Learning and HRD

Chapter 3

Werner & DeSimone (2006)


Agree or Disagree? #1
For learning to take place, the most important variable to consider is whether or not the individual learner has sufficient ability to learn what is being taught.

Werner & DeSimone (2006)


Agree or Disagree? #2
In general, people learn best and remember the most when they can spread out the time spent on learning new material.

Werner & DeSimone (2006)


Agree or Disagree? #3
Learning something to the point of overlearning is generally a waste of time, and should be avoided.

Werner & DeSimone (2006)


Agree or Disagree? #4
If training has been effective, then it really doesn t matter whether there is support in the work environment or not.

Werner & DeSimone (2006)


Werner & DeSimone (2006) 6 .Agree or Disagree? #5 Trainers should always seek to match the type of training delivery methods to the characteristics of the individuals being trained.

Werner & DeSimone (2006) 7 .Agree or Disagree? #6 Adult learners typically respond best to a lecture-style approach to training.

behavioral. or affective Results from the individual s interaction with the learning environment Werner & DeSimone (2006) 8 .Learning Focus is upon change Change must be long-lasting The focus of learning can be cognitive.

or behavior-based) Affective (Attitude) Werner & DeSimone (2006) 9 .Learning Outcomes Outcomes can be: Cognitive (Knowledge) Psychomotor (Skill.

Basic Learning Principles Contiguity things taught together become associated with each other Law of Effect a behavior followed by pleasurable experience is likely to be repeated Practice repetition increases association and knowledge Werner & DeSimone (2006) 10 .

Limitations in the Foregoing Based on strictly controlled tests ( lab studies ) Practice doesn t always make perfect Werner & DeSimone (2006) 11 .

Improved Training Design Task Analysis Component Task Achievement Task Sequencing Werner & DeSimone (2006) 12 .

Task Analysis Break each task down into a series of distinct component tasks Keep breaking tasks down to the simplest level possible Werner & DeSimone (2006) 13 .

Component Task Achievement Each task must be completed fully before the entire task may be performed correctly You have to specify what is to be done. and how it is to be evaluated Werner & DeSimone (2006) 14 . under what conditions.

Task Sequencing Each component task should be arranged in the proper sequence Some are serial tasks Some can be done in parallel Werner & DeSimone (2006) 15 .

Instructional Psychology What must be done before learning can take place Describe the learning goal to be achieved Analyze the initial state of the learner Identify the conditions allowing the learner to gain competence Assess and monitor the learning process Werner & DeSimone (2006) 16 .

Maximizing Learning (Training) Trainee Characteristics Training Design Transfer of Training Werner & DeSimone (2006) 17 .

Trainee Characteristics Trainability    Motivation Ability Perception of the work environment Personality and attitudes Werner & DeSimone (2006) 18 .

Training Design Issues Conditions of practice Retention of what is learned Werner & DeSimone (2006) 19 .

Conditions of Practice Active practice Spaced versus massed practice Whole versus part learning Overlearning Knowledge of results (feedback) Task sequencing Werner & DeSimone (2006) 20 .

Retention of What is Learned Meaningfulness of the material Degree of original learning Interference   Knowledge before training Changes after training Werner & DeSimone (2006) 21 .

Transfer of Training Does training make it to the job? Positive transfer  Job performance improves after training No measurable changes Performance becomes worse after training Werner & DeSimone (2006) 22 Zero transfer  Negative transfer  .

Other Types of Transfer Near Transfer  Ability to directly apply back to the job Expanding upon or using in new and creative ways Far Transfer  Werner & DeSimone (2006) 23 .

Baldwin & Ford s Transfer of Training Model By Permission: Baldwin & Ford. 1988 Werner & DeSimone (2006) 24 .

Maximizing Transfer Identical elements Physical fidelity Psychological fidelity Werner & DeSimone (2006) 25 .

business games. the easier it is to achieve transfer Direct relationship to the job Example: Customer service and angry customers Role playing. Werner & DeSimone (2006) 26 . etc.Identical Elements The closer the training is to the job.

Physical Fidelity Same physically Same procedurally Example: Flight and submarine simulators Werner & DeSimone (2006) 27 .

Psychological Fidelity Trainee experiences same stresses and conditions as he/she is being trained for Example: MS Flight Simulator Werner & DeSimone (2006) 28 .

Support in Work Environment Transfer of training into workplace is supported A continuous learning environment Supervisors support and help develop training Training leads to promotion/better pay Trainee has opportunity to perform Werner & DeSimone (2006) 29 .

Individual Differences Rate of Progress  Learning charts/curves Measure proficiency with standardized tests Chart learning proficiency against time  Charts show plateaus in learning as well as progress Werner & DeSimone (2006) 30 .

Some Learning Curves Werner & DeSimone (2006) 31 .

How well you pay attention determines how well you perform. The greater your intelligence. Werner & DeSimone (2006) 32 . you pay attention. the more you pay attention. If you re motivated.Cognitive Resource Allocation Theory (How Brain is Used) How well you pay attention determines how much you learn.

Three Phases of Learning a Skill Declarative knowledge  Forming a mental picture of the task Integrating knowledge and motor skills Ability to perform task automatically. paying little attention to it Knowledge compilation  Procedural knowledge  Werner & DeSimone (2006) 33 .

Andragogy (Malcolm Knowles) Adults are self-directed Adults already have knowledge and experience Adults are ready to learn relevant tasks Adults are motivated to learn Adults expect to apply learning immediately Werner & DeSimone (2006) 34 .

How well is change accepted? Skepticism  Resistance to Change  Werner & DeSimone (2006) 35 .How to Assess Trainee Differences Instrumentality  Does trainee think training is applicable? Degree trainee questions and demands facts.

How to Assess Trainee Differences 2 Attention Span  How long can trainee focus on the lesson? What does trainee expect from the trainer/training? What drives/motivates the trainee? Expectation Level  Dominant Needs  Werner & DeSimone (2006) 36 .

How to Assess Trainee Differences 3 Absorption Level  How fast is new information accepted? How interested is trainee in topic? Degree of independence and self-regard Can trainee implement training on job? Werner & DeSimone (2006) 37 Topical Interest  Self-Confidence  Locus of Control  .

Gerontology Working with older people Older people can and do develop Older people should not be excluded from training Training must be geared for adults. not children Organizations must reward training Look at overall career patterns Werner & DeSimone (2006) 38 .

Learning Styles Lots of research in this area Many different tests are available to measure:   Learning ability Individual learning preferences It s NOT all psychobabble! Werner & DeSimone (2006) 39 .

Kolb s Learning Style Inventory Among most popular tests used Proposes four modes of learning:     Concrete Experience (CE) Abstract Conceptualization (AC) Reflective Observation (RO) Active Experimentation (AE) Werner & DeSimone (2006) 40 .

Kolb s Learning Styles Convergent  Thinking and Doing Feeling and Watching Thinking and Watching Feeling and Doing Werner & DeSimone (2006) 41 Divergent  Assimilation  Accommodative  .

Kolb s Learning Styles CE Accommodative AE Convergent AC Werner & DeSimone (2006) 42 Divergent RO Assimilation .

Five Learning Strategies Rehearsal strategies Elaboration strategies Organizational strategies Comprehension monitoring strategies Affective strategies Werner & DeSimone (2006) 43 .

Another Strategy Identify assumptions Test assumption validity Generate and test alternatives Decrease likelihood of errors Werner & DeSimone (2006) 44 .

pictures Listening Discussing.Perceptual Preferences Print  Reading and writing Graphs. asking questions Werner & DeSimone (2006) 45 Visual  Aural  Interactive  . charts.

cf. VARK questionnaire (Exercise 2) Werner & DeSimone (2006) 46 . touching Role playing. physical activity Smell. taste Kinesthetic/psychomotor  Olfactory  .Perceptual Preferences Tactile/manipulative  2 Hands-on.

Actual Preferences Adults generally prefer visual Females all sources Males selected sources Young Adults interactive. Werner & DeSimone (2006) 47 . visual CONCLUSION: Tailor your method to your audience.

Expert Performance Definition: Consistently superior performance on a specified set of representative tasks for a domain Werner & DeSimone (2006) 48 .

Gagne s Theory of Instruction Verbal information Intellectual skills Cognitive strategies Motor skills Attitudes ALL ARE LEARNED IN DIFFERENT WAYS! Werner & DeSimone (2006) 49 .

Provide feedback. Stimulate recall of earlier lessons. Present new material.Instructional Events (Table 3-6) 1. State the learning objective. Werner & DeSimone (2006) 50 . 4. Gain attention. 6. Assess performance. 9. 2. Have student perform. 8. 3. 7. Provide learning guidance. Enhance retention and training transfer. 5.

Summary Without learning. we must consider:  Trainee characteristics/individual differences Training design issues Retention and transfer of training issues Werner & DeSimone (2006) 51   . there would be no field of human resource development To increase learning.

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