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Objectives ... CURRICULUM SL Topics 1. Motion of Weaving 2. Loom 3. Shedding Mechanism 4. Tappet Shedding Mechanism 5. Picking Mechanism 6. Beating Up 7.

Timing and Setting 8. Take Up Motion 9. Let-Off Motion 10. Weft Fork Motion 11. Warp Protecting Motion Total

Periods 02 06 04 10 09 02 02 06 04 02 03 50

CONTENTS Topics Content 01 Motion of Weaving 01.01 Principles and definition of fabric manufacture. 01.02 Motions in weaving: Primary Secondary and Tertiary motions. 02 Loom 02.01 Introduction. 02.02 Types of Loom: Handloom - brief idea of handloom, Powerloom - default study of plain tappet looms. 02.03 Various parts of loom and its functions. 02.04 Healds: Necessity of healds and types of healds. 03 Shedding Mechanism 03.01 Definition. 03.02 Types of Shed: Closed shed (Bottom-closed and Centreclosed), Open shed - Semi open shed. 03.03 Merits, demerits and uses of each type of shed. 03.04 Shedding mechanisms and its kinds: Tappet, Dobby and Jacquard shedding mechanism.

Periods 02



03.05 04 04.01 04.02 04.03 04.04 04.05 04.06 05 05.01 05.02


05.04 05.05 05.06 05.07 05.08 05.09 05.11 05.12

06 06.01 06.02 06.03 06.04 07 07.01 07.02 07.03 08 08.01

The scope of Tappet, Dobby and Jacquard shedding. Tappet Shedding Mechanism Tappets, cam and difference between cam and tappets. Types of tappet shedding: Negative tappet shedding and Positive tappet shedding. Various types of tappet shedding: Inside tappet shedding and Outside tappet shedding. Construction of cam and tappets for plain looms. Condition of good shedding. Early shedding and late shedding. Picking Mechanism Methods of picking. Types of picking mechanism: Introduction, Principles of spring pick, Principles of Torsion-Picking, Weft control in the multiple-gripper weaving machine. Conventional picking mechanism: Introduction, The coneoverpick mechanism, The cone-underpick mechanism, and other conventional picking mechanism. Shuttle-checking devices: Conventional shuttle looms and Multiple-gripper weaving machines. Shuttle and its types. Defects in shuttle and shuttle cop. Defects in negative picking. Essential feature to a good pick. Comparison between underpick and overpick. Early and Late picking. Study of the following: Picker, Picking Band, Buffer, Check Strap, Swell spring, Shuttle Guard, Shuttle flying, Shuttle trapping. Beating up Introduction. Construction and Mechanism. Eccentricity of sley motion and its effect on loom working. Factors affecting the sley motion. Timing and Setting A Method of indicating loom-timing. Timing of primary motions in tappet loom. Setting sley, shedding and picking. Take up Motion Introduction.






08.02 08.03 08.04 08.05 08.06 08.07 08.08 09 09.01 09.02 09.03

09.04 10 10.01 10.02

10.03 11 11.01 11.02 11.03

Classification of take up motion: Negative and positive takeup motion. Five wheel take-up motion. Seven wheel take-up motion. Dividend of Loom. Calculated dividend and practical dividend. Calculation regarding dividends. Changing the number of picks/inch. Let-Off Motion 04 Objects. Types of Let-off motion: Negative and Positive Let-Off Motions. Types of Negative Let-off motion: Frictional let-off motion; Chain, lever and weight let-off motion. Advantages and disadvantages of chain, lever and weight let-off motion. Conditions to good Let-off motion. Weft-Fork Motion 02 Objects and principles. Types of Weft Fork motion: Side Weft and Centre Weft fork motion. Relative advantages and disadvantages between a single Weft fork and a centre weft fork motion. Timing of side weft fork motion. Warp Protecting Motion 03 Introduction. Types of Warp Protecting motion: Loose Reed, Fast Reed and Electromagnetic Warp Protecting motion. Loom Knocking off or Banging off. Defects of knocking off.

Recommended Books SL Title/Publisher 1. Weaving Mechanism, Vol. I, II 2. The Mechanism of Weaving 3. Principles of Weaving 4. Cotton Weaving and Designing 5. Cotton Yarn Weaving 6. Tappet and Dobby Looms 7. Weaving, Machines, Mechanisms, Management 8. Weaving Technology

Author N.N. Banerjee Fox Robinson and Marks J. B. Taylor A.T.A. T. Robberts Talukdar Kulkarni

dead weights. etc. Jamieson’s tappet 2.3 Tappets and Cams .2 Positive Tappet Shedding In a tappet shedding mechanism. giving the technical information about weaving. then the shedding is known as “negative tappet shedding”.1 Object of Shedding Mechanism A shedding mechanism separates the warp threads into two layers or divisions to form a tunnel known as “shed”. A shed may be formed by means of tappets. Positive shedding In plain looms.I. Ordinary tappet 2. cams. 2. The shed provides room for passage of the shuttle. for the benefit of the members.2 Types of Tappet Shedding Mechanism Generally there are two types of shedding : 1. tappets are used to for m sheds. Barrel tappet and 3. either an upward or downward movement of the heald shafts.(Extracts from the book "Woven Fabric Production . if the tappet controls only one movement. Examples : 1." published by the NCUTE.1 Negative Tappet Shedding In a tappet shedding mechanism. etc.2.2. 2. 2.) SHEDDING 2. if the tappet controls both upward and downward movements of the heald shafts. The heald shafts are returned by some external devices like springs. Negative shedding 2. then the shedding is known as positive tappet shedding.2. rollers.

a cam or wiper is used. If the follower and lever are required to produce up-and-down movement with regular intervals of rest. The tappets A and B touch the anti-friction bowls or followers R and S respectively. The up-and-down motion is obtained by giving rotary motion to these pieces. The roller of small diameter N is connected to a leather strap L to which the front heald shaft J is connected. A pair of tappets Cam Figure 2. A pair of tappets A and B are fixed to the bottom shaft C at 180 degrees to each other.e. regular intervals of rest for the major parts involved in the motion.2 shows a negative tappet shedding mechanism.1 Tappets and Cam 2. which are fixed to the treadle levers. Two heald shafts J and K are connected to the lamb rods.These are irregular metallic pieces used to produce an up-and-down motion in followers and levers. Figure 2. i. A top reversing roller shaft Q carries two rollers of different diameters. There are specific portions in tappets that correspond to “dwell” periods.1 Principle. . Two treadle levers D and E are connected to the loom back-rail by a bracket F.1 shows a pair of tappets and a cam.3 Negative Tappet Shedding Mechanism 2. known respectively as the anti-friction bowl and the treadle arrangement. tappets are used. by means of which the heald shaft is operated. The roller P of large diameter is connected to a leather strap M to which the back heald shaft K is connected.3. The two treadles have teeth to carry the lamb rods G and H respectively. construction and Working Principle A tappet is given a rotary motion so that it depresses a follower and a lever. The bracket acts as a fulcrum for the levers. If the follower and lever are required to get a continuous up-and-down movement. Construction Figure 2.

Heald eye U .Weft yar n W . This action is transferred to the lamb rod.Fulcrum G and H . the heald shaft and the leather strap.Cloth Figure 2.A and B . the front portion of the treadle moves down.2 Negative tappet shedding mechanism The heald shafts have heald eyes T and U through which the war p threads pass X is the war p sheet and Y is the cloth. the tappets are also rotated.War p sheet Y . Being fulcrumed at one end.Top reversing roller (Smaller dia) P .Tappets C .Lease rods X . The odd ends are passed through one heald shaft while the even ends are passed through the other heald shaft.Heald eye V . Working When the bottom shaft is rotated in the clockwise direction as shown in the figure.Top reversing roller (Bigger dia) Q .Bottom shaft D and E .Treadle levers F .Top reversing roller shaft R and S .Bowls T . So one heald shaft is lowered and the threads connected to this heald shaft are lowered and form the bottom layer of the shed.Lamb rods J and K .Heald shafts L and M .Leather straps N . . The tappet will depress the anti-friction bowl and the treadle.

Set the grid and grid bracket to the front rail of the loom in the slots of the grid. Fix the treadle levers with a bracket to the back rail of the loom. 8. Thus. two sheds are formed. The threads connected to the heald shaft are also raised and form the top layer of the shed. The roller of smaller diameter is always connected to front heald shaft. for one rotation of the bottom shaft. heald shaft. For the next shed. when leather strap is pulled down. 5. The leather straps are connected to the rollers. one tappet depresses the concerned treadle and the corresponding heald shaft is lowered. So this type of shedding mechanism is known as “negative tappet shedding mechanism” Timings and settings 1.e. Make sure that the tappet with the lower throw is fixed to the bottom shaft at the starting handle side. the other tappet works with the other set of bowl. and the positions of the healds shafts are thus interchanged. they should move freely in the slots. The heald shaft is raised and therefore the lamb rod and treadle lever are also raised. The first heald shaft is raised by the top reversing rollers. 7. The heald shafts are connected to the top reversing rollers by means of cords and leather straps. strap and roller and the other heald shaft is lowered.The leather straps attached to the reversing rollers are connected in opposite directions. In this type of tappet shedding therefore. 4. such that when one of them winds on its roller the other strap unwinds from its roller and vice versa. Lamb rods are connected to the heald shafts by cords. But the other heald shaft is raised by means of the top reversing rollers. The tappet with a bigger throw should be connected to the back heald shaft. treadle. 6. Turn the crank to the top centre position. lamb rod. Fix the top reversing rollers to the top reversing roller shaft to be equidistant from the ends and at the same time ensure that the connecting screws of the rollers are symmetrical about the central axis of the shaft when the heald shafts are at the same level. Fix the anti-friction bowls to the treadle levers. The shaft therefore rotates in the clockwise direction and the other leather strap is wound on to its roller. it is unwound from its roller. 3. 2. Adjust the tappets on the bottom shaft and make sure of the following points : i. 9. i. .

3 N . Heald shafts : The hook of the lamb rod of the front heald shaft should be connected to the first notch of the treadle lever while that of the back heald shaft should be connected to the third notch.Heald shafts Figure 2.Roller of bigger diameter J and K . The treadles should be at the same level and parallel to each other at the top centre position.3 Identical Sheds . The bottom line of warp sheet or the heald eyes of the lowered heald shaft should have a clearance of 1 mm from the race board and the top. 2.2 Top Reversing Rollers The bigger reversing roller P is connected to the back heald shaft K and the smaller roller N is connected to the front heald shaft J. 2.3. This is shown in Figure 2. Turn the crank shaft through two revolutions and make sure that the bowls are always in contact with the tappets. The bowls should have perfect contact with the tappet surfaces. the connections of the hooks to the treadle levers can be changed. If the depth of shed is altered. The heald shafts should not touch the side frames or the sley. iv.ii.Roller of Smaller diameter P . Points to be observed 1. 3. Turn the crank shaft to the bottom centre and check the size of shed. iii.3.3 Top reversing rollers 2.

3.4 Identical sheds 2. and for each pick. 120 degrees. In figure 2.4. the distance moved by the back heald shaft will be same as that moved by the front heald shaft. the broken lines represent the shed for the next pick. to get identical sheds (having a constant angle) it is clear that the distance h 2 moved by the back heald shaft must be greater than the distance h 1 moved by the front heald shaft. Referring to the figure. Therefore the back heald shaft is connected to the bigger roller and so an extra lift is obtained to get identical sheds. This period is usually 1/3 rd of a pick i. If the difference is high then the throw of tappet is also high. The top and bottom lines of the shed are maintained at a certain angle to each other for the passage of the shuttle. This is used to arrest the movement of the heald shafts for a period of time. the shuttle is traversing from one box to the other.5. Higher-throw tappets apply more . it is clear that the difference between the heal s 1 and toe s 2 of a tappet is equal to its throw.4.4 Tappets Two tappets are connected to the bottom shaft at 180 degrees to each other because half a rotation of the bottom shaft is equal to one pick. Z is the shuttle passing through the shed.In Figure 2. See Figure 2. The tappets have a portion corresponding to the dwell. But the sheds will not be identical.e. Throw of a tappet Referring to the figure. if the rollers N and P are of the same diameter. one tappet will lower the heald shaft. During this time. Figure 2. This should be maintained for each shed.

3.6 Heald shafts connections 2. Figure 2.6.7. In Figure 2.5 Throw of tappet 2. ‘d’ represents the back shaft connection to one of the treadle levers and d 1 the front heald shaft connection to the other. the depth of shed is changed.5 Lift between the Back and Front Heald Shafts This is due to the different connections of the heald shafts to the treadle levers. the depth of shed is increased.force to the treadle lever. Figure 2. By moving the lamb rod towards the fulcrum (distance d 1 ). . Since d 1 is greater than d. the front heald shaft gets more lift than the back heald shaft.6 Depth of Shed Refer to Figure 2. the depth of shed is reduced and moving it away from the fulcrum (distance d). The depth of shed is altered when a shuttle of a different height is used. A higher-throw tappet is always connected to the back heald shaft. This is mainly to compensate for the difference in leverage in the treadle levers. By altering the positions of the lamb rod hooks on the treadle levers.3.

Otherwise a severe blow is applied to the bowl and the vibration is transmitted to the heald shaft.3.Lamb rod hooks Figure 2.7 Positions of lamb rod hooks 2. 5.7 Advantages and Disadvantages of Tappet Shedding Advantages 1. 3. 2. End breakages may occur as a result of this. If the weave is changed. The capacity of a tappet to produce a pattern / weave is ver y much limited. . it imparts a jerky movement to the heald shaft.3. It requires less maintenance. strain on the warp will be more and end breakages may occur. It consumes less power and gives greater output. 2. Overshedding : If the depth of a shed is too much. 2. It is capable of lifting a heavy weight with less wear and tear than other shedding mechanisms. The tappet should always touch the bowls. It can move heald shafts at great speeds. It puts less strain upon the warp. A maximum of 8 or 10 tappets only can be used. simple and cheap. 3. 6. 4.8 Faults that may Occur in Tappet Shedding Mechanism 1. 2. So work involved in changing the weave is more. It is robust. it will be necessary to change the tappet and the change gear wheel in the counter shaft arrangement. If the tappet is faulty. Disadvantages 1.

Normal shedding 2. These are : 1. the shuttle will not reach the other end and may be trapped in the shed or may fly out. Undershedding : If the depth of shed is too low. Hence end breakages will occur. 0 degree or 360 degrees. See Figure 2. 2. Early shedding . Early shedding 3. In general there are three timings.4. Normal shedding If the heald shafts are at the same level when the crank comes to the top center. Late shedding 1. Timing of shedding is set with respect to crank position. Uneven shedding : Uneven shedding is caused by lifting one end of the heald shafts more than the other so the shuttle may move over some war p threads and fly out or get trapped in the shed.8 Figure 2. 6.4 Timing of Shedding The shedding mechanism is set according to the picking and beatup mechanisms.8 Timing of shedding 2. then other motions like picking and beat-up cannot be done smoothly and end breakages may occur. 5. If the shedding is mistimed. then it is known as normal shedding. that is.

3. opening of the shed is minimal. As the warp yarns are open widely during beat up. Early shedding causes chaffing of war p yarn (yar n abrasion) and end breakages may occur. strain on the warp yarn is high. then the shedding is known as late shedding. So strain on the war p yarn is low. Late shedding If the heald shafts are at the same level when the crank comes to 5 degrees after top centre.8. It allows greater time for shuttle passage so it is suitable for synthetic yarn. It assists in clearing the shed while weaving fibrous war p like woollen and worsted. It causes less distribution of yarn. Advantages of late shedding Late shedding allows the weft to get beaten up before the shed has been properly crossed. If the heald shafts are at the same level when the crank comes to 355 degrees or 5 degrees before the top centre. 1. because during beat-up. 3. 3. 3. 2. the warp yarns are evenly distributed. It causes a very weak fell of the cloth because the weft may roll back. 2. So it is not suitable for fibrous warp. fabric cover is low. So hard weaves like corkscrew weaves can be woven. See Figure 2. then it is known as early shedding. Heavy weft yarn can be easily inserted. Advantages of early shedding 1. Late shedding can be used for weak warp yarn. Fabric cover is improved. So entanglements are avoided. As the warp yarns are not distributed evenly during beat-up. It is useful if pick of low strength is used. Disadvantages 1. Disadvantages 1. 2. During beat-up. 2.A shed is said to be early when the pick insertion is effected after the shed is completely open. .

Refer to Figure 2. the movements of the heald shafts are staggered.2. So end breakages can be reduced. To avoid this weaving resistance.Reed C . the timings of the tappets are adjusted in such a way that the crossing of shed lines is altered. As the reed beats up the weft.9 Heald staggering During the weaving of heavy fabric like denim. So it is easy to weave even heavy fabric. For example. the slack top shed line yields and permits the weft to be pushed to the fell of the cloth with relative ease. the warp yarns of one shed line will not cross the yarns of the other shed at the same time. if all the war p yarns of one shed line go across those of the other shed line at the same time there will be much strain on the yarns. To avoid warp strain and end breakages.Lease rods Figure 2. asymmetric shedding is used.9 A . 2. canvas. So there may be bumping of fabric.6 Heald Shaft . if four heald shafts are used and four tappets are used to control the heald shafts separately. the time and duration of movement of the top and bottom shed lines is so adjusted that they cross below the mid-lift position. the yarns at the bottom shed line are under higher tension than those at the top shed line.Heald Shafts B . satin duck. So there may be many war p yarn breakages.5 Heald staggering and Asymmetric Shedding Heald staggering In the formation of a shed. etc. In this shedding. the force required to push the weft is high. By this arrangement. At this point of crossing.

The width of a heald shaft is slightly greater than that of the warp sheet and is usually 36 to 48 cm deep. 1. d . Metal heald wires Figure 2. To form a shed line. See Figure 2.A heald shaft consists of a wooden or metal frame carrying heald wires.Flat-steel (Simplex) f .Twisted wire e .10. Types of heald wire There are two types of heald wire. These are more expensive when compared to knitted heald wires but they have a . These were ver y cheap but they had a relatively short life and could not be used in the production of high quality fabric. the top and bottom wooden bars of the heald shafts have two steel strips attached to the heald wires that are inserted in between the steel strips and metal or wooden bar.10 Knitted heald wires Metal heald wires 2.11 In this type. Twisted wires or flat steel heald wires of the simplex or duplex type are free to move sidewards on the bars. The functions of a heald shaft are : 1.Flat-steel (Duplex) Figure 2. The life of the heald wire can be increased slightly by using the mail-eye and wire types. Metal heald wires. Knitted heald wires 2. Knitted heald wires Heald wires were originally made of twisted cords. To carry heald wires and maintain war p yarns in their correct positions 2. These are : 1.

11. 2.7. In under motion. In over motion. The Following types of top reversing motion are used. If the tappets are placed over the heald shafts then an under motion is required.7. Roller reversing motions 2. Therefore each heald shaft is controlled separately. These motions are classified as single acting and compound acting types. 2.12 Undermotions in negative shedding 2.1 Over Motions or Top Reversing Motions Normally in negative tappet shedding motions. bowls or pulleys are used.2 Single and Compound Acting Types Single acting type In this type.much longer life and can be assembled on the heald frames to suit any weaving requirements. Spring reversing motions Cord Dead Weight Spring Elastic Figure 2. See Figure 2. top reversing motions are used. . See Figures 2.12 and 2. If the shedding tappets are placed under the heald shafts an over motion is required.7 Reversing Motions in Negative Tappet Shedding Negative shedding requires external devices known as over and under motions to reverse the direction of movement of the heald shafts. each heald shaft is connected to a roller and spring arrangement.13. 1. springs or dead weights or elastic cords are used.

A . either the second or the third one must be taken up the same distance.Heald shafts Figure 2. The tappets are so constructed as to allow only one heald shaft to go up for each pick.14 Three For three heald shafts Figure 2.Roller B .Strap 1. This is due to roller A being half the size of B. the second will be taken up 4” or the same distance as the first was taken down. Suppose the first heald shaft is taken down by a distance of 4”.Roller A. When the tappet lowers one heald shaft. The reason for having the diameters of B and A in the ration 2:1 is that when the first heald shaft is taken down.14 shows the top-rollers arrangement for three heald shafts.3 .B.C .2 . the diameter of C is immaterial. . If the strap D is fastened to the heald shaft it would be taken up 8” instead of 4”. the strap D will be taken up only by 2”.13 shows the top-rollers arrangement for plain cloth using two heald shafts. The rollers will not work independently of each other. Examples For two heald shafts Figure 2.Rollers D . This arrangement of rollers is suitable for 2/1 twill or 1/2 twill weaves. The diameter of roller B must be twice that of A. which work complementary to each other. the other is raised.Heald shafts 1. rollers connect the heald shafts.2. If this heald shaft is the second one and the third is immovable.Compound acting type In this type. Leather straps connected to the heald shafts pass over rollers A and B.13 Two heald shafts heald shafts Figure 2.

.For four and five heald shafts Figure 2.15 shows the arrangement used for four heald shafts and Figure 2. The bottom of the quadrant lever carries a stud J which supports a second pair of stepped rollers K and from these rollers two straps are connected to raise two heald shafts.17.16 ve Lacey top reversing roller motion This is of novel design and was patented by a Canadian inventor. the reversing motion consists of an arm A.15 Four heald shafts heald shafts 1.2.3. The length of the top arm of this lever is twice that of the bottom arm. A stud B is fixed on A. The curved face of the top of the quadrant lever is used to connect one heald shaft through strap I.5 . In the top arm a stud D carries stepped rollers E. connected to one end of the loom frame. The mechanisms may be used for the following weaves with simple adjustments. The rollers carrying straps F and F 1 are used to raise two heald shafts.4 .2.Heald Shafts Figure 2.4. 1. A lever C is loosely mounted on the stud.16 that used for a five heald-shaft design.3. The lower arm of C also carries a stud G which carries a quadrant lever H that is freely mounted. In Figure 2.Heald Shafts Figure 2.

Leather straps G . The Lacey motion is connected to one end of the loom. Hence the rollers E or K are used. Plain : To weave plain weave two heald shafts are necessary. the stepped rollers K and E are used.Leather strap J .Quadrant lever I . the stepped rollers K and the quadrant lever H are used.Stud K .Arm B . c. oil drops will not fall on the fabric.7.Stud in the top arm E . . 3. b. Four heald-shaft twill weave : To weave 1/3 or 2/2 or 3/1 designs. the arrangement of the rollers can be changed easily.17 Lacey top reversing roller motion Advantages 1. It controls up to a maximum of five heald shafts. It is connected to the side frame at one end. A . d.Stepped rollers Figure 2. According to the given weave.Stepped rollers F and F 1 . So there is sufficient light for the weaver to work.Lever D .18 Heald shaft A is connected to leather strap B wound on a disc C which in turn is connected to a spring D. 2.Stud H .a.Stud C . Five heald-shaft weave : All the rollers and top curved surface of quadrant are used to raise five heald shafts. 4. 2. Three heald-shaft twill weave : To weave 1/2 or 2/1 designs.3 Spring Reversing and Easing Motions A simple type of spring reversing motion is shown in Figure 2.

After inserting the pick. In modern looms. the disc rotates in the anticlockwise direction and the spring is pulled.19 When spiral springs are used in under motions.Heald shaft B . Also the life of the springs may be reduced. Hence the heald shaft is reversed. A simple and effective arrangement.19. as shown in Figure 2. Hence the springs will not exert the right force consistently.When the heald shaft is lowered. the disc rotates in the clockwise direction and the spring is released. A quadrant of this kind stretches the spring gradually when the heald shaft is raised. reduces the stretch on the spring.Leather strap C . . Also the spring is released gradually when the heald shaft is lowered.Disc D .18 Spring reversing motion Spring reversing motion Spring-easing motion Figure 2. A . their stretch will be more than the movement of heald shafts.Spring Figure 2.20. the spring type reversing motion is modified by changing the disc into a quadrant or clock spring type as shown in Figure 2.

Track D .Fulcrum .Bowl E . F and H are fulcrums for tappet lever and links G respectively. the heald shaft is raised and lowered by the tappet.Tappet shaft B . link rods G.8 Positive Tappet Shedding Mechanism Principle In this type of shedding.21 shows a positive tappet shedding mechanism. Construction Figure 2. The bowl is connected in turn to a tappet lever E.Figure 2. Each tappet is separately connected to a heald shaft through link rods and tappet lever.20 Spring-easing motion (to be continued in the next issue) 2. The tappet shaft A carries tappet B that has a groove C or track in which a bowl D is placed. A .Tappet C .Tappet lever F . links J and a heald shaft K.

When the bowl stands still.21 Positive tappet shedding mechanism Working When the tappet is rotated. Fully-open shed 2. If the bowl is moved up.9. 1.1 Open Shed The shed is always in the open position in this type of shed (i) Fully-open shed . the tappet lever moves to the right through the links G and J and the heald shaft is lowered. the tappet lever moves to the left and the heald shaft is raised. 2.Heald shaft Figure 2. If the bowl is moved down.Link rods H . Centre-closed shed 2.G . 1. Closed Shed There are two types of closed shed.Fulcrum I . the bowl is also rotated. this tappet shedding is known as positive tappet shedding mechanism. Since the heald shaft is raised and lowered by means of the mechanism. the bowl is moved up or down or is still. According to the shape of the groove. Bottom-closed shed 2. Open shed There are two types of open shed. the heald shaft is in the “dwell” stage.Heald shaft links K . Semi-open 2.Heald wire J .9 Types of Shed 1.

changes are made by carrying threads from one fixed line to the other. The arrows C and D show the movements of the falling and rising threads respectively.Movement of falling threads D . breakages may results especially when the yarn is weak. When many heald shafts are used. Full lines show that the shed is always in an open position only. The loom can run at a high speed. after inserting a pick.Top line of warp C . . the warp threads form two stationary lines. 4. Therefore a levelling mechanism is added to all looms using this type of shedding mechanism. This type of shedding is troublesome to weavers because the two fixed lines make it more difficult to repair broken ends. so some threads are lowered from the top line and some threads are raised from the bottom line. 4. one at the top and the other at the bottom. Merits 1. the raising and lowering of threads occur simultaneously. So this shed is known as fully-open shed.Bottom line of war p B . In the figure. so it requires a minimum period of time to form a shed. Figure 2. Demerits 1. Power consumption is low.22 shows a fullyopen shed.22 Fully-open shed 3. Strain upon the warp is low. While repairing broken ends.In this type of shed. During this change.Movement of rising threads 2. As the shed is always open. 5. As the falling threads help the rising threads to move. A . A and B are the stationary bottom and top lines respectively. Therefore the shed is formed in a minimum period of time. Rising threads help to move lowering threads. 3. strain upon the war p yar n is low. Wear and tear of the loom parts is low. the strain on the warp yarns in the back heald shafts is increased and hence warp breakages may occur. this levelling mechanism is brought in to operation. Figure 2. 2.

Top line of war p C . They are in a semi-open state. In a semi-open shed. Arrow D. The top line is a movable one. After inserting a pick. In the figure. Arrow E shows the movement of rising threads from the bottom to the top line. the strain upon the warp is low.23 Semi-open shed Merits 1. Plain loom for producing twill and satin weaves and 2. (ii) Semi-open shed This is formed under both closed and open principles. From the midpoint C these threads are carried to the top line.Movement of arrested threads Figure 2. The remaining threads move down. . The full lines indicate the positions of shed lines after inserting a pick. a stationary bottom line is retained. In this shed.Bottom line of war p B .Movement of rising threads E . A .Uses This type of shed is used in 1.Point where some of the downward movement of threads is arrested D . some of the threads which are to form once again at the top line are arrested midway and are then carried to the top line. shows the movement of rising threads from the bottom to the top line. the top line moves towards the bottom line. When the threads are moving down. In double-lift dobby and in double-lift jacquards.23 shows a semi-open shed. A is the bottom stationary line. Arrow F shows the movement of the arrested threads at the midway position C. Figure 2. So this type of shed is known as semiopen shed. B is the top line.Movement of falling threads F . Similarly the threads which are to be at the top line also move up and are carried to the top line.

This shedding is troublesome to weavers because the two fixed lines make it more difficult to repair broken ends. 4. Therefore a levelling mechanism is added to all the looms using this type of shedding motion. When many heald shafts are used. (i) Centre-closed shed In this type of shed.2 Closed Shed This type of shed closes after ever y pick is inserted. So all the war p threads come to the same level after each pick is inserted. A is the centre-line. the strain is not equally distributed.9. war p threads move in an upward and downward direction from a centre line.2. D and E are the arrows showing the movements of the rising and falling threads respectively. 2. Uses Many double-lift dobbies and double-lift jacquards form semi-open sheds. the strain on the rising and falling threads is equally distributed. 5. Wear and tear of the loom parts is low. this levelling mechanism is used. 2. 3. Power consumption is low. the strain on the warp yar n at the back heald shafts is increased and hence warp breakages may occur. While repairing broken ends. 4. But in a semi-open shed.24 shows a centre-closedshed. breakages may result. Demerits 1. Figure 2. 3. It requires minimum time to form a shed. After inserting a pick both the lines meet at the centreline. As the shed is always open. since some of the threads are coming from the bottom line and some threads are arrested midway and again carried to the top. The loom can run at a high speed. The threads which are to form the top line move upwards and the threads which are to form the bottom line move to bottom line. B and C are the top and bottom lines respectively. . In a fully-open shed. especially when the yarn is weak.

(ii) Bottom-closed shed This kind of shed is formed by giving motion to only those threads that form the top line. Uses Centre-shed dobbies.25 shows a bottom -closed shed. 3. Since every thread is moved to form each shed. A represents the bottom stationary line. .Top line of war p C . centre-shed jacquards and handlooms form centre-closed sheds. strain on the war p is more than that for the open shed.24 Centre-closed shed Merits 1.Movement of rising threads E . 2.Point where some of the downward movement of threads is arrested D . after inserting a pick. 2.Movement of falling threads Figure 2. B the top line and C is the arrow showing the movement of threads.Bottom line of war p B . Power consumption and wear and tear of the loom pards are low. Figure 2. Under this conditions. Demerits 1. An unsteady movement of threads is caused by the warp threads being in constant motion. The machine can run at high speed. A rising thread is partially balanced by a falling thread. all the warp yarns come to the bottom line.A .

. Wear and tear of the loom parts is high.Bottom stationary line of warp B .26. the depth of the shed at the front wall of the shuttle. There must be a minimum of 2 mm gap between the top line of the shed and the shuttle.Rising and falling threads C .A . Uses Single-lift dobbies and single-lift jacquards produce bottom-closed sheds.10 The Geometry of a Shed Depth of shed The depth of a shed is determined by the size of the shuttle. But the important parameter to consider is C. During the passage of the shuttle. It is unsuitable for high loom speed. 4. B is the distance from the cloth fell to the reed. 2. In Figure 2. A is the shuttle width. 3. Strain on the warp is high.25 Bottom closed shed Merit The alternate tightening and slackening of threads produces a cloth with good cover. It takes a long time to produce a shed since it is necessary to move the threads a space equal to twice the depth moved in other types of sheds. Power consumption of the loom is high. Demerits 1. C is the depth of the shed at the front wall of the shuttle and D is the depth of shed at the reed.Arrow showing the movement of threads Figure 2. 5. 2. The depth of the shed is obtained by providing the required stroke of tappet. the distance B and D will vary because of the motion of the reed.

5. Height of the front side of the shuttle inside the warp shed. is taken as 90o 7.Depth of shed at reed D . 3. 2. 4. The distance of the heald shaft connection on the treadle lever from the fulcrum of the treadle lever. 1.26 Geometry of shed Stroke of Tappet The stroke of a tappet is decided from the following particulars. The distance of the back heald shaft from the fell of the cloth is 36 cm. The distance of the centre of the treadle bowl from the fulcrum of the treadle lever. 2. The position of the heald shafts in relation to the fell of the cloth. The sweep of the sley.Distance from cloth fell to reed C . The angle between the reed and the race board. the following numerical values are assumed. The distance of the front heald shaft from the fell of the cloth is 32 cm.27 1.5 cm. 5.0 cm.Shuttle width B . The height of the shuttle at the front is 3. In the figure. A clearance of 5 mm is given between the top front edge of the shuttle and the top warp line. which is known as the bevel. 3. 6. The distance of the front of the shuttle from the fell of the cloth is 11.Depth of shed at reed Figure 2. .A . 4. The sley sward moves through 15o from the vertical beat-up position to its backward most position. Refer to Figure 2.

it is possible to calculate the total movement of the front and back heald shafts. CO is the horizontal line joining the front and back rests. the calculations of the heald shafts movements are given below : Angle AOB is the shed angle. OB(OE) is the bottom warp line. Figure 2. for the same angle of shed.26) Calculations of the shed angle AOB Tan AOB = [Height of the shuttle + Clearance between the shuttle and the top line of the warp] . OA (OD) is the top warp line. Calculations of heald shaft movement From the above data.27 Bevel of the reed (angle between the race board and the reed is 90o) Since the sley has moved 15o from the front position to the backward position.From the data given above. COB is 15o (see Figure 2.

0 Angle AOB = 190 59’. the front heald shaft has to move through a distance of 11. CB = tan COB x OC = 0. Calculation of the stroke of the shedding tappets and relative diameters of the two top rollers From the above calculations the following data are obtained L1 = the distance of the front heald shaft from the fulcrum of the treadle = 50 cm.36 x ---.2679 x 32 = 8.79 cm. So.= 12. L2 = the distance of the back heald shaft from the fulcrum of the treadle = 46 cm.= -----. Angle AOC = 190 59’ . 32 Thus.78 cm. (DE/AB) = (OF/OC) = 36/32 36 DE = 11. S1 = stroke of the tappet that controls the front heald shaft S2 = stroke of the tappet that controls the back heald shaft h1 = vertical movement of front heald shaft = 11.36 cm.0872 x 32 = 2.36 cm. and the back heald shaft has to move through a distance of 12. S2 h2 L1 -----. h2 = vertical movement of back heald shaft = 12.150 = 40 59’ In triangle COA.* -----.36 46 ._________________________________________________________________ (Distance of the shuttle from the fell of the cloth) 3.78 50 =---------.57 = 11.78 cm.3636 11.79 + 8.= 0. AB = CA + CB = 2.78 cm.5 + 0.22 11. In triangle COB.5 =-------------.* -----S1 h1 L2 12. d1 = the diameter of the top roller that controls the front heald shaft. The triangles AOB and DOE are similar.= 1. d2 = the diameter of the top roller that controls the back heald shaft. CA = tan angle AOC x OC = 0.57 cm.36 cm.

ii.= d1 h1 11. about the middle of its movement. the tappet operating the back heald shaft should have a greater throw (or stroke) than the front tappet. The relative diameters of the top rollers should be : d2 h2 12. the back shaft should move a greater distance to maintain the same depth of shed. as per the calculation shown above.5% greater than that controlling the front heald shaft.= ---------. Therefore.Thus the stroke of the tappet operating the back heald shaft should be 22% greater than that operating the front heald shaft. the velocity of the heald shaft should be less than normal.78 -------.36 1. iii. Since the treadle levers controlling the healds shafts are fulcrummed at the back of the loom. iv. . 2.11 Importance of Simple Harmonic Motion in Plain Power Looms The design of the shedding mechanism should be such that : i. its velocity is again low. whereas. Any one of the following motions can obtain the above type of movement : i. Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) Parabolic Motion Polynimial Motion and Cycloidal Motion. its velocity is at the maximum. the back heald shaft will move a shorter distance compared to the movement of the front shaft.= ------. Because of the shorter leverage. the actual leverage of the treadle lever operating the back heald shaft is less than that of the front heald shaft.125 Hence the diameter of the top roller of the back heald shaft reversing mechanism should be about 12. iii. at the start of the movement of the heald shaft. ii. at the end of its movement.

then decreased. To get smooth movements of heald shafts without any jerks during their raising and lowering.-.-.Angular movement of crank Y . but the motion displays sudden change in acceleration at the beginning and end of the motion.28 a. b. c and d.12. So they are suitable for high-speed looms. the amplitude of acceleration is comparatively low. There is a constant positive or negative acceleration with the tappets imparting parabolic motion.-. The velocity and acceleration of movements of the heald shafts are uniformly increased.. the movement of the heald shafts shows sudden changes in acceleration which leads to jerky movement.-. This results in a considerable number jerks to the heald shafts and is therefore unsuitable for high-speed looms.12 counter Shaft Arrangement 2. it is not therefore suitable for high-speed looms. _______ Displacement -. but at the beginning and the end of the traverse. velocity and acceleration are shown in Figure 2. SHM is the most commonly used motion for shedding in nonautomatic shuttle looms. Polynimial and cycloidal motions have higher amplitudes of acceleration. This helps in getting approximately 15% higher crossing velocity. but the acceleration changes gradually throughout the traverse without any sudden changes. first up to half the lift and then during the second half lift respectively.Velocity ----------. In this kind of motion.Acceleration X .Lift of follower Figure 2. These two kinds of motion give raise to finite jerks.28 Motions of cams and followers 2.The kinematic characteristics like displacement. The velocity of the heald shaft increases and decreases at a constant rate. the simple harmonic motion (SHM) is essential in any loom.1 Objects .

To control a maximum of eight or ten shedding tappets. but are displaced by one cell.29 Plain Weave Twill Weave This construction makes a pattern of diagonal lines.30 Twill Weave Satin Weave .The objects of counter shaft arrangement are : 1.30 Figure 2. adjacent warp yarns follow the same pattern. 2. let us have an idea about the basic weaves produced in a plain power loom. To change the speed of the shedding tappets so that fabric design repeating up to eight or ten picks per repeat can be woven.12. each warp yarn passes over alternate weft yarns. See Figure 2. Neighboring warp yarns pass over the adjacent weft yarns. Each warp yarn passes over (and/or under) more than one weft. This is shown in Figure 2.2 Need for Counter Shaft Arrangement Before dealing with the need for the counter shaft.29 Figure 2. Plain Weave In a plain weave. 2.

as seen clearly in Figure 2. Here three shedding tappets are used. Two picks are thus inserted for each complete rotation of the bottom shaft. two tappets are used for weaving plain and rib weaves. During this time.31. Satin Weave In plain looms. If we fix three shedding tappets to the bottom shaft. So we have to change the speed of the bottom shaft. . Now let us consider a design with three-picks per repeat. So another shaft known as counter shaft is used. then three sheds are formed for each rotation of the bottom shaft. It is practically impossible to do so. the two shedding tappets form two sheds. so no twill line is generated. only two picks are inserted. The shedding tappets are fixed to this shaft and the speed of the counter shaft is reduced. Hence two picks per repeat of the design can be woven easily. Adjacent warp yarns have their floats arranged as randomly as possible. But we have to insert three picks. the warp yarn floats over four or more weft yarns and passes under only one. When the bottom shaft rotates once.In a satin weave.

This makes it easy to weave various kinds of fabrics such as high-density fabrics. . The E-shedding mechanism has the following features : 1. Each cam is driven by a servo motor D and gears E and F. or complex fabrics with a dooby and even fabrics difficult to weave with conventional shedding motions because of loose warp yarn or incomplete shedding. Ultimate flexibility The E-shed combines the optimum cross-timing and dwell angle for each shedding curve. according to the settings. precisely and smoothly by the servo-motors. traditionally woven by cam shedding. Figure 2. a 32-bit main CPU and a function panel. as shown in the diagram. In the function panel.15 Electronic Shedding Mechanism Toyoda (loom manufacturer) has introduced the latest electronic technology in shedding. positively. the timing for shedding. Each of the heald shafts A is connected via links B to cam C.2.37 shows a schematic diagram of an electronic shedding motion. The servo motors are connected to an E-shed controller. dwell and shedding pattern are set according to the weaving design. The heald shafts are moved up and down.

This makes it much quicker and easier to be flexible when manufacturing many different kinds of textile articles in small quantities.Serve-motor E & F . Meanwhile. Better Fabric QualityUnlike existing shedding devices. This obviously means greater efficiency. there are fewer stop marks during star-up.37 Electronic shedding mechanism 2. High Efficiency Freely controllable warp leads to increased warp shedding ability and minimal mispicks in weft insertion.Heald shaft B . 3.Links D . combined variations in cross-timing prevent warp entanglement and minimise problems caused by warp yarn. Not Affected by Upper/Lower frame Imbalance . And since the shedding and beating-up motions are not synchronized. which improves beating-up performance and fabric quality.Gears C . 5. the Eshed allows separate upper and lower dwell angles to be set.Cam Figure 2. Easy Operation Settings can be changed by a touch of the function panel.A . 4.

The E-shed is not affected by any difference between the numbers of upper and lower heald frames unlike in dobby shedding.Par t II) . (To be continued . which enables wider range of patterns to be woven with great ease.

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