Objectives ... CURRICULUM SL Topics 1. Motion of Weaving 2. Loom 3. Shedding Mechanism 4. Tappet Shedding Mechanism 5. Picking Mechanism 6. Beating Up 7.

Timing and Setting 8. Take Up Motion 9. Let-Off Motion 10. Weft Fork Motion 11. Warp Protecting Motion Total

Periods 02 06 04 10 09 02 02 06 04 02 03 50

CONTENTS Topics Content 01 Motion of Weaving 01.01 Principles and definition of fabric manufacture. 01.02 Motions in weaving: Primary Secondary and Tertiary motions. 02 Loom 02.01 Introduction. 02.02 Types of Loom: Handloom - brief idea of handloom, Powerloom - default study of plain tappet looms. 02.03 Various parts of loom and its functions. 02.04 Healds: Necessity of healds and types of healds. 03 Shedding Mechanism 03.01 Definition. 03.02 Types of Shed: Closed shed (Bottom-closed and Centreclosed), Open shed - Semi open shed. 03.03 Merits, demerits and uses of each type of shed. 03.04 Shedding mechanisms and its kinds: Tappet, Dobby and Jacquard shedding mechanism.

Periods 02



03.05 04 04.01 04.02 04.03 04.04 04.05 04.06 05 05.01 05.02


05.04 05.05 05.06 05.07 05.08 05.09 05.11 05.12

06 06.01 06.02 06.03 06.04 07 07.01 07.02 07.03 08 08.01

The scope of Tappet, Dobby and Jacquard shedding. Tappet Shedding Mechanism Tappets, cam and difference between cam and tappets. Types of tappet shedding: Negative tappet shedding and Positive tappet shedding. Various types of tappet shedding: Inside tappet shedding and Outside tappet shedding. Construction of cam and tappets for plain looms. Condition of good shedding. Early shedding and late shedding. Picking Mechanism Methods of picking. Types of picking mechanism: Introduction, Principles of spring pick, Principles of Torsion-Picking, Weft control in the multiple-gripper weaving machine. Conventional picking mechanism: Introduction, The coneoverpick mechanism, The cone-underpick mechanism, and other conventional picking mechanism. Shuttle-checking devices: Conventional shuttle looms and Multiple-gripper weaving machines. Shuttle and its types. Defects in shuttle and shuttle cop. Defects in negative picking. Essential feature to a good pick. Comparison between underpick and overpick. Early and Late picking. Study of the following: Picker, Picking Band, Buffer, Check Strap, Swell spring, Shuttle Guard, Shuttle flying, Shuttle trapping. Beating up Introduction. Construction and Mechanism. Eccentricity of sley motion and its effect on loom working. Factors affecting the sley motion. Timing and Setting A Method of indicating loom-timing. Timing of primary motions in tappet loom. Setting sley, shedding and picking. Take up Motion Introduction.






08.02 08.03 08.04 08.05 08.06 08.07 08.08 09 09.01 09.02 09.03

09.04 10 10.01 10.02

10.03 11 11.01 11.02 11.03

Classification of take up motion: Negative and positive takeup motion. Five wheel take-up motion. Seven wheel take-up motion. Dividend of Loom. Calculated dividend and practical dividend. Calculation regarding dividends. Changing the number of picks/inch. Let-Off Motion 04 Objects. Types of Let-off motion: Negative and Positive Let-Off Motions. Types of Negative Let-off motion: Frictional let-off motion; Chain, lever and weight let-off motion. Advantages and disadvantages of chain, lever and weight let-off motion. Conditions to good Let-off motion. Weft-Fork Motion 02 Objects and principles. Types of Weft Fork motion: Side Weft and Centre Weft fork motion. Relative advantages and disadvantages between a single Weft fork and a centre weft fork motion. Timing of side weft fork motion. Warp Protecting Motion 03 Introduction. Types of Warp Protecting motion: Loose Reed, Fast Reed and Electromagnetic Warp Protecting motion. Loom Knocking off or Banging off. Defects of knocking off.

Recommended Books SL Title/Publisher 1. Weaving Mechanism, Vol. I, II 2. The Mechanism of Weaving 3. Principles of Weaving 4. Cotton Weaving and Designing 5. Cotton Yarn Weaving 6. Tappet and Dobby Looms 7. Weaving, Machines, Mechanisms, Management 8. Weaving Technology

Author N.N. Banerjee Fox Robinson and Marks J. B. Taylor A.T.A. T. Robberts Talukdar Kulkarni

2 Types of Tappet Shedding Mechanism Generally there are two types of shedding : 1. Negative shedding 2.(Extracts from the book "Woven Fabric Production .2. if the tappet controls both upward and downward movements of the heald shafts. cams. 2. either an upward or downward movement of the heald shafts.2. 2. The shed provides room for passage of the shuttle.) SHEDDING 2.1 Negative Tappet Shedding In a tappet shedding mechanism. etc. for the benefit of the members. giving the technical information about weaving. Positive shedding In plain looms. Examples : 1. then the shedding is known as “negative tappet shedding”.I. if the tappet controls only one movement. then the shedding is known as positive tappet shedding. Ordinary tappet 2.2 Positive Tappet Shedding In a tappet shedding mechanism. Jamieson’s tappet 2.1 Object of Shedding Mechanism A shedding mechanism separates the warp threads into two layers or divisions to form a tunnel known as “shed”. Barrel tappet and 3. tappets are used to for m sheds. 2. The heald shafts are returned by some external devices like springs.3 Tappets and Cams .2. A shed may be formed by means of tappets. etc. dead weights. rollers." published by the NCUTE.

Two heald shafts J and K are connected to the lamb rods.3. There are specific portions in tappets that correspond to “dwell” periods. The two treadles have teeth to carry the lamb rods G and H respectively.1 shows a pair of tappets and a cam. tappets are used. A pair of tappets A and B are fixed to the bottom shaft C at 180 degrees to each other. i. Two treadle levers D and E are connected to the loom back-rail by a bracket F. which are fixed to the treadle levers. Figure 2. The bracket acts as a fulcrum for the levers.These are irregular metallic pieces used to produce an up-and-down motion in followers and levers. regular intervals of rest for the major parts involved in the motion. construction and Working Principle A tappet is given a rotary motion so that it depresses a follower and a lever. The up-and-down motion is obtained by giving rotary motion to these pieces. . a cam or wiper is used. known respectively as the anti-friction bowl and the treadle arrangement. by means of which the heald shaft is operated.1 Tappets and Cam 2.1 Principle.2 shows a negative tappet shedding mechanism. The tappets A and B touch the anti-friction bowls or followers R and S respectively. A pair of tappets Cam Figure 2. If the follower and lever are required to produce up-and-down movement with regular intervals of rest. If the follower and lever are required to get a continuous up-and-down movement. A top reversing roller shaft Q carries two rollers of different diameters. The roller P of large diameter is connected to a leather strap M to which the back heald shaft K is connected. The roller of small diameter N is connected to a leather strap L to which the front heald shaft J is connected.3 Negative Tappet Shedding Mechanism 2.e. Construction Figure 2.

the tappets are also rotated.Lease rods X .War p sheet Y .Tappets C .Heald eye V .Leather straps N . Working When the bottom shaft is rotated in the clockwise direction as shown in the figure. The odd ends are passed through one heald shaft while the even ends are passed through the other heald shaft. .Top reversing roller (Smaller dia) P .Heald eye U . So one heald shaft is lowered and the threads connected to this heald shaft are lowered and form the bottom layer of the shed.Cloth Figure 2.Top reversing roller (Bigger dia) Q .Top reversing roller shaft R and S . This action is transferred to the lamb rod.Lamb rods J and K . The tappet will depress the anti-friction bowl and the treadle.Bottom shaft D and E .Weft yar n W .A and B . the front portion of the treadle moves down.Heald shafts L and M .Bowls T .2 Negative tappet shedding mechanism The heald shafts have heald eyes T and U through which the war p threads pass X is the war p sheet and Y is the cloth. Being fulcrumed at one end.Treadle levers F . the heald shaft and the leather strap.Fulcrum G and H .

lamb rod. Make sure that the tappet with the lower throw is fixed to the bottom shaft at the starting handle side. 6. The roller of smaller diameter is always connected to front heald shaft. The heald shaft is raised and therefore the lamb rod and treadle lever are also raised. Adjust the tappets on the bottom shaft and make sure of the following points : i. 8.e. The shaft therefore rotates in the clockwise direction and the other leather strap is wound on to its roller. The heald shafts are connected to the top reversing rollers by means of cords and leather straps. 2. two sheds are formed. i. Thus. For the next shed. . 5. Lamb rods are connected to the heald shafts by cords. the other tappet works with the other set of bowl. 7. heald shaft. But the other heald shaft is raised by means of the top reversing rollers. Fix the treadle levers with a bracket to the back rail of the loom.The leather straps attached to the reversing rollers are connected in opposite directions. treadle. Turn the crank to the top centre position. In this type of tappet shedding therefore. The leather straps are connected to the rollers. when leather strap is pulled down. 4. for one rotation of the bottom shaft. they should move freely in the slots. The threads connected to the heald shaft are also raised and form the top layer of the shed. and the positions of the healds shafts are thus interchanged. Fix the anti-friction bowls to the treadle levers. Fix the top reversing rollers to the top reversing roller shaft to be equidistant from the ends and at the same time ensure that the connecting screws of the rollers are symmetrical about the central axis of the shaft when the heald shafts are at the same level. The first heald shaft is raised by the top reversing rollers. 3. one tappet depresses the concerned treadle and the corresponding heald shaft is lowered. So this type of shedding mechanism is known as “negative tappet shedding mechanism” Timings and settings 1. 9. it is unwound from its roller. Set the grid and grid bracket to the front rail of the loom in the slots of the grid. The tappet with a bigger throw should be connected to the back heald shaft. such that when one of them winds on its roller the other strap unwinds from its roller and vice versa. strap and roller and the other heald shaft is lowered.

2. iii. This is shown in Figure 2. The bottom line of warp sheet or the heald eyes of the lowered heald shaft should have a clearance of 1 mm from the race board and the top. iv. If the depth of shed is altered.3 Top reversing rollers 2.ii. Points to be observed 1. The bowls should have perfect contact with the tappet surfaces. 2.3 Identical Sheds .Roller of Smaller diameter P .3. Turn the crank shaft through two revolutions and make sure that the bowls are always in contact with the tappets.Heald shafts Figure 2. Turn the crank shaft to the bottom centre and check the size of shed. 3.3 N . the connections of the hooks to the treadle levers can be changed.2 Top Reversing Rollers The bigger reversing roller P is connected to the back heald shaft K and the smaller roller N is connected to the front heald shaft J. The treadles should be at the same level and parallel to each other at the top centre position. The heald shafts should not touch the side frames or the sley.3. Heald shafts : The hook of the lamb rod of the front heald shaft should be connected to the first notch of the treadle lever while that of the back heald shaft should be connected to the third notch.Roller of bigger diameter J and K .

This period is usually 1/3 rd of a pick i. This should be maintained for each shed. the shuttle is traversing from one box to the other.4. to get identical sheds (having a constant angle) it is clear that the distance h 2 moved by the back heald shaft must be greater than the distance h 1 moved by the front heald shaft.4. Throw of a tappet Referring to the figure.4 Identical sheds 2. During this time. the broken lines represent the shed for the next pick. Higher-throw tappets apply more . Therefore the back heald shaft is connected to the bigger roller and so an extra lift is obtained to get identical sheds.In Figure 2.e. if the rollers N and P are of the same diameter. See Figure 2. This is used to arrest the movement of the heald shafts for a period of time.4 Tappets Two tappets are connected to the bottom shaft at 180 degrees to each other because half a rotation of the bottom shaft is equal to one pick. Z is the shuttle passing through the shed. But the sheds will not be identical. The tappets have a portion corresponding to the dwell. the distance moved by the back heald shaft will be same as that moved by the front heald shaft. and for each pick. 120 degrees.5.3. Figure 2. The top and bottom lines of the shed are maintained at a certain angle to each other for the passage of the shuttle. Referring to the figure. If the difference is high then the throw of tappet is also high. one tappet will lower the heald shaft. it is clear that the difference between the heal s 1 and toe s 2 of a tappet is equal to its throw. In figure 2.

the depth of shed is increased.5 Lift between the Back and Front Heald Shafts This is due to the different connections of the heald shafts to the treadle levers.5 Throw of tappet 2.7. A higher-throw tappet is always connected to the back heald shaft. Since d 1 is greater than d. Figure 2. the depth of shed is changed.force to the treadle lever. The depth of shed is altered when a shuttle of a different height is used.3. the front heald shaft gets more lift than the back heald shaft. By moving the lamb rod towards the fulcrum (distance d 1 ). the depth of shed is reduced and moving it away from the fulcrum (distance d). This is mainly to compensate for the difference in leverage in the treadle levers. In Figure 2.6 Heald shafts connections 2. Figure 2.6.3. By altering the positions of the lamb rod hooks on the treadle levers. ‘d’ represents the back shaft connection to one of the treadle levers and d 1 the front heald shaft connection to the other.6 Depth of Shed Refer to Figure 2. .

3.7 Advantages and Disadvantages of Tappet Shedding Advantages 1. Disadvantages 1.3. Overshedding : If the depth of a shed is too much. End breakages may occur as a result of this. . It consumes less power and gives greater output. 2. It puts less strain upon the warp. It can move heald shafts at great speeds. It requires less maintenance. 3. So work involved in changing the weave is more.3. A maximum of 8 or 10 tappets only can be used. strain on the warp will be more and end breakages may occur. it imparts a jerky movement to the heald shaft. It is capable of lifting a heavy weight with less wear and tear than other shedding mechanisms. The tappet should always touch the bowls.8 Faults that may Occur in Tappet Shedding Mechanism 1. 2. If the tappet is faulty. The capacity of a tappet to produce a pattern / weave is ver y much limited. It is robust. it will be necessary to change the tappet and the change gear wheel in the counter shaft arrangement. simple and cheap. If the weave is changed. Otherwise a severe blow is applied to the bowl and the vibration is transmitted to the heald shaft. 6. 2. 2. 4.7 Positions of lamb rod hooks 2. 5.Lamb rod hooks Figure 2.

Normal shedding If the heald shafts are at the same level when the crank comes to the top center. If the shedding is mistimed. Timing of shedding is set with respect to crank position. 5.8 Timing of shedding 2. Hence end breakages will occur. Undershedding : If the depth of shed is too low. 0 degree or 360 degrees. 6. These are : 1.4. the shuttle will not reach the other end and may be trapped in the shed or may fly out. then other motions like picking and beat-up cannot be done smoothly and end breakages may occur. Uneven shedding : Uneven shedding is caused by lifting one end of the heald shafts more than the other so the shuttle may move over some war p threads and fly out or get trapped in the shed. Late shedding 1. In general there are three timings. Normal shedding 2. that is. See Figure 2. Early shedding 3. then it is known as normal shedding.8 Figure 2.4 Timing of Shedding The shedding mechanism is set according to the picking and beatup mechanisms. 2. Early shedding .

So entanglements are avoided. 3. So strain on the war p yarn is low. As the warp yarns are open widely during beat up. Advantages of late shedding Late shedding allows the weft to get beaten up before the shed has been properly crossed. then it is known as early shedding. 2. 1. Late shedding can be used for weak warp yarn. . opening of the shed is minimal.A shed is said to be early when the pick insertion is effected after the shed is completely open.8. See Figure 2. 2. Heavy weft yarn can be easily inserted. strain on the warp yarn is high. Disadvantages 1. because during beat-up. As the warp yarns are not distributed evenly during beat-up. If the heald shafts are at the same level when the crank comes to 355 degrees or 5 degrees before the top centre. 3. It causes a very weak fell of the cloth because the weft may roll back. then the shedding is known as late shedding. Disadvantages 1. 2. fabric cover is low. the warp yarns are evenly distributed. It allows greater time for shuttle passage so it is suitable for synthetic yarn. It causes less distribution of yarn. So it is not suitable for fibrous warp. It is useful if pick of low strength is used. Advantages of early shedding 1. During beat-up. Early shedding causes chaffing of war p yarn (yar n abrasion) and end breakages may occur. 2. 3. So hard weaves like corkscrew weaves can be woven. Late shedding If the heald shafts are at the same level when the crank comes to 5 degrees after top centre. 3. It assists in clearing the shed while weaving fibrous war p like woollen and worsted. Fabric cover is improved.

Lease rods Figure 2. canvas. the yarns at the bottom shed line are under higher tension than those at the top shed line. So there may be many war p yarn breakages. the warp yarns of one shed line will not cross the yarns of the other shed at the same time. To avoid warp strain and end breakages. By this arrangement. if all the war p yarns of one shed line go across those of the other shed line at the same time there will be much strain on the yarns. So it is easy to weave even heavy fabric. For example. 2.5 Heald staggering and Asymmetric Shedding Heald staggering In the formation of a shed. asymmetric shedding is used. So end breakages can be reduced. the movements of the heald shafts are staggered. the time and duration of movement of the top and bottom shed lines is so adjusted that they cross below the mid-lift position.9 A . To avoid this weaving resistance. So there may be bumping of fabric. satin duck.Reed C . the timings of the tappets are adjusted in such a way that the crossing of shed lines is altered. the force required to push the weft is high. At this point of crossing. As the reed beats up the weft. Refer to Figure 2.Heald Shafts B . if four heald shafts are used and four tappets are used to control the heald shafts separately.6 Heald Shaft . etc. In this shedding. the slack top shed line yields and permits the weft to be pushed to the fell of the cloth with relative ease.9 Heald staggering During the weaving of heavy fabric like denim.2.

To carry heald wires and maintain war p yarns in their correct positions 2. d . The life of the heald wire can be increased slightly by using the mail-eye and wire types.Flat-steel (Simplex) f . These are more expensive when compared to knitted heald wires but they have a . Metal heald wires Figure 2. the top and bottom wooden bars of the heald shafts have two steel strips attached to the heald wires that are inserted in between the steel strips and metal or wooden bar. See Figure 2. Metal heald wires. These are : 1. The width of a heald shaft is slightly greater than that of the warp sheet and is usually 36 to 48 cm deep. Knitted heald wires Heald wires were originally made of twisted cords. To form a shed line.11 In this type.A heald shaft consists of a wooden or metal frame carrying heald wires.10 Knitted heald wires Metal heald wires 2. Twisted wires or flat steel heald wires of the simplex or duplex type are free to move sidewards on the bars. Types of heald wire There are two types of heald wire. 1. These were ver y cheap but they had a relatively short life and could not be used in the production of high quality fabric. The functions of a heald shaft are : 1.Twisted wire e .Flat-steel (Duplex) Figure 2. Knitted heald wires 2.10.

bowls or pulleys are used. 1. .12 and 2.much longer life and can be assembled on the heald frames to suit any weaving requirements. If the tappets are placed over the heald shafts then an under motion is required.7 Reversing Motions in Negative Tappet Shedding Negative shedding requires external devices known as over and under motions to reverse the direction of movement of the heald shafts. Roller reversing motions 2. top reversing motions are used.13. 2. each heald shaft is connected to a roller and spring arrangement. If the shedding tappets are placed under the heald shafts an over motion is required.7. 2. The Following types of top reversing motion are used. These motions are classified as single acting and compound acting types. springs or dead weights or elastic cords are used. In over motion. See Figures 2.1 Over Motions or Top Reversing Motions Normally in negative tappet shedding motions.2 Single and Compound Acting Types Single acting type In this type. Therefore each heald shaft is controlled separately.11.12 Undermotions in negative shedding 2.7. In under motion. See Figure 2. Spring reversing motions Cord Dead Weight Spring Elastic Figure 2.

Heald shafts 1.B. rollers connect the heald shafts.Rollers D .14 shows the top-rollers arrangement for three heald shafts. Examples For two heald shafts Figure 2. If this heald shaft is the second one and the third is immovable. the diameter of C is immaterial. When the tappet lowers one heald shaft. This arrangement of rollers is suitable for 2/1 twill or 1/2 twill weaves.3 .2 . This is due to roller A being half the size of B.Roller B .14 Three For three heald shafts Figure 2. The tappets are so constructed as to allow only one heald shaft to go up for each pick.Strap 1. Leather straps connected to the heald shafts pass over rollers A and B. If the strap D is fastened to the heald shaft it would be taken up 8” instead of 4”. . either the second or the third one must be taken up the same distance.13 shows the top-rollers arrangement for plain cloth using two heald shafts. the strap D will be taken up only by 2”.Roller A. The reason for having the diameters of B and A in the ration 2:1 is that when the first heald shaft is taken down.2.13 Two heald shafts heald shafts Figure 2. Suppose the first heald shaft is taken down by a distance of 4”.C . The diameter of roller B must be twice that of A. which work complementary to each other. the other is raised. A . The rollers will not work independently of each other.Compound acting type In this type. the second will be taken up 4” or the same distance as the first was taken down.Heald shafts Figure 2.

The mechanisms may be used for the following weaves with simple adjustments.For four and five heald shafts Figure 2. In the top arm a stud D carries stepped rollers E.5 .15 Four heald shafts heald shafts 1. The length of the top arm of this lever is twice that of the bottom arm. .Heald Shafts Figure 2.2.15 shows the arrangement used for four heald shafts and Figure 2.17. A stud B is fixed on A. 1.16 ve Lacey top reversing roller motion This is of novel design and was patented by a Canadian inventor.3. A lever C is loosely mounted on the stud. The curved face of the top of the quadrant lever is used to connect one heald shaft through strap I. In Figure 2. The lower arm of C also carries a stud G which carries a quadrant lever H that is freely mounted. the reversing motion consists of an arm A. The rollers carrying straps F and F 1 are used to raise two heald shafts. connected to one end of the loom frame. The bottom of the quadrant lever carries a stud J which supports a second pair of stepped rollers K and from these rollers two straps are connected to raise two heald shafts. .Heald Shafts Figure 2.16 that used for a five heald-shaft design.

c.18 Heald shaft A is connected to leather strap B wound on a disc C which in turn is connected to a spring D. Plain : To weave plain weave two heald shafts are necessary. . According to the given weave. Four heald-shaft twill weave : To weave 1/3 or 2/2 or 3/1 designs.Leather strap J . Hence the rollers E or K are used. d. Five heald-shaft weave : All the rollers and top curved surface of quadrant are used to raise five heald shafts.Stud K .Stud in the top arm E . The Lacey motion is connected to one end of the loom. oil drops will not fall on the fabric. Three heald-shaft twill weave : To weave 1/2 or 2/1 designs. So there is sufficient light for the weaver to work.Leather straps G . the stepped rollers K and the quadrant lever H are used. A .Lever D .Stepped rollers Figure 2.3 Spring Reversing and Easing Motions A simple type of spring reversing motion is shown in Figure 2. b.Quadrant lever I .Stud H .Stud C . the stepped rollers K and E are used. 3. 2. the arrangement of the rollers can be changed easily. 2.Stepped rollers F and F 1 .17 Lacey top reversing roller motion Advantages 1.7. It controls up to a maximum of five heald shafts.Arm B . 4. It is connected to the side frame at one end.a.

19.When the heald shaft is lowered. the spring type reversing motion is modified by changing the disc into a quadrant or clock spring type as shown in Figure 2. In modern looms. A . Also the spring is released gradually when the heald shaft is lowered. their stretch will be more than the movement of heald shafts.Leather strap C . Hence the springs will not exert the right force consistently. reduces the stretch on the spring. the disc rotates in the anticlockwise direction and the spring is pulled. A simple and effective arrangement. A quadrant of this kind stretches the spring gradually when the heald shaft is raised. After inserting the pick.Disc D . the disc rotates in the clockwise direction and the spring is released. as shown in Figure 2.Spring Figure 2. Also the life of the springs may be reduced.20.18 Spring reversing motion Spring reversing motion Spring-easing motion Figure 2.Heald shaft B . Hence the heald shaft is reversed. .19 When spiral springs are used in under motions.

Tappet shaft B . The bowl is connected in turn to a tappet lever E. The tappet shaft A carries tappet B that has a groove C or track in which a bowl D is placed. link rods G.Tappet C .Fulcrum .21 shows a positive tappet shedding mechanism.Figure 2. F and H are fulcrums for tappet lever and links G respectively. Construction Figure 2. links J and a heald shaft K.Bowl E . the heald shaft is raised and lowered by the tappet.20 Spring-easing motion (to be continued in the next issue) 2. Each tappet is separately connected to a heald shaft through link rods and tappet lever.8 Positive Tappet Shedding Mechanism Principle In this type of shedding. A .Track D .Tappet lever F .

1. Since the heald shaft is raised and lowered by means of the mechanism.21 Positive tappet shedding mechanism Working When the tappet is rotated. 2.Link rods H . the tappet lever moves to the left and the heald shaft is raised.Heald wire J . Centre-closed shed 2. If the bowl is moved down.1 Open Shed The shed is always in the open position in this type of shed (i) Fully-open shed .9. When the bowl stands still. According to the shape of the groove.Heald shaft links K . Closed Shed There are two types of closed shed. Open shed There are two types of open shed. Bottom-closed shed 2.Heald shaft Figure 2. 1.Fulcrum I . the bowl is also rotated. the heald shaft is in the “dwell” stage. Semi-open 2. the bowl is moved up or down or is still. If the bowl is moved up. this tappet shedding is known as positive tappet shedding mechanism. the tappet lever moves to the right through the links G and J and the heald shaft is lowered. Fully-open shed 2.G .9 Types of Shed 1.

Therefore a levelling mechanism is added to all looms using this type of shedding mechanism. Wear and tear of the loom parts is low. changes are made by carrying threads from one fixed line to the other. Power consumption is low. Therefore the shed is formed in a minimum period of time. the raising and lowering of threads occur simultaneously. The arrows C and D show the movements of the falling and rising threads respectively. So this shed is known as fully-open shed. this levelling mechanism is brought in to operation. breakages may results especially when the yarn is weak. 5. so some threads are lowered from the top line and some threads are raised from the bottom line. strain upon the war p yar n is low. 4. the warp threads form two stationary lines.Bottom line of war p B . In the figure. 3.22 shows a fullyopen shed. During this change. When many heald shafts are used. A and B are the stationary bottom and top lines respectively. Full lines show that the shed is always in an open position only. 2.Movement of falling threads D . 4. As the falling threads help the rising threads to move. . Figure 2. A . While repairing broken ends.Top line of warp C . the strain on the warp yarns in the back heald shafts is increased and hence warp breakages may occur. Rising threads help to move lowering threads.Movement of rising threads 2. Strain upon the warp is low. The loom can run at a high speed. after inserting a pick. This type of shedding is troublesome to weavers because the two fixed lines make it more difficult to repair broken ends. Merits 1.In this type of shed. one at the top and the other at the bottom. Figure 2. Demerits 1. As the shed is always open.22 Fully-open shed 3. so it requires a minimum period of time to form a shed.

a stationary bottom line is retained. In the figure. Arrow E shows the movement of rising threads from the bottom to the top line. B is the top line. Arrow D. They are in a semi-open state.Bottom line of war p B .Movement of arrested threads Figure 2. A is the bottom stationary line.Top line of war p C .23 Semi-open shed Merits 1. A . Arrow F shows the movement of the arrested threads at the midway position C. When the threads are moving down. some of the threads which are to form once again at the top line are arrested midway and are then carried to the top line. In double-lift dobby and in double-lift jacquards. After inserting a pick. In this shed. Plain loom for producing twill and satin weaves and 2.Point where some of the downward movement of threads is arrested D . . So this type of shed is known as semiopen shed.Movement of falling threads F . From the midpoint C these threads are carried to the top line. the strain upon the warp is low. Similarly the threads which are to be at the top line also move up and are carried to the top line. In a semi-open shed. (ii) Semi-open shed This is formed under both closed and open principles.Movement of rising threads E . Figure 2. The remaining threads move down.23 shows a semi-open shed. The top line is a movable one.Uses This type of shed is used in 1. the top line moves towards the bottom line. shows the movement of rising threads from the bottom to the top line. The full lines indicate the positions of shed lines after inserting a pick.

Uses Many double-lift dobbies and double-lift jacquards form semi-open sheds. 4. After inserting a pick both the lines meet at the centreline.9. In a fully-open shed. But in a semi-open shed. breakages may result. war p threads move in an upward and downward direction from a centre line. 2. Therefore a levelling mechanism is added to all the looms using this type of shedding motion. This shedding is troublesome to weavers because the two fixed lines make it more difficult to repair broken ends. the strain on the rising and falling threads is equally distributed. Figure 2.2 Closed Shed This type of shed closes after ever y pick is inserted. . this levelling mechanism is used. Power consumption is low. D and E are the arrows showing the movements of the rising and falling threads respectively. Wear and tear of the loom parts is low. (i) Centre-closed shed In this type of shed. especially when the yarn is weak. So all the war p threads come to the same level after each pick is inserted. When many heald shafts are used. since some of the threads are coming from the bottom line and some threads are arrested midway and again carried to the top. 2. 4. A is the centre-line. 3. 3. B and C are the top and bottom lines respectively. The threads which are to form the top line move upwards and the threads which are to form the bottom line move to bottom line. It requires minimum time to form a shed. The loom can run at a high speed. While repairing broken ends. As the shed is always open. Demerits 1. the strain is not equally distributed.24 shows a centre-closedshed. the strain on the warp yar n at the back heald shafts is increased and hence warp breakages may occur. 5.2.

strain on the war p is more than that for the open shed. Under this conditions.25 shows a bottom -closed shed. 2.A .Movement of falling threads Figure 2. Figure 2. Demerits 1. Power consumption and wear and tear of the loom pards are low. 2.Movement of rising threads E . all the warp yarns come to the bottom line. A represents the bottom stationary line.24 Centre-closed shed Merits 1. after inserting a pick. A rising thread is partially balanced by a falling thread. An unsteady movement of threads is caused by the warp threads being in constant motion. centre-shed jacquards and handlooms form centre-closed sheds. (ii) Bottom-closed shed This kind of shed is formed by giving motion to only those threads that form the top line. The machine can run at high speed.Bottom line of war p B . Since every thread is moved to form each shed.Point where some of the downward movement of threads is arrested D .Top line of war p C . 3. Uses Centre-shed dobbies. B the top line and C is the arrow showing the movement of threads. .

25 Bottom closed shed Merit The alternate tightening and slackening of threads produces a cloth with good cover. the depth of the shed at the front wall of the shuttle. There must be a minimum of 2 mm gap between the top line of the shed and the shuttle. Power consumption of the loom is high. Demerits 1. But the important parameter to consider is C.Rising and falling threads C .Bottom stationary line of warp B .A . Wear and tear of the loom parts is high.10 The Geometry of a Shed Depth of shed The depth of a shed is determined by the size of the shuttle. During the passage of the shuttle. In Figure 2. 2. 4. Strain on the warp is high. Uses Single-lift dobbies and single-lift jacquards produce bottom-closed sheds. the distance B and D will vary because of the motion of the reed.26. 5. B is the distance from the cloth fell to the reed. A is the shuttle width. . The depth of the shed is obtained by providing the required stroke of tappet. 3. It takes a long time to produce a shed since it is necessary to move the threads a space equal to twice the depth moved in other types of sheds. It is unsuitable for high loom speed. 2. C is the depth of the shed at the front wall of the shuttle and D is the depth of shed at the reed.Arrow showing the movement of threads Figure 2.

The distance of the front of the shuttle from the fell of the cloth is 11. the following numerical values are assumed. 2.Distance from cloth fell to reed C . The height of the shuttle at the front is 3.0 cm.26 Geometry of shed Stroke of Tappet The stroke of a tappet is decided from the following particulars. The angle between the reed and the race board. The position of the heald shafts in relation to the fell of the cloth. Height of the front side of the shuttle inside the warp shed. 2. The sweep of the sley. 3.A . 3.5 cm.27 1. The distance of the centre of the treadle bowl from the fulcrum of the treadle lever. 5. 1. 4. is taken as 90o 7. which is known as the bevel. 5.Depth of shed at reed D . The sley sward moves through 15o from the vertical beat-up position to its backward most position. Refer to Figure 2. In the figure.Shuttle width B .Depth of shed at reed Figure 2. The distance of the back heald shaft from the fell of the cloth is 36 cm. The distance of the heald shaft connection on the treadle lever from the fulcrum of the treadle lever. The distance of the front heald shaft from the fell of the cloth is 32 cm. . 6. A clearance of 5 mm is given between the top front edge of the shuttle and the top warp line. 4.

Figure 2. it is possible to calculate the total movement of the front and back heald shafts.From the data given above.27 Bevel of the reed (angle between the race board and the reed is 90o) Since the sley has moved 15o from the front position to the backward position.26) Calculations of the shed angle AOB Tan AOB = [Height of the shuttle + Clearance between the shuttle and the top line of the warp] . for the same angle of shed. OA (OD) is the top warp line. OB(OE) is the bottom warp line. the calculations of the heald shafts movements are given below : Angle AOB is the shed angle. CO is the horizontal line joining the front and back rests. Calculations of heald shaft movement From the above data. COB is 15o (see Figure 2.

78 cm.79 cm.2679 x 32 = 8.36 cm.79 + 8.78 cm. the front heald shaft has to move through a distance of 11. h2 = vertical movement of back heald shaft = 12. In triangle COB. The triangles AOB and DOE are similar.78 cm. So. d2 = the diameter of the top roller that controls the back heald shaft.= 1. and the back heald shaft has to move through a distance of 12.57 = 11.22 11.36 cm.3636 11.0 Angle AOB = 190 59’. S1 = stroke of the tappet that controls the front heald shaft S2 = stroke of the tappet that controls the back heald shaft h1 = vertical movement of front heald shaft = 11. AB = CA + CB = 2._________________________________________________________________ (Distance of the shuttle from the fell of the cloth) 3.150 = 40 59’ In triangle COA.5 + 0.36 46 .78 50 =---------.= 0.0872 x 32 = 2.* -----. L2 = the distance of the back heald shaft from the fulcrum of the treadle = 46 cm.5 =-------------. CA = tan angle AOC x OC = 0. S2 h2 L1 -----.57 cm.* -----S1 h1 L2 12. Calculation of the stroke of the shedding tappets and relative diameters of the two top rollers From the above calculations the following data are obtained L1 = the distance of the front heald shaft from the fulcrum of the treadle = 50 cm.36 cm.= -----. Angle AOC = 190 59’ . 32 Thus. (DE/AB) = (OF/OC) = 36/32 36 DE = 11.36 x ---. CB = tan COB x OC = 0.= 12. d1 = the diameter of the top roller that controls the front heald shaft.

Since the treadle levers controlling the healds shafts are fulcrummed at the back of the loom. the back shaft should move a greater distance to maintain the same depth of shed. The relative diameters of the top rollers should be : d2 h2 12. the velocity of the heald shaft should be less than normal. the actual leverage of the treadle lever operating the back heald shaft is less than that of the front heald shaft. iv.= ------. at the start of the movement of the heald shaft.36 1. 2.125 Hence the diameter of the top roller of the back heald shaft reversing mechanism should be about 12. Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) Parabolic Motion Polynimial Motion and Cycloidal Motion. iii. iii. ii. its velocity is again low.11 Importance of Simple Harmonic Motion in Plain Power Looms The design of the shedding mechanism should be such that : i. its velocity is at the maximum. the tappet operating the back heald shaft should have a greater throw (or stroke) than the front tappet. at the end of its movement.Thus the stroke of the tappet operating the back heald shaft should be 22% greater than that operating the front heald shaft.= ---------. Any one of the following motions can obtain the above type of movement : i. .= d1 h1 11.78 -------.5% greater than that controlling the front heald shaft. as per the calculation shown above. Because of the shorter leverage. ii. the back heald shaft will move a shorter distance compared to the movement of the front shaft. about the middle of its movement. Therefore. whereas.

12. Polynimial and cycloidal motions have higher amplitudes of acceleration. then decreased.-.Angular movement of crank Y .-.28 Motions of cams and followers 2. the amplitude of acceleration is comparatively low.28 a. c and d. This helps in getting approximately 15% higher crossing velocity.1 Objects . but the acceleration changes gradually throughout the traverse without any sudden changes. the simple harmonic motion (SHM) is essential in any loom.12 counter Shaft Arrangement 2. b. To get smooth movements of heald shafts without any jerks during their raising and lowering.. In this kind of motion. SHM is the most commonly used motion for shedding in nonautomatic shuttle looms.-. _______ Displacement -. This results in a considerable number jerks to the heald shafts and is therefore unsuitable for high-speed looms. the movement of the heald shafts shows sudden changes in acceleration which leads to jerky movement. it is not therefore suitable for high-speed looms. So they are suitable for high-speed looms. These two kinds of motion give raise to finite jerks.Velocity ----------. but at the beginning and the end of the traverse. but the motion displays sudden change in acceleration at the beginning and end of the motion.Lift of follower Figure 2. first up to half the lift and then during the second half lift respectively. The velocity and acceleration of movements of the heald shafts are uniformly increased. There is a constant positive or negative acceleration with the tappets imparting parabolic motion.-.Acceleration X . The velocity of the heald shaft increases and decreases at a constant rate.The kinematic characteristics like displacement. velocity and acceleration are shown in Figure 2.

each warp yarn passes over alternate weft yarns. 2.30 Twill Weave Satin Weave . adjacent warp yarns follow the same pattern. Each warp yarn passes over (and/or under) more than one weft.29 Figure 2. but are displaced by one cell. 2.29 Plain Weave Twill Weave This construction makes a pattern of diagonal lines. See Figure 2. To control a maximum of eight or ten shedding tappets. This is shown in Figure 2. To change the speed of the shedding tappets so that fabric design repeating up to eight or ten picks per repeat can be woven. let us have an idea about the basic weaves produced in a plain power loom.12.The objects of counter shaft arrangement are : 1.30 Figure 2.2 Need for Counter Shaft Arrangement Before dealing with the need for the counter shaft. Neighboring warp yarns pass over the adjacent weft yarns. Plain Weave In a plain weave.

In a satin weave.31. When the bottom shaft rotates once. Two picks are thus inserted for each complete rotation of the bottom shaft. only two picks are inserted. Adjacent warp yarns have their floats arranged as randomly as possible. then three sheds are formed for each rotation of the bottom shaft. the warp yarn floats over four or more weft yarns and passes under only one. two tappets are used for weaving plain and rib weaves. It is practically impossible to do so. Now let us consider a design with three-picks per repeat. so no twill line is generated. So another shaft known as counter shaft is used. Hence two picks per repeat of the design can be woven easily. the two shedding tappets form two sheds. Here three shedding tappets are used. If we fix three shedding tappets to the bottom shaft. Satin Weave In plain looms. So we have to change the speed of the bottom shaft. The shedding tappets are fixed to this shaft and the speed of the counter shaft is reduced. But we have to insert three picks. . During this time. as seen clearly in Figure 2.

a 32-bit main CPU and a function panel. traditionally woven by cam shedding. Ultimate flexibility The E-shed combines the optimum cross-timing and dwell angle for each shedding curve. according to the settings. positively.15 Electronic Shedding Mechanism Toyoda (loom manufacturer) has introduced the latest electronic technology in shedding. Figure 2. The servo motors are connected to an E-shed controller. The heald shafts are moved up and down. Each cam is driven by a servo motor D and gears E and F. as shown in the diagram. the timing for shedding. In the function panel.37 shows a schematic diagram of an electronic shedding motion. precisely and smoothly by the servo-motors. Each of the heald shafts A is connected via links B to cam C. This makes it easy to weave various kinds of fabrics such as high-density fabrics. . The E-shedding mechanism has the following features : 1. or complex fabrics with a dooby and even fabrics difficult to weave with conventional shedding motions because of loose warp yarn or incomplete shedding.2. dwell and shedding pattern are set according to the weaving design.

Meanwhile. Easy Operation Settings can be changed by a touch of the function panel.Serve-motor E & F . which improves beating-up performance and fabric quality. Not Affected by Upper/Lower frame Imbalance .37 Electronic shedding mechanism 2. This makes it much quicker and easier to be flexible when manufacturing many different kinds of textile articles in small quantities. 5. 3. And since the shedding and beating-up motions are not synchronized. Better Fabric QualityUnlike existing shedding devices. there are fewer stop marks during star-up.Cam Figure 2.Gears C . This obviously means greater efficiency. combined variations in cross-timing prevent warp entanglement and minimise problems caused by warp yarn. the Eshed allows separate upper and lower dwell angles to be set. High Efficiency Freely controllable warp leads to increased warp shedding ability and minimal mispicks in weft insertion.A .Links D .Heald shaft B . 4.

which enables wider range of patterns to be woven with great ease.Par t II) .The E-shed is not affected by any difference between the numbers of upper and lower heald frames unlike in dobby shedding. (To be continued .

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