2) could possibly be nominative feminine in a. we might consider an invocation to the gods to grant " bread "-something like the q~~otidianum nobis hodie.7 ~ ~ r o -( NO. 2nd ed. 20 Above.u<~r)p). i y i v ~ ~ E[~$[av~o.t r d . Greek norrjp~ou Besides these new inscriptions and the gloss navpa~is: E r p ~ r ~ .A. reads . 40) may be verbal forms of the type of Greek iyErvco.A f ~ o ~ i ~ a a (= ' (= II€pcr€+dvr)). or a collective plural (cf. 1893. 22 The ceramic inscriptions show frequent repetition of the same word or formula. for example. Bonfante. Beiblatt. above. Calder. ~ ~ the ~ we know of " Samothracian" language the names of four gods which. VIII. pp. Buck. 2 3 See above. 1904. 1905. p." but with no explanation whatsoever. L ? ? ~ feminine singular.106 G. for example. 94.

s. Kadmos. g.. R.) where. 'A(io-~E'paa may contain the root of Sanscrit kdr~ati. 3 3 e e . pp. I t would then be different from that of our inscriptions.But Kadmos is ob~~ viously an Illyrian hero.. XXX. 221 ff. col. S. " to furrow.. 295. 854 ff. after all these do not seem but to be river-gods.K E ~ U O C . M e . 26 Arclziv fiir Religionsw.~ h l i r ~ ~ ss. 30 KaSpZXos is probably nothing but an (Indo-European !) diminutive of M&Fpo~(note the i ! ). h $ ~ ..E. denn man darf bei den Kabiren nicht ihre fremde ungriechische Herkunft vergessen. 888 f. V. also.E..ihos is certainly related to 30 I<~l8pos. 1468 f. XXX. Illyrier B) als illyr. kariaiti. Vergleichendes Indogermanisclzes Worterbuch.But Kretschmer wisely observes : 28 " Ob ~~ mit mehr Recht. e. . C.w. see also. 88 ff.v.J. Prof.uoeP7ji~esr h dPYia i r a p a h a p ~ h v o v a ~ . 2171. 33 See... R. also. 'Eppho 'AQrlvaio~ xpGroi 'EhX?jvov pa~dvresr a p & IIeXauyGv diroirjuavro. y ui .. 98. dalmatische Insel und auf Kerkyra als Bergnamen wiederfinden. 47). 32 R. Zeitsclzrift fiir vergleiclzende Sprachforschung. cit. ob hier nicht ungriechische Namen verliegen.. Lehmann rightly calls to my attention the name of the Thracian king K ~ ~ u o .E. Axieros and Kabeiros. ist zweifelhaft. too.A NOTE ON T H E SAMOTHRACIAN LANGUAGE 107 vvcro'6wpor. Die Kabiren. die es offen laesst. 283. dp@bDv & E ~ V r h al8oia rdy&Xpara 70. 2 . s. 27 A. p. which I hold to be an Illyrian or " Proto-Illyrian" language. 1004. den wir auch in der Adria als Bezeichung fur eine ~. Schwartz. 244. see E. odros &v$p olSe rb XCyo. 36. 1923.. & p 0 is also Illyrian according to Brandenstein.. 824 f. XXIII. Kretschmer. ~ ibid. 34 Herodotos tells us (11. Kadmos..tzer Akad.rlra~. 849 ff.. (Cf. p. 219 and Kretschmer. I cannot find other Illyrian traces. pp. Glotta. op. p. (R. 28 Glotta.A. cols. 93) was Pelasgian. Roscher. XXIV.. Maass " and another by M. Albaner B. und den wir (s.E. 131. 1943. Roscher. Wie.E. 854. Since Thracian is certainly a satam language. R."? 35 For Dionysodoros. seems possible that the mysterious ancient language of Samothrace mentioned by Diodoros as the language of the aborigines (above. col.V. Hemberg. kennen gelernt haben. r$v y&p $ a p ~ B p ~ O!KEOV virPd.) and R. 29 See.v. S.V. 1466 ff. .. s. 84. vol. the two names are certainly identical-see Lycophron. Walde-Pokorny. oi 62 IIehauyol ipdv r ~ v a Xdyov irepi air06 Ehetav. thus. cols. suppl. however. in Samothrace. pp.E.." for which see." On the relationship between Thracian and Illyrian.. 1913. 1402. the K is quite in order. 429: a not unfitting name for vegetation gods. Glotta. 2 : " Die ' thrak. pp. L L O @ ~ ~ ~ ~ K E S r dirireh~ovui 24 25 irapaXa~dv.vv. The second part of the names ' A t i d .' Insel Samothrake fuhrt nach Strabo X. LV. col. 51) that: Zaris 82 r h I<aBdpwv o"pyia pepv'.E. Kretschmer.. XVII. p.~ a l r l~~ r a p & T O ~ T U J VZa. 1927-28. col. p. r h dv roiur iv S a p o Q p q l ~ ~ v u r r l p ~ o l8687jhora~.. ~ . for example. . of course. p. W a i t e ~ . 1925. R. 31 It. 25 f. -4vest.res a p & IIehauyGv. 1928-29. the presence of such an Illyrian hero as Dardanos 33-one might add Elektra. Furthermore." 29 The name of the fourth god KavpiXos or ~a8ptL. Toinaschek." A Greek etymology was proposed for ' A & ~ K E ~ W Q S and 'A[lepos by E. R..E. 472 urspriinglich den Namen M e h l ~ einen Namen. Glotta. is closely connected with S a m ~ t h r a c e . Dardanos. That Kadmos is an Illyrian hero one inay conclude from an unbiased reading of the evidence available in Koscher (especially cols. recalls the name of the river "At~or. XXVII." We have here an old group of three divine names beginning with 'A&which. 98. i l ~ is also the ancient name of the island of Malta (see. 3 ) .rePovIIehauyoi.. Sitzungsber. Nr. I.. p.~~ Kadmos. Jokl. 891. n. p. p. p. too-definitely points to an Illyrian element on the island. 1935. 15..

17 Wendland.E. pp. See. nobody will assert that the B Ka'/?~~pol Greek divinities. 14. 1925. . pp. also. X. p. . 345) says that the I < & . 105 . pp. Moreover.) : they were assimilated and transported to the East by the Indians who are mentioned in the cuneiform Hittite inscriptions. Glotta. also. See. cit. 42 The Kop@avr~s. according to Brandenstein.&Ip~v I. 485). vol. 176 (and SCL~LVBOS Cf.. language and cult is not incompatible with these observations. Hepding.E. 1927-28.v. suppl. ~ s ( W e might add the priestly title ~ o l or ~ d y s Hesychios. also. LV. 317 f.. cit. Pettazzoni has com~v vol. Kretschnier. a8anrais) which appears in an epigram of Dioscurides in the IIIrd century after Christ (Awthol. 1943. Bibliography on the name Kabeiroi: Kern.. 38 See. Journal Am. 39 Vollgraff. H . just like. p. Most etyniologies are pure fancy. XIV. the . 82. Kretschiner. R. Glotta. p. . Pettazzoni. See now also Kretschiner. VI. pp.. 41 See Strabo. Zeitschrift fur vergleiclzewde Spraclzforschuwg. 37 Refut. 208 (with the texts). More bibliography will also be found in Pettazzoni. s. the " A ~ a v r a s nd ITcv~erlavres.. Glotta. who believes the Kabeiroi to have originally been " Aegean-Anatolian. Washburn-Hopkins.E. 178. index p. pp. Or. p. R. W e know that Tliracians and Phrygians were closely related peoples. . 1925. Giessen. Zeitschrift fur vergleiche~deSprachforschung. p. p.E. BONFANTE The K ~ P E L P O L seen1 to be Sainothracian deities. s. 1913-14. Glotta.a (PpI5y~s ~ V : V 2 T 4CXov 'A8dpva Xiyovcrw. They are mentioned there as foreign gods under the name Habiri. 1940... 1921. . 82 ff. 99. 155 ff. 274. cols. Fredrich. . LV. haer. a XXX.. however. XIV. Hippolytus " which seems to come from Anatolia: 38 uz ~ahoGcr6 . This we may connect with a Phrygian gloss of Hesychios. See. 1916.7. 3. B E L ~ O ~ ZVTEGBEV (that is from Phrygia) p e r ~ v l ~ d ~ u a v . 40 R. 116. 1401 f. op. C. with therefore. XXVIII. I. Mitt. 103 ff.G. p. 917 (Miiller. pp. col. dat. also. 53 ff. pp. col. IV. R. p. ' ~ 8 a p v e i v~ b ~ L X E ~ ~ . 1402. F. 36 I < ~ / ? € L ~ O S can hardly be Greek.. 1907. Pal. La confessione dei peccati..S. 5.v. p.. Kolys : oi 82 ~ 6 y:s E E Q E ~ S Ka. b would also be rather strange (Greek . 1927-28.36 also Another conceivably Samothracian name appears in a prayer quoted by St. des orientalistes. op. Zeitsclzrift fur vergleichende Sprachforschuwg.V. seiwe Mytlrzen ujzd seiu Kult. 83. be rejected a priovi. Korybantes. Attis. p. omw. XXXI. because the 12 of Sanscrit Kubera indicates a labiovelar for which we would expect T in Greek. Kretschmer. 2. VII. 1400... B. 353 . usually derives from a labiovelar *gw). s.108 G. 192 and also R. XXXIII. Kretschmer.E. Kern " cannot. N. especially. 472. ~ a e a l p 4 o v i a ) as also possibly Samothracian. Kabeiros.v." The Phrygian origin of the Kabeiric cult asserted by Stesimbrotos of Thasos and recently defended by 0. 258.*' The connection of the Phrygian K o p 6 p a v ~ ~ s A Thracian origin of the Samothraciaul ( !) Samothrace should be recalled.. XXXII. XLIX. Kretschmer. p. col. col. 1943. VII. 2.v. s. Schol. XLI. d a y 0 e p & ~ ~ ~ § for "A8aP[va] u ~ p c i u p ~ o v ~ 8 a p v a (" is a restoration of Bergk) .H. pp.. p. 105. Wackernagel admits that the word might belong to another Indoare European language-Phrygian or Thracian. Wackernagel. 1912. Ath.. I t may be a taboo-name. 34. S. 286 ff. 318 ff.v.. s.B = Scr. . 88 ff. too). for example. (" De voce Thracia a8anrais ") connects with this the Thracian word U ~ U T T U (plur. XXX. and P." not Indo-European (see. Rhod. Apoll. 3... I t must mean something l like h y d ~ r(in its two senses). Mnelwosyne. as Wackernagel admits. . 1953. 1903. have (as it seems) an Illyrian suffix. See P. 1906. Soc. VI. Heniberg. Actes du 1 6 e CongrBs i~terwat.

. the important article by 0. in particular.C T K ~ O S . has been related to Vedic kavi-$: <c seer. Greek ~ V O .S. 2. cii." cf." " poet.tes. . German schaz. J. 3." 1 see no reason to doubt that the word is both Thraciaii and S a m ~ t h r a c i a n . 1951. I . Masson. G. On a hydria found frequently becomes at Duvanlji in southern Bulgaria ( !). o f . BONFANTE PRINCETON UNIVERSITY See. the language of the new inscriptions and.ter. more specifically. 48 44 . See. 182 ff. 1950-51. ~ ~ I n conclusion.. LXXI. with bibliography. Jalzrbuch fiir kleinasiatische Forschung. pp." " zza. index. one reads the word ~ o a s ( v 6) over the figure of a priestess. Thracian-especially in its vocalism.H. now. of the stele may quite well be Indo-European. etc.. in turn. Ure. The language is surely neither Greek nor Etruscan nor " Tyrrhenian "-whatever that means-unless we understand under the term Etruscan or " Tyrrhenian " something entirely different from tlie language documented in approximately ten thousand non-Latin inscriptions found in Etruria. 196 f. pp. Pettazzoni. 259. p.A NOTE ON T H E SAMOTHRACIAN LANGUAGE 109 pared it with the Lydian title kaveS which. also.

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