Data Security 17.1.

2011
1. JUHHWLQJVIURPFDHVDU 2. ARLDFUWEYCORSRGOLLFOTSBOTDOETRINORAWSIUAYF 3. An agent has heard the following message somehow related with encryption:

ABCCDEFGHAIJDIKLMDLJFNOPCQNKACF
We know that the frequencies of letters in English are
e t r i n o a 12.8 9.2 8.5 7.8 7.8 7.5 7.2 s d l c h f u 6.0 4.2 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.0 3.0 m n y g v w b 2.8 2.8 2.2 2.0 1.5 1.5 1.2 k q x j z 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.2

4. Hill's method, which substitutes m-tuples of letters by multiplication with an m×m matrix, is easy to analyse, if cryptanalyst has some knowntext  ciphertext pairs. How? 5. If checking a 128-bit key takes a nanosecond, how long time is needed to check all possible 128-bit keys? NB1 The course can be passed by labs and tests as follows:

M ark = (T1 + T2 + L)/3,
where 2 hour tests T1 and T2 are evaluated like nal exams, but labs mark is calculated linearly by L = 5 × (Solved_problems/All). Note that every single solved problem matters! (Probably it matters even more indirectly through test success.) NB2 In Joensuu, leave written answers by Monday 17.11, 10:00 to the amanuensis.

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