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**Time Allowed: 3 Hours Maximum Marks: 200
**

Candidates should attempt SIX questions, selecting TWO question from Section - A, ONE from Section - B, ONE

from Section - C and TWO from Section – D. Assume suitable data, if necessary and indicate the same clearly.

SECTI ON A

1. (a) In Fig. 1, the switch was in position 2 for a long time. It is switched to position 1 at t = 0. At t

= 5 sec it is switched back to position 2 and left there. Obtain an expression for i(i), the

capacitor current for t > 0.

10

(b) A circuit is made up of a 10 O resistance, a 1 uF capacitance and a I h-inductance all

connected in series A voltage of 100 V at varying frequencies is applied to the circuit. Find

the frequency (or frequencies) at which the circuit would consume only 10% of the power it

consumed at resonance.

10

(c) A 2-poe network made up of passive linear resistors is fed at port 1 by an ideal voltage source

of V volts.

It is loaded at port 2 by a resistance R:

(i) With V = 10 volts and R = 6O, currents at ports 1 and 2 were 1.44 A and 0.2A

respectively.

(ii) With V = 15 V and R = 8 O, the current at port 2 was 0.25 A.

Determine the t-equivalent circuit of the 2-pod network.

12

2. (a) Derive expressions for the hybrid parameters in terms of the Transmission parameters. Hence

interpret the relation AD — BC = 1 in terms of hybrid parameters.

8

(b) Find the input resistance of the infinite ladder network of Fig.2.

8

(c) For the circuit of Fig. 3 choose a set of state variables and derive the voltage, current

equations necessary for solving the circuit in terms of the chosen state variables.

I.E.S. (Conv.) - 1999

E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G

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8

(d) Given the impulse response of a system is e

-t

obtain the system response for an input a sin cit

using the convolution integral?

8

3. (a) The open loop gain G(s) H(s) of a feedback control system is

( )( )

( )( )

10 40

1 4

K s s

S s s

+ +

+ +

Work out and sketch the Nyquist plot for the system and comment on the stability of the

closed loop system for—

(i) K = .01 (b) K = 100

12

(b) Fig. 4 is a block diagram of a linear feedback system. Obtain a signal flow graph for the

system and hence calculate the overall gain C(s)/R(s) for the system.

8

(c) What is ‘aliasing’ in respect of obtaining z-transforms and their inversions? How are the

effects of aliasing reduced in a digital system?

4

(b) Consider a zero-order hold circuit, with a sequence of discrete inputs sampled at an interval

of T sec. In terms of the Laplace transform of this sequence, find the Laplace transform of the

output of the hold circuit.

8

SECTI ON B

4. (a) Determine the force exerted per meter by a 2 mm dia conductor of infinite length on a similar

parallel conductor 1 m away, when a potential of 1000 V is existing between them. Make

suitable assumptions about other details you need, and state them.

12

(b) Derive Laplaces equation pertaining to electrostatic potential distribution in a charge free

space. Show how this is useful in computing the potential distribution in a two-digressional

electrostatic problem using a digital computer

12

(c) The electron gun of a TV display tube emits electrons almost at zero velocity. These are

accelerated through an electric held of 1000 V/cm over a distance of 5 cm. Then the pass

through a vertical deflecting coil producing a flux density of 0.01 Wb/m

2

over a distance of 1

cm. If the screen is at a distance of 10 cm from the centre of the deflecting system calculate

the deflection produced (charge per unit mass for electrons is 1.759 × 10

11

C/kg).

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12

5. (a) (i) Using Maxwell’s equations, derive equations to demonstrate the propagation of

uniform plane waves in a perfect dielectric medium.

(ii) The magnetic field intensity H of a plane wave in free space is 0.20 A/m and is in the

‘1-direction. If the wave is propagating in the Z-direction with a frequency of 3 GHz,

find the wavelength, amplitude and direction of the E-vector, u

0

= 4u × 10

-7

H/m and

c

0

= 8.85 × 10

-12

F/m.

12 + 12

(b) Discuss the wave propagation in

(i) a lossy dielectric;

(ii) a conductor.

Derive relevant equations.

12

SECTI ON C

6. (a) (i) Discuss the wave nature of any matter in motion as postulated by de brogile.

(ii) Calculate the wavelength ì of an electron with kinetic energy of 300 eV.

Mass of an electron = 9.108 × 10

-31

kg

Charge = 1.602 × 10

-19

C

Planck’s constant

h = 6.626 × 10

-34

J-s.

4 + 8

(b) (i) What are the different ways in which liquids may be electrically polarized?

(ii) What is ferro-electric behaviour in crystals? What causes this?

6 + 6

(c) Explain any three of the following:

Diamagnetism; paramagnetism; ferromagnetism; antiferromagnetism; ferrimagnetism

12

7. (a) Explain the existance of the various electron energy hands in solids based on these hands

distinguish between insulators, conductors and semi-conductors.

10

(b) Giving relevant defining equations, explain the phenomenon of drift and diffusion associated

with carrier movement in semiconductors.

12

(c) Consider an abrupt p-n junction with donor density to atoms/cm and acceptor density

N

A

= 0.5 × 10

16

atoms/cm

3

. Sketch the charge distribution about the junction and estimate the

junction width when—

(i) no external voltage is applied. (assume the junction barrier voltage to be 0.7V)

(ii) with an external voltage of -10 V applied.

Assume uniform charge distribution on both sides of the junction in the space charge

region. Assume an c

r

of 10 for the material and c

0

= 8.85 x 10

-12

F/m.

14

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SECTI ON D

8. (a) What do you understand by the dimension of a quantity? Obtain the dimensions of resistance

R, inductance L and capacitance C in terms of mass length time and current. Hence, check

dimensionally if the equation R

2

C = L is balanced. If not, indicate the missing dimension.

10

(b) A strain measuring Wheatstone Bridge used two identical and identically strained gauges in

its opposite arms, Prove that the bridge will have maximum sensitivity for strain when the

resistances in the other two arms are equal and equal to the unstrained resistance of the

gauges.

12

(c) Many voltage measuring system like potentiometers. A/D or D/A converters etc. require

some standard reference voltages. Describe any two of such reference voltages and give an

idea as to their accuracy:

10

9. (a) (i) What are the advantages of integrating type A/D converters over the non-integrating

type? What integrating interval would you recommend for a world class A/D

converter to eliminate the power frequency related (50 Hz and 60 Hz, both) ripples

from affecting the measurement?

(ii) Describe any good integrating A/D converter with a circuit diagram and explain its

operation

6 + 6

(b) Distinguish between active and passive electrical transducers and give some examples of

each. Show how operational amplifiers could be used to interface a weak voltage signal

output from an active transducer to a measuring system requiring comparatively larger

voltage and power.

10

(c) With a block diagram, explain a typical data logging system.

10

10. (a) What is a Wien Bridge? What are its uses?

Show how a variable frequency oscillator can be built using an operational amplifier with a

Wien Bridge. Derive an expression for the frequency of oscillation of the circuit.

10

(b) Explain the following and bring out their relative merits

12

(i) EM (ii) PCM (iii) Delta modulation

(c) Discuss briefly the different methods of measuring the following

10

(i) Liquid flow

(ii) Temperature of the order of 1000 K.

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1.

PAPER - I I

Time Allowed: 3 Hours Maximum Marks: 200

Candidates should attempt FIVE questions in all, choosing at least ONE from each section.

SECTI ON A

1. (a) With necessary circuit diagrams explain the open-circuit test and short – circuit test

conducted on single. Phase transformer. Justify that the copper loss in the open-circuit test

condition and the iron loss in the short – circuit test condition are normally neglected

12

(b) A 500 kVA single phase transformer with 0.012 p.u. resistance and 0.06 p.u. reactance, is

connected in parallel with a 250 kVA single phase transformer with 0.014 p.u. resistance and

0.045 p.u. reactance to share a load of 600 kVA at 0.8 power factor logging. Find the 2VA

and power factor shared by each transformer.

12

(c) A 220 V d.c. shunt motor takes 20A at rated voltage and runs at 1000 rpm. Its field circuit

resistance is 100 O and armature circuit resistance is 0.1O. Compute the value of additional

resistance required in the armature circuit to reduce the speed to 800 rpm when

(i) the load torque is proportional to speed

(ii) the load torque varies as the square of the speed.

16

2. (a) What are the conditions to he satisfied for a d.c. shunt generator to built up? Explain the

process of building up of emf in a d.c. shunt generator.

10

(b) A 10 kVA, 440 V, 50 Hz. three phase alternator has the following OCC:-

Field current (amp.) Terminal voltage (Volts)

1.0 100

3.0 300

5.0 440

8.0 550

11.0 600

15.0 635

With full load zero power factor load applied, an excitation of 14 A produced a terminal

voltage of 500 V On short circuit, 4 A excitation was required to circulate the full load

current. Using MME method, determine the full load percentage regulation for 0.6 p.f.

lagging and 0.6 p.f. leading.

20

(b) Explain how to determine the direct and quadrature axis reactances of a salient pole

synchronous machine.

10

I.E.S-(Conv.) - 1999

E EL LE EC CT TR RI I C CA AL L E EN NG GI I N NE EE ER RI I N NG G

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3. (a) Describe with the help of an appropriate diagram the Star-Delta method of starting a three-

phase induction motor.

10

(b) A 400 V 6 pole, 50Hz, three phase star connected induction motor running at rated voltage

lakes 7.5 A with a power input of 700W. With the rotor blocked and 150 V applied to the

stator the input current is 35 A and the power input is 5000W. The rotor and the stator copper

losses are equal under the blocked rotor condition. The standstill leakage reactance of the

stator and rotor as seen from the stator are estimated to be in the ratio of 1:0.5. Obtain the

equivalent circuit of the induction motor. Calculate the net mechanical power output, torque,

input power and the efficiently at a slip of 4%.

20

(c) Explain the operation of single phase capacitor start motor.

10

SECTI ON B

4. (a) Develop the long line exact equations in hyperbolic terms for the sending end voltage and

current.

10

(b) For the power system with the following line data compute the bus admittance matrix with

four digit accuracy:-

Bus Code Line impedance HLCA Off nominal trans. ratio

1-2 005 + j 0.12 j 0.025 -

2-3 0.0 + j 0.40 1.05

3-4 0075 + j 025 j 0.002 -

1-3 0.045 ± j 045 0.015 -

1-4 0.015 + j 005 - -

15

(c) Develop necessary equations and describe the load flow solution using Gauss Seidel method.

15

5. (a) In the power system shown in Fig. I the values marked are the per unit reactances taking 20

MVA and 11 kV as base values in the generator circuit. Both the transformers are rated for

11/110 kV.

Fig. I

A three phase to ground fault with a fault impedance of j 0.038 p.u. occurs at bus 2.

Determine the actual values of fault current at and the currents supplied by the generators

15

(b) Consider the bower system shown in Fig. 2. The values marked are per unit reactances and

per unit voltages.

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Fig.2

The generator was delivering 1.0 p.u. power before a three phase fault occurs at P. The fault

was cleared by opening the circuit breakers and isolating the faulty line in 5 cycles. Generator

has an inertia constant of 4.0 p.u. Using point by point method, with time interval of 0.05 sec.

obtain the swing curve for a period of 0.2 sec. Assume f = 50 Hz.

15

(c) Briefly discuss the advantages and the operational problems of HVDC transmission.

10

SECTI ON C

6. (a) What are Astable, Monostable and Bistable multivibrators?

8

(b) Describe the realization of transistor type monostable multivibrator.

16

(c) For the monostable multivibrator calculate the output pulse width for the design values of R

C

= 2 kO; R

B

= 20 kO; C = 0.1 uF and V

CC

= 12 V. Assume V

CE(sal)

= 0.2V; V

BE(sat)

= 0.8V and

| = 50. Check up the saturation of the transistor so that the circuit acts as a monostable

multivibrator.

16

7. (a) Explain with figure the working of a typical inductance type high frequency oscillator.

10

(b) Discuss the limitations in realization of radio frequency signals using transistor circuits.

10

(c) Explain how to realize radio frequency signals using crystal oscillator.

10

(d) The parameters of a crystal oscillator equivalent circuit are L

s

= 0.8 H; C

s

= 0.08 pf: R

s

= 5

kO and C = 1.0 pf. Determine the resonance frequencies f

s

and f

p

.

10

8. (a) Explain the three different formats for the control field of SDLC message frame. How can

multiple frames be transmitted without waiting for an acknowledgement from the receiver?

12

(b) Write a program to add five 16 bit numbers stored in the memory with LSB first and MSB

next and to store the 24 bit result in three consecutive memory locations.

14

(c) Write a program to generate sawtooth waveform using a DAC interface. Assume that a

bipolar voltage in the range of -5V to +5V for a count of OO

H

to FFH can be produced

through DAC.

14

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SECTI ON D

9. (a) What are the merits and demerits of amplitude modulation over frequency modulation?

8

(b) Explain the square law modulation for the generation of AM signals.

20

(c) Consider a carrier waveform 10 cos w

c

t and a modulating message signal 3 cos w

m

t with f

c

=

100 kHz and f

m

= kHz. Calculate the modulation index and the channel bandwidth for

amplitude and frequency modulation. Assume the sensitivity of the frequency modulator to

be 5 kHz per volt.

12

10. (a) What are the different methods of voltage control of single phase inverters? Explain them

20

(b) A three phase inductive compensator (TCR) has an inductance of L Henry per phase and

negligible resistance. P controlled by a pair of antiparallel SCRs in each phase. The triggering

angle o is varied to get the required compensation. The supply voltage is V volts per phase.

Derive the expressions for the ms voltage and corresponding rms current per phase of the the

compensator.

20

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estudentzone.01 (b) K = 100 12 Fig. and state them. 12 Derive Laplaces equation pertaining to electrostatic potential distribution in a charge free space.com www. Make suitable assumptions about other details you need.com 8 (d) 3.www. Obtain a signal flow graph for the system and hence calculate the overall gain C(s)/R(s) for the system. (a) Determine the force exerted per meter by a 2 mm dia conductor of infinite length on a similar parallel conductor 1 m away. These are accelerated through an electric held of 1000 V/cm over a distance of 5 cm. Show how this is useful in computing the potential distribution in a two-digressional electrostatic problem using a digital computer 12 The electron gun of a TV display tube emits electrons almost at zero velocity. 4 is a block diagram of a linear feedback system. If the screen is at a distance of 10 cm from the centre of the deflecting system calculate the deflection produced (charge per unit mass for electrons is 1. find the Laplace transform of the output of the hold circuit. (b) (c) . with a sequence of discrete inputs sampled at an interval of T sec. 8 SECTION B 4. 8 (b) (c) (b) What is ‘aliasing’ in respect of obtaining z-transforms and their inversions? How are the effects of aliasing reduced in a digital system? 4 Consider a zero-order hold circuit.estudentzone.01 Wb/m2 over a distance of 1 cm. (a) Given the impulse response of a system is e-t obtain the system response for an input a sin cit using the convolution integral? 8 The open loop gain G(s) H(s) of a feedback control system is K s 10 s 40 S s 1 s 4 Work out and sketch the Nyquist plot for the system and comment on the stability of the closed loop system for— (i) K = .759 × 1011 C/kg). Then the pass through a vertical deflecting coil producing a flux density of 0. when a potential of 1000 V is existing between them. In terms of the Laplace transform of this sequence.

estudentzone. 12 5. (assume the junction barrier voltage to be 0. 4+8 (b) (i) (ii) What are the different ways in which liquids may be electrically polarized? What is ferro-electric behaviour in crystals? What causes this? 6+6 (c) Explain any three of the following: Diamagnetism. ferromagnetism. (a) (i) (ii) Discuss the wave nature of any matter in motion as postulated by de brogile.85 x 10-12 F/m. Assume uniform charge distribution on both sides of the junction in the space charge region. paramagnetism. 12 Consider an abrupt p-n junction with donor density to atoms/cm and acceptor density NA = 0.5 × 1016 atoms/cm3.7V) (ii) with an external voltage of -10 V applied. derive equations to demonstrate the propagation of uniform plane waves in a perfect dielectric medium. Sketch the charge distribution about the junction and estimate the junction width when— (i) no external voltage is applied. 0 = 4 × 10-7 H/m and 0 = 8.602 × 10-19 C Planck’s constant h = 6. Derive relevant equations. (ii) a conductor. Mass of an electron = 9. Assume an r of 10 for the material and 0 = 8.com www. (ii) The magnetic field intensity H of a plane wave in free space is 0. If the wave is propagating in the Z-direction with a frequency of 3 GHz. (a) (b) SECTION C 6. 10 Giving relevant defining equations. 12 + 12 Discuss the wave propagation in (i) a lossy dielectric.626 × 10-34 J-s. amplitude and direction of the E-vector.85 × 10-12 F/m.www. find the wavelength. ferrimagnetism 12 Explain the existance of the various electron energy hands in solids based on these hands distinguish between insulators. antiferromagnetism. explain the phenomenon of drift and diffusion associated with carrier movement in semiconductors.com 12 (i) Using Maxwell’s equations.108 × 10-31 kg Charge = 1. Calculate the wavelength of an electron with kinetic energy of 300 eV.20 A/m and is in the ‘1-direction. (a) (b) (c) . conductors and semi-conductors.estudentzone. 14 7.

10 With a block diagram. explain a typical data logging system. both) ripples from affecting the measurement? (ii) Describe any good integrating A/D converter with a circuit diagram and explain its operation 6+6 Distinguish between active and passive electrical transducers and give some examples of each.com www. (a) (b) (c) 10. 10 A strain measuring Wheatstone Bridge used two identical and identically strained gauges in its opposite arms. indicate the missing dimension. (a) (b) (c) .estudentzone. If not. require some standard reference voltages. Hence.com SECTION D 8.www. A/D or D/A converters etc. (b) (c) 9. Describe any two of such reference voltages and give an idea as to their accuracy: 10 (i) What are the advantages of integrating type A/D converters over the non-integrating type? What integrating interval would you recommend for a world class A/D converter to eliminate the power frequency related (50 Hz and 60 Hz. inductance L and capacitance C in terms of mass length time and current. (a) What do you understand by the dimension of a quantity? Obtain the dimensions of resistance R. Derive an expression for the frequency of oscillation of the circuit. check dimensionally if the equation R2C = L is balanced. Show how operational amplifiers could be used to interface a weak voltage signal output from an active transducer to a measuring system requiring comparatively larger voltage and power. Prove that the bridge will have maximum sensitivity for strain when the resistances in the other two arms are equal and equal to the unstrained resistance of the gauges. 10 Explain the following and bring out their relative merits 12 (i) EM (ii) PCM (iii) Delta modulation Discuss briefly the different methods of measuring the following 10 (i) Liquid flow (ii) Temperature of the order of 1000 K.estudentzone. 10 What is a Wien Bridge? What are its uses? Show how a variable frequency oscillator can be built using an operational amplifier with a Wien Bridge. 12 Many voltage measuring system like potentiometers.

SECTION A 1.u. Using MME method.) Terminal voltage (Volts) 1.0 100 3.0 300 5.com www. 12 A 220 V d.u.0 635 With full load zero power factor load applied. 4 A excitation was required to circulate the full load current. (a) (b) (b) . shunt motor takes 20A at rated voltage and runs at 1000 rpm.www. resistance and 0.com I.045 p.0 440 8. 10 A 10 kVA. 20 Explain how to determine the direct and quadrature axis reactances of a salient pole synchronous machine.c. Justify that the copper loss in the open-circuit test condition and the iron loss in the short – circuit test condition are normally neglected 12 A 500 kVA single phase transformer with 0. determine the full load percentage regulation for 0. leading. reactance to share a load of 600 kVA at 0. an excitation of 14 A produced a terminal voltage of 500 V On short circuit.0 600 15. shunt generator to built up? Explain the process of building up of emf in a d. 10 (b) (c) 2.estudentzone. 16 What are the conditions to he satisfied for a d.S-(Conv.c. shunt generator. is connected in parallel with a 250 kVA single phase transformer with 0. 50 Hz.6 p.E.II Time Allowed: 3 Hours Maximum Marks: 200 Candidates should attempt FIVE questions in all.014 p. Its field circuit resistance is 100 and armature circuit resistance is 0.estudentzone. 440 V.1999 1. Phase transformer. Find the 2VA and power factor shared by each transformer.f.8 power factor logging. resistance and 0. lagging and 0. Compute the value of additional resistance required in the armature circuit to reduce the speed to 800 rpm when (i) the load torque is proportional to speed (ii) the load torque varies as the square of the speed. three phase alternator has the following OCC:Field current (amp.c.012 p.06 p.6 p. (a) With necessary circuit diagrams explain the open-circuit test and short – circuit test conducted on single. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PAPER . choosing at least ONE from each section.u.) .f. reactance.1.u.0 550 11.

The rotor and the stator copper losses are equal under the blocked rotor condition.015 + j 005 15 Develop necessary equations and describe the load flow solution using Gauss Seidel method.40 1. 2. 10 (b) (c) SECTION B 4.015 1-4 0.estudentzone.estudentzone.com 3. torque. I the values marked are the per unit reactances taking 20 MVA and 11 kV as base values in the generator circuit. three phase star connected induction motor running at rated voltage lakes 7.025 2-3 0.045 ± j 045 0. The standstill leakage reactance of the stator and rotor as seen from the stator are estimated to be in the ratio of 1:0. occurs at bus 2. Both the transformers are rated for 11/110 kV. (a) (b) Fig.0 + j 0. 15 In the power system shown in Fig. 50Hz. I A three phase to ground fault with a fault impedance of j 0. With the rotor blocked and 150 V applied to the stator the input current is 35 A and the power input is 5000W. 20 Explain the operation of single phase capacitor start motor. . The values marked are per unit reactances and per unit voltages.u.5 A with a power input of 700W.com www.5.www.002 1-3 0. Obtain the equivalent circuit of the induction motor. Determine the actual values of fault current at and the currents supplied by the generators 15 Consider the bower system shown in Fig. (a) Develop the long line exact equations in hyperbolic terms for the sending end voltage and current. input power and the efficiently at a slip of 4%.05 3-4 0075 + j 025 j 0.12 j 0. (b) (c) 5. 10 A 400 V 6 pole. Calculate the net mechanical power output.038 p. ratio 1-2 005 + j 0. 10 For the power system with the following line data compute the bus admittance matrix with four digit accuracy:Bus Code Line impedance HLCA Off nominal trans. (a) Describe with the help of an appropriate diagram the Star-Delta method of starting a threephase induction motor.

C = 0. The fault was cleared by opening the circuit breakers and isolating the faulty line in 5 cycles.08 pf: Rs = 5 k and C = 1. (a) (b) (c) (d) 8.u.8V and = 50. obtain the swing curve for a period of 0.2V. 16 Explain with figure the working of a typical inductance type high frequency oscillator. 15 Briefly discuss the advantages and the operational problems of HVDC transmission. power before a three phase fault occurs at P.www. Generator has an inertia constant of 4.8 H. 10 Explain the three different formats for the control field of SDLC message frame. VBE(sat) = 0. Using point by point method. (a) (b) (c) What are Astable.com (c) Fig. Assume f = 50 Hz. 10 Explain how to realize radio frequency signals using crystal oscillator. Cs = 0. 16 For the monostable multivibrator calculate the output pulse width for the design values of RC = 2 k.u. 10 The parameters of a crystal oscillator equivalent circuit are Ls = 0.0 p. Determine the resonance frequencies fs and fp. 14 7.com www.estudentzone. (a) (b) (c) . How can multiple frames be transmitted without waiting for an acknowledgement from the receiver? 12 Write a program to add five 16 bit numbers stored in the memory with LSB first and MSB next and to store the 24 bit result in three consecutive memory locations. Check up the saturation of the transistor so that the circuit acts as a monostable multivibrator. Assume that a bipolar voltage in the range of -5V to +5V for a count of OOH to FFH can be produced through DAC. Assume VCE(sal) = 0.estudentzone.0 pf. 14 Write a program to generate sawtooth waveform using a DAC interface.2 sec.05 sec.2 The generator was delivering 1. with time interval of 0.0 p. Monostable and Bistable multivibrators? 8 Describe the realization of transistor type monostable multivibrator. 10 Discuss the limitations in realization of radio frequency signals using transistor circuits.1 F and VCC = 12 V. 10 SECTION C 6. RB = 20 k.

12 What are the different methods of voltage control of single phase inverters? Explain them 20 A three phase inductive compensator (TCR) has an inductance of L Henry per phase and negligible resistance. 20 10. 20 Consider a carrier waveform 10 cos wct and a modulating message signal 3 cos wmt with fc = 100 kHz and fm = kHz.com SECTION D 9. (a) (b) . Calculate the modulation index and the channel bandwidth for amplitude and frequency modulation. P controlled by a pair of antiparallel SCRs in each phase. Derive the expressions for the ms voltage and corresponding rms current per phase of the the compensator.estudentzone. The supply voltage is V volts per phase.www. The triggering angle is varied to get the required compensation. (a) (b) (c) What are the merits and demerits of amplitude modulation over frequency modulation? 8 Explain the square law modulation for the generation of AM signals.com www.estudentzone. Assume the sensitivity of the frequency modulator to be 5 kHz per volt.

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