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# ﻿HANDOUT 6

From Hetenyi, M. (1946).

Beams on Elastic Foundation.

The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.

CHAPTER IV

PARTICULAR CASES OF LOADING ON FINITE BEAMS

I. Solutions of the Differential Equation of the Elastic Line

In this chapter we shall give ready formulas for a number of simple cases of loading on beams of finite length. These expressions were derived by the previously presented method of superposition, by which solutions for any other loading or end conditions can also be obtained. In the formulas, wherever the symbol A is used, it denotes {lk/4EI, where k = bk« ; k« lbs.yin." is the modulus of the foundation; and b is the constant width of the beam in contact with the foundation; and EI is the flexural rigidity of the beam.

19. Beams with Free Ends

a. Equal Concentrated Forces at Both Ends (Fig. J,.1) 2PJ\. Cosh AX cos AX' + Cosh AX' cos AX

Y = T Sinh Xl + sin Xl

p

(37a)

Deflection at the end points:

2P>" Cosh Al + cos Xl YA = YB = T Sinh Al + sin Xl'

FIG. 41

Deflection at the middle;

Al Al

4P>.. Cosh 2 cos "2

Yo = k Sinh Al + sin Xl .

The deflection Yo = 0 when Al = 1r, 31r, 511", etc.

8 = 2Z;: 2 Sinh Al ~ sin Al (Sinh AX cos AX' + Cosh AX sin AX' - Sinh AX' cos J\.x - Cosh AX' sin AX).

Slope at the end points:

(37b)

2PA 2 Sinh Al - sin Al (JA = -88 = -k Sinh Al + sin Al .

M = P Sinh AX sin AX' + Sinh AX' sin AX

- A Sinh xl + sin Xl

50

(37c;

51

Bending moment at the middle:

S· 1 Xl • Xl

2P m 1 :2 sm 2'

X Sinh Xl + sin Xl .

ill c = 0 when Xl = 211'", 411'", 611'", etc.

Me is negative when Xl < 211'".

Me is positive when 211' < Xl < 411'.

IMc =

Q = P Sinh Xl ~ sin Xl (Sinh Xx cos Xx' - Cosh Xx sin AX' + Cosh AX' sin AX - Sinh Xx' cos AX).

(37d)

Y=

b. Equal Concentrated ill oments at Both Ends (Fig. 42)

21l!lo A 2 1 (S' h ' C h . '\ ,

-_- -,------;---- m AX cos AX - os AX sm AX

k Smh Al + sm Xl

+ Sinh AX' cos AX - Cosh AX' sin Xx). (38a)

FIG. 42

Deflection at the end points:

2MoX2 Sinh Al - sin Xl

YA = YB = --k~ Sinh Al + sin AI'

41lf 0 1.3 Cosh Xx cos AX' - Cosh AX' cos X,1:

-k- C Sinh Al + sin Xl

Slope at the end points:

o =

(38b)

4MoA3 Cosh Xl - cos Al OA = -OB =

k Sinh Al + sin Xl .

llf = Mo S' h l 1 , 1 (Sinh AX cos AX' + Cosh AX sin AX'

m A + sm A

+ Sinh Xx' cos Xx + Cosh Xx' sin Xz), Bending moment at the middle:

. Xl Xl Xl • Xl

Smh- cos - + Cosh - sm -

2 2 2 2

Sinh Al + sin Al

(38c)

111 c = 21lfo

52

Bl~AMS ON 1'~LAS'l'IC FOUNDATION

1.11 c - 0 when cos ~ = - sin ~l , that is, when Al = i7r, i7r, -l,l7r, ete., if we assume that at these Al values Sinh Xl = CORh Al.

Sinh Xx sin Xx' - Sinh Xx' sin Xx Q = 2MoX ----SinhXl+sln-XC---------

(3Sci)

c.Cgnccntrated force _ at One End (Fig. 4-3)

2PX Sinh Xl cos AX Cosh Xx' - sin Xl Cosh Xx cos AX'

y = __ -- ------------- (39a)

k Sinh" Xl - sin" Al

Deflections at the end points:

2PX Sinh Al Cosh Xl - sin Al cos Xl

----------------

k Sinh" Xl - sin- Xl

2PA Sinh Xl cos Xl - sin Xl Cosh Xl

k

Sinh" Xl - sin" Xl

The deflection YB = 0 when Al = t1r, {7r, etc., if we assume that at these Al values Sinh Al = Cosh Al.

6 =

2

2P~_;___ 1. [Sinh Al (sin Xx Cosh Xx' + cos Xx Sinh Xx')

k Sinh! Xl - sin" Al

+ sin Xl (Sinh AX cos Xx' + Cosh Xx sin AX')]. (39b)

Slopes at the end points:

2PA2 Sinh" Al + sin" Al -k--- Sinh2 XI - sin2 Xl'

- Os -

4PX 2 Sinh Xl sin Xl If: Sinh- A1 - sin" xi .

FIG. 43

The slope (JB = 0 when Xl = 1r, 21r, 31r, etc.

P Sinh Xl sin Xx Sinh Xx' - sin Xl Sinh Xx sin Xx'

-----

X Sinh! Xl - sin" Xl

4

(39c)

M=

Q = -P S' h Il . 2 1 [Sinh Xl (cos Xx Sinh Xx' - sin Xx Cosh Xx')

m 2 X - sm X

- sin Xl (Cosh Xx sin AX' - Sinh Xx cos AX')]. (39d) d. Concentrated Moment at One End (Fig. 4-4)

y = 2~OX2 Sinh2 Xl ~ sin2 Xl [Sinh Xl (Cosh Xx' sin Xx - Sinh Xx' cos Xx)

+ sin Xl (Sinh AX cos AX' - Cosh Xx sin Xx') J. (40a)

53

Deflections at the end points: 2Mo A2 Sinh" Al + sin" Al Y.4. = - -k- Sinh" Al - sin" AX )

,

.----- ec ---- .. -

~--------l---------

4Mo A2 Sinh Al sin Al

YB = --k-- Sinh- Al - sin" Al .

FIG. 44

The deflection 11 R = 0 when Al = it , 27r, 37r, etc.

o = ~~'~oA3 Sin_hA~Cosh A~'(3()~'3_ Ax_±_~i21~lgosh~.r(3o~A~

Ie Sinh" Al - sin" Al .

(40b)

Slopes at the end points:

41lf 0 A 3 Sinh Al Cosh Al + sin At cos Al

B.1 - -'7C--- -------. -- Sinh2-·>'T=--~~n2-·Xl --

41"[0 A 3 Sinh Al cos Al + sin Al Cosh Al F--"-'--"'-"'SInh2 XT=-SIn2->'{- -- - .

The slope OR = 0 when Al = i7r, t7r, -1_f7r, etc., if we assume that at these Al values Sinh Al = Cosh Al.

M = llfo ---.------}-- . -; .. - [Sinh Al (Sinh AX' cos AX + Cosh AX' sin AX)

Sinh" Al - 8m2 Al

- sin Al (Sinh Xx cos AX' + Cosh AX sin AX')]. (400)

Q -2~[oA ~_i~~~£ Si~h~_~!~~~_±_ sin Al Si~~~_x sin AX' (40d)

- Sinh- >..l - sin" Xl .

e. Concentrated Force at the Middle (Figs. 45-46)

y = ;~ Sinh Xl ~ sin Al [Cosh A.'t cos A(l - x) + cos AX Cosh A(l - x) - Sinh A.'t sin A(l - x) + sin AX Sinh ACl - x) + 2 Cosh AX cos AX].

(41a)

Deflection at the middle:

PA Cosh Al + cos Al + 2

Yc = -- ----------

2k Sinh xl + sin Al

Deflection at the end points:

Al Al

Cosh - cos-

2PA 2 2

-k- \$inh Xl + sin Al •

The deflection y.4. = Yn = 0 when Al = 7r, 37r, 57r, etc.

YA = YB =

54

BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDA'rION

The deflection at the end points is positive when Xl < 1r; Xl = 1r defines the effective length of the beam subjected to a concentrated force in the middle (Fig. 46).

p

FIG. 45

FIG. 46

e = ~r Sinh }<.l ~ -S1n~l (Sinh "'Ax [cos Xx + cos X(l - x)l

- sin Xx [Cosh Xx + Cosh X(l - x)]}.

Slope at the end points

(41h)

. Al Xl . Xl Xl

2PX2 Smh 2 cos 2 - sin 2 Cosh 2

(lA = -(JH = --k-- Sinh 'Xl + sin Xr---

1\1 = P S. h l ~ . --l {Sinh Xx [sin Xx - sin X(l - x)]

4A III A sin X

- Cosh Xx leos Xx + cos X(l - x)l

+ sin AX [Sinh AX - Sinh X(l - x)] + cos Xx [Cosh Ax + Cosh X(l - x)] I.

Maximum bending moment at the middle:

P Cosh Xl - cos »L Me = 4A Sinh Xl + sin At·

Q = ~ S· hAll -. --z- {Cosh Xx [sin Xx - sin ACl - x)] 2 m + sm X

+ cos Xx [Sinh AX - Sinh X(I - x)]}.

(41c)

(41d)

f. Concentrated Force at an Arbitrary Point (Fig. 47)

The following formulas for the deflection, slope, bending-moment, and shearing-force curves are for the A -C portion of the beam, where x < a. The same formulas can he used for the B-C section, where x < b, by measuring x from end B and replacing a by band b by a,

1/ = PIX S·. h2 All. 2 Xl 12 Cosh AX cos Ax(Sinh Xl cos Xa Cosh Xb

. (; m - sm

- sin Xl Cosh Xa cos Ab) + (Cosh Ax sin Xx .

+ Sinh AX cos "'Ax) [Sinh Al(sin Xa Cosh Xb - cos Aa Sinh Ab)

+ sin Al(Sinh Xa cos Xb - Cosh 'Aa sin Xb)]}. (42a)

CASES OF LOADIXG ON FINI'l'E BEAMS

55

Deflection at the point of application of the load (x = a):

PX 1 2 2.

Ye = k Sinh" Xl _ sin" Xl [(Cosh Xa + cos Xa)(Smh Ab Cosh Xb

- sin Xb cos Xb) + (Cosh2 Xb + cos" Xb)(Sinh Xa Cosh Xa - sin Xa cos Xa)].

2PX2 1

8 = -k- S' h2 '\z . 2 '\l I Cosh Xx cos Xx

, "In 1\ - SIn 1\

. [Sinh Xl(sin Xa Cosh Ab - cos Xa Sinh Ab) + sin Xl (Sinh Xa cos Xb - Cosh Xa sin Xb) 1 - (Cosh Xx sin Xx - Sinh Xx cos Xx)

. (Sinh Xl cos Xa Cosh Xb - sin Xl Cosh Xa cos Xb) I. ( 42b)

FIG, 47

Slope at the point of application of the load (x = a):

8e = ?!:~_2 Cosh2 Xa cos2 Xb - cos2 Xa Cosh2 Xb

k Sinh" Xl - sin" Xl

P 1 .

M = 2X Sinh" Xl _ sin" Xl /2 Sinh Xx sin Xx(Sinh Xl cos Xa Cosh Xb

- sin Xl Cosh Xa cos Xb) + (Cosh Xx sin Xx

- Sinh Xx cos Xx)[Sinh Xl(sin Xa Cosh xlJ - cos Xa Sinh Ab)

+ sin Xl(Sinh Xa cos Xb - Cosh Xa sin Xb) 11. (42c)

Bending moment at the point of application of the load (x = a):

Me = :x Sinh2 Xl 1_ sin:! Xl [(Cosh2 Xa - cos" Xa)(Sinh 2Xb - sin 2Xb) + (Cosh2 Xb - cos2 Ab)(Sinh 2Xa - sin 2Xa)].

Q = P S' h2 XLI . 2 Xl {(Cosh Xx sin Xx + Sinh Xx cos Xx)

m -sm

. (Sinh Xl cos Xa Cosh Xb - sin Xl Cosh Xa cos Xb) + Sinh Xx sin Xx[Sinh Xl(sin Xa Cosh Xb - cos Xa Sinh Xb)

+ sin Xl(Sinh Xa cos Xb - Cosh Xa sin Xb)]}. (42d)

56

REAMS ON l<~LA8rl'IC FOUNDATION

Shearing force directly to the left of point C:

P 1

Qc = 4 Sinh:! 'Al~--si-ni-il (4 Sinh 'Al Sinh 'Aa Cosh 'Ab - 4 sin 'AI sin 'Aa cos 'AlJ

- Sinh 2'Aa sin 2'Ab + sin 2'Aa Sinh 2M),

g. 'Two Equal Concentrated Forces Symmetrically Placed (Fig. 48) Deflection line for portion A-C (x < a):

P'A 1

Y.I-C = T Sinh 'Al + si~>'~l {2 Cosh 'Ax COH 'Ax[Cosh 'Aa cos 'A(l - a)

+ Cosh X(l - a) cos 'Aa] + (Cosh 'Ax sin 'Ax + Sinh 'Ax cos 'Ax) . [Cosh Xa sin X(l - a) - Sinh Xa cos 'AU - a)

+ Cosh X(l - a) sin Xa - Sinh X(l - a) cos 'Aa] I. (43a')

IlC PIP

-------- -------1------

o -·-·-2c _.

--- 1-

}"IG. 48

With the aid of the formula above the deflection line for the portion C-D (a. < x < 1 - a) can be expressed at-;

YC-D = [YA-clx>a + ~ [Cosh X(x - a) sin 'A(x - a)

- Sinh X(x - a) cos 'A{x - a)]. (43a")

Particular values of deflection ordinates:

2P'A Cosh 'Aa cos X(l - a) + Cosh X(l - a) cos 'Au.

]fA = YB = -·k - Sinh Xl + sin 'Al '

l~ 1 2

Yc = YD = 2k Sinh 'Al + sin »L [2 Cosh Xa( cos 2'Ac + Cosh Xl)

+ 2 cos" Xa(Cosh 2Xc + cos 'AI)

+ Sinh 2'Aa(sin 2Xc - Sinh 'Al) - sin 2Xa(Sinh 2'Ac - sin 'Al)],

PX 1

Yo = k Sinh »i + sin 'Al {Cosh 'Ac[cos XCl - c) + cos 'Ac]

-+ cos Xc[Cosh A(l - c) + Cosh Xe]

- Sinh Xc sin X(l - c) + sin Xc Sinh XU - c) I.

57

Angular deflection along A -C (:r < a):

2PX2 1 .

8,4-C = -~/~ si~il--~l~+~~i~---~-l {(Sinh kc cos Xx - Cosh Xx sin Xx)

. [Cosh Xa cos X(l - a) + Cosh X(l - a) cos Xal + Cosh Xx cos X.1:[Cosh Xa sin X(l - a) - Sinh 'sa cos X(l - a)

+ Cosh X(l - a) sin Xa - Sinh A(l - a) cos Aa] } . (43b') For portion C-D (a < x < l - a) we have

()C-D = [tJA-cJX>iL - 2~A2 Sinh A(.1: - a) sin X(x - a).

(43b")

Particular values of B:

2PX2 l' -

8_~ = -BR =~k Sinh Al + sin Ai [Cosh Aa sin A(l - a)

- Sinh Aa cos A(l - a) + Cosh A(l - a) sin »a - Sinh A(l - a) cos Aa]

-BD __ ~E!_~~ ~_9.~h2 Xa sin 2Xc - cos" Aa Sinh·2Ac

Be =

k Sinh Al + sin Al

The condition for Bc = 0 (a matter very important in railroad ties) will be

Cosh Aa = • ISi.nh 2Xc .

cos Aa 11 sm 2Ac

This condition is approximately satisfied when a = 0.82 c.

Bending moment along portion A-C (x < a):

MA-C = ~ Sinh Al ~ sin Al {2 Sinh AX sin Ax[Cosh Aa cos A(l - a) + Cosh A(l - a) cos Aa] + (Cosh A.1: sin AX

- Sinh AX cos Ax)[Cosh Aa sin A(l - a) - Sinh Aa cos A(l - a)

+ Cosh A(l - a) sin Xa - Sinh A(l - a) cos Aa]}. (43c') For portion C-D (a < x < l - a) we hare

l~ .

MC-D = [MA-cL~>a - 2A [Cosh A(x - a) sm A(x - a)

+ Sinh A(x - a) cos X(x - a)]. (43c")

Particular values of ill:

P 1 [ q (

Me = MlJ = - -;-------------. - 2 Cosh" Aa cos 2Xc + Cosh Al)

4X Smh Ai + sm Xl

- 2 cos" Xa(Cosh 2Xc + cos AI)

- Sinh 2Xa(sin 2Xc + Sinh Al)

- - sin 2Aa(Sinh 2Xc + sin Xl)],

58

BEAMS ON J:LASTIC FOUNDATION

.Mo =

p -" h 1 ~ ~l- I Sinh Xclsin Xc + sin )..(l - c)]

2)" Sinh X sm 1\

+ sin XclSinh Xc + Sinh X(l - c)]

+ Cosh )..C cos )..(l - c) - cos Xc Cosh X(I - c)}.

Shearing force along A~(} (x < a):

QA-C = P --.;----.-_._~ --.---- {(Sinh)"x cos Xx + Cosh Xx sin Xx) Smh Xl + sm Xl

. [Cosh Xa cos X(l - a) + Cosh X(l - a) cos Xa] + Sinh AX sin Xx[Cosh )..a sin X(l - a) - Sinh Xa cos )..(l - a)

+ Cosh X(l - a) sin Xa - Sinh XCl - a) cos Xa]}. (43d') For portion C-D (a < x < 1 - a) we have

QC-D = [QA-C]x>a + P Cosh X(x - a) cos A(x - a).

Shearing force directly to the left of point C:

Qc = ~2 S· h 1 ~. 1 [Sinh 2Xa(cos 2Xc + Cosh Xl)

m X sin X

(43d")

+ sin 2Xa(Cosh 2Xc + cos Xl)

- 2 Sinh2 Xa Sinh Xl + 2 sin" Xa sin xlj.

h. Symmetrically Placed Uniformly Distributed Loading (Fig. 49) Deflection line for portion A -0 (x < a):

YA-C = ([_ ---. ._. __ 1_._. __ : Cosh Xx cos Xx[Cosh Xa sin X(I - a)

k Sinh Xl + sm Xl .

- Sinh Xa cos X(I - a) + cos Xa Sinh X(l - a) - sin Xa Cosh X(l - a)] + (Cosh Xx sin Xx + Sinh Xx cos Xx) [sin Xa Sinh X(l - a) - Sinh Xa sin XCI - a)ll.

l (44a')

With the aid of the formula above the deflection line for the portion C-D can be expressed as

YC-D = [YA-C]x>a + * [1 - Cosh X(x - a) cos X(x - a)].

( 44a")

np.fiection at the end points:

y.~ = Yn = ~ _.-;---__!--.-- [Cosh Xa sin X(l - a) - Sinh Xa cos XCl - a) k Sinh Xl + sm )..l

+ cos Xa Sinh X(l- a) - sin Xa Cosh X(l - a)].

59

Deflection at the middle:

Yo = '1 [1 _ 2 (Sin~ cos AC Cosh ~ + sin All_Cosh AC cos ~)J

. k Sinh Ai + sin Xl .

Expressions for slope, bending moment, and shearing force can be derived by differentiating repeatedly with respect to x the formula ([44a'] 01' [44a"]) for the deflection line. This yields the particular values below.

Slope at the ends:

((~ = -(JH = ~qX sin Xa Sinh A(l - a) - Sinh Aa si~__,~~l - __!!)

k Sinh Al + sin Al

FIG. 4!)

Bending moment at the middle:

_ q sin AC Sinh ~ Sinh Xa + Sinh Xc sin ¥ sin Xa

Mo - -- -~~.. . -.- ... --- .. -.----.-

A2 Sinh Xl + sin Al

. 20. Beams with Hinged Ends

a. Concentrated J?orce at the ll-fiddle (Fig. 50)

Y = 2k(Cosh :zx + cos Ai) [cos Xx Sinh A(l - x) - Cosh AX sin A(l - x)

+ sin Xx Co~h A(l - :r) - Sinh Xx cos A(l - x)}. (4.i)a) Deflection at the middle:

PA Sinh At - sin Xl Yc = 2k Cosh Xl + -cos AI'

e = - PA2 . __ 1 [Sinh Xx sin A(l- x) + sin AX SinhA(l- x)]. (45b)

k Cosh Xl + cos Xl

Slope at the end points!

S· h Xl • Xl

2PX2 in 2" sin 2"

(JA = -OH = - ---~---.--

k Cosh Al + cos Xl .

M = ~ CosilX/+cos 'ii [Cosh Xx sin X(l - x) - Sinh Xx cos A(l - x)

+ cos Xx Sinh A(l - x) - sin AX Cosh X(I - x)]. (45c)

(iO

BEAMS OX EL.\HTIC FOUNDA'rIOX

Bending moment at the middle:

P Sinh Al + sin Al

1lf c = ~ ------------------ ... -- -.-. .

-I:A Cosh Xl + cos Al

Q

P 1

2 -(' h -l------ _- -l [Cosh AX ('OS A(l - .r) + cos AX Cosh A(l _ x)J. (-I:5d)

.lOR A + cos A

From this we can obtain an expression for the reactions A = 11 = - [Q]x=I/2 ; if positive values thus denote upward-pointing reaction forces, we have

p

Al Al

Cosh - cos ---.

il = B = P ~_._. 2

Cosh Al + cos Al

A = B = () when Al = 71", 371", 571", etc. Fro. 50

The first root Al = 71" corresponds to the so-called effective length discussed on page 54.

f). Uniformly Dietriauted Loadinq over the lV/lUll' Span (Fia. 51)

y = t (1 _ ~osh AX ~~s~X~ij-+(]~~~tz!_'·_coS.AX) . (46a)

Deflection at the middle:

FIG. 51 \

qA 1 (S' h ., ' + C h ~ .: "\,'

() = --.----------- III AX cos AX .os AX sin AX

k Cosh Al + cos Al

_ Sinh AX' cos AX _ Cosh AX' sin AX).

(46b)

Slope at the end points:

~f q Sinh AX _ sin AX' + Sinh Ax'sin AX

1 = 2A2 .---- - C(;~Ti-~l---Fcos -~I--- ------ .

Bending moment at the middle:

S· hAL . Al III -- sm --

J.11 c = q.- ---~-------~A2 Cosh Al + cos »i

Q = -!L 1 (Sinh AX cos AX' - Cosh AX sin AX'

2A Cosh Al + cos Al

(46c)

+ Cosh AX' sin AX - Sinh AX' cos Xx). (46d)

61

Hence we obtain an expression for the reactions A = B = [Q]x=o ;

x'=l

A = B = !L Sinh Al + sin Al 2X Cosh Xl + cos A[ .

c. Equal Concentrated Moments at Both Ends (Fig. 52) 2MoA2 Sinh AX' sin AX + Sinh Ax sin Xx'

y = --------~---- -------------------.

k Cosh A[ + cos Xl

(47a)

Deflection at the middle:

S· hAL . Al 4MoA2 m"2 sm 2-

Ya = k Cosh A[ + cos Xl .

FIG. 52

2MoA3 1 (C h ) . ,\' S' h ) ). ,

o = -~ -------'------- os AX SIn AX - In AX cos AX

k Cosh Al + cos Al

- Cosh AX' sin AX + Sinh AX' cos AX). (47b)

Slope at the end points:

2N1oA3 Sinh Xl + sin Xl --I-- C-osh->':T+cos ~l'

Cosh AX cos AX' + Cosh AX' cos AX

M = Mo ~-~---------------------------- .

Cosh Al + cos Al

(-l7c)

Bending moment at the middle:

Xl Al Cosh - cos -

Ai o = 2Mo ---_!_---.-~--- .

Cosh Al + cos Al

Q = llfoA Cosh Al 1+ cos Al (Sinh Xx cos AX' + Cosh Xx sin AX'

- sin Xx Cosh AX' - cos Xx Sinh Xx'). (47 d)

Reaction forces:

A = B = -AJoA Sinh Xl - sin A1 .• Cosh Xl + cos Al

d. Concentrated Moment at One End (Fig. 53)

2_ll.foA2 Cosh Al Sinh AX' sin Xx - cos Al Sinh AX sin AX'

y - (48u)

- -k-- Cosh" Al - cos" At

0= 2MoA3 ! [Cosh Al(cos AX Sinh AX' - sin AX Cosh AX')

k C08h2 Xl - cos' Al

- cos AZ(Cosh AX sin AX' - Sinh AX cos AX')]. (48b)

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