P. 1
GSM Cellular Networks

GSM Cellular Networks

|Views: 261|Likes:
Published by Anovar_ebooks

More info:

Published by: Anovar_ebooks on Mar 13, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

12/10/2015

pdf

text

original

GSM System and Products Overview

SY1 Course Student Guide

"NORTHERN TELECOM AND NORTEL MATRA CELLULAR CONFIDENTIAL: Information contained in this document is the property of Northern Telecom and/or Nortel Matra Cellular. Except as specifically authorized in writing by Northern Telecom and Nortel Matra Cellular, the holder of this document shall keep the information contained herein confidential and shall protect same in whole or in part from disclosure and dissemination to third parties and use for evaluation, operation and maintenance purposes only". "You may not reproduce, represent, or download through any means, the information contained herein in any way or in any form without prior written consent of Northern Telecom and Nortel Matra Cellular". © Nortel Matra Cellular and Northern Telecom 2000

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

GSM System and Products Overview

Publication History
Version 04.01/EN 04.02/EN 10.01/EN* 11.01/EN 12.01/EN Date September, 97 November, 97 August, 98 May, 99 January, 2000 Creation Update miscellaneous mismatches V10 Release V11 Release V12 Release Comments

* Starting from V10, the document edition complies with the equipment version.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN ii

January, 2000

GSM System and Products Overview

SY1 Course
Introduction GSM History Basic Network Overview Services Cellular Principles Radio Interface Architecture, Functions and Protocols Procedures Base Transceiver Station Functions S2000/S4000/S8000 BTS Families Base Station Controller Functions BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family TransCoder Unit: Functional Description TCU: Physical Presentation NSS Functions NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP OSS Functions OMC-R, TML and OMC-S PicoNODE Family Solutions of Exercises Glossary 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN iii

January, 2000

GSM System and Products Overview

Volume Composition
No. 1 Title GSM System and Products Overview Reference PE/TRD/CN/0101 Version/Edition 12.01/EN

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN iv

January, 2000

GSM System and Products Overview

Course Presentation
This course is the main starting of the GSM (GSM900, GSM 1800 and GSM 1900) program. It provides a global overview of the digital radio communication system (i.e. NSS, BSS, OSS) in terms of architecture, cellular concepts, radio channel handling, cellular call control, and Nortel’s products as well as the associated techniques necessary for the understanding of GSM. Course Objectives
Upon completion of this course, the participant will be able to: describe the GSM system and its role in wireless communications worldwide, quote the GSM network services, describe the GSM cellular features, describe the Radio Interface, describe the steps of the main procedures (call establishment, location updating, handover, etc.), describe the functions of NSS (Network Sub System), BSS (Base station Sub System), OSS (Operation Sub System) and MS (Mobile Station), describe the software architecture of the GSM system, identify and describe the NORTEL NETWORKS GSM products.

Prerequisites
Before taking this course, a basic knowledge in transmission and switching, and/or cellular radio system, decibels, PCM links, LAPD, OSI layers, SS7 is required. An excellent way to obtain it is to attend the 2 days TL1 course (Telecommunications Overview).

Scope
This course applies to the V12 version of the BSS and to the GSM O9 of the NSS.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN v

January, 2000

GSM System and Products Overview

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN vi

January, 2000

GSM System and Products Overview

Table of Contents
COURSE NOTES CONTENTS PUBLICATION HISTORY SY1 COURSE VOLUME COMPOSITION COURSE PRESENTATION TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION GSM TRAINING CURRICULUM BSS NORTEL TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS SY1 COURSE OBJECTIVES 2. GSM HISTORY OBJECTIVES BEFORE GSM: MOBILE TELEPHONY MILESTONES ANALOG CELLULAR SYSTEMS AROUND THE WORLD DEVELOPMENT OF THE GSM STANDARD GSM SPECIFICATIONS THE APPLICATION OF THE RADIO SPECTRUM GSM FAMILY RADIO BAND SPECTRUM GSM BENEFITS GSM STANDARD SPREAD: SALES DEVELOPMENT OF THE GSM STANDARD EXPLOSIVE GROWTH IN WIRELESS DATA INCREASING GSM DATA RATES MOBILE DATA TECHNOLOGY EVOLUTION GENERAL PACKET RADIO SERVICE
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

ii iii iv v vii 1-1 1-2 1-4 1-5 1-6 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-7 2-8 2-9 2-10 2-11 2-12 2-13 2-14 2-15 2-16

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN vii

January, 2000

GSM System and Products Overview
GPRS AND EDGE UNIVERSAL MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM 3. BASIC NETWORK OVERVIEW OBJECTIVES TRAFFIC/SIGNALING NETWORK OVERVIEW MOBILE STATION SIM-CARD AND GSM MOBILE EQUIPMENT THE SIM-CARD FUNCTIONS SUBSCRIBER IDENTIFICATION MOBILE IDENTIFICATION MS CLASSMARK TRENDS IN MOBILE STATION BSS ARCHITECTURE NSS ARCHITECTURE CHECK YOUR LEARNING 4. SERVICES OBJECTIVES TELESERVICES SUPPLEMENTARY SERVICES INTELLIGENT NETWORK SERVICES CHECK YOUR LEARNING 5. CELLULAR PRINCIPLES OBJECTIVES RADIO DESIGN ERLANG CONCEPT FADING COVERAGE OR TRAFFIC LIMITATIONS CELL SECTORIZATION OMNIDIRECTIONAL SITE ANTENNAS BI AND TRISECTORIAL SITE ANTENNAS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

2-17 2-18 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 3-9 3-10 3-11 3-12 3-13 3-14 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-10 4-16 4-23 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-5 5-6 5-7 5-8 5-9

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN viii

January, 2000

GSM System and Products Overview
CALCULATED CELL COVERAGE (TRISECTORIAL SITE) CALCULATED CELL COVERAGE CLUTTERS LINK BUDGET PRESENTATION COCHANNEL INTERFERENCE THE FREQUENCY REUSE DISTANCE INTERFERENCE LIMITS FREQUENCY REUSE PATTERN FREQUENCY PLAN DIFFERENT TYPES OF CELLS CELL LAYERING FREQUENCY REUSE PATTERN 6. RADIO INTERFACE OBJECTIVES FUNCTIONS OF THE RADIO INTERFACE GSM USES PAIRED RADIO CHANNELS GSM BAND ALLOCATIONS (MHZ) GSM TIME DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (TDMA) PHYSICAL CHANNEL GSM DELAYS UPLINK TDMA FRAMES PROPAGATION DELAYS LOGICAL CHANNELS FROM PHYSICAL CHANNELS TO LOGICAL CHANNELS TRAFFIC CHANNELS (TCHS) CONTROL CHANNELS THE LOGICAL CHANNELS ON RADIO INTERFACE LOGICAL CHANNELS DESCRIPTION TRAFFIC AND CONTROL MULTI-FRAMING TRAFFIC CHANNELS COMBINATION DEDICATED SIGNALING CHANNELS COMBINATION PHYSICAL CHANNEL AND LOGICAL CHANNELS COMMON CHANNELS COMBINATION BCCH COMBINED
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

5-10 5-11 5-12 5-13 5-14 5-15 5-16 5-17 5-18 5-19 5-20 5-21 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-5 6-6 6-7 6-8 6-9 6-10 6-11 6-12 6-13 6-14 6-15 6-17 6-18 6-19 6-20 6-21 6-22

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN ix

January, 2000

GSM System and Products Overview
WHY 26 AND 51 FRAMES PER MULTIFRAME? FROM SPEECH TO RADIO TRANSMISSION SPEECH QUALITY - SOURCE CODING CHANNEL PROCESSING INTERLEAVING: TCH FULL RATE BURST FORMATTING BURST FORMATS CIPHERING MODULATION DISCONTINUOUS TRANSMISSION FEATURES CHECK YOUR LEARNING 7. ARCHITECTURE, FUNCTIONS AND PROTOCOLS OBJECTIVES BASIC ELEMENTS OF A CELLULAR SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE OF A GSM SYSTEM BSS ARCHITECTURE BTS GENERAL ARCHITECTURE AND FUNCTIONS BSC GENERAL ARCHITECTURE AND FUNCTIONS TRAU ARCHITECTURE AND FUNCTIONS NSS ARCHITECTURE HOME LOCATION REGISTER AUTHENTICATION CENTER VISITOR LOCATION REGISTER EQUIPMENT IDENTITY REGISTER INTERWORKING FUNCTION PROTOCOL MODEL RADIO INTERFACE ABIS INTERFACE LAPD AND LAPDM FRAMES ATER INTERFACE A INTERFACE PSTN/ISDN/PSDN INTERFACE GENERAL PACKET RADIO SERVICE
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

6-23 6-24 6-25 6-26 6-27 6-28 6-29 6-31 6-32 6-33 6-34 7-1 7-2 7-3 7-4 7-5 7-6 7-7 7-8 7-9 7-10 7-11 7-12 7-13 7-14 7-15 7-16 7-17 7-19 7-20 7-22 7-24 7-25

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN x

January, 2000

GSM System and Products Overview
CHECK YOUR LEARNING 8. PROCEDURES OBJECTIVES CONTENTS DESCRIPTORS STORED IN SIM-CARD DESCRIPTORS STORED IN THE NETWORK DESCRIPTORS EMBODIED IN THE MS GSM’S ACTORS CELL SELECTION IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT REGISTRATION: THE VERY FIRST LOCATION UPDATE INTRA-VLR LOCATION UPDATE INTER-VLR LOCATION UPDATE IMSI ATTACH IMSI DETACH AUTHENTICATION CIPHERING MOBILE ORIGINATING CALL MOBILE TERMINATING CALL CALL RELEASE REASONS FOR HANDOVER MOBILITY AND HANDOVER HANDOVER PREPARATION HANDOVER DECISION HANDOVER EXECUTION INTRA-BSC HANDOVER INTER-BSC HANDOVER INTER-MSC HANDOVER EXERCISE 7-26 8-1 8-2 8-3 8-4 8-5 8-6 8-7 8-8 8-9 8-10 8-11 8-12 8-13 8-14 8-15 8-17 8-19 8-20 8-23 8-25 8-26 8-27 8-28 8-29 8-30 8-31 8-32 8-33

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN xi

January, 2000

GSM System and Products Overview

9. BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION FUNCTIONS OBJECTIVES BSS ARCHITECTURE CAPABILITIES OF A BTS FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECTURE GENERIC ARCHITECTURE BCF TRX TRANSMISSION CHAIN RECEPTION CHAIN COUPLING SYSTEM BTS CONNECTION MODES 10. S2000/S4000/S8000 BTS FAMILIES OBJECTIVES COVERAGE SOLUTION DRX BASED BTS FAMILY BTS S8000 OUTDOOR BCF MODULE (FIRST VERSION) COMPACT BCF MODULE (SECOND VERSION) S8000 TRX S8000 COUPLING BTS S8000 INDOOR BTS S8002 BTS S8006 BTS S2000L (LOW POWER) BTS S2000H (HIGH POWER) ENHANCED PACKAGING HIGH POWER RF MODULE S8000 DOWN-LINK S8000 UP-LINK BTS E-CELL
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

9-1 9-2 9-3 9-4 9-6 9-7 9-8 9-9 9-10 9-11 9-12 9-13 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 10-7 10-8 10-10 10-11 10-12 10-14 10-16 10-18 10-20 10-21 10-22 10-23 10-24 10-25

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN xii

January, 2000

GSM System and Products Overview
S2000E/S4000 FAMILY BTS S4000 INDOOR BTS S4000 OUTDOOR BTS S2000E INDOOR/OUTDOOR DUAL-BAND CONFIGURATIONS BTS CONFIGURATION TABLE 11. BASE STATION CONTROLLER FUNCTIONS OBJECTIVES BSC IN THE GSM NETWORK BSC FUNCTIONS SIGNALING IN THE BSS GENERIC ARCHITECTURE OF THE BSC BSC OMC-R CONNECTION OPTIONS 12. BSC 6000/12000/12000HC FAMILY OBJECTIVES BSC 6000/12000/12000HC FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECTURE PHYSICAL LAYOUT DUPLEX OPERATION BSC 12000 BSC 6000/12000/12000HC GPRS SUPPORT BSC 12000 UPGRADE TO BSC 12000HC BSC PROVISIONING BSC 12000 PRODUCT CONFIGURATION BSC 12000 CONFIGURATION BSC 6000/12000/12000HC EXERCISES NUMBER OF SITES THAT A BSC CAN HANDLE CHECK YOUR LEARNING 10-28 10-29 10-31 10-33 10-35 10-36 11-1 11-2 11-3 11-4 11-6 11-7 11-8 12-1 12-2 12-3 12-6 12-7 12-8 12-9 12-10 12-11 12-12 12-13 12-14 12-15 12-17 12-18 12-21 12-22

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN xiii

January, 2000

GSM System and Products Overview

13. TRANSCODER UNIT: FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION OBJECTIVES TCU FUNCTIONS BENEFIT HAVING REMOTE TCUS FUNCTIONAL DETAIL SIGNALING ON THE BTS-TCU INTERFACE SPEECH ON THE BTS-TCU INTERFACE USER’S DATA RATE TREATMENT CHECK YOUR LEARNING 14. TCU: PHYSICAL PRESENTATION OBJECTIVES HARDWARE LAYOUT EXTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS TCU CABINET CHECK YOUR LEARNING 15. NSS FUNCTIONS OBJECTIVES NSS ARCHITECTURE MOBILE SWITCHING CENTER INTERFACES GATEWAY MSC FUNCTIONS VISITOR MSC FUNCTIONS MSC ARCHITECTURE AND FUNCTIONS INTERWORKING FUNCTION ECHO CANCELER SHORT MESSAGE SERVICE CENTER VOICE MAIL SYSTEM INTELLIGENT NETWORK PLATFORM

13-1 13-2 13-3 13-4 13-5 13-6 13-7 13-8 13-9 14-1 14-2 14-3 14-4 14-5 14-6 15-1 15-2 15-3 15-4 15-5 15-6 15-7 15-8 15-9 15-10 15-11 15-12

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN xiv

January, 2000

GSM System and Products Overview

16. NSS NORTEL: DMS AND GPP OBJECTIVES NSS NORTEL: DMS FAMILY AND PICONODE SUPERNODE (SN) DIGITAL MULTIPLEX SYSTEM (DMS) ARCHITECTURE DMS CORE MODULES SUPERNODE CONFIGURATION NORTEL’S ENHANCED NETWORK (ENET) LINK PERIPHERAL PROCESSOR (LPP) LPP CABINET PCM-30 DIGITAL TRUNK CONTROLLER (PDTC) PERIPHERALS: ISM PERIPHERALS: IOM BILLING SERVER SUPERNODE SIZE ENHANCED (SNSE) MICRONODE INCOMING CALL FROM THE PSTN TO THE GMSC A CALL GOES TO THE VMSC THAT PAGES THE MS NORTEL IWF: GSM PASSPORT NODE GPP NODE NORTEL’S IN PLATFORM: SERVICEBUILDER CHECK YOUR LEARNING 17. OSS FUNCTIONS OBJECTIVES OSS PRESENTATION NETWORK MANAGEMENT CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT FAULT MANAGEMENT PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SECURITY MANAGEMENT WHY AN OMC-R?
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

16-1 16-2 16-3 16-4 16-5 16-6 16-7 16-8 16-9 16-10 16-11 16-12 16-13 16-14 16-15 16-17 16-19 16-20 16-21 16-22 16-25 16-26 17-1 17-2 17-3 17-4 17-10 17-12 17-13 17-14 17-15

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN xv

January, 2000

GSM System and Products Overview
OMC-R FUNCTIONS COMMON FUNCTIONS SERVER ADMINISTRATION OMC-S FUNCTIONS HIERARCHICAL ARRANGEMENT OF NMC AND OMC CHECK YOUR LEARNING 18. OMC-R, TML AND OMC-S OBJECTIVES OMC-R OMC-R ARCHITECTURE HARDWARE ARCHITECTURE REMOTE OPERATION TERMINAL APPLICATION NETWORK ELEMENTS OPERATED BY OMC-R IMPLEMENTATION OF THE OMC-R NETWORK NEW MAN-MACHINE INTERFACE NEW MMI: LOGICAL VIEW NEW MMI: TOPOLOGICAL VIEW ALARM WINDOW BSS ON SITE MAINTENANCE WITH TML BTS ON SITE MAINTENANCE WITH TML BSC ON SITE MAINTENANCE WITH TML TCU ON SITE MAINTENANCE WITH TML OMC-S SDM-FT PLATFORM OMC-S ELEMENT MANAGER MAIN WINDOW NETWORK CONFIGURATION WINDOW FAULT MANAGEMENT PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT CHECK YOUR LEARNING 17-16 17-17 17-18 17-19 17-20 17-21 18-1 18-2 18-3 18-4 18-5 18-6 18-7 18-8 18-9 18-10 18-11 18-12 18-13 18-14 18-18 18-19 18-20 18-22 18-25 18-26 18-27 18-28 18-29

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN xvi

January, 2000

GSM System and Products Overview

19. PICONODE FAMILY PICONODE: A VERY SMALL GSM SYSTEM RURAL AND COMMUNITY CORPORATE/IN-BUILDING: CORPORATENET PICONODE ARCHITECTURE COMMUNITYNET PICONODETM BTS PICONODETM BSC PICONODETM MSC PICONODETM OMC PICONODE PICONODE
TM TM

19-1 19-2 19-3 19-4 19-5 19-6 19-8 19-9 19-10 19-11 19-12 19-13 20-1 20-2 20-3 20-4 20-6 20-7 21-1

COMBO SCALABLE GSM SOLUTIONS

20. SOLUTIONS OF EXERCISES CELLULAR PRINCIPLES: FREQUENCY REUSE PATTERN BTS S8000: COUPLING SYSTEM FOR TWO TRX WITH DIVERSITY BSC: TCU WARNING INFORMATION PATH BSC: INCOMING CALL INFORMATION PATH BSC: CALL-ESTABLISHED TRAFFIC PATH 21. GLOSSARY

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN xvii

January, 2000

GSM System and Products Overview
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN xviii

January, 2000

Introduction

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Section 1

Introduction

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Introduction

1-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

1-1

January, 2000

Introduction
GSM Training Curriculum
NSS System Courses
900 930 931 932 935 936 937 938 950 951 961 962 963 970 972 974 GSM Intelligent Networks Overview GSM DMS Overview GSM NSS Overview GSM Data Overview GSM HLR-PS (Provisioning Server) GSM Billing Mediation Device (GMBD) OMC-S Overview & Operation GSM GPP-IWF GSM DMS Maintenance Part 1 GSM DMS Maintenance Part 2 GSM09 Release Delta GSM10 Release Delta GSM11 Release Delta GSM-MSC/VLR Translations GSM HLR Service Datafill GSM CCS7 Transl. and Operations

1 - BSS and NSS Courses
3 days 3 days 2 days 1 day 3 days 3 days 2 days 5 days 10 days 10 days 2 days 1 day 2 days 10 days 5 days 5 days

System Courses
SY0 SY1 SYS TL1 TL4 GSM General Overview GSM System and Products Overview GSM System Overview Telecommunications Overview ATM Overview 2 days 5 days 3 days 2 days 1 day OM1/2 OM4 OM5 OM6 OM7

BSS Operation & Maintenance Courses
BSS Operation and Maintenance 10 days OMC-R Administration 4 days BSS Databuild 5 days S8000 BTS Local Maintenance 2 days BSS Performance Measurements Tools 2 days OM9 BSS Operation and Fault Handling 4 days OM10 Reconfiguration Tools 3 days OM31 BSC and TCU Local Maintenance3 days OMDV10-12 BSS Release for V10 Experts 3 days OMDV12 BSS Release for V11 Experts 2 days OM36 BSC, TCU and BTS S8000 Local Maintenance 5 days

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

NSS System Courses

BSS System Courses
ARI BS21 NE2 NMO PR1 PR2 PR3 PR4 SR11 SR12 SY2 Advanced Radio Interface Description BSC 12000 and TCU Advanced Description BSS Optimization Parameters Network Monitoring and Optimization S8000 BTS Family Advanced Description S2000 L&H and e-cell BTS Advanced Description BSS Products Overview BSC and TCU 3G Advanced Description BSS Release V11 Overview BSS Release V12 Overview BSS Dimensioning 3 days 2 days 3 days 2 days 2 days

BSS Operation & Maintenance Courses

Radio and Network Engineering Courses
RSV1 RSV2 CNE RF0 CP1 CP2 RSQ1 RSQ2 SSE1 SSE2 Radio Site Verification RSV Measurement & Post-Processing Cellular Network Engine. Process RF Basics Cell Planning Fundamentals Cell Planning Project Radio Survey and RF Qualification Radio Measurements Site Survey and Site Engineering Site Survey Visit and Engineering Case Studies SSE3 Aerial Verification NETRF1 Network and RF Engineering Course
12.01/EN January, 2000

1 day 2 days 1 day 3 days 2 days 5 days 2 days 3 days 1 day 1 day 2 days 5 days

BSS System Courses
Introduction

BSS Installation & Commissioning
PIC1 PIC7 PIC10 PIC17 PIM8 BSC & TCU Installation and Commissioning. BTS S8000 Outdoor I&C BTS S8000 Indoor I&C BTS S8000 I&C BTS S2000 (H&L) I&C and O&M 5 days 5 days 4 days 5 days 2 days

1 day 2 days 2 days 1 day 1 day 2 days

PE/TRD/GR/0101

1-2

The BSS and NSS training courses are split into several families according to the different skills required to deal with GSM networks: • System: to acquire general knowledge about GSM, as well as a general overview of the equipment designed by Nortel Networks. • BSS System: to acquire a general knowledge on BSS system: products, dimensioning, optimization. • BSS Operation and Maintenance: to be able to operate and maintain a telecommunication network by fully using the OMC-R facilities and give an in-depth understanding of the BSS functions and equipment. • NSS System: to acquire knowledge on the operation and maintenance of the NSS part of the system. • Radio and Network Engineering: to be in charge of cell planning, BSS network topology, field tests, data fill or BSS parameters optimization. • Installation and Commissioning: to be able to install, cable, and run test on-site equipment.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

1-2

January, 2000

Introduction
GSM Training Curriculum
2 - GPRS, UMTS, BSS Tools, GSM-R, and PicoNODE Courses
GPRS Courses
TL2 TL3 GP0 GP1 GP10 GP2 GP3 GP4 GP5 Frame Relay Overview TCP/IP Overview GPRS General Overview GPRS Technical Description Passport Operation and Maintenance PCUSN Configuration and Operation SGSN Configuration and Operation GGSN Configuration and Operation OMC-D Operation 1 day 2 days 1 day 3 days 2 days 1.5 day 1.5 day 2 days 5 days RL11 RL12 RL21 RL22 RL23 RL30 RL31 RL32 RL41 RL51 RL61 RL62 RL63 RL64

GSM-R Courses
GSM-R System and Products Overview GSM-R deltas with standard GSM GSM-R BSS Optimization parameters GSM-R BSS Optimization parameters versus GSM GSM-R BSS dimensioning GSM-R IN Overview and datafill GSM-R NSS Overview GSM-R HLR Service Datafill GSM-R RF Engineering BTS S8002 I&C BTS S8002 local maintenance GSM-R performance measurements tools BSS O&M for GSM-R BSS Operations and Fault Handling for GSM-R 5 days 1 day 3 days 1 day 2 days 5 days 2 days 5 days 5 days 3 days 2 days 2 days 10 days 4 days

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

UMTS Courses
UM0 UMTS Introduction 1 day

BSS Tools Courses
CT1000 CT1000_NRP CT3100 CT3100OJT CT7100 CT7100_B CT7100_N CT7100_T CT1000 Course Reconfiguration Procedures CT3100 Course On the job training GSM Network Monitoring and Optimization Tool (NSS and BSS) GSM Network Monitoring and Optimization Tool (BSS only) GSM Network Monitoring and Optimization Tool (NSS only) GSM Network Monitoring Tool (Call Trace/Call Path Trace)
January, 2000

8 days 4 days 5 days 3 days 4 days 3 days 2 days 1 day
Introduction

PicoNODE Courses
PN1 PicoNODE Product Overview PN2 PicoNODE OMC Network Operation PN3 PicoNODE OMC System Administration PN4 PicoNODE BSS Operation PN5 PicoNODE NSS Operation PN245 PicoNODE: From I&C to O&M 1 day 5 days 5 days 5 days 5 days 10 days
1-3

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

The BSS and NSS training courses are split in several families according to the different skills required to deal with GSM networks: • GPRS: an overview of this new system and advanced description of new nodes. • UMTS: an overview of this future system. • BSS Tools: to be able to use the new tools. • GSM-R: an overview and advanced description of this new system for railways companies. • PicoNODE: to be able to operate and manage this new product line (wireless access in rural or corporate areas).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

1-3

January, 2000

Introduction
BSS Nortel Technical Publications
S4000/ S4000C 03 Indoor BTS OMC-R Architecture 06 and Reference ROT
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BSS Product Documentation Overview

BSS Overview

What’s new in the BSS V12 NTP suite

BSS Operating Principles

BSS Operating User

OMC-R Preventive & Corrective Maintenance

BSS BSS Operating Parameters Procedures User Guide

V11/ V12 O&M Evolutions

39 50 51 41

Maintenance Principles TML (BSC/TCU) User Manual TML (BTS) User Manual BSC Maintenance Procedures TCU Maintenance Procedures S2000/ S2000E BTS Maintenance Procedures S4000 BTS Maintenance Procedures S8000 BTS Maintenance Procedures S2000 H/L BTS Maintenance Procedures S8002 BTS Maintenance Procedures e-cell BTS Maintenance Manual
1-4

00

01

88

07

08

32

34

36

52

14 16 22 23 35 43 53 63 92
12.01/EN

General Information

Operations Manuals

TCU BSC 6000/ 12000 S4000 Outdoor BTS S2000H/L BTS S4000 Smart BTS S2000/ S2000E BTS S8000/ S8002 BTS e-cell BTS

PE/CDC/DD/0004 CD-ROM of GSM BSS NTPs

PE/CDC/DD/0026 CD-ROM of BSS Parameters User Guide

42 46 47 48

Reference Manuals

GSM-BSS Documentation

Maintenance Manuals

Fault Number Description
S2000/ BSC/TCU S2000E S4000 BTS S8000/ S2000H/L Advanced e-cell Maintenance S8002 BTS Procedures BTS CT1000 User Manual

CT Tools (optional)
CT5100 CT7100 CT7100 Call Trace/ CT1000/ CT3100 Path Trace CT3100 Operating BSS CCM User Instal. CallAnalyzer Instal. Procedures User Manual Manual Manual User Manual Manual

49 84 90

101

102

103

104

105

29
© NORTEL

38

54

118

20

21

60

PE/TRD/GR/0101

January, 2000

Introduction

The BSS product documentation or BSS Nortel Technical Publication comprises 46 manuals. Kinds of manuals: Reference manuals detail each subsystem or equipment in terms of architecture, hardware and software of its modules and indicate general dimensioning rules. Maintenance manuals include both preventive and corrective maintenance and details the various maintenance procedure. The BSS Maintenance Principles describes the principles of maintenance and gives the list of faults. Generic site dossiers give a canvas to be used by the network operator, where he can collect any specific information for a site. General information: • The BSS Product Documentation Overview (00) is the general manual which introduces all the manuals of the BSS NTPs and includes the glossary. • The BSS Overview (01) is an overview of the digital cellular network and of its division into subsystem. Operating manuals: • The BSS Operating Principles gives the general principles of operation and a dictionary of GSM parameters and observation counters. • The BSS parameters User Guide aims at describing BSS GSM and Nortel parameters, formules and engineering issues for algorithms parameters.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

1-4

January, 2000

Introduction
SY1 Course
Organization

GSM System
• Section 1: Introduction • Section 2: GSM History • Section 3: Basic Network Overview • Section 4: Services • Section 5: Cellular Principles • Section 6: Radio Interface • Section 7: Architecture, Functions and Protocols • Section 8: Procedures

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

• Section 9: BTS Functions • Section 10: S2000/4000/S8000 BTS Families • Section 11: BSC Functions • Section 12: BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family • Section 13: TransCoder Unit Functions • Section 14: TCU Physical Presentation

• Section 15: NSS Functions • Section 16: NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP • Section 17: OSS Functions • Section 18: OMC-R, TML and OMC-S • Section 19: PicoNODE Family • Section 20: Solutions of Exercises • Section 21: Glossary

GSM Products
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Introduction 1-5

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

1-5

January, 2000

Introduction
Objectives

Upon completion of this course, the participant will be able to:
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

describe the GSM system and its role in wireless communications worldwide, quote the GSM network services, describe the GSM cellular features, describe the Radio Interface, describe the steps of the main procedures (call establishment, location updating, handover, etc.), describe the functions of NSS (Network Sub System), BSS (Base station Sub System), OSS (Operation Sub System) and MS (Mobile Station), describe the software architecture of the GSM system, identify and describe the NORTEL NETWORKS GSM products.

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Introduction

1-6

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

1-6

January, 2000

Introduction
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

1-7

January, 2000

Introduction
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

1-8

January, 2000

GSM History

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Section 2

GSM History

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

GSM History

2-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

2-1

January, 2000

GSM History
Objectives
Provide an introduction to the world of mobile communications with particular emphasis on development to digital cellular radio.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

After completing this lesson you will be able to: - Relate the early mobile communication systems. - Show the benefits of digital radio transmission. - Relate the development and spread of the GSM standard. - Indicate the trend for wireless in the next years.

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

GSM History

2-2

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

2-2

January, 2000

GSM History
Before GSM: Mobile Telephony Milestones
1876 1970

Electric transmission (Graham Bell)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

10101010

Digital Technology (1st digital switch)
1982

1897

• • • ——— • • •

1st wireless transmissions (Marconi)
1992

1st analog cellular network

1946

10101010

1st public mobile telephone
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 GSM History

1st GSM communication (digital cellular network)
2-3

1876: The telephone was introduced to the public at the Centennial Exposition of the United States in Philadelphia. Alexander Graham Bell was able to transmit speech electrically, in one direction only, over a copper wire circuit of several hundred feet in length. This “speaking telegraph” was quickly perfected for adequate two-way communication and was offered for business and residential service the following years. Within a short time there were thousands, then tens of thousand, and soon hundreds of thousand of paying customers. End of the 19th century: While the struggle to search for the ways to utilize the copper wire transmission facility more and more efficiently, a young German scientist named Heinrich Rudolf Hertz discovered a strange and wonderful phenomenon: from an electric spark there seemed to emanate invisible waves of force which could be captured at a distant location by a suitably constructed receiving device. Hertz’s own experiments extended only a few yards. 1897: Guglielmo Marconi shows the first wireless transmission over 15 km in Bristol. A few years later(1901), G. Marconi transmitted these waves overseas, and began to call it Radio. 1946: The first public mobile telephone service was introduced in twenty five American cities. Each system used a single, high-powered transmitter and large tower in order to cover distances of over 50 km in a particular market. Nevertheless these early FM push-to-talk telephone systems of the late 1940s used 120 kHz of RF bandwidth in a half duplex mode (only one person on the telephone call could talk at a time), even though the actual telephone-grade speech because of the kHz of baseband spectrum. The large RF bandwidth was needed because of the difficulty in mass producing tight RF filters and low-noise, front-end receiver amplifiers. 1970: A.Pinet introduced in France the first digital switch. 1982: The first commercial cellular system was turned on in Chicago. 1992: GSM, the first fully digital cellular system, was introduced on in Germany and in France.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

2-3

January, 2000

GSM History
Analog Cellular Systems Around the World

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

1981 NMT
The Nordic Solution Now 18 Millions Subscribers

450 MHz and 900 MHz

1979 AMPS 800 MHz Now 25 Millions Subscribers

Dedicated developments

NORWAY, DENMARK FINLAND, SWEDEN, FRANCE (450 MHz)

1985 TACS in UK 800 and 900 MHz

1985 1986 RADIOCOM 2000 C.450 FRANCE GERMANY 400 MHz 450 MHz 900 MHz

Japan • NTT cellular (1979) • JTACS (1988)
2-4

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

GSM History

There are several different types of analog cellular systems: • NMT450 and NMT900: Scandinavia, Benelux, Spain, Austria, France, Switzerland; • AMPS in more 34 countries: U.S.A., Canada, Argentine, Chile, Indonesia, Brazil, Australia, Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire); • TACS (Total Access Communication System) in UK Ireland and Italy; • R2000: France; • C450: Germany; • NTT (1979) cellular and JTACS (1988) in Japan. • RTMS: Italy; The world's first cellular system actually was implemented in 1979 by the Nippon Telephone and Telegraph company (NTT) in Japan. This system uses 600 FM duplex channels of 25 kHz in the 800 MHz band. In Europe, the Nordic Mobile Telephone system (NMT) was developed in 1981 for the 450 MHz band and uses 180 channels of 25 kHz. The extended European Total Access Cellular System (ETACS) was deployed in 1985 and is virtually identical to the US. AMPS system, except that the smaller bandwidth channels result in a slight degradation of signal-to-noise ratio and coverage range.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

2-4

January, 2000

GSM History
Development of the GSM Standard
1982: Groupe Spécial Mobile (GSM) created within CEPT 1985: List of recommendations are settled and intensely supported by the industry.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

1987: Initial MoU (Memorandum of Understanding) aside the drafting of technical specifications was signed by network operators of 13 countries: • time-scales for the procurement and deployment, • compatibly of numbering and routing plans, • tariff principles and definition of accounting. 1990: • The GSM specifications for the 900 MHz are frozen. • Specifications start for the 1800 MHz GSM systems. • GSM stands as "Global System for Mobile communications"

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

GSM History

2-5

1982: CEPT decides to establish a "Groupe Spécial Mobile" (the initial origin of the Term GSM) in to develop a set of common standards for a future pan-European Cellular Mobile Network. 1984: Establishment of three Working Parties to define and describe GSM features: • the radio interface, • transmission and signaling protocols, • interfaces and network architecture. 1985, 1986: Discussion and adoption of a list of recommendations to be generated by the Group Spécial Mobile. A so-called permanent nucleus is established to continuously coordinate the work, which is intensely supported by industry delegates. Thinking over a radio transmission prototype. 1987: The first Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) is prepared during mid-1987 and signed by 13 European countries in September 1987. Apart from the drafting of the technical specifications within the ad-hoc working groups, European public telecommunication operators worthy recognized the cooperation for commercial and operational aspects. The MoU serves as an adequate forum for discussion on pure operational matters. Its main purposes is to provide a framework for all the necessary measures to be taken by the signatories together to ensure the opening of a commercial service in their respective countries by 1991. The network operators plan the progressive implementation of the networks in each country so that transport routes between the countries of signatories could be brought early into the coverage of the respective systems. 1988: Validation and trials, especially the radio interface, show that GSM will work. With the establishment of the European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI), Groupe Spécial Mobile becomes a technical committee: • GSM is embodied into European Telecommunications Standards, • GSM stands as "Global System for Mobile Communication" grant.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

2-5

January, 2000

GSM History
Development of the GSM Standard
1991: First system trial are running. 1992: Official commercial launch of GSM service in Europe.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

1993: - The GSM-MoU has 62 signatories in 39 countries worldwide. In addition 32 applicants in 19 others countries. - GSM network are operational in Europe. - First commercial services also start outside Europe. - One million subscribers to GSM networks. 1995: Specification of GSM phase 2 are frozen.

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

GSM History

2-6

1991: First system-trial are running at Telecom 91 exhibition. The GSM Recommendations comprise: • more than 130 single documents; • include more than 5,000 pages. The GSM MoU of 1987 was later signed by more operators and amended by 1991 to accept members from non CEPT operators countries thus extend its scope to spread cooperation agreements with non-signatory bodies. 1993: Aside the GSM-MoU has 62 members (signatories) in 39 countries worldwide; and in addition 32 potential members (observers, applicants) in 19 other countries. GSM networks are operational in Denmark, Finland, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, United kingdom. The end of 1993 shows one millions subscribers to GSM networks, however more than 80% of them are to be found in Germany alone.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

2-6

January, 2000

GSM History
GSM Specifications
01 SERIES GENERAL

12 SERIES OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

02 SERIES SERVICE ASPECTS 03 SERIES NETWORK ASPECTS

11 SERIES EQUIPMENT AND TYPE APPROVAL SPECIFICATIONS

10 SERIES SERVICE INTERWORKING

04 SERIES MS-BSS INTERFACE AND PROTOCOLS

09 SERIES NETWORK INTERWORKING

05 SERIES PHYSICAL LAYER ON THE RADIO PATH. 06 SERIES SPEECH CODING SPECIFICATIONS

08 SERIES BSS TO MSC INTERFACES

07 SERIES TERMINAL ADAPTERS FOR MOBILE STATIONS

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

GSM History

2-7

One important question was how far GSM should go in its specification work; that is, to what degree the system had to be specified so as to be identical in all countries, and how much could be left to the operators and suppliers to agree upon. Clearly, without identical air interfaces in all networks, the subscribers are not going to have free roaming between network. This was considered to be the absolute minimum degree of standardization, and these equipment were favored. One might have seen it as advantageous to specify everything in the system, including the hardware and the mobile station and even other parts of the system. It was agreed upon that there would be no attempt to specify the system in such detail. Basically, only the functional interfaces between the majors buildings blocks would be specified. This approach had several advantages, perhaps the most important of which is that for each major building block, the principle of functional specifications offers each operator, and thus the customer, the opportunity to purchase whatever make of equipment he wants, thus setting the stage for maximum competition between manufacturers. For instance the fact that an operator has purchased an exchange from a certain supplier does not force him to go on buying equipment from the same supplier. Standardized electrical interfaces as well as protocols are provided for both the fixed network and subscriber equipment. These include standardized rate adaptations compatible with conventional ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) definitions.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

2-7

January, 2000

GSM History
The Application of the Radio Spectrum
AM
0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.4

Marine

Short Wave - International Broadcast - Amateur
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

CB
12 14 16 18 20 24 26 28 30 MHz

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

VHF LOW Band
30 40 50 60 70 80

FM
90 100 120

VHF

VHF TV 7-13
180 200 240 300 MHz

140 160

Cellular UHF
0.3 0.4 0.5

GSM1800, GSM1900 GPS

UHF TV 14-69
0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.4

3.0 GHz

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

12

14

16

18 20

24

30 GHz

Broadcasting Land-Mobile
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000

Aeronautical Mobile telephony
GSM History

Terrestrial Microwave Satellite
2-8

In the early years of radio, only the lowest few megahertz of the radio spectrum were in use and they were used for point to point communications between fixed stations, mainly ships, and broadcasting. These applications were respectively called the fixed service, the mobile service and the broadcasting service. By international agreement, the spectrum then in use was divided into several frequency bands, different bands being allocated for each service. This concept of dividing the spectrum between the different links of radio service is still found to be wise and its application has been extended and elaborated to serve modern requirements. The international table of frequency allocations (World Radiocommunication Conference 1995) now covers the frequency range 9 kHz to 275 MHz, divided into hundreds of frequency bands, allocated for 33 different services.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

2-8

January, 2000

GSM History
GSM Family Radio Band Spectrum

Uplink
876 880 890

915 915

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

915 P-GSM

1710

1785

1850

1910

E-GSM R-GSM 921 925 935 960 960 960 1805

GSM 1800

GSM 1900

1880

1930

1990

MHz

Downlink

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

GSM History

2-9

According to the resolution of the World Radiocommunication Conference in 1978, the European Telecom Authorities primarily reserved two frequency bands of twice 25 MHz: • 890 MHz to 915 MHz from mobile to the network, • 935 MHz to 960 MHz from base stations to the mobiles for use by cellular systems. By 1990, a newly allocated band of twice 75 MHz (1710 MHz to 1785 MHz for uplink and 1805 MHz to 1880 MHz for downlink) was formed for the Digital Communication System which is a version of GSM suited to the 1800 MHz frequency band. This application was initiated in the United Kingdom. Furthermore FCC has granted band of twice 60 MHz (1850 MHz to 1910 MHz for uplink and 1930 MHz to 1990 MHz for downlink) devoted to GSM networks. Two new frequency bands are supported: • the Extended GSM 900 band or E-GSM = P-GSM + 2x10 MHz, • the Railway GSM 900 band for Railways companies or R-GSM = E-GSM + 2x4 MHz.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

2-9

January, 2000

GSM History
GSM Benefits
Advantages of the GSM standard Digital Advantages

Worldwide market
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

$

Technology low cost

Open system

High resistance to interferences

Transmission data rate

Roaming Transmission Security

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

GSM History

2-10

The features and benefits expected in the GSM were: • superior speech quality (equal to or better than the existing analog cellular technology), • low terminal and services costs, • a high level of security (confidentiality and fraud prevention), • international roaming (under one subscriber directory number), • support of low power hand-portable terminals, • variety of new services and network facilities. It was a logical consequence of the prevailing reality that a measure of Inter-working compatibility with the services offered by other existing telecommunication networks was sought. In particular, the basis for the services in GSM standard can be found in the ISDN concept.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

2-10

January, 2000

GSM History
GSM Standard Spread: Sales
70 Million users 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997

300 250 Million users 200 150 100 50 0
areas/ countries 7 18 41 67 97 105 110 137 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

networks 13 34 65 113 189 233 240 370
GSM History

dec 92 dec 93 dec 94 dec 95 dec 96 dec 97 dec 98 dec 99

customers (millions) 0.25 1.4 4.5 12.5 33 66 140 220

Source: IDC Feb 98 GSM MoU Feb 98

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

2-11

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

2-11

January, 2000

GSM History
Development of the GSM Standard
End 1999: 220 millions of subscribers 370 networks in 137 countries

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Countries without GSM Network(s)

2005: Between 700 million and 1 billion expected.
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 GSM History 2-12

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

2-12

January, 2000

GSM History
Explosive Growth in Wireless Data

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

1998
Data 4% Data 70%

Voice 30% Voice 96%

2005

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

GSM History

2-13

Fixed data networks have been growing rapidly for the past 15 years. The PC or work station attached to a LAN has become the de-facto working environment. LANs connected to LANs on other sites around the world allow companies to improve communications and share data. With the advent of the internet people have become used to using a computer not only for work but for their personal lives or as a source of entertainment. Today’s wireless networks were designed primarily for voice, with a small data capability. As more and more people are using data applications, the wireless market needs to progress to provide data-on the-move and liberate users from the need to find an ethernet cable or a telephone jack. The Future Imagine writing a report on the train on the way home, your secretary rings to say the boss wants a video conference NOW!. He comes on line, and tells you the report must be out tonight, with photos of the new product which you can get from the Web. While still talking to the boss, you connect to the Web, down load some files, attach them to your report and send it to a defined group of people. All on the move. This scenario will require considerable more than the 9.6 kbps or 14.4 kbps offered in GSM today. Europe’s GSM operators currently see 2 to 3% of traffic as data. But enhancements to GSM, such as HSCSD, EDGE and GPRS will bring high data rates and get the users used to using data applications from a wireless terminal.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

2-13

January, 2000

GSM History
Increasing GSM Data Rates
video clip video report clip photo web e-mail photo web photo video report clip video report clip report video clip

UMTS
E/GPRS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

photo web

report photo

ISDN PSTN GSM

e-mail web e-mail

0

10 sec

1 min

10 min

1 hour

Transmission Time

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

GSM History

2-14

GSM today We can currently use a data terminal attached to an MS to connect to any standard data service provided by the PSTN, ISDN or PDN networks as long as the network accepts a data rate of 9.6 kbps and the IWF is equipped. This includes access to the Web, e-mail, fax etc.. Use of these facilities is generally limited due to the speed of the communication. Internet use is expensive and slow due to the limited data rate and the circuit switched nature of the GSM system. GSM 2+ HSCSD allows 14.4 kbps in one TS as from 1Q99 and multiple timeslots in the future. It is however, still a circuit switched system which will supply expensive connections unless the operators pricing schemes are imaginative. It will help those who use data over GSM today and encourage others to use the services but it does involve a capacity penalty for the network.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

2-14

January, 2000

GSM History
Mobile Data Technology Evolution
2M
1M 30 min delay

intranet

throughput kbps

et ack p

Mobile Data Rate Mobile Data Rate Explosion in Next 4 Years Explosion in Next 4 Years

alternative: A2 100 k

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

64 k

it cu cir

10 k

9.6
1k
FTSE -100 inde x

HSCSD 14.4 GPRS

EDGE

UMTS

SMS

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

timeframe

GPRS = General Packet Radio Service HSCSD = High Speed Circuit Switched Data EDGE = Enhanced Data rate for Gsm Evolution UMTS = Universal Mobile Telecomunication System
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 GSM History 2-15

Up to V10* the data services were limited to 9.6 kbps. A new service has been standardized in ETSI to reach 14.4 kbps user rate (AUIR) on one TS. This enhancement is a part of a global strategy aimed at offering higher data rates. This new data rate is the result of a new channel coding on the radio interface. The BSS provides two modes: • transparent data service, • non transparent data service, using RLP protocol between MS and IWF.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

2-15

January, 2000

GSM History
General Packet Radio Service

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

IP (Internet/Intranet)

GPRS PLMN

X.25 PSPDN

Corporate Intranet

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

GSM History

2-16

GPRS is the first major revolution in GSM data, providing speeds over 100 kbit/s on a pseudo-packet switched radio interface and a real packet switched NSS. This will encourage users to connect to high-speed applications across the wireless network and optimises the network resources for data transmission. There are however some limitations and the first implementations will have mobility constraints. However, it is likely to attract users to internet type services and provides operators with a natural migration path towards 3G systems.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

2-16

January, 2000

GSM History
GPRS and EDGE
Enhanced Data rate for Gsm Evolution
New highly spectrum-efficient modulation for higher bit rates
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

GMSK modulation replaced with 8-Phase Shift Keying: throughput x 3 Applicable to both HSCSD and GPRS Rates expected to reach 300 kbps (E-HSCSD) and 380 kbps (E-GPRS)

UMTS EDGE GPRS HSCSD GSM 1 10 14,4 100 43,2 170

2000 384 380 300 packet circuit

1000
GSM History

10000

speed kbps log scale

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

2-17

Enhanced Data rate for Gsm Evolution or EDGE is often referred to in GPRS context as the combination of the two technologies is seen by some groups in the mobile industry as an alternative for UMTS. This makes EDGE an alternative for operators without an UMTS license who wish to offer medium-speed mobile data services. EDGE is being defined for both GPRS and GSM data services. EDGE is a redefinition of the GSM modulation and coding scheme from GMSK to 8-PSK. It gives up to three times higher throughput compared to GSM, using the same bandwidth. This will enable end-user data rates of maximum 48 kbps per Time Slot for GPRS and 28.8 kbps per TS for GSM services. By combining multiple TSs as with GPRS, data rates of 384 kbps can be achieved.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

2-17

January, 2000

GSM History
Universal Mobile Telecommunication System
✔ Wireless office - Business – Tele conference – Sales order placement – Files transfer – Intranet services ✔ Travel - Car Centric Application – Video and graphic oriented navigation tool – Traffic intelligent information system – Emergency services – Location based yellow pages ✔ Entertainment / Education / Personal Communication – Video/music on demand – Interactive games / Tele-tourism – Virtual school – Video telephony
12.01/EN January, 2000 GSM History 2-18

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

30 min delay

alternative: A2

PE/TRD/GR/0101

UMTS, or more precisely IMT2000, will at first provide a capacity advantage for wireless data networks that become overcrowded. But it has to provide more than that. The higher data rates will allow applications such as video and multimedia to be a real option from a wireless terminal. And, the more open architecture will provide a service environment allowing a wide range of services to be developed by operators and service specialists. Total global roaming is one of the objectives of the specifications. UMTS will take over from GSM 2+ systems to provide higher capacity and data rates. This will allow new applications to be developed but will require new terminals. The most obvious scenario is for existing GSM operators to migrate through GSM 2+ to GSM/UMTS hybrid networks.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

2-18

January, 2000

GSM History
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

2-19

January, 2000

GSM History
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

2-20

January, 2000

Basic Network Overview

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Section 3

Basic Network Overview

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Basic Network Overview

3-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

3-1

January, 2000

Basic Network Overview
Objectives

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

After completing this lesson you will be able to: • List the 3 sub-systems of a GSM system and their interfaces. • List the different equipment in each GSM sub-system.

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Basic Network Overview

3-2

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

3-2

January, 2000

Basic Network Overview
Traffic/Signaling Traffic
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

«bla bla bla...»

Signaling

« RING ! »
riiiiing

Network

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Basic Network Overview

3-3

The network can carry two types of information: • Traffic: it concerns all the «user to user» information. It can be voice as well as data. • Signaling: the network also requires to carry information for its own working. Their purposes are numerous: traffic data routing, maintenance, security... These data are usually not visible from user’s point of view. There exists several signaling types: • PTS (Per-Trunk Signaling): signaling and voice component are transmitted on the same facility. PTS requires the voice component to be completely built, even if the call can’t be completed. • CCS (Common Channel Signaling): two separate paths are used for information transfer (one for traffic, another for all-related signaling information). Thus, CCS allows the voice component to be built separately which allows resources to be saved. For instance, no voice facilities would be assigned to the call if the dialed number is busy. GSM works with CCS(#7)

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

3-3

January, 2000

Basic Network Overview
Network Overview
BTS

BSS
BSC

NSS
MSC

PSTN

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

MS

OMC-R
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000

OSS
Basic Network Overview

OMC-S
3-4

A GSM system is basically designed as a combination of three major subsystems: the Network SubSystem (NSS), the radio subsystem called the Base station SubSystem (BSS), and the Operation SubSystem (OSS). The Network SubSystem (NSS) includes the equipment and functions related to end-to-endcalls, management of subscribers, mobility, and interfaces with the fixed network (PSTN). It is built on the switch of the system called Mobile-services Switching Center (MSC). The Base station SubSystem (BSS) includes the equipment and functions related to the management of the connection on the radio path. It mainly consists of Base Transceiver Stations (BTS) communicating with the Mobile Station (MS) and one Base Station Controller (BSC) managing the flow of information between the BTSs and the MSC. The Operation SubSystem (OSS) mainly contains Operation and Maintenance Center for NSS (OMC-S) and Operation and Maintenance Center devoted to the BSS (OMC-R). It is connected to all equipment in the switching system and to the BSC (BTSs are not connected to the OSS). Any mobile network or PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network) is related to a public fixed network, commonly to the PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

3-4

January, 2000

Basic Network Overview
Mobile Station
Mobile Station

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

SIM Card

=
+

Handset

Battery

Global GSM Mobility Card
The Smart Card to use

battery

+
f153454
2W jmhfod kgdjipj

GSM

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Basic Network Overview

3-5

The Mobile Station (MS) is composed of three parts: • the handset includes the radio equipment (receiver-transmitter) and the Man-Machine Interface (MMI), • the SIM card (Subscriber Identity Module-card): this smart card allows the identification of any subscriber (not only of his equipment) by the network. In particular, he can borrow any mobile without changing anything from the network point of view since he keeps the same SIM-card, • the battery.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

3-5

January, 2000

Basic Network Overview
SIM-Card and GSM Mobile Equipment

SIM-Card
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

=

Global GSM Mobility Card
The Smart Card to use

+

Calling line 0609225831

GSM
Contains: - IMSI

Subscriber knows - Called party number = MS-ISDN - PIN

Handset
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Basic Network Overview 3-6

The GSM committee has introduced an important powerful innovation by using a Smart Card in conjunction with a mobile telephone. Thus GSM subscribers are provided with a Subscriber Identity Module card (SIM-Card) with its unique identification at the very beginning of the service. The subscriber is identified within the system when he inserts the SIM-Card in the mobile equipment and switches it on. This provide a considerable amount of flexibility to the subscribers since they can use any GSM-specified mobile equipment. With the SIM-Card the idea of "personal communication" is already realized: the user only needs to take his smart card on a trip. You can rent a mobile equipment unit at the destination, even in other country, and insert your own SIM-Card. Any call you make will be charged to your home GSM account. Also the GSM system is able to reach you at the mobile unit you are currently using. The Mobile Station (MS) includes radio equipment and the man machine interface (MMI) that a subscriber needs in order to access the services provided by the GSM network. Mobile Stations can be installed in vehicles or can be portable or hand-held stations. The mobile station includes provisions for data communication as well as voice. Mobile Stations transmit and receive messages to and from the GSM over the air interface to establish and continue connection through the system. Each mobile station has an International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) that is permanently stored in the mobile unit. Upon request, the MS sends this number over the signaling channel to the network. The IMEI is used to identify mobile units that are reported stolen or operating incorrectly.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

3-6

January, 2000

Basic Network Overview
The SIM-Card Functions
Credit Card Size

µ SIM-Card

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Global GSM Mobility Card
15 mm 25 mm

The Smart Card to use

Permanent data:
- Unique mobile subscriber identity through IMSI number, - Authentication parameter Ki, - Authentication algorithm A3, - Generating encryption key Kc algorithm A8.

GSM
Microchip with stored user information

Removable data:
- Temporary Mobile Subscriber Number, - Location Area Identification.
Basic Network Overview 3-7

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

The SIM-Card is a removable smart card, the size of a credit card, and contains an integrated circuit chip with a microprocessor, random access memory, and read-only memory. Many MSs use the µ SIM-Card which can be snapped out of the credit card SIM, if required. When a mobile users want to make a call, they insert their SIM-Card and provide their Personal Identity Number (PIN), which is compared with a PIN stored within the SIM-CARD. The PIN can also be permanently bypassed by the subscribers if authorized by the service provider. Disabling the PIN code simplifies the call setup but reduces the protection of the user's account in the event of a stolen SIM-CARD.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

3-7

January, 2000

Basic Network Overview
Subscriber Identification

IMSI
Nature
International Mobile Subscriber Identity

MS - ISDN
Mobile Station Integrated Services Digital Network Nb Similar to ISDN, Conformity with E164/E213
National Significant Mobile Number

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Conformity with E212
Identify a PLMN worldwide Identify the subscriber of a PLMN

Format Meaning

MCC
Mobile Country Code

MNC
Mobile Network Code

H1 H2

x x x ......... x x x

MSIN

CC

NDC

M1 M2

xx xx xx xx

SN

Mobile Subscriber Ident. Nb H1 H2 = Identity of HLR within the home PLMN

Country National Mobile Subscriber Code (national definition) (where Destination subscription Code * M1 M2 = nbr of logical HLR has been made)

Nb. digits

3

2

max 10

1 to 3

2 to 4

total max 15

* This code does not identify a geographical area but an operator
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Basic Network Overview 3-8

The International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) is the primary identification of the subscriber within the GSM network and is permanently assigned to him. The Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number (MSISDN) is the number that the calling party dials in order to reach the GSM subscriber. It is used by the land networks to route calls toward an appropriate GSM network. MSISDN is stored in HLR.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

3-8

January, 2000

Basic Network Overview
Mobile Identification

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE ED TY OV PR AP

TAC
Type Approval Code

FAC

SNR
Serial number

SP
(SPare)

Final Assembly Code

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Basic Network Overview

3-9

Stored inside the Mobile Equipment. Used to replace IMSI or TMSI when both are unavailable (example: Emergency calls without SIM-Card) or when required by the network (for maintenance). Can be used for EIR database updating (when existing): • TAC = 6 digits describing the type of equipment, • FAC = 2 digits for identification of the factory, • SNR = 6 digits for the serial number of the device.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

3-9

January, 2000

Basic Network Overview
MS Classmark

Classmark
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Revision level (Phase 1, 2, 2+) RF power Encryption algorithm (A5/1,A5/2) Frequency (900/1800/1900) Short message

Power classes Class 1 2 3 4 5
* **

GSM 900

GSM 1800 1 W**

GSM 1900 1 W** 0.25 W 4W

8 W* 5W 2 W** 0.8 W

0.25 W 4W

Typical value for car mounted Typical value for handheld
3-10

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Basic Network Overview

The type of MS must be given to the NSS at the beginning of each new connection, because this type can change between calls. The subscriber may insert this SIM-Card into another Mobile Equipment (ME). The classmark of each MS can contain up to five parameters: • revision level, • RF power capability, • encryption algorithm: A5/1, A5/2, • frequency capability: P-GSM (2 x 25 MHz), E-GSM (2 x 35 MHz), R-GSM MHz), GSM 1800, GSM 1900, • short message capability. This classmark is sent when the system establishes the radio link between MS and the Base Transceivers Stations. The power class information is the maximum power the MS is able to transmit and is used by the network for several procedures: selection, power control, handover. (2 x 4

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

3-10

January, 2000

Basic Network Overview
Trends in Mobile Station

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Pocket

Hands-free

Booster 2W 5W 2W 8W

Data

Dual-band 900-1800 900-1900

Fax
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000

Organizer
Basic Network Overview

PC

Java
3-11

Trends for MS are: • Hands-free (2 W + booster 5 W). • Increasing autonomy: - idle mode: 40 hours to 140 hours, - communication mode: 4 hours to 15 hours, • Supplementary features (e.g. display of calling number). • Additional features (e.g. voice recognition). • Connection with terminals for data transmission: - Modem on PCMCIA board for Laptop PC. - Modem integrated. • Dual-band terminal (GSM 900/1800 MHz). • Radio organizer (Nokia 9000). • Versatile terminal (under JAVA softwares): fax, internet, pager, organizer.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

3-11

January, 2000

Basic Network Overview
BSS Architecture

MSC
A Interface
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

TCU
S2000H&L BTS

Radio Interface

NSS

Public Telephone Network

Ater Interface

OMC-R

BSC

Abis Interface

S8000 Outdoor BTS Radio Interface

MS

OMN Interface

Sun
StorEdge A5000

BSS
January, 2000 Basic Network Overview

S8000 Indoor BTS

MS
3-12

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

The Base Station SubSystem (BSS) is a set of equipment (aerials, transceivers and a controller) that is viewed by the Mobile Switching Center through a single A interface as being the entity responsible for communicating with mobile telephones or Mobile Stations (MSs) in a certain area. The radio equipment of a BSS may be composed of one or more cells, such a BSS may contain one or more Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs). The interface between the BSC and the BTSs is called an Abis interface. The BSS includes two types of equipment: • the Base Transceiver Station (BTS functionally includes also the TRAU) in contact with the mobile stations through the radio interface, • the BSC, the latter being in contact with the Mobile Switching Center. A BSS contains only one Base Station Controller (BSC). The function split is basically between a transmission equipment, the BTS, and the BSC.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

3-12

January, 2000

Basic Network Overview
NSS Architecture
AuC
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

EIR

PSTN

BSC

MSC
BSC

VLR

HLR

MSC

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Basic Network Overview

3-13

BSCs of a same area are connected to a switch. In a GSM system this switch is called MSC (Mobile Switching Center). MSCs are connected to each others. Usually, each MSC is associated to four databases. The Visitor Location Register (VLR) memorizes information about the subscribers physically present in a geographic area. If a subscriber leaves this area, this information is stored in the VLR of another MSC. Each Home Location Register (HLR) is related to a precise number of subscribers. The information present in a subscriber’s HLR are quite similar to these contained in the VLR of the area where he is but, here, this information is static. Thus the VLR stands for a copy of the HLR more easily available (the VLR and the MS are in the same area). They are always linked, since the HLR memorizes the identity number of the VLR where it can find its subscriber. Authentication Center (AuC): Radio channel use sets a problem of communication safety. In particular operators have to pay attention to the fraudulent resources use. Therefore the network is provided with a system of user authentication. The Equipment Identity Register (EIR) is a list of all the Mobile Equipment: it contains valid and invalid mobile equipment. When a communication comes from the PSTN to a given subscriber, it enters the network in the MSC that contains the subscriber’s HLR. This MSC is called GMSC (Gateway MSC).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

3-13

January, 2000

Basic Network Overview
Check Your Learning
1- How many sizes of SIM-Card are there?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

2- What is an IMSI? a MSISDN? an IMEI?

3- What is a PIN code?

4- Is it possible for a given subscriber to have several MSISDN?

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Basic Network Overview

3-14

1- How many sizes of SIM-Card are there?

2- What is an IMSI? a MSISDN? an IMEI?

3- What is a PIN code?

4- Is it possible for a given subscriber to have several MSISDN?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

3-14

January, 2000

Basic Network Overview
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

3-15

January, 2000

Basic Network Overview
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

3-16

January, 2000

Services

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Section 4

Services

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Services

4-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

4-1

January, 2000

Services
Objectives

This section explores the services that are provided in a GSM network.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

After completing this section you will be able to: • Relate the services that can be offered to GSM subscribers

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Services

4-2

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

4-2

January, 2000

Services
Teleservices
1 - Telephony

Hello
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Speaking

Originated call

1

Speaking Hello

Terminated call

1

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Services

4-3

Teleservices cover regular telephony, emergency calls, voice messaging, and short messages handling. The most important service provided by GSM users is telephony which enables bi-directional speech calls to be placed between GSM users and any telephone subscriber who is reachable through the general telephony network. Fixed telephone subscribers worldwide as well as mobile network subscribers or subscribers of specific networks connected to a public telephone network can be reached. Before either Mobile Originated or Mobile Terminated calls can be established, the mobile telephone must be switched on and registered into the system.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

4-3

January, 2000

Services
Teleservices
2 - Emergency Call

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Global GSM Mobility Card
The Smart Card to use

Emergency 112

GSM

Do not require a SIM-Card while "112" is invoked
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-4

To place an emergency call enter 112 followed by SEND. Additional means to place such call are also allowed by a dedicated button. The Mobile Telephone supports the initiation of an emergency call without a SIM present in it, regardless of the call being accepted or not by the network. Note that calls to national emergency services may be standard for the country of the serving GSM network (number 17 to call the police in France, number 911 to make an emergency call in U.S.A.). However, with the exception of code "112", these are not treated within the GSM network as "teleservice emergency call" and would require a valid IMSI.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

4-4

January, 2000

Services
Teleservices
3 - Short Message Cell Broadcast

me ssa ge A
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

me ssa ge

eA sag me s

B

Information Provider A

eA sag mes B ge ssa me

ge sa es m

B

mess age B
A

m

ge sa es

Information Provider B

GSM Network
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-5

The cell broadcast enables an Information Provider to submit short messages for broadcasting to a specified area within the GSM network. The cell broadcast service has the following features: • The cell broadcast message is sent (on control channels) in a limited area, defined by the originator of the message, by agreement with the GSM Operator. • The mobile telephone only receive the broadcast message in idle mode. • The short message function running in the mobile is able not to store broadcast messages which are not wanted or which have already been received. • The mobile telephone does not send acknowledgment. • The GSM network continuously sends cell broadcast messages so that all such messages are sent in turn, an then repeated. On the other hand, the cycle time is short enough for important messages to be received by travelers (subscribers) moving through a group of cells. • The maximum length of each cell broadcast message will be 93 characters and GSM specifications allows up to 15 of these 93 character messages treated as segment of a longer message.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

4-5

January, 2000

Services
Teleservices
4 - Short Message Service

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Radio PLMN

SMS-MO/ PP

SMS-SC
Radio PLMN

SMS-MT/ PP

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Services

4-6

Short Message Service (SMS) allows the point to point transmission of a short message to/from MS, using their IMSI. A short message is an alphanumeric string that can be up to 160 characters long (140 octets). Two different types of short message are defined: • short message MT/PP (Mobile Terminated / Point to Point), • short message MO/PP (Mobile Originated / Point to Point). Point to point messages may be sent or received when the MS is engaged on a call (voice or data), or in idle mode. However, messages which overlap the boundary of such a call, or during a handover, may be lost, in which case they will be sent again. Messages may be input to the SC from a fixed network customer by means of a suitable telecommunication service either from the fixed network or from a mobile network customer. An acknowledgment indicates that the GSM Network has successfully transferred the message to the mobile telephone or the SC. Optionally, the SC may offer final delivery notification to the originator. This delivery report indicates whether this particular message has been correctly received at the receiving station or not, to the extent that the SC is able to establish this. It does not indicate whether the message has been read. If the delivery report is negative, it includes the failure cause. The delivery report is sent to the originator, if reachable, as soon as the information is available.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

4-6

January, 2000

Services
Teleservices
5 - Fax Alternate Speech and Fax:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Automatic fax:

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Services

4-7

Fax transmissions are possible via a PLMN only with a Fax-group3 (14.4 kbps). Two modes are available: • manual mode allows to switch alternatively from voice transmission to fax transmission, • automatic mode allows to send and receive a fax without any human intervention; however, voice transmission is impossible in this mode.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

4-7

January, 2000

Services
Teleservices
6 - User's Data Call Features Embodied bearer treatments for radio transmission Cable that bears data Teleservices Fax G3, SMS

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Teleservices voice

Data / Fax kit adaptation

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Services

4-8

Connections can be made with a suitable data/fax kit adaptation either to other Mobile Station or to other data users on circuit-switched (PSTN). The slide gives an example of a suitable data/fax kit and a computer that are directly connected to the MS. In the case of making a Fax-call to a PSTN subscriber, the GSM network automatically selects the suitable modem for the link to the similar modem at the remote end.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

4-8

January, 2000

Services
Teleservices
7 - Voice Messaging
Busy Please leave a message after the tone
Forward to voice mail box

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

1

GSM network
You have 3 voices messages...

Voice mail box

Retrieving the voice messages

Voice message server

Warming up...
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-9

Another service derived from telephony is voice messaging. Many operators offer it as a basic feature. It enables a voice message to be stored for later retrieval by the mobile recipient, either because he was not reachable at time of the call or because the calling party choose to access the voice mailbox of the GSM subscriber directly.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

4-9

January, 2000

Services
Supplementary Services
Calling Party CoLP CLIR

1 - Line Identification

Calling Line Identification
presentation (CLIP) (CLIR)

Called Party CLIP CoLR

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

restriction
Cnted line 0609173957

Connected Line Identification
presentation restriction (CoLP) (CoLR)

Calling line 0609225831

Calling Name Presentation
(CNAP)
Services

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

4-10

Calling line identification presentation (CLIP) provides the ability to indicate the ISDN number of the calling party with possible additional address information to the called party. This identity is provided to the called subscriber before answering, thus enabling him to make the decision of whether to take the call or not. Calling line identification restriction (CLIR) enables the calling party not to send any address information to the called party. Connected line identification presentation (CoLP) provides the GSM caller with the phone number he has reached. Connected line identification restriction (CoLR) enables the called party not to send its phone number to the calling party. Calling Name Presentation (CNAP) provides the calling party name instead of the ISDN number. However, this service is not yet specified by GSM recommendations.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

4-10

January, 2000

Services
Supplementary Services
2 - Call Transfer and Call Forwarding

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

unconditional on busy on no reply

(CFU) (CFB) (CFNRy)
1 2

on not reachable (CFNRc)

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Services

4-11

Call forwarding unconditional (CFU) allows a called mobile subscriber to have the network send all incoming calls, which are addressed to the called mobile subscriber’s directory number, to another directory number. Call forwarding on mobile subscriber busy (CFB): allows a called mobile subscriber to have the network send the incoming calls, which are addressed to the called mobile subscriber’s directory number and which meet mobile subscriber busy, definition to another directory number. Call forwarding on no reply (CFNRy) allows an called mobile subscriber to have the network send the incoming calls, which are addressed to the subscriber’s directory number and which meet no reply, to another directory number. Call forwarding on MS not reachable (CFNRc) provides for a mobile subscriber to have the network send all incoming calls, which are addressed to the called mobile directory number and meet the not reachable definition, to another directory number.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

4-11

January, 2000

Services
Supplementary Services
3 - Waiting / Hold and Multi Party
WAIT 1
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

HOLD

2

1

2

Waiting / Hold:

1

Multi Party:

1

Max = 5 persons

2

2

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Services

4-12

Call waiting (CW): provides a mobile subscriber with the possibility of being notified of an incoming call while his mobile telephone is in the busy state. Subsequently, the user can either answer, reject, or ignore the incoming call. Both the call waiting and call hold (described further) options are the same as those offered by the PSTN. Call Hold (HOLD): allows a served mobile subscriber to interrupt communication on an existing call and then subsequently, if desired, to reestablish communication. Multi party service (MPTY): • This Supplementary Service provides a mobile subscriber with the ability to have a multi-connection call, in other words a simultaneous communication with more than one party. • A precondition for the multi-party service is that the served mobile subscriber is in control of one active call and one call on hold, both calls having been answered. In this situation the served mobile subscriber can request the network to begin the multiParty service. • Once a multiParty call is active, remote parties may be added, disconnected or separated (i.e.. removed from the multiParty call but remain connected to the served mobile subscriber). • The maximum number of remote parties is 5.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

4-12

January, 2000

Services
Supplementary Services
4 - Call Barring

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Outgoing (BAOC) Outgoing international (BOIC) Outgoing international except home PLMN country (BOIC-exHC)

Incoming (BAIC) Incoming when roaming outside (BIC-Roam)

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Services

4-13

Barring of all outgoing call (BAOC): makes it possible for a mobile subscriber to prevent all outgoing calls. Barring outgoing international calls (BOIC): allows a mobile subscriber to prevent all attempted outgoing calls. BOIC except those directed to the home PLMN country (BOIC-exHC) Barring of all incoming international (BAIC). Barring of all incoming calls when roaming outside the home GSM network country (BIC-Roam): makes it possible for a mobile subscriber to prevent all incoming calls that would otherwise be terminated at his directory number. This only applies to the case when the mobile subscriber roams outside his home GSM network.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

4-13

January, 2000

Services
Supplementary Services
5 - Call Completion (CCBS)

NEW!
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BUSY ...

Unable to place a call.
1

Speaking

Speaking

2

Reinitiate the call Ring !
1

This call in state

Ring !
Idle

SPEAKING

Call is established

HELLO
1

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Services

4-14

Completion of calls to busy subscribers (CCBS): allows a calling mobile subscriber who encounters a busy called subscriber to be notified by the system operator when the busy called subscriber becomes free and have the operator re-initiate the call if the caller so desires. This feature has to be supported by both the originating and the terminating networks.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

4-14

January, 2000

Services
Supplementary Services
6 - Advice of Charge

Advice of Charge Information (AoCI)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

information on progress of the cost of the call

Advice of Charge Charging (AoCC)

Insert a SIM credit Card Completion of call need charging

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Services

4-15

Advice of charge Information (AoCI): informs the user of the real-time information on progress of the cost of the call. Advice of charge Charging (AoCC): the mobile may be a money-operated mobile telephone or a standard mobile station that can display the charging information and can accept either coins or charge a credit-card.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

4-15

January, 2000

Services
Intelligent Network Services
IN and CAMEL

Main IN Services:
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤

Personal Number Virtual Private Network (VPN) Sponsored Cell & Call Prepaid Calling Location Inquiry Geo Zone

The aim of the CAMEL (Customized Application for Mobile network Enhanced Logic) is to provide GSM network operators with the ability to create specific services in their home network, and export these services to their subscribers when roaming outside the home network. CAMEL introduces the ability to provide location dependent IN type of services to mobiles subscribers.
12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-16

PE/TRD/GR/0101

The Intelligent Network or IN is a switching network concept. Its idea is to make GSM services system an open system; that is to say new services modules can always be added on the previous system without changing its architecture. Basic call processing is performed by the switch and when it recognizes that a call requires an IN service, this service processing is provided by another entity, located either in the same site or in a remote site. This concept allows to implement numerous new services such as: • Personal Number: gives the GSM subscribers more control over incoming calls, • Virtual Private Network: a set of corporate services that enables similar functions to those of private network, among a group of GSM subscribers, • Sponsored Cell and Call: allows a third party, as sponsor, to play announcement at the beginning of the call, • Prepaid Calling: allows subscriber to pay in advance for the calls they will make. To communicate between Intelligent Network platforms, GSM specifications define CAMEL (Customized Application for Mobile network Enhanced Logic). The aim of the CAMEL is to provide network operators with the ability to create specific services in their home network, and export these services to their subscribers when roaming outside the home network. CAMEL introduces the ability to provide location dependent IN type of services to mobiles subscribers: Location Enquiry and Geo Zone.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

4-16

January, 2000

Services
IN Services: Virtual Private Network

c
1 4 7 2 5 8 o+ 3 6 9

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Location & Time dependant screening

*

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

X
25 c/min

Closed User Group

25 c/min

5696

X

Location & Time dependant routing

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Services

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a set of corporate services that enables private network like features among a group of GSM subscribers and wireline users; thus, corporations can distribute GSM phones to their employees, providing them with many of the services that they use on their existing corporate network:

Private Numbering Plan: subscribers can reach all members of the corporate private network, GSM as well as wireline, by dialing their usual internal number instead of the longer, harder to remember, public number. Off Net Calling: subscribers are allowed to call public numbers that are outside the corporate private network. Forced On Net Calling: when a subscriber makes a call to a member of the corporate private network using their public number (he must also be provisioned with Off Net Calling), the feature recognizes the call as a private call and treats it as such (appropriate billing, etc.). White (/Black) List Screening: subscribers with White (/ Black) List, can only (/ can not) place calls to numbers listed on it. Geographic Routing: specific numbers can be configured to route calls differently depending on the location of the caller. Time Screening (/ Routing): some specific numbers can be configured to restrict access (/ to route calls differently) depending on the time of the day, day of the week, day of the year or whether the day is a statutory holiday. Privileged Routing: specific numbers can be configured to route calls differently depending on the identity of the caller.

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom
Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

4197 4446 4197

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

** 0 # 7PRS8TUV9WXY 4GHI 5JKL 6MNO 1 2ABC3DEF

Corporate Numbering Plan Lower rate for on-net calls

Wireline Access

5696

25 c/min 4446
Speed Dialing

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

c
1 4

London Bristol

7

*

2 5 8 o+

3 6 9

50 c/min

924 63256

4-17

• Closer user group (CUG): provides the possibility for a group of subscribers, connected to the GSM network and or to the PSTN/ISDN, to communicate only among themselves or receive external calls; emergency calls still are available.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

4-17

January, 2000

Services
IN Services: Prepaid Calling

RANK1ONE
5542 1139 1464 228 99494
VALID DATES

6/91

6/99

SCOOBY DOO

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

Las cos t call Newts $ 0.5 is $ bala 0 24.5 nce 0

Your account balance is $ 24.50

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

Multiple recharging options  Multiple Tariff Plans

Account status enquiry and notification 

Tariffs using fixed charge, CC, NC, distance, time & day, roaming charges...  Possible language selection by subscriber  Bulk account loading for easy provisioning Flexible features for easy service packaging
4-18

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Services

Prepaid Calling enables subscribers to control their phone call expenditure, by deciding how much to spend and limiting themselves to that amount if required. Subscribers pay in advance for their calls and get their calls released when the balance becomes null; thus, subscribers get a cost-control (useful for rental companies, hotels, special events, parents wanting to give mobiles to their children). With Prepaid Calling, subscribers are able to: • make and receive calls (service is totally transparent to the subscriber during normal use), • be notified of a low balance or a pending expiry date (if the threshold is reached, the subscriber can be notified by warning tones before the call is taken down), • use Voice Mail, • query the status of their account at any time from any phone and recharge their account. The subscriber can also be informed of his account balance and of the cost of his last call, at the end of each call, via a short message. Additionally, the Operator can apply different rates to calls and manage the life of prepaid subscriptions. Nortel’s prepaid solution currently supports all major recharging options, for increased service usage and enhanced customer satisfaction: • automatically, by vouchers (e.g. scratch card), • automatically, by credit card, • manually (through Customer Services), by any means of payment.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

4-18

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

January, 2000

Services
IN Services: Sponsored Cell & Call

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Calls from this location are sponsored. Today buy one dinner at Bellini’s on Keith Street, near the cinemas, and get one free!

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

Sponsors can target specific customers by sponsoring some of their calls...

Today, up to 50 % off on handbags !

Sponsors can also change their announcements on the phone

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

...made from specified locations at predefined times of day

Your next two minute calling is brought to you free today by The leather Shop located on first level of the Central Shopping Centre. Come and visit us Today, up to 50 % off on handbags !

Service can be offered via access code or through subscription
4-19

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Services

Sponsored Cell & Call allows a third party (the sponsor) to play a promotional announcement at the beginning of a call and for this service, pays for part of the ongoing call. The main features of Sponsored Cell & Call are: Choice to sponsor the call & choice of sponsor based on one or more of the following: • the calling party location, • the calling party profile (age ...), • time of day, day of week, • destination (emergency, freephone ...). Sponsor can change his announcement on the phone. User can specify certain destinations as not sponsored. User can have the choice of having his call sponsored or not. User can cut through the announcement, but the call is not sponsored. User can be prevented from cutting through the announcement.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

4-19

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

January, 2000

Services
IN Services: Location Inquiry
The closest restaurants are: The Wind Jammer on 132 Flinton Street Sea food Phone 55 1968 press 1 to connect
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

The Palace on 11 Bourke Street Chinese food Phone 55 0407 press 2 to connect

Promotional Informations: call #15

The closest restaurants are: The Tower, Tower Hill, Phone 56 4589, Press 1 to connect The Anchor St Catherine Dock Phonce 56 2548 Press 2 to connect

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

Today’s special at The Anchor is Maine lobster soup Be the first ten caller and get a free cocktail !

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

Cell dependent information Direct connection to advertisers
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000

Possible customization of announcement directly by the advertiser
Services 4-20

Location Inquiry provides GSM subscribers with information on where to locate useful services in their current vicinity. It enables easy connection to any service they are interested in and wish to talk to. However, while GSM subscribers are out of the office or away from home, they do not have access to this information easily e.g. yellow pages, guides. Most of time, they may be even more reliant on this information because they often are in a foreign environment, e.g. in another part of town or out of town. The Location Inquiry service brings in a third party known as the “Advertiser” who seeks to sell their products/services using the operator’s network. Location Inquiry may also list services such as hospitals, doctors, pharmacies, etc. and be promoted as a personal security service. The main features of Location Inquiry are: • location dependent information based on subscriber’s cell, • possible customization of the announcement by the advertiser (special offer of the day ...).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

4-20

January, 2000

Services
IN Services: Geo Zone
1 - Outgoing Calls

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

This call is being made outside of your home zone.
Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom
C o p y r ig h t © 1996 N o r th e r n T e le c o m

Wait to complete it or hang-up now.
Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

Office Zone 15 c/min

Wide Area Cellular 50 c/min

Home Zone 10 c/min

Notification of current zone before call set-up:
• when in home/office zone and/or • when out of zones

Specific rates applied to calls made from Home/Office zone Multiple zones can be defined

Different rates applied to calls made from specific locations
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-21

The main features of the outgoing side of Geo Zone are: • zone dependent tariffing of outgoing calls: - up to 4 zones per subscriber, - each zone has its own tariff, • information on the current zone available to the subscriber via: - announcement or tones at the beginning of the call, - optionally by a display on the mobile (in which case it must support it, which means specific development on the handset).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

4-21

January, 2000

Services
IN Services: Geo Zone
2 - Incoming Calls

Calling the “fixed” number
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

You are going to be charged 5 c/min for this call. Wait to accept it or hang-up now.
Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

When you are at home, you are called directly

When you are away from home, you decide if the call is routed to:
Voice mail

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

OR
With Notification

Copyright © 1996 Northern Telecom

Your Caller pays fixed line rate You pay nothing

Your Caller pays fixed line rate You pay nothing

Your Caller pays fixed line rate You pay the “forwarding leg”

Notification of current zone before incoming call is connected:
when in home/office zone
and/or • when out of zones

Fixed network service with built-in mobility
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Services 4-22

The main features of the incoming side of Geo Zone are: • routing of incoming calls according to the subscriber’s location: - if the subscriber is in his Geo Zone, the call is routed to his mobile handset, thus he does not have to pay anything, - if the subscriber is out of his Geo Zone, the call can be either routed to his voicemail, or to his mobile handset; in the last case the subscriber pays for the forwarding leg, • information on the current zone available to the subscriber, when receiving a call via: - announcement or tones before the call is connected.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

4-22

January, 2000

Services
Check Your Learning
1- What are the three categories of services defined in GSM?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

2- What are the two types of short messages?

3- What are the two required pieces of equipment for data exchanges in GSM (one in the MS, the other in the MSC)?

4- What are the user data rates which were selected for GSM?

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Services

4-23

1- What are the three categories of services defined in GSM?

2- What are the two types of short messages?

3- What are the two required pieces of equipment for data exchanges in GSM (one in the MS, the other in the MSC)?

4- What are the user data rates which were selected for GSM?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

4-23

January, 2000

Services
Check Your Learning (continue)
5- What is the CLIP supplementary service?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

6- What is the CoLP supplementary service?

7- What is the MPTY supplementary service?

8- What is the call forwarding supplementary services?

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Services

4-24

5- What is the CLIP supplementary service?

6- What is the CoLP supplementary service?

7- What is the MPTY supplementary service?

8- What is the call forwarding supplementary services?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

4-24

January, 2000

Services
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

4-25

January, 2000

Services
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

4-26

January, 2000

Cellular Principles

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Section 5

Cellular Principles

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Cellular Principles

5-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

5-1

January, 2000

Cellular Principles
Objectives
Provide an introduction to the concept of cellular radio networks.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

After completing this lesson you will be able to: • Explain what a radio cell is • List the various types of cells • Explain what a clutter is • Have basic notions on Link Budget • Explain what an Erlang is • Explain what a frequency reuse pattern is • Have basic notions on Link Budget

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Cellular Principles

5-2

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

5-2

January, 2000

Cellular Principles
Radio Design

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Cellular Principles

5-3

The first step in designing a GSM cellular network consists in dimensioning the cells which are the basic elements of the system. The size of the cell is dependant on several parameters and must be determined on a case per case basis at the implementation stage, even if the preliminary design stage takes few cell models. Both technical and economical aspects influence the design. The first layer of the above drawing indicates that before implementing a network, an operator will list and use his locations as much as possible, for economical reasons. As a result the given position and height of the location will influence the range of the cell. The exact situation and height of the pole and antennas can also be determined or imposed by the microwave links. The marketing requirements are translated into coverage areas with their associated quality of service and traffic needs. The operator is given a limited number of radio channels which leads to limited resources in a given cell, depending on the chosen frequency reuse policy. It appears then that a cell is determined by two factors: one is radio range depending on antenna height, environment, quality of service… and the other is traffic or subscribers per cell.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

5-3

January, 2000

Cellular Principles
Erlang Concept
Erlang is the unit of statistical resource use.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Average number of busy channels during the period of observation (usually, the peak hour).
Example: One user speaking on the phone for three minutes out of one hour will need: 3/60 = .05 ERLANG or 50 mErl

Erlang B:
At some time some users can need the resource simultaneously: the use of the resource is associated with a blocking rate.

Erlang C:
When users request the resource at the same time, instead of rejecting the extra calls, users are requested to wait some time before getting the line.
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Cellular Principles 5-4

The Erlang B formula used to compute the resource number is quite complicated:
Br = 1+ AN N!

AN A + ... + N! 1!

A good approximate result can be obtained by using the following formula:

N = A + kA1/2 where:
N is the number of resources needed to provide A Erlangs with the Br, Blocking Rate expressed in 10 at power -k: Br = 10-k For Erlang C, the concept of blocking rate is no more used. The calls instead of being rejected, when no resource is available, are held for a given time, queuing is used. That is to say, the user has a probability of waiting more than a given time before getting the line. As an example, using the first formula, 117 resources provide 100 Erlangs at 1% blocking rate. If the approximate formula is used, 117 become 120. When queuing is implemented, 1% blocking is converted into 1% probability of waiting more than 0.1 second or 1‰ probability of waiting more than 0.38 second. Generally the values used for a mobile subscriber are in the 20 to 50 mErl range at 1% to 5% blocking rate.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

5-4

January, 2000

Cellular Principles
Fading
Example of Field Strength Variation for GSM 1800
-10 -20
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Zoom on Short Term Fading
Measurement Free Space

-30

Field Strength (dBm)

-40

≅ λ/2 ±2m

-50 -60 -70

Long Term Fading
-80 -90 0 -100 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000

Distance (m)
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Cellular Principles 5-5

Information exchanged between MS and BTS is transported by means of radio waves which are attenuated, reflected or diffracted, on their path. The received signal is the sum of different signals resulting from these effects, sometimes constructive, sometimes destructive. Free-space loss is calculated using the following formula: Loss (dB) = 32.4 + 20*log(d) + 20*log(f) where d is the distance between BTS and MS expressed in km and f the frequency expressed in MHz. In practice, the radio waves are not in free-space propagation conditions and the term depending on distance can vary from 20*log(d) for free space to 40*log(d) for very dense urban, depending on the environment. Practical expressions of path loss are given here, depending on frequency and environment. They come from several measurements, are statistical and represent the mean variation to which short term and long term fading have to be added: Rural (BTS antenna at 100 m) GSM 900 90.7 + 31.8log(d) Rural (BTS antenna at 60 m) GSM 1800 100.1 + 33.3log(d) Urban (BTS antenna at 50 m) 123.3 + 33.7log(d) Urban (BTS antenna at 50 m) 133.2 + 33.8log(d)

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

5-5

January, 2000

Cellular Principles
Coverage or Traffic Limitations
TRAFFIC LIMITED AREA (10000 subscriber per km2)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

COVERAGE LIMITED AREA (-75 dBm at cell edge)

COVERAGE LIMITED AREA (-70 dBm at cell edge)
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Cellular Principles 5-6

At the advent of GSM, subscribers were very few, and the radio resources available in each cell were sufficient to cope with the call requests. As subscriber numbers grew, some dense urban cells became congested, and the need of extra radio resources appeared. The solution was to add extra sites to provide extra channels even if the radio coverage was good enough. This is called cell splitting. For radio coverage, the use of a link budget calculation sheet is necessary. The size of the cell in this case is determined by the signal strength necessary at the edge of the cell. For capacity limited areas, the BTS manages a given maximum number of subscribers. To determine the number of sites necessary to provide the service is simply to divide the amount of subscribers located in the area by the number of subscribers managed by one site.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

5-6

January, 2000

Cellular Principles
Cell Sectorization

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

TRI

OMNI BI

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Cellular Principles

5-7

Three types of site coverage are shown, on the same scale: omni, bi and tri. Each site is equipped with optimum antennas. Sectorization provides higher cell range thus allowing reduction of number of sites and easier frequency reuse.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

5-7

January, 2000

Cellular Principles
Omnidirectional Site Antennas

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Cellular Principles

5-8

These pictures show one omni antenna as well as an omni site with space diversity. On the right are printed the vertical radiation patterns with no electrical tilt (top) and with electrical tilt (bottom). Mechanical tilt is not used on omni antennas.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

5-8

January, 2000

Cellular Principles
Bi and Trisectorial Site Antennas

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Cellular Principles

5-9

These two pictures illustrate bi and trisector sites with space diversity.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

5-9

January, 2000

Cellular Principles
Calculated Cell Coverage (Trisectorial Site)

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Cellular Principles

5-10

This coverage map coming from a trisectorial site, illustrates the statistical representation. It more obviously appears that an hexagon is not sufficient to represent a cell. Some areas can be provided with coverage very far away from the average range of the cell in line of sight conditions which can cause interference.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

5-10

January, 2000

Cellular Principles
Calculated Cell Coverage

P
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

2 1

P’

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Cellular Principles

5-11

To be able to make a GSM call, the first condition is to get sufficient signal strength. But this is not enough, this signal must be understandable by the mobile which means not to receive two similar signals from two different BTS using the same frequency. As an example points P or P’ on the picture may receive good signal from sites 1 and 2, but depending on the relative levels and frequencies, the communication can be performed successfully or not. Interference can occur at the MS side where two or more BTSs having the same frequency are received with similar levels. Similarly at the BTS side when two mobiles communicating with two different BTS can be received by one with similar levels.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

5-11

January, 2000

Cellular Principles
Clutters

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Cellular Principles

5-12

Radio waves behave differently depending on the environment, and the radio range can vary from few hundred meters to several kilometers. It is then important to classify the different types of environment included in the area to be provided with GSM service. As an example the map presented above shows a city and its surroundings, classified into fourteen types of environment or clutters. A link budget is established for each clutter, defining a specific cell size. Example of Dense Urban clutter Areas within urban perimeter. This includes dense urban areas with dense development where built-up features do not appear distinct from each other. It also includes built-up features of the downtown district with heights below 40 m.

Example of Mean Urban clutter Areas with urban perimeter. The mean urban clutter should have mean street density with no pattern, the major streets are visible, the built-up features appear distinct from each other. Some small vegetation could be included. Average height is below 40 m.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

5-12

January, 2000

Cellular Principles
Link Budget Presentation
Antenna Gain (65°) 18 dBi Jumper Loss 0.5 dB Feeder Loss 3 dB
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Parameters Frequency 1800 MHz Base Height 40.0 m Mobile Height 1,5 m Environment Urban Penetration Factor 15 dB Body Loss 3 dB

Sensitivity -110 dBm Coupling system Tx loss 4.5 dB

Outdoor Minimum Field 95%: -80 dBm Coverage Range 95%: 810 m

Cable Loss 0 dB RX

Antenna Gain -2 dB

TX

RXm

RXd

Output Power 30 dBm Sensitivity

Max TX Output Power 44.8 dBm Base Station
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000

-100 dBm

Options
Rx Diversity Gain: 5 dB Overlapping Margin: 0 dB
Cellular Principles 5-13

Mobile

The purpose of the link budget calculation is to determine the range of the cell with given equipment and quality of service in a specific environment. • First of all the technical characteristics of the BTS and the MS are taken into account: output power and input sensitivity as well as the feeder losses and antenna gain on the BTS side and body losses and antenna gain on the MS side. • Secondly, quality of service is specified using various elements: percentage of area covered inside the cell (ex: 95%), indoor penetration losses (ex: 18 dB), overlapping margin (ex: 3 dB). • Thirdly, environment is specified (ex: urban) with antennas height, for both BTS and MS. Radio wave propagation losses are dependent on frequency (GSM 900 or 1800), and environment. This is taken into account in the link budget. The above diagram illustrates all the elements used in the link budget for determining the maximum path loss for the radio waves, from BTS to MS (downlink) and from MS to BTS (uplink). The worst case or lowest path loss allowed will be used to calculate the cell range in the specified conditions.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

5-13

January, 2000

Cellular Principles
Cochannel Interference
Power Power
Interfering signal Wanted signal

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

f1

Frequency Frequency

f1 Power
combined signal The two signals are superimposed

f1
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Cellular Principles

Frequency
5-14

Cochannel interference occurs when two signals are being transmitted by two different cells on the same frequency and both are received by the same telephone mobile. The two signals are then superimposed, interfering with one another and creating a signal that cannot be recognized.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

5-14

January, 2000

Cellular Principles
The Frequency Reuse Distance

Reuse distance D

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Frequency Group A1

R

Other frequencies

Other frequencies

Frequency Group A1

R

Wanted signal Interfering signal

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Cellular Principles

5-15

C I

=

ç 6 èR

1æDö

γ

C = "useful" signal I = Interfere signal γ = Constant depending on the environment type. Ex: down-town rural γ=4 γ = 2.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

5-15

January, 2000

Cellular Principles
Interference Limits

Ia2 (+41dB)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

C (0 dB) Ic (-9 dB) Ia1 (+9 dB)

F1
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000

+ 200 kHz + 400 kHz
Cellular Principles 5-16

GSM specifications state that system and equipment must operate with specific ratios of carrier to interference: • C/Ic or useful signal over interfering signal at same frequency may be as low as • C/Ia1 or useful signal over interfering signal at ± 200 kHz may be as low as • C/Ia2 or useful signal over interfering signal at ± 400 kHz may be as low as dB, • C/Ia3 or useful signal over interfering signal at ± 600 kHz may be as low as dB. 9 dB, -9 dB, -41 -49

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

5-16

January, 2000

Cellular Principles
Frequency Reuse Pattern
A4 C3 B3 A4 C3 B3 A4 C3

Trisectorial Site

B4

A1

C4

B4

A1

C4

B4

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

A2

C1

B1

A2

C1

B1

A2

C1

Distance of frequency reuse
A4

B2

A3

C2

B2

A3

C2

B2

C3

B3

A4

C3

B3

A4

C3

4*3 Reuse Pattern of 12 cells

B4

A1

C4 A2

B4

A1

C4

B4

A2

C1

B1

C1

B1

A2

C1

B2

A3

C2

B2

A3

C2

B2

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Cellular Principles

5-17

Channels are reused at regular distance intervals. The mechanism that governs this process is called frequency planning. The slide shows an example of N =12 frequency plan where the available frequencies of a GSM network are placed. This set of 12 cells is called a frequency reuse pattern and is generally used for BCCH frequency plan.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

5-17

January, 2000

Cellular Principles
Frequency Plan

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Cellular Principles

5-18

A practical example of 4*3 reuse frequency pattern is displayed here, one color represents a frequency group.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

5-18

January, 2000

Cellular Principles
Different Types of Cells
EXTENDED - CELL: macro cell with system coverage extension (≤ 120 km) for coasts... ≤ CONCENTRIC - CELL: macro cell with system coverage limitation inside another macro MACRO - CELL: antenna radiating ‘above’ roofs ---> Wide Coverage (≤ 35 km) ≤

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

• High sensitivity to interference • Requires "secured" Frequency reuse pattern

PICO-CELL: Antenna inside building ---> Very small coverage

MICRO-CELL: Antenna ‘below’ the roofs ---> small coverage
Cellular Principles

• High isolation from interferences • A few Frequencies intensively reused
5-19

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

As capacity needs increase, various solutions have to be implemented to provide local extra capacity. Micro cells provide coverage to one or several streets as well as indoor coverage improvement. Pico cells provide specific service in given buildings, shopping malls, conference halls… Concentric cells allow provision of extra capacity close to the site by adding TRXs with system limitations reducing their coverage range.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

5-19

January, 2000

Cellular Principles
Cell Layering
Macrocell Antenna

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Macrocell Umbrella cell

Microcell Antenna
µ cell 2

2 layers model
µ cell 1

Microcell
Pedestrian

Fast speed vehicle

Slow speed vehicle after direction change

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Cellular Principles

5-20

Micro-cells can be seen as an efficient design for mobile network to improve: • indoor propagation, • network capacity. The actual solution consists in creating a two layers model: • macro-cell or ‘umbrella’ cell layer dedicated in priority to fast speed users, • micro-cells layer, dedicated to slow speed mobile (pedestrian, traffic jam).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

5-20

January, 2000

Cellular Principles
Frequency Reuse Pattern
Exercise

A1
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

A1

C1

B1

A2

C1

B1

A2

A3

C2

B2

A3

C2

B2

C3

B3

A4

C3

B3

C4

B4

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Cellular Principles

5-21

This exercise depicts the advantages of the frequency reuse pattern assuming the following data for bandwidth, and number of cells, over the same service area to be covered. Assumptions: • Operator bandwidth: 9.6 MHz (48 freq.). • 36 cells (12 tri-sectorial sites). • Channel spacing: 200 kHz. • TDMA: 8 channels per carrier. Questions: What are the number of channels available within this area for these two cases: • 1° case: reuse pattern = 12 cells? • 2° case: reuse pattern = 9 cells?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

5-21

January, 2000

Cellular Principles
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

5-22

January, 2000

Radio Interface

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Section 6

Radio Interface

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Radio Interface

6-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-1

January, 2000

Radio Interface
Objectives
Provides an introduction to the Radio Interface
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

After completing this lesson you will be able to: • Explain the purposes of the radio interface • Show how GSM organizes its radio channels • Identify the physical channels and the logical channels • Relate basic steps that GSM must perform for the successful transmission over the radio interface • Explain how GSM use its logical channels at call setup

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Radio Interface

6-2

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-2

January, 2000

Radio Interface
Functions of the Radio Interface

• Speech and user's data • Signaling
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BTS

BTS-1

BTS-2

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Radio Interface

6-3

The radio interface in the GSM system is responsible for maintaining communication between the fixed network and mobile subscribers. The radio interface serves two major functions in the GSM system. • To transport user information, both speech and data: - Bi-directional speech transmission at rate of 13 kbps (full rate). - Bi-directional data transmission: 300, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600 bps. • To exchange signaling messages between the mobile station and the network (e.g. call in progress indication and preparation and execution of handovers). • Signaling by preemption over the existing communication. - Signaling over a dedicated channel. The transmission resource used to fulfill this radio need is the channel.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-3

January, 2000

Radio Interface
GSM Uses Paired Radio Channels
Case of GSM 900

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Uplink
890 MHz Frequency 915 MHz 935 MHz

Downlink
Frequency

BTS 960 MHz

0

channel #

124 Example: Channel 48

0

channel #

124

Duplex spacing = 45 MHz Frequency band spectrum = 2 x 25 MHz Channel spacing = 200 kHz
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-4

A pair of channels are used for full duplex communications. Thus GSM uses both the uplink and the downlink bands of a given spectrum. In other words, a channel refers to a pair of frequencies used for a cellular radio talk path. One is used for cell site to mobile transmission while the other is used for mobile to cell site transmission. GSM signal requires channels spacing of 200 kHz.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-4

January, 2000

Radio Interface
GSM Band Allocations (MHz)

GSM systems
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Uplink

Downlink

Band

Duplex Spacing 45 45 45 95 80

Duplex channels 124 174 194 374 299

GSM 900 E-GSM (900) R-GSM (900) GSM 1800 GSM 1900

890-915 880-915 876-915 1710-1785 1850-1910

935-960 925-960 921-960 1805-1880 1930-1990

2x25 2x35 2x39 2x75 2x60

Frequencies are in MHz

Carrier frequency = ARFCN = Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-5

The carrier frequency is designated by the Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (ARFCN). If we call Fl(n) the frequency value of the carrier ARFCN n in the lower band, and Fu(n) the corresponding frequency value in the upper band, we have: P-GSM 900: Fl(n) = 890 + 0.2*n E-GSM 900: Fl(n) = 890 + 0.2*n R-GSM 900: Fl(n) = 890 + 0.2*n (1 ≤=n ≤=124) (0 ≤=n ≤=124) (0 ≤=n ≤=124) Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 45, Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 45, Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 45, Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 45, Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 45, Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 95, Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 80.

Fl(n) = 890 + 0.2*(n -1024) (955 ≤=n ≤=1023) Fl(n) = 890 + 0.2*(n -1024) (955 ≤=n ≤=1023) GSM 1800: GSM 1900: Fl(n) = 1710.2 + 0.2*(n-512) (512 ≤=n ≤=885) Fl(n) = 1850.2 + 0.2*(n-512) (512 ≤=n ≤=885)

Frequencies are in MHz.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-5

January, 2000

Radio Interface
GSM Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
Frame and Physical Channels Time-slot TDMA frame TDMA frame

TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

(frames repeat continuously)

Time
0 4.615 ms 9.23 ms

Physical channel # 2 = recurrence of time-slot # 2

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Radio Interface

6-6

A frame (TDMA), 8 successive Time-Slots (TS), has a duration of 60/13 ms or 4.615385 ms. A TS, has a duration of 15/26 ms or 0.576923 ms. A physical channel is made of the recurrence of the same TS taken from successive frames.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-6

January, 2000

Radio Interface
Physical Channel
time

BTS

n+1
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

TDMAs
n TS
0 7

n-1 MS2

MS1

MS3
0
PE/TRD/GR/0101

FDMA
12.01/EN

1

//

123
Radio Interface

ARFCN
6-7

January, 2000

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-7

January, 2000

Radio Interface
GSM Delays Uplink TDMA Frames
BTS side
The start of the uplink TDMA is delayed of three time-slots 0 R
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

TDMA Frame (4.615 ms)

1 R

2 R

3 R

4 R

5 R

6 R

7 R

Downlink TDMA
BTS

T

T

T Down link

T

T

T

T Up link

T

MSs side
MS1 R

T

R MS2
Fixed transmit delay of three time-slots
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface

T

6-8

The start of an uplink TDMA frame is delayed with respect to downlink by a fixed period of three Time Slots. Why? Staggering TDMA frames allows the same TS number (TN) to be used in both the down and uplink while avoiding the requirement for MS to transmit and receive simultaneously.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-8

January, 2000

Radio Interface
Propagation Delays

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

M2

d2

d1>>d2

M1

BTS Frame reference

TS0

TS1

TS2

TS3

TS4

TS5

TS6

TS7

Propagation Delay τp MSs transmit

Bits Overlapping

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Radio Interface

6-9

On the radio path, propagation delays can not be ignored. Indeed, 1 km corresponds to a propagation delay of 3.33 µs (compare to a bit period of 48/13 = 3.7 µs). But the BTS receives continuously, and has its own scheduling. The mobile station must itself balance the propagation delay, in order to avoid overlapping in the frame received by the BTS. This is why the system takes into account these timing delays and orders the mobile station to transmit with an anticipation called the Timing Advance.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-9

January, 2000

Radio Interface
Logical Channels
Traffic and Control Channels TDMA frame TDMA frame

TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

(frames repeat continuously)

Voice transmitted over the physical channel #2 defines a logical traffic channel

Information (e.g. to set up a call) transmitted over the physical channel #1 defines a logical control channel

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Radio Interface

6-10

The specific type of information carried on a physical channel are known as a logical channel. Logical channels can be split into two main categories: • Traffic channels full rate (TCH/ F) and half rate (TCH/ H) which carry user’s data and speech. • Signaling channels, also known as control channel.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-10

January, 2000

Radio Interface
From Physical Channel to Logical Channels
TDMA Frame = 4.615 ms Time Slot Logical channels multiplexing LOGICAL CHANNELS • Traffic • Broadcasted signaling

0 12 345 67 01 234 56 701 23 45 67
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

TS = 577 µs

• Dedicated signaling • Associated signaling

MESSAGE TYPE

Physical Channel

different message types = different logical channels

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Radio Interface

6-11

A Physical Channel (a TS, defined by a fixed position (0-7) on a given TDMA frame) is used to broadcast messages containing different kinds of information: • traffic messages for speech and data, • signaling messages for different procedures and supplementary services, • synchronization messages for synchronization between the mobile station and the BTS, • measurements messages for uplink report of the downlink measurements, • control messages to manage the access to the network. All these kinds of messages are classified and separated in Logical Channels. Depending on the quantity of information to transmit and on their consistency, several logical channels may be grouped into one physical channel, in order to occupy its successive TS as much as possible (optimization of the resources number by maximizing the occupancy time of each).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-11

January, 2000

Radio Interface
Traffic Channels (TCHs)

BSS
sp ee ch
TC H

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BSC MSC
BTS

or da ta TC H
rd ata

sp ee ch o

Full rate TCH carries: • speech (13 kbps) • user’s data (300 bps up to14.4 kbps) Half rate TCH carries: • user’s data (300 bps up to 4.8 kbps)

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Radio Interface

6-12

Traffic Channels (TCH) are intended to carry either encoded speech or user data both in the up and downlink directions in a point to point communication. There are two type of Traffic Channels (TCHs) that are differentiated by their traffic rates as follows: • A full rate TCH that carries information (speech and data) at a gross rate of kbps. The raw data rate for each TCH is 13 kbps for speech. 22.8

• A half rate TCH (TCH / H) carries information (encoded speech or data) at half of the full rate channel with a gross rate of 11.4 kbps. The allowed combining of user data rate with full and half rate are as follows: • Full rate speech (TCH /F). • Half rate speech (TCH /H), not available at the present time. • 14.4 kbps full rate data (TCH / F14.4). • 9.6 kbps full rate data (TCH / F9.6). • 4.8 kbps full rate data (TCH / F4.8). • 2.4 kbps full rate data (TCH / F2.4). • 4.8 kbps half rate data (TCH / H4.8). • 2.4 kbps half rate data (TCH / H2.4).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-12

January, 2000

Radio Interface
Control Channels
GSM Channels Traffic Channels (TCHs)
Broadcast Channels (BCHs) Full rate Half rate

Control Channels

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Common Control Channels (CCCHs)

Dedicated Control Channels (DCCHs) (down uplink)

Downlink

Downlink

Uplink Fast Slow

TCH /F

TCH /H FCCH

SCH

BCCH PCH

AGCH

CBCH

RACH SDCCH

FACCH

SACCH

Traffic Multiframing
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000

Signaling Multiframing
Radio Interface

Traffic Multiframing
6-13

Control channels are intended to carry signaling or synchronization data. Three are defined: Broadcast Channels (BCHs), Common Control Channels (CCCHs), Dedicated Control Channels (DCCHs). Broadcast channels are point to multipoint unidirectional (downlink) control channels from the the fixed subsystem to the mobile telephone. • First, BCHs include a Frequency Control Channel (FCCH) that allows an MS to accurately tune to a Base Transceiver Station (BTS). • Then BCHs contain the Synchronization Channel (SCH), which provide TDMA frame oriented synchronization data to a MS. • Last, BCHs include the Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) intended to broadcast a variety of information to MSs, including cues necessary for the MS to register in the network. Common Control Channels (CCCHs) are point to multipoint channels that is primarily intended to carry signaling information for access handling functions. The CCCHs include: Paging Channel (PCH), which is down channel used to page (call terminating) MSs. • Access Grant Channel (AGCH) that is a downlink channel used to assign a MS to a specific Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH). • Cell Broadcast Channel (CBCH), which is down channel used to broadcast miscellaneous short messages to the MSs. • Random Access Control Channel (RACH) is an uplink channel which allows MS to initiate a call. Dedicated Control Channels are point to point, bi-directional control channel. Two types of DCCHs are used: • Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channels (SDCCH) whose allocation is not linked to the assignment of a traffic channel (TCH). It bears information about authentication, location updates, and assignment to traffic channels (TCHs). • Otherwise, Associated Control Channels are linked to the allocation of a traffic channel (TCH). The Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH) or burst stealing is a control channel obtained by preemptive dynamic multiplexing on a TCH. The Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH), also know as a continue data stream, is allocated together with a TCH or a SDCCH.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-13

January, 2000

Radio Interface
The Logical Channels on Radio Interface
TS 01234567

BTS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

MS
FCCH SCH BCCH RACH PCH AGCH FCCH CBCH
SDCCH SACCH SACCH SDCCH

Frequency correction Synchronization Broadcast control Access request Subscriber paging Answer to Access request Broadcast info Dedicated Signaling Sys InFo 5, 6 + SMS Traffic (speech data) Associated Signaling

TCH
FACCH

Traffic (speech-data) Associated Signaling Radio Measurement + SMS Dedicated Signaling Broadcast info

CBCH

SCH BCCH RACH PCH

M.S. Pre-synchronization

Access request Subscriber paging Answer to Access request
6-14

TCH
FACCH

AGCH
Radio Interface

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Three groups of logical channels: 1. Traffic channels (TCH), and associated channels (FACCH, SACCH): Number computed from Erlang B law, starting from offered traffic, according to the traffic model. 2. Dedicated signaling channels (SDCCH, SACCH, CBCH): Number computed from Erlang B law, using figures given by the traffic model. The CBCH is optionally used; when activated, it uses permanently one SDCCH resource. 3. Common channels (CCCH), BCCH and synchronization channels (FCCH, SCH) Theoretical studies on message exchanges on radio interface have shown that one common channel is sufficient, whatever the offered traffic on CELL. “BCCH combined”: common channel pattern for small capacity cells (O1): - Signaling channels SDCCH/SACCH are included in same frame as common channels:
AGCH BCCH CBCH CCCH FACCH FCCH : Access Grant CHannel : Broadcast Control CHannel : Common Broadcast CHannel : Common Control CHannel PCH RACH SCH : Paging CHannel : Random Access CHannel : Signaling CHannel

SACCH : Slow Associated Control CHannel

: Fast Associated Control CHannel SDCCH : Stand-alone Dedicated Control CHannel : Frequency Control CHannel TCH : Traffic CHannel

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-14

January, 2000

Radio Interface
Logical Channel Description (1/2)
SDCCH MESSAGES
• Request for a SDCCH assignment • Request for the end of channel

TCH MESSAGES
• Full rate speech at 13 kbit/s • Half rate speech at 6.5 kbit/s • Full rate data at 9.6, 4.8, or 2.4 kbit/s • Half rate data at 4.8 or 2.4 kbit/s • Handover Access message (uplink)

assignment
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

• Order of commutation from SDCCH to

TCH

FACCH MESSAGES
• Connection establishment from

SACCH MESSAGES
• System Information 5, 5bis, 5ter and 6

SDCCH to TCH
• End validation of a SDCCH-TCH

(connected mode)
• Measures:

commutation
• Characteristics of the future used BS

after handover
• Connection establishment to BS after

- power level of the communication - quality level of the communication - level on the beacon frequency of
the neighboring cells
• Timing Advance • Power Control
Radio Interface 6-15

handover
• Validation of an handover

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-15

January, 2000

Radio Interface
Logical Channel Description (2/2)
FCCH MESSAGES
• no message is sent (all bits 0)

AGCH MESSAGES
• For dedicated channel assignment:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

SCH MESSAGES
• Frame Number • Base Station Identity Code (BSIC)

- frequency number - slot number - frequency hopping description - Timing Advance (1st estimation) - MS identification

RACH MESSAGES
• Service request:

BCCH MESSAGES
• System Information type 1, 2, 2bis,

2ter, 3, 4, 7, 8 (idle mode)

- emergency call - answer to an incoming call - outgoing call - short message - call re-establishment - inscription

CBCH MESSAGES
• Specific information

PCH MESSAGES
• messages containing a mobile

For example: - weather - road information
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface

identity for a call, a short message or an authentication
6-16

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-16

January, 2000

Radio Interface
Traffic and Control Multi-Framing
Traffic channel
Frame 4.615 ms
TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Control channel

TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

26 traffic frames = 120 ms 0 1 2 3 4 21 22 23 24 25 0 1 2 3 4

51 control frame = 235.38 ms 46 47 48 49 50

1326 frames

0 0

1 1

2

3 2

4 3

51 x 26 traffic frames = 6.12 s 26 x 51 control frames = 6.12 s 22

46

47 23

48 24

49

50 25

0

1

2

3

4

5

2042 2043 2044 2045 2046 2047

1 Hyperframe = 2,715,648 frames= 3h 28 min. 53 s 760 ms
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-17

Introducing to Multi Framing Higher order frames, called traffic multiframes, consist of 26 TDMA frames and have a duration of 120 ms (26 x 4.615 ms). This 26 DTMA multiframe carries Traffic Channels (TCHs), Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH), and Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH). Similarly, a 51-frame multiframe, called a control multiframe, has a duration of 235.365 ms (51 x 4.615 ms) and supports Common Control Channels (CCCHs), Broadcast Channels (BCHs) and Stand Alone Control Channels (SDCCHs). One Superframe consists of 51 traffic multiframes or 26 control multiframes, in other words contains 51 x 26 TDMA frames with a total duration of 6.12 seconds (51 x 120 ms). The highest order frame is called a hyperframe and consists of 2,048 superframes, or 2,715,648 frames (2048 x 51 x 21). The time duration of the hyperframe is 3 hrs, 28 min., and 52.76 sec (2,715,648 x 4.615 ms). This long period of hyperframe is called the GSM time. Thus to organize the information transmitted on each carrier, GSM defines several time intervals ranging from 0.9 µs (exactly the time duration of a quarter of one bit) to a hyperframe interval of more than three hours (GSM time). As we have just seen, the cycle of a multiframe and superframe is different for speech and control channels. This arrangement enables a receiver to decode all the control channels along with the traffic channel (TCHs) because of the timing of the traffic multiframe always moving in relation to the control channel multi frame. Otherwise, if two multiframes were exact multiples of each other, the control channel time slot would be permanently masked by the TCH time slot activities.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-17

January, 2000

Radio Interface
Traffic Channels Combination
Logical Channel Mapping (1/5) Full Rate - Downlink & Uplink
26 frames = 120 ms
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

T T T T T T T T T T T T A T T T T T T T T T T T T

time

Half Rate - Downlink & Uplink
26 frames = 120 ms

T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 A 0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 A 1

time

T : TCH
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN

Ti : TCH
January, 2000

sub-channel n° i

A : SACCH
Radio Interface

SACCH Ai :sub-channel n° i

: IDLE
6-18

Full rate speech transmission When a Mobile Station is in communication mode, speech is coded every 20 ms in blocks. These blocks are coded in 8 half-bursts, whose information quantity is equivalent to 4 entire bursts. Then, one burst has to be delivered every 5 ms. But in reality a burst is transmitted every 4.615 ms. So, in 26 frames lasting 120 ms, 24 bursts are used for speech transmission. One free burst is used for SACCH. The other one is an idle burst. During this burst, the mobile is not idle, but it uses this time to monitor the neighboring cells frequencies. Half rate speech transmission (not often used because of lower quality) When the half rate speech transmission is in use, the 26 frames of a given time slot can be separated between two users, since only 12 coded speech bursts are used per user. So, in 26 frames lasting 120 ms, the odd burst numbers are restricted to one user, and the other numbers are for the other one. SACCH bursts are in the 13th and 26th positions. In this case, the monitoring is more frequent. Full rate speech: 13 kbit/s Half rate speech: 5.6 kbit/s

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-18

January, 2000

Radio Interface
Dedicated Signaling Channels Combination
Logical Channel Mapping (2/5) Downlink
51 frames = 235 ms
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

D0 D0

D1 D1

D2 D2

D3 D3

D4 D4

D5 D5

D6 D6

D7 D7

A0 A4

A1 A5

A2 A6

A3 A7
time

Uplink
51 frames = 235 ms

A5 A1

A6 A2

A7 A3

D0 D0

D1 D1

D2 D2

D3 D3

D4 D4

D5 D5

D6 D6

D7 D7

A0 A4
time

A : SACCH
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000

D : SDCCH
Radio Interface

: IDLE
6-19

The dedicated channels are combined into two multiframes of 51 frames. In the uplink and the downlink directions, the configuration is almost the same one, only shifted by 15 frames. The dedicated channels combination broadcasts a group of 8 SDCCH frames (2 groups of 4 consecutive SDCCH frames), each of them is associated to 4 consecutive SACCH frames. Each different group is used by a different dedicated communication. The multiframe configuration is shown on the above figure. So 8 users can use the same physical channel simultaneously, and the different communications associated to their SACCH signaling are spread on a cycle of 102 frames (2 51-multiframes). In such a multiplexing cycle, 6 frames are unused (idle TS).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-19

January, 2000

Radio Interface
Physical Channel and Logical Channels
Common Channels Combination
Multiframe m
Multiframe m-1
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

51 frames = 235.38 ms

Multiframe m+1

C

FS

B

C

FS C

C

FS C

C

FS C

C

FS C

C

FS
time

B

Frames repeat continuously

PCH/AGCH

BTS

Physical Channel
ARFCN (n) TS (s)

SCH BCCH FCCH

MS

Logical Channels
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000

F : FCCH

S : SCH
Radio Interface

B : BCCH

C : PCH/AGCH

: IDLE
6-20

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-20

January, 2000

Radio Interface
Common Channels Combination
Logical Channel Mapping (3/5) Downlink
51 frames = 235 ms
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

FS

B

C

FS

C

C

FS

C

C

FS

C

C

FS

C

C
time

Uplink
51 frames = 235 ms RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR time

F : FCCH
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN

S : SCH
January, 2000

B : BCCH

C /PCH
Radio Interface

: AGCH

R : RACH

: IDLE
6-21

Downlink way The downlink direction is used to combine FCCH, SCH, BCCH, PCH and AGCH: • FCCH and SCH are always transmitted consecutively (SCH always follows FCCH). Over 51 frames, the pairs are located at the 0-1, 10-11, 20-21, 30-31 and 40-41 positions. • BCCH uses 4 frames per multiframe (Frame Number 2 to 5) and sometimes 4 other frames (6 to 9) for BCCH ext (see p. 2-22). • PCH and AGCH form the CCCH blocks (9 groups of 4 frames). They can have different configurations, depending on the cell capacity and are dynamically defined in SI Type 3 (management of these channels). • The 51th frame is unused. Uplink way The uplink direction is reserved for RACH. The configuration is simple: all the 51 frames broadcast RACH messages. So all the mobile station can request a dedicated resource to access the network on each TS 0 of a specific TDMA frame in the cell.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-21

January, 2000

Radio Interface
BCCH Combined
Logical Channel Mapping (4/5) Downlink
51 frames = 235 ms
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

FS FS

B B

C C

FS FS

C C

C C

FS FS

D0 D0

D1 D1

FS FS

D2 D2

D3 D3

FS FS

A0 A2

A1 A3
time

Uplink
51 frames = 235 ms

D3 D3

RR RR

A2 A0

A3 A1

RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR

D0 D0

D1 D1

RR RR

D2 D2
time

F : FCCH S : SCH B : BCCH C /PCH
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000

: AGCH

R : RACH
Radio Interface

A : SACCH

D : SDCCH

: IDLE
6-22

In the case of a low capacity cell, it is possible to combine on the same physical channel some dedicated channels with some common control channels. Their configuration is done on 2x51 frames and is indicated in the SI type 3. This combination contains all the channels of dedicated and common combinations: FCCH, SCH, BCCH, PCH, AGCH, SDCCH, SACCH and RACH. Downlink way From a common control combination, FCCH, SCH and BCCH keep their configuration (FCCH+SCH: 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40; BCCH: 2 to 5) for both multiframes. PCH and AGCH are still dynamically configured but only on the bursts: 6-9 (except when extended BCCH are used), 12-15 and 16-19, for both multiframes. On the bursts left, 4 blocks of 4 SDCCH TSs, each of them associated with a SACCH block of 4 TSs, and one idle TS at the end of each multiframe. Each different group is used by a different sub-channel. Uplink way On 102 frames, 27 RACH frames are kept and the other ones are replaced by 4 blocks of 4 SDCCH TSs, each of them associated with a block of 4 SACCH TSs.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-22

January, 2000

Radio Interface
Why 26 and 51 Frames per Multiframe?
0 1 10 20 30 40 50 0 1

FS

B

C

FS

C

C

FS

C

C

FS

C

C

FS

C

C

FS

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

TTTTTTTTTTTTATTTTTTTTTTTT 01 12

TTTTT TTTTTTTATTTTTTTTTTTT 12 25

25 0 1

Downlink message

Uplink message

Mobile activity

Rx

Tx

Rx Rx (n)

Tx

Rx (n)

Rx

Tx

Neighboring BTS (downlink)
Measurement Window
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface 6-23

During a communication, the Mobile Station has to listen to the beacon frequency of the neighboring cells (which list is provided to the MS through SACCH) in order to get presynchronized with the neighboring sites. This pre-synchronization is useful for an eventual handover, so that the mobile station can access the assigned channel. The MS can decode beacon frequency information only during the idle window of the TCH multiframe. Indeed, during data exchanges, the mobile has not enough time to decode information between receipt, broadcast (3 TSs later), and new receipt (5 TSs later), since it has to change the frequency and to process some data. However, between transmission and reception (4 TSs), the MS is able to perform level measurement on a neighboring cell. But the MS must find time to decode the synchronization information broadcasted on SCH of the neighboring cells and read and decode BCCH information for new cells. For this, the MS uses the idle TS (TS 26 on the traffic multiframe) that provides a larger observation window and processing time. Since 26 and 51 have no common divider and 26*2=51+1, the idle slot of the TCH multiframe shifts forward a frame in the 51-multiframe: 0, 26, 1, 27, 2,... We are sure that the MS has been able to pre-synchronize with a neighboring site (FCCH+SCH decoding) after at most 11 successive decoding at the idle TS level.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-23

January, 2000

Radio Interface
From Speech to Radio Transmission
Speech Speech
Source decoding Channel decoding

Step 1

Digitizing and source coding Channel coding

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Step 2

Interleaving

De-interleaving

Step 3
Burst formatting Burst deformatting

Step 4

Ciphering

Deciphering

Step 5

Modulation

Demodulation equalization

Step 6
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN

Transmission

Diversity

January, 2000

Radio Interface

6-24

From speech to radio signal, several operations are performed. The reverse transformations are performed on the receiver side. Main operations are the following:
• Digitizing: Speech blocks are first digitized to obtain digital blocks: 20 ms speech = 260 bits. • Source coding uses low bit rate code for air interface. • Channel coding uses codes enabling detection and correction of signals errors. The result is a flow of code words (456 bits long). • Interleaving and burst formatting spread the bits of several code words to expand data of the same block in different bursts. The results is a succession of blocks, one block for each channel burst. • Ciphering modifies the contents of these block through a "secret recipe" known only by the mobile telephone and the Base Transceiver Station, thus protecting data from eavesdropping. • Modulation transforms the binary signal into an analog signal at the right frequency and moment using Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK). • Transmission amplifies and radiates the resulting signal as radio waves via an antenna. • Diversity are different techniques used to provide the reception quality. • Demodulation: From the radio waves captured by the antenna, the portion of the received signal which is of interest to the receiver is demodulated. • Deciphering reverses the encryption "secret recipe". • Burst de-formatting and de-interleaving puts the bits of the different burst back in order to rebuild the code words. • Channel Decoding reconstructs the source information from the output of the demodulator using added redundancy to detect or correct possible errors. • Speech decoding operates as suitable filters receiving the voice parameters, then performs them out analog speech.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-24

January, 2000

Radio Interface
Speech Quality - Source Coding
Codec Type Mean Opinion Score (MOS) 4.25 4.2 4.2 4 3.8 3.4 Rate (kb/s)

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PCM A law GSM EFR CDMA 13 D-AMPS GSM FR CDMA 8

64 12.2 13 8 13 8

Quality Excellent Good Fair Poor Bad

MOS 5 4 3 2 1

Listening Effort Required Complete relaxation possible, no effort. Attention necessary, no appreciable effort. Moderate effort. Considerable effort. No meaning understood with feasible effort.

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Radio Interface

6-25

Since each telecommunication system has its own intrinsic characteristics and limitations, specific voice CODECs have been designed for each system with the objective of achieving the best trade-off between voice quality, robustness to errors and network capacity. As a result, the voice quality differ from one system to another. The advent of new speech compression codecs for wireless systems has provoked intense interest in comparisons of subjective voice quality over these codecs. Estimates of subjective quality are typically given as Mean Opinion Scores (MOS) obtained from listening tests. Voice quality is a subjective parameter. By asking a group of normal telephone listeners to rate the quality of telephone speech samples, we can obtain an estimate of the quality that would be achieved on various types of connections. In particular, we use subjective listening tests to characterize the voice quality of speech compression codecs used in wireless and other systems where bandwidth efficiency is at a premium, because there are no objective measures that can estimate voice quality effectively.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-25

January, 2000

Radio Interface
Channel Processing
Overview
20 ms

Speech blocks

20 ms

20 ms

A
260 bits
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

B
260 bits

C
260 bits

Source coding Channel coding

A

456 bits

B

456 bits

C
8 Sub blocks of 57 bits

456 bits

A A A A 5 6 7 8

Interleaving

B B B B B B B B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

C C C C 1 2 3 4

8 Bursts
Normal burst
PE/TRD/GR/0101

A5 B1

A6 B2

A7 B3

A8 B4

B5 C1

B6 C2

B7 C3

B8 C4

3

57 bits

1

26 bits

1

57 bits

3

Tail

Information
January, 2000

CRL

Training
Radio Interface

CRL

Information

Tail
6-26

12.01/EN

After having transformed speech blocks (20 ms) into digital blocks, channel coding adds redundancy. The purpose of channel coding is to improve poor transmission quality due to disturbances such as noise, interference, or multipath propagation (resulting from the reflections of the transmitted signal from buildings, etc.). Channel coding consist in adding, some redundant information, to the source data calculated from this source information: • Convolutional codes and block codes: for correction purposes. • Fire code: detection and correction of “bursty” errors. • Parity code: error detection. Each channel has its own coding and interleaving scheme. A common structure of 456 coded bit is interleaved and mapped onto bursts. The blocks are interleaved and spread into segments which are combined with flags and a training sequence to build up the burst. Ciphering is applied to these burst and the resulting data is used to modulate the carriers.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-26

January, 2000

Radio Interface
Interleaving: TCH Full Rate
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ... ... 452 453 454 455

456 coded bits

Divide 456 bits in 8 sub-blocks

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

0 8 • • • 448

1 9 • • • 449

2 10 • • • 450

3 11 • • • 451

4 12 • • • 452

5 13 • • • 453

6 14 • • • 454

7 15 • • • 455

57 Rows

reordering & partitioning out

4

5

6

7

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

0

1

2

3
diagonal interleaving bit interleaving burst

b0 b1
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000

b56

b0 b1
Radio Interface

b56
6-27

After channel coding, speech coded information (TCH Full rate) are classified into blocks. See how they are spread into bursts.

456 bits

These 456 bits are reordered into a 8 x 57 array, line by line. The initially close bits are separated. The array is split into 8 columns of 57 bits. In this way, each 57 bits block contains bits which were all distant each other. Each 57 bits block shall be grouped with another one in order to create a burst which contains 114 information bits. Each of the 4 first blocks is grouped with each of the 4 last blocks of the previous segment. In the same way, each of the 4 last blocks is grouped with each of the 4 first blocks of the next segment. In a burst, containing 2 57 bits blocks, it is possible to increase bit spreading. The first block uses the even positions and the second one uses the odd positions inside the burst. The proximity of initially successive bits are now destroyed. Each speech block of 456 bits (20 ms) is so spread over 8 bursts.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-27

January, 2000

Radio Interface
Burst Formatting
Normal Burst
1 frame: 4.615 ms
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

DATA
3 57

S
1

Training S sequence 26 Burst 148 bits 156.25 bits 0.577 ms 1

DATA
57 3

Guard Band
8.25

Guard

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Radio Interface

6-28

A basic unit of measure in transmission on a radio path is a burst, a series of 114 modulated bits of information. Bursts have a finite duration and occupy a finite part of the radio spectrum. Bursts are sent in time and frequency windows called slots. The normal burst shown in this slide is made of:
• • • • Tail bits: three "0" bits at the beginning and end to help avoid loss of synchronization. Information: speech, data, and signaling. A training sequence: a list of bits known by the receiver allowing it to demodulate the burst. Stealing flags (S): indicate if information is either user's data (includes speech) or signaling data for call in state. • A guard band: bits where nothing is transmitted to allow for overlap due to the variable distance from the mobile telephone to the Base Transceiver Station. This is necessary if the timing advance is not exactly right. • Normal Burst bears traffic channels, its associated channel (slow and fast), Stand Alone, and the broadcast Control Channels (BCCHs).

Other burst are defined with regard to their time-amplitude profile:
• Access burst: used in the uplink direction during initial phase of transmission when propagation delay (timing advance) between the mobile telephone is not yet known. The training sequence and tail are longer than those of a normal burst to increase the probability of demodulation success. • Frequency correction burst: to enable the mobile telephone to find and demodulate a synchronization burst to the same cell. • Synchronization burst: time synchronization of the mobile station, the first burst a mobile telephone needs to be able to demodulate. • Dummy burst: dummy sequence to replace data if there is nothing to transmit, for example, Broadcast Control Channel filling.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-28

January, 2000

Radio Interface
Burst Formats
Frequency Correction Burst (FCCH)
Tail
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Data 142 fixed bits (0) 156.25 bits (0.577 ms)

Tail 3 bits

Guard Period 8.25 bits

3 bits

Synchronization Burst (SCH)
Tail Data Extended Training Sequence 64 synchronization bits 156.25 bits (0.577 ms) Data 39 bits Tail 3 bits 39 encrypted bits

Guard Period

3 bits 8.25 bits

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Radio Interface

6-29

Frequency correction burst A frequency correction burst contains 142 fixed bits for the frequency correction and 3 tail bits at the beginning and the end. The guard period corresponds to a transmission time of 8.25 bits. It is used on FCCH in order to enable the mobile to find and demodulate a synchronization burst in the same cell. Its structure is simple, since its bits are all equal to 0 (no information is transmitted). When this burst is modulated, the result is a pure sine wave at the carrier frequency plus 1625/24 Hz due to the modulation. This frequency is in fact the information carried by this burst. It provides the frequency needed to understand the following bursts of the same physical channel. Synchronization burst A synchronization burst contains 64 bits for the training sequence, twice 39 for the information, 3 tail bits at the beginning and the end. The guard period corresponds to a transmission time of 8.25 bits. It is used on SCH, in the downlink direction, for time synchronization of the mobile station. It is the first burst a mobile needs to be able to demodulate. It is the reason why its training sequence is longer than the one of other bursts.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-29

January, 2000

Radio Interface
Burst Formats
Normal Burst
Tail Data 1 Training Sequence 26 bits 1 Data 57 encrypted bits Tail Guard Period

3 bits 57 encrypted bits
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

3 bits 8.25 bits

156.25 bits (0.577 ms)

Dummy Burst
Tail Dummy Sequence 3 bits 58 mixed bits Training Sequence 28 midamble bits Dummy Sequence Tail 58 mixed bits

Guard Period

3 bits 8.25 bits

156.25 bits (0.577 ms)

Tail 8 bits

Training Sequence

Access Burst
Data Tail Guard Period 68.25 bits

41 synch bits 36 encrypted bits 3 bits 156.25 bits (0.577 ms)

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Radio Interface

6-30

Normal burst A normal burst contains 26 bits for the training sequence, plus 2 times 58 bits for information. More precisely, there are twice 57 information bits and two stealing flags, which indicate if information is traffic or signaling. There are also out three tail bits, and 8.25 bits for the guard period. Dummy burst The dummy burst structure is the same as for the normal burst. But information bits are replaced by mixed bits: this burst is used to replace data if there is nothing to transmit. It is the case for BCCH and TCH filling when they are transmitted on the beacon frequency. Access burst An access burst contains 41 bits for the training sequence, 36 bits for the information, 8 and 3 tail bits at respectively the beginning and the end of the burst. The guard period is of 68.25 bits. It is used on RACH, in the uplink direction, during initial phase of transmission when the propagation delay between the mobile station and the BTS is not yet known. The training tail sequences are longer than those of a normal burst to increase the probability of demodulation success.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-30

January, 2000

Radio Interface
Ciphering
Burst to be transmitted
Data S S Data

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Plain data: Ciphering sequence: XOR: Ciphered data (transmitted): Ciphered sequence: XOR: Recovered data:

0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0..... 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0..... 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0..... 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0..... 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0.....

Received burst
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Radio Interface

Data

S

Training S sequence

Data

6-31

Ciphering, or encryption, is a procedure that provides additional security for the subscriber. Ciphering is not a channel coding. It is performed after the encoding and interleaving of different channel and is done independently of whether the channel is a signaling channel or a traffic channel. Ciphering is only done on the two data segments. Thus ciphering is achieved by performing an exclusive OR (XOR) operation between a pseudo-random bit sequence (which was computed through A5 algorithm by the ciphering key allowed to user for a call and the burst number) and the 114 useful bits of a normal burst. Deciphering, in turn, applies exactly the same operation, since XOR twice with the same data leads back to the original value. Last, it is worth noting that the whole specification of the encryption algorithm (A5) is distributed under conditions by the Association of European Operators which have signed the GSM Memorandum of Understanding (MoU). GSM uses two A5 types of algorithm: • Encryption algorithm A5-1 which contains European and United States technical software that could not directly or indirectly exported to any either embargoed or restricted country. • Encryption algorithm A5-2 which contains software that do not require license or approval.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-31

January, 2000

Radio Interface
Modulation
GMSK Modulation
Bit 0 Bit 1
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

phase shift + 90 ° phase shift - 90 °

I = sin (Ωt + ϕ) Ω GMSK Modulator Q = cos (Ωt + ϕ) Ω Carrier Frequency GMSK Signal '1'

Q - 90 ° + 90 ° '0'

I

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Radio Interface

6-32

GSM modulation GMSK (Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying) is a “constant envelope” modulation scheme. This choice has been mainly made to avoid specific need of linear amplifier. GMSK relies on MSK scheme using Gaussian low pass filtering. MSK MSK is a continuous phase shift. It allows the RF vector to rotate during one bit period on a circle (constant amplitude) from one phase state to the other: • phase shift = + 90 ° when bit b = 0, • phase shift = - 90 ° when bit b = 1, As a result, the phase shift of +90 ° or -90 ° during one bit period by MSK is equivalent to a frequency shift so MSK also can be seen as FSK (Frequency Shift Keying). MSK has steady phase transitions however with a dip at any bit change caused by rapid change of the frequency (+/- Df). This leads to a very broad RF spectrum. Gaussian filter The data signal is base band filtered by a Gaussian filter to obtain GMSK modulation. The phase transition does not have dips any more and the bandwidth of the spectrum has considerably decreased.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-32

January, 2000

Radio Interface
Discontinuous Transmission Features

Hearpiece
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

speech decoder
Digital to Analog Converter

From receiver

Comfort noise function

Microphone

speech encoder
Analog to Digital Converter

To transmitter

Voice Activity Detection

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Radio Interface

6-33

Pauses in normal speech occur at a rate that makes speech appear to have about 50 per cent activity. This means that a telephony channel is only used for speech transmission about half the time a speaker is using the phone. Since transmit time is further reduced when Discontinuous transmission (DTX) is used, the power consumption of hand-held terminals is reduced, which gives users the option of fitting their terminal with smaller batteries. Furthermore these functions tend to reduce interference in adjacent cells and to mobile station close to the base transmitters when suspending radio transmission when the coder detects a speech pause. The GSM speech coder features this with: • Voice Activity Detection (VAD) that determines the presence or absence of speech at the microphone. Note this function has to work well even when there is high level of background noise, such as in a car. • Confort Noise function: The total absence of sound in the ear piece would annoy the user at the receiving end of a radio channel and the handset appears to be dead. Thus the users tend to speak too loudly when there is total silence in the ear piece. There needs to be a minimum of conventional background noise present during pause. This is accomplished by transmitting silent descriptor (SID) frames at a rather slow rate of once every 480 ms. Then upon receiving this SID frame, the receiving speech decoder has to fake an existing wireline connection by generating some background noise.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-33

January, 2000

Radio Interface
Check Your Learning

1- Why does GSM use paired radio channels?
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

2- How many time-slots does a GSM TDMA contain?

3- What is a GSM physical channel?

4- Why does GSM delay the uplink TDMA frame?

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Radio Interface

6-34

1- Why does GSM use paired radio channels?

2- How many time-slots does a GSM TDMA contain?

3- What is a GSM physical channel?

4- Why does GSM delay the uplink TDMA frame?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-34

January, 2000

Radio Interface
Check Your Learning (continue)

5- What are the logical channels?
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

6- What does a traffic channel carry?

7- Why does GSM use the channel coding?

8- Why does GSM use the interleaving?

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Radio Interface

6-35

5- What are the logical channels?

6- What does a traffic channel carry?

7- Why does GSM use the channel coding?

8- Why does GSM use the interleaving?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-35

January, 2000

Radio Interface
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

6-36

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Section 7

Architecture, Functions and Protocols

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols

7-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-1

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
Objectives

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

After completing this lesson you will be able to: • List the 3 sub-systems of a GSM system and their interfaces; • List the different equipment in each GSM sub-system; • Indicate functions for each equipment; • List the interfaces in each sub-system, indicate if it is standard or not and identify the main protocol used on it.

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols

7-2

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-2

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
Basic Elements of a Cellular System
Exchange service area

To another PSTN
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

To another exchange service area

PSTN

Switch

To another PSTN

To another exchange service area

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols

7-3

Today's wireless communications systems are based on a composite wireless and wired system as shown in this slide where the wireless segment of the communication system is shown as a cluster of seven hexagonal cells. Each cell is essentially a radio communication center where a mobile subscriber establishes a call with a land telephone through the switch and the Public Switching Telephone Network (PSTN). This composite platform enables us to communicate with anyone at any time, from anywhere within the service area. Switch and PSTN are essentially multiple points serving as system intelligence.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-3

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
Architecture of a GSM System
Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) ISDN, PSDN Signaling System No.7
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

SS7

Network and Switching Sub-system

GMSC VLR

HLR-AUC EIR

MSC VLR

A-interface

Base Station Sub-system
Um (radio) interface MS
Cell 3 Cell 1 BTS Cell 2

BSS TRAU BSC OMN interface (X.25)

Abis Interface
BTS

Operation SubSystem

OMC-R

OMC-S

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols

7-4

A GSM system is basically designed as a combination of three major sub-systems: the Network and Switching Sub-system (NSS), the radio sub-system called the Base Station Sub-system (BSS), and the Operation Sub-System (OSS). The Network and Switching Sub-system includes the equipment and functions related to end-to-end-calls, management of subscribers, mobility, and interfaces with the fixed network (PSTN). In particular, the NSS consist of Mobile Switching Centers (MSC), Visitor Location Registers (VLR), Home Location Registers (HLR), Authentication Center (AUC), and Equipment Identity Register (EIR). The Base Station Sub-system includes the equipment and functions related to the management of the connection on the radio path. It mainly consists of one Base Station Controller (BSC), and several Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs), linked by the Abis interface. An optional equipment, the Transcoder / Rate Adapter Unit (TRAU) so called TransCoder Unit (TCU) within Nortel BSS products, is designed to reduce the amount of PCM links. The Operation Sub-System is connected to all equipment in the switching system and to the BSC. OSS mainly contains Operation and Maintenance Center for NSS (OMC-S) and Operation and Maintenance Center devoted to the Radio subsystem (OMC-R). In order to ensure that network operators will have several sources of cellular infrastructure equipment, GSM decided to specify: • the radio interface (or air interface or Um interface), between the BTS and the MS,
• the A interface, between the NSS and the BSS.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-4

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
BSS Architecture

MSC
A Interface
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

TCU
S2000H&L BTS

Radio Interface

NSS

Public Telephone Network

Ater Interface

OMC-R

BSC

Abis Interface

S8000 Outdoor BTS Radio Interface

MS

OMN Interface

Sun
StorEdge A5000

BSS
January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols

S8000 Indoor BTS

MS
7-5

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

The Base Station Sub-system (BSS) is a set of equipment (aerials, transceivers and a controller) that is viewed by the Mobile Switching Center through a single A interface as being the entity responsible for communicating with mobile telephones (MSs) in a certain area. The radio equipment of a BSS may be composed of one or more cells, such a BSS may contain one or more Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs). The interface between the BSC and the BTSs is called an Abis interface. The BSS includes two types of equipment: • the Base Transceiver Station (BTS functionally includes also the TRAU) in contact with the Mobile Stations through the radio interface, • the BSC, the latter being in contact with the Mobile Switching Center. A BSS contains only one Base Station Controller (BSC).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-5

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
BTS General Architecture and Functions
BTS
Duplexer

- Interface between Antennas and TRXs of each cell
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Transmission coupler COUPLING SYSTEM

Antenna

- Encodes, encrypts, modulates, feeds the RF signal to the antenna - Decrypts and equalizes the signal then demodulates - Mobile call detection - Uplink channel measurements - Timing advance - Frequency hopping Abis interface BSC

Reception coupler

TRX (Transceiver-Receiver)

BCF (Base Common Functions)

- Multiplexes speech and user's data channels to BSC. - Multiplexes signaling channels to BSC.
January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-6

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

As stated, the primary responsibility of the BTS is to transmit and receive radio signals from a mobile unit over the air interface Um. To perform this function completely, the signals are encoded, encrypted, multiplexed, modulated, and then fed to the antenna system at the cell site. In order to keep the mobile synchronized, BTS transmits frequency and time synchronization signal over a devoted channel called a Frequency Correction Channel. Functions performed by a BTS are: • encodes, encrypts, multiplexes, modulates and feeds the RF signals to the antenna, • time and frequency synchronization signals transmitted from BTS, • voice communication through a full rate or half rate (enable) speech channel, • the received signal from the MS is equalized, decoded, and decrypted before demodulation, • timing advance computation, • uplink radio channel measurements, • mobile random access detection, • Frequency Hopping management.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-6

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
BSC General Architecture and Functions
- Radio Resource management for its BTSs - Intercell hand-over
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BSC
Processing Unit X.25 controller

- Allocation of channels for communication - Reallocation of frequencies among BTSs - Time and frequency synchronization to BTSs - Controls frequency hopping
PCM controller

O&M

Switching matrix

PCM controller

BTS

Abis interface

A interface

To Network SubSystem

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols

7-7

BSC architecture mainly involves a processor unit, a switching matrix, and trunk control units (PCM and X.25). Note that through the Processing Unit and the X.25 controller, the BSC downloads new software releases from the O&M Center. In turn, all data of interest to the O&M is buffered and forwarded to the O&M Center when being asked or transmitted periodically. The Base Station Controller (BSC) is connected to the Mobile Switching Center on one side and to the BTSs on the other. Functions performed by a BSC are: • performs the Radio Resource (RR, explained below) management for the cells under its control. It assign and release frequencies for all MSs in its own area, • performs the Intercell hand-over for MSs moving between BTSs in its control, • reallocates frequencies to the BTSs in its area to meet locally heavy demands during peak hours or on special events, • controls the power transmission of both BTSs and MSs in its area, • provides the time and frequency synchronization reference signals, broadcast for each BTS.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-7

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
TRAU Architecture and Functions
Converts the 13 kbps GSM speech frame either into a 64 kbps T1 PCM µ-law or into an E1 PCM A-law Routes the users' data stream to suitable Inter-working function

TRAU
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Transcoder Controller

T1 trunk up to 92 user's and control channels

Transcoder

T1 trunk = up to 24 user's channels

Ater
BSC

A
External PCM Interface

MSC

interface E1 trunk up to 120 user's channels
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000

interface

E1 trunk = up to 31 user's channels
Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-8

Depending on the relative cost of transmission plan, there is some benefit in having the Transcoder/ Rate adapter Unit (TRAU) at the Mobile Switching Center (MSC) location. Moreover, in that case, the TRAU is still considered functionally as a part of the Base Station SubSystem (BSS). The TRAU is a device that takes 13 kbps speech (or data) multiplexes and two of them, to convert into standard 64 kbps data: • within the BTS, the 13 kbps speech (or data) are brought up to level of 16 kbps by inserting additional synchronizing data to make up the difference between a 13 kbps speech or lower data rate, • the TRAU converts the 13 kbps speech into 64 kbps T1 µ-law or E1 A-law PCM time slots, • furthermore the TRAU routes the users' data stream to a suitable device that inter-works with the recipient modem. It is worth noting that: • four traffic channels are multiplexed on a 64 kbps PCM circuit at the Ater interface, • one T1 trunk carries up to 92 traffic and control channels, • one E1 trunk carries up to 120 traffic and control channels.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-8

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
NSS Architecture
Site 1 Site 2
H AUC

BSS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

D

HLR

D

VLR
G-interface B-interface A-interface C-interface

VLR

BSS

B-interface

MSC
E-interface

GMSC

A-interface Other GSM, PSTN, ISDN

Other GSM, PSTN, ISDN

F IWF E EIR

F E IWF

Billing Server

SMS-SC

Billing Server

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols

7-9

The distributed architecture of the Network and Switching Sub-system is organized with MSCs, servers and data bases, linked by interfaces normalized (B to G). There are two types of MSC to provide switching services to a defined part of the PLMN: • MSC, used to establish traffic channels and to switch signaling messages between PLMN entities and other GSM networks or fixed networks, • Gateway MSC (GMSC), is a specialized MSC managing the central data base HLR, containing permanent and dynamic subscriber data. All the information requested by the different functions is stored in four types of data bases connected to (or included in) the MSCs: • HLR or Home Location Register: permanent data specific to each subscriber, including service profile, location and billing options, • VLR or Visitor Location Register: in order to minimize access to the HLR, MSC uses this data base, which contains working data for subscribers moving within its coverage area (LAs), • Network security and access control are provided by the Authentication Center (AUC) and by the Equipment Identity Register (EIR): - AUC: to ensure that only authorized users have access to the network, - EIR: to maintain lists of stolen, faulty and valid equipment identities. NSS includes also specific equipment such as: • Inter-Working Functions (IWF): to provide the different bearer services offered by the network, • Short Message Services-Service Center (SMS-SC): used to store and forward point to point short messages, • Billing Server. These equipment or software elements are running applications more or less operator dependent.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-9

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
Home Location Register

HLR
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Subscriber Management Center

Permanent records
- MSISDN - IMSI - Subscriber's service provision

Temporary records
- VLR address - Ciphering items (Kc, Sres, Rand)

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols

7-10

The Home Location Register (HLR) is a database that holds information upon the subscribers. It performs the following functions: • Handling of permanent subscribers data: - Identification: IMSI, MSISDN. - Subscription information: related services options (Teleservices, Bearer Services and Supplementary Services). - Service limitations (e.g. roaming limitation). • Handling of temporary subscribers data: - Current VLR address where the subscriber roams. - Provide VLR with 5 ciphering items. • Dialogue with the AUC database (see next slide).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-10

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
Authentication Center

AUC
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Ki
HLR Request

Ciphering Triplets RAND 5

Security A3, A8 algorithms

SRES, Kc, RAND

IMSI

AUC provides

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols

7-11

The Authentication Center (AUC) is a database that contains the secret authentication key Ki of each subscriber and generates security related parameters to protect the network operator and subscribers against fraud. The same Ki is to be found in the subscribers SIM card and is used to generate these ciphering items named triplets: • a RANDom number RAND, • a Signature RESponse SRES, using A3 algorithm, • a ciphering Key Kc, using A8 algorithm and computed each time authentication is performed. Software keys Kc and SRES are never passed over the air interface. The two algorithms A3 and A8 are operator dependent. For security reason AUC has often an internal interface with the HLR. However this is a choice of implementation, it is up to HLR to start security algorithms located in AUC.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-11

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
Visitor Location Register

VLR
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

LA1

Permanent records
- IMSI - Subscriber’s service provision

LA3 LA2

Temporary records
- Ciphering items (Kc, Sres, Rand) - LAI - TMSI

LA4

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols

7-12

When a mobile station enters the LA borders, it signals its arrival to the MSC that stores its identity in the Visitor Location Register (VLR). The information necessary to manage the MS is contained in the HLR and is transferred to the VLR so that it can be easily retrieved if so required. The Location Registration procedure allows the subscriber data to follow the movements of the MS. For such reason the data contained in the VLR and in the HLR are more or less the same. Nevertheless, the data are present in the VLR only as long as the MS is registered in the area related to that VLR. The VLR supports a mobile paging, and tracking subsystem in the local area where the mobile is presently roaming. The detailed functions of VLR are as follows: • Works with the HLR and AUC on authentication. • Relays cipher key from HLR to BSS for encryption and decryption. • Controls allocation of the new TMSI numbers that can be periodically changed to secure a subscriber's identity. • Supports paging (incoming calls). • Tracks the state of all mobile in its area.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-12

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
Equipment Identity Register

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

EIR
Black list (barred ME)

IMEI

White list (valid ME)

Mobile Equipment

Gray list (faulty ME)

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols

7-13

The Equipment Identity Register (EIR) is a database that performs a screening function within the network. It keeps track of all valid and invalid Mobile Equipment by storing their International Mobile Equipment Identities (IMEI). Data for the Equipment Identity Register are provided by: • Manufacturers of Mobile Equipment which provide complete lists of IMEI for the Mobile Stations that they produce. • Other network operators which provide lists of malfunctioning Mobile Equipment. • Police organizations which provide lists of stolen Mobile Equipment. The Equipment Identity Register actually maintains three lists of International Mobile Equipment Identities: • The black list contains a list of all Mobile Equipment (ME) that are barred from using the network (e.g.: stolen). • The white list contains a list of all the serial numbers of International Mobile Equipment Identities that have been allocated in the Global System for Mobile Communications countries. • The gray list contains a list of faulty Mobile Equipment. This equipment will be logged but not barred. The GSM Recommendations state that the service providers should decide how often they wish to check the validity of the Mobile Equipment with the EIR.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-13

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
InterWorking Function
Mobile Switching Center

BSS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PSTN

MS

Modem

Data + DTE signals Rate adaptation DTE signaling Modem

IWF

Land-DTE

DTE
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-14

Because of GSM providing a wide range of data services to its subscribers, GSM interfaces with the various public and private data networks currently available. It is the aim of the Inter-Working Function (IWF) to provide this interfacing capability. Networks to which IWF presently provides interface as follows: • PSTN, • ISDN, • Circuit-switched public data networks (CSPDN), • Packet-switched public data networks (PSPDN). It provides the subscriber with access to data rate and protocol conversion facilities so that data can be transmitted between GSM Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and a land line DTE (the recipient). Furthermore it allocates a suitable modem from its modem bank when required. This is the case when a GSM DTE, a Fax machine, exchange data with a land Fax machine which works over analog modem (V32). The IWF also provides direct connect interfaces for customer-provided equipment such as X.25 PADs. Different protocol conversion may be required for signaling and traffic messages. This includes data rate adaptation and the addition of signaling bits reformatting. The IWF is a part of the Mobile Switching Center.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-14

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
Protocol Model

MS
CM
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

NSS
CM MM M A P I S U P / T C A P T U P

MM RR

BTS
O&M RR RSM O&M R

BSC
BSSAP R R S M B D S T S M A A P P SCCP MTP3 MTP2

BSSAP
B RR D S T S M A A P P SCCP MTP3 MTP2 PCM E1/T1

L A P D m RADIO

L A P D m

L A P D

L A P D

SCCP MTP3 MTP2 MTP1

RADIO

PCM

PCM

Um Interface
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000

Abis Interface
Architecture, Functions and Protocols

A-Interface
7-15

Connection Management (CM) and Mobility Management (MM) messages are transparent to the BSS, they are delivered at end-to-end users (MS and NSS) by the relaying of underlaying protocols (LAPDm, LAPD, SS7). To establish a connection with the MS, CM must require MM, which in turn requires RR to open the radio connection. The RR procedures handles set-up, re-establishment, handover, TCH mode modify and release of calls. The MM procedures provides registration, location and authentication of MS. The CM procedures provides: • Supplementary Services (SS). • Call Control (CC). • Short Message Service (SMS).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-15

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
Radio Interface
Protocols Involved
Level 3 Connection Management Connection Management Mobility Management Mobility Management
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Radio Resource Management Radio Resource Management Level 2 = LAPDm
Logical Channels

Multiplexing

RACH

BCCH

PCH AGCH

SDCCH

FACCH

SACCH

Level 1 Physical Channels
(example)
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000

TC0

TC11 SACCH TC13

TC24

IDLE

Architecture, Functions and Protocols

7-16

This Interface located between MS and BTS (also called the Radio interface) has these features: • Totally normalized. • Full inter-operability between Mobile Stations and infrastructure from different manufacturers. Organized in 3 levels: • Level 1 physical support: - Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) frame and FDMA. - Logical channel multiplexing. • Level 2 LAPDm Protocol (modified from LAPD): - No flag. - No error retransmission mechanism due to real time constraints (window = 1). • Level 3 Radio interface layer (RIL3) Protocol involves three sub-layers: - Radio Resource Management (RR): paging, power control, ciphering execution, handover. - Mobility Management (MM): security, location, IMSI attach/detach. - Connection Management (CM): Call Control (CC), Supplementary Services (SS) Short Message Services (SMS), Dual Tone Multi Frequency (DTMF) facilities.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-16

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
Abis Interface
1 - Presentation

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Speech 1 TS = 4 channels

PCM

PCM

Data

300, 1200, 1200/75, 2400, 4800, 9600, 14400 bit/s • Radio • O&M

LAPD

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols

7-17

Message exchanges between the BTS and the BSC: • Traffic exchanges. • Signaling exchanges for call set up and BTS operation and maintenance. Physical access between BTS and BSC: PCM digital links at 2.048 Mbit/s (E1) or 1.544 Mbit/s (T1), carrying 32 or 24 timeslots at 64 kbit/s. Speech: • Conveyed in timeslots at 4 x 16 kbit/s (remote transcoders). Data: • Conveyed in timeslots at 4 x 16 kbit/s. • The initial user rate, which may be 300, 1200, 1200/75, 2400, 4800 9600 or 14400 bit/s is adjusted to 16 kbit/s.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-17

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
Abis Interface
2 - Protocols BTS side
TRX
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BSC side
RSM = Radio Subsystem Management

BCF

RSM O&M

O&M

Level 3 layer

RSM O&M

O&M = Operation and Maintenance

RSL

OML

LAPD Level 2 layer

RSL = Radio Signaling Link

RSL

OML

OML = Operation and Maintenance Link

Level 1 layer

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols

7-18

This interface located between BTS and BSC has these features: • Partly normalized. • No inter-operability (currently) proprietary. Organized in 3 levels: • Level 1 PCM transmission (E1 or T1): - Speech coded at 16 kbit/s and sub-multiplexed in 64 kbit/s time slots. - Data which rate is adapted and synchronized. • Level 2 LAPD protocol: Standard HDLC procedure: - RSL = Radio Signaling Link. - OML = Operation and Maintenance Link. • Level 3 application protocols: - RSM = Radio Subsystem Management. - O&M = Operation and Maintenance procedure.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-18

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
LAPD and LAPDm Frames

0 to 260 octets
F
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

FCS

Information

Control

Address

F

LAPD
N (R) N (S) TEI SAPI

End of frame

0 to 21 octets

Start of frame
Control Address

information

LAPDm
N (R) N (S) SAPI

FCS F SAPI TEI
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols

: : : :

Frame Check Sequence Flag Service Access Point Identifier Terminal Equipment Identifier
7-19

For each BSC and related BTS terminal port (TEI), three types of links may be activated depending on the SAPI parameter value: The Radio Signaling Link: • Radio resource management procedures SAPI = 0. • Short messages, point to point SAPI = 3. The Operation and Maintenance Link: O&M procedures SAPI = 62. LAPD messages: • downlink: - OML: software download, channel configuration, - RSL: paging, HO command, • uplink: OML notification (event report), and RSL channel requirement. LAPDm frames are derived from LAPD frames: • no flags for synchronization, • without TEI and FCS, • with shorter address, • with shorter control field.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-19

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
Ater Interface
1 - Presentation

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Speech 1 TS = 4 channels Data 300, 1200, 1200/75, 2400, 4800, 9600, 14400 bit/s LAPD • O&M SS7 X.25

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols

7-20

Purpose Handling messages between BSC and TCU (TransCoder Unit). Characteristics Physical access at 1.544 Mbit/s or 2.048 Mbit/s (24 or 32 time slots at 64 kbit/s) carrying: • Reserved signaling channels according to CCITT No. 7 (CCS7). • Speech and data channels (16 kbit/s). • BSC - TCU signaling link (LAPD). • O&M data to OMC-R (X.25) via MSC (through the Network only). Ater interface links carry up to: • 120 communications (E1). • 92 communications (T1).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-20

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
Ater Interface
2 - Traffic Channel and Signaling Links

Ater interface
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

A interface TCU

LAPD TS 1 SS7 TS

O&M
SS7 TS MSC

BSC

Speech TS

Transcoding

Speech TS

Data TS

Rate Adaptation

Data TS

OMC X.25 TS 2 * PCM link * if used
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Architecture, Functions and Protocols 7-21

X.25 TS 2 * PCM link

Signaling messages are carried on specific timeslots (TS): • LAPD signaling TS between the BSC and the TCU. • SS7 TS between the BSC and the MSC. • X.25 TS 2 reserved for specific configurations. TS 1 carries LAPD protocol and is reserved for management messages between the BSC and the TCU. It is used by the BSC for: • TCU monitoring (mixer, PCM interface, transcoder and control units, LAPD signaling terminal, etc.). • TCU configuration (BSC-TCU signaling link, A-interface PCM, semaphore channels, Ainterface circuits, synchronization and transcoding functions). • TCU initialization. • TCU software downloading. • A and Ater interfaces management. • Synchronization management. • Transcoding management. SS7 TS is intended for BSC-MSC link and is dedicated for BSSAP messages transportation. TS 2 is reserved if the O&M data are transmitted to the OMC-R via a PCM link’s TS, managed by the A-interface. Signaling messages on the LAPD TS 1 are processed only by the TCU. SS7 TS and TS 2, if they are reserved, are switched by the TCU but remain transparent to it.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-21

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
A Interface
1 - Presentation

BSS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

NSS

Speech/Data 1 TS = 1 channel SS7

X.25

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols

7-22

Message exchanges between the MSC and the BSS (TCU): • Users traffic transport (speech + data). • Signaling transport. Physical access BSS MSC: PCM digital links. User’s traffic transport Each time slot corresponds to a traffic channel on the radio interface. The 64 kbit/s speech rate adjustment (A-law or µ-law) and the 64 kbit/s data rate adaptation are performed at the TCU. Signaling transport CCITT signaling system 7 (SS7). Two parts: • The Message Transfer Part (MTP). • The Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-22

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
A Interface
2 - Protocols
BSS
To other processes within the BSS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

A-interface

NSS

To air interface transmission equipment

DTAP

BSS MAP

DTAP

BSS MAP

Other applications, (eg call control)

Distribution function

Distribution function

SCCP

SCCP

To other users of the SCCP and MTP

MTP

MTP

Physical layer

DTAP: Direct Transfer Application Part BSSMAP: BSS Management Application Part
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000

SCCP: Signaling Connection Control Part MTP: Message Transfer Part
Architecture, Functions and Protocols

BSS: Base Station Subsystem MSC: Mobile services Switching Centre
7-23

This Interface located between TRAU and MSC has these features: • Totally normalized to allow multivendor equipment. • Full interoperability in most cases and after testing. Based on CCS7 protocol (either ETSI or ANSI). The MTP layers (2 to 3) provide the basic transport system for all CCS7 signaling messages and are responsible for signaling network management and signaling message handling: • Level 1: defines the physical characteristics for a 64 kbit/s signaling data link. • Level 2: ensures secure signaling link by providing error detection and correction, signaling link alignment and error monitoring. • Level 3: ensures that signaling messages are routed through the network in correct sequence and without loss or duplication even in case of link failure. So, MTP finds the destination signaling point and SCCP will deliver the message. The SCCP addressing allows routing to the application within the same network (through the address) or to an external network (through Global translations) using class 0 for connection mode and class 2 for connection oriented mode. A distribution function is added on top of the SCCP to discriminate the BSSMAP from DTAP. The BSSAP is a GSM CCS7 protocol and handles signaling involving MS, the BSS and the MSC. The BSSAP is divided into two parts: • The BSSMAP which consists of messages to be processed either by MSC or BSC (RR). • The DTAP which consists of messages to be transmitted transparently regarding the BSS (MM, CM).
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-23

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PSTN/ISDN/PSDN Interface

GMSC

Toll offices

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

TUP

ISUP

DUP

Application layer

TUP

ISUP

DUP

Message transfer MTP MTP

Physical layer

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols

7-24

Interface between MSC and: • Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). • Integrated Service Data Network (ISDN). • Packet Switched public Data Network (PSDN). Normalization: • Country dependent. • Inter-operability after local adaptations. The User part is built on services of the MTP to provide connectionless signaling for setting up, monitoring and clearing down the voice or data trunks of GSM CCS7 calls at the PSTN interface taking into consideration that it is connection-oriented at the A interface due to SCCP functions. The User part transports signaling messages associated with the connection between two users in a network. It supplies the trunk signaling capabilities which enable network-wide feature transparency for some network services. There are three main families of user part protocol depending on the application: • The Telephone User Part (TUP) interface with PSTN network. • The ISDN User Part (ISUP), interface with ISDN network. • The Data User Part (DUP), interface with PAD on PSDN network.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-24

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
General Packet Radio Service
GSM/ NSS BSS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PSTN/ISDN

GGSN PCU SGSN

GPRS/ NSS

Internet or Intranets

New standard for efficient data packet routing and transport to and from Packet Data Networks. Service offering includes: – direct IP connectivity – Point-to-Point or Point-to-Multipoint Add-on to GSM, using existing BSS infrastructure

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols

7-25

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a packet radio access technique based on GSM radio to transfer data in an efficient manner optimizing the use of network resources. It provides packet radio access to external Packet Data Networks, for instance to the Internet. It offers direct IP connectivity, in a Point-To-Point (PTP) or Point-To-Multipoint (PTM) data transmission mode. GPRS is an add-on to existing GSM networks, i.e., it makes use of the existing GSM radio infrastructure. With Nortel’s GPRS core nodes, Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) and Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN), the upfront investment for operators for initial deployment of GPRS services is limited. Nortel is currently developing the building blocks of GPRS, including: • Packet Control Unit Support Node (PCUSN), • Serving Gprs Support Node (SGSN), • Gateway Gprs Support Node (GGSN). PCUSN and SGSN entities are hosted both on Nortel Magellan Passport, and GGSN on Contivity Extranet Switch 4500.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-25

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
Check Your Learning
1- What are the three components of a GSM system?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

2- What does a BSS consist of?

3- What are the external interfaces and the internal interfaces of a BSS?

4- What are the main functions of a BTS?

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols

7-26

1- What are the three components of a GSM system?

2- What does a BSS consist of?

3- What are the external interfaces and the internal interfaces of a BSS?

4- What are the main functions of a BTS?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-26

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
Check Your Learning (continue)

5- Which technique does help saving links between BTS and BSC?
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

6- What are the main functions of the BSC?

7- What does the NSS contain?

8- What are the main function of a MSC?

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols

7-27

5- Which technique does help saving links between BTS and BSC?

6- What are the main functions of the BSC?

7- What does the NSS contain?

8- What are the main function of a MSC?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-27

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
Check Your Learning (continue)
9- What is the role of the HLR?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

10- What is the role of the VLR?

11- What are the three entities of layer 3 involved in the radio interface?

12- What is the layer 2 protocol involved in the Abis interface?

13- What is the Mobile Application Part?
Architecture, Functions and Protocols

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

7-28

9-

What is the role of the HLR?

10- What is the role of the VLR?

11- What are the three entities of layer 3 involved in the radio interface?

12- What is the layer 2 protocol involved in the Abis interface?

13- What is the Mobile Application Part?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-28

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-29

January, 2000

Architecture, Functions and Protocols
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

7-30

January, 2000

Procedures

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Section 8

Procedures

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Procedures

8-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-1

January, 2000

Procedures
Objectives
Learning the basic procedures, the main call procedures, mobility and roaming features that GSM operates.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

After completing this lesson you will be able to: • List the GSM procedures that can be activated from MS switch-on until MS switch-off • Explain the main procedures: cell selection, location update, call set-up, call release, handover

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Procedures

8-2

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-2

January, 2000

Procedures
Contents
1- Descriptors that GSM uses. 2- GSM ’s actors 3 - Procedures:
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

• Cell selection • Immediate Assignment • Location updates - Registration - Intra-VLR and Inter-VLR - IMSI attach/detach • Authentication • Ciphering • Mobile Originating call • Mobile Terminating call - Paging - End to end • Call release - MS initiated - PSTN initiated • Handovers
January, 2000 Procedures 8-3

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-3

January, 2000

Procedures
Descriptors Stored in SIM-Card
Global GSM Mobility Card
The Smart Card to use

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

MCC = 208 (France) 234 (G-B)

MNC = 01 (FTM) 10 (SFR) 20 (Bytel)

GSM IMSI = 15 digits max

Mobile Country Code 3 digits

Mobile Network Code 2/3 digits

Mobile Subscriber Identification Number (MSIN) 8 digits: H1 H2 X X X X X X

LAI
Mobile Country Code 3 digits Mobile Network Code 2/3 digits
January, 2000 Procedures

NMSI
Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity 4 octets
8-4

Location Area Code LAC

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

These descriptors are used in different phases of call setup: • International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) is the proprietary identifier of the mobile subscriber within the GSM network and is permanently assigned to him; it consists of MCC, MNC and MSIN: - Mobile Country Code (3 digits) is allocated to the operator country, - Mobile Network Code (2 or 3 digits) is allocated to each operator, - Mobile Subscriber Identification Number (8 digits) is allocated by the GSM network (HLR). • GSM network can assign a Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) to identify the mobile on a local basis (within VLR), allocated to visiting mobile subscribers and correlated with IMSI. • Location Area Identity (LAI) defines a part of a MSC/VLR service area in which a MS can move freely without updating location; it consists of MCC, MNC and LAC. • National Mobile Subscriber Identity (NMSI) consists of the MNC and the MSIN.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-4

January, 2000

Procedures
Descriptors Stored in the Network
MS-ISDN Subscriber Number (SN) M1 M2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X MSRN Roaming Number (RN) Is a PSTN-like number used to reach a roaming MS Is a PSTN-like number to track the MS which hands over to another MSC during call-in-state

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Country Code CC

National Destination Code

Must be dialed to make a call to mobile subscriber

Country Code CC

National Destination Code

Country Code CC

National Destination Code
NDC = 607, 608, 604 (FTM) = 609, 603 (SFR) = 660, 661, 618 (Bytel)
January, 2000

HO-number

CC = 33 (France)

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

Procedures

8-5

The Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number (MS-ISDN) is the number that the calling party dials in order to reach the GSM subscriber. It is used by the land networks to route calls toward an appropriate GSM network. MSISDN is stored in HLR. The Mobile Subscriber Roaming Number (MSRN) is allocated on a temporary basis when the MS roams into another numbering area. Thus the MSRN shall have the same structure as international ISDN number in the area in which it is allocated. Visited MSC allocates a MSRN upon the VLR request which in turn was requested by the HLR. Upon reception of the MSRN, HLR sends it to the GMSC, which can now route the call to the MSC/VLR exchange where the called subscriber is currently registered. HO number is used for inter-MSC Handovers, to establish a circuit from the serving MSC to the new MSC.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-5

January, 2000

Procedures
Descriptor Embodied in the MS

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

IMEI enables the operator to check the Mobile Equipment Identity at call setup and make sure that no stolen or unauthorized MS is used in the GSM network

PE ED TY OV PR AP

TAC
Type Approval Code

FAC

SNR
Serial NumbeR

SP
(SPare)

Final Assembly Code

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Procedures

8-6

Stored inside the Mobile Equipment. Used instead of IMSI or TMSI when both are unavailable (example: Emergency calls without SIM card) or when required by the network (for maintenance). Can be used for EIR database updating (when it exists): • TAC = 6 digits describing the type of equipment. • FAC = 2 digits for identification of the factory. • SNR = 6 digits for the serial number of the device. IMEI may be temporary stored within MSC/VLR to minimize signaling within the Network.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-6

January, 2000

Procedures
GSM ’s Actors
NSS BSS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

MSC
BSC

Public Switched Telephone Network

BTS

VLR

HLR

AUC
Mobile subscriber
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures

Fixed subscriber

8-7

These are the GSM actors that are involved in the following procedures.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-7

January, 2000

Procedures
Cell Selection
Purpose: get synchronization with the GSM network prior establishing any communication.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

1

1
BTS-5

1

BTS-4 1

1
H FCC

2 3 4 BTS-1

BTS-3

5

SCH

CH BC

BTS-2

This cell

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Procedures

8-8

1- MS scans the whole spectrum and stores the strongest level carriers (30 in GSM 900, 40 otherwise). 2- MS tunes to the frequency correction channel (FCCH) of the strongest carrier (BTS-1). 3- MS reads data from the synchronization channel (SCH). 4- MS reads data from broadcast channel (BCCH). 5- MS camps on this BCCH if it is suitable for the MS; otherwise it tries selection on the next strongest beacon carrier.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-8

January, 2000

Procedures
Immediate Assignment
MS
1
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BTS
CHANNEL REQUEST CHANNEL REQUIRED CHANNEL ACTIVATION
4

BSC

MSC

RACH

2

3

CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK. IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT COMMAND
5

Immediate Assignment

IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT

AGCH
CM SERVICE REQUEST

5

6

SDCCH or TCH
LOCATION UPDAT. REQU.

OR
6

SDCCH or TCH

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Procedures

8-9

The Immediate Assignment procedure is always initiated by the MS and may be triggered by a Paging Request or by a Mobile Originating Service request. Procedure 1- The MS sends a CHANNEL REQUEST message (RACH). 2- The BTS decodes this message and indicates it to BSC through CHANNEL REQUIRED message. 3- The BSC asks BTS to activate a dedicated channel: SDCCH or TCH (if no SDCCH available). 4- Acknowledgement by BTS 5- The BSC sends an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message to the MS (via the BTS); the MS has to seize the indicated dedicated channel including these values: initial Timing Advance and initial maximum transmission power. 6- Then the MS can request a service on the dedicated channel through: • SERVICE REQUEST message including the access reason (call setup, paging etc.), • LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST message for location.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-9

January, 2000

Procedures
Registration: the Very First Location Update
1 2
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

1

BSS
BSC 5 6 BTS

IMSI 3 TMSI Release

2 3 TMSI 6

MSC
5 2 3 TMSI 5

LAI

HLR
IMSI VLR id 4

VLR
IMSI TMSI LAI

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Procedures

8-10

1- Channel allocation (Connection request procedure): • the MS sends (on RACH) a CHANNEL REQUEST message, • the network responds with IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT (on dedicated channel). 2- The MS sends to BSS a LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST message with IMSI. 3- The VLR triggers and monitors the Authentication procedure and can also activate Ciphering procedure. 4- The VLR stores the LA of the MS and informs the HLR which: • stores VLR identity, • downloads the subscriber profile, if the MS is allowed to roam. 5- The VLR may assign a TMSI and sends it to the MS in the LOCATION UPDATING ACCEPT message. 6- The MSC releases the connection.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-10

January, 2000

Procedures
Intra-VLR Location Update

1 2
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BSS
2 BSC 3 4 BTS

1

TMSI + old LAI new TMSI

MSC
3 4 2 TMSI New TMSI 3

New LAI

VLR
IMSI TMSI LAI

IMSI not Required

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Procedures

8-11

1- Channel allocation (Connection request procedure). 2- The MS sends to the BSS a LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST message (with TMSI and old LAI), relayed to the VLR through the MSC. 3- The VLR stores the new Location Area Identity, then if required assigns a new TMSI and responds to the MS with LOCATION UPDATING ACCEPT message. 4- The MSC releases the connection.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-11

January, 2000

Procedures
Inter-VLR Location Update
1 2 TMSI + old LAI newTMSI
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BSS
2 BSC BTS

1 5 7 2 TMSI New TMSI 5

MSC

5 7

New LAI

Old VLR IMSI, TMSI Old LAI
RAND, SRES, 4 Kc

New VLR 3 IMSI,TMSI LAI
RAND, SRES, Kc

6

IMSI not Required

HLR
6 new VLR id

subscriber data

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Procedures

8-12

1- Channel allocation (connection request procedure). 2- The MS sends to BSS a LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST message, (with TMSI + old LAI) relayed to the VLR through MSC. 3- The new VLR asks the old VLR for MS identity and ciphering items. 4- The old VLR backs new VLR IMSI, RAND, SRES, Kc. 5- The new VLR assigns a TMSI and sends it to the MS over a LOCATION UPDATING ACCEPT message (with cipher mode if required). 6- The new VLR informs the HLR which sends subscriber data and asks the old VLR to erase the previous MS data. 7- The MSC releases connection.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-12

January, 2000

Procedures
IMSI Attach

1

CHANNEL REQUEST IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT

BSS
2 BSC BTS 3 4

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

3 LOCATION UPDATING

REQUEST (IMSI Attach) Authentication 4 Procedure

MSC

LOCATION UPDATING 5 ACCEPT (LAC, TMSI)

5
4

VLR
6

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Procedures

8-13

The IMSI attach procedure is used (if required by the network), to indicate the IMSI as active in the network and is performed by using the Location updating procedure. Procedure 1- MS requests (on RACH) a dedicated channel with CHANNEL REQUEST message using a random number. 2- BSS assigns a dedicated channel (on AGCH) with IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message using this random number. 3- MS sends (over this dedicated channel) a LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST message including its identity and the IMSI Attach cause. 4- Authentication procedure (if required by the network). 5- MSC responds by sending a LOCATION UPDATING ACCEPT message. 6- In the VLR, a flag is set to indicate that the subscriber is active. This procedure is used only if the update status is updated and if the stored LAI is the same as the one which is actually broadcast on the BCCH of the current serving cell.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-13

January, 2000

Procedures
IMSI Detach

1
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

CHANNEL REQUEST IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT

BSS
2 BSC BTS 4 3
IMSI DETach INDication

MSC

3

IMSI DETach INDication CHANNEL RELEASE

VLR

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Procedures

8-14

The IMSI detach procedure may be invoked by a MS: • if the MS is switched off, • if the SIM card is detached. Procedure 1- MS requests (on RACH) a dedicated channel with CHANNEL REQUEST message. 2- BSS assigns a dedicated channel (on AGCH) with IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message. 3- The MS sends IMSI DETach INDication message to the VLR. 4- The VLR sets a flag to indicate that this MS is no longer available; no paging will be done to that MS until IMSI ATTach occurs.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-14

January, 2000

Procedures
Authentication
1 - Principle
The Smart Card to use

Global GSM Mobility Card

MS

Radio Interface

BSS

NSS
RAND (128 bits)

(RAND, SRES, Kc)

AUC

GSM
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

(A3 and A8)

SIM card

Ki

Ki (128 bits)

Ki (128 bits) RAND

Ki

A3

A3

A3

A3

SRESm A8
A8

SRESm (32 bits)

=?
OK

SRES
A8

A8

CIPHER MODE
RAND = RANDom number SRES = Signed RESponse Kc = Ciphering Key Ki = Identification Key
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000

Kc

Kc
Procedures 8-15

Purpose: authentication of the subscriber, to prevent access of unregistered users: • Authentication is performed by requiring from an algorithm A3 the correct answer to a random number input. • Eavesdropping recording of signaling is inefficient since there is never twice the same request. • A3 algorithm is operator-dependent. Principle • The NSS transmits a non-predictable number RAND to the MS. • The SIM card and the NSS compute the signature SRESm, using algorithm A3, from the RAND and a secret key Ki. • The MS transmits its signature SRESm to the NSS. • The NSS tests the two SRES for validity. • Each time authentication A3 algorithm runs, concurrently A8 algorithm is used to produce a ciphering key Kc.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-15

January, 2000

Procedures
Authentication
2 - Procedure
RAND

BSS
4 BSC 7 BTS 6

RAND

4

6
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

SRESm CIPHER MODE

SRESm Ciphering Command 7 6 SRESm

MSC

4

6

Purpose: Avoid logging of lost, stolen or forgery SIM-Cards.

HLR
1

RAND

4

7

VLR
SRESm = SRES ?

Ki 5

RAND 1 A3 3

3

Triplets

SRESm

(RAND, SRES, Kc) 2 AUC (A3 and A8)
January, 2000 Procedures 8-16

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

Procedure 1- The VLR sends a Map Send Parameters message to the HLR which relays this message to the AUC. 2- The AUC then generates some RAND numbers and applies algorithms A3 and A8 to provide the authenticated signature SRES and the cipher key Kc. 3- The AUC returns the triplets (RAND, SRES, Kc) to HLR which relays them to the VLR. 4- The VLR now sends a Map Authenticate message to the MSC which in turn sends to the MS an AUTHENTICATION REQUEST message containing Rand; the Kc is also sent but stops at the BTS. 5- The SIM-Card calculates the required response SRESm, using RAND, algorithm A3 and authentication key Ki. 6- The MS returns SRESm to VLR in AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE. 7- VLR checks SRES = SRESm, then sends to the MSC a MM Service accept message; otherwise VLR denies access: the MS will receive an AUTHENTICATION REQUEST.

* The operator can modify the period of activation through parameters: for example, he can authenticate every five requests (for each subscriber).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-16

January, 2000

Procedures
Ciphering
1 - Principle MS
Frame Number (22 bits)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BTS
Radio interface
Frame Number (22 bits)

Kc (64 bits)

A5

A5

Kc (64 bits)

Block (114 bits)

Block (114 bits)

Block (114 bits)

Block (114 bits)

Data to transmit Received data

+ +
January, 2000

Ciphered data

+ +

Received data Data to transmit

+
PE/TRD/GR/0101

: exclusive-or
12.01/EN Procedures 8-17

Radio path ciphering, in particular ciphering of all subscriber information, aims to prevent third party tapping (eavesdropping). What is encrypted?: • Signaling (Subscriber Id.). • Speech or data. The encryption of signaling and user speech or data, is performed at the MS as well as at the BTS (symmetric encryption) using the same Kc and the A5 algorithm. Each time a Mobile Station is authenticated, this MS and the Network also compute the ciphering key Kc (algorithm A8) with the same inputs RAND and Ki as for the SRES (algorithm A3). The Frame Number FN of the current TDMA frame (within a hyperframe) is another input for the A5 besides the Kc. The output of Encryption algorithm A5 is a ciphering sequence of 114 bits. Exclusive OR operation is applied between data to be ciphered and the ciphering sequence in order to produce either ciphered or deciphered data. Algorithm A5 is not operator dependent to achieve international roaming between any Mobile Station and BSS infrastructure whatever the operator.Two types of ciphering algorithms are available: A5/1 et A5/2, but only one ciphering algorithm A5 is supported at a time in a BTS. The BSC checks the availability of the A5 algorithms in the MS. If the BSS does not support the same ciphering algorithm as the MS, the calls will be unencrypted. The ciphering BSS capability is an O&M parameter defined for all the BTS of the BSC.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-17

January, 2000

Procedures
Ciphering
2 - Procedure
CIPHER MODE COMMAND

BSS
Kc BSC Kc BTS 6
CIPHER MODE COMPLETE

3

2

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

4

CIPHER MODE COMPLETE Ciphered data

MSC

+
A5
TDMA# Kc

5

Purpose: avoid communication to be tapped. ✁❁❚❅❒✟w❃❙x❉ ❐✟v❄❒✁❆✟✝❊ v❄❆✁✟✝❏❋❇❑❈

SET CIPHER MODE (Kc)

1

(Rand, SRES, Kc) Ki Rand A8 Kc

VLR

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Procedures

8-18

Ciphering is normally required for all user transactions over the RF link when the subscriber has been authenticated by the system. It is worth noting that this is an optional feature and it is dependent of the operator. Procedure 1- Ciphering begins with the VLR sending the MSC a SET CIPHER MODE (MAP message) containing the value of Kc. 2- The MSC sends the ciphering key to the BSS (actually the BTS) in a CIPHER MODE COMMAND (BSSMAP message). 3- The BSS in turn sends an CIPHERING MODE COMMAND (RR message) to the MS. 4- The MS switches to encrypted transmission and reception, then sends back to BSS an CIPHERING MODE COMPLETE (RR message). 5- After the BSS receives this message, it switches to encrypted transmission and reception for subsequent burst. 6- The BSS then sends a CIPHER MODE COMPLETE (BSSMAP message) to the MSC.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-18

January, 2000

Procedures
Mobile Originating Call
MS
Dialing
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BSS
CHANNEL REQUEST IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT
2 2

MSC VLR

PSTN

1

2

CM SERVICE REQUEST
3 3

CM SERVICE REQUEST

Authentication procedure Ciphering procedure
4

Sending Number

4

SETUP (basic) or EMERGENCY CALL PROCEEDING
7 7

SETUP
5 7 6

CALL PROCEEDING

IAM

Ring Ringing

Assignment procedure ALERTING CONNECT
9

ACM ANM
11

Ringing Path Established
11
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000

8 10

CONNECT ACKnowledge
Procedures

ACM = Address Complete Message ANM = ANswer Message IAM = Initial Address Message
8-19

1- The MS originates the call by sending a CHANNEL REQUEST message (on RACH). 2- Immediate assignment: channel allocation with TCH / FACCH or SDCCH. 3- The VLR launches authentication (if required) and completes ciphering. 4- The MS initiates call establishment by sending a SETUP message (called party number) to the MSC. 5- The MSC in turn checks mobile subscriber capabilities with VLR for desired service. 6- If it agrees, the MSC relays the called number over an ISUP Initial Address Message. 7- The MSC also sends a CALL PROCEEDING message to the MS (assigning TCH / FACCH EA in case of Early Assignment). 8- Recipient PSTN switch rings the land telephone and returns an ISUP Address Complete Message to the MSC. 9- Upon receiving this message, the MSC alerts the MS with an ALERTING message. 10- Called party goes off hook, thus PSTN sends to the MSC an ISUP ANswer Message. MSC then connects MS (assigning a TCH in case of OACSU). 11- Call is accepted (CONNECT/CONNECT ACK) and the conversation starts. In case of Emergency MO Call, the SETUP message (basic call) is replaced by the EMERGENCY one.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-19

January, 2000

Procedures
Mobile Terminating Call
1 - Paging Principle
LA1
6
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BSC1
5

BTS11

4 3 1

BTS12

6
BTS21

5

MSC/ VLR

GMSC

PSTN

BSC2
2
BTS22

LA2

HLR
BSC3

BTS23

BTS31

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Procedures

8-20

Main difference with MO Call procedure is the Paging of the Mobile Station. When the MS is in Idle mode, the network do not knows the cell but only the Location Area where the MS is located. Since RR sessions are only established at the initiative of the MS, the role of the Paging procedure is to trigger that operation. Principle 1- A call from the fixed network (PSTN) is switched to the Gateway MSC (GMSC). 2- The GMSC reads in the HLR the identity of the MSC/VLR (or Visitor MSC) handling the Location Area of the Mobile Station. 3- The GMSC routes the call to the VMSC. 4- The VMSC reads the LA where the MS is located, into its VLR. 5- The VMSC sends instructions to one or several BSC (BSC1 and BSC2) to page the MS in the different cells of LA1. 6- BSC1 and BSC2 page the MS in the BTSs of the Location Area LA1. (BTS11, BTS12, BTS21). GMSC and VMSC are software functions. Use of MSRN = only case of GSM where a circuit is established before is answered.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-20

January, 2000

Procedures
Mobile Terminating Call
2 - Detailed Paging Procedure
Visitor PLMN VLR
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

International SS7
Provide Roaming Number (IMSI)

Home PLMN HLR
4

5 9
PAGE (TMSI + LA) Send info to I/C (MSRN)

Roaming Number (MSRN)

6
Routing Information (MSRN) Send Routing Information (MSISDN)

1
MSISDN

PAGING REQUEST (TMSI)

11

8
PAGING REQUEST 10 (TMSI + LA)

3
IAM (MSRN)

BSS

VMSC

7 GMSC

IAM 2 (MSISDN)

ISDN

PN
IAM MSISDN MSRN : Initial Address Message : Mobile Station Integrated Services Digital network Number : Mobile Station Roaming Number
12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures

IMSI GMSC VMSC TMSI

: : : :

International Mobile Subscriber Identity Gateway MSC Visitor MSC Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity
8-21

PE/TRD/GR/0101

Procedure 1- The caller subscriber access the ISDN by dialing the called MS-ISDN number. 2- Transmission of MS-ISDN number to GMSC through IAM (Initial Address Message). 3- Transmission of MS-ISDN number to HLR through SRI (Send Routing Information). 4- The HLR interrogates the VLR (Visitor MSC) that is currently serving the user. 5- The VLR returns a routing number (MSRN) to the HLR, which passes it back to the GMSC. 6- The MSRN is transmitted to GMSC (address of appropriate VMSC). 7- The GMSC calls VMSC through IAM (with MSRN). 8- The MSC asks VLR to establish where the called party is located. 9- The VLR gives location information (LA) to MSC with PAGE message. 10- The VMSC alerts with PAGING REQUEST message, all BSCs in charge of cells belonging to this LA. 11- All the BTS page the MS over PCH; depending upon the paging type message, up to four different TMSI may be contained in the page command. There are three types of PAGING REQUEST message: • Type 1: sent on the PCH to up two MSs, to trigger channel by these; MSs are identified by their TMSI or IMSI. • Type 2: sent on the PCH to two or three MS; two of the MS are identified by their TMSI while the third is identified either by its IMSI or its TMSI. • Type 3: sent on the PCH to four MS which are identified by their TMSIs.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-21

January, 2000

Procedures
Mobile Terminating Call
3 - End to End Procedure
MS BSS
PAGING REQUEST (TMSI or IMSI, LA)

VMSC
IAM (MSRN)

GMSC
2

PSTN
IAM (MSISDN)
1

Dialing

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PAGING REQUEST
5

4

3

CHANNEL REQUEST (LAC, Cell ID) IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT 6 (SDCCH or TCH)

7

CM SERVICE REQUEST (Paging Response)
8 9

7

PAGING RESPONSE (TMSI or IMSI, LA)

Authentication procedure Ciphering procedure Setup, Assignment, Alerting CONNECT
11 12

Ringing
10 12

Address Complete Message ANswer Message Path Established
8-22

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Procedures

Procedure PSTN sends an IAM (with the MSISDN) to the GMSC. GMSC sends an IAM (with the MSRN) to the VMSC. The VMSC sends a PAGING REQUEST MM message to the BSS. The BSS sends a PAGING REQUEST (with IMSI or TMSI) to the MS. The MS must request a channel (CHANNEL REQUEST message with paging cause) over the RACH, within 0.5 second. 6- The BSS complies and assigns (on AGCH) a dedicated channel to the MS with IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message. 7- The MS sends a PAGING RESPONSE to the VMSC via the BSS. 8/9- Authentication and Ciphering procedures (if required). 10- Setup, Assignment, Alerting procedures (see MS Originating Call). 11- Alerting is sent to PSTN with an ACM (ISUP message). 12- CONNECT and ANM messages are sent to the PSTN: call is completed. 12345-

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-22

January, 2000

Procedures
Call Release
1 - Mobile Initiated
MS
1
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BSS
Call in progress
2

MSC

PSTN

2

DISCONNECT

DISCONNECT RELEASE

RELEASE
4

3

3

RELEASE COMPLETE
5

CHANNEL RELEASE 6
7

Release

RELEASE INDICATION RF Channel Release procedure 8
9

Release tone

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Procedures

8-23

Call release can be initiated by either the PSTN user or the mobile user. BSC is responsible for BSS resources, MSC is responsible for NSS and PSTN connection. Procedure 1- Call is currently in progress. 2- The MS initiates the release of a call by sending a DISCONNECT message to the MSC. 3- The MSC returns to the MS a RELEASE message. 4- The MS acknowledges with a RELEASE COMPLETE message. 5- The MSC can send the Release message to the PSTN without waiting for the RELEASE COMPLETE MM message from the MS. 6- The BSC requests the MS to return to Idle mode with CHANNEL RELEASE message. 7- The BTS informs the BSC with RELEASE INDICATION that signaling link is disconnected. 8- BSC requests BTS to de-activate RF Channel (TCH): Channel Release. 9- The PSTN informs the land terminal with appropriate tone. Abnormal termination is monitored by a set of timers (operator configurable) to ensure resources are not unused/unavailable.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-23

January, 2000

Procedures
Call Release
2 - PSTN Initiated

1
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BSS
3 BSC 5 BTS 4

1 3

1

4

MSC

REL 6 RLC

2

PSTN

5

2

1

Purpose: informs the mobile then releases radio and network resources. On hook

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Procedures

8-24

Procedure 1- The call is in progress. 2- The release process starts with an ISUP Release message from the land network. 3- Upon receiving this message, the MSC initiates the release of the call by sending a DISCONNECT message to the MS. 4- MS replies by sending a RELEASE CHANNEL message to the MSC. 5/6- MSC in turn, backs to the MS a RELEASE COMPLETE message and sends to the PSTN a Release Complete message.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-24

January, 2000

Procedures
Reasons for Handover
Prevention Distance Maintenance Power budget Micro cellular environment

Rescue
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Signal strength Quality Lack of resources: Directed Retry

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Procedures

8-25

Decision criteria • Bad quality. • Weak signal strength. • Cell boundaries (Distance). • Power budget (optimization). • Traffic constraints.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-25

January, 2000

Procedures
Mobility and Handover
The Five Types of Handover
MSC-A MSC-B
BSC-C
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BSC-A

BSC-B

BTS C1

BTS B1 BTS A2 BTS A1

5

1

4 2 3

1- Intra-Cell HO 2- Intra-BTS HO 3- Intra-BSC HO 4- Inter-BSC HO 5- Inter-MSC HO
8-26

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Procedures

1- Intra-Cell Handover: the MS is handed over to another channel on the same cell, under the same BTS. 2- Intra-BTS Handover: the MS is handed over to another channel on a different cell, under the control of the same BTS. 3- Intra-BSC Handover: the MS is handed over to another channel on a different cell, under the control of a different BTS of the same BSC. 4- Inter-BSC Handover: the MS is handed over to another channel on a different cell, under the control of a different BSC of the same MSC. 5- Inter-MSC Handover: the MS is handed over to another channel on different cell, under another MSC of the same PLMN.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-26

January, 2000

Procedures
Handover Preparation

BSC
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

MSC

BTS-1

Me as u re rem su lts ent

er th l s s o nne an a sc ch MS con a be

BTS-2

Cell 1 Cell 2
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-27

To avoid losing a call in progress, when the Mobile Station leaves the radio coverage of the cell in charge. Procedure: Three steps: • Handover decision (based on measurements results). • Choice of the target cell. • Handover execution. Handover topology • Intra BTS (intra and inter cell). • Inter BSC. • Inter MSC including (subsequent). • Microcellular environment.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-27

January, 2000

Procedures
Handover Decision
Decision criteria: - bad quality, - weak signal strength, - cell boundaries, - etc.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BSC

MSC

e bl er ita ov u d ) f s an = 6 to h is for um L s ll x im ce (ma

BTS-1 BTS-2

Cell 1 Cell 2
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-28

Handover is initiated by the network based on radio subsystem criteria (RF level, quality, distance) as well as network directed criteria (current traffic loading per cell, maintenance requests, etc.). In order to determine if a handover is required, due to RF criteria, the MS shall take radio measurements from neighboring cells; these measurements are reported to the serving cell on a regular basis.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-28

January, 2000

Procedures
Handover Execution

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

d an m S m Co he M HO to t

BSC

MSC

HO ds an S mm e M Co to th

BTS-1 BTS-2

Cell 1 Cell 2
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-29

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-29

January, 2000

Procedures
Intra-BSC Handover
MS BTS1 BTS2
HO INDICATION CHANNEL ACTIVATE 3
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BSC

MSC

HO Initiation
HO COMMAND 6 5

1

2

CHANNEL ACTIVATE ACK 4

HO COMMAND HO ACCESS *

PHYSICAL INFO **

7 8 9

HO DETECTION

HO Execution
10 HandOver COMPLETE

ESTABLISH INDICATION

HO Acknowledg.
14

11

HO COMPLETE 12 13

HO COMPLETE

RF CHANNEL RELEASE RF CHANNEL RELEASE ACK

* this message may be repeated up to 4 times ** only if Handover asynchronous
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-30

1- The BTS1 triggers HandOver by sending a HandOver INDICATION message to the BSC. 2- The BSC allocates if available a new channel from the BTS2. 3- The BTS2 establishes this channel, and responds to the BSC. 4/5- The BSC sends a HandOver COMMAND to the MS (on the FACCH) via the BTS1, assigning a new channel, its characteristics, the power level to use, the frequency hopping set, the Timing Advance TA if possible, and whether to use synchronous or asynchronous HO. 6a- In synchronous mode, MS sends to the BTS2 in successive multiframe slots (on the FACCH) four HandOver ACCESS messages. It then activates the new channel in both directions. 6b- In asynchronous mode, MS starts sending to the BTS2 a continuous stream of HandOver ACCESS messages, by sending access bursts on TCH until it receives the TA to apply. 8- In asynchronous mode, MS receives the TA. 10/11- In both cases, MS replies with a HandOver COMPLETE message to the BSC over the new FACCH. 13/14- BSC in turn directs BTS1 to release the previous channel by sending a RF CHANNEL RELEASE message with ACKnowledgment from the BTS1.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-30

January, 2000

Procedures
Inter-BSC Handover
MS BTS1 BSC1
HO INDICATION

MSC
HO REQUIRED

BSC2
HO REQUEST

BTS2

HO Initiation
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

1

2

3

4 6

CHANNEL ACTIVATE

HO COMMAND

HO COMMAND

HO COMMAND

HO REQUEST ACK

CHANNEL ACTIVATE ACK

5

9

8
HO ACCESS *

7

10

HO Execution

HO DETECTION HO DETECTION PHYSICAL INFO

12 13

11

ESTABLISH INDICATION 14

15

HandOver COMPLETE HO COMPLETE HO COMPLETE

HO Acknowledg.

RF CHANNEL RELEASE

CLEAR COMMAND

19 21

18

17

16

20

RF CHANNEL RELEASE ACK

CLEAR COMPLETE

* this message may be repeated up to 4 times
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Procedures 8-31

A communication is established between the mobile subscriber and another user. The Mobile Station moves towards another cell (BTS1 to BTS2). The MSC controls the call, the mobility management and the radio resources, before, during and after the HO. 1- The BTS1 triggers HO by sending a HandOver INDICATION message to the BSC1. 2/3- The BSC1 makes a channel allocation request to the BSC2, via the MSC; HANDOVER REQUIRED shall contain a list of cells, or a single cell, to which the MS can be handed over. 4/6- The BSC2 allocates a channel if available, and responds to the MSC. 7/9- The MSC requests the MS (via BSC1 and BTS1) to connect to the BTS2. 10- The MS requests a radio resource to BTS2: HO ACCESS. 11/12- The BTS2 informs the MSC that it accept the handover. 13- The BTS2 establishes the connection with the MS. 14- The BTS2 orders the BSC2 that the radio link with the MS is established. 15- The MSC switches the call to the MS, (via BSC2 and BTS2) and the MS acknowledges with HO COMPLETE. 16/17- The BTS2 (via BSC2) informs the MSC that the connection is successful. 18- The MSC informs the BSC1 to release radio resource with BTS1: CLEAR COMMAND. 19/21- The BSC1 releases BTS1 radio resource: RF CHANNEL RELEASE.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-31

January, 2000

Procedures
Inter-MSC Handover

BSC 1
BTS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

MSC 1
1 Terrestrial link

1a 1b

BTS 2a BTS BTS BTS 3a 3b 2b

BSC 2 PSTN
2 3

BSC 3
3

MSC 2

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Procedures

8-32

A communication is established between the mobile subscriber and another user. • The Mobile Station moves towards another cell (BTS 2b to BTS 3a). • The BTS 2b sends an HANDOVER INDICATION to BSC2 which informs MSC1. • The MSC1 sends a Transfer Request to MSC2. • The MSC2 requests the BSC3 to allocate a traffic channel (TCH). • The MSC2 informs the MSC1 that the channel has been successfully allocated. • The MSC1 requests the BSC2 to hand over the call. • The BSC2 requests the MS, via BTS 2b, to connect via BSC3 to BTS 3a. • The MS establishes a connection with BTS 3a via BSC3. • The BSC3 informs the MSC2 that the connection is successful. • The MSC1 is informed too, via MSC2. • The MSC1 switches the call to MSC2. • The MSC2 routes the call to the MS, via BSC3 and BTS 3a. • The MSC1 releases BSC2 radio resources.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-32

January, 2000

Procedures
Exercise

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Cite the GSM procedures successively involved in the following situations (the IMSI Attach/Detach function is enabled). Indicate the radio channels types used in every procedure. 1- Switch-on the MS and move in Idle mode from one LA to an other one. 2- Establish a call and move in communication from one cell to an other. 3- MS in Idle mode. Reception of a Short Message. 4- Switch-off the MS.

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Procedures

8-33

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-33

January, 2000

Procedures
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

8-34

January, 2000

Base Transceiver Station Functions

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Section 9

Base Transceiver Station Functions

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Base Transceiver Station Functions

9-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

9-1

January, 2000

Base Transceiver Station Functions
Objectives

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

After completing this lesson you will be able to : • Cite the main functions of a BTS; • Cite the three functional parts of one BTS and their role; • Indicate the three different connection modes of a BTS and their benefits/drawbacks; • Describe the BCF module; • Describe the TRX; • Describe the coupling system.

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Base Transceiver Station Functions

9-2

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

9-2

January, 2000

Base Transceiver Station Functions
BSS Architecture

MSC
A Interface
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

TCU
S2000H&L BTS

Radio Interface

NSS

Public Telephone Network

Ater Interface

OMC-R

BSC

Abis Interface

S8000 Outdoor BTS Radio Interface

MS

OMN Interface

Sun
StorEdge A5000

BSS
January, 2000 Base Transceiver Station Functions

S8000 Indoor BTS

MS
9-3

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

The BSS radio subsystem contains the following units: • one Base Station Controller (BSC), • one or more Base Transceiver Stations (BTS), • one to seven remote transcoders, in one or more transcoder unit (TCU) cabinets, preferably located on the MSC premises. These different units are linked together through specific BSS interfaces: • each BTS is linked to the BSC by an Abis interface, • the TCUs are linked to the BSC by an Ater interface, • the A interface links the BSC/TCU pair to the MSC.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

9-3

January, 2000

Base Transceiver Station Functions
Capabilities of a BTS
Traffic
Reception

Features at the radio interface
Signal processing
DDDDDDDD 12345678 DDDD DD DD 1234 56 78

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Transmission Coding Speech
00 2 10 4 01 7
A MESSAGES IS PENDING. PLEASE CONTACT NBR 452 587 65

Ciphering
00 2 10 4 01 7 11 3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Interleaving
Q 0
- 90° + 90°

1

I GMSK

11 3

Demodulation

Modulation
Call clearing Power Control

Measurement preprocessing
Handover

Data

Short messages

Coupling system

Frequency hopping

L1M (Call sustaining)

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Base Transceiver Station Functions

9-4

Information transmission: • Speech. • Data. • Short messages. Features at the radio interface • Signal processing: - Modulation/demodulation, equalization. - Ciphering/deciphering. - Coding/decoding, interleaving/de-interleaving. • Frequency hopping. • Coupling system: - Space diversity (reception diversity). • Layer 1 management: - Radio measurements preprocessing - Handover. - Power control. - Call clearing.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

9-4

January, 2000

Base Transceiver Station Functions
Capabilities of a BTS (continue)
Links and Sites optimization
LAPD LAPD LAPD
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Defense

Control and Switching Unit A

Control and Switching Unit B

Multi-cell site

LAPD concentration Synchro A Synchro B Duplication

(Full multi-drop)

Drop and Insert techniques

DSC DSC DSC

+

DSC

COM 1

COM 2

COM 3

COM 4

Time Slot PCM

Links optimization

n+1 redundancy Automatic reconfiguration

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Base Transceiver Station Functions

9-5

Links and sites optimization • Management of multicell sites. • Drop & insert techniques. • Remote transcoders (optimization of A and Abis interface dimensioning). • LAPD signaling channels concentration. Defense • The core functions of the BTS are duplicated against failures thank to duplication of some modules.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

9-5

January, 2000

Base Transceiver Station Functions
Functional Architecture

Antenna
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

COUPLING SYSTEM

Radio Interface

TRX (Transceiver Equipment) MS BSC
Abis interface

BCF (Base Common Functions)

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Base Transceiver Station Functions

9-6

The Base Transceiver Station BTS can be split into three functional parts or entities: • one Base Common Functions module (BCF): performing all common functions of the site, • coupling system (one per cell), • one or several transceivers TRX (one per TDMA frame). These different entities are housed into one or several cabinets, their number depends on radio channels to be implemented, the type of BTS, and the structure of the site: single-cell or multi-cell.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

9-6

January, 2000

Base Transceiver Station Functions
Generic Architecture
BTS (site)

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Coup syst Coup syst

Coup syst Coup syst

TRX n TRX n-1

TRX n-1

Coup syst Coup syst

TRX n

TRX n TRX n-1

BSC

TRX 2 TRX 1 BCF

TRX 2 TRX 1

TRX 2 TRX 1

Base cabinet
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000

Extension cabinets
9-7

Base Transceiver Station Functions

A BTS consists of one or more cabinets: • the cabinet that contains the BCF (plus TRXs and coupling systems) is called Base cabinet, • the other cabinet (containing TRXs and coupling systems) is called Extension cabinet.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

9-7

January, 2000

Base Transceiver Station Functions
BCF
Abis interface management BSC BTS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Alarms management Fans Audible alarm

GSM time

Signaling concentration

Power supply Temperature

Warning

Operation and Maintenance Switch A Out of order

Self-defense Switch B

In service

Synchro A

Synchro B

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Base Transceiver Station Functions

9-8

BCF purpose is: • Abis interface management. • GSM time distribution. • External Alarms. • Operation & Maintenance. • Self defense by redundancy of its main units. • Signaling concentration/ de-concentration. The BCF manages the information for a site whatever the configuration of this one (Omni or sectorial).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

9-8

January, 2000

Base Transceiver Station Functions
TRX
Generic Architecture

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

TRX
TX PA

BCF

FP (Frame Processor) RX

Coupling system

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Base Transceiver Station Functions

9-9

The TRX is the heart of the BTS. One TRX is the equipment managing one TDMA, that ’s to say eight physical channels. It includes four functional parts: TX, RX, FP and PA. The first generation (S4000,S2000E): • FP = five boards, • RX = one module, • TX + PA = one module. The second generation (S8000, S2000H&L): • RX + TX + FP = one module, • PA = one module. The third generation (e-cell): TRX = one module.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

9-9

January, 2000

Base Transceiver Station Functions
Transmission Chain

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Odd TS

BCF

Frame Processor

TX Logic

Modul. Synchro (GMSK)

Low power Amplifiers and IF Transpos.

IF
Even TS

RF Transpos. RF RF Transpos.

PA

Coupling system

FH bus

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Base Transceiver Station Functions

9-10

The transmitter (TX or DRX Radio + PA) handles the following functions: • Conversion of the bit stream (I and Q) to be transmitted into an Intermediate Frequency (analogue) GMSK signal. • Transposition of the GMSK signals onto the frequency band: - GSM 900: 935-960 MHz, - GSM 1800 (DCS): 1805-1880 MHz, - GSM 1900 (PCS): 1930-1990 MHz, • frequency hopping management, according to the coupling mode: hybrid or cavity, • final amplification of the radio signal (PA of the TX or PA module) according to the level of each TS. Two transposers are necessary: when the first synthesizer processes an even TS, the other changes the frequency of its local oscillator in order to be able to process the odd TS. This architecture is particularly necessary when Frequency Hopping is used with hybrid coupler.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

9-10

January, 2000

Base Transceiver Station Functions
Reception Chain
RX or DRX Radio

Main

Main Path
odd TS

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

A
Amplification even TS A/D Conversion Frequency Transposition

Coupling
Diversity

Frame Processor Diversity Path

system
odd TS

A
Amplification even TS Frequency Transposition A/D Conversion

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Base Transceiver Station Functions

9-11

According to the type of BTS the receivers we have: • One RX module within the S2000E and S4000. • The RX part of the DRX Radio board (DRX module) within the S8000. Each receiver operates one radio TDMA frame and handles the following functions: • Filtering of the RF signal coming from the RX multi-coupler (splitter) to limit the noise level in the mixer. • Pre-amplification of the filtered signals from the frequency band (GSM 900, GSM 1800, GSM 1900). To allow the Frequency Hopping (at the Time Slot level), the frequency transposition needs two identical stages (one for odd TS and one for even TS) thus avoid overlap delay when changing the frequency. On the other hand, whenever diversity reception is used, the second path provides the Frame Processor with the samples and the scale factors from the other antenna. Therefore the system can process the diversity using the Maximum Ratio Combiner algorithm.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

9-11

January, 2000

Base Transceiver Station Functions
Coupling System

TX Coupler TX (Hybrid or Cavity) Downlink
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Duplexer

- 1dB

TX band Duplex filter shift

RX band filter

RX Uplink - 1 dB

RX Splitter

TX1

TX2

TX3

TX4

RX1

RX2

RX3

RX4

Four TRX
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Base Transceiver Station Functions 9-12

There are two kinds of transmission couplers but only one is used in the same BTS: • Hybrid couplers. • Cavity couplers. Hybrid combiner is a broad band coupler enabling the combining of two RF signals generated by two transmitters in one signal, with a high flexibility in frequency management. The minimum frequency separation required between TX connected to one coupler is 200 kHz. The receive coupling is achieved by means of two components: • the pre-amplifier Low Noise Amplifier or LNA, • the RX Splitter. Reception multicoupling or RX Splitter is aimed at pre-amplifying the signal received from the duplexer, and splitting it into several outputs to drive the receivers. For diversity purpose, the RX Splitters are duplicated on the diversity receive path. The duplexer allows the connection of the transmission and reception paths onto a single antenna. This device mainly consists of two pass band filters tuned on receive and transmit frequency bands. The frequency bands (and the duplex shift) depend on the system: GSM 900, GSM 1800 or GSM 1900. It is now generally integrated in the coupler (hybrid or cavity).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

9-12

January, 2000

Base Transceiver Station Functions
BTS Connection Modes
Air interface Abis interface
CHAIN Connection

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

(single multi-drop)
BS C

STAR Connection

LOOP Connection

MS

(full multi-drop)

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Base Transceiver Station Functions

9-13

The BTS provides the interface between the fixed network and the MS. Abis interface connects the BTS to its BSC: • PCM links at 2.048 Mbit/s (E1) or 1.544 Mbit/s (T1). • Star, chain or loop connections. Radio interface allows communication with MS, depending on the kind of network: • GSM 900. • GSM 1800. • GSM 1900.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

9-13

January, 2000

Base Transceiver Station Functions
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

9-14

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Section 10

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-1

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
Objectives

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

For each BTS product covered during this lesson you should be able to: • Cite at least two main features; • Indicate the maximum configuration; • Indicate how the implementation is done for the three functional entities: Coupling system, TRX and BCF.

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-2

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-2

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
Coverage Solution
Capacity

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

S8000
S8000 Outdoor S8000 Indoor S4000

S8006
S2000H S2000E

e-cell S2000L

S8002
Coverage

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-3

For each type of environment Nortel offers a cost effective and adapted solution: • the S4000 and S2000H, for sparsely populated areas such as rural or highway areas, • the S4000 and S8000 for suburban and urban areas, • the S8002 for railways companies, • the S8006 for street installation, • the S2000L or the e-cell for outdoor micro-cells and indoor areas with leaky cables.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-3

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
DRX Based BTS Family

S8000 Outdoor
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

S8000 Indoor S8002 Outdoor S8006 Outdoor S2000H Outdoor/Indoor S2000L Outdoor/Indoor

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-4

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-4

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
BTS S8000 Outdoor
1 - Overview
s Fully Integrated self contained cell-site: • 8 TRXs (DRX + PA) in a Single Cabinet • Rectifiers, battery back up, cooling and heating • 220 Vac main (or 2 x 110 Vac live) s Optimized ratio size versus capacity: • Floorspace: 2 sqm (ie 0.25 m2/TX) • Footprint: 0.88 sqm • Cabinet size: 160 x 135 x 65 cm • Pedestal size: 15 (or 26) x 135 x 112 cm s PA TX Power: 30 W s RX sensitivity: - 110 dBm s Operating temperature range: - 40 °C to + 50 °C s Weight: • Fully equipped = 415 kg (915 lb) • Empty = 140 kg (310 lb)
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families 10-5

The S8000 Outdoor BTS benefits from the technological and functional developments of the entire product range including the SMART technology incorporated into the BTS. This BTS offers a set of features enhancing the Quality of Service and the spectrum efficiency of the network, such as: • a standard -110 dBm guaranteed receive sensitivity at the BTS antenna connector (diversity not included), thus providing a better trade-off between coverage and speech quality, • a typical -117 dBm (with diversity), • full power control range (static and dynamic).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-5

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
BTS S8000 Outdoor
2 - Cabinet Arrangement
Climatic Unit ( DACS)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Battery

Compact BCF module OEM Compartment RECAL board Main AC InterCOnnection Power Amplifiers Shelf F type Converters RF Combiners Shelf COMbiners InterCOnnection

BCF/CBCF Rack

DRX Shelf AC Mains box (Power Supply) RX Splitters Battery Switch AC/DC Converters DC Power Supply Control

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-6

The main compartment is divided into two parts: left and right. The left part includes the RF devices located on three main shelves: • OEM (to custom), • Power Amplifiers (up to eight), and alarm board ALCO or RECAL (with CBCF), • RF combiners (up to six H2D or three H4D) and F type converters (up to two). The right part includes: • BCF or CBCF module, • DRX modules (up to eight), • RX splitters (up to six), • Power Supplies modules: AC/DC converters and DC control board, • Main AC Power Supply module.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-6

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
BCF Module (First Version)
Shelf Physical Description

CSWM PCMI GTW
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

DSC

SYNC

PCMI PCMI PCMI GTW GTW CSWM CSWM DSC DSC

DSC DSC

SYNC

SYNC

Power Supply Converters 48 V DC / 5 V DC

Power Supply CoMmanD

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-7

Maximum configuration is the following for a stand alone S8000 BTS operating in duplex mode: • 2 CSWM boards (switch and O&M functions), • 2 GTW boards (Gateway for S4000/S8000 adaptations), • 3 PCMI boards (Abis interface), • 4 DSC boards (concentration), • 2 SYNC boards, • 3 DC-DC power converters from -48 V, • 1 PSCMD board (Power Supply CoMmanD). This BCF is housed in a single shelf (with its own back panel), whose size is the following: height = 270 mm (6 U), width = 520 mm, depth = 300 mm.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-7

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
Compact BCF Module (Second Version)
1 - Physical view
100 mm

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

CMCF boards

BCFICO board

300 mm

CPCMI board

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-8

The CBCF (Compact BCF) is composed of two parts: • the CBCF module: one per site, • the RECAL board (REmote Control Alarm): one per cabinet. The CBCF module is composed of a back plane CBP (Compact Back Plane) and six boards: • one BCFICO board (BCF InterCOnnection), • three CPCMI boards (Compact PCM Interface), • two CMCF boards (Compact Main Common Function). These six boards can be removed from the module.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-8

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
Compact BCF Module (Second Version)
2 - Benefits

CBCF
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BCF

Enhanced Performances Quick installation into both S8000 Indoor and Outdoor cabinets.
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families 10-9

The CBCF module manages: • Abis PCMs interfacing, • signaling (LAPD) Concentration and Routing functions, • BTS synchronization. The RECAL board is in charge of collecting and managing internal and external alarms, inside main and extension cabinets. This new BCF provides all features of the actual BCF (2G) with several improvements: duplex, upgrade...

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-9

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
S8000 TRX

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

DRX

TRX DRX Logic
TX Logic

DRX Radio TX Driver RX Main RX Diversity PA
Coupling System

BCF

Frame Processor (AMNU + DCU8)

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-10

The DRX is the module of the S8000/8002/8006 and S2000H&L BTSs, which includes: • the Frame Processor, • the receiver RX, • the TX driver, • the power supply. The necessary amplification for transmission is achieved by a separate Power Amplifier (PA). The use of DRX by separating the TX Power Amplifier (PA) from the rest of the transmit chain, allows the concept of different transmission power classes (S2000H&L).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-10

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
S8000 Coupling
1 TRX
Duplex. Main LNA
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Div. Duplex. LNA Splitter

Duplex. Main LNA

2 TRX

Div. Duplex.

2 antennas per cell

LNA Splitter PA 2

PA 1 Splitter

PA 1 Splitter

H2D

Main

3 TRX

Div.

H2D

H2D

Main

4 TRX

Combiner Type
H2D

Insertion Loss - 1 dB - 4.5 dB - 8 dB

Div.

Dp H2D H4D

LNA PA 1 PA 2

LNA PA 3 PA 1

LNA

LNA PA 4

Splitter Splitter

PA PA 2 Splitter Splitter 3

H4D

Main LNA

5 - 8 TRX
LNA Splitter

Div.

H4D

PA 1

PA 2

PA 3

PA 4 Splitter Splitter

PA Splitter 5

PA 6

PA 7

PA 8

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-11

In the S8000 the different coupling devices are integrated in the RF combiner module. There are two kinds of Hybrid transmission couplers: • two ways couplers (one stage = -3.5 dB), • four ways couplers (two stage = -7 dB). There are three kinds of RF Combiners: • Hybrid couplers 2 ways and Duplexer (H2D): up to 2 TRXs (4 TRXs per cell), • Hybrid couplers 4 ways and Duplexer (H4D): up to 4 TRXs (8 TRXs per cell), • Duplexer only (Dp): 1 TRX (2 TRXs per cell). Reception multicoupling is aimed at pre-amplifying the signal received from the duplexer, and splitting it into several outputs to drive the DRX receivers. The receive coupling is achieved by means of two components: • the LNA Splitter, inserted into the RF Combiner, • the RX Splitter: located into a specific shelf, below the DRX shelf.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-11

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
BTS S8000 Indoor
Physical presentation

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

s Compact packaging: • 8 TRXs (DRX + PA) in each cabinet • Compact BCF integrated in the first cabinet s Optimized ratio size versus capacity: • Floorspace: 2 x 0.90 m2 • Cabinet size = 170 x 75 x 45 cm (72 l / TRX) s Power Supply: - 48 V DC s PA TX Power: 30 W s RX sensitivity: - 110 dBm s Extended operating temperature range: • - 5 °C to + 45 °C s Cabinet weight: • Fully equipped = 250 kg • Empty (pre-cabled) = 110 kg

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-12

The S8000 Indoor BTS can be housed in one to three cabinets. The number of cabinets depends on the required capacity: For a capacity not exceeding 8 TRXs, only one cabinet is required. For capacities of over 8 TRXs, one or two additional cabinets are required. This Indoor BTS is designed to be operational when the external ambient air temperature is in a range of 0 °C to +45 °C. When switched on, it operates in an external ambient air temperature range of -5 °C to +45 °C, with a relative humidity level of 5% to 95%.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-12

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
Exercise
Draw a Coupling system for a S8000 BTS O2 and a O3

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-13

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-13

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
BTS S8002
1 - Overview

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

s Designed for railways applications (outdoor) s PA TX Power: 45 dBm s RX sensitivity: - 110 dBm s Standard configuration: O2 s Dimensions: • Height: 140 cm • Width : 100 cm • Depth : 54 cm s Operating temperature range: - 40 °C to + 50 °C s Weight: 240 kg s Battery back-up: 2 hours s User compartment: 6 U

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-14

The S8002 BTS is an optimized O2 product designed for railways applications. Initially dedicated to the Railways companies in R-GSM band, it shall be possible to provide the S8002 in other frequency bands. Technical requirements: • standard O2 configuration for outdoor deployment, • environmental performances equal or better than current S8000, • re-using common S8000 equipment: CBCF, DRX, PA, RX splitter, rectifiers, • user compartment (6 U). External temperature: -40 °C to +50 °C; Internal temperature: +5 °C to +60 °C Coupling: duplexer only Output power: 45 dBm Receive sensitivity: -110 dBm Battery backup: two hours Cooling system by forced ventilation All external cables shall be connected from below.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-14

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
BTS S8002
2 - Description

Cooling system CDACS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

RX Splitters Duplexers

DRX modules

CBCF User compartment 6U RECAL board C-AC Main

Power Amplifiers F type Power Supply Rectifiers

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-15

S8000 equipment: • Compact BCF, • RECAL board, • DRX module (R-GSM), • Power Amplifier, • RF Combiner, • RX splitter, • rectifiers. Specific S8002 equipment: • Outdoor cabinet, • CDACS cooling system, • DRX-Combiner interconnection board, • C-AC Mains (230 V AC 50/60 Hz), • PA-type F converter interconnection module, • cabling.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-15

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
S8006 Street Deployable
1 - Overview New from V10.4
Same modules as in S8000 s Additional coverage (streets, roads, highways, roof tops indoor) s Configurations: • standard: O6 and S222 • optional: S42 and S33 s PA TX Power: 45 dBm s RX sensitivity: - 110 dBm s Operating temperature range: - 40 °C to + 50 °C s Power Supply: 220 V AC s Dimensions: • Height: 130 cm • Width: 130 cm • Depth: 50 cm s Weight: 350 kg

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-16

The S8006 BTS is a six TRXs product designed for installation along streets and roads without asking for building permits. Initially dedicated to the GSM 1800 band (V10.4), it shall be possible to provide the S8006 in other frequency bands. Technical requirements: • O6, S222, S33 and S42 configurations for outdoor deployment, • environmental performances equal or better than current S8000, • diversity radio path in standard, • re-using common S8000 equipment: CBCF, DRX, PA, RX splitter, rectifiers. External temperature: • standard: - 20 °C to + 35 °C, • optional: - 33 °C to + 45 °C. Internal temperature: + 5 °C to + 60 °C Coupling: duplexer only and hybrid duplexer Output power = 45 dBm Receive sensitivity = - 110 dBm Powered by 230 V AC Cooling system by forced ventilation All external cables shall be connected from below.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-16

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
S8006 Street Deployable
2 - Description

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

C-PA interconnection (PA, RECAL, F power supply) RECAL board Power Amplifiers F type Power Supply
CMCF CMCF

Cooling system DACS Power interconnection (CBCF, RECAL, User)

DRX modules
CPCMIE1 CPCMIE1

1 0

3 2

CBCF RX Splitters C-AC Main Box Rectifiers Power Controller Unit

RF Combiners
PCU

COMbiners InterCOnnection

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-17

The S8006 BTS re-uses as much as possible S8000 BTS components. S8000 equipment: • Compact BCF, • RECAL board, • DRX module, • Power Amplifier, • RF Combiner, • RX splitter, • rectifiers 220 V AC to -48 V DC (MITRA type only), • converters - 48 V to -15 V/+15 V for LNA splitters (F type). Specific S8006 equipment: • Outdoor cabinet, • CDACS cooling system, • Main ICO (digital interconnection board between DRX, PA, CBCF, RECAL and Duplexers), • C-AC Mains box (230 V AC 50/60 Hz), • POWER ICO board (48 V distribution for CBCF, User rack and RECAL board), • C-PA ICO module (PA-type F converters interconnection), • cabling.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-17

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
BTS S2000L (Low Power)
Physical Overview Fully Integrated self contained cell-site
• • • • 2 TRX (DRX+PA) in the Main Cabinet Rectifiers, battery back up, heating 220 V/110 V AC main or - 48 V DC (Indoor) Lightning protection and battery backup

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Common package for Indoor and Outdoor Front access for easy maintenance PA TX Power: 2.5 W RX Sensitivity: - 104 dBm Operating temperature range:
• - 40 °C to + 50 °C • no fans, natural convection

Weight = 23 kg max for each part Optional internal antennas
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families 10-18

This product is specially designed for micro-cellular application. It can be installed inside a building or outside and can be easily wall mounted by a single man. The S2000L BTS is optimized for microcell applications where cell sizes are generally small thereby requiring lower transmit power capability. The applications can range from small cells inside buildings for coverage improvement to outdoor microcells for traffic capacity enhancement. Some examples of S2000L applications are: • Situated in building coverage for offices or entire floors. • Shopping centers. • Train stations and airports. • Pedestrian tunnels and metro platforms. • Underlay microcells in hierarchical multi-layer networks. To meet this wide range of application needs the S2000L is equipped with powerful multilayer handover algorithms and features for micro-cellular applications.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-18

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
BTS S2000L (Low Power)
Base Unit
Mounting Plate DRX Modules

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Power Supply Unit SBCF

Front Cover

DRX modules

SBCF and PSU modules

Main Module

Lock

S2000 IN SERVICE

I&C Terminal Low Power RF Module

Cable Cover

I&C Terminal

Hinge
Ant 1 Ant 2

Front

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-19

The Base unit of the S2000L is composed of: • the Main module, • the Low Power Radio Frequency or LPRF module. These two modules are attached to the mounting plate and protected by the two parts front cover. The cable cover is supported at the bottom of the mounting plate with two hinges and on the cosmetic panel with a lock. The mounting plate provides a security barrier by limiting access to the rear, and acts as a sun shield for the rear and sides of housing. The Main module incorporates all the electronics common to the High and Low power S2000 BTS, creating a modular design for the BTS. This module comprises: • the Small Base Common Functions or SBCF module, • one or two DRX modules, • the Power Supply Unit, • the Connector Field, • the I&C terminal. The connector field provides connection to the rest of the BTS, as well as connections to extension module and to the external Battery and Interface Module or customer interface, via T1 or E1 connections, alarms and AC/DC power.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-19

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
BTS S2000H (High Power)
2 TRXs capacity • O1 (or O1E/1900), O2, S11, expandable to O4 PA TX power: 20 W (masthead)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

RX sensitivity: -109.5 dBm Remoteable masthead RF Module • Base Unit located for easy access • HPRF Module remoteable to 100 m • Up to 60 dBm EIRP • Maximizes coverage Operating temperature range: - 40 °C to + 50 °C Battery and Interface Module (optional) with battery backup and lightning protection Base Unit: 74 x 54 x 20 cm - 34 kg HPRF Module: 74 x 27 x 31 cm - 19.5 kg Power Supply: AC 230 V, 50/60 Hz DC 48 V (battery back-up)

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-20

The S2000H, with high power output transmission is ideally suited for use to provide macrocell coverage from locations where suitable sites for larger BTSs cannot be found. Because of the remotely High Power RF Module (HPRF) architecture it is a particularly powerful BTS platform for providing highway coverage while minimizing the roll-out time. Some other application examples for the S2000H include the following: • Rural and low traffic suburban areas. • In-building and metro tunnel coverage where high power is required to drive long feeders. The HPRF unit is connected to the Base Unit through a Data/DC Power cable and RF cables. Each Data/DC Power Cable supports up to two HPRF Modules. The same BTS package may be deployed both in indoor and outdoor environments. The S2000H uses passive air convection cooling. This eliminates the need for mechanical cooling fans and their associated noise issues.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-20

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
Enhanced Packaging
HP RF Module and Base Unit

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-21

The Main and HP RF modules are merged into one package, eliminating internal cabling and internal assembling. Faster I&C phase (40% less time). Size and weight are lower: only one cabinet version (height = 65 cm). External D-Sub technology connectors are replaced by circular connectors for external cables: AC, Abis/Alarms and DC. Components suppressed: • SBCF and UVGA heatsink, • RF jumpers. The ground bar is now integrated into the cabinet, This new packaging insures backward/forward installation compatibility with First one and allows these features: • extension unit, to obtain O4 configuration, • DC main -48 V.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-21

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
High Power RF Module

Heatsinks
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

R X Front panel F i l t e r L N A

T X P A

Heat Pipes

Lock Cable cover

D u p l e x e r Mounting plate
10-22

Hinge
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

The High Power RF module consists of one Power Amplifier PA, one Low Noise Amplifier LNA and a Duplexer, plus optional devices: an extra LNA and a RX filter (such as the RX path of the duplexer) for supporting a single transceiver with receive diversity. The High Power RF module is located remotely, up to 100 m cable from the Main module. The PA module makes use of Heat Pipe technology to efficially transfer heat away from hot areas in the design of the heatsink. Operating Temperature: -40 °C to +50 °C. Two types of HPRF Modules are available. A Single-Rx HPRF is used in configurations with 2 TRXs per cell, and a Dual-Rx HPRF is used in configurations with 1 TRX per cell such as O1 and S11. • The Single-Rx HPRF consists of 1 PA, 1 LNA and duplexer coupling. Each HPRF Module is connected to 1 external antenna. Diversity reception is inherently provided because there are two TRX per cell. • The Dual-Rx HPRF consists of 1 PA, 2 LNAs, duplexer coupling and an extra receive filter. Each HPRF Module is connected to 2 external antennas to provide reception diversity.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-22

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
S8000 Down-link
Exercise: Draw the downlink speech path through the S8000 modules.

CBCF
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

CMCF CMCF CPCMI Switching

DRX Logic TX Logic

DRX
CTRL_PA

Coupling System

To/ from BSC

CPCMI
PCM Interface

TX Driver

PA
RF Combiner
S p l i t S p l i t

CPCMI

Private PCM bus Control, Signal.Concentr. Synchronization Management

Frame Processor

DRX Radio

RX Main RX Diversity

Alarms Concentration

RECAL

COMbiner InterCOnection

COMICO

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-23

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-23

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
S8000 Up-link
Exercise: Draw the uplink speech path through the S8000 BTS modules.

CBCF
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

CMCF CMCF CPCMI Switching

DRX Logic TX Logic

DRX
CTRL_PA

Coupling System

To/ from BSC

CPCMI
PCM Interface

TX Driver

PA
RF Combiner
S p l i t S p l i t

CPCMI

Private PCM bus Control, Signal.Concentr. Synchronization Management

Frame Processor

DRX Radio

RX Main RX Diversity

Alarms Concentration

RECAL

COMbiner InterCOnection

COMICO

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-24

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-24

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BTS e-cell

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-25

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-25

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
BTS e-cell
1 - Overview New from V12
s Fully configured (Smart card configurable) s Easy deployment & maintenance s Compact outdoor cabinet: • 62 x 26 x 19 cm (31 liters) • 19 kg (29 kg with PSU and battery) s Power Supply: - 48 V DC or 110/220 V AC s TX Power: 1 W guaranteed (2 W max) s RX sensitivity: -104 dBm (GSM), s Integrated radio site including optional: Battery, Lightning protection, PSU, s EDGE hardware compliant s Capacity: 2 TRXs per cabinet, extendible to 4 TRXs: • Omni O4 in 2 cabinets • Dualband O2_2 s Temperature range: - 40 °C to + 50 °C s Integrated antenna (optional)
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families 10-26

This new e-cell BTS is a small, compact BTS designed for outdoor micro-cellular applications and in-building deployment. The typical configuration is an O2, extendible to O4 using an extension cabinet. The e-cell is easy to install and maintain and can be pole or wall mounted, hence reducing operating and site costs. Main characteristics: • TX power: 1 W guaranteed (2 W max), • RX sensitivity = - 104 dBm, • perfectly quiet (no fan), • four external protected alarms, This BTS is fully compatible with existing Nortel GSM product line.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-26

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
BTS e-cell
2 - Radio Cabinet: Block Diagram Radio Cabinet
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Radio modules

Hybrid coupler

Duplexer

LPA
PA PA

LNAsplitter

Radio board (pRDRX)

External Connections

External interface (pPCM)

Logic board (pLDRX)

Converters and interfaces (PSL)
Ethernet. Antenna LED - 48 V DC Smart card

Private PCM
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000

External PCM
S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-27

Except the miscellaneous functions, all functional equipment is located inside a standalone box so called Radio cabinet. Electronic devices are made of three different subsets: • radio board which deals with Intermediate Frequency and Radio Frequency low power signals, • logic boards which deals with digital signals, • radio modules which deal with other RF signals: LPAs, LNA-diplexer, antenna. A new electronic unit, able to process two TDMAs and the BCF function, is composed of two boards: • pLDRX or Logic board, • pRDRX or Radio board.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-27

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
S2000E/S4000 Family

S4000 Indoor
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

S4000 Outdoor S4000 Smart Outdoor S2000E Indoor/Outdoor

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-28

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-28

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
BTS S4000 Indoor
1 - Overview

s High capacity - Dense traffic
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

s Small footprint (0.045 m2 per TRX) s 4 TRXs modularity s Up to 24 TRXs / site (8 Omni, S3-888) s Multiple coupling options:
• Duplexer • Integrated hybrid couplers and duplexer • Remote Tunable Cavities

s PA TX power: 35 W (900), 30 W (1800), 20 W (1900) s Cabinet dimensions: 220 x 60 x 30 cm

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-29

The S4000 Indoor BTS consists of one or more cabinets, depending on the number of radio channels to be implemented and the structure of the site: single-cell (omnidirectional) or multi-cell (sectorial). Two types of cabinet are available: • Base: omni/sect 1 (one per site) which serves either omnidirectional functions or master sectorial functions. • Extension: omni, sector 2, sector 3, which serve slave sectorial functions and extension for sector capacity. BCF modules are only in the base cabinet: • Redundant CSW modules (CSW1 + CSW2), DTI and DCC boards housed in the CSU shelf. • Redundant SYN boards. There is one ALAT board per cabinet. Up to four FP modules (one MNU and four DCU) are housed in the same shelf. The different parts of a TRX module are vertically grouped: FP module, receiver Rx, power supply PSU and transmitter Tx. A S4000 Indoor BTS can be composed of up to six cabinets. This configuration is reachable only in multisectorial sites, (3 or 6). For omnisectorial site, the maximal configuration consists of two cabinets (O8 with cavity coupling).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-29

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
BTS S4000 Indoor
2 - Example of Trisectorial Site (6S888)
cell 1
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

cell 2
ANTENNA 2 TX5 - 8 + DIVERSITY RX TX coupler ANTENNA 1 TX1 to TX4 + MAIN RX TX coupler
TX PS/ TRX
RX SPLITTER DIVERSITY

cell 3
ANTENNA 2 TX5 - 8 + DIVERSITY RX TX coupler ANTENNA 1 TX1 to TX4 + MAIN RX TX coupler
TX PS/ TRX
RX SPLITTER DIVERSITY

ANTENNA 1 TX1 to TX4 + MAIN RX TX coupler
TX TX TX TX PS/ TRX
RX SPLITTER DIVERSITY

ANTENNA 2 TX5 - 8 + DIVERSITY RX TX coupler
TX PS/ TRX TX TX TX TX PS/ TRX
RX SPLITTER DIVERSITY

TX

TX

TX

TX

TX

TX

TX PS/ TRX
RX SPLITTER DIVERSITY

TX

TX

TX

TX

TX

TX

PS/ PS/ PS/ TRX TRX TRX
ALAT SYN SYN
RX SPLITTER

PS/ PS/ PS/ TRX TRX TRX
PS/CC PS/CC ALAT
RX SPLITTER

PS/ PS/ PS/ TRX TRX TRX
PS/CC PS/CC ALAT
RX SPLITTER

PS/ PS/ PS/ TRX TRX TRX
PS/CC PS/CC ALAT
RX SPLITTER

PS/ PS/ PS/ TRX TRX TRX
PS/CC PS/CC ALAT
RX SPLITTER

PS/ PS/ PS/ TRX TRX TRX
PS/CC PS/CC ALAT
RX SPLITTER

RX SPLITTER DIVERSITY

RX RX RX FP
PS/CC

RX FP
PS/CC

RX RX RX FP FP FP

RX FP

RX RX RX FP FP FP

RX FP

RX RX RX FP FP FP

RX FP

RX RX RX FP FP FP

RX FP

RX RX RX FP FP FP

RX FP

FP

FP

CSU RACK

Base cabinet Extension cabinets

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-30

A S4000 Indoor BTS can be composed of up to six cabinets. This configuration is reachable only in multisectorial sites, (3 or 6). For omnisectorial site, the maximal configuration consists of two cabinets (O8 with cavity coupling).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-30

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
BTS S4000 Outdoor
1 - Overview
s Medium capacity s Compact outdoor cabinet: • 1.42 x 1.53 x 0.52 m • 390 kg s Integrated radio site including: • Rectifiers, 2 Batteries, Heat exchanger • Optional integrated microwave terminal s Capacity: • Base cabinet: 3 TRXs • Extension cabinet: 4 TRXs • Possible configurations: – Omni 3 TRXs or up to 3 sectors, 1 TRX per sector (S111) in base Cabinet – 7 TRXs in 2 Cabinets S223

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

s PA TX Power: 25 W (900), 20 W (1800/1900)
s RX sensitivity: - 107 dBm s Operating temperature range: - 33 °C to + 45 °C
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families 10-31

S4000 Outdoor is an outdoor BTS which supports up to three cells configurations: • Omnidirectional BTS with one to three TRX in a single cabinet. • Bisectorial BTS with one or two TRX in two cabinets. • Three sectorial BTS with up to three (Base) or four (Extension) TRX in two cabinets. S4000 Outdoor is made up of two cabinets back to wall installable and fully equipped. Temperature range: -33 °C to +45 °C.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-31

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
BTS S4000 Outdoor
2 - Example of S322 Configuration
BTS
FP FP FP
S Y N O PS/B S Y N O PS/B

BTS
FP FP FP FP

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

TX

D D M D D D DM D D C C N C C C CN C C U U U U U U UU U U

TX

TX

D DM D D C CN C C U UU U U

TX

D D MD D D DM D D C C N C C C CN C C U U U U U U UU U U

TX

TX

D D M D D D DM D D C C N C C C CN C C U U U U U U UU U U

TX

Cooling unit
DUPLEXERDUPLEXER OR OR HYBRID HYBRID DUPLEXER DUPLEXER PS/A PS/A PS/A

Cooling unit
DUPLEXER OR HYBRID DUPLEXER
ADD C CCC DD L C C S SS S T T A C C W WW W I I 1 22 1 T O

Cooling unit
DUPLEXERDUPLEXER OR OR HYBRID HYBRID DUPLEXERDUPLEXER

Cooling unit
DUPLEXERDUPLEXER OR OR HYBRID HYBRID DUPLEXERDUPLEXER

PS/A

PS/A

PS/A

PS/A

SPLITTER

RXD

RXD

SPLITTER

SPLITTER

RXD

CSUC SPLITTER RXD RXD SPLITTER SPLITTER RXD RXD SPLITTER

FILLING PLATE RECTIFIER REC1 RECTIFIER REC2

FILLING PLATE Filling Plate RADIO LINK EQUIPMENT RLE

FILLING PLATE

FILLING PLATE FILLING PLATE

Up to 6 meters because of synchro

RECTIFIER REC1

RECTIFIER REC2

Base Cabinet

Extension Cabinet

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-32

Base cabinet contains BCF with: • Duplicated switching module (CSW1 + CSW2). • Two boards DCC (1+1). • Two boards DTI (1+1 or drop and insert configuration). • One board ALATO (Power supplies, rectifiers, cooling unit, temperature, smoke, low battery, open door alarms). • Two boards SYNO (duplicated). • Up to three TRXs. Each extension cabinet contains: • Up to four TRXs. Specific boards and equipment are: • ALATO: internal alarms for Base cabinet and for Extension cabinet. • SYNC (1+1). • RX-Splitter (2 x 4): dual splitter two paths. • RX-Splitter (4 + 1): mono splitter (four outputs and one extension which is not used). • Coupling devices (Duplexer or 2 Tx Hybrid combiners with duplexer) (H2D).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-32

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
BTS S2000E Indoor/Outdoor
1 - Overview
s Rapid & low cost coverage at low capacity s Additional coverage (tunnels, highways, indoor) s 1 TRX per cabinet up to 2 TRXs with extension cabinet s High RF Power: • GSM 900: 25 W • GSM 1800/1900: 20 W s Dimensions: 78 x 63 x 30 cm s Weight: 50 kg including mounting elements s Easy maintenance & repair (same modules as in S4000) s Outdoor version

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-33

The S2000E is an evolution of the S4000 Indoor BTS with only one TRX per cabinet, designed for indoor installation, such as microcell or tunnel coverage and outdoor installation. Cabinet is of compact dimensions and of low mass (0.775 m x 0.625 m x 0.3 m and 50 kg including mounting elements). It has low acoustic noise output. It provides wall or floor mounting. It uses the standard modules, but: • new modules have been designed: specific synchronization (SYNO) and alarm concentration (ALATO) boards are used, • CSW module (control and switching matrix boards) is not duplicated, • new Power Supply unit AC and fan units, • the RX-Splitter is a dual one with one RF input and two outputs, • two DTI boards allows Drop and Insert functionality: ten S2000E (Micro) BTS on a single PCM link. 2 TRXs configurations (2 cabinets) are available. A retrofit procedure allows to expand already installed S2000E Indoor Base cabinet with Extension cabinet.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-33

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
BTS S2000E Indoor/Outdoor
2 - Two Cabinets Configuration
FH out M7 PCM0 M6 O&M M5 PCM1 M4 GSM M3 Abis M1
FH out M7 PCM0 M6 O&M M5 PCM1 M4 GSM M3 Abis M1

RF out

TX

DCU DCUMNU DCU DCU
TX

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

ANT

DUPLEXER RX

A L A T O

13MHz C DCC S W 1 C S DTI DTI W SYNO 2
TX

RF out

DCU DCUMNUDCUDCU
TX

DUPLEXER
RX

ANT

A L A T O

cooling unit

Up to 1.5 meters
Power supply 24V/5A Power supply 5V/32A RX

cooling unit

RX

RX Splitter

Power Power supply supply 12V/5A -12V/2.5A 5V/12A

RX Splitter

Power Power Power supply supply supply 12V/5A -12V/2.5A 24V/5A 5V/12A

Power supply 5V/32A

AC DISTRIBUTION

AC DISTRIBUTION

Base Cabinet

Extension Cabinet

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-34

Indoor S2000E • The Indoor S2000E BTS can be wall mounted. It allows an easy installation with a fullyequipped and tested package. • In the 1 TRX configuration, all connections (electrical and RF cables, Abis and alarm connectors) are made at the bottom of the cabinet. • In the 2 TRXs configuration, addition inter-cabinet cabling is required. The BTS Bus extensions are made through the top of the cabinets. • The use of receive diversity requires two inter-cabinet RF cables for carrying the main and diversity signals. • Cable covers (2 per cabinet) are provided for protecting the inter-cabinet and external cable entries. • The two cabinets may be separated by a distance of up to 1.5 meters measured between adjacent edges of the cabinets. Outdoor S2000E • The Outdoor S2000E cabinet provides the internal modules with environmental, electromagnetic and physical protection. This makes it suitable for outdoor deployment. It uses the same modules as the Indoor S2000E BTS, which eliminates the need to provide separate sets of spares for maintenance purposes. • Each Outdoor S2000E BTS consists of a radio equipment cabinet plus an environmental control system. The environmental control system is comprised of heaters, fans, heat exchangers, an electronic control unit and a DC power supply unit (PSU). • The Outdoor S2000E BTS can be wall-, pole- or mast-mounted, via an "H" frame, similar to what is used for the indoor version. When mounted side-by-side, an inter-cabinet spacing of 30 cm is required. The maximum inter-cabinet spacing is up to 1.15 meters depending on the mounting and cabling arrangement.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-34

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
Dual-Band Configurations
Integrated BSS with dual band S8000 BTS
➨ BTS manage cells of the two bands

Share common functions (BCF)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

MSC

Same footprint Reduced handover duration

OMC-R

BSC 1 900/1800

BSC 2 900/1800

BTS 900 BTS 900/1800

BTS 900

BTS 900

BTS 1800 BTS 900/1800

BTS 900

BTS 900/1800
January, 2000

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families

10-35

Dual band S8000 BTS are BTS in which the same BCF manages the two bands. The currently supported combination, concerns P-GSM (GSM 900 Primary) and GSM 1800 bands. It is possible to manage mono band and dual band cabinets. Advantages of this configuration are: • important place gain, for example: - for a BTS S444_444, 3 cabinets are sufficient, - 4 cabinets are necessary for the association (equivalent in capacity) of a BTS S444 900 and a BTS S444 1800, • possibility to make synchronous handover between the two frequency bands, • reduction of transmission costs on the Abis interface: - a S444 900 and a S444 1800 require 3 LAPD each on the Abis interface = 6 LAPD in total, - a S444_444 requires only 3 LAPD in total.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-35

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
BTS Configuration Table
Maximum Configurations and Transmit Power
BTS type Band S4000 Indoor S4000 Outdoor S4000 Smart S2000E S2000E Indoor Outdoor S8000 Outdoor O8 30 W 2O16 S44 S422 3S888 6S161616 O8 2O16 S44 S422 3S888 6S161616 S8000 Indoor O8 30 W 2O16 S44 S422 3S888 6S161616 O8 2O16 S44 S422 3S888 6S161616 O8 2O16 S44 S422 3S888 6S161616 S8002 S8006 S2000L S2000H Outdoor Outdoor e-cell

25 / 35 W
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

25 W
O3 2S222 2S34

25 W
O1 2O2

25 W
2O2

30 W
O2

2.5 W
O2 2O4 2O2_2

20 W
O1E O2 2O4 2O2_2 S11 2S22 2S2_2

1W
O2 2O4 2O2_2

900

2O8 2S323 3S444 6S888

20 / 30 W

20 W
O3 2S222 2S34

20 W
O1 2O2

20 W
2O2

30 W

30 W

30 W 2.5 W
O6 S42 S33 S222 O2 2O4 2O2_2

20 W
O1E O2 2O4 2O2_2 S11 2S22 2S2_2

1W
O2 2O4 2O2_2

1800

2O8 3S444 6S888

20 W

20 W
O3 2S222 2S34

20 W
1S111 2S222

20 W
O1 2O2

20 W
2O2

1900

2O8 3S444

O8 2O16 S44 S422 3S888 6S161616

30 W

30 W

2.5 W
O2

20 W
O1E O2 S11

1W
O2 2O4

Nominal power at TX (PA) output O1E = O1 Extendible with two DRX 2O2_2 = dual band 900_1800 6S161616 = From V14
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families 10-36

Each type of BTS product consists of one or several TRX modules and one BCF module housed in one or more cabinets. The name of the BTS, such as 3S444, means: • 3 = three cabinets per site, • S = Sectorial (O = Omnidirectional), • 444 = three sectors of four TRXs each. When more than one cabinet is necessary, the first cabinet, so called Base cabinet houses the BCF entity. The typical TX power depends on the type of BTS, the frequency band and the coupling: • S4000 Indoor: 35 W (900), 30 W (1800) or 20 W (1900). • S4000 Outdoor and S2000E: 25 W (900) or 20 W (1800 and 1900), • S8000 Outdoor and Indoor, S8002, and S8006: 30 W, • S2000L: 2.5 W, and S2000H: 20 W, • e-cell: 1 W.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-36

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-37

January, 2000

S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

10-38

January, 2000

Base Station Controller Functions

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Section 11

Base Station Controller Functions

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Base Station Controller Functions

11-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

11-1

January, 2000

Base Station Controller Functions
Objectives

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

After completing this lesson you will be able to: • Show the generic architecture of the BSC. • Relate the functions that BSC performs.

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Base Station Controller Functions

11-2

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

11-2

January, 2000

Base Station Controller Functions
BSC in the GSM Network

MSC
A Interface
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

TCU
S2000H&L BTS

Radio Interface

NSS

Public Telephone Network

Ater Interface

OMC-R

BSC

Abis Interface

S8000 Outdoor BTS Radio Interface

MS

OMN Interface

Sun
StorEdge A5000

BSS
January, 2000 Base Station Controller Functions

S8000 Indoor BTS

MS
11-3

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

The BSS radio subsystem contains the following units: • one Base Station Controller (BSC), • one or more Base Transceiver Stations (BTS), • one to seven remote transcoders, in one or more transcoder unit (TCU) cabinets, preferably located on the MSC premises. These different units are linked together through specific BSS interfaces: • each BTS is linked to the BSC by an Abis interface, • the TCUs are linked to the BSC by an Ater interface, • the A interface links the BSC/TCU pair to the MSC.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

11-3

January, 2000

Base Station Controller Functions
BSC Functions
1 - Basic Functions
Radio Call Processing MSC
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BTS BTS
Routing

BTS BTS

Traffic Concentration

SMS-CB Management
CAUTION: CRASH ON E12 HIGHWAY

Radio Resources Management

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Base Station Controller Functions

11-4

The basic functions of the BSC are the followings: • radio call processing: - set-up/release of terrestrial & radio links, - channel switching between MSC and BTS, • radio resources management: - radio access processing, - radio channel allocation (traffic and signaling), - radio channel operational states monitoring, • traffic concentration management for reducing of transmission costs which allows to concentrate and reduce the number of links by using the "chain" (drop and insert) or "loop" configuration instead of the "star" configuration, • Short Message Service - Cell Broadcast management: - broadcasts short messages defined at OMC-R towards target cell.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

11-4

January, 2000

Base Station Controller Functions
BSC Functions
2 - O&M Functions
OMC-R Interface Management
Data + Software
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

X.25

BTS and TCU Management

BSC Self- Defence

Shut down

Control and Switching Chain A Active

Control and Switching Chain B Passive

Start up Supervision Observation

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Base Station Controller Functions

11-5

The main O&M functions of the BSC are the following: • OSS Interface management which consists of: - the link management with OMC-R, - providing the services requested by the OMC-R, - storing the BSS configuration data: software storage and distribution among the various entities of BSS, • BTS and TCU management: - initialization, - configuration and reconfiguration, - software downloading, - supervision, - observations, • BSC self-defence through redundancy and restart mechanisms.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

11-5

January, 2000

Base Station Controller Functions
Signaling in the BSS
OMC-R

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Abis
BTS

X.25 BSC

Ater
TCU

A
MSC

LAPD OML LAPD RSL

LAPD OML

CCS7

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Base Station Controller Functions

11-6

Signaling messages are exchanged between the different Network entities: • LAPD-OML between BTS and BSC, • LAPD-OML between BSC and TCU, • LAPD-RSL between BTS and BSC, • CCS7 messages between BSC and MSC are switched by the TCU, but remain transparent to it.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

11-6

January, 2000

Base Station Controller Functions
Generic Architecture of the BSC
BSC
X.25 Controller
= Processors

Central Processing Unit

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Hard Disk

To OMC-R

X.25

Control MSC TCU BTS bus Signaling Signaling Signaling

To BTSs

PCM Controller

BTS Signaling TS

TCU Signaling TS MSC Signaling TS

PCM Controller

To TCU and MSC

Traffic TS

Switching Matrix

Traffic TS

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Base Station Controller Functions

11-7

The generic BSC architecture mainly consists of a switching matrix, a processing unit, and trunk controllers (PCM and X.25). The BSC performs Radio Resource through switching matrix, and trunk controllers. Here the main functions are to establish and release radio resource in response to mobiles and MSC requests, and also the intra-BSC handover of the mobiles. Three types of signaling can be transported on the Ater interface: • the LAPD signaling for the control of the remote transcoders TCU, • the CCITT #7 signaling with the MSC, • the X.25 signaling with the OMC-R. The BSC downloads new software releases from the OMC-R throughout the X.25 interface. Previous software code and other parameters from BTSs are backed up in the hard disk of the BSC.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

11-7

January, 2000

Base Station Controller Functions
BSC OMC-R Connection Options
X.25 Modem X.25 Modem
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

OMC-R
Server

X.25 Network OMN Interface
X.25 Modem X.25 Modem

X.25 Switch DPN 100

MSC
A Interface

BSC
Or
Ater Interface

TCU TCU

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Base Station Controller Functions

11-8

The BSC can be connected to the Radio Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC-R) through an X.25 packet data network (1) or through the A interface (2). When connecting the BSC to the OMC-R via the A interface, an X.25 packet switch with multiple PCM and RS 449 ports has to be used. In both types of connections the X.25 connection with the OMC-R is duplicated for redundancy.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

11-8

January, 2000

Base Station Controller Functions
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

11-9

January, 2000

Base Station Controller Functions
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

11-10

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Section 12

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family

12-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

12-1

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family
Objectives

After completing this lesson you will be able to:
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

• Draw the two BSC cabinets and the main modules they contain; • Indicate the essential differences between BSC 12000 and BSC 6000 and its consequences; • Explain how the maximum number of radio sites can be reached.

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family

12-2

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

12-2

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family
BSC 6000/12000/12000HC

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Equipment Cabinet

Control Cabinet

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family

12-3

BSC always consists of two cabinets equipped : • the Control cabinet, • the Equipment cabinet. Each cabinet is equipped according to the needed capacity. The Control cabinet contains the processing core which manages the overall BSC operations, including the equipment cabinet operations, and insures the communication with the Radio Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC-R). There are two identical processing cores, running in duplex mode (active/standby). The Equipment cabinet contains: • the switching matrix, • several interface modules, • the PCM links interfaces. There are two identical switching matrix, running in duplex mode (active/standby).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

12-3

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family
BSC 6000/12000/12000HC
Characteristics Dimensions and weight Height: 200 cm (6’7” ap.)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Width: 78 cm (2’7” ap.) Depth: 60 cm (2’ ap.) Weight: < 270 kg (595 lbs) Point loading: maximum 100 kg/cm2 (1.420 lbs per square inch) Power supply - 48 V / - 60 V (tolerance from - 40 V to - 72 V) Operating temperature: - 5 °C, + 45 °C Consumption Control cabinet: 1 kW (max 2 kW), 35 A Equipment cabinet: 220 W (max 550 W), 10 A

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family

12-4

Above are the dimensions and weight given for Control or Equipment fully-equipped cabinets. The maximum power consumption is given for a fully-equipped BSC with maximum ratings of board consumptions. The designated current is the fuse value protecting the cabinet.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

12-4

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family
BSC 6000/12000/12000HC
Cabinets Organization
Control Cabinet
Main Processing Unit CPU: OMU, MPU, BIFP Disk: MMU/MMU_IDE Protocol: SS7: CCS7, LAPD: SICD, X.25: SICX, SLS/SLS2

Equipment Cabinet PCM Interface MPU A PCM Interface
DDTI

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

DDTI TSCB, RCB, ALA

Chain A

RCB A

RCB B

MPU B

Chain B

Switching Switching Unit A Unit B BTS Signaling Concentration

SWC, MSW-SWE + ECI BSCB

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family

12-5

The BSC is composed of two types of boards: • control boards for management, • equipment boards for external interfaces and switching units. For safety and defense reasons: • control chains (MPUA and B) are duplicated and operate normally in the duplex mode (active/hot standby mode), • one switching unit (SWU A or B) is dedicated to one MPU (A or B). Common equipment boards (DDTI, ALA, BSCB, TSCB) work with the active chain. External PCM links may be type E1 or T1. The Main Processing Unit (MPU) is composed of: CPU-OMU, CPU-MPU, CPU-BIFP, SUP/SUP2, MMU/MMU_IDE, SICX, CCS7, SLS/SLS2, and SICD/SICD8V. The Equipment Unit is composed of: ECI, ALA, DDTI, RCB, TSCB, BSCB. The SWitching Unit is composed of: SWC, MSW, SWE.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

12-5

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family
Functional Architecture
BSC 12000HC
To/From OMC-R To OMC-R

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

C O N T R O L

Hard Disk MMU-IDE O&M Control CPU-OMU X.25 SICX

Chain A
Switching Control CPU-MPU SS7 CCS7

OMN Link Switch SLS2 BTSs Control CPU-BIFP

Chain B
Ethernet Inter SUP

Multibus II

MPUA

LAPD SICD8V 2 Mb <-> 64kb RCB

Supervision SUP2

E Q U I P M E N T

O&M and Synchro ECI

SWitching Unit Switching Matrix Switch MSW Control V11/TTL SWE SWC

O&M/A bus

Chain status (MPU Status)

External Alarms ALA

TCU LAPD Concentration TSCB

BTS LAPD Concentration BSCB
BTS

PCM Interface DDTI

External Loops
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family

TCU/MSC
12-6

The processing chain or MPU is duplicated for reliability and operates in matched pairs (MPU-A and MPU-B). Each of these units includes: • an Operation and Management Unit (CPU-OMU) for O&M control, • a Main Processing Unit board (CPU-MPU) for switching control, • one or two Base Interface Front-end Processor (CPU-BIFP) for BTSs control, • a Mass Memory Unit (MMU/MMU_IDE), • a X25 interface Controller (SICX), • a LAPD interface Controller (SICD/SICD8V), • a CCITT SS7 interface controller(s) (CCS7), • a SUPervision board (SUP/SUP2), • Serial Link Switching unit (SLS/SLS2). The Equipment cabinet shelves contain: • a duplicated Equipment Cabinet Interface unit (ECI), • an external ALArm regrouping board (ALA), • Dual Digital Trunk Interfaces boards (DDTI), • TCU Signaling link Concentration Boards (TSCB), • BTS Signaling link Concentration Boards (BSCB). The SWitching Unit or SWU is duplicated for reliability and accommodates: • a Switching Control board (SWC), • one or two Main SWitching boards (MSW), • one or two SWitching Extension boards (SWE) controlling 16 additional links, • duplicated Rate Converter Boards (RCB).
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

O&M/B bus

12-6

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family
Physical Layout
Boards Layout
5 100 PSUC + 12VV/ /- -4 A A + - 12 V / - 3 A DDTI DDTI DDTI DDTI DDTI DDTI DDTI DDTI DDTI DDTI DDTI DDTI Power supplies

5V 12 A 5V 12 A 5V 12 A 5V 12 A 5V 12 A 5V 12 A

5V 12 A

PCM shelf EQPD1 PCM shelf EQPD0 Mixed shelf EQP1 Fans

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

MPUAshelf

CPU-OMU SICD

CPU-MPU SICD

CPU-BIFP

CPU-BIFP SICD

SICD CCS7

CCS7 CCS7

SICD

SICD

SICD

SICD

SICD

MMU

SLS SICX

SUP

DDTI DDTI DDTI DDTI DDTI DDTI DDTI DDTI DDTI DDTI DDTI DDTI

5V 12 A

PSUC

Power supplies + 5 V / - 100 A + 12 V / -4 A - 12 V / - 3 A

ALA RCB RCB RCB RCB RCB TSCB TSCB RCB RCB RCB RCB RCB

5V 12 A

MPUBshelf

CPU-OMU SICD

CPU-MPU SICD

CPU-BIFP

SICD CPU-BIFP

SWE MSW MSW SWE SWC ECI ECI SWC SWE MSW MSW SWE

5V 12 A 5V 12 A 5V 12 A 5V 12 A

5V 12 A

Switching matrix shelf SWG BSCB shelf EQPT Fans

CCS7 CCS7

SICD CCS7

SICD

SICD

SICD

SICD

SUP SLS SICX

SICD

MMU

Ethernet Connector

Control Cabinet
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family

BSCB BSCB BSCB BSCB BSCB BSCB BSCB BSCB BSCB BSCB BSCB BSCB

5V 12 A

Equipment Cabinet
12-7

The BSC equipment is held in two cabinets:

• The Control cabinet contains the processing unit that directs the overall BSC operations, including the equipment cabinet operations and insures the communications with the OMC-R. • The Equipment cabinet contains the switching matrix, different interface modules and the equipment for the management of the PCM links. Duplication or redundancy of the boards ensures service continuity in the event of a failure.
The BSC 6000/12000 exists in five different basic configurations, depending on the number of SICD/SICD8V boards.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

12-7

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family
Duplex Operation
12000HC Architecture
To/From OMC-R

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

C O N T R O L

MMU IDE CPUOMU

Chain A
CPUMPU CPUBIFP

SLS2 MPU

Status

Ethernet Inter SUP

MPU SLS2 Status

Chain B
CPUBIFP CPUMPU

MMU IDE CPUOMU

Multibus II

SUP2

SUP2

Multibus II

SICX

MPUA SICD CCS7 8V
V11 64 kb/s

SICD MPUB CCS7 8V
V11 64 kb/s

SICX

E Q U I P M E N T

ECI A

SWC MSW-SWE
Internal PCM/A Chain status (MPU Status)

RCB

RCB

SWC MSW-SWE
Internal PCM/B

ECI B

MPU Status

ALA
O&M/A bus External Loops

TSCB

BSCB

DDTI
O&M/B bus

To/From BTS
BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family

To/From TCU/MSC
12-8

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

In the duplex operating mode, the software and data are loaded onto both processing chains. The active processor directs the BSC activities and the passive processor is updated by the active one. Furthermore the hard disks of the two BSC processing chains are mirrored. The passive processor is updated by the active one each time a call reaches or leaves a stable state. Stable calls are recovered when there is a failure on the active chain and the passive chain turns active. The standby chain performs the operations needed to ensure the lowest impact on traffic handling in case of switch over: • maintaining active/standby data integrity on its disk, • running tests to detect standby components faults, • sending its operational status to the active side to determine which chain is in the best condition. Moreover, the standby chain receives from the active one all the information needed to sustain calls in case of switch-over (radio channel information, terrestrial and SCCP circuit used, ...). An audit is performed upon operator request on both chains to ensure disk data integrity. The audit is performed on the active side and the data consistency on the passive is ensured by the mirror mechanism. A switch-over is performed in case of major hardware or software anomaly. The switchover condition is detected by the supervision entity and initiated by the SUP board after comparison with the other chain.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

12-8

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family
BSC 12000
12000 Versus 6000
CPU /MPU CPU /BIFP

Mandatory for BSC 12000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Up to: • 1200 Erlangs • 48000 BHCAs • 320 TDMA
Flash EPROM = Fast Restart
1

SICD8V Up to 64 TRXs Only for BSC 12000
LAPD Management

Processor = Pentium 120

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Processor = Pentium 75
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family

12-9

Although the BSC 6000 can be equipped with the new CPU-MPU and CPU-BIFP within the V8 release, the BSC 12000 mandatory comes with these enhanced boards. The BSC 12000 also comes with a new SICD8V boards along. This board features eight LAPD input-ports. The SICD8V is able to handle up to 64 TRX-signaling. According to the Nortel traffic model, the BSC 1205 (delivered with 5 SICD8V boards) reaches 1200 Erlangs and a 48000 BHCA (Busy Hour Call Attempts) throughput. The BSC 6000 can be upgraded to a BSC 12000 on site.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

12-9

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family
BSC 6000/12000/12000HC
BSC Family Life

6000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

6000
CPU 120
V11 V11 V11

CPU 66

V9 V9

12000HC 12000
HC 100 = NO CPU 120 (or 133)
V11

HC 100 = YES CPU 120
V11

V11

12000HC
HC 100 = YES CPU 133

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family

12-10

The BSC product line consists of the BSC 6000 and the BSC 12000 products. These two products are based on the same platform, making it possible to upgrade a BSC 6000 to a BSC 12000 in the field. Both the 6000 and the 12000 exist in five configurations to match the specific capacity required on the BSC site. The production of the BSC 2000 stopped in 1994 with the V5 release, and is no longer supported after the V9 release. The production of the BSC 6000 has stopped in December 1998. The product hardware and software will be maintained after this date but will no longer be supported after the V14 release. For potential unforeseen BSC extensions after March 1999, an upgrade to BSC 12000 can be offered: only a few boards have to be changed and all of them are proposed as upgrade kits. The BSC 12000HC (High Capacity) is the name of the BSC12000 equipped with the new HC100 kit (from V11.3). The BSC 12000 has CPU120 or CPU133 boards without mixing: • from release V10, the CPU133 will replace the CPU120 after the end of production with same performance and capacity, • for release V11, the CPU133 can replace the CPU120 only for 12000HC.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

12-10

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family
GPRS Support

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

GPRS

6000

12000

GPRS

GPRS
V12 only

12000HC

GPRS
From V12
12-11

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family

GPRS is not supported on BSC 6000. GPRS shall be supported in V12 on a BSC12000 (i.e. the HC100 kit is not mandatory), but there can be a high risk for future releases due to the limited RAM memory of the CPU66SE. GPRS in V14 will require both HC100 kit and either: • CPU120 with memory extension, • CPU133. For releases beyond V14, the HC100 is mandatory.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

12-11

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family
BSC 12000 Upgrade to BSC 12000HC

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

• CPU-OMU: CPU 133 IE disk interface change: SCSI to IDE more processing capability: x2 or 3 • MMU: MMU-IDE disk interface change • SUP: SUP2: more processing power • SLS: SLS2 improved defense mechanism

+

CPU-MPU and CPU-BIFP = CPU133 more processing capability standardization of boards inside the BSC
IDE = Integrated Disk Electronic
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family

Optional

12-12

BSC 12000 capacity is limited by its processing capability and different traffic profiles require different processing capability. The purpose of the upgrade kit HC100 is to increase the performance of the BSC, in order to support some hard call profiles. This High Capacity kit available for the BSC 12000, contains per chain: • a new CPU-OMU board, based on Pentium 133 MHz: CPU133IE, • a new MMU board with IDE disk: MMU-IDE, • a new SUP board: SUP2, • a new SLS board: SLS2. A new optional CPU-MPU/BIFP board, more powerful, is available: CPU133 (CPU133IE without IDE and Ethernet interfaces). If the CPU120 are kept, those boards must be upgraded with RAM from 16 Mb to 32 Mb. In other terms, RAM extension will be systematically associated to HC100 kit option only if CPU133 is not ordered. All HC100 kits must be changed at the same time. No dialogue is possible between two chains equipped with different CPU-OMU board. A new partitioning of BSC disk is needed. From V11.3, all new BSC 12000 are delivered including the HC100 kit: 12000HC.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

12-12

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family
BSC Provisioning

Hardware Software limits limits
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Load limits

Nbr of BTS Nbr of Cells Nbr of PCM/site Nbr of LAPD channels Nbr of TRX BSC product range BSC model

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family

12-13

The entry data are classified according to their weight in BSC dimensioning procedure: 1. Number of LAPD channels. 2. Number of TRX. 3. Number of external PCM. 4. Then, the other data: number of BTS (number of sites), and of cells. The different limits to be taken into account within the provisioning model are classified into hardware, software and load. Main hardware limits come from: • Number of SICD boards (there is a direct relationship between this limit and the number of radio sites). • Number of DDTI boards. • Number of CCS7 boards. Main software limits are given by: • Number of cells, number of TRX, number of TCU. Main load limits are: • The number of TRXs per SICD board: up to 16 TRXs can be managed by a SICD board (6000) and up to 64 TRXs by a SICD8V board (12000/12000HC). • The number of TRXs per LAPD port.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

12-13

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family
BSC 12000 Product Configuration

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BSC 12000 product portfolio BSC type Maximum sites (with BSCB) Maximum number of TDMA Numb. of LAPD ports Number of PCM (E1 or T1) CCS7 links TCU (with E1) TCU (with T1)

1201 1 28 64 8 48 2 12 14

1202 2 60 128 16 48 4 12 14

1203 3 92 192 24 48 4 12 14

1204 4 124 256 32 48 4 12 14

1205 5 138 320 40 48 6 12 14

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family

12-14

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

12-14

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family
BSC 12000 Configuration
1 - Control Cabinet

BSC 12000 product portfolio BSC type CPU-OMU CPU-MPU CPU-BIFP SICX SICD8V SS7 SUP/SUP2 MMU/MMU-IDE SLS/SLS2

1201 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1202 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1

1203 3 1 1 2 1 3 2 1 1 1

1204 4 1 1 2 1 4 2 1 1 1

1205 5 1 1 2 1 5 3 1 1 1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

x2

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family

12-15

From BSC type 3 (606) to type 5 (610), a CPU-BIFP board is still added but the CCS7 board is added in BSC type 2 and another in type 5 to raise the capacity of 1200 E.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

12-15

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family
BSC 12000 Configuration
2 - Equipment Cabinet

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BSC 12000 product portfolio BSC type Switching shelf (SWG) SWC MSW SWE ECI RCB TSCB BSCB DDTI ALA
12.01/EN January, 2000

1201 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 12 10/24 1

1202 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 12 10/24 1

1203 3 1 2 2 1 3 2 12 10/24 1

1204 4 1 2 2 1 4 2 12 10/24 1

1205 5 1 2 2 1 5 2 12 10/24 1
12-16

x2

PE/TRD/GR/0101

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family

In BSC 12000, two MSW and two SWE are provided for each type. This allows to use BSCB boards directly from type 1. The number of DDTI boards no longer depends on the BSC type (24 boards are provided).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

12-16

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family
BSC 6000/12000/12000HC
Capacity Comparison

BSC product CPU MPU/BIFP type Nortel standard (Erlangs) Nortel standard (BHCA) High mobility (Erlangs) High mobility (BHCA) Short call duration (Erlangs) Short call duration (BHCA)

610 CPU66 600 24000 360 13650 240 23000

610 CPU120 600 24000 600 24000 440 42000

1205 CPU120 1200 48000 700 26000 640 60750

1205HC CPU133 1200 48000 1200 48000 1100 107000

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family

12-17

Capacity is the capability of the BSC to handle subscriber activities such as: • calls, • location updates, • handovers. The capacity of the BSC is limited by two types of bottlenecks: • the real-time capacity limit of certain BSC processor boards such as SUP (i.e. OMUSUP-SWC), SICD/SICD8V, BSCB and CPU-MPU/BIFP, • the connectivity limit such as the configurable number of TRX; PCMs depending on the BTS configuration and of the BTS load. As Erlang values describes resource utilization, the BSC capacity can not only be described in terms of Erlang but must be associated to a subscriber profile. To reach its optimal capacity the BSC 12000HC (with HC100 kit) needs also the Capacity improvement package (mandatory patch): • software optimization of OMU-SUP-SWC slave mechanism, BSC-TMG contexts and BSC-SCCP contexts, • firmware optimization: new PROM for SWC, BSCB and TSCB boards. These capacities are given regardless of the Quality of Service. To maintain the BSC robustness during traffic overload periods, the overload control mechanism, by filtering messages, can reduce the QoS.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

12-17

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family
Exercise
1 - Indication Path in Case of TCU Warning
Active Chain
To/From OMC-R

Standby Chain MMU IDE CPUOMU

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

C O N T R O L

MMU IDE CPUOMU

Chain A
CPUMPU CPUBIFP

SLS2 MPU

Status

Ethernet Inter SUP

MPU SLS2 Status

Chain B
CPUBIFP CPUMPU

Multibus II

SUP2

SUP2

Multibus II

SICX

MPUA SICD CCS7 8V
V11 64 kb/s

SICD MPUB CCS7 8V
V11 64 kb/s

SICX

E Q U I P M E N T

ECI A

SWC MSW-SWE
Internal PCM/A Chain status (MPU Status)

RCB

RCB

SWC MSW-SWE
Internal PCM/B

ECI B

MPU Status

ALA
O&M/A bus External Loops

TSCB

BSCB

DDTI
O&M/B bus

To/From BTS
BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family

To/From TCU/MSC
12-18

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Draw the indication path when the TCU is warning.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

12-18

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family
Exercise
2 - Signaling Path When Call Is Setting Up
Active Chain
To/From OMC-R

Standby Chain MMU IDE CPUOMU

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

C O N T R O L

MMU IDE CPUOMU

Chain A
CPUMPU CPUBIFP

SLS2 MPU

Status

Ethernet Inter SUP

MPU SLS2 Status

Chain B
CPUBIFP CPUMPU

Multibus II

SUP2

SUP2

Multibus II

SICX

MPUA SICD CCS7 8V
V11 64 kb/s

SICD MPUB CCS7 8V
V11 64 kb/s

SICX

E Q U I P M E N T

ECI A

SWC MSW-SWE
Internal PCM/A Chain status (MPU Status)

RCB

RCB

SWC MSW-SWE
Internal PCM/B

ECI B

MPU Status

ALA
O&M/A bus External Loops

TSCB

BSCB

DDTI
O&M/B bus

To/From BTS
BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family

To/From TCU/MSC
12-19

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Draw the signaling path when the call is setting up.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

12-19

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family
Exercise
3 - Speech Path When Call-in-state
Active Chain
To/From OMC-R

Standby Chain MMU IDE CPUOMU

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

C O N T R O L

MMU IDE CPUOMU

Chain A
CPUMPU CPUBIFP

SLS2 MPU

Status

Ethernet Inter SUP

MPU SLS2 Status

Chain B
CPUBIFP CPUMPU

Multibus II

SUP2

SUP2

Multibus II

SICX

MPUA SICD CCS7 8V
V11 64 kb/s

SICD MPUB CCS7 8V
V11 64 kb/s

SICX

E Q U I P M E N T

ECI A

SWC MSW-SWE
Internal PCM/A Chain status (MPU Status)

RCB

RCB

SWC MSW-SWE
Internal PCM/B

ECI B

MPU Status

ALA
O&M/A bus External Loops

TSCB

BSCB

DDTI
O&M/B bus

To/From BTS
BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family

To/From TCU/MSC
12-20

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Draw the speech path when the call is in state.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

12-20

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family
Number of Sites That a BSC Can Handle
138 sites
BSC Equipment cabinet 1
Here’s a BSC 6000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BSC Control cabinet SICD

BTS (BCF)

1 BSCB 2 4 1

Site #1

8 TRXs + BCF

DCC or DSC

1 11

3 10
#137

#138
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family

TSCB
12-21

First, the signaling base load of a site is one LAPD from a maximum of 8 TRXs with the BCF signaling along. Second, 11 BSCB boards (located is the BSC Equipment cabinet) can concentrate up to 4 input -ports x 3 out-ports x 11 boards = 132 sites. Third, 10 SICD boards (located in the Control cabinet of the BSC 6000) provide 40 input signaling ports. In turn, 5 SICD8V (BSC 12000) boards provide 40 input-ports (5 x 8 inputports) too. Fourth, 11 BSCB boards provide 3 x 11= 33 output-ports. Thus there are 7 SICD input-ports free out of either the SICD or the SICD8V. One inputport of either SICD or SICD8V must be assigned to the LAPD stream from the TSCB board. The six remainder input-ports on the SICDs can be directly assigned to other sites (#133, #134, #135, #136, #137, #138). We conclude that the BSC 6000 and the BSC12000 can handle 132+6= 138 sites.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

12-21

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family
Check Your Learning

1- What main functions does the BSC perform?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

2- What does the SICD/SICD8V board perform?

3- What does the CCS7 board perform?

4- What do the BSCB and TSCB boards perform?

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family

12-22

1- What main functions does the BSC perform?

2- What does the SICD/SIC8V board perform?

3- What does the CCS7 board perform?

4- What do the BSCB and the TSCB boards perform?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

12-22

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family
Check Your Learning

6- Where are located the O&M functions in the BSC?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

7- How can we distinguish a BSC 6000 from a BSC 12000?

8- How many BTSs and TRX can handle a BSC 12000 model 1205?

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family

12-23

6- Where are located the O&M functions in the BSC?

7- How can we distinguish a BSC 6000 from a BSC 12000?

8- How many BTSs and TRX can handle a BSC 12000 model 1205?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

12-23

January, 2000

BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

12-24

January, 2000

TransCoder Unit: Functional Description

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Section 13

TransCoder Unit: Functional Description

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

TransCoder Unit: Functional Description

13-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

13-1

January, 2000

TransCoder Unit: Functional Description
Objectives

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

After completing this lesson you will be able to: • Relate what must perform the TCU; • Identify benefit having remote TCUs.

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

TransCoder Unit: Functional Description

13-2

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

13-2

January, 2000

TransCoder Unit: Functional Description
TCU Functions

1

Converts the GSM speech frames into PSTN / ISDN A-Law or µ-Law speech.

2

Adapts the user’s data frames from BSS to V110 ISDN 64 kbps ISDN format.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BSS MSC BSC
BTS

TCU
A Interface

Ater Interface TCU is the Nortel name for the Transcoder Rate Adapter Unit
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 TransCoder Unit: Functional Description 13-3

TCU (TransCoder Units) are designed to reduce the amount of PCM links needed to convey radio speech and data channels between BTS, BSC and MSC. The concept of remote transcoders permit to convey 4 multiplexed channels at kbit/s onto a single 64 kbit/s PCM channel. 16

Multiplexing is implemented within the BTS, thus the number of PCM links needed on the Abis interface is reduced. The TCU enables code conversion of 16 kbit/s channels from the BSC into 64 kbit/s channels for MSC in both directions. TCU is the product designation of Nortel for the TRAU (Transcoder and Rate Adapter Unit) specified in the GSM recommendations.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

13-3

January, 2000

TransCoder Unit: Functional Description
Benefit Having Remote TCUs

BTS TCU TS 1 TS 2 TS 3 TS 4

MSC

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Four PCM time-slots between BTS and MSC when TCU is close to the BTSs.

BTS TCU TS 1

MSC

One PCM time-slot between BTSs and MSC when TCU is close to the MSC.

= Save three PCM time-slots !
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 TransCoder Unit: Functional Description 13-4

The TCU has been designed to be collocated with the MSC in order to save PCM resources between the BSCs and the MSC. The speech and data traffic (full-rate, enhanced full-rate or 14.4 kbps data rate) will be transported into circuits at 16 kbit/s until it reaches the TCU allowing four traffic channels to be carried at 64 kbit/s by each PCM Time-Slot . Without remote TCU: • Poor use of experience transmission resource. • Transmission of information in a time slot of 64 kbps. • Limitation of the number of speech channels. With TCU located at the MSC premises: • Multiplexing of 4 speech channels into one time slot. • Optimization of the physical resources. • Capacities on Abis and Ater interfaces multiplied per four.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

13-4

January, 2000

TransCoder Unit: Functional Description
Functional Detail
Time Slot Processing

Ater interface
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

A interface

LAPD TS 1 SS7 TS

O&M
SS7 TS X.25 TS 2 * PCM link MSC OMC

BSC

X.25 TS 2 * PCM link Speech TS

Transcoding

Speech TS

MSC

Data TS

Rate Adaptation

Data TS

MSC

* if used
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 TransCoder Unit: Functional Description 13-5

LAPD time slot is used for internal TCU purpose to the BSC. SS7 and X.25 time slots are simply switched through the switching matrix without transcoding process. Speech blocks are transcoded by vocal transcoders. Data blocks are rate adapted by V110/PCM converters.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

13-5

January, 2000

TransCoder Unit: Functional Description
Signaling on the BTS - TCU Interface
OMC

PSTN

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BSS

TCU MSC A interface

BSC
BTS

Ater Interface

NSS

13 kbps + 3 kbps of remote control (Half-rate, full-rate, DTX or not DTX, SID)

• • • • •

The Mobile informs the MSC of the supported transcoders The MSC in turn sends this information to the BSC The BSC establishes the links from the Mobile to the TCU The BTS controls the TCU transcoders using in-band signalisation The communication starts
12.01/EN January, 2000 TransCoder Unit: Functional Description 13-6

PE/TRD/GR/0101

The 16 kbit/s bit stream contains the encoded speech (13 kbit/s) and in-band signalisation to allow the control of the remote transcoders by the BTS. In-band signalisation allows the transcoders to know what kind of information is received and then what type of adaptation it must apply both for the uplink and the downlink transmission. Each block conveyed between the BTS and the remote transcoders contains 316 bits: • 260 for speech, • 35 for frame synchronization, • 5 for discrimination between speech and data, full rate and half rate, • 6 for time alignment, • 1 for Bad Frame Indicator (uplink), • 1 for DTX mode.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

13-6

January, 2000

TransCoder Unit: Functional Description
Speech on the BTS-TCU Interface
TCU
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BTS Frame Processor

Speech handler and DTX

BSC

GSM speech decoder

Speech handler

13 bit linear to 8 bit A or µ Law

To MSC Speech blocks (260 bits/20 ms)
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 TransCoder Unit: Functional Description 13-7

The speech is carried between BTS and TCU using blocks of 260 bits/20 ms 13 kbps). TCU converts the 13 kbps speech blocks into 64 kbps T1 (µ-law) or E1 (A-law) PCM time slots. Furthermore, the Frame Processor of the BTS warns the TCU whether a speech frame is generated correctly or not (Bad Frame Indicator). The speech transcoder also need to be told whether transmission in the uplink is on DTX mode or not. In turn, the TCU informs the BTS whenever it generates SID (SIlent Descriptor) frames.

(=

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

13-7

January, 2000

TransCoder Unit: Functional Description
User’s Data Rate Treatment
Abis
BTS Frame processor

Ater

A

TCU
DTX handling

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

FEC

FEC
RA’1 RA0 TAF

RA’1 / RA1

RAA

BSC
RAA

RA2

64 Kbps RA0: asynchronous -> synchronous RA’1: Air Interface V110 frame RA1: ISDN V110 8 or 16 kbps frame
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 TransCoder Unit: Functional Description

To MSC RAA: BSS (Abis-Ater) V110 frame. RA2: ISDN V110 64 kbps frame
13-8

RA0 function perform asynchronous to synchronous conversion by providing start and stop bit when necessary. RA1’ features the synchronous user’s data stream into special GSM frame V110 shape (36 bits every 10 ms, 60 bits every either 5 ms or 10 ms). FEC, in turn, performs the channel coding. RA1 brings up the user’s data into either 8 or 16 kbps V110 frame (every 10 ms or 5 ms). RAA convert the V110 CCITT frame of 80 bits to an TRAU (said TCU in Nortel’s products) frame format in order to transmit four channel over an 64 kbps PCM link. This frame contains 72 bits because of one does not take care of the V110 frame-flag-start-byte when transmitting over the BSS. RA2 output an 80 bits V110 frame into a 64 kbps DS0 link.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

13-8

January, 2000

TransCoder Unit: Functional Description
Check Your Learning
1- What are the two functions of the TCU?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

2- What is the benefit having remote TCUs?

3- Why do we need rate adaptation of user’s data?

4- How many TDTI boards do we need per TCU? Why?

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

TransCoder Unit: Functional Description

13-9

1- What are the two functions of the TCU?

2- What is the benefit having remote TCUs?

3- Why do we need rate adaptation of user’s data?

4- How many TDTI boards do we need per TCU? Why?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

13-9

January, 2000

TransCoder Unit: Functional Description
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

13-10

January, 2000

TCU: Physical Description

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Section 14

TCU: Physical Presentation

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

TCU: Physical Presentation

14-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

14-1

January, 2000

TCU: Physical Description
Objectives

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

After completing this lesson you will be able to: • List the different boards of a TCU shelf; • Briefly explain their role.

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

TCU: Physical Presentation

14-2

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

14-2

January, 2000

TCU: Physical Description
Hardware Layout

Control TUC
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

O&M Bus (9600 b/s asynchronous) PCM bus (2048 kb/s) 0 TDTI 1 TDTI 2 TDTI TCB 0 TCB 1 TCB TCB 2 TCB T1 TCB 3 TCB 4 TCB 5 6 TCB TCB 7 8 E1 TCB TCB9 TCB

64 kbps switching matrix

1

0, 2, 3, 4

BSC

MSC

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

TCU: Physical Presentation

14-3

Each TCU module (one per shelf) is composed of three kinds of boards. Transcoder Unit Controller or TUC board: • O&M processor, • Provision of a Switching Matrix of 16 x 16 PCM: • insert/extract 64 kbit/s LAPD channel (link to BSC), SS7 (links to MSC) and X.25 (link to OMC-R). Either TransCoder Board TCB 1: • speech coding/decoding for 12 full rate traffic channels, • data rate adaptation (RAA – RA2), • includes 6 Digital Signal Processors (processing two channel each), and a general purpose processor. Or TransCoder Board TCB2: • supports FR and the new vocoder for Enhanced Full Rate EFR, • 12 DSP per board instead of 6, • 40 Mips per call instead of 20 Mips, • automatic switching between vocoders. Transcoder Digital Trunk Interface or TDTI board: • similar to BSC DDTI, • each board manages 2 external PCM links.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

14-3

January, 2000

TCU: Physical Description
External Communications
Internal PCM Link Allocation in the TCU
10 1

TCB1/ TCB2
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PCM 6 to PCM 15 PCM 3 PCM 4 PCM 5

TUC
PCM0 for internal use Switching matrix

2 TDTI 1 3 4 TDTI 2

MSC

BSC

1

TDTI 0 1/2

PCM 1

PCM 2

TDTI 0 2/2

0

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

TCU: Physical Presentation

14-4

Each TCU is linked to one Ater PCM to the BSC and up to four PCMA to the MSC.
Board TUC TDTI TDTI TDTI TCB or TCB2 TCB or TCB2 TCB or TCB2 TCB or TCB2 TCB or TCB2 TCB or TCB2 TCB or TCB2 TCB or TCB2 TCB or TCB2 TCB or TCB2 Board Number 0 0 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Internal PCM Number 0 to 15 1 (BSC) & 2 3&4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

14-4

January, 2000

TCU: Physical Description
TCU Cabinet

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

- Up to 120 speech channels when using PCM E1. DS0 # 0 assigned to PCM handling. One DS0 assigned to LAPD.

TTT TTTTTTTTTT T DDD CCCC C CC C CC U TTT BBBBB BBBBB C I I I

P S U E P S U E

P S U E P S U E

P S U E

TCU shelf boards TCU shelf fans

Fans
P S U TTT TTTT TT T TT T T E D DD CCCC C C C C C C U TTT B BBB B B B B B B C P I I I S U E P S U E P S U E P S U E

TCU shelf boards TCU shelf fans

Fans
P S U TTT TTTT T TT TT T T E DDD CCCC C C C C C C U TTT BBBB B B B B B B C P I I I S U E P S U E P S U E P S U E

TCU shelf boards

- Up to 92 speech channels when using PCM T1. One DS0 assigned to LAPD.

Fans
P S U TTT TTTTTTTTTT T E DDD CCCC CC C C CC U TTT P BBBBBBBBBB C I I I S U E P S U E P S U E P S U E

TCU shelf fans TCU shelf boards TCU shelf fans

Fans

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

TCU: Physical Presentation

14-5

Per TCU shelf: • Eight or ten TCB boards, 12 speech channels per board = up to 92 or 120 speech channels per shelf, • One TUC board. • Up to three TDTI boards, two PCM links per board. One link to BSC: second PCM of the first TDTI. • Up to four links to MSC, • One link unused: second PCM of the third TDTI, • Per PCM link: 30 TS (E1) or 24 TS (T1), • For the four links: up to 120 (E1) or 92 (T1) speech channels. Per TCU cabinet: up to four TCU shelves. Note One have to assign one DS0 for the CCS7 link and one DS0 for the LAPD link (maintenance purposes).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

14-5

January, 2000

TCU: Physical Description
Check Your Learning
1- How many TDTI boards do we need per TCU? Why?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

2- How many speech channels can a TCU shelf drive to the MSC?

3- What is the maximum number of TCU shelves in one TCU cabinet?

4- Can you connect TCU shelves of a TCU cabinet to different BSCs?

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

TCU: Physical Presentation

14-6

1- How many TDTI boards do we need per TCU? Why?

2- How many speech channels can a TCU shelf drive to the MSC?

3- What is the maximum number of TCU shelves in one TCU cabinet?

4- Can you connect TCU shelves of a TCU cabinet to different BSCs?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

14-6

January, 2000

TCU: Physical Description
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

14-7

January, 2000

TCU: Physical Description
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

14-8

January, 2000

NSS Functions

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Section 15

NSS Functions

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

NSS Functions

15-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

15-1

January, 2000

NSS Functions
Objectives

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

After completing this lesson you will be able to: • Know all the MSC external interfaces in the NSS • Relate the functions that a GMSC and a VMSC perform • Understand the PCM-30 and the CCS7 signaling devices

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

NSS Functions

15-2

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

15-2

January, 2000

NSS Functions
NSS Architecture
Site 1
HLR VLR BSS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Site 2
VLR
D G-interface D

BSS

B-interface A-interface

H

Cinterface

B-interface

MSC

AUC

GMSC

A-interface Other GSM, PSTN, ISDN

Other GSM, PSTN, ISDN

E-interface

F IWF E EIR

F E IWF

Billing Server

SMS-SC

Billing Server

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

NSS Functions

15-3

The distributed architecture of the NSS is organized with MSCs, servers and data bases, linked by interfaces normalized (B to G). There are two types of MSC to provide switching services to a defined part of the PLMN: • MSC, used to establish traffic channels and to switch signaling messages between PLMN entities and other GSM networks or fixed networks, • Gateway MSC (GMSC), is a specialized MSC managing the central data base HLR, containing permanent and dynamic subscriber data. All the information requested by the different functions is stored in four types of data bases connected to (or included in) the MSCs: • HLR or Home Location Register: permanent data specific to each subscriber, including service profile, location and billing options, • VLR or Visitor Location Register: in order to minimize access to the HLR, MSC uses this data base, which contains working data for subscribers moving within its coverage area (LAs), • Network security and access control are provided by the Authentication Center (AUC) and by the Equipment Identity Register (EIR): - AUC: to ensure that only authorized users have access to the network, - EIR: to maintain a list of stolen, faulty and valid equipment identities. NSS includes also specific equipment such as: • Inter-working Function (IWF): to provide the different bearer services offered by the network, • Short Message Services-Service Center (SMS-SC): used to store and forward point-to-point short messages, • Billing Server. This equipment or software elements are running applications more or less operator dependent.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

15-3

January, 2000

NSS Functions
Mobile Switching Center Interfaces
BSS BSC
BTS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

To PSTN A GMSC C

VLR
B

D

HLR

E EIR G BSS BSC
BTS

AUC
Nortel HLR/AuC is housed in the DMSHLR Nortel VLR is housed in the DMS-MSC
15-4

F A MSC B

VLR

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

NSS Functions

Interface A • Provides connections to BSSs onto PCM links. • Handles user’s voice and data circuits. • Handles the CCS7-SCCP signaling. • Handles BSSAP, MM, and CM message transfer. Interface B • Provides CCS7-SCCP-TCAP signaling links to VLR. • Handles MAP-VLR communications. Interface C • Provides CCS7-SCCP-TCAP signaling links. • Handles MAP- HLR communications. Interface D • Provides CCS7-SCCP-TCAP signaling links between HLR and VLR. • Handles MAP-HLR/ VLR communications. Interface E • Handles CCS7 circuit related connection between two MSCs. • Provides ISUP call command communications. Interface F • Handles CCS7-SCCP-TCAP signaling links to EIR. • Provides communication between MSC and the EIR. Interface G • Handles CCS7-SCCP-TCAP signaling link between two VLRs. • Provides MAP-VLR to MAP-VLR communications. PSTN / ISDN interface • Handles PCM trunks. • Handles various PSTN / ISDN signaling links (MF R2, CCS7, etc.). • Provide ISUP and country featured Call Command communications.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

15-4

January, 2000

NSS Functions
Gateway MSC Functions
- Processes translations. - Routes calls to appropriate VMSC. Handles the calls from the PSTN
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

GMSC

Retrieves roamer routing information

HLR

VMSC

AUC

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

NSS Functions

15-5

Any MSC in a GSM PLMN that acts as an interface between the land and the mobile networks is a GMSC. A GMSC provides an entry point into the PLMN from another network or service. A GMSC is also a routing center for incoming PLMN calls. When an incoming call reaches the GSM PLMN, it is routed through a GMSC, which requests the HLR and routes the call to the appropriate MSC.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

15-5

January, 2000

NSS Functions
Visitor MSC Functions
- Requests BSSs for paging. - Processes update location. - Processes translations. - Requests for roamer and MS availability. - Sets up and tears down the calls to PSTN. - Receives calls from the gateway MSCs. - Handles echo-canceler and IWF.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BSS BSC
BTS

VMSC

Provides ticketing.

VLR
Handles inter-MSC handovers.

- Informs VLR of new location. - Gets roamer access grant for services.

BSS BSC
BTS

MSC

EIR

Check MS available

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

NSS Functions

15-6

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

15-6

January, 2000

NSS Functions
MSC Architecture and Functions
MSC
Timing generator Common bus

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Switch

X.25 couplers

Command Unit - Coordinates of call set up. - Location registration. - Hand-over management. - Ticketing and billing. - Interworking functions. - Synchronizes with the BSS. - Gateway to SMS-SC. - Handles operation on echo-cancelers.

Computer and peripherals module

CCS7 couplers

Inter-Working modules

E1/T1 trunks

E1/T1 trunks

Echo Canceler

BSS
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000

To other MSC To PSTN / ISDN
NSS Functions 15-7

The Mobile Switching Center (MSC) has mainly to provide basic switching functionality as known from ISDN or toll exchanges but with additional capabilities for handling mobile subscribers. MSC coordinates the setup of calls to and from all GSM subscribers operating in its area. Specifically, the MSC controls the paging function (incoming calls). The dynamic allocation of access resources is done in coordination with the Base Station SubSystem (BSS). More specially, the MSC decides when and which types of channels should be assigned to which mobile. However the channel identity and related radio parameters are the responsibility of the BSS. The MSC supervises the connection transfer between different BSSs for MSs, with an active call, moving from one cell to another. This is ensured if two BSSs are connected to the same MSC but also when they are not. In this later case, the procedure is more complex, since more than one MSC is involved. Besides, the MSC performs ticketing on calls for all subscribers based in its area. While the subscriber’s call in state, the MSC obtains data for the call billing from the hand-over recipient MSC. Furthermore the MSC transfers encryption parameters from Visitors Location Registers (VLRs) to BSSs to enable ciphering on the radio interface. Last, the MSC serves as a SMS gateway to forward SMS messages from Short Message Service Centers (SMSCs) to the subscribers and from the subscribers to the SMSCs.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

15-7

January, 2000

NSS Functions
InterWorking Function
Mobile Switching Center

BSS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PSTN

MS

Modem

Data + DTE signals Rate adaptation DTE signaling Modem

IWF

Land-DTE

DTE
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 NSS Functions 15-8

Because of GSM providing a wide range of data services to its subscribers, GSM interfaces with the various public and private data networks currently available. It is the job of the Interworking Function (IWF) to provide this interfacing capability. Networks to which IWF presently provides interface as follows: • PSTN, • ISDN, • Circuit-switched public data networks (CSPDN), • Packet-switched public data networks (PSPDN). It provides the subscriber with access to data rate and protocol conversion facilities so that data can be transmitted between GSM Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and a land line DTE (the recipient). Furthermore it allocates a suitable modem from its modem bank when required. This is the case when a GSM DTE, a Fax machine, exchange data with a land Fax machine which works over analog modem (V.32). The IWF also provides direct connect interfaces for customers provided equipment such as X.25 PADs. Different protocols conversion may be required for signaling and traffic messages. This includes data rate adaptation and the addition of signaling bits reformatting. The IWF is a part of the Mobile Switching Center.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

15-8

January, 2000

NSS Functions
Echo Canceler
GSM network 4 wire circuit 4 wire circuit (PCM)

PSTN

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Base Station SubSystem

Mobile Switching Center

Echo Canceler

Switch

Talker Echo

Talker Echo

4 wire circuit 4w to 2w transformer

Two wire circuit Local loop Land telephone
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 NSS Functions 15-9

When the mobile establishes a circuit to the PSTN, an Echo Canceler (EC) is used at the MSC-PSTN interface to reduce the effect of the GSM delay. GSM introduces a round-trip delay (which results of speech encoding, decoding, and signal processing) of the order of 180 ms. Normally this delay would not be an annoying factor to the mobile, except when communicating with PSTN as it requires a two wires to four-wire transformer in the circuit. This transformer is required at the toll office because the standard loop is a two wire circuit. Some of energy at its four-wire receive side re-transmitted to the mobile causes the echo, which does not affect the land subscriber but is annoying factor to the mobile. Note that during a normal PSTN call, no echo is apparent because the delay is too short and the land user is unable to distinguish between the echo and the normal telephone side tones.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

15-9

January, 2000

NSS Functions
Short Message Service Center
Send Routing Information Alert-SC Set MW Data

HLR
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

VMS

Note MS Present

SS7 MAP SS7 MAP

Voice trunks: R2, ETSI ISUP... SMPP (X.25 or TCP/IP)

Voice Mail alerts

MF DT

SME

PSTN

Voice trunks: R2, ETSI ISUP...

MSC
SS7 MAP

X.25 SMSC

SME

SS7 DTAP

SME Forward Short Message Delivery Report Various applications submitting Short Messages

BSC

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

NSS Functions

15-10

The Short Message Service is performed by a specific network element called Short Message Service Center (SMSC) which is commonly implemented on a computer platform. This SMSC is functionally separated from the GSM network although this does not preclude an integrated implementation. More than one SMSC may be connected to the GSM network. For both MO and MT services the SMSC acts as store and forward center; all GSM point to point Short Messages are either to or from the SMSC. A message from one Mobile Station to another must pass through a SMSC. Messages may be input to the SMSC from a fixed network customer by means of a suitable telecommunication service either from the fixed network or from a mobile network customer. The SMSC shall then reformat the message into that provided by the short message service, for delivery to the mobile telephone.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

15-10

January, 2000

NSS Functions
Voice Mail System

MS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

TX Mail User 1

User Mail

RX Mail User 2
Virtual FAX

SMS-SC

Voice Mail System

TUES 11:46 Urgent Messages: 1 Normal Messages: 3 Played Messages: 2 Call 123# to retrieve

A

PLMN

Call answering Numeric messaging
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 NSS Functions

Notification/automatic delivery of messages
15-11

Voice Mail System provides following functionality: • call answering: due to a large percentage of inbound traffic not completed, this function allows operator to recapture the traffic and subscribers to be informed by traffic diversion to mail boxes, • virtual fax: this fax allows mobile subscriber to be confident that no fax will be missed while roaming, • numeric messaging: rather than to leave a voice message a caller will be able to enter a numeric message (tel. number to re-call) that will be spoken to the subscriber, • notification/automatic delivery of messages: either through pager or outcalling, • SMSC integration: due to this function it will be possible to display more than a simple indication: “empty/not empty”. A typical message would be “XX messages YY new”.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

15-11

January, 2000

NSS Functions
Intelligent Network Platform

Service Control Point
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

SDF Service Data

SCF Service Control

Service Management System

Service Creation Environment

HLR
SSF Service Switching

SRF Specialized Resource

Intelligent Peripheral

CCF Call Control

GMSC Service Switching Point

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

NSS Functions

15-12

IN platform provides the service logic which can be developed by the service providers, independently from the GSM network vendor, and interworks with the GSM network using standardized signaling. As an open standard solution, it allows operators to offer the same services to their subscribers while roaming to other PLMNs. The GMSC/SSP handles SSF and CCF: • Service Switching Function provides functions required for interaction between the CCF and an SCF, and between the SRF and an SCF for non-call associated service handling. • Call Control Function provides call and service processing and control. The Service Control Point handles: • Service Data Function provides customer and network data for real time access by the SCF in the execution of an IN provided service. • Service Control Function commands call control functions in the processing of IN service requests; may interact with other Functional Element to access additional logic or data as needed. The IP platform handles the Specialized Resource Function which provides resources for user interaction as part of an IN service (digit receivers, announcements, automatic speech recognition, text to speech, etc.). Intelligent Network can be configured as on-board or off-board networks, according to the location of the Service Switching Point (SSP) functionality: • on-board: SSP function is housed into the MSC, • off-board: SSP function is housed in a unit separated from the MSC.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

15-12

January, 2000

NSS Functions
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

15-13

January, 2000

NSS Functions
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

15-14

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Section 16

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP

16-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

16-1

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
Objectives

After completing this lesson you will be able to: • Draw the DMS architecture and its internal main interfaces; • Explain the principle of the Nortel's time-switch and recognize its configurations; • Understand how a time slot comes into the dual panel switching network and how it goes out; • Understand the PCM-30 and the CCS7 signaling devices; • Identify the Super Node, the Size Enhanced and Micro-Node hardware layout; • Describe the Gsm Passport Platform hardware layout.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP

16-2

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

16-2

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
NSS Nortel: DMS Family and PicoNode

Nortel MSC = Digital Multiplex System (DMS)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

SuperNode (SN)

SuperNode Size Enhanced (SNSE)

MicroNode

Proven DMS SuperNode MSC and HLR Platform Low - High Capacity Systems - Scalable/Modular Best Reliability Track Record on DMS-100 Platform

PicoNode for remote and campus applications of 5005000 subscribers

PicoNode

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP

16-3

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

16-3

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
SuperNode (SN)

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

FSP P P S S U U P S U P S U P S U PP SS UU

FSP PP SS UU

FSP PP SS UU PP SS UU

FSP PP SS UU

FSP PP SS UU PCM30 Digital Trunk Controller PDTC 1 PP SS UU PP SS UU PP S S UU

FSP Billing Server File Processor PP SS UU

FSP PP S S UU

FSP MTD

P P P S S S U U U

LMS 0

LMS1

PP SS UU

Maintenance Trunk Module

MS 1

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

ENET 0.0

P P P S S S U U U

P P S S U U

P S U

P S U

P S U

PP SS UU

LIS

P P S S U U

PP SS UU

Maintenance Trunk Module

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

MS 0

PP SS UU

PP P SS S S U UU

P P S S U U

PP SS UU

ENET 0.1

P P S S UU

POWER LOAD ON LINE REWIND FORWARD REVERSE WRITE ENABLE

P P S S U U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

PP SS UU

LIS

P P S S U U

PP SS UU

Maintenance Trunk Module

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

CM 1

CM 0

PP SS UU

PP SS UU PCM30 Digital Trunk Controller PDTC 0 PP SS UU

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

Storage 16 PCM30s Devices

PP S S UU

PP SS UU

ENET 1.0

P P S S UU

PP SS UU

IOC

PP SS UU

P P P S S S U U U

P P S S U U

P S U

P S U

P S U

PP SS UU

LIS

P P S S UU

PP SS UU

Maintenance Trunk Module

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

SLM 0

SLM 1

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

PP S S UU

Storage Devices 16 PCM30s

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

ENET 1.1

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

DDU

PP SS UU

COOLING UNIT

COOLING UNIT

COOLING UNIT

COOLING UNIT

COOLING UNIT

COOLING UNIT

COOLING UNIT

COOLING UNIT

Cabinetized Link Peripheral Power Processor (LPP) Distribution Center

Cabinetized Trunk Module Equipment

Dual-plane Cabinetized Applications File Combined Core Digital Trunk Processor cabinet Controller for Offshore ISDN Equipment

Enhanced Network (ENET) equipment

Cabinetized Input/Output Equipment

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP

16-4

The SuperNode consists of the following cabinets: • The Cabinetized Power Distribution Center (CPDC) which provides the power for the DMS SuperNode (row by row). • The SuperNode (SN) cabinet, or DPCC, which contains two Message Switch (MS) shelves, a dual plane Computing Module (CM) shelf, and a dual plane System Load Module (SLM) shelf. • The Cabinetized Trunk Module Equipment (CTME) which contains up to four Maintenance Trunk Modules (MTM). • The Cabinetized Input/Output Equipment (CIOE) cabinet which contains the Input/Output Controller and suitable devices (DDU, MTD). • The ENET Cabinet (ENC) which contains the Enhanced NETwork (ENET). • The Cabinetized Digital Trunk Equipment (CDTE) which may contain two PCM-30 Digital Trunk Controllers (PDTC). • Applications File Processor cabinet (AFP) which may house storage devices. • The Link Peripheral Processor (LPP) cabinet which contains SS7 and Ethernet coupling devices.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

16-4

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
Digital Multiplex System (DMS) Architecture
DMS-Core DMS-Core
DS512

File Processor (Billing)

IOM

ISM
DS30

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

DMS - Bus
CLK 0 Message switch 0
0 1 DS30 DS30 DS512 DS512 or DS30

LPP

ENET ENET
To HLR, VLR, EIR, SMSC, etc.

PDTCs
To PSTN /ISDN

V.35 interface

To BSSs

PCMs

DSx channels access message DSx channels (voice, data, and signaling)
NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

16-5

Nortel’s Digital Multiplex System (DMS) is a basic made up of the following: • DMS-core, the control component, • DMS-bus, the messaging component, • ENET, the switching matrix, • the Link Peripheral Processor (LPP), the PCM Digital E1/T1 Trunk Controller (PDTC), • the Input/Output Controllers, IOC. For reliability, the DMS-Bus features two Message Switch (MS) that route messages and allow direct communication between the different modules of the DMS-Super-Node (Switching Matrix ENET, Link Peripheral Processor, PCM Digital Trunk controller). The DMS-Bus also houses the system clock, used by both the Bus and the Core Module to carry out general timing functions. The system clock, which receives the network synchronization from PSTN, provides synchronization for the DMS and can serve, in turn, as a master clock source to allow the entire network (the different BSSs) to run the same frequency. DMS-Bus access port can be configured as either DS30 copper interfaces or DS512 fiberoptic interfaces: • DS30 consists of 32 channels (2.56 Mbit/s). • DS512 consists of 512 channels (49.15 Mbit/s) equivalent to 16 DS30.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

16-5

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
DMS Core Modules
Duplex macro synchronous features To the DMS-Bus

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

RTIF 0 Memory
CPU 0

RTIF 1 MEB
CPU 1

Memory

Computing Module

SLM

SLM

System Load Module

0

Crossover Busses

1

MEB: Mate Exchange Bus (redundancy communications), RTIF: Reset Terminal Interface
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP 16-6

Features: • The DMS Core Module is a dual macro synchronized module working in duplex mode (both the CPU are on-line and running simultaneously, one is designed active and the other is hot-standby). Thus Both CPU are in-step, executing the same sequence of instructions. If an inequality is detected, a mismatch interrupt is generated and the faulty CPU is isolated. The standby CPU become active. • Coordinates call processing activities of system components. • Serves as control component for the DMS-MSC. • Can house some application process like the MSC, the VLR, the HLR, the STP (Signaling Transfer Point), and combinations MSC/HLR. It consists of: • The Computing Module (CM), which manages high-level call processing functions with up to 256 Mbytes (SR70 processor) of memory per plane. • The System Load Module (SLM), which stores and loads system images from hard disk and tapes. Each SLM is made of one cartridge tape drive of 525 Mbytes and one disk of 1 Gbyte. • The Mate Exchange Bus (MEB), which ensures operations of duplication. This medium allows the two Computing Modules to routinely check each other’s mode of operation.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

16-6

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
SuperNode Configuration
DPCC Cabinet
FSP PP SS UU P P S S UU

MS 1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PP SS UU

MS 0

P P S S UU

Dual Plane Combined Core
PP SS UU CM 1 CM 0 P P S S UU

PP SS UU

SLM 0

SLM 1

PP SS UU

COOLING UNIT

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP

16-7

The standard SuperNode platform is used for large GSM networks. The DMS-Core is housed in the DPCC (Dual Plane Combined Core Cabinet). In this cabinet, there are three shelves: • one shelf per MS, • one shelf for the CMs, • one shelf for the SLMs. There is up to 960 Mbytes memory per CPU Plane.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

16-7

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
Nortel's Enhanced NETwork (ENET)
X8
Fiber interface #0 Fiber interface #7 TSIU: Time Slot Interchange Unit, also known as a crosspoint card

IN
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

IN

V e r t i c a l B u s

Time Slot Interchange Unit

X 64

Fiber interface #7

OUT

X8

Horizontal Bus

Fiber interface #0

OUT

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP

16-8

ENET (Enhanced NETwork) is a single stage, non blocking, time switch capable of switching 131,072 one-way digital circuits or 65,536 two-way digital circuits (2048 PCM 30). The switching network, consists of eight Horizontal buses for input, and eight Vertical buses for output. A Time Slot Interchange Unit (TSIU) is located at each of the 64 crosspoints: • unswitched channels entering onto the Vertical bus are written into a double-buffered memory in each cross-point card (TSIU), • the appropriate cross-point circuit takes unswitched channels from the Vertical Bus and feeds them to the suitable Horizontal Bus in the right time-slot, • from the H-bus, the time-slot goes back through the V-bus, where it is transmitted to the appropriate terminating peripheral, • each TSIU (16K x 16K time-switch) store 16,384 time slots in a double-buffered configuration so that the delay through the TSIU is always a fixed 125 micro seconds. The connection-memory control is updated by the DMS-Core (through the DMS-Bus and the ENET processor). Nortel’s ENET time-switch is available up to 128K (2 cabinet of 128K, one plane in each cabinet) channels configuration. SuperNode DMS currently uses an ENET up to 64K channels (one cabinet of 2 planes, each of 64K).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

16-8

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
Link Peripheral Processor (LPP)
DMS-Core I/O equipment frame

ENET

PDTC
DMS-Bus

Channelized CCS7 from PSTN ISDN

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

LPP LMS unit

LPP LMS unit

LIU7

NIU

NIU

LIU7

LIU7

LIU7

EIU

EIU Ethernet LAN

CSS7 MTP treatment LMS = Local Message Switch
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000

V.35 HLR
NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP

M 4215 / R P

EIR
16-9

The Link Peripheral Processor (LPP) equipment provides the following functions: • Terminates a number of link types and implements a number of protocols, to connect the DMS to external operating and signaling networks (PCM, Ethernet, V.35). • Receives and transmits all CCS7 messages to/from switch into PLMN and PSTN either in direct (V.35) or channeled access (PCM30 link). • Interfaces DMS-Core and CCS7 through DMS-Bus. • Allows for increased message handling by connecting the CCS7 network to the DMSCore (through the switching matrix). It consists of several units: • LMS: Local Message Switch, controls the messaging between LPP’s equipment and DMS-Bus. • NIU: Network Interface Unit, acts as a switch for channeled access and manages CCS7 signaling coming through PCM30 trunks from BSS. A NIU handles up to 10 LIU7s. • LIU7: Link Interface Unit, performs the necessary routing functions on the signaling messages thereby relieving DMS-Core of this function or coming from other nodes such as VLR, HLR, (V.35). • EIU: Ethernet Interface Unit, interface between DMS-bus and any Ethernet LAN.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

16-9

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
LPP Cabinet
FSP

Local Message Switch
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PP SS UU

LMS 0

LMS1

P P S S UU

Link Interface Shelf

PP SS UU

LIS

P P S S UU

One LIS contains either 12 LIUs or 10 LIUs + 2 NIU

PP SS UU

LIS

P P S S UU

Super Node Hardware

PP SS UU

LIS

PP SS UU

COOLING UNIT

LPP = Link Peripheral Processor
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP 16-10

The LPP Cabinet is currently featured with either 24 LIUs or 36 LIUs. On the other hand, one can replace two LIU in each shelf by two NIU to provide channelized signaling access. The LPPs can be also shipped within the SNSE hardware. In that case one can use 12 expansion slots for the LIUs (12 LIUs or 10 LIUs + 2 NIUs) plus 2 additional slots for 2 LIUs close to the ENET.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

16-10

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
PCM-30 Digital Trunk Controller (PDTC)
PCM-30 #0 Processor PCM-30 #7 DS512 Fiber Interface Shelf 0

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PCM-30 #8 Shelf 1 DS512 Fiber Interface

Processor PCM-30 # 15

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP

16-11

PDTC are designed to provide the necessary functions for supporting trunk termination to the outside world. The Dual-shelf Digital Trunk Access (DTA0, DTA1) processor operate in hot standby mode. One shelf's processor is active, providing the necessary processing and control functions, while the adjacent shelf's processor is in a standby mode that is able to takeover if a fault occurs on the active shelf's processor.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

16-11

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
Peripherals: ISM
ISM = Integrated Service Module
FSP
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

• The ISM Shelf contains • The ISM Shelf contains 
Maintenance and service circuits:  Maintenance and service circuits:
– Enhanced Digital Recorded – Enhanced Digital Recorded Announcement Machine (EDRAM) Announcement Machine (EDRAM) – Conference Trunk Module (CTM) – Conference Trunk Module (CTM) Special circuit packs for: Special circuit packs for: – alarm cross-connect shelf – alarm cross-connect shelf – Office Alarm Unit – Office Alarm Unit IOM pack IOM pack

P P S S U U

Not Used

P P S S U U

P P S S U U

P P S S U U

2

P P S S U U 

 



P P S S U U

1

P P S S U U

• ISM Dimensioning • ISM Dimensioning 

3 shelves per cabinet  3 shelves per cabinet  Up to 18 test and service circuits  Up to 18 test and service circuits

P P S S U U

0

P P S S U U

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP

16-12

The ISM accommodates up to 18 test and service circuit packs used in switch and facility maintenance like the Enhanced Digital Recorded Announcement Machine (EDRAM), Conference Trunk Module (CTM) and, with special circuit packs, an alarm cross-connect shelf and an Office Alarm Unit.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

16-12

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
Peripherals: IOM

IOM = Input Output Module
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

ISM Shelf

• I/O Functionality • I/O Functionality 
Disk drive  Disk drive  Tape drive units  Tape drive units  Enhanced Multi-protocol controller (EMPC)  Enhanced Multi-protocol controller (EMPC)  V.32, V.FAST and V.42 and Asynchronous  V.32, V.FAST and V.42 and Asynchronous
communications up to 28.8 kb/s communications up to 28.8 kb/s
P O R T + D D U

DAT 

Optional Digital Audio Tape (DAT) drive for  Optional Digital Audio Tape (DAT) drive for
removable storage up to 1.3 Gbytes removable storage up to 1.3 Gbytes

IOM Packs
P O R T + D D U

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP

16-13

The Input/Output Module (IOM) is a new DMS pack that replaces the functionality of the Input Output Controller (IOC), disk drive, tape drive units and Enhanced Multi-Protocol Controller (EMPC), which were provided by various cards in the Input/Output Controller shelf. In addition, the IOM provides new functionality through the support of V.32, V.FAST, V.42 and asynchronous communications of up to 28.8 kb/s and will also support an optional Digital Audio Tape (DAT) drive for removable storage of up to 1.3 Gbytes. The IOM is housed in the new Integrated Services Module (ISM) shelf. When the DAT option is implemented, the DAT card is located in slot 4 of the ISM, to the right of the IOM DDU card. In this case, slot 5 is not available, because of the width of the DAT. For the same reason, slot 3 is not recommended for DAT. A second IOM can be provisioned in a different ISM shelf, for redundancy.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

16-13

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
Billing Server
FSP

Local storage and transfer of Billing Data
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

P P S S U U

Billing Server File Processor

P P S S U U

• Billing server Processor • Billing server Processor 
Duplicated processor  Duplicated processor  SCSI Interface  SCSI Interface

P P P S S S S U U U U

P S U

P S U

• Mass Storage Devices • Mass Storage Devices 
6 shadowed Disks (12 disks Max)  6 shadowed Disks (12 disks Max)  1.3 Gbyte shadowed DAT Storage Unit  1.3 Gbyte shadowed DAT Storage Unit  5 ** 2.1GB shadowed disks = 10GB  5 2.1GB shadowed disks = 10GB

P P S S U U

Storage 16 PCM30s

Devices

P P S S U U

P P S S U U

• Provides OSI FTAM interface • Provides OSI FTAM interface

16 PCM30s

Storage Devices

P P S S U U

COOLING UNIT

AFP Applications File Processor cabinet
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP 16-14

Billing Server uses the Application File Processor cabinet (AFP). The Billing Server capacity is DISK 6 shadowed: 12 disk Maximum of which one Disk has 2.1GB capacity. Usually it is equipped with one shadowed DAT (1.3GB on each side). This means that there remains five Disks slots per side: 10GB capacity.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

16-14

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
SuperNode Size Enhanced (SNSE)
1 - Overview

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

FSP

FSP

FSP

FSP

FSP

FSP MTD

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

PP SS UU

Maintenance Trunk Module

PP SS UU

PP SS UU PCM30 Digital Trunk Controller PDTC 1

PP SS UU

P P S S U U

MS0

MS1

P P S S U U

P P S S U U

Billing Server File Processor

P P S S U U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

PP SS UU

Maintenance Trunk Module

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

P P S S U U

Optional LIS (up to 12 LIUs)

P P S S U U

P P P S S S S UU U U

P P S S U U

POWER LOAD ON LINE REWIND FORWARD REVERSE WRITE ENABLE

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

PP SS UU

Maintenance Trunk Module

PP SS UU

PP SS UU PCM30 Digital Trunk Controller PDTC 0

PP SS UU

P P S S U U

16K ENET

P P S S U U

PP S S UU

Storage 16 PCM30s Devices

P P S S U U

P P S S UU

IOC

PP S S UU

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

PP SS UU

Maintenance Trunk Module

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

P P S S U U

S L M

CPU 0

CPU 1

S L M

P P S S U U

P P S S U U

Storage Devices 16 PCM30s

P P S S U U

PP S S UU

DDU

PP S S UU

COOLING UNIT

COOLING UNIT

COOLING UNIT

COOLING UNIT

COOLING UNIT

Cabinetized Power Distribution Center

Cabinetized Trunk Module Equipment

Cabinetized Digital Trunk Controller for Offshore ISDN Equipment

SuperNode SE SCC cabinet

Applications File Processor cabinet

Cabinetized Input/Output Equipment

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP

16-15

As an alternative option, the DMS SuperNode Size Enhanced (SNSE) gives network providers greater flexibility (footprint) in deploying advanced capabilities in small offices. The new Supernode Combined Core (SCC) cabinet contains: • the DMS SuperNode processing and messaging platform, • the Enhanced Network (ENET), • the Link Peripheral Processor (LPP) platform. In the SuperNode version, this equipment requires three or four cabinets. Nevertheless we have much less capacity in term of LIU7 and PDTCs than the Super Node (SN). If more than 16K switching capacity is required on an SNSE configuration, the SNSE ENI shelf can be replaced by a full ENET cabinet which allows for 64K with a single cabinet and is expandable to a 128K configuration.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

16-15

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
SuperNode Size Enhanced (SNSE)
2 - The SCC Cabinet Supernode Combined Core cabinet replaces 3 cabinets
FSP
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
FSP PP SS UU P P S S UU P P S S UU LMS 0 P P S S UU FSP P P S S UU LMS1

LIS

P P S S U U

P P S S UU

LIS

P P S S U U

MS 1

PP SS UU

MS0

MS1

PP SS UU

P P S S UU

LIS

P P S S U U

PP SS UU

MS 0

P P S S UU

COOLING UNIT

PP SS UU

CM 1

CM 0

P P S S UU

PP SS UU

Optional LIS (up to 12 LIUs)

PP SS UU

Link Peripheral Processor (LPP)
FSP

PP SS UU

SLM 0

SLM 1

PP SS UU

COOLING UNIT

PP SS UU

16K ENET

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

ENET 0.0

P P S S U U

Dual-plane Combined Core (DPCC)

PP SS UU

ENET 0.1

P P S S U U

PP SS UU

S L M

CPU 0

CPU 1

S L M

PP SS UU

PP SS UU

ENET 1.0

P P S S U U

PP S S UU

ENET 1.1

P P S S U U

COOLING UNIT

Enhanced Network (ENET) equipment
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP 16-16

The different components in the SCC cabinet are: • DMS Bus: which is a fully redundant, high speed transaction switch, is the hub joining all peripheral modules, devices and processors that are connected to its ports. It is located on either the SNSE or SuperNode cabinet. • Link Interface Shelf: LIUs process SS7 signaling messages between the DMS-Core, the DMS-Bus and the SS7 signaling Network. The LPP is a stand-alone cabinet. This functionality is also provided by the LIS (Link Interface Shelf) shelf, which is located in the SNSE cabinet. • Max NB V.35-LIU/EIU = 12; Max NB LIU Channelized Access = 10. • ENET and Interface Shelf: provide voice and data connections between peripheral modules and message paths to the DMS Bus. It is fully redundant, non-blocking switching matrix. It is located on either the SNSE or as a stand-alone cabinet. The ENET Shelf can also support 2 standard LIU7s for CCS7 links. • DMS-Core: is a fully redundant Central Processing Unit (CPU) and memory reserve.

PSU = Power Supply Unit

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

16-16

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
MicroNode
1 - Overview
FSP PP SS UU
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

MSP
PP SS UU

MSP

MS 0

MS 1

PDTC 0 unit 1

DSX

PP SS UU

LIS

PP SS UU

PDTC 0 unit 0

Echo Cancellor

PP SS UU

ENET Plane 0 Plane 1

PP SS UU

ISM 1

AC/DC Rectifier

PP S S SLM UU 0

CPU 0

PP CPU 1 SLM S S 1 UU

SDM/FT ISM 0

Battery Backup

COOLING UNIT

COOLING UNIT

COOLING UNIT

SCC SuperNode Size Enhanced (SNSE) Combined Core

MCGS Meridian Cabinet Global Switch

MCIP Meridian Cabinet Interface & Power

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP

16-17

The MicroNode is based on the DMS platform and benefits from all the DMS advantages in terms of reliability and scalability. All critical functionality is fully duplicated working in a "hot standby", "loadsharing" or "warm standby" mode of operation which means that in the event of a failure, takeover by the replacement element is automatic. The front end of the MicroNode switch is the SCC cabinet (same as SuperNode Size Enhanced cabinet). The second cabinet, is the MCGS (Meridian Cabinet Global Switch) which is configured with a DTC or PDTC. The third cabinet, is the MCIP (Meridian Cabinet Interface Power) which contains rectifiers, battery backup, echo cancellers, and DSX panels.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

16-17

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
MicroNode
2 - MCGS and MCIP Cabinets Meridian Cabinet Global Switch
MSP
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Meridian Cabinet Interface Power
MSP

PDTC 0 unit 1

DSX

PDTC 0 unit 0

Echo Cancellor

ISM 1

AC/DC Rectifier

SDM/FT ISM 0

Battery Backup

COOLING UNIT

COOLING UNIT

MCGS Cabinet
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP

MCIP Cabinet
16-18

The MCGS (Meridian Cabinet Global Switch) cabinet merges two existing cabinets into one, providing a cabinet that fits the technical needs without the footprint and power requirements needed by larger systems. It comprises of the following: • 16E1/20T1 port Digital Trunk Controller, • 2 Integrated Service Module (ISM) shelves each containing the following circuit packs, • 1 Gigabyte Disk Drive, • 1 DAT Drive, • Minimal MAP ports, • Modems. The MCIP (Meridian Cabinet Interface Power) cabinet, designed to provide power, gathers all power assets required to operate a small switch into one cabinet. It comprises of the following: • Power Distribution Shelf, provides power distribution to MCIP and MCGS cabinets. • Battery Backup system, provides 53 Amps, -48 V DC for 4 hours. • AC/DC Rectifiers, provides 220 V AC to -48 V DC. • Echo Cancellers, provides echo cancellation for PSTN spans, either T1 or E1. 8 of the 16 slots are populated for the pre-engineered configuration. • DSX provides cross-connectivity between the switch and the outside world. There are 2 such DSX cross connect panels in the MicroNode.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

16-18

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
Incoming Call from the PSTN to the GMSC
Core Module
3 4 2

GMSC premises

DMS-Bus
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

4

3 LIU7

2 NIU

2 3 4

5

2

ENET ENET
4

3

Peripheral Modules
1

1- Call to the MS. 2- ISUP messages are treated in the DMS core through signaling devices (NIU & LIU7). 3- DMS cannot route further, therefore interrogates HLR for an MSRN. 4- HLR complies with the routing number. 5- Now DMS can route the call.

3

4

VLR
MSRN
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000

MSRN

3 4

HLR
n° VLR

Telephone network
1
16-19

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

16-19

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
A Call Goes to the VMSC that Pages the MS
Core Module
3
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

VMSC premises
2

4

DMS-Bus
3 2 4 2 LIU7 NIU 4 3 4 3 5 2 5 3 4

ENET ENET

Peripheral Modules
4 1

BSS

3

BSC
BTS

Ring ! Roamer
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000

5

1- Call comes from the GMSC. 2- VMSC treats the ISUP messages in DMS core through the signaling devices NIU & LIU7. 3- DMS requests BSS for paging 4- MS complies. 5- DMS now can establish the voice circuit.
NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP

Gateway MSC

16-20

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

16-20

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
Nortel IWF: Gsm PassPort Node
The Magellan cabinet can host 2 GPP nodes

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP

16-21

The IWF function is situated in a Gsm PassPort (GPP) node. The Magellan cabinet can contain two GPP nodes. This node is used in the PassPort family of data switches: i.e. PassPort 160.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

16-21

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
GPP Node
1 - Physical Presentation

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10 11

12

13 14

15

L A N C P

1 1 D E p 1 p S 1 or C • • • D or E • • • 1 S C 1 M v M p v p

C P

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP

16-22

Each GPP node is composed of: • a node shelf assembly (function and control processor cards), • the DC power convertors, • a cooling unit, • a cable management assembly. The GPP shelf can contain up to 16 cards: • slots 0 and 15 are reserved for CPs cards (one redundant CP card may be optionally provisioned), • slot 1 is reserved for Ethernet card, • slots 2 to 14 can contain Function Processor Cards (E1C and E1MVP).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

16-22

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
GPP Node
2 - Functional Architecture
Function Processors (FP)

Control Processor (CP)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Control Processor

LAN Function Processor LAN Interface
32M i960 32M

DS1C/E1C Munich Processor Chip

MVP 32 DSPs Processor

Interface Module (IM) Processor Module (PM)

i960

i960

32M

i960

32M

Bus Controller

Bus Controller

Bus Controller

Bus Controller

Bus Controller

Bus Controller

Bus Controller

Bus Controller

Dual 800 Mbit/s Cell Buses

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP

16-23

Each GPP node is composed of four blocks: • Control Processors (CP) and Function Processors (FP) are the processing elements for performing and managing Magellan PassPort functions. In most cases, the software providing a service is split into Control and Function parts: the Control part runs on the CP and the Function part, on the FP. • Function Processors (FP) provide interface ports that physically connect network communications facilities and PassPort switches. They switch data from external sources through the bus and out of the switch through other FPs. FPs have been designed specifically to accommodate high data throughput. Their computational resources support and execute only those real-time processes critical to rapidly delivering a service. These processes include protocol handling, call routing, and packet forwarding. • Ethernet card is a specific FP that handles IP connectivity (signaling MIP link). • PassPort bus is the bridge which allows data to be switched across different types of processor cards. It is fully redundant and consists of two synchronous 32 bit 25 MHz cell buses, operating in a load-sharing capacity, which can communicate with up to 16 function and control processors.
Each bus operates at 800 Mbit/s for an aggregate speed of 1.6 Gbit/s. When both buses are active, traffic is distributed across both buses (dual-bus mode); should one bus fail, the other continues, although capacity is reduced to 800 Mbit/s (single-bus mode).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

16-23

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
GPP Node
3 - Connections VLR
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

CPDC
E E 1 1 C M V P E T H C P

PCM Termination Panels VT420 Local Console PCM 30 Ethernet Terminal Panel

IP Network

VLR
PDTC

VLR
LIM
EIU

PC

DTCO

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP

16-24

This drawing shows the different connections between GPP and other equipment. • The Cabinetized Power Distribution Center feeds GPP with -48 V power supply. • Several cables make the link between cards and «terminal panels» where PCM and Ethernet links are connected. The termination panel is a cable distribution system which can reside in the PassPort cabinet or be mounted in another cabinet or rack. • A local console can be connected directly on CP card for direct access.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

16-24

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
Nortel’s IN Platform: ServiceBuilder
ServiceBuilderTM Intelligent Network
Service Creation and Management Environment

Internet
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

MAP
HLR SMS-C

SCP

SMS

MAP

CAP+

CAP+

CS1-R CS1-R
IP

Intranets

PRI
MSC SSP

DMS-100 SSP Voice

GSM Network

Fixed Network

Signaling Service Management

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP

16-25

Nortel's IN architecture is made of a Service Control Point (SCP) which is connected via standard open interfaces (Core INAP) to the wireline and GSM switches; these have been enhanced to support IN via the integrated Service Switching Point (SSP) functionality. Nortel's IN architecture also comprises an Intelligent Peripheral (IP) used to provide voice interaction between the subscriber and the IN service. The IP is connected both to the SCP and to the SSPs. Finally, Nortel's IN architecture comprises all the elements required to support service creation in the IN. This includes a Service Creation Environment (SCE) and a Service Management System (SMS).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

16-25

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
Check Your Learning
1- What is the function of the DMS-Core?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

2- What is the purpose of the DMS-Bus?

3- What is the purpose of the ENET?

4- What are the functions of the V-Bus and the H-Bus?

5- What is the maximum number of channels that a single ENET cabinet configuration can support?

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP

16-26

1- What is the function of the DMS-Core?

2- What is the purpose of the DMS-Bus?

3- What is the purpose of the ENET?

4- What are the functions of the V-Bus and the H-Bus?

5- What is the maximum number of channels that a single ENET cabinet configuration can support?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

16-26

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
Check Your Learning
6- What is the purpose of the PDTC?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

7- What is the purpose of the LPP?

8- List four elements of the DMS Super Node.

9- Cite the modules which are combined into a compact, single cabinet of the SNSE configuration.

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP

16-27

6- What is the purpose of the PDTC?

7- What is the purpose of the LPP?

8- List three elements of the DMS Super Node.

9- Cite the modules which are combined into a compact, single cabinet of the SNSE configuration?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

16-27

January, 2000

NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

16-28

January, 2000

OSS Functions

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Section 17

OSS Functions

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OSS Functions

17-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

17-1

January, 2000

OSS Functions
Objectives
Provides an introduction to the Operation and maintenance Sub-System (OMC-R and OMC-S)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

After completing this lesson you will be able to: • Explain why we need an OMC-R and an OMC-S. • Relate the main O&M functions devoted to the BSS and NSS. • Show what elements are operated by an OMC. • Explain the OMC-R architecture and locate the Q3 interface. • Show the various solution for the implementation of the OMC-R network. • Show the hierarchy of the OMC-R objects.

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OSS Functions

17-2

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

17-2

January, 2000

OSS Functions
OSS Presentation

Stage 1
WS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Stage 2
WS WS WS WS

WS

SERVER

SERVER

SERVER

OMC/R OMN
Q.x Q.x Q.x

OMC/S

NMC Q.3

Q.x

BSS

BSS

BSS

NSS

NSS

NSS

MD OMN BSS NE

MD

MD
Q.x

Q.x WS MD NMC NE
PE/TRD/GR/0101

: Proprietary interface : Work Station : Mediation Device : Network Management Center : Network Element
12.01/EN January, 2000

Q.x

BSS NE
OSS Functions

BSS NE

NSS NE

NSS NE

Transmission Network NE
17-3

The Operation SubSystem is in charge of the control and management of the GSM Network. One distinguishes two types of OMC: • the OMC-R, which is able to manage several BSS, • the OMC-S, which is able to manage several NSS components. One OMC mainly consists of a Server and WorkStations connected through a Local Area Network such as Ethernet. The link between the Server and the BSS or NSS named OMN Interface (Operation and Maintenance Network), is a X.25 public or private Network. In a first stage, the operation and maintenance functions for the different equipment of BSS or NSS, are carried out through dedicated OMC. Each OMC dialogues with managed entities through Q.x interface which is a proprietary interface. In a second stage, it is possible to manage the BSS or NSS from different suppliers via specific Mediation Devices at a central position: the Network Management Center (NMC). The interface between the NMC and the different MD is named Q.3 and is normalized.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

17-3

January, 2000

OSS Functions
Network Management
1 - Telecommunication Management Network BTS Site Coupling device
Hybrid coupling device Cavity coupling device Data Communication Functions

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Operation System Functions

TRX
TRX A TRX B

Mediation Functions

TRX C

BCF

NSS
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN

TMN Functions
January, 2000 OSS Functions

BTS Object Classes
17-4

The operation, maintenance and administration functions follows standard telecom management principles. The GSM Recommendations use object management similar to the Telecommunication Management Network TMN developed by CCITT. Dialogues between management entities pertain to modeled abstract representations of the network to manage which is defined and stored in a management data base. This model must lists the different components of the network (objects), their relationships and their attributes. Examples of managed objects are: • sites, • machines (MSC/VLR, BSC, HLR), • hardware modules, • transmission links, • software, • observations, tests. The detailed specifications of the GSM architecture give the ability to identify object classes which will apply to all GSM networks.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

17-4

January, 2000

OSS Functions
Network Management
2 - Network Object Tree Example
OMC-R

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BSC

BSC

BSC

BSC

BSC

Radio Site

Radio Site

Radio Site

TCU

TCU

TCU

Cell

Cell

TUC board

TCB board

TCB board

BCF

TRX

TRX

DRX
Channel 0
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 OSS Functions

PA
Channel 7
17-5

Each entity has a software representation. One entity can be a piece of hardware, like for example an electronic board (PCMI board), a cabinet, a functional entity (cell, TCU) or a piece of software. This software representation is an object model representation known as the Management Information Base (MIB) or Management Information Tree (MIT). To manipulate these objects, we use UNIX commands, not directly but through a Graphical User Interface on an OMC-R WorkStation. For example, to access a specific objet, we double-click on its representation on the screen.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

17-5

January, 2000

OSS Functions
Network Management
3 - Objects, Attributes and Parameters
Nortel Networks Ref:
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Nortel Networks

Date:

Number of pages: From: TEXT To:

Attributes: • Reference • date • Number of pages

Ref:1999/026 Date: 06/10/99 Number of pages: 1/1 From: Me To: You

TEXT This is my new number

FAX

FAX

FAX Object Class

Instance of FAX Object Class
Parameters = values given to the attribute Example: Reference = 1999/026

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OSS Functions

17-6

There is an object class per entity. We have for example the object class of BSC. And in each class, there are instances of the object. To well understand this, let ’s make an analogy with FAX. What are the attributes of an object class? In this example we may cite reference, date, Nb of pages,…. What are the parameters? They are the values given to the attributes: reference = 1999/026. What is the state of an object instance? It ’s an indication to its current situation: a channel may be BUSY, FREE, UNAVAILABLE. A change of state could be the transition FREE --> BUSY

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

17-6

January, 2000

OSS Functions
Network Management
4 - OMC-R Object Definition
State Interaction
Administrative State
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Operational State DISABLED ENABLED DISABLED

Availability Status

LOCKED UNLOCKED

DEPENDENCY FAILED

Attribute State

Administrative State Unlocked Locked Shutting Down
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000

Operational State Enabled Disabled
OSS Functions

Availability State Dependency Failed

Usage State
Specific to xtp object

Idle Busy
17-7

Objects are characterized by state attributes: administrative, operational and availability. Administrative state, describe the passive state of an instance, which can be modified by an operator; there are three states: • Unlocked (in service). • Locked (out of service). • Shutting down. Operational state, describe the operational state of an object: • Disabled. • Enabled. Availability status, describe the reason for an objects unavailability: • Dependency, due to another object being disabled. • Failed, problem with the object.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

17-7

January, 2000

OSS Functions
Network Management
5 - Notifications Event
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Notification Object Identif. Level: Critical, Major, Minor

Type

Notification itself……...

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OSS Functions

17-8

Each change of state generates a notification. A notification is a message that will be sent or not to the top of the tree, according to what the operator decides. Not every notification will arrive at the OMC-R, because it could overload the OMC-R CPU. For example, we don’t send a notification to the OMC-R, each time a channel changes state; to know the situation about that there are counters which are regularly reported. Example: average number of busy TCH during the latest 15 ’, the latest hour, the latest day, …. Filter is mandatory; so that not all the notification are sent to the OMC-R. Log files contain all notifications arriving at the OMC-R.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

17-8

January, 2000

OSS Functions
Network Management
6 - Handling Notifications

LOG
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Performance

Alarm Handler

Configuration

Fault

OMC-R
BSC Radio Site Cell BCF BSC Radio Site Cell TRX DRX Channel 0 Radio Site BSC TCU TUC board TRX PA Channel 7
17-9

BSC TCU TCB board

BSC TCU TCB board

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OSS Functions

Notifications arriving at the OMC-R are distributed to different handling functions. These functions can be part of the OMC-R or on separate platforms. It is possible for notifications to be sent to more than one function: for example, it is normal for all notifications to be sent to a log handler function. These same notifications could be sent to other handling functions as well. A notification from a mal functioning TRX would possibly be sent to: • a log handler, to keep a record and possibly for later analysis, • an alarm handler, to ensure any automate handling procedures were initiated, • a fault handler, to ensure the operator is alerted and fault management procedures can be started.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

17-9

January, 2000

OSS Functions
Configuration Management
1 - OMC-R Data Bases
OMC-R User
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

MMI

OMC-R

User view

Objects

Q.3 Manager Part

MIB

Q.3 view

Q.3
Software
Q.3 Agent Part MD-R

BDE

Mediation view

OMN Interface Dynamic Attributes
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 OSS Functions

BSS

BDA

BSC view
17-10

Managed objects are spread on three data bases stored on hard disks: • MIB (Management Information Base) located in the OMC-R (Q.3 level), • BDE (Exploitation Data Base) located in the OMC-R (MD-R level), • BDA (Application Data Base) located in the BSC. MIB: • Is under OMC-R management control and is progressively built as long as objects are created. • Is automatically updated whenever a relevant operation is performed. • Contains BSC related objects and other specific OMC-R objects (in Q.3 format). BDE: • Is under OMC-R management control and is progressively built as long as objects are created. • Is automatically updated whenever a relevant operation is performed. • Contains BSC related objects and other specific OMC-R objects (unknown to the BSCs). BDA Data base building is not automatic and is controlled by user. In order to operate correctly, these two data bases must remain consistent: • Audit transactions check the state of the BDA compared to the BDE. • Users are warned when discrepancies occur.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

17-10

January, 2000

OSS Functions
Configuration Management
2 - BSS Software Management

OMC
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BSC BCF TRX

BTS

TCU
BDE BDA

TCB

OMC software BTS software
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000

BSC software TCU software
OSS Functions 17-11

The main functionality of this sub-function are: • Management of the software on the OMC-R disks. • Downloading management (MD-R level). • Software version change. The downloading operation consists of sending a set of files correctly identified on the target BSC disk, these files are stored in specific partitions of the disk, according to the type of the concerned entities: • BSC. • BTS: btsSiteManager (BCF) or transceiver Equipment (TRX). • TCU: Transcoder board. Software management is also in charge of MD and OMC software.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

17-11

January, 2000

OSS Functions
Fault Management

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Alarm reception

Failure detection Days/ Nights Manufacturer Fault recovery Week-ends Day off

S E V E R I T Y
12.01/EN

Immediate intervention Deferred intervention No intervention
January, 2000 OSS Functions 17-12

Alarms Configuration

Alarms Acknowledg.

PE/TRD/GR/0101

Fault Management enables the network operator to maximize the availability of the GSM network, through rapid response to failure conditions by performing fault isolation and fault recovery. Alarms should be acknowledged and may be configured differently in terms of severity, according to alarm criterion configurations. Severity configurations are: • Immediate intervention, • Deferred intervention, • No intervention outside normal working hours. Alarm criterion configurations are: • Manufacturer, • Days/Nights, • Special (week-ends and holidays).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

17-12

January, 2000

OSS Functions
Performance Management

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Counter's value Start of high threshold crossing End of high threshold crossing End of low threshold crossing Start of low threshold crossing Alarm start
Time

Alarm end

Threshold crossing detection for preventive maintenance
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 OSS Functions 17-13

Performance data monitoring allows network usage patterns and trends to be identified, enabling informed network design and engineering decisions to be made to optimize network resource utilization. Performance Management relies on counters collected by the OMC-R and OMC-S (observations), followed by the analysis and subsequent storage of resultant data. Main functions are: • Reception of measurements (counters) transmitted by BSS or NSS. • Report building, to be displayed or printed in a readable format, for the end user. • Reporting the crossing of thresholds counters.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

17-13

January, 2000

OSS Functions
Security Management
Command Classes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

• Configuration • Fault • Performance • Password • BDE/BDA • FTAM and EFT • Command files and jobs • SMS/CB • Inter-user message

Commands: • Create • Delete • Set • Display • Modify • Lock

Users profile

e of Z o n rest In t e

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OSS Functions

17-14

The Security Management aims to manage user profiles in order to control the access users to functions provided by the OMCs. Security Management handles authorization and control of access of the users to the OMC functionality. A user profile file is created for each OMC user. User’s profile: • user name and password (and password validity duration), • user work timetable (inactivity time out and scheduled access time), • a set of command classes, • a zone of interest.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

17-14

January, 2000

OSS Functions
Why an OMC-R?

To control and monitor the BSS equipment
OMC-R
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Network’s quality of service Operation cost

BSS
BSC
BTS

BTS BTS BTS

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OSS Functions

17-15

The OMC-R permits a centralized and remote operation and maintenance of BSS network elements (BSC, TCU and BTS). Remote and centralized operation activity provides the following advantages: • The operation information related to different network elements is managed consistently ensuring effective maintenance and thus a high quality of service to the network's subscribers. • The operation costs can be minimized (for example the OMC-R provides a remote and centralized downloading and activation of software releases, as well as a centralized and remote management of the BSS configuration parameters).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

17-15

January, 2000

OSS Functions
OMC-R Functions

BSS Management
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Internal Functionality

Configuration File Transfer Management Fault

Performance

Man Machine Interface

Common Functions

Server Administration Security

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OSS Functions

17-16

The OMC-R is made up of server and stations. Each station or X-terminal provides the operating staff with a Graphical User Interface. The server centralizes the O&M functions dedicated to the BSS network elements and thus allows to manage the BSS network elements consistently. The following O&M functions are provided:
• Configuration management: to manage the resources to be supervised. Examples of resources that can be managed : PCM links, SS7 and traffic channels on A-interface, cells, list of frequencies allocated in each cell, list of adjacent cells of a given cell, frequency hopping laws implemented in the cells, TDMA frames. • Fault management: OMC-R handles event reports received from the network elements and related to anomalies. Alarm messages can be generated with a severity from these reports by using criteria defined by the user. • Performance management: values of counters are collected from the BSS network elements and reports are generated and displayed to the users. Thresholds can be defined and associated with the counters to generate alarms for maintenance purposes. • Security management: to manage user profiles in order to control the access users to functions provided by the OMC-R.

The following internal functions are provided:
• File transfer management: downloading and activation of the software releases dedicated to TCU, BSC, BCF and TRX is centralized via the OMC-R. • Common functions: inter-user mail (running within an SMS-C server), management and execution of commands file, calendar for the deferred or periodic execution of a command or a commands file, on-line help. • Server administration: supervision, switch-over and defense of the servers an stations.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

17-16

January, 2000

OSS Functions
Common Functions

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Command Files Management

Reference Time Consulting

Data Archival

Documentation Calendar Management ? HELP On-Line

1 5 6 7 8

2

3

4

9 10 11

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

TX Mail User 1
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 OSS Functions

User Mail

RX Mail User 2
17-17

This functional area provides the user with the following services: • Command files management that enables the edition recording and the execution of sequences of user commands. • The archiving and restoring of notifications and observations. • A job scheduler that enables requests for deferred and/or periodical execution of a user command or a commands file. • The data & time provides services to read data/time of MD functions and update. • A user mail facility enabling the exchanges of messages between users. • An on-line help. • The display of product documentation stored on CD-ROM.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

17-17

January, 2000

OSS Functions
Server Administration

Shut down
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Start up

Supervision OMC OMC
Switch-over Active Server Back-up Server
OSS Functions 17-18

OMC

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

The following services are provided to the user: • The powering-up and the shutting down of the OMC servers. • The automatic purging of files deletes old data files in order to avoid overfilling of the disks. • The automatic switch over of the active server. • Defense accomplishes a monitoring and supervision task as well as management of its own tasks. Supervision includes software and machine operations monitoring. Defense management can send event messages to Fault management. It can also restart, reboot or switchover to the backup server if necessary.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

17-18

January, 2000

OSS Functions
OMC-S Functions

NSS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

OMC-S
Configuration Fault

MSC/VLR

HLR/AUC

Security Facilities

Performance

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OSS Functions

17-19

The Operation and Maintenance Center of the NSS part (OMC-S) may be able to achieve different kinds of function. NSS configuration management: • BSCs, Location Areas, Cells. • Terrestrial links, etc.. • Software configuration (downloading, file transfer). • MSRN and handover number management. Fault management: • Detection. • Presentation. • Re-configuration. Performance management: • Traffic control. • Service quality monitoring. Security management: • User profiles. • Session monitoring. OMC-S operation: • System management. • OMN management. • File transfer operations.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

17-19

January, 2000

OSS Functions
Hierarchical Arrangement of NMC and OMC
X-terminal Level 4 Commercial GSM network Management Network Management Center (NMC)

Q3
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Q3

Level 3 X-terminal

OMC-S

OMC-R

OMC-R

OMC-S

OMC-R

OMC-R

Level 2

O & M communication network X.25

Level 1

HLR

MSC BSS BSS

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OSS Functions

17-20

The Network Managment Center (NMC) has a view of the entire Network GSM and is responsible for the network management as a whole. The NMC resides at the top of the hierarchy. It receives its information from the network equipment via the Operation and Maintenance Centers (OMC) which have previously filtered the suitable data. The NMC can thus focus on issues requiring national coordination regarding interconnects to others networks, such as the PSTN / ISDN. The features of the NMC are as follows: • Single NMC by network. • Provides traffic management for the whole network. • Monitors high-level alarms such as failed or overloads nodes. • Performs responsibilities of an Operation and Maintenance Center when it is not staffed. • Provides network planners with essential data for network performance. The Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC), in turn, is considered as a "regional manager" for the network hardware and software. It supports the day-to-day operations as well as provides a database for long-run network engineering and planning tools. OMC handles a certain area of the GSM network, thus providing regional network management.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

17-20

January, 2000

OSS Functions
Check Your Learning
1- Cite the four main functions that perform an OMC.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

2- What are the network elements operated by an OMC-R?

3- What is the open interface used in the OMC-R?

4- Give an example of hierarchy between OMC-R objects.

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OSS Functions

17-21

1- Cite the four main functions that perform the OMC.

2- What are the network elements operated by an OMC-R?

3- What is the open interface used in the OMC-R?

4- Give an example of hierarchy between OMC-R objects.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

17-21

January, 2000

OSS Functions
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

17-22

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Section 18

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S

18-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-1

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
Objectives
Provides an introduction to the Operation and maintenance of Radio Subsystem (OMC-R)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

After completing this lesson you will be able to: • Explain why we need an OMC-R. • Show what elements are controlled by an OMC-R. • Relate the main O&M functions devoted to the BSS. • Explain the OMC-R architecture and locate the Q.3 interface. • Show the various solution for the implementation of the OMC-R network. • Show the hierarchy of the OMC-R objects.

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S

18-2

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-2

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

OMC-R

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S

18-3

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-3

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
OMC-R Architecture
Configurations
BSS BSS BSS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

X.25 Network BSC-MD Interface
Monitoring link

TML/ROT

BSS BSS BSS

ROT

PSTN
TML/ROT

ROT

Monitor

Server Sun Enterprise 4000 Sun SSA

Monitor Terminals Server
ETHERNET 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Sun

SPARCstorage Array

Sun

SPARCstorage Array

LAN Ethernet
AUI

I O AUI SERIAL SERIAL CONSOLE AUX I O CONSOLE AUX I O SERIAL SERIAL CONSOLE AUX

AUI

Router
SERIAL SERIAL

X Terminal
Router
I O AUI SERIAL SERIAL CONSOLE AUX

Local WorkStations (SUN Sparc 5)
X.25 Network
AUI

Router
I O SERIAL SERIAL CONSOLE AUX

CD Rom Unit

Remote LAN Ethernet

Remote LAN Ethernet

CD ROM Unit

Remote WorkStations (SUN Sparc 5)
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 OMC-R, TML and OMC-S 18-4

The central OMC-R site is composed of the OMC-R servers, the WorkStations (WS), the Terminal Server and the printers. All these platforms are interconnected via an Ethernet LAN. • The OMC-R server (duplicated for redundancy purposes) centralizes the O&M function as well as the database. It is connected to the BSC via X.25 links. An automatic switchover is undertaken between the servers when needed. • The WorkStations (up to 16) supporting a Graphical User Interface called Man Machine Interface (MMI). • X terminals: physically connected to the LAN and communicates with one WS. • One or many printers can be shared between the WSs and X terminals. • The Terminal Server concentrates the PSTN connections from BSS Local Maintenance Terminals used in the field in ROT mode (Remote OMC-R Terminal) during maintenance interventions. • At least one local OMC-R WorkStation is to be provisioned in order to support the connections from the ROTs used in the field and to support X terminals. • Routers that support X.25 links to OMC-R remote sites if such sites exist in the OMC-R configuration. A remote OMC-R site is composed of WSs and printers only, and is connected to the OMCR server of the central site via an X.25 link. Therefore, routers are to be used in the remote OMC-R site as well as in the central OMC-R site in order to concentrate the connections from a remote site to the central site.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-4

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
Hardware Architecture
New Storage Unit (From V12 only)

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Enterprise 4500 (Agent + Manager) Active

StorEDGE A5000 Storage Unit

Enterprise 4500 (Agent + Manager) Passive

Sun

StorEDGE A5000

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S

18-5

Two types of server are available, according to the network configuration: • SPARCserver 1000 with 16.8 Go disk (less than 800 cells), • Enterprise 4000 (less than 1600 cells). The high capacity OMC product is achieved with the Enterprise 4000 platform and its associated storage unit SPARCstorage Array. This high capacity OMC-R will be able to manage a great number of cells allowing its use for: • micro-cell networks, • networks with numerous but small sites. From V12, for the new OMC-R configurations, the new StorEdge A5000 storage unit is suggested to take the place of the two SSA112 disks. Each server is a SUN Enterprise 4xxx. The nominal V11 configuration is based on the E4500 device.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-5

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
Remote Operation Terminal Application
OMC-R Site
OMC-R Server
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

ROT Task

Terminals Server

ETHERNET 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Modem

Modem

Modem

2 links X.25 48 kbit/s

X25

PSTN

BSC Site
BSC

TML/ROT

ROT
Modem

19.2 kbit/s

BTS Site
TML/ROT

BTS S8000

BTS S4000/ S2000E
ROT

BTS S2000 H&L
TML/ROT

TML/ROT

ROT

Modem

ROT

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S

18-6

ROT Application is a software which runs beside Local Maintenance function implemented in the Local Maintenance Terminal (TML) or a standalone PC/DOS located in a remote site (TCU, BSC or BTS). It is connected to an OMC-R work-stations either through PSTN links via modems or a dedicated LAPD connection through the BSC. In case of PSTN connection the ROT function requires standard Hayes command protocol and a suitable modem. The ROT can be connected directly to these BTS: S2000E/S4000 (with AMNU+DCU4 only), and S8000. Not all the functionality offered through WS are available (Alarm criterion management, UNIX access, log consultation, ...) with ROT access. For security purposes, all the Security Management commands are not available. After connection with the terminal server, a UNIX session is automatically established with an OMCR /WS which dynamically creates the ROT task on this WS. This feature is available since the relevant BTS has been configured by the BSC. ROT application capabilities From the ROT menus and sub-menus the operator can: • Access the appropriate object (or object characteristic). • Perform the needed action on this object. Thus he can perform the following functions: • BSS configuration management and OMN access management. • Security management, (limited to commands for password change and machine list). • Performance management. • Fault management. • OMC-R administration. • File transfer. • Communication management.
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-6

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
Network Elements Operated by OMC-R
Normal capacity = 1600 cells, 6400 DRXs and 20 BSCs High capacity = 2400 cells, 9600 DRXs and 30 BSCs
20 (30) BSCs
BSC TCU

OMC-R

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BTS

138
BTS

1600 (2400) cells 6400 (9600) TRXs
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 OMC-R, TML and OMC-S 18-7

The OMC-R manages the BSCs, TCUs and BTSs. TCUs and BTSs communicate with the OMC-R via their respective BSC. The OMC-R interfaces with the BSC via X.25 links. OMC-R operating capacity depends on the number of objects it manages but not on the traffic it monitors: • Maximum number of BSC = 20 (30). • Maximum number of cells = 1600 (2400). • Maximum number of TRX = 6400 (9600). The physical OMC-R equipment limitations and software requirements are: • Two servers to enable data redundancy. • Sixteen WS with no more than thirteen Remote WS. • One router per group of three Remote WS. • No more than 10 ROT, connected at the same time to OMC-R.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-7

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
Implementation of the OMC-R Network
The Three Solutions 1
WS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

2
WS WS WS WS WS

3
WS WS

WS

OMC-R Server
0 1 2 3

OMC-R Server
0 1 2 3

OMC-R Server
0 1 2 3

48 kbit/s

V.35

48 kbit/s Automatic or Manual

X.25 Switch

X.25 Switch V.35-PCM conversion

X.25 network PSPDN

Leased Lines 19.2 kbits

PCM

NSS BSC
19.2 kbit/s A-interface

BSC

BSC

BSC

BSC

BSC

BSC
18-8

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S

The OMC-R/BSC link can be based on various communication supports: • X.25 PSPDN, • X.25 switches and dedicated lines, • or the use of PCM timeslots of the A-interface. The use of the A-interface is interesting: • if there is no reliable X.25 network in a given country, • if the operator wants to be independent from a third party carrier, • if he wishes to reduce the leased line cost, • if he wishes to establish OMC-R and OMC-S units in the same location. The main advantage of that solution is that the OMC-R/BSC connections are supported by PCM links of the managed GSM network itself.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-8

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
New Man-Machine Interface
V11 versus V9-V10 V9-V10 V11
New objects overall view

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Allows to display more objects in the network views

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S

18-9

Starting from the V11 release, a new Man-Machine Interface takes the place of the V9-V10 one. The major MMI changes are introduced to increase operator efficiency through: • separation of the physical and the logical view, • clearer network logical view, • better separation between alarms and object status, • mapping of the physical view of the network on a geographical map, • new graphical views of real time counters.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-9

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
New MMI: Logical View

TCU Level
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Full Network

BSC Level

Site Level

A-Interface

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S

18-10

Each type of display of the logical mode shows different objects: • the first logical view (Full Network) shows all the Network Elements, from the MSC down to the sites, • the BSC level includes the BSS objects (Signaling Point, Signaling Link) for one BSC, • the Site level describes the BTSs belonging to one site as well as the TDMA frames, • the TCU level displays the LAPD Link and the TCBs belonging to one TCU; this level is the only way to access the A-Interface level, • the A-Interface level mainly shows the XTPs used for MSC-BSC exchanges.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-10

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
New MMI: Topological View

Full Network

Sub Network

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BSS

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S

18-11

All the topological views show the geographical backgrounds of the network: • in the Full Network view, all the sub networks are shown, • in the Sub Network view, all the BSSs of the different sub networks are displayed, • in the BSS view, all pieces of equipment belonging to one single BSS are shown on the map. Note There is always a relationship between the logical / physical display level and, on the other side, the topological level.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-11

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
Alarm Window

Customizable columns organization
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Sort & filter display Alarm list management Complete alarm description Access to notifications windows On-line help

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S

18-12

The alarm monitor has the following features: • The alarms in the list are sorted according to the column order, which may be modified by the user. • The user may select the type of columns (i.e. of information) he wants to be displayed in the minimized alarm summary. • More than 30 criteria are available to filter the alarm list. A current alarm carries the following information: • A serial record number for the alarm message identification. • A serial record number of the notification that triggered the alarm and prompted the alarm message. • The date and time on which the notification was sent. • The type of spontaneous event. • The fault number which identifies its type and therefore its cause. • The priority of alarm: immediate (IM), deferred (ID), no action (SI). • The alarm title. • The identity and the location of the object and/or equipment from where the alarm is originated. • The alarm acknowledge state, if the alarm is acknowledged and the identity of the user or the OMC-R. • If the alarm is cleared, the date and time the original notification was sent and the identity of the user. • The notification is also included apart from the additional information.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-12

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BSS on Site Maintenance with TML

Terminal Maintenance Local

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S

18-13

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-13

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
BTS on Site Maintenance with TML
1 - TIB (Testing the BCF)
TIB VXX_YYZZ
TEST +5 V RDY ON REQ WD L0 L1 RESET

+5 V

TIB STANDALONE MODE MENU A: Starting Installation Tests B: Board Status C: Prom Marking D: Shelf Number E: ALAT Alarms F: ALAT Output G: DCC External Test H: TX Configuration I: FHBUS Configuration J: Switching Matrix Configuration K: Reset Board L: DTI Board Tests -> External PCM M: Switching Matrix (Connection) N: Board Alarms O: CCT test P: Masthead test Q: TX state R: End of TIB Application PC + HDLC board

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

CSW2

L O C T E R M

REF.CLK 0 1 2 3 L

CSW1
T E S T MAINT. NORM MAINT

J 6 4

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S

18-14

Maintenance operations are performed on-site via a special terminal called TML (Local Maintenance Terminal). On-site maintenance provides a set of functions that give the operator information on the state of BSS elements that is not always available at the OMC-R level. This terminal is a PC-like computer including one standard Ethernet board and TCP/IP protocol, running TML tools (under Windows 95 environment). A special cable: cross Ethernet (cross RJ45-RJ45) connected to the Ethernet connector allows dialog with the BCF or a DRX module. TIB is the application part of the TIL (Terminal for Local Intervention) dedicated to the testing and checking of the BCF. TIB operates with BCF through O&M Bus.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-14

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
BTS on Site Maintenance with TML
2 - TIF (Testing One Particular TRX)
FP 1 G FP 1.5 G

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

ACT

ACT

ACT1 ACT2 TEMP

+5V

ACT

ACT

BIST
DCU4

Asw LI TX

ALA TLC SPU Ahw CL RX

+5V

VXX_YYZZ TIF STANDALONE MODE MENU A: Starting Installation Tests B: Board Status and BISTS C: Prom Marking D: SDA Test E: RX Test F: End of TIF Application

DCU DCU MNU DCU DCU
RESET

J4 T E S T

RESET

AMNU DCU4
INTERCARD INTERCARD

J5

J5

V.11 HDLC 64 kbit/s
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000

TML/TIL (PC 486 + PCMC525 board)
OMC-R, TML and OMC-S 18-15

TIF is the application part for the TIL (terminal for local Intervention) dedicated to the testing and checking of one particular TRX. It may run in Standalone mode or in Connected mode. The TML/TIL terminal must be connected to the TEST connector of the MNU or the AMNU board.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-15

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
BTS on Site Maintenance with TML
BIST +5 V RDY ON O&M ABIS WDG MRQ SERV
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

3 - S8000 BTSs
TIL S8000
DRX TIL Stand-alone mode TIL Connected mode TIL BCF

RESET

CSWM
T E S T
0 1 2 LC E T H TX RX LNK COL

Private PCM bus Gateway Internal PCM bus

J 6 4

10 Mbit/s Ethernet link
CKI GND CKO GND

TML/TIL
PC 486 + Ethernet board /PCMCIA

BCF
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN

CBCF
January, 2000 OMC-R, TML and OMC-S 18-16

The TIL S8000 software of the TML is designed to: • validate the BTS in factory, • install BTS site, • diagnose hardware problem, • check equipment substitution or extension. On the screen, a color button resumes the BIST status of each device. For each device (or main function), a popup menu proposes a list of tests; each performable in its specific window. This tool can be used with BTS, in On-line or in Standalone mode.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-16

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
BTS on Site Maintenance with TML
4 - S2000H/L
TIL COAM /Window
DRX
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

SBCF

S2000 IN SERVICE

Ethernet

TML (PC/Windows 95 + Ethernet board)
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 OMC-R, TML and OMC-S 18-17

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-17

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
BSC on Site Maintenance with TML
MODE MAINTENANCE

BIST RUN SCSI

R U N

B I S T

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

J5

CPU 66SE
J4
J3

Option Partition contents Software markers Board slot numbers Acces to MB II boards PROM markers Logical disk check Physical disk check Disk initialisation

NORMAL

J3

CPU 120
J2

COM1

J2

J1

J1

Serial port asynchronous link 19.2 kbit/s
January, 2000 OMC-R, TML and OMC-S 18-18

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

TML/BSC is an “on site” BSC maintenance tool which is connected to CPU – OMU through an asynchronous serial link at a rate of 19.2 kbit/s. Different tests are available on a given chain depending the selected mode: • Normal mode is used when the BSC runs. • Maintenance mode is used to isolate the chain from the system. • Logical disk, physical disk check and disk initialization are not authorized in normal mode.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-18

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
TCU on Site Maintenance with TML
Audit
BIST +5V RDY R1 R2 R3 RL EXT RESET

PC 486

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

TUC
T E S T

Serial port COM1: asynchronous link

Complete automatic Clock TDTI boards number TCB boards number Markers All boards TUC TDTI TCB BIST All boards TUC TDTI TCB Alarms Straps configuration TEI configuration TDTI boards configuration Continuity test All boards TDTI TCB Internal PCM states External PCM states All boards TDTI
18-19

J 6 4

TML/TCU test tree structure TUC Board
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 OMC-R, TML and OMC-S

TML/TCU is the TCU maintenance tool which runs on the local tool TML. It is connected to the TCU board through an asynchronous serial link at a rate of kbit/s. All tests are performed in a standalone mode. 9.6

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-19

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

OMC-S

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S

18-20

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-20

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
OMC-S

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Q3

FM agent PM agent

FM agent PM agent

NES

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S

18-21

The OMC-S are associated with Fault Management and Performance Management agents running on the SDM/FT. These agents interact with the network element’s internal operations and maintenance functions, receiving and storing fault and performance data which are transferred to the OMC-S or external NMC/OSS when required. The Open Q3 interface requires interoperability testing and is between the SDM/FT and external OSS for Fault Management application. Open Q3 interface for Performance Management application will be available in GEM09 release. This separation of management and agent functionality, allows the O&M processing to be efficiently deployed by minimizing the amount of information required to be transferred to the management system. The OMC-S applications may be run on both PCs. The OMC-S Man Machine Interface provides the user access to: • Configuration management. • Fault management. • Performance management

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-21

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
SDM-FT Platform
1 - Architecture
SuperNode Data Manager- Fault Tolerant
- 48 V dc A Feed
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Maintenance and Power Bus A I/O Domain 0

Computing Core CPU 0

Disk Subsystem

Comm & I/O

Dual Fault Tolerant I/O Buses

CPU 1

Disk Subsystem

Comm & I/O

- 48 V dc B Feed

I/O Domain 1 Maintenance and Power Bus B

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S

18-22

The SDM/FT (SuperNode Data Manager/Fault Tolerant) platform, introduced in GEM08 release, is based on Motorola FX open system Series and is housed into a standard DMSMC or DMS-HLR cabinet (C28). This platform is fully integrated into the DMS power (-48 V) and alarm subsystems: • up to 512 M RAM and 22 GB Disks on each I/O domain, • high speed DS-512 optical connections to CM cabinet. This platform collects and processes data to/from the managed MSC and HLR. The SDM/FT is necessary to support all OAMP applications, apart from Billing Management which is supported by GSM Billing Mediation Device (GBMD): • FM and PM agents, • provisioning server, • service quality.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-22

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
SDM-FT Platform
2 - Cabinet
MSP

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Shelf 2 I/O Expansion Chassis
(Optional)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 111213141516

Shelf 1 Main Chassis
1 2 3 4 56 8 7 10 9 11 1213 141516

Cooling Unit

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S

18-23

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-23

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
SDM-FT Platform
3 - Software Components

DMS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S

18-24

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-24

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
OMC-S Element Manager Main Window
Menu Bar Tool Bar

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Fault Management Area

Configuration & Performance Area

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S

18-25

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-25

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
Network Configuration Window

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S

18-26

OMC-S Configuration Management covers: • Displaying Configuration Management Window in List or Graphic mode. • Displaying Information on Elements. • Displaying Log files.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-26

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
Fault Management

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S

18-27

Fault Management enables the network operator to maximize the availability of the GSM network, through rapid response to failure conditions by performing fault isolation and fault recovery. The OMC-S FM provides control of all fault management alarm information for the monitored Network Elements (NE) including:
• Displaying of received alarms where each alarm contains the name, date, event that occurred, and the affected components. The alarms displayed can be filtered, depending on user-defined criteria. • Alarms alert, enabling alarm changes on each NE to be received by the current alarm list. New alarms are added to the list. If the change signifies that a previous alarm has been cleared for, it is removed from the list. • Advanced fault filtering, allowing the operator to define the alarm criteria and create any alerting actions. The alerting actions can be programmed by the operator to trigger external alarm systems or more sophisticated procedures such as paging or e-mailing the support staff.

The Fault Management Agent monitors the state of the resources in its associated Network Element (NE), providing two main functions:
• Resource Discovery allows the agent to retrieve and maintain information about the NE resources, e.g. signaling links, traffic circuits within the associated NE. • Event Notification controls the updating of the NE resources from fault logs received for the NEs. The logs are converted into standardized TMN operations, and the relevant notification message indicates the event is transmitted to the OMC-S and/or NMC via Open Q.3 Interface.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-27

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
Performance Management

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S

18-28

Performance data monitoring allows network usage patterns and trends to be identified, enabling informed network design and engineering decisions to be made to optimize network resource utilization. The OMC-S PM contains two main components:
• Data Selection allows the user to control performance data retrieval. The user can define studies by selecting measurements to be retrieved, as well as using pre-defined measurements. The user can also define the start and stop time when measurement data is to be retrieved along with the retrieval frequency. • Data Display allows the user to view the performance data either as a graph, which can have several measurements superimposed, or in raw data format. As well as displaying current data, the user can access archived data for historical performance analysis. The user can even export the raw data selected, for use with external processing packages.

The Performance Management Agent running on SDM/FT supports the collection, processing and delivery of operational measurement data for its associated network element to the OMC-S by providing the following capabilities:
• Reception of the Operational Measurements (OM)s from the Network Element at the end of each transfer period (every 15, 30, 60 minutes, daily, weekly or monthly). • Filtering and correlation of the Operational Measurements. • Accumulation of OMs allowing the user to create new OMs by summing or processing existing ones, e.g. generating a summary measurement. • Storage of raw and processed OMs which can be used directly by the manager or exported for use by other applications. • Notification to the management layer of the arrival of new OMs data.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-28

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
Check Your Learning
1- What are the network elements operated by an OMC-R?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

2- What is the maximum number of WorkStations possible for an OMC-R?

3- What are the maximum numbers of BSC, BTS, cells, and TRXs handled by an OMC-R?

4- What are the three solutions for the implementation of the OMC network?

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S

18-29

1- What are the network elements operated by an OMC-R?

6- What is the maximum number of WorkStations possible for an OMC-R?

5- What are the maximum numbers of BSC, BTS, cells, and TRXs handled by an OMC-R?

8- What are the three solution for the implementation of the OMC network?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-29

January, 2000

OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

18-30

January, 2000

PicoNode Family

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Section 19

PicoNode Family

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

PicoNode Family

19-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

19-1

January, 2000

PicoNode Family
PicoNode: A Very Small GSM System
What For?

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PicoNode One Product Two Applications

➠Communities
➠ ➠ ➠ ➠ Rural communities Large cells Highways, rural Low cost sites for low traffic
12.01/EN January, 2000 PicoNode Family

➠Corporate
➠ Small cells ➠ In-building, campus ➠ Distributed Wireless Access

PE/TRD/GR/0101

19-2

Two primary applications are addressed with PicoNode. Community Application With local switching, PicoNode offers a cost effective solution for small and rural communities. With its small size, PicoNode can be deployed almost anywhere. Corporate Application Installed behind a wired PBX, PicoNode becomes a wireless PBX, working in conjunction with the wired PBX.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

19-2

January, 2000

PicoNode Family
Rural and Community

Small Remote Rural Community

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PMSC

PBSC

PSTN

PLMN

•• Remote Switching Remote Switching Reduced Backhaul Reduced Backhaul •• Scaleable Solution Scaleable Solution Up to 3000 Subscribers Up to 3000 Subscribers Low Cost Entry System Low Cost Entry System Community Services Community Services Support of Fixed Mobile Support of Fixed Mobile Competitive Features Competitive Features

PBTS

PBTS

PBTS

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

PicoNode Family

19-3

As telecommunications technology edges its way into smaller communities, operators are often forced to provide wired service by using expensive copper local loops over long distances. These long drops not only degrade the quality of service, they are expensive. “Local” calls in these cases are actually backhauled over some distance to the switch and then back to the same community. The PicoNode offers a remote switching alternative to this expensive technique of providing local telecommunications services. The PicoNode has been designed to scale from an everything-in-one-box solution to a multiple BSC/BTS network. The PicoNode has the capability to deliver an MSC, BSC, and BTS all in one box that is slightly larger than a computer tower. However, if there is a different requirement, the PicoNode can be expanded into individual components: one box will be used for each function (i.e. one for MSC, one for BSC, and a given number for BTS as required for coverage).

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

19-3

January, 2000

PicoNode Family
Corporate/In-building: CorporateNET™
Office Zone

• In-Building Coverage • In-Building Coverage 
Wall-Mountable BTS  Wall-Mountable BTS  Distributed Antenna option  Distributed Antenna option  Leaky Feeder option  Leaky Feeder option
OFFICE
SEND

C 2 5 8

END

1 4 7

3 6 9

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

• PBX Interworking • PBX Interworking 
Dial Plan Support  Dial Plan Support
– Abbreviated Dialing – Abbreviated Dialing

PBX

Corporate NET 

PSTN Interworking  PSTN Interworking  PRI/QSIG Trunks  PRI/QSIG Trunks  PBX Features  PBX Features
– Dual Ringing – Dual Ringing – Single VMS – Single VMS

Operator Network

DMS MSC
Network
SEND

• Single Cabinet Solution • Single Cabinet Solution 
Combined MSC,BSC,BTS  Combined MSC,BSC,BTS  Proconfigured Installation  Proconfigured Installation
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 PicoNode Family

C 2 5 8

END

1 4

3 6 9

Mobile Network

7

19-4

Although personal subscribers have begun to outnumber corporate subscribers in terms of sheer numbers, the corporate subscriber is valued the most because they generate more revenue per subscriber for the operator. For this reason they are highly prized. Operators must have solutions that not only attract new corporate users but also help in retaining existing ones. One method for operators to make their GSM offering more appealing to corporate subscribers is to provide better coverage within the user’s office building. However, improved coverage is not the entire solution. Corporate subscribers use their handsets in-building because they are not near their PBX telephone. If some PBX services could be extended to the GSM handset while the corporate user was in-building, the service offering would become much more valuable. Nortel’s PicoNode for the corporate market is focused on providing such an in-building “private” GSM network for corporations interested in a mobility solution that is tied to their PBX. Delivering a corporate, high tier solution will be best suited for corporations and campus environments with 100 or more GSM subscribers.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

19-4

January, 2000

PicoNode Family
PicoNode Architecture
Small Company Large Corporation

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Growth & Evolution
MSC BSC
PBX PBX

Combo MSC/BSC/BTS

BTS
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 PicoNode Family

BTS

BTS
19-5

Nortel’s PicoNode family is composed of four devices: • the PMSC (PicoNode Mobile Switching Center), • the PBSC (PicoNode Base Station Controller), • the BTS (PicoNode Base Transceiver Subsystem), • the POMC (PicoNode Operations and Maintenance Center). The MSC, BSC and the BTS can be either: • incorporated in a single cabinet not much larger than a standard PC tower or • housed in their own separate cabinets The OMC is a Sun Sparc based Operations and Maintenance Center that offers a graphical user interface combined with a topographical representation of the network. The PicoNode product also comprises of the HLR (Home Location Register) which is a centralized database used to manage subscribers and services. The HLR is co-resident with the MSC. Other components that can be networked with the PicoNode include a Billing System, a Prepaid system and a Voice Mail System.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

19-5

January, 2000

PicoNode Family
CommunityNet
PicoNode
ISDN or R2

PSTN

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

A-Interface

POMC-R-S

PMSC
HLR/ VLR

PLMN/ Public MSC
PBSC Public Public Private PBTS Hybrid Hybrid

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

PicoNode Family

19-6

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

19-6

January, 2000

28

PicoNode Family
CommunityNet
PBX Inter-Operability

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PicoNode Network

HLR/ VLR

ISDN or R2

PBX

PSTN

A-Interface

PLMN

HLR/ VLR

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

PicoNode Family

19-7

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

19-7

January, 2000

38

PicoNode Family
PicoNode™ BTS 
Output Power after Combining = 2 Watts  Output Power after Combining = 2 Watts  External Amplifier for Greater Power (on  External Amplifier for Greater Power (on
this drawing): 4, 8, 16 Watts this drawing): 4, 8, 16 Watts
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission". 

Receive Sensitivity = -104 or -110 dBm  Receive Sensitivity = -104 or -110 dBm  Receive Diversity available  Receive Diversity available  1-2 TRXs per BTS (Omni configuration)  1-2 TRXs per BTS (Omni configuration)  Power Consumption 150 W  Power Consumption 150 W  Weight 20 kg  Weight 20 kg  Temperature range = 0 °° to 45 °C  Temperature range = 0 to 45 °C
Slot: 1 - MPM w/o Disk Drive 2 - E1-Abis 3-8 - TRX 9 - RF Distribution

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

PicoNode Family

19-8

The PBTS 3x08 can be used to provide cost-effective communication solution in rural communities, where in conjunction with a PBSC and a PMSC/PCSN a local switching alternative can be more economical than stretching a PLMN to provide coverage. Upto 2 TRXs can be installed per PBTS 3x08 allowing upto 15 simultaneous wireless connections. Specifically designed and configured for the rural market the PBTS 3x08 has the following attributes: • Receiver Sensitivity -110 dBm +- 1dB • All GSM Frequencies: 900/1800/1900 MHz available. • Redundant Power Supplies: Available • Connection to BSC: The drop and insert capability is used to reduce the number of E1/T1s to connect to the BSC. This is implemented through Chain connection. Upto 4 PBTS from PBSC E1-Abis card can be connected. Trunk Interface is G.703 compliant. • Interface: Air interface is the standard GSM air interface. • Capacity: - 8 channels per TRX, maximum 2 TRXs per cell, - 7-15 voice channels, - 2.9- 8.2 Erlangs at PO2 GOS, - Equivalent to 117 - 328 subscribers at 25 mE per sub.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

19-8

January, 2000

PicoNode Family
PicoNode™ BSC
CPU/Power Supply Redundant (Opt.) CPU/Power Supply Redundant (Opt.) 2-14 E1 per BSC 2-14 E1 per BSC 1-15 BTSs per BSC 1-15 BTSs per BSC 1-30 TRXs per BSC 1-30 TRXs per BSC GSM Full Rate GSM Full Rate Weight 20 kg Weight 20 kg Power Consumption 150 W Power Consumption 150 W

1

1 2

3 4
2

3

5

6

4

7 8

5

9

6

7

8

9

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

RS T SC N

PWR ON L INE FL T

PWR ON

PWR ON L INE

PWR ON L INE FL T

FL T

FL T

CDN EN ET EN ET

RS -2 3 2 E1 -1 RX

RS -2 3 2 E1 -1 RX

TX

TX

E1 -2 EXT

RX

E1 -2 -

RX

TX

TX

XREF

TES T

RF DIS T

1 3 MHz

PBSC Slot1 Processor Slot2-9 E1
January, 2000 PicoNode Family

Services Services • ETSI GSM Phase 2 • ETSI GSM Phase 2 • Power Management • Power Management • Data & Fax Services (no IWF) • Data & Fax Services (no IWF) • SMS Service • SMS Service • GSM Phase 1, 2, 2+ mobiles • GSM Phase 1, 2, 2+ mobiles

ON

OFF 0

PE/TRD/GR/0101

The PicoNode BSC is deployed in a similar compact package as the PicoNode MSC and serves as the connection from the MSC to the BTS(s). The BSC is responsible for allocating and releasing radio channels to the mobile stations by way of the BTSs. In addition to managing channels on a radio interface, it is also responsible for managing mobile station handovers to other radio channels. The BSC is comprised of a processor, and two to eight dual port E1 modules. It is directly connected to the MSC through the A interface and to the BTS through the Abis interface. An important feature of the BSC structure is the transcoder unit or TCU. The TCU is responsible for the GSM specific speech encoding and decoding as well as rate adaptation in the case of data. In the PicoNode system, the TCU is co-located with the BSC. The PicoNode BSC can be configured with redundant power. The PBSC supports inter-connection with a mixture of 900 and 1800 MHz PBTS.

OFF 0

ON

1

1

12.01/EN

19-9

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

19-9

January, 2000

PicoNode Family
PicoNode™ MSC
200 Non-Blocking Voice Connections 200 Non-Blocking Voice Connections 14 E-1 14 E-1 GSM900/GSM1800 GSM900/GSM1800 Redundant Power Supplies (Opt.) Redundant Power Supplies (Opt.) 100 Erlangs // 8000 BHCA 100 Erlangs 8000 BHCA Integrated HLR/VLR Integrated HLR/VLR Inter/Intra BSC Handover Inter/Intra BSC Handover Services Services • Call Establishment & Switching • Call Establishment & Switching • Channel Allocation • Channel Allocation • Channel Switching • Channel Switching • Mobility Management • Mobility Management • Voice or Data Network Switching • Voice or Data Network Switching • HLR/VLR Maintenance • HLR/VLR Maintenance • User Administration and • User Administration and Authentication Authentication • Wireless PBX Adjunct • Wireless PBX Adjunct • no Echo Canceler • no Echo Canceler
PicoNode Family 19-10

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

1

1 2

2

3 4

3

5

4

6

7 8
5

6

9

7

8

9

RS T SC N

PWR ON L INE FL T

PWR ON

PWR ON L INE

PWR ON L INE FL T

FL T

FL T

CDN EN ET EN ET

RS -2 3 2 E1 -1 RX

RS -2 3 2 E1 -1 RX

TX

TX

E1 -2 EXT

RX

E1 -2 -

RX

TX XREF

TX

TES T

RF DIS T

1 3 MHz

PMSC Slot1 - Processor Slot2-9 - E1
January, 2000

ON 1

ON 1

OFF 0

PE/TRD/GR/0101

The PicoNode MSC serves as a standard GSM Mobile Switching Center (MSC). The PicoNode MSC is capable of handling call establishment and switching, mobility management, and channel allocation. The PicoNode MSC is deployed in a compact package (55 x 23 x 41 cm) that can easily be maneuvered into remote areas. The benefit of the compact size and light weight (20 kg) is that delivery to remote areas is effortless as compared to a full size switching platform. The PicoNode MSC is expandable to accommodate multiple E1 ports and 160 simultaneous full-rate voice connections (non-blocking) to meet the various capacity requirements. The PicoNode MSC is always configured with redundant power.

PE/TRD/CN/0101

OFF 0

12.01/EN

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

12.01/EN

19-10

January, 2000

PicoNode Family
PicoNode™ OMC
Sun Workstation Platform Sun Workstation Platform TMN Architecture TMN Architecture Multiple Windows Supported Multiple Windows Supported Context Sensitive Help Context Sensitive Help 8 Clients per Server 8 Clients per Server High Level of Security High Level of Security 1 OMC per MSC 1 OMC per MSC

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Services Services • Region-wide configuration database • Region-wide configuration database • Remote Download of Software • Remote Download of Software • Audit Functions • Audit Functions • Regional Map of Network Elements • Regional Map of Network Elements • Real Time Monitoring • Real Time Monitoring • Audio and Visual Indications of Alarms • Audio and Visual Indications of Alarms • Measures Network Performance (to export) • Measures Network Performance (to export) • Imports from Existing Cell Planning Tools • Imports from Existing Cell Planning Tools • Export Data & Statistics • Export Data & Statistics • CDR (to a billing server) • CDR (to a billing server)

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

PicoNode Family

19-11

PicoNode OMC provides the operations and management center functions for the PicoNode. It has a client-server architecture. In this architecture, the radio network is partitioned into multiple management regions with each region containing one or more MSCs, as well as all of the PicoNode hardware platforms managed by the MSCs. A PicoNode OMC server is then responsible for the management of all the BSCs and BTSs contained in this region. PicoNode OMC provides a number of management functions for the PicoNode hardware which include: • Communication interface to the PicoNode products • Security and Access control • Event and Alarm management • Network configuration management • Software upgrade management. Interface: E1 to the MSC running TCP/IP. Hardware: Sun Sparc with 128 MB memory and 4G Hard Disk.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

19-11

January, 2000

PicoNode Family
PicoNode™ Combo

1
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

2

3 4

5

6

7 8

9

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

RS T SC N

RS T SC N

TX

TX -1-

PWR ON LINE FLT

PWR ON LINE FLT

PWR ON LINE FLT

PWR ON LINE FLT

PWR ON LINE FLT

PWR ON LINE FLT 6.7 RX 3 TX1

2,3 RX 2

4,5 RX 1 CD N ENET CD N ENET RS -232 E1-1RX RS -232 E1-1RX -3TX TX TX3 6,7

E1-2EXT EXT

RX

E1-2-

RX

2,3 RX RX -2-

TX XR EF XR EF

TX

TX2

4,5 CLK

2W Slot 1- Processor 2- Processor 3- E1 4- E1 5-6- TRX 7-8- TRX 9- RF Distribution

RS T SC N

RS T SC N PWR ON LINE FLT

TX TX PA TH

PWR ON LINE FLT

PWR ON LINE FLT

PWR ON LINE FLT

PWR ON LINE FLT

13 MHZ

TX-1

PA TH-1

CDN EN ET

CDN EN ET

RS -2 32 E1 -1RX

RS -2 32 E1 -1RX

PA TH-2

RX -1 TX TX

AN T-1

E1 -2EX T EX T

RX

E1 -2-

RX

RX RX -2

AN T-2

TX XR EF XR EF

TX

8W Slot 1- Processor 2- Processor 3- E1 4- E1 5-6- TRX 7-9- RF Distribution

TX-2

TEST

RF DIST

TES T

RF DIST

13M Hz

13 MHz

ON 1

OFF 0

ON 1

ON

PE/TRD/GR/0101

The PicoNode PCSN is a ‘combo’ switch meaning it has the MSC, BSC and BTS functionality all included in one single box of the size not much bigger than a PC tower. It is available in two configurations depending on the BTS output power. These modules comprise all the basic components of the system for either the PMSC, PCSN, PBSC, or PBTS.

OFF 0

ON

OFF

OFF

1

1

0

0

Corporate/In-Building
12.01/EN January, 2000 PicoNode Family

Rural/Community
19-12

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

19-12

January, 2000

PicoNode Family
PicoNode™ Scalable GSM Solutions
Configuration Supports (max) NSS NSS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Capacity 2000 Subs @ 0.05E (VLR) 2000 Subs @ 0.05E (VLR) 4000 Subs (HLR) 4000 Subs (HLR)

2 BSCs 2 BSCs 15 BTSs 15 BTSs 30 TRXs 30 TRXs 3 TRXs 3 TRXs

BSC BSC

BTS BTS

180 Subs @ 0.05E 180 Subs @ 0.05E

Combined Node Combined Node MSC/HLR/VLR MSC/HLR/VLR BSC/BTS BSC/BTS 2 TRXs 2 TRXs 120 Subs @ 0.05E (VLR) 120 Subs @ 0.05E (VLR) 2000 Subs (HLR) 2000 Subs (HLR)

add-on BTSs 4 add-on BTSs 4 max number of TRXs for the combo: 8 max number of TRXs for the combo: 8
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 PicoNode Family

19-13

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

19-13

January, 2000

PicoNode Family
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

19-14

January, 2000

Solutions of Exercises

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Section 20

Solutions of Exercises

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Solutions of Exercises

20-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

20-1

January, 2000

Solutions of Exercises
Frequency Reuse Pattern
Solution: Provisioning the Frequency Band Spectrum

A1
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

A1

C1

B1

A2

C1

B1

A2

A3

C2

B2

A3

C2

B2

C3

B3

A4

C3

B3

C4

B4

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Solutions of Exercises

20-2

Due to assumptions ==> 1 MHz carries 5 radio frequencies (radio channels), each radio frequency carries 8 channels ==> 40 channels/MHz. Number of available channels in each pattern = 9.6 x 40 = 384 (all spectrum may be used in each pattern). 1. With reuse pattern of 12 cells, 3 frequencies per cell are available: number of channels = 384 x 3 = 1152. 2. With reuse pattern of 9 cells, 4 frequencies per cell are available: number of channels 4 = 1536. = 384 x

For the same bandwidth, if the number of cells in the pattern is reduced, the number of channels is increased.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

20-2

January, 2000

Solutions of Exercises
BTS S8000: Coupling System
Coupling for Two TRX with Diversity
Antenna TX+RX Main RF Combiner (Main)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Antenna TX+RX Diversity RF Combiner (Diversity)
Duplexer

Duplexer

LNA Splitter

Ext

LNA Splitter

Ext

PA1

RX Splitter Main

PA2

RX Splitter Diversity

M

RX1

D

M

RX2

D

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Solutions of Exercises

20-3

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

20-3

January, 2000

Solutions of Exercises
TCU Warning: Information Path (1)
To/From OMC-R To OMC-R

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

C O N T R O L

Hard Disk MMU-IDE O&M Control CPU-OMU X.25 SICX

Chain A
Switching Control CPU-MPU SS7 CCS7

OMN Link Switch SLS2 BTSs Control CPU-BIFP

Chain B
Ethernet Inter SUP

Multibus II

MPUA

LAPD SICD8V 2 Mb <-> 64kb RCB

Supervision SUP2

E Q U I P M E N T

O&M and Synchro ECI

SWitching Unit Switching Matrix Switch MSW Control V11/TTL SWE SWC

O&M/A bus

Chain status (MPU Status)

External Alarms ALA

TCU LAPD Concentration TSCB

BTS LAPD Concentration BSCB
BTS

PCM Interface DDTI

External Loops
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Solutions of Exercises

TCU/MSC
20-4

Information path when the TCU is warning: OMC-R link through X.25 interface.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

20-4

O&M/B bus

January, 2000

Solutions of Exercises
TCU Warning: Information Path (2)
To/From OMC-R

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

C O N T R O L

Hard Disk MMU-IDE O&M Control CPU-OMU X.25 SICX

Chain A
Switching Control CPU-MPU SS7 CCS7

OMN Link Switch SLS2 BTSs Control CPU-BIFP

Chain B
Ethernet Inter SUP

Multibus II

MPUA

LAPD SICD8V 2 Mb <-> 64kb RCB

Supervision SUP2

E Q U I P M E N T

O&M and Synchro ECI

SWitching Unit Switching Matrix Switch MSW Control V11/TTL SWE SWC

O&M/A bus

Chain status (MPU Status)

External Alarms ALA

TCU LAPD Concentration TSCB

BTS LAPD Concentration BSCB
BTS

PCM Interface DDTI

External Loops
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Solutions of Exercises

TCU/MSC To OMC
20-5

Information path when the TCU is warning: OMC-R link through Ater interface.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

20-5

O&M/B bus

January, 2000

Solutions of Exercises
Incoming Call: Information Path
To/From OMC-R

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

C O N T R O L

Hard Disk MMU-IDE O&M Control CPU-OMU X.25 SICX

Chain A
Switching Control CPU-MPU SS7 CCS7

OMN Link Switch SLS2 BTSs Control CPU-BIFP

Chain B
Ethernet Inter SUP

Multibus II

MPUA

LAPD SICD8V 2 Mb <-> 64kb RCB

Supervision SUP2

E Q U I P M E N T

O&M and Synchro ECI

SWitching Unit Switching Matrix Switch MSW Control V11/TTL SWE SWC

O&M/A bus

Chain status (MPU Status)

External Alarms ALA

TCU LAPD Concentration TSCB

BTS LAPD Concentration BSCB
BTS

PCM Interface DDTI

External Loops
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Solutions of Exercises

TCU/MSC
20-6

Information path for incoming call.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

20-6

O&M/B bus

January, 2000

Solutions of Exercises
Call-Established: Traffic Path
To/From OMC-R

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

C O N T R O L

Hard Disk MMU-IDE O&M Control CPU-OMU X.25 SICX

Chain A
Switching Control CPU-MPU SS7 CCS7

OMN Link Switch SLS2 BTSs Control CPU-BIFP

Chain B
Ethernet Inter SUP

Multibus II

MPUA

LAPD SICD8V 2 Mb <-> 64kb RCB

Supervision SUP2

E Q U I P M E N T

O&M and Synchro ECI

SWitching Unit Switching Matrix Switch MSW Control V11/TTL SWE SWC

O&M/A bus

Chain status (MPU Status)

External Alarms ALA

TCU LAPD Concentration TSCB

BTS LAPD Concentration BSCB
BTS BTS

PCM Interface DDTI

External Loops
PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN January, 2000 Solutions of Exercises

TCU/MSC
20-7

Traffic path for established call.

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

20-7

O&M/B bus

January, 2000

Solutions of Exercises
Student Notes:

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

20-8

January, 2000

Glossary

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Section 21

Glossary

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Glossary

21-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12.01/EN

21-1

January, 2000

Glossary

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

Section 21

Glossary

PE/TRD/GR/0101

12.01/EN

January, 2000

Glossary

21-1

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12 01/EN

21-1

January, 2000

Glossary
A
A Abis ACCH ACSE ACU ACM ADM ADSL AGCH Air interface AIS ALA ALAT ALATO ALCO ALPRO AMI AMNU AMPS ANM ANSI AoC AoCC AoCI Interface between MSC and TCU Interface between BTS and BSC Associated Control CHannel: dedicated Slow (SACCH) or Fast (FACCH) radio signaling channel Association Control Service Element: service element providing the exclusive ability to set up and terminate application associations Air Conditioning Unit (S8000 outdoor) Address Complete Message ADMinistration function enabled by OMC-R Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line: network access technology on copper pair Access Grant CHannel: common mobile radio channel used exclusively for assign commands sent over the network in response to mobile access requests See “Radio interface” Alarm Indication Signal: PCM alarm LED (DTI/TDTI/DDTI boards) ALArms collecting board, housed in the equipment cabinet supporting the alarm loops management (BSC 6000/12000) ALArm(s) collecting board, supporting BTS alarm management (BTS S4000 Indoor) ALArm(s) ouTdOor collecting board, supporting BTS alarm management (S4000 Outdoor BTS, S4000 Smart BTS and S2000 Indoor) ALarm COllecting board of the BTS S8000 first version (before CBCF) ALarm PROtection board for external alarms and remote controls of the ALCO/RECAL board (BTS S8000) Alternate Mark Inversion: bipolar coding standard in which 1 is alternatively positive or negative Advanced MaNagment Unit of the DRX: unit of the DRX processing AMRT frames Advanced Mobile Phone System: first analogue radio cellular telephone (800 MHz) standard in USA (1978) ANswer Message American National Standards Institute Advice of Charge Advice of Charge Charging Advice of Charge Information

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12 01/EN

21-2

January, 2000

Glossary
APC ARFCN ASCI ASIC Ater ATM AuC A3 A5 A8 Application Processor Cabinet: (DMS) Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number: corresponding to frequency value of the carrier Advanced Speech Call Items: three services standardized by ETSI in GSM Phase 2+ (eMLPP, VBS and VGCS) Application Specific Integrated Circuit: device customized for a specific application Interface between BSC and TCU Asynchronous Transfer Mode: cell based data transfer technique using switching mode Authentication Center: management of security data (Ki) for authentication of subscribers (NSS function) Authentication algorithm Ciphering algorithm Ciphering key computation

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12 01/EN

21-3

January, 2000

Glossary
B
B BAIC BAOC BCC Interface between MSC and associated VLR Barring of All Incoming Calls Barring of All Outgoing Calls Base station Color Code: Network cell color code = 3 last three BSIC code bits. The BCC is used to identify one of the cells sharing the same BCCH frequency. Neighboring cells may, or may not, have different BCC. Broadcast Control CHannel: common mobile logical channel used for broadcasting system information on the radio interface Base Common Functions: common BTS control and switching unit (see CBCF and SBCF) BSC Application Database: contains all the information objects describing the BSS Exploitation Data Base (OMC-R): contains all the information objects describing the BSS under OMC-R management control, and the objects required to manage OMC-R functionality Part of the DRX: regenerates GSM TIME bus signals Bit Error Rate: method of measuring the quality of radio link transmission Bad Frame Indicator: flag indicating the quality of a received traffic frame Busy Hour Call Attempts: Unit of telecommunications traffic intensity Barring of all Incoming Calls when Roaming outside the home GSM network Base Interface Front-end Processor board of BSC managing the interface with BTS - see CPU-MPU Built-In Self Test: system built into most BTS and BSC boards which automatically executes self tests when the boards are initialized or configured Barring Outgoing International Calls Base Station Controller Base Station Identity Code: used to identify a base station which allows mobile stations to distinguish the cells sharing the same BCCH frequency. A BSIC is defined by an (NCC, BCC) combination Base Station Subsystem: Radio Cellular Network radio subsystem made up of Base Station Controllers, one or more remote TransCoder Units and one or more Base Transceiver Stations BSS Application Part of the BSS A interface protocol stack (BSSMAP + DTAP) BSS Management Application Part of the A interface protocol stack charged with managing BSS radio resources and transferring calls Application Part of the A interface protocol stack charged with BSS O&M Base Transceiver Station: radio base station managing one or more cells Bipolar 8 Zero Substitution Coding: bipolar coding standard used on T1 PCM
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

BCCH BCF BDA BDE

BDT BER BFI BHCA BIC-Roam BIFP BIST BOIC BSC BSIC

BSS

BSSAP BSSMAP BSSOMAP BTS B8ZS

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12 01/EN

21-4

January, 2000

Glossary
C
C CA CAMEL CBCF CBCH CC Interface between MSC and HLR Cell Allocation: radio frequency channel allocated to a cell Customized Application for Mobile network Enhanced Logic: IN based mechanisms for GSM Compact BCF: new BCF module of the S8000 Indoor and Outdoor Cell Broadcast CHannel: logical channel used inside a cell to broadcast short messages in unacknowledged mode Call Control: sublevel of layer 3 on the radio interface charged with managing call processing Country Code Completion of Calls to Busy Subscribers Common Control CHannel: common bidirectional mobile control channel, used for transmitting signaling information on the radio interface Call Control Function (IN) Control CHannel: common or dedicated control channel Comité Consultatif International Télégraphique standardization organization replaced by ITU et Téléphonique: previous

CCBS CCCH CCF CCH CCITT CCS CCS7 CDMA CD-ROM CFB CFNRc CFNRy CFU CGI

Common Channel Signaling: MSC/VLR subsystem of common channel signaling links Common Channel Signaling CCITT No. 7: BSC common channel signaling No. 7 interface board (A interface) Code Division Multiple Access: Compact Disc-Read Only Memory: for SUN system software installation Call Forwarding on Busy subscriber Call Forwarding on MS Not Reachable Call Forwarding on No Reply Call Forwarding Unconditional Cell Global Identifier: identifier of a mobile network cell. containing the Location Area Code (LAC), the Mobile Country Code (MCC), the Mobile Network Code (MNC) and the cell identifier in the Location Area Circuit Identity Code: communications terrestrial circuit reference used for A interface

CIC CIR CLIP CLIR

Carrier on Interference Ratio: new name for C/I Calling Line Identification Presentation Calling Line Identification Restriction

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12 01/EN

21-5

January, 2000

Glossary
CM Configuration Management: network O&M function enabled by OMC-R Connection Management Level 3 of radio interface assembling call processing procedures (CC), short messages (SMS), and supplementary services (SS) CMCF CMIP CMIS CMISE CNAP COAM CoLP CoLR COMICO CPCMI CPU Compact Main Common Function: main board of the CBCF (S8000) Common Management Information Protocol: OSI level 7 protocol for network management Common Management Information Service: OSI Application level service Common Management Information System Element: Calling Name Presentation Centralized Operation Administration and Maintenance: new BCF architecture from V10 (S2000H&L) or V12 (S4000 and S8000) Connected Line Identification Presentation Connected Line Identification Restriction COMbiner InterCOnnection module for the RF combiners (S8000) Compact PCM Interface: PCM interface board of the CBCF (S8000) Central Processing Unit: processing boards (BSC 6000/12000)

CPU-MPU/BIFP CPU - Main Processing Unit/Base Interface Front-end Processor: BSC processing boards CPU-OMU CRC CSMA/CD CSPDN CSU CSW CSW1 CSW2 CSWM CUG CW CPU - Operations & Maintenance Unit: BSC Operation and Maintenance board Cyclic Redundancy Check: method for detecting errors in serial data transmission (CRC4 and CRC6) Also: PCM alarm LED (DTI/TDTI/DDTI boards) Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection: bus access mechanism of Ethernet LAN Circuit Switched Public Data Network Control Switching Unit (S4000 BTS) Control and Switching: BTS control and switching unit made up of CSW1 and CSW2 boards BTS control board (S4000) BTS switching board (S4000) Control and SWitching Module: manages the BCF and contains the connection matrix in the BTS S8000 first version (before CBCF) Closed User Group: group of subscribers communicating only among themselves Call Waiting

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12 01/EN

21-6

January, 2000

Glossary
D
D DACS DAT DC DCC DCCH DCE DCU or DCU4 DCU8 DD DDTI DLCI DLNA DLU DMS DP DRAM DRX Interface between HLR and VLR Direct Ambient Cooling System: System Cooling Unit (BTS S8000 Outdoor) Digital Audio Tape: cartridge used for backing up and storing data Direct Current Data Channel Concentrator: board of BCF unit (BTS S4000) Dedicated Control CHannel: dedicated radio signaling channel with one SDCCH + one SACCH Data Circuit terminating Equipment: modem for example Dual Channel Unit: FP unit designed to process TDMA frame time slots Digital Control Unit for 8 channels: signal processing module, part of the DRX Dynamic Data: dynamic attribute of an operational database object updated by BSC applications Dual Digital Trunk Interface: BSC interface board controlling two external PCM links with BTS (interface Abis) or TCU (interface Ater) Data Link Connection Identifier Duplexer Low Noise Amplifier: radio module (BTS e-cell) Downloadable Logical Unit: configuration file for software customization (BTS) Digital Multiplex switching System: Nortel switch equipment used for MSC (NSS) Permanent Data: permanent attribute of an operational object managed in BDE and BDA databases Dynamic Random Access Memory: type of read/write memory equipping central processing units (BSC 6000/12000) Discontinuous Reception: used on Radio interface Driver and Receiver unit: signal processing unit for radio transmission and reception (BTS S8000 and S2000H&L) Data Signaling Concentration: BCF signaling concentration board (BTS S8000) Digital Signal Processor: device dedicated to signal digital treatment Direct Transfer Application Part: application of the A interface protocol charged with transferring transparent messages between mobile stations and MSC Data Terminal Equipment: end equipment of a communication path; PC or server for example Digital Trunk Interface: BTS board controlling one external PCM link Dual Tone Multiple-Frequency: dialing method using a combination of two frequencies among a standardized set of frequencies Discontinuous Transmission: used on Radio interface Data User Part: interface with PAD (PSDN)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

DSC DSP DTAP DTE DTI DTMF DTX DUP

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12 01/EN

21-7

January, 2000

Glossary
E
E EA EC ECI EFR EFT E-GSM EIR EIRP EIU EMC EMI eMLPP ENET EOS EPROM EQPD EQPI Erlang ERP ESF ETSI Interface between two MSCs Early Assignment Echo Canceler Equipment Cabinet Interface: supervision board of several Equipment cabinet boards (BSC 6000/12000) Enhanced Full Rate: high quality speech vocoder (MS and TCU) Transferable File Element: sets of files used between OMC-R and BSS, controlled by the FTAM function Extended GSM: new frequency band allowed to extend the GSM 900 Equipment Identification Register Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power Ethernet Interface Unit: LPP board of the DMS Electro-Magnetic Compatibility Electro-Magnetic Interference enhanced Multi-Level Precedence and Preemption: supplementary service allowing priority levels and resources preemption (ASCI service used in GSM-R) Enhanced NETwork: switching matrix of the DMS (Nortel MSC) End Of Silence allowing normal voice frame transmission (see DTX) Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory: type of on-board memory EQuiPment cabinet shelf housing DDTI boards (BSC 6000/12000) EQuiPment cabinet shelf housing ALA, RCB and TSCB boards (BSC 6000/12000) Unit of telecommunications traffic intensity representing the average number of resources or circuits occupied during the peak traffic hour Effective Radiated Power Extended Super Frame: PCM T1 multiframe (24 basic frames and CRC6) European Telecommunication Standards Institute

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12 01/EN

21-8

January, 2000

Glossary
F
F FAC FACCH Fb FCCH FCH FCS FE FEC FH FH bus FM FN FP FP-RX bus FPRX FR FRU FTAM Interface between MSC and EIR Final Assembly Code Fast Associated Control CHannel: dedicated signaling channel (Um interface) Radio transmission Frequency bit Frequency Correction CHannel: common frequency synchronization channel Frequency CHannel: common frequency synchronization channel Frame Check Sequence: LAPDm Frame Error: frame alignment error counter alarm Also: PCM alarm LED (DTI/TDTI/DDTI boards) Frame Error Counter: on DTI board, FEC counts frame lock error Frequency Hopping FH bus: BTS data transmission bus between the FP and TX (S4000) Fault Management: O&M network function enabled by MD-R or OMC-R Frame Number Frame Processor: TDMA radio frame processor in BTS BTS data transmission bus between FP and RX (S4000) TDMA radio frame processor and receiver function Full Rate: normal quality speech vocoder (MS and TCU) Field Replaceable Unit File Transfer Access and Management: ISO file transfer and remote file management protocol used by the EFT

G
G GMSC GMSK GPP GSM GSM-R GSM time GTW Interface between one VLR and another VLR Gateway Mobile Switching Center: MSC dedicated for incoming calls Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying: radio modulation used by GSM GSM PassPort: Nortel PassPort switch customized for IWF Global System for Mobile communications GSM network for Railway companies GSM system clock in BTS GaTeWay board between the BCF and the DRXs of the S8000 first version (before CBCF)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12 01/EN

21-9

January, 2000

Glossary
H
HDB3 HDLC HLR HO HSI HSN HOLD H2D H4D High Density Bipolar 3: bipolar PCM link coding standard 3 High-level Data Link Control: data link protocol family: LAPB (X.25), LAPD (ISDN), LAPDm (GSM), MTP-2 (SS7) Home Location Register: data base for permanent subscribers information (profile, billing, location, etc.) HandOver: automatic call transfer implemented between the radio channels of the same or different cells without interrupting transmission High-Speed Interface (X.25 SUN server board) Hopping Sequence Number (see Frequency Hopping) Call Hold service Hybrid Coupleur 2 ways with integrated Duplexer Hybrid Coupleur 4 ways with integrated Duplexer

I
IAM IDE IEEE IEEE 802.3 IMEI IMSI IN IOM IP ISDN ISM ISO ISPBX ISUP ITU IWF Initial Address Message Integrated Disk Electronic: hard disk interface between CPU-OMU and MMU_IDE boards (BSC 12000HC) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Recommendation IEEE 802.3: standardization of Ethernet, using the CSMA/CD access method and bus topology LAN International Mobile Equipment Identity: permanently stored in the MS International Mobile Subscriber Identity: primary identification of the subscriber Intelligent Network: open system for universal networks services (personal number, prepaid calling, sponsored calling, location enquiry, VPN, etc.) Input Output Module: (DMS) Internet Protocol: level 3 Intelligent Peripheral: IN node Integrated Services Digital Network Integrated Service Module: (DMS) International Standards Organization Integrated Services Private Branch eXchange ISDN user part: subsystem supporting CCITT signaling No. 7 International Telecommunication Union: standardization organization InterWorking Function: functions for data services (NSS)
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

protocol

usually

used

above

Ethernet

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12 01/EN

21-10

January, 2000

Glossary
K
kb Kc kHz Ki kW kilobyte (1024 bytes) Key of ciphering: encrypting key assigned to a mobile subscriber kiloHertz Identification key kiloWatt

L
L1 L1M L2 L2ML LAC LAI LAN LAP LAPB LAPD LAPDm LBO LDB LED LFA LIU LMS LNA LNA-splitter LOS LPD box LPP BTS software element handling the LAPD Level 1 protocol Layer one Management: measurements Processor functional unit handling BTS radio

BTS software element handling the LAPD Level 2 protocol Abis interface layer level 2 management function Location Area Code: code used to identify a location area Location Area Identity: geographic identity of a group of cells used to locate a mobile station Local Area Network: local OMC Ethernet network Link Access Protocol family: LAPB, LAPD, LAPDm Link Access Protocol Balanced: X.25 link signaling protocol Link Access Protocol on D channel: signaling protocol used on the Abis interface between BTS and the BSC and on the Ater interface between BSC and TCU Link Access Protocol on D channel, modified: signaling protocol used on GSM radio interface Line Build Out: PCM T1 line attenuation Operating system: one of the three BSC core system software levels Light Emitting Diode Loss of Frame Alignment: PCM alarm LED (DTI/TDTI/DDTI boards) Link Interface Unit: LPP board DMS Local Message Switch: LPP board of the DMS Low Noise Amplifier Low Noise Amplifier-splitter: used for separation of signals received in the BTS LOSs of PCM frame alignment alarm signal Lightning Protection and Distribution box (S4000 Smart) Link Peripheral Processor: main interface equipment of the DMS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12 01/EN

21-11

January, 2000

Glossary
M
MA MAIO MAP Mb MCC MCGS MCIP MD-R ME MEU MHz MIB MM MMI MMU MMU_IDE MNC MNP Mobile Allocation: table of channel associated frequency allocations Mobile Allocation Index Offset: reference of channel associated frequencies Mobile network Application Part protocol Megabyte (1024 kb) Mobile Country Code Meridian Cabinet Global Switch: main cabinet of the Micronode DMS Meridian Cabinet Interface Power: cabinet of the Micronode DMS Mediation Device OMC-Radio Mobile Equipment: Mobile Station without SIM Masthead Electronics Unit: remote TX amplifier located close to the antenna MegaHertz Management Information Base: data base containing managed objects in Q3 format Mobility Management: radio handling mobile locations Man Machine Interface enabling message exchanges between OMC-R and users Mass Memory Unit: SCSI hard disk board (BSC 6000/12000) Mass Memory Unit_IDE hard disk board (BSC 12000HC) Mobile Network Code Microcom Network Protocol: protocols designed by Microcom to support error control and data compression for asynchronous modem transmission, standardized in V42 and V42bis MaNagement Unit board: management board of FP unit (BTS S4000) Memorandum of Understanding Multiparty service Main Processing Unit: set of processor boards (BSC 6000/12000) Mobile Station: mobile voice and data terminal or handset Mobile services Switching Center: GSM switch equipment (NSS) Mobile Station ISDN: number used by the calling party to reach a GSM subscriber Mobile Station Roaming Number Main SWitching: switching matrix board of the SWU (BSC 6000/12000/12000HC) Message Transfer Part: CCITT signaling system No. 7 part (A interface) Data bus between the different BSC processing boards (Intel standard, equivalent to IEEE standard 1296) Multibus II is a registered trademark of Intel
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

MNU MoU MPTy MPU MS MSC MSISDN MSRN MSW MTP Multibus II

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12 01/EN

21-12

January, 2000

Glossary
N
NACK NCC NDC NFS Negative ACKnowledgement Network Color Code: first three bits of the BSIC code. Each country is assigned a NCC National Destination Code Network File System: standard network file management system; set of level 5 to 7 protocols enabling transparent file sharing between several machines (possibly heterogeneous) connected in a local network Network Interface Unit: LPP board of the DMS Network Management Center: linked to all the OMC, to manage the entire GSM network as a whole NO Signal: PCM alarm LED for no frame signal received (DTI/TDTI/DDTI boards) Non Return to Zero: coding scheme used for binary signal (internal PCM) Network and switching SubSystem: subsystem including an MSC, main HLR, VLR, EIR and AUC Nortel Technical Publications: Nortel Networks product documentation

NIU NMC NOS NRZ NSS NTPs

O
OACSU OAM OE OEM O&M O&M bus OMC OMC-R OMC-S OML OMN OMU OSI OSS Off-Air Call SetUp: procedure for setting up calls with allocating a radio channel during the call routing time OMN Access Management: functional enabled by OMC-R Managed object: Object managed by OMC-R on the OMN interface, modeling an entity, set, function or BSS equipment Original Equipment Manufacturer Operation and Maintenance Operation and Maintenance bus (BTS-BSC 6000/12000-TCU 6000) Operation and Maintenance Center Operation and Maintenance Center – Radio: for BSS Operation and Maintenance Center – Switching: for NSS Operation and Maintenance Link: LAPD link supporting BSS Operation and Maintenance functions Operation and Maintenance Network: interface used for transferring messages between OMC-R and connected BSC See CPU-OMU board Open System Interconnection: standard model for computer communications, organized into seven layers, each containing several protocols Operation SubSystem: operations subsystem including the OMC-R and OMC-S
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12 01/EN

21-13

January, 2000

Glossary
P
PA PAD PC PCH PCM Power Amplifier Packet Assembler/Disassembler (X.25) Personal Computer Paging CHannel: common subscriber radio paging channel Pulse Code Modulation: PCM link connecting either BSC to BTS (Abis interface), or BSC to TCU (Ater interface) E1 : 2.048 Mbit/s (2 Mbit/s physical link supporting 32 x 64 kbit/s time slots (TS)) T1 : 1.544 Mbit/s (1.5 Mbit/s physical link supporting 24 x 64 kbit/s time slots (TS)) PCM bus PCMI PCU PDTC P-GSM PIN PLL PLMN PM POD PPCM PROM PSCMD PSDN PSPDN PSTN PSU Pulse Code Modulation bus: Internal BTS PCM distribution bus PCM Interface board supporting two PCM interfaces between BTS and BSC Power Control Unit (BTS S8000) Pcm-30 Digital Trunk Interface (DMS) Primary GSM band: new name of the basic GSM 900 band Personal Identity Number Phase Locked Loop: to maintain the synthetizer frequency Public Land Mobile Network Performance Management: function enabled by OMC Physical Object Dictionary used as a configuration file by the Fault Management function (OMC-R) Pico PCM Interface: BTS e-cell board controlling two external PCM links with BSC (Abis interface) Programmable Read-Only Memory Power Supply CoMmanD board for the converters of the BCF first version (BTS S8000) Packet-Switched Data Network Packet Switched Public Data Network Public Switched Telephone Network Power Supply Unit

Q
QoS Q3 interface Quality of Service Standard communication interface between a manager and agent in Telecommunication Management Network (TMN) architecture

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12 01/EN

21-14

January, 2000

Glossary
R
RACH Random Access CHannel: common mobile logical channel, reserved for random access requests transmitted by mobile stations on the radio interface

Radio interface Interface between the mobile station (MS) and BTS RAM RAND RCB RECAL RF R-GSM RISC RLP ROM ROSE ROT RR RRA RSL RX RXD RXM RX-Splitter Random Access Memory: read and write memory RANDom binary word generated by AUC for authentication algorithms Rate Converter Board enabling PCM rate conversion for LAPD (BSC 6000/12000) REmote Control Alarm: new board used with the Compact BCF to replace ALCO inside each S8000 cabinet Radio Frequency Railway GSM: new GSM 900 band (4 MHz) allocated to Railway companies Reduced Instruction-Set Computer: computer which provides the ability to process an optimized set of instructions Radio Link Protocol Read Only Memory Remote Operations Service Element: OSI layer 7 protocol for network management Remote Operations Terminal: remote OMC-R operations terminal Radio Resource: layer 3 radio interface sublevel handling radio resources Receiver Remote Alarm: PCM alarm LED (DTI/TDTI/DDTI boards) Radio Signaling Link Receiver part of the TRX (BTS) BTS diversity receiver BTS main receiver Reception Multicoupler

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12 01/EN

21-15

January, 2000

Glossary
S
SABM SACCH SAPI SBCF SCC SCCP SCE SCF SCH SCP SCSE SCSI SDCCH Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode: initialization LAPD frame Slow Associated Control CHannel: slow logical control channel associated with a traffic channel during a communication Service Access Point Identifier (LAPD) Small BCF: BCF module of the S2000H&L BTS Supernode Combined Core: main cabinet of the SNSE DMS Signaling Connection Control Part (CCITT No. 7) Service Creation Environment: IN station Service Control Function: IN function Synchronization CHannel: common time division synchronization channel Service Control Point: IN node Communication Service with managed Systems: application handling communications with systems managed by OMC-R Small Computer System Interface: hard disk interface between the MMU and CPUOMU boards (BSC 6000/12000) Standalone Dedicated Control CHannel: dedicated radio signaling channel temporarily allocated during call set up. There are 2 types of SDCCH = SDCCH/8 and SDCCH/4, on which the logical channels are grouped by 4 and by 8 respectively and combined with CCH Service Data Function: (IN function) OMC-R data server (Serveur de Données Objet) Super Frame: PCM T1 multiframe (12 basic frames without CRC) Slow Frequency Hopping: FH used in GSM Serial Interface Controller LAPD: LAPD controller board for Abis and Ater interface (BSC 6000/12000) SICD board evolution for 8 channels Serial Interface Controller X.25 (BSC 6000/12000) SIlence Descriptor: silence frame used in discontinuous transmission (DTX) SIGNalization unit: signalization unit processing two time slots Subscriber Identity Module: smart card containing information on the subscriber SKiP indication received: PCM alarm LED (DTI/TDTI/DDTI boards) Serial Link Switch board supporting the link with OMC-R (BSC 6000/12000) Serial Link Switch board supporting the link with OMC-R (BSC 12000HC) Security Management: software management function supported by OMC-R
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

SDF SDO SF SFH SICD SICD8V SICX SID SIGN SIM SKP SLS SLS2 SM

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12 01/EN

21-16

January, 2000

Glossary
SMS Short Messages Service: service for sending and receiving short messages between Radio Cellular Network mobile stations. Point to point short messages include short SMS-MO/PP messages and short SMS-MT/PP messages. Service Management System: IN server Short Message Service-Cell Broadcast Short Message Service-Service Center: point to point message center equipment SuperNode Size Enhanced: compact SuperNode DMS Signal Processor Unit: radio signal processor for one time slot (BTS) Signed RESult: binary word generated by AUC for authentication algorithms Specialized Resource Function: (IN function) Set of Rectifier Units of the BTS S8000 Supplementary Services: radio interface layer 3 sublevel handling supplementary services Signaling System 7: functional unit handling the Signaling System No. 7 (Ainterface) SPARC Storage Array: SUN hard disk unit of the OMC-R Service Switching Function: IN function Service Switching Point: IN node Signaling Transfer Point SUPervision board supervising a processing unit (BSC 6000/12000) SUPervision board supervising a processing unit (BSC 12000HC) SWitching Controller board of the SWU (BSC 6000/12000/12000HC) SWitching Extension board enabling V11/TTL conversion for internal PCM (BSC 6000/12000) SwitchinG shelf (Equipment cabinet) housing the SWU (SWC, MSW and SWE) and the ECI boards (BSC 6000/12000) SWitching Unit regrouping 6000/12000/12000HC) SWC, MSW and SWE boards (BSC

SMS-CB SMS-SC SNSE SPU SRES SRF SRU SS SS7 SSA SSF SSP STP SUP SUP2 SWC SWE SWG SWU SYNC SYNO

SYNChronization board (BTS S4000 indoor) SYNchronization Outdoor board (BTS S4000 outdoor)

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12 01/EN

21-17

January, 2000

Glossary
T
TAF TC TCAP TCB TCB2 TCH TCH/F TCH/H TCP TCP/IP TCU TDMA TDTI TEI Terminal Adaptation Function Terrestrial Circuit: PCM link time slot used to support traffic on A interface Transaction Capabilities Application Part (CCITT SS7) TransCoding Board, enabling speech transcoding (FR) and data rate adaptation up to 9.6 kbps (TCU 6000) TransCoding Board, enabling speech transcoding (FR and EFR) and data rate adaptation up to 14.4 kbps (TCU 6000) Traffic CHannel: radio traffic channel Traffic CHannel/Full rate Traffic CHannel/Half rate Transmission Control Protocol: level 4 protocol usually used above IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol: levels 4 and 3 of the OSI reference model TransCoder Unit: Nortel name for the Transcoder Rate Adapter Unit equipment Time Division Multiple Access: abbreviation used to designate a transmission frame on the radio interface, divided into eight time slots (TS) or channels Transcoder Dual Trunk Interface: board handling PCM links (TCU 6000) Terminal Equipment Identifier: address allocated to site entities (BCF and TRX), or to a TCU used to route messages to and from the BSC on the Abis or Ater interface (LAPD protocol) Microwave terminal BCF part of the TIL application TRX part of the TIL application Terminal for Local Intervention: TML application dedicated to BTS on-site maintenance Timing Advance: alignment process designed to compensate propagation time between a mobile and BTS Traffic ManaGement: processor functional unit enabling BSC traffic handling capabilities Local Maintenance Terminal: specialized software running on a PC, used to test the different entities of the BSC and the BTS Telecommunication Management Network: operation, maintenance and administration functions for networks management, normalized by ITU Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity Transcoder Rate Adaptor Unit (see TCU) Transmission/reception subsystem of the BTS
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

TFH TIB TIF TIL TA TMG TML TMN TMSI TRAU TRX

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12 01/EN

21-18

January, 2000

Glossary
TS TSCB TUC TUP TX T2 Time Slot: a TDMA radio frame contains eight contiguous time slots Transcoder Signaling Concentration Board concentrating LAPD signaling channels between BSC and TCU into a single channel (BSC 6000/12000) Transcoder Unit Controller board designed to monitor other boards and internal PCM cross connections (TCU 6000) Telephone User Part Transmitter part of TRX (BTS) Period at which Permanent, Instrument panel and Temporary observation counters are recovered to generate observation reports, and also to back up Permanent and Temporary observation reports Temporary observation counter time 30 mn reference period used to obtain uniform daily statistics (synchronized activation of permanent and instrument panel observations)

T3 T4

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12 01/EN

21-19

January, 2000

Glossary
U
UA UL Um interface Unnumbered Acknowledgement: acknowledgement LAPD frame Underwriters Laboratory: North American standard See “Radio interface”

V
VAD VBS VCO VCXO VEA VGCS VLR VMS VPN VSWR V.35 V.42 V.42bis V.110 Voice Activity Detection (see DTX) Voice Broadcast Service: ASCI supplementary service allowing speech distribution into a geographical area Voltage Controlled Oscillator: type of oscillator in which the frequency may be adjusted by a control voltage Voltage Controlled crystal-Oscillator Very Early Assignment: procedure for setting up calls with allocating a radio channel at initial assignment Voice Group Call Service: ASCI supplementary service adding to VBS the change of the calling subscriber (full duplex channel) to another subscriber Visitor Location Register: MSC data base for subscribers moving within its coverage area (NSS) Voice Mail System Virtual Private Network Voltage Standing Wave Ratio ITU recommendation ITU recommendation for error control procedures ITU recommendation for data compression technique used with V42 ITU recommendation for data transmission

W
WS WorkStation: OMC stations linked to servers via an Ethernet LAN

X
X.25 ITU recommendation for terminals using packet transmission over PSPDN

"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

PE/TRD/CN/0101

12 01/EN

21-20

January, 2000

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->