FueL CeLL

Type of Fuel Cell
Electrolyte Working temperature Fuel Oxidizer Charge carrier Catalyst Efficiency Power density

PAFC
phosphoric acid

MCFC
molten carbonates 650-700oC H2, CO, coal gasfied gas, LNG, methanol O2 + CO2 CO32nickel 45-60% -

SOFC
ceramic material - Yttria-stabilized zirconia
1000oC H2, CO, CH4, coal gasfied gas, LNG, methanol O2 O2nickel 45-65% 1.5kW/m2 KOH

AFC

PEMFC
polymer ion exchange film 80oC H2, LNG, methanol O2 H+ platinum 40-50% 6.4(pure oxygen), 3.7(air) kW/m^2 Compact, possibility of rapid start. Significant investment, close to market. Transport, small/ medium stationary, portable.

DMFC
polymer ion exchange film 50-90oC

190-200oC H2, LNG, methanol O2 H+ platinum 40-50% 1.7-1.9kW/m2

65-220oC

H2 O2 OHplatinum 40-89% -

methanol O2 H+ platinum -

Features/commn ets

Close to commercializatio n. In use. Doubts over cost.

Can use unreformed fuel, slow start up & response

High generation efficiency Wide use of Fuel

Low corrosivity. Required pure reactants.

CO2 emmisions, small scale use only.

Use

Medium stationary.

Large utility

Large utility, small APU, residential

First use by NASA. Military, aerospace, automotive, submarine

Battery replacement, portable.

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