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EDGE HSPA and LTE Broadband Innovation

EDGE HSPA and LTE Broadband Innovation

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EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 2

TABLE OF CONTENTS
I NTRODUCTI ON ...................................................................................................... 3  
BROADBAND DEVELOPMENTS ................................................................................ 5 
WI RELESS DATA MARKET ....................................................................................... 8  
Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 
EDGE/ HSPA/ HSPA+ Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 
St at ist ics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 
WI RELESS TECHNOLOGY EVOLUTI ON AND MI GRATI ON ....................................... 15 
Technical Approaches ( TDMA, CDMA, OFDMA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 
3GPP Evolut ionary Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 
Spect rum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 
Core- Net work Evolut ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 
Service Evolut ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 
Broadband- Wireless Deployment Considerat ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 
Feat ure and Net work Roadmap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 
COMPETI NG TECHNOLOGI ES ................................................................................ 29  
CDMA2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 
WiMAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 
I EEE 802. 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 
Wi- Fi and Municipal Wi- Fi Syst ems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 
COMPARI SON OF WI RELESS TECHNOLOGI ES ....................................................... 36  
Dat a Throughput . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 
HSDPA Throughput in Represent at ive Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 
Release 99 and HSUPA Uplink Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 
LTE Throughput . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 
Lat ency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 
Spect ral Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 
Cost , Volume and Market Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 
Compet it ive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 
CONCLUSI ON ........................................................................................................ 56  
APPENDI X: TECHNOLOGY DETAI LS ...................................................................... 58 
EDGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 
Evolved EDGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 
UMTS/ HSPA Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 
UMTS Release 99 Dat a Capabilit ies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 
HSDPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 
HSUPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 
Evolut ion of HSPA ( HSPA+ ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 
HSPA Voice Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 
3GPP LTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 
4G, I MT- Advanced and LTE Advanced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 
UMTS TDD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 
TD- SCDMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 
I MS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 
Broadcast / Mult icast Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 
EPC/ SAE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 
ACRONYMS ........................................................................................................... 96  
ADDI TI ONAL I NFORMATI ON .............................................................................. 100 
REFERENCES ...................................................................................................... 100  

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 3
Introduction
Through const ant innovat ion, Universal Mobile Telecommunicat ions Syst em ( UMTS) wit h
High Speed Packet Access ( HSPA) t echnology and it s evolut ion t o beyond t hird generat ion
( 3G) has est ablished it self as t he global, mobile- broadband solut ion. Building on t he
phenomenal success of Global Syst em for Mobile Communicat ions ( GSM) , t he GSM/ UMTS
ecosyst em is becoming t he most successful communicat ions t echnology family ever.
Through a process of const ant improvement , t he GSM family of t echnologies has not only
mat ched or exceeded t he capabilit ies of all compet ing approaches, but has significant ly
ext ended t he life of each of it s member t echnologies.
UMTS/ HSPA, in part icular, has many key t echnical and business advant ages over ot her
mobile wireless t echnologies. Operat ors worldwide are now deploying bot h High Speed
Downlink Packet Access ( HSDPA) and High Speed Uplink Packet Access ( HSUPA) , t he
combinat ion of t he t wo t echnologies called simply HSPA. HSPA is one of t he most powerful
cellular- dat a t echnologies ever developed. HSPA, already widely available, follows t he
successful deployment of UMTS net works around t he world and is now a st andard feat ure.
Any operat or deploying UMTS t oday is doing so wit h HSPA. The UMTS- t o- HSPA upgrade is
similar t o Enhanced Dat a Rat es for GSM Evolut ion ( EDGE) , which has already proven t o be a
remarkably effect ive upgrade t o GSM net works, and HSPA ( or HSDPA for some net works) is
now support ed by an overwhelming number of operat ors and vendors worldwide.
HSPA is st rongly posit ioned t o be t he dominant mobile- dat a t echnology for t he rest of t he
decade. To leverage operat or invest ment s in HSPA, t he 3GPP ( Third Generat ion Part nership
Proj ect ) st andards body has developed a series of enhancement s t o creat e “ HSPA
Evolut ion, ” also referred t o as “ HSPA+ . ” HSPA Evolut ion represent s a logical development of
t he Wideband Code Division Mult iple Access ( WCDMA) approach, and it is t he st epping st one
t o an ent irely new Third Generat ion Part nership Proj ect ( 3GPP) radio plat form called 3GPP
Long Term Evolut ion ( LTE) . LTE, which uses Ort hogonal Frequency Division Mult iple Access
( OFDMA) , should be ready for deployment in t he 2010 t imeframe. Simult aneously, 3GPP —
recognizing t he significant worldwide invest ment s in GSM net works—has defined
enhancement s t hat will significant ly increase EDGE dat a capabilit ies t hrough an effort called
Evolved EDGE.
Combined wit h t hese improvement s in radio- access t echnology, 3GPP has also spearheaded
t he development of maj or core- net work archit ect ure enhancement s such as t he I P
Mult imedia Subsyst em ( I MS) and t he Evolved Packet Core ( or EPC, previously called Syst em
Archit ect ure Evolut ion or SAE) , as well as development s in Fixed Mobile Convergence ( FMC) .
These development s will facilit at e new t ypes of services, t he int egrat ion of legacy and new
net works, t he convergence bet ween fixed and wireless syst ems, and t he t ransit ion from
circuit - swit ched approaches for voice t raffic t o a fully packet - swit ched model.
The result is a balanced port folio of complement ary t echnologies t hat covers bot h radio-
access and core net works, provides operat ors maximum flexibilit y in how t hey enhance t heir
net works over t ime, and support s bot h voice and dat a services.
This paper discusses t he evolut ion of EDGE, HSPA enhancement s, 3GPP LTE, t he capabilit ies
of t hese t echnologies, and t heir posit ion relat ive t o ot her primary compet ing t echnologies.
The following are some of t he import ant observat ions and conclusions of t his paper:
 Persist ent innovat ion creat ed EDGE, which was a significant advance over GPRS;
HSPA and HSPA+ , which are bringing UMTS t o it s full pot ent ial; and is now delivering
LTE, t he most powerful, wide- area wireless t echnology ever developed.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 4
 GSM/ UMTS has an overwhelming global posit ion in t erms of subscribers,
deployment , and services. I t s success will marginalize ot her wide- area wireless
t echnologies.
 I n current deployment s, HSPA users regularly experience t hroughput rat es well in
excess of 1 megabit per second ( Mbps) , under favorable condit ions, on bot h
downlinks and uplinks. Planned enhancement s will increase t hese peak user-
achievable t hroughput rat es, wit h 4 Mbps on commercial net works being commonly
measured.
 HSPA Evolut ion provides a st rat egic performance roadmap advant age for incumbent
GSM/ UMTS operat ors. HSPA+ wit h 2x2 MI MO, successive int erference cancellat ion,
and 64 Quadrat ure Amplit ude Modulat ion ( QAM) is more spect rally efficient t han
compet ing t echnologies including Worldwide I nt eroperabilit y for Microwave Access
( WiMAX) Wave 2 wit h 2x2 MI MO and Evolved Dat a Opt imized ( EV- DO) Revision B.
 The LTE Radio Access Net work t echnical specificat ion was approved in January 2008
and is being incorporat ed int o 3GPP Release 8, which is close t o complet ion. I nit ial
deployment s are likely t o occur around 2010. The 3GPP OFDMA approach used in
LTE mat ches or exceeds t he capabilit ies of any ot her OFDMA syst em. Peak
t heoret ical rat es are 326 Mbps in a 20 MHz channel bandwidt h. LTE assumes a full
I nt ernet Prot ocol ( I P) net work archit ect ure, and it is designed t o support voice in t he
packet domain.
 LTE has become t he t echnology plat form of choice as GSM/ UMTS and CDMA/ EV- DO
operat ors are making st rat egic long- t erm decisions on t heir next - generat ion
plat forms. I n June of 2008, aft er ext ensive evaluat ion, LTE was t he first and only
t echnology recognized by t he Next Generat ion Mobile Net work alliance t o meet it s
broad requirement s.
 GSM/ HSPA will comprise t he overwhelming maj orit y of subscribers over t he next five
t o t en years, even as new wireless t echnologies are adopt ed. The deployment of LTE
and it s coexist ence wit h UMTS/ HSPA will be analogous t o t he deployment of
UMTS/ HSPA and it s coexist ence wit h GSM.
 3GPP is now st udying how t o enhance LTE t o meet t he requirement s of I MT-
Advanced in a proj ect called LTE Advanced.
 UMTS/ HSPA/ LTE have significant economic advant ages over ot her wireless
t echnologies.
 WiMAX has developed an ecosyst em support ed by many companies, but it will st ill
only represent a very small percent age of wireless subscribers over t he next five t o
t en years.
 EDGE t echnology has proven ext remely successful and is widely deployed on GSM
net works globally. Advanced capabilit ies wit h Evolved EDGE can double and
event ually quadruple current EDGE t hroughput rat es.
 Wit h a UMTS mult iradio net work, a common core net work can efficient ly support
GSM, WCDMA, and HSPA access net works and offer high efficiency for bot h high and
low dat a rat es, as well as for bot h high- and low- t raffic densit y configurat ions. I n t he
fut ure, EPC/ SAE will provide a new core net work t hat support s bot h LTE and
int eroperabilit y wit h legacy GSM/ UMTS radio- access net works.
 I nnovat ions such as EPC/ SAE and UMTS one- t unnel archit ect ure will “ flat t en” t he
net work, simplifying deployment and reducing lat ency.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 5
 Circuit - swit ched, voice over HSPA, t hen moving t o Voice over I nt ernet Prot ocol
( VoI P) over HSPA will add t o voice capacit y and reduce infrast ruct ure cost s. I n t he
meant ime, UMTS/ HSPA enj oys high circuit - swit ched voice spect ral efficiency, and it
can combine voice and dat a on t he same radio channel.
This paper begins wit h an overview of t he market , looking at t rends, EDGE and UMTS/ HSPA
deployment s, and market st at ist ics. I t t hen examines t he evolut ion of wireless t echnology,
part icularly 3GPP t echnologies, including spect rum considerat ions, core- net work evolut ion,
broadband- wireless deployment considerat ions, and a feat ure and net work roadmap. Next ,
t he paper discusses ot her wireless t echnologies, including Code Division Mult iple Access
2000 ( CDMA2000) , Ult ra Mobile Broadband ( UMB) , and WiMAX. Finally, it compares t he
different wireless t echnologies t echnically, based on feat ures such as performance and
spect ral efficiency.
The appendix explains in det ail t he capabilit ies and workings of t he different t echnologies
including EDGE, Evolved EDGE, WCDMA
1
, HSPA, HSPA Evolut ion ( HSPA+ ) , LTE, I MS, and
SAE.
Broadband Developments
As wireless t echnology represent s an increasing port ion of t he global communicat ions
infrast ruct ure, it is import ant t o underst and overall broadband t rends and t he role bet ween
wireless and wireline t echnologies. Somet imes wireless and wireline t echnologies compet e
wit h each ot her, but in most inst ances t hey are complement ary. For t he most part , backhaul
t ransport and core infrast ruct ure for wireless net works are based on wireline approaches,
whet her opt ical or copper. This applies as readily t o Wi- Fi net works as it does t o cellular
net works.
Given t hat t he inherent capacit y of one fiber opt ical link exceeds t he ent ire available radio
frequency ( RF) spect rum, dat a flow over wireless links will never represent more t han a
small percent age of t he t ot al global communicat ions t raffic. Nevert heless, wireless
t echnology is playing a profound role in net working and communicat ions, because it
provides t wo fundament al capabilit ies: mobilit y and access. Mobilit y refers t o unt et hered
communicat ion whet her st at ionery or in mot ion. Access refers t o communicat ion services,
whet her t elephony or I nt ernet , easily provided across geographic areas and oft en more
easily accomplished t han wit h wireline approaches, especially in greenfield sit uat ions where
t here is lit t le exist ing communicat ions infrast ruct ure. Thus, given t hese charact erist ics,
mobile communicat ions volume may be less t han wireline, but it s overall cont ribut ion t o
communicat ions in t he world and it s social, polit ical and economic impact , is j ust as
significant .
The overwhelming global success of mobile t elephony, and now t he growing adopt ion of
mobile dat a, conclusively demonst rat e t he desire for mobile- orient ed communicat ions. The
quest ion of using wireless t echnology, however, for access is more complex. One must
consider t he performance and capacit y of wireless t echnologies relat ive t o wireline
approaches, what wireline infrast ruct ure may already be available, and ongoing
development s wit h wireline t echnology. I n part icular, wireline net works have always had
great er capacit y, and hist orically have delivered fast er t hroughput rat es. Figure 1 shows
advances in t ypical user t hroughput rat es, and a consist ent 10x advant age of wireline
t echnologies over wireless t echnologies.

1
Alt hough many use t he t erms “ UMTS” and “ WCDMA” int erchangeably, in t his paper we use “ WCDMA”
when referring t o t he radio int erface t echnology used wit hin UMTS and “ UMTS” t o refer t o t he
complet e syst em. HSPA is an enhancement t o WCDMA.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 6
Fi gur e 1: Wi r el i ne and Wi r el ess Advances
2010 2000 2005
100 kbps
10 kbps
1 Mbps
10 Mbps
100 Mbps
GPRS 40 kbps
UMTS 350 kbps
HSDPA 1 Mbps
HSPA+ 5 Mbps
LTE 10 Mbps
EDGE 100 kbps
ADSL 1 Mbps
ISDN
128 kbps
ADSL 3 to 5 Mbps
ADSL2+ 25 Mbps
FTTH 100 Mbps

Mobile broadband combines compelling high- speed dat a services wit h mobilit y. Thus, t he
opport unit ies are limit less when considering t he many diverse market s mobile broadband
can successfully address. I n developing count ries, t here is no doubt t hat 3G t echnology will
cat er t o bot h ent erprises and t heir high- end mobile workers and consumers, for whom 3G
can be a cost - effect ive opt ion, compet ing wit h digit al subscriber line ( DSL) , for home use.
I n t he developed world, users’ desire t o be connect ed anyt ime, anywhere will be a primary
source of demand. While consumer demand for social and search services, such as
Facebook, MySpace, YouTube, Yahoo, and Google, increases t he demand for mobile-
broadband capabilit ies, t he maj orit y of early adopt ers of mobile broadband have been
ent erprises. Bet t er connect ivit y means a business is more efficient . As a result , ent erprise
broadband- connect ivit y adopt ion is t aking on t he same “ look and feel” as early mobile-
phone service adopt ion. I n t he early 1990s, doct ors, lawyers, salespeople, and execut ives
already had home phones, office desk phones, and even recept ionist s. I t was t he
product ivit y increases associat ed wit h being connect ed t o a cellular net work, however, t hat
accelerat ed mobile- broadband growt h t hroughout t he world. Port io Research predict ed in
June 2008 t hat worldwide mobile dat a revenue would increase at an annual rat e of 16
percent t o reach $252 billion t he end of 2012.
2

Overall, whet her in business or in our personal lives, t he world of voice and dat a is quickly
becoming one t hat must be unt et hered, but always connect ed.
Alt hough it is t rue t hat most 3G syst ems are now offering t hroughput s of about 1 Mbps—
which is comparable t o what many users experience wit h a basic DSL or cable- modem
service—t he overall capacit y of wireless syst ems is generally lower t han it is wit h wireline
syst ems. This is especially t rue when wireless is compared t o opt ical fiber, which some

2
“ Mobile Dat a Services Market s 2008” , Port io Research, June 11, 2008

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 7
operat ors are now deploying t o people’s homes. Wit h wireline operat ors looking t o provide
20 t o 100 Mbps t o eit her people’s homes or businesses via next - generat ion cable- modem
services, very high- speed DSL ( VDSL) , or fiber—especially for services such as high-
definit ion I P Television ( I PTV) —t he quest ion becomes, is it possible t o mat ch t hese rat es
using wireless approaches? The answer is “ yes” from a purely t echnical perspect ive, but it is
“ no” from a pract ical point of view. I t is only possible t o achieve t hese rat es by using large
amount s of spect rum, generally more t han is available for current 3G syst ems, and by using
relat ively small cell sizes. Ot herwise, it simply will not be possible t o deliver t he hundreds of
gigabyt es per mont h t hat users will soon be consuming over t heir broadband connect ions
wit h wide- area wireless net works. Consider t oday’s high definit ion ( HD) t elevision cont ent
t hat demands 6 t o 9 Mbps of cont inuous connect ivit y, where one subscriber could
essent ially consume t he ent ire capacit y of a WiMAX or HSPA cell sect or. The only possible
wireless approach t o address such high- dat a consumpt ion is wit h FMC approaches, such as
femt o cells ( or dual mode Wi- Fi/ 3G devices, as shown in Figure 2. This presupposes,
however, an exist ing wireline I nt ernet connect ion ( e. g. , DSL) .
Fi gur e 2: FMC Used t o Ex pand Capaci t y
Macro-Cell
Coverage
Femto-Cell
Coverage
Aggregate femto-cell
capacity far exceeds
macro-cell capacity
for same amount
of spectrum

What makes much more sense t oday is using wireless t echnology for access only when
t here are no good wireline alt ernat ives. Hence, t he int erest developing count ries have in
broadband- wireless t echnologies. What changes t he dynamics of t he business model in
t hese areas is t hat operat ors can cost - effect ively deploy voice ( which is inherent ly low
bandwidt h) and lower- speed dat a services, most ly because of t he lack of wireline offerings.
Deploying at lower capacit y—as measured by lower bit s per second ( bps) per square
kilomet er—means larger cell sizes, and t hus fewer cell sit es and much lower deployment
cost s.
Table 1 summarizes t he st rengt hs and weaknesses of wireless versus wireline broadband
approaches.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 8

Tabl e 1: St r engt hs and Weak ness of Br oadband Appr oaches
St r engt h Weak ness
Mobi l e br oadband ( EDGE,
HSPA, LTE)
Const ant connect ivit y
Broadband capabilit y across
ext remely wide areas
Good access solut ion for
areas lacking wireline
infrast ruct ure
Capacit y enhancement
opt ions via FMC
Excellent voice
communicat ions
Lower capacit y t han wireline
approaches
I nabilit y t o serve high-
bandwidt h applicat ions such
as I P TV
Wi r el i ne br oadband ( e.g.,
DSL, DOCSI S, FTTH)
High capacit y broadband at
very high dat a rat es
Evolut ion t o ext remely high
t hroughput rat es
Expensive t o deploy new
net works, especially in
developing economies
lacking infrast ruct ure

This is not a st at ic sit uat ion, however. I n t he longer t erm, a number of development s could
make high- capacit y broadband- wireless syst ems more compet it ive wit h wireline
approaches. Among t hese development s are mesh capabilit ies t o reduce deployment cost s,
higher spect ral efficiency, low- cost commodit ized base st at ions, and fut ure spect rum
allocat ions for mobile- broadband syst ems. However, any such fut ure success is somewhat
speculat ive and dependent on many development s including t echnology and broadband
applicat ion evolut ion.
3GPP t echnologies clearly address proven market needs; hence, t heir overwhelming
success. The 3GPP roadmap, which ant icipat es cont inual performance and capacit y
improvement s, provides t he t echnical means t o deliver on proven business models. As t he
applicat ions for mobile broadband cont inue t o expand, HSPA, HSPA+ , LTE and LTE
Advanced will cont inue t o provide a compet it ive plat form for t omorrow’s new business
opport unit ies.
Wireless Data Market
By August 2008, over 3. 2 billion subscribers were using GSM/ UMTS
3
—approaching an
ast onishing 50 percent of t he world’s t ot al 6. 7 billion populat ion.
4
I nforma’s World Cellular
I nformat ion Service proj ect s over 4 billion GSM/ UMTS cust omers by 2010, wit h 742 million
of t hese subscribers using UMTS services.
5
3G Americas President Chris Pearson st at es,
“ This level of wireless t echnology growt h exceeds t hat of almost all ot her lifest yle- changing

3
I nforma Telecoms & Media, August 2008.
4
ht t p: / / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ World_populat ion, July 2008
5
I nforma Telecoms & Media, World Cellular I nformat ion Service, July 2008.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 9
innovat ions.”
6
Clearly, GSM/ UMTS has est ablished global dominance. Alt hough voice st ill
const it ut es most cellular t raffic, wireless dat a worldwide now comprises 17 percent of
average revenue per user ( ARPU) . I n t he Unit ed St at es, wireless dat a is more t han 20
percent of ARPU for t he t hree largest operat ors.
7
This number could easily double wit hin
t hree years, and operat ors across Nort h and Sout h America are confirming t his growt h wit h
t heir report s of rising dat a ARPU.
This sect ion examines t rends and deployment , and t hen provides market dat a t hat
demonst rat es t he rapid growt h of wireless dat a.
Trends
Users are adopt ing wireless dat a across a wide range of applicat ions, including e- mail,
social net working, game downloads, inst ant messaging ( I M) , ringt ones, and video.
Wireless dat a in ent erprise applicat ions like group collaborat ion, ent erprise resource
planning ( ERP) , cust omer relat ionship management ( CRM) , and dat abase access is also
gaining accept ance. The simult aneous adopt ion by bot h consumers, for ent ert ainment -
relat ed services, and businesses, t o enhance product ivit y, increases t he ret urn- on-
invest ment pot ent ial for wireless operat ors.
A number of import ant fact ors are accelerat ing t he adopt ion of wireless dat a. These
include increased user awareness, innovat ive “ feat ure phones” , powerful smart phones,
and global coverage. But t wo fact ors st and out : net work capabilit y and applicat ions.
Technologies such as GSM, UMTS, and HSPA support a wide range of applicat ions,
including st andard net working applicat ions and t hose designed for wireless. Meanwhile,
applicat ion and cont ent suppliers are opt imizing t heir offerings or, in many cases,
developing ent irely new applicat ions and cont ent t o t arget t he needs and desires of
mobile users.
Comput ing it self is becoming more mobile, and not ebook comput ers and smart phones
are now prevalent . I n fact , all mobile phones are becoming “ smart , ” wit h some form of
dat a capabilit y, and leading not ebook vendors are now offering comput ers wit h
int egrat ed 3G ( e. g. , HSPA) capabilit ies. Modems are available in mult iple format s
including USB devices, PC Cards and Express cards.
Comput er manufact urers are also experiment ing wit h new form fact ors, such as ult ra-
mobile PCs, “ net book” comput ers and mobile I nt ernet devices ( MI Ds) . Lifest yles at home
and at work are increasingly mobile wit h more people t raveling more oft en for business,
for pleasure or in ret irement . Meanwhile, t he I nt ernet is becoming progressively more
int ert wined wit h people’s lives providing communicat ions, social net working,
informat ion, enhancement s t o memberships and subscript ions, communit y involvement ,
and commerce. Wireless access t o t he I nt ernet in t his environment is a powerful cat alyst
for t he creat ion of new services. I t also provides operat ors and ot her t hird- part y
providers wit h many new business opport unit ies.
As dat a const it ut es a rising percent age of t ot al cellular t raffic, it is essent ial t hat
operat ors deploy spect rally efficient dat a t echnologies t hat meet cust omer requirement s
for performance—especially because dat a applicat ions can demand significant ly more
net work resources t han t radit ional voice services. Operat ors have a huge invest ment in
spect rum and in t heir net works; dat a services must leverage t hese invest ment s. I t is
only a mat t er of t ime before t oday’s more t han 3 billion cellular cust omers st art t aking

6
3G Americas press release of June 5, 2007.
7
ht t p: / / www.chet ansharma. com/ usmarket updat eq108. ht m

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 10
full advant age of dat a capabilit ies. This adopt ion will offer t remendous opport unit ies and
t he associat ed risks t o operat ors as t hey choose t he most commercially viable
evolut ionary pat h for migrat ing t heir cust omers. The EDGE/ HSPA/ LTE evolut ionary pat hs
provide dat a capabilit ies t hat address market needs and deliver ever- higher dat a
t hroughput s, lower lat ency, and increased spect ral efficiency.
Alt hough wireless dat a has always offered a t ant alizing vision of always- connect ed
mobile comput ing, adopt ion has been slower t han t hat for voice services. I n t he past
several years, however, adopt ion has accelerat ed t hanks t o a number of key
development s. Net works are much more capable, delivering higher t hroughput s at lower
cost . Awareness of dat a capabilit ies has increased, especially t hrough t he pervasive
success of Short Message Service ( SMS) , wireless e- mail, downloadable ringt ones, and
downloadable games. Widespread availabilit y of services has also been import ant . The
feat ures found in cellular t elephones are expanding at a rapid rat e and t oday include
large color displays, graphics viewers, st ill cameras, movie cameras, MP3 players, I M
client s, e- mail client s, Push- t o- Talk over Cellular ( PoC) , downloadable execut able
cont ent capabilit ies, and ever more powerful browsers. All t hese capabilit ies consume
dat a.
Meanwhile, smart phones, which emphasize a rich comput ing environment on a phone,
represent t he convergence of t he personal digit al assist ant , a fully capable mobile
comput er, and a phone, all in a device t hat is only slight ly larger t han t he average
cellular t elephone. Many users would prefer t o carry one device t hat “ does it all. ”
Smart phones, originally t arget ed for t he high end of t he market , are now available at
much lower price point s and t hus affordable t o a much larger market segment . ABI
Research predict s t hat t he smart phone market , which was 10% of t he t ot al market in
2007, will become 31% of t he market in 2013.
8
This number may be conservat ive as t he
iPhone demonst rat es t he lat ent market demand for devices t hat enable rich mult imedia
and communicat ions capabilit ies.
As a consequence, t his rich net work and device environment is spawning t he availabilit y
of a wide range of wireless applicat ions and cont ent . Because of it s growing size—and it s
unassailable pot ent ial—applicat ion and cont ent developers simply cannot afford t o ignore
t his market . And t hey aren’t . Consumer cont ent developers are already successfully
providing downloadable ringt ones and games. Enabled by 3G net work capabilit ies,
downloadable and st reaming music and video are not far behind. I n t he ent erprise
space, all t he maj or developers now offer mobilized “ wireless- friendly” component s for
t heir applicat ions. A recent art icle in Net work Comput ing surveyed maj or ent erprise
applicat ion vendors, including I BM, Oracle, Salesforce. com, SAP, and Sybase and found
comprehensive support for mobile plat forms from each of t hese vendors.
9

Act ing as cat alyst s, a wide array of middleware providers are addressing issues such as
increased securit y ( for example, Virt ual Privat e Net works [ VPNs] ) , swit ching bet ween
different net works ( for example, WLANs t o 3G) , session maint enance under adverse
radio condit ions, and policy mechanisms t hat cont rol applicat ion access t o net works.
A number of ot her powerful cat alyst s are spurring wireless- dat a innovat ion. Pricing for
unlimit ed
10
usage has declined subst ant ially for bot h lapt op and handset plans, t hus
encouraging great er numbers of users t o adopt dat a services. Operat ors are seeing

8
“ One in Three Handset s Will Be a Smart phone by 2013” , March 2008,
ht t p: / / www. wirelessweek. com/ art icle.aspx?id= 158452
9
“ Reach Me if You Can, ” May 2007, Pet er Rysavy, ht t p: / / www. rysavy. com/ papers. ht ml
10
Typically, some rest rict ions apply.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 11
considerable success wit h music sales. New services such as video sharing are being
enabled by I MS, which will also facilit at e FMC and seamless communicat ions experiences
t hat span cellular and Wi- Fi net works. Meanwhile, users are responding ent husiast ically
t o locat ion- based services, banks are let t ing t heir account holders manipulat e t heir
account s using handheld devices, and users have an increasing number of mobile
opt ions for real- t ime t ravel informat ion and manipulat ion of t hat informat ion.
I n t he ent erprise space, t he first st age of wireless t echnology adopt ion was essent ially t o
replace modem connect ivit y. The next was t o offer exist ing applicat ions on new
plat forms like smart phones. But t he final, and much more import ant , st age is where
j obs are reengineered t o t ake full advant age of cont inuous connect ivit y. Select ive
t act ical adopt ion of mobile applicat ions such as wireless e- mail is a good st art ing point
for many organizat ions. However, companies t hat carefully adopt mobile applicat ions in
a more st rat egic fashion across mult iple business unit s are finding t hey can significant ly
increase t heir compet it iveness.
Based on one leading UMTS/ HSPA infrast ruct ure vendor’s st at ist ics, Figure 3 compares
t he rapid growt h in wireless dat a t raffic compared t o voice t raffic. By t he end of 2007, in
HSPA coverage areas on a global basis, t he volume of dat a t raffic ( indicat ed in gigabit
per radio net work cont roller [ RNC] per hour) exceeded voice t raffic.
Fi gur e 3: UMTS/ HSPA Voi ce and Dat a Tr af f i c
11

2,5827
5,1654
7,7481
10,3308
12,9135
15,4962
18,0789
20,6616
Jan
07
Feb
07
Mar
07
Apr
07
May
07
Jun
07
Jul
07
Aug
07
Sep
07
Oct
07
Nov
07
Dec
07
Jan
08
Feb
08
Mar
08
Voice
Packet
Data


11
Based on leading UMTS/ HSPA infrast ruct ure vendor st at ist ics.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 12


Over t ime, dat a demands are expect ed t o grow significant ly. Figure 4 shows a leading
operat or’s assessment of dat a demands on it s net work.
Fi gur e 4: Oper at or Assessment of Gr ow t h i n Dat a Demand on Rel at i ve Basi s
12

0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
0
5
10
15
20
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
AO - 12/17/07
Source: AT&T
1 corresponds to 2007 2G Data Traffic
Aggressive 3G/4G
Data Traffic Growth
Conservative 3G/4G
Data Traffic Growth
Voice Traffic Growth
2G Data Traffic Growth


This figure is consist ent wit h growt h in mobile- broadband dat a consumpt ion present ed in
a report from Value Part ners
13
. The report proj ect s for European count ries 1
GByt e/ user/ mont h using conservat ive assumpt ions, 8 GByt es/ user/ mont h wit h medium
assumpt ions, and 30 Gbyt es/ user/ mont h wit h aggressive assumpt ions.
Anot her driver for broadband dat a growt h beyond mobile applicat ions is t he use of
HSPA/ LTE net works as alt ernat ives t o wireline net works where running wire or fiber is

12
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.
13
Value Part ners, “ Get t ing t he Most Out of t he Digit al Divide – Allocat ing UHF Spect rum t o Maximise
t he Benefit s for European Societ y” , March 2008,
ht t p: / / www. spect rumst rat egy. com/ Pages/ GB/ perspect ives/ Spect rum- Get t ing- t he- most - out - of- t he-
digit a- dividend- 2008. pdf.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 13
problemat ic. This includes developing economies, as well as remot e areas. For example,
Telst ra is ext ending it s HSPA net work t o remot e mining locat ions and oil product ion
plat forms.
14

A final fact or accelerat ing adopt ion of mobile/ wireless t echnologies is environment al
considerat ions, where enhanced communicat ions t echnologies facilit at e business
int eract ion wit h fewer face- t o- face meet ings, and make it easier for workers t o eit her
t elecommut e or st ay involved wit h work proj ect s as t hey conduct t heir personal affairs.
Wit h huge energy cost s and pollut ion from fossil fuels, mobile broadband may
increasingly be viewed as a “ green” t echnology, and t here is even a Web sit e ( ht t p: / /
www. green4g. com) t hat promot es t his cause.
The key for operat ors is enhancing t heir net works t o support t he demands of consumer
and business applicat ions as t hey grow, along wit h offering complement ary capabilit ies
such as I P- based mult imedia. This is where t he GSM family of wireless- dat a t echnologies
is t he undisput ed leader. Not only does it provide a plat form for cont inual improvement s
in capabilit ies, but it does so over huge coverage areas and on a global basis.
EDGE/HSPA/HSPA+ Deployment
Three quart ers of GSM net works t oday support EDGE, represent ing more t han 350
net works in approximat ely 150 count ries.
15

Because of t he very low increment al cost of including EDGE capabilit y in GSM net work
deployment s, virt ually all new GSM infrast ruct ure deployment s are also EDGE- capable
and nearly all new mid- t o high- level GSM devices include EDGE radio t echnology.
Meanwhile, UMTS has est ablished it self globally. Nearly all WCDMA handset s are also
GSM handset s, so WCDMA users can access t he wide base of GSM net works and
services. There are more t han 251 million UMTS cust omers globally spanning 236
commercial net works. 211 operat ors in 90 count ries offer HSDPA and 46 of t hese have
HSUPA deployed.
16
All UMTS operat ors are deploying HSPA for t wo reasons: first , t he
increment al cost of HSPA is relat ively low and second, HSPA makes such efficient use of
spect rum for dat a t hat it result s in a much lower overall cost per megabyt e of dat a
delivered. Already, t here are more t han 724 commercial HSPA devices available
worldwide.
17
Devices include handset s, dat a cards, modems, rout ers, lapt ops, media
players and cameras.
As for HSPA+ , a number of operat ors have commit t ed t o t he t echnology including AT&T
and Telst ra. As t he t echnology mat ures, upgrading t o HSPA+ will likely represent a
minimal invest ment for operat ors in order t o significant ly boost net work performance.
Statistics
A variet y of st at ist ics show t he growt h in wireless dat a. For inst ance, SNL Kagan st at es
in a recent press release t hat Apple’s iPhone 3G combined wit h ot her smart phone
offerings will result in mobile dat a dominat ing t he wireless indust ry. The report proj ect s

14
Telst ra present at ion “ HSPA as an Open Eco- Syst em Today – Telst ra Next G Net work” , 2008.
15
“ World Cellular I nformat ion Service, ” I nforma Telecoms & Media, June 2008.
16
I bid.
17
GSA HSPA Devices Survey, July 21, 2008

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 14
mobile dat a revenues in t he US t o increase at a compound annual growt h rat e of 16%
( from $24 billion in 2007 t o over $100 billion in 2017.
18
)
Similarly, Chet an Sharma Consult ing report s t hat US wireless dat a grew 8. 6% in t he
second quart er of 2008 compared t o t he previous quart er and 40% compared t o Q1 of
2007, reaching $8. 2 billion in revenue.
19
On a global basis, I nforma Telecoms and Media
report ed first quart er revenue of $49 billion, a 42. 7% year- t o- year increase, result ing in
more t han $200 billion of revenue for t he year
20
. Meanwhile, ABI Research found t hat
cellular modem sales including PC Cards, Express Cards, USB modems, embedded
modems and 3G/ Wi- Fi rout ers t oget her increased 300% in 2007 compared t o t he
previous year.
21

I n research conduct ed by Wireless I nt elligence and AT Kearney for t he GSM Associat ion,
findings included 40% growt h of t he European Union’s mobile dat a market in 2007 t o 7
billion Euros, excluding SMS.
22
The number of devices t hat support wireless dat a has
part ly fueled t hat dat a use. According t o a st udy by t he Online Publishers Associat ion, 76
percent of all mobile phones are Web- enabled.
23
3G is also fueling dat a adopt ion.
According t o Lehman Global Equit y Research, 3G subscribers t hat use mobile dat a
applicat ions spend t wice as much on dat a each mont h as 2G subscribers.
24

From a device perspect ive, I nforma WCI S proj ect ed in July 2008 t he following sales
growt h rat e for WCDMA handset s:
25

2008: 283 million
2009: 422 million
2010: 558 million
2011: 701 million
2012: 861 million
2013: 1. 01 billion
I t is clear t hat bot h EDGE and UMTS/ HSDPA are dominant wireless t echnologies. And
powerful dat a capabilit ies and global presence mean t hese t echnologies will likely
cont inue t o capt ure most of t he available wireless- dat a market .

18
ht t p: / / www1. snl. com/ press/ 20080731. asp
19
Chet an Sharma: “ US Wireless Dat a Market Updat e – Q2 2008” ,
ht t p: / / www. chet ansharma. com/ usmarket updat eq108. ht m.
20
Source: I nforma Telecoms and Media, press release, July 23, 2008
21
ht t p: / / www.fiercewireless. com/ press- releases/ led- asia- pacific- suppliers- cellular- modem- indust ry-
will- exceed- 200- million- unit s- 2013
22
ht t p: / / www. cellular- news. com/ st ory/ 31730. php?source= newslet t er
23
Online Publishers Associat ion st udy, March 8, 2007
24
Lehman Global Equity Research, Paul Wuh, “Global 3G Developments: 3G subs accelerate; more data revenue in
’09.” May 23, 2008.
25
“ World Cellular I nformat ion Service, ” I nforma Telecoms & Media, July 2008.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 15
Wireless Technology Evolution and Migration
This sect ion discusses t he evolut ion and migrat ion of wireless- dat a t echnologies from EDGE
t o LTE, as well as t he evolut ion of underlying wireless approaches. Progress has occurred in
mult iple phases, first wit h EDGE, and t hen UMTS, followed by t oday’s enhanced 3G
capabilit ies such as HSPA, HSPA+ and, before long, LTE. Meanwhile, underlying approaches
have evolved from Time Division Mult iple Access ( TDMA) t o CDMA, and now from CDMA t o
OFDMA, which is t he basis of LTE.
Technical Approaches (TDMA, CDMA, OFDMA)
Considerable discussion in t he wireless indust ry has focused on t he relat ive benefit s of
TDMA, CDMA, and, more recent ly, OFDMA. Many t imes, one t echnology or t he ot her is
posit ioned as having fundament al advant ages over anot her. However, any of t hese t hree
approaches, when fully opt imized, can effect ively mat ch t he capabilit ies of any ot her.
GSM, which is based on TDMA, is a case in point . Through innovat ions like frequency
hopping, t he Adapt ive Mult i Rat e ( AMR) vocoder for voice, and EDGE for dat a
performance opt imizat ion, GSM is able t o effect ively compet e wit h t he capacit y and dat a
t hroughput of CDMA2000 One Carrier Radio Transmission Technology ( 1xRTT) .
Despit e t he evolut ion of TDMA capabilit ies, t he cellular indust ry has generally adopt ed
CDMA for 3G net working t echnology. Alt hough t here are some significant differences
bet ween CDMA2000 and WCDMA/ HSPA, such as channel bandwidt hs and chip rat es,
bot h t echnologies use many of t he same t echniques t o achieve roughly t he same degree
of spect ral efficiency and t ypical performance. These t echniques include efficient
schedulers, higher order modulat ion, Turbo codes, and adapt ive modulat ion and coding.
Today, people are asking whet her Ort hogonal Frequency Division Mult iplexing ( OFDM)
and OFDMA
26
provide any inherent advant age over TDMA or CDMA. For syst ems
employing 10 MHz or less of bandwidt h, t he answer is largely “ no.” Because it t ransmit s
mut ually ort hogonal subchannels at a lower symbol rat e, t he fundament al advant age of
OFDM is t hat it elegant ly addresses t he problem of int ersymbol int erference induced by
mult ipat h and great ly simplifies channel equalizat ion. As such, OFDM syst ems, assuming
t hey employ all t he ot her st andard t echniques for maximizing spect ral efficiency, may
achieve slight ly higher spect ral efficiency t han CDMA syst ems. However, advanced
receiver archit ect ures—including opt ions such as pract ical equalizat ion approaches and
int erference cancellat ion t echniques—are already commercially available in UMTS and
CDMA chipset s and can nearly mat ch t his performance advant age.
I t is wit h larger bandwidt hs of great er t han 10 MHz and in combinat ion wit h advanced
ant enna approaches such as MI MO or Adapt ive Ant enna Syst ems ( AAS) , t hat OFDM
enables less comput at ionally complex implement at ions t han t hose based on CDMA.
Hence, OFDM is more readily realizable in mobile devices. However, st udies have shown
t hat t he complexit y advant age of OFDM may be quit e small ( t hat is, less t han a fact or of
t wo) if frequency domain equalizers are used for CDMA- based t echnologies. St ill, t he
advant age of reducing complexit y is one reason 3GPP chose OFDM for it s LTE proj ect . I t
is also one reason newer WLAN st andards, which employ 20 MHz radio channels, are
based on OFDM. I n ot her words, OFDM is current ly a favored approach under
considerat ion for radio syst ems t hat have ext remely high peak rat es. OFDM also has an
advant age in t hat it can scale easily for different amount s of available bandwidt h. This in

26
OFDMA is simply OFDM in which t he syst em assigns different subcarriers t o different users.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 16
t urn allows OFDM t o be progressively deployed in available spect rum by using different
numbers of subcarriers.
An OFDMA t echnology like LTE can also t ake bet t er advant age of wider radio channels
( for example, 10 MHz) by not requiring guard bands bet ween radio carriers ( for
example, HSPA carriers) . I n recent years, t he abilit y of OFDM t o cope wit h mult ipat h has
also made it t he t echnology of choice for t he design of Digit al Broadcast Syst ems.
I n 5 MHz of spect rum, as used by UMTS/ HSPA, cont inual advances wit h CDMA
t echnology—realized in HSPA+ t hrough approaches such as equalizat ion, MI MO,
int erference cancellat ion, and higher- order modulat ion—will allow CDMA- based syst ems
t o largely mat ch OFDMA- based syst ems.
Table 2 summarizes t he at t ribut es of t he different wireless approaches.
Tabl e 2: Summar y of Di f f er ent Wi r el ess Appr oaches
Appr oach Technol ogi es Empl oy i ng
Appr oach
Comment s
TDMA GSM, GPRS, EDGE,
Telecommunicat ions I ndust ry
Associat ion/ Elect ronics I ndust ry
Associat ion ( TI A/ EI A) - 136 TDMA
First digit al cellular
approach. Hugely
successful wit h GSM.
New enhancement s being
designed for GSM/ EDGE.
CDMA CDMA2000 1xRTT, CDMA2000
EV- DO, WCDMA, HSPA, HSPA+
I nst it ut e of Elect rical and
Elect ronic Engineers ( I EEE)
802. 11b
Basis for nearly all new 3G
net works. Mat ure, efficient ,
and will dominat e wide-
area wireless syst ems for
t he remainder of t his
decade and well int o next .
OFDM/ OFDMA 802. 16/ WiMAX, Flarion Fast Low-
Lat ency Access wit h Seamless
Handoff OFDM ( Flash OFDM) ,
3GPP LTE, I EEE 802. 11a/ g/ n,
I EEE 802. 20, Third Generat ion
Part nership Proj ect 2 ( 3GPP2)
UMB, 3GPP2 Enhanced Broadcast
Mult icast Services ( EBCMCS) ,
Digit al Video Broadcast ing- H
( DVB- H) , Forward Link Only
( FLO)
Effect ive approach for
broadcast syst ems, higher
bandwidt h radio syst ems,
and high peak dat a rat es in
large blocks of spect rum.
Also provides flexibilit y in
t he amount of spect rum
used. Well suit ed for
syst ems planned for t he
next decade.

Because OFDMA has only modest advant ages over UMTS in 5 MHz channels, t he
advancement of HSPA is a logical and effect ive st rat egy. I n part icular, it ext ends t he life
of operat ors’ large 3G invest ment s reducing overall infrast ruct ure invest ment s,
decreasing capit al and operat ional expendit ures, and allowing operat ors t o offer
compet it ive services.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 17
3GPP Evolutionary Approach
Rat her t han emphasizing any one wireless approach, 3GPP’s evolut ionary plan is t o
recognize t he st rengt hs and weaknesses of every t echnology and t o exploit t he unique
capabilit ies of each one accordingly. GSM, based on a TDMA approach, is mat ure and
broadly deployed. Already ext remely efficient , t here are nevert heless opport unit ies for
addit ional opt imizat ions and enhancement s. St andards bodies have already defined
“ Evolved EDGE, ” which will be available for deployment in t he 2009 t o 2010 t imeframe
and bring more t han a doubling of performance over current EDGE syst ems. By t he end
of t he decade, because of sheer market moment um, t he maj orit y of worldwide
subscribers will st ill be using GSM/ EDGE t echnologies.
Meanwhile, CDMA was chosen as t he basis of 3G t echnologies, including WCDMA for t he
frequency division duplex ( FDD) mode of UMTS, and Time Division CDMA ( TD- CDMA) for
t he t ime division duplex ( TDD) mode of UMTS. The evolved dat a syst ems for UMTS, such
as HSPA and HSPA+ , int roduce enhancement s and simplificat ions t hat help CDMA- based
syst ems mat ch t he capabilit ies of compet ing syst ems, especially in 5 MHz spect rum
allocat ions. Over t he remainder of t his decade, GSM and UMTS will const it ut e a growing
proport ion of subscript ions and, by t he end of t he decade, t hese t echnologies will likely
account for most new subscript ions.
Given some of t he advant ages of an OFDM approach, 3GPP has specified OFDMA as t he
basis of it s Long Term Evolut ion
27
effort . LTE incorporat es best - of- breed radio
t echniques t o achieve performance levels beyond what will be pract ical wit h CDMA
approaches, part icularly in larger channel bandwidt hs. However, in t he same way t hat
3G coexist s wit h Second Generat ion ( 2G) syst ems in int egrat ed net works, LTE syst ems
will coexist wit h bot h 3G syst ems and 2G syst ems. Mult imode devices will funct ion
across LTE/ 3G or even LTE/ 3G/ 2G, depending on market circumst ances. Beyond radio
t echnology, EPC/ SAE provides a new core archit ect ure t hat enables bot h flat t er
archit ect ures, and int egrat ion of LTE wit h bot h legacy GSM/ UMTS net works, as well as
ot her wireless t echnologies. The combinat ion of EPC and EPS is referred t o as t he
Evolved Packet Syst em ( EPS) .
Though lat er sect ions quant ify performance, and t he appendix of t he whit e paper
present s funct ional det ails of t he different t echnologies, t his sect ion provides a quick
summary int ended t o provide a frame of reference for t he subsequent discussion. Table
3 summarizes t he key 3GPP t echnologies and t heir charact erist ics.
Tabl e 3: Char act er i st i cs of 3GPP Technol ogi es
Technol ogy
Name
Ty pe Char act er i st i cs Ty pi cal
Dow nl i nk
Speed
Ty pi cal Upl i nk
Speed
GSM TDMA Most widely deployed
cellular t echnology in t he
world. Provides voice and
dat a service via
GPRS/ EDGE.

EDGE TDMA Dat a service for GSM
net works. An enhancement
t o original GSM dat a service
70 kbps
t o 130 kbps
70 kbps
t o 130 kbps

27
3GPP also refers t o LTE as Enhanced UMTS Terrest rial Radio Access Net work ( E- UTRAN) .

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 18
Technol ogy
Name
Ty pe Char act er i st i cs Ty pi cal
Dow nl i nk
Speed
Ty pi cal Upl i nk
Speed
called GPRS.
Evolved
EDGE
TDMA Advanced version of EDGE
t hat can double and
event ually quadruple
t hroughput rat es.
150 kbps
t o 500 kbps
expect ed
100 kbps
t o 500 kbps
expect ed
UMTS CDMA 3G t echnology providing
voice and dat a capabilit ies.
Current deployment s
implement HSPA for dat a
service.
200 t o 300
kbps
200 t o 300
kbps
HSPA CDMA Dat a service for UMTS
net works. An enhancement
t o original UMTS dat a
service.
1 Mbps t o
4 Mbps
500 kbps
t o 2 Mbps
HSPA+ CDMA Evolut ion of HSPA in
various st ages t o increase
t hroughput and capacit y
and t o lower lat ency.
> 5 Mbps
expect ed
> 3 Mbps
expect ed
LTE OFDMA New radio int erface t hat
can use wide radio channels
and deliver ext remely high
t hroughput rat es. All
communicat ions handled in
I P domain.
Typical user rat es may
exceed 10 Mbps.
> 10 Mbps
expect ed
> 5 Mbps
expect ed
LTE
Advanced
OFDMA Advanced version of LTE
designed t o meet I MT-
Advanced requirement s.


User achievable rat es and great er det ails on t ypical rat es are covered in Table 5 in t he
sect ion “ Dat a Throughput ” lat er in t his paper. Figure 5 shows t he evolut ion of t he
different wireless t echnologies and t heir peak net work performance capabilit ies.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 19
Fi gur e 5: Ev ol ut i on of TDMA, CDMA, and OFDMA Sy st ems
E
D
G
E
H
S
P
A
L
T
E
C
D
M
A
2
0
0
0
F
i
x
e
d

W
i
M
A
X
M
o
b
i
l
e

W
i
M
A
X
U
M
B


The development of GSM and UMTS/ HSPA happens in st ages referred t o as 3GPP
releases, and equipment vendors produce hardware t hat support s part icular versions of
each specificat ion. I t is import ant t o realize t hat t he 3GPP releases address mult iple
t echnologies. For example, Release 7 opt imizes VoI P for HSPA but also significant ly
enhances GSM dat a funct ionalit y wit h Evolved EDGE. A summary of t he different 3GPP
releases is as follows:
28

 Rel ease 99: Complet ed. First deployable version of UMTS. Enhancement s t o
GSM dat a ( EDGE) . Maj orit y of deployment s t oday are based on Release 99.
Provides support for GSM/ EDGE/ GPRS/ WCDMA radio- access net works.
 Rel ease 4: Complet ed. Mult imedia messaging support . First st eps t oward using
I P t ransport in t he core net work.

28
Aft er Release 99, release versions went t o a numerical designat ion inst ead of designat ion by year.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 20
 Rel ease 5: Complet ed. HSDPA. First phase of I MS. Full abilit y t o use I P- based
t ransport inst ead of j ust Asynchronous Transfer Mode ( ATM) in t he core net work.
 Rel ease 6: Complet ed. HSUPA. Enhanced mult imedia support t hrough
Mult imedia Broadcast / Mult icast Services ( MBMS) . Performance specificat ions for
advanced receivers. WLAN int egrat ion opt ion. I MS enhancement s. I nit ial VoI P
capabilit y.
 Rel ease 7: Complet ed. Provides enhanced GSM dat a funct ionalit y wit h Evolved
EDGE. Specifies HSPA Evolut ion ( HSPA+ ) , which includes higher order modulat ion
and MI MO. Provides fine- t uning and increment al improvement s of feat ures from
previous releases. Result s include performance enhancement s, improved spect ral
efficiency, increased capacit y, and bet t er resist ance t o int erference. Cont inuous
Packet Connect ivit y ( CPC) enables efficient “ always- on” service and enhanced
uplink UL VoI P capacit y as well as reduct ions in call set - up delay for PoC. Radio
enhancement s t o HSPA include 64 QAM in t he downlink DL and 16 QAM in t he
uplink. Also includes opt imizat ion of MBMS capabilit ies t hrough t he
mult icast / broadcast single- frequency net work ( MBSFN) funct ion.
 Rel ease 8: Under development . Comprises furt her HSPA Evolut ion feat ures such
as simult aneous use of MI MO and 64 QAM. I ncludes work it em for dual- carrier
HSPA ( DC- HSPA) where t wo WCDMA radio channels can be combined for a
doubling of t hroughput performance. Specifies OFDMA- based 3GPP LTE. Defines
EPC.
 Rel ease 9: Expect ed t o include HSPA and LTE enhancement s.
 Rel ease 10: Expect ed t o specify LTE Advanced t hat meet s t he requirement s set
by I TU’s I MT- Advanced proj ect .
Whereas operat ors and vendors act ively involved in t he development of wireless
t echnology are heavily focused on 3GPP release versions, most users of t he
t echnology are more int erest ed in part icular feat ures and capabilit ies, such as
whet her a device support s HSDPA. For t his reason, t he det ailed discussion of t he
t echnologies in t his paper emphasizes feat ures as opposed t o 3GPP releases.
Spectrum
Anot her import ant aspect of UMTS/ HSPA deployment is t he expanding number of
available radio bands, as shown in Figure 6, and t he corresponding support from
infrast ruct ure and mobile- equipment vendors. The fundament al syst em design and
net working prot ocols remain t he same for each band; only t he frequency- dependent
port ions of t he radios have t o change.
As ot her frequency bands become available for deployment , st andards bodies are
adapt ing UMTS for t hese bands as well. This includes 450 and 700 MHz. UMTS- TDD
equipment is already available for 450 MHz. 1710- 1770 uplink was mat ched wit h 2110-
2170 downlink t o allow for addit ional global harmonizat ion of t he 1. 7/ 2. 1GHz band.
Meanwhile, t he Federal Communicat ions Commission auct ioned t he 700 MHz band in t he
Unit ed St at es in January 2008. The availabilit y of t his band, t he Advanced Wireless
Services ( AWS) band at 1710- 1755 MHz wit h/ 2110- 2155 MHz in t he US, and t he
fort hcoming 2. 6 GHz frequency band in Europe are providing operat ors wit h wider
deployment opt ions. An increasing number of operat ors are also deploying UMTS at 900
MHz, a t radit ional GSM band.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 21
As t he t ot al amount of available spect rum increases and as t echnologies simult aneously
become spect rally more efficient , t ot al capacit y rises rapidly, support ing more
subscribers, and make many new t ypes of applicat ions feasible.
The following figure shows t he FDD bands defined for 3GPP t echnologies.
Fi gur e 6: FDD Bands f or 3GPP Technol ogi es
29

850 MHz
1800 MHz
1900 MHz
2.1 GHz
2.6 GHz
1.7/2.1 GHz
900 MHz
Band 1
Band 2
Band 3
Band 4
Band 5
Band 7
Band 8
1700 MHz Band 9
800 MHz Band 6
2x25 MHz
2x75 MHz
2x60 MHz
2x60 MHz
2x70 MHz
2x45 MHz
2x35 MHz
2x35 MHz
2x10 MHz
824-849
1710-1785
1850-1910
1920-1980
2500-2570
1710-1755
880-915
1749.9-1784.9
830-840
Operating
band
Band name
Total
spectrum
Uplink [MHz]
869-894
1805-1880
1930-1990
2110-2170
2620-2690
2110-2155
925-960
1844.9-1879.9
875-885
Downlink [MHz]
Ext 1.7/2.1MHz Band 10 2x60 MHz 1710-1770 2110-2170
1500 MHz Band 11 2x25 MHz 1427.9 - 1452.9 1475.9 - 1500.9
Lower 700 MHz Band 12 2x18 MHz 698-716 728-746
Upper 700 MHz Band 13 2x10 MHz 777-787 746-756
Upper 700 MHz,
public safety/private
Band 14 2x10 MHz 788-798 758-768


I t should be not ed t hat , alt hough t he support of a new frequency band may be
int roduced in a part icular release, t he 3GPP st andard also specifies ways t o implement
devices and infrast ruct ure operat ing on any frequency band according t o release ant erior
t o t he int roduct ion of t hat part icular frequency band. For example, alt hough band 5 ( US
Cellular Band) was int roduced n Release 6, t he first devices operat ing on t his band were
compliant wit h t he release 5 of t he st andard.
Figure 7 shows TDD bands defined for 3GPP Technologies.

29
Source: 3G Americas’ member company.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 22
Fi gur e 7: TDD Bands f or 3GPP Technol ogi es
30

Operating
band
Total
spectrum
Frequencies [MHz]
Band 39
Band 40
40 MHz
100 MHz
1880-1920
2300-2400
Band 38 50 MHz 2570-2620
Band 33
Band 34
Band 35
Band 36
Band 37 20 MHz
60 MHz
15 MHz
20 MHz
60 MHz
1910-1930
1850-1910
2010-2025
1900-1920
1930-1990


Different count ries have regulat ed spect rum more loosely t han ot hers. For example,
operat ors in t he Unit ed St at es can use eit her 2G or 3G t echnologies in cellular, Personal
Communicat ions Service ( PCS) , and 3G bands; whereas in Europe t here are great er
rest rict ions—t hough effort s are underway t hat are result ing in great er flexibilit y,
including t he use of 3G t echnologies in current 2G bands.
Wit h t he proj ect ed increase in t he use of mobile- broadband t echnologies, t he amount of
spect rum required by t he next generat ion of wireless t echnology ( t hat is, aft er 3GPP LTE
in proj ect s such as I nt ernat ional Mobile Telecommunicat ions ( I MT) Advanced) could be
subst ant ial, given t he desire t o operat e radio channels as wide as 100 MHz. I deally, t his
spect rum would fall below 5 GHz. This search for new spect rum is a long- t erm
undert aking, and it may be well int o t he next decade before any such new spect rum
becomes available. However, given t he expanding size and economic significance of t he
mobile- comput ing indust ry, decisions made on new spect rum—especially wit h respect t o
global harmonizat ion—will have profound consequences.
Core-Network Evolution
3GPP is defining a series of enhancement s t o t he core net work t o improve net work
performance and t he range of services provided and t o enable a shift t o all- I P
archit ect ures.
One way t o improve core- net work performance is by using flat t er archit ect ures. The
more hierarchical a net work, t he more easily it can be managed cent rally; however, t he
t radeoff is reduced performance, especially for dat a communicat ions, because packet s
must t raverse and be processed by mult iple nodes in t he net work. To improve dat a
performance and, in part icular, t o reduce lat ency ( delays) , 3GPP has defined a number
of enhancement s in Release 7 and Release 8 t hat reduce t he number of processing
nodes and result in a flat t er archit ect ure.

30
Source: 3G Americas’ member company.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 23
I n Release 7, an opt ion called one- t unnel archit ect ure allows operat ors t o configure t heir
net works so t hat user dat a bypasses a serving node and t ravels direct ly via a gat eway
node. There is also an opt ion t o int egrat e t he funct ionalit y of t he radio- net work
cont roller direct ly int o t he base st at ion.
For Release 8, 3GPP has defined an ent irely new core net work, called t he Evolved Packet
Core, previously called Syst em Archit ect ure Evolut ion. The key feat ures and capabilit ies
of EPC/ SAE include:
 Reduced lat ency and higher dat a performance t hrough a flat t er archit ect ure.
 Support for bot h LTE radio- access net works and int erworking wit h GSM/ UMTS
radio- access net works.
 The abilit y t o int egrat e non- 3GPP net works such as WiMAX.
 Opt imizat ion for all services provided via I P.
This paper provides furt her det ails in t he sect ions on HSPA Evolut ion ( HSPA+ ) and
EPC/ SAE.
Service Evolution
Not only do 3GPP t echnologies provide cont inual improvement s in capacit y and dat a
performance, t hey also evolve capabilit ies t hat expand t he services available t o
subscribers. Key service advances include FMC, I MS, and broadcast ing t echnologies. This
sect ion provides an overview of t hese t opics, and t he appendix provides great er det ail
on each of t hese it ems.
FMC refers t o t he int egrat ion of fixed services ( such as t elephony provided by wireline or
Wi- Fi) wit h mobile cellular- based services. Though FMC is st ill in it s early st ages of
deployment by operat ors, it promises t o provide significant benefit s t o bot h users and
operat ors. For users, FMC will simplify how t hey communicat e, making it possible for
t hem t o use one device ( for example, a cell phone) at work and at home, where it might
connect via a Wi- Fi net work or a femt o cell. When mobile, users connect via a cellular
net work. Users will also benefit from single voice mailboxes and single phone numbers
as well as t he abilit y t o cont rol how and wit h whom t hey communicat e. For operat ors,
FMC allows t he consolidat ion of core services across mult iple- access net works. For
inst ance, an operat or could offer complet e VoI P- based voice service t hat support s access
via DSL, Wi- Fi, or 3G. FMC also offloads t he macro net work from dat a- int ensive
applicat ions such as movie downloads.
FMC has various approaches, including enabling t echnologies such as Unlicensed Mobile
Access ( UMA) , femt ocells, and I MS. Wit h UMA, GSM/ UMTS devices can connect via Wi- Fi
or cellular connect ions for bot h voice and dat a. UMA is a 3GPP t echnology, and it has
been deployed by a number of operat ors, including T- Mobile in t he Unit ed St at es. An
alt ernat ive t o using Wi- Fi for t he “ fixed” port ion of FMC is femt ocells. These are t iny base
st at ions t hat cost lit t le more t han a Wi- Fi access point and, like Wi- Fi, femt ocells
leverage a subscriber' s exist ing wireline- broadband connect ion ( for example, DSL) .
I nst ead of operat ing on unlicensed bands, femt ocells use t he operat or’s licensed bands
at very low power levels. The key advant age of t he femt o cell approach is t hat any
single- mode, mobile- communicat ions device a user has can now operat e using t he femt o
cells.
I MS is anot her key t echnology for convergence. I t allows access t o core services and
applicat ions via mult iple- access net works. I MS is more powerful t han UMA, because it
support s not only FMC but also a much broader range of pot ent ial applicat ions. I n t he

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 24
Unit ed St at es, AT&T has commit t ed t o an I MS approach and has already deployed an
I MS- based video sharing service. Though defined by 3GPP, t he Third Generat ion
Part nership Proj ect 2 ( 3GPP2) , CableLabs and WiMAX have adopt ed I MS.
I MS allows t he creat ive blending of different t ypes of communicat ions and informat ion,
including voice, video, I M, presence informat ion, locat ion, and document s. I t provides
applicat ion developers t he abilit y t o creat e applicat ions t hat have never before been
possible, and it allows people t o communicat e in ent irely new ways by dynamically using
mult iple services. For example, during an int eract ive chat session, a user could launch a
voice call. Or during a voice call, a user could suddenly est ablish a simult aneous video
connect ion or st art t ransferring files. While browsing t he Web, a user could decide t o
speak t o a cust omer- service represent at ive. I MS will be a key plat form for all- I P
archit ect ures for bot h HSPA and LTE.
Anot her import ant new service is support for mobile TV t hrough what is called mult icast
or broadcast funct ions. 3GPP has defined mult icast / broadcast capabilit ies for bot h HSPA
and LTE.
Broadband-Wireless Deployment Considerations
Much of t he debat e in t he wireless indust ry is on t he merit s of different radio
t echnologies, yet ot her fact ors are equally import ant in det ermining t he services and
capabilit ies of a wireless net work. These fact ors include t he amount of spect rum
available, backhaul, and net work t opology.
Spect rum has always been a maj or considerat ion for deploying any wireless net work,
but it is part icularly import ant when looking at high- performance broadband syst ems.
HSPA and HSPA+ can deliver high t hroughput rat es on t he downlink and uplink wit h low
lat ency in 5 MHz channels when deployed in single frequency ( 1/ 1) reuse. By t his, we
mean t hat every cell sect or ( t ypically t hree per cell) in every cell uses t he same radio
channel( s) .
As previously discussed, an OFDMA approach in a 5 MHz radio channel yields only a
small performance advant age. To achieve higher dat a rat es requires wider radio
channels, such as 10 or 20 MHz wide channels in combinat ion wit h emerging OFDMA
radio t echnologies. Very few operat ors t oday, however, have access t o t his much
spect rum. I t was challenging enough for GSM operat ors t o obt ain UMTS spect rum. I f
delivering very high dat a rat es is t he obj ect ive, t hen t he syst em must minimize
int erference. This result is best achieved by employing looser reuse, such as having
every sect or use only one- t hird of t he available radio channels ( 1/ 3 reuse) . The 10 MHz
radio channel could now demand as much as 30 MHz of available spect rum.
Backhaul is anot her fact or. As t he t hroughput of t he radio link increases, t he circuit s
connect ing t he cell sit es t o t he core net work must be able t o handle t he increased load.
Wit h many cell sit es t oday serviced by j ust a small number of T1/ E1 circuit s, each able
t o carry only 1. 5/ 2. 0 Mbps, operat ors will have t o significant ly upgrade backhaul
capacit y t o obt ain t he full benefit of next - generat ion wireless t echnologies. An OFDMA
syst em wit h 1. 5 bps per hert z ( Hz) of spect ral efficiency in 10 MHz on t hree sect ors has
up t o 45 Mbps average cell t hroughput .
Addit ionally, any t echnology’s abilit y t o reach it s peak spect rum efficiency is somewhat
cont ingent on t he syst em’s abilit y t o reach t he inst ant aneous peak dat a rat es allowed by
t hat t echnology. For example, a syst em claiming spect rum efficiency of 1. 5 bps/ Hz ( as
described above) might rely on t he abilit y t o reach 100 Mbps inst ant aneously t o achieve
t his level of spect rum efficiency. Any const raint on t he t ransport syst em below 100 Mbps

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 25
will rest rict t he range of achievable t hroughput and, in t urn, impact t he spect ral
efficiency of t he syst em.
The mismat ch bet ween backhaul capabilit ies and radio performance in some net works is
one reason t hat user rat es on some 3G syst ems are lower t han t heoret ical rat es.
Operat ors are act ively enhancing t heir backhaul approaches, and t here are many
available and emerging wireline t echnologies—such as VDSL and opt ical Et hernet —as
well as compet it ive point - t o- point microwave syst ems t hat make t his possible.
Finally, t he overall net work t opology also plays an import ant role, especially wit h respect
t o lat ency. Low lat ency is crit ical t o achieving very high dat a rat es, because of t he way it
affect s TCP/ I P t raffic. How t raffic rout es t hrough t he core net work—how many hops and
nodes it must pass t hrough—can influence t he overall performance of t he net work. One
way t o increase performance is by using flat t er archit ect ures, meaning a less
hierarchical net work wit h more direct rout ing from mobile device t o end syst em. The
core EPC/ SAE net work for 3GPP LTE emphasizes such a flat t er archit ect ure.
I n summary, it can be misleading t o say t hat one wireless t echnology out performs
anot her wit hout a full underst anding of how t hat t echnology will be deployed in a
complet e syst em t hat also t akes spect rum int o account .
Feature and Network Roadmap
GSM operat ors first enhanced t heir net works t o support dat a capabilit y t hrough t he
addit ion of GPRS infrast ruct ure wit h t he abilit y t o use exist ing cell sit es, t ransceivers,
and int erconnect ion facilit ies. Since inst alling GPRS, GSM operat ors have largely
upgraded dat a service t o EDGE, and any new GSM net work includes EDGE capabilit y.
Operat ors have deployed UMTS/ HSPA worldwide. Alt hough UMTS involves a new radio-
access net work, several fact ors facilit at e deployment . First , most UMTS cell sit es can be
collocat ed in GSM cell sit es enabled by mult i- radio cabinet s t hat can accommodat e
GSM/ EDGE as well as UMTS equipment . Second, much of t he GSM/ GPRS core net work
can be used. This means t hat all core- net work element s above t he Serving GPRS
Support Node ( SGSN) and Mobile Swit ching Cent er ( MSC) —t he Gat eway GPRS Support
Node ( GGSN) , t he Home Locat ion Regist er ( HLR) , billing and subscriber administ rat ion
syst ems, service plat forms, and so fort h—need, at most , a soft ware upgrade t o support
3G UMTS/ HSPA. And while early 3G deployment used separat e 2G/ 3G SGSNs and MSCs,
all- new MSC and/ or SGSN product s are capable of support ing bot h GSM and UMTS/ HSPA
radio- access net works.
New feat ures such as HSDPA, HSUPA, and MBMS are being designed so t hat t he same
upgraded UMTS radio channel can support a mixt ure of t erminals including t hose based
on 3GPP Release 99, Release 5, and Release 6. I n ot her words, a net work support ing
Release 5 feat ures ( for example, HSDPA) can support Release 99, Release 5, and
Release 6 t erminals ( for example, HSUPA) operat ing in a Release 5 mode. Alt ernat ively,
a net work support ing Release 6 feat ures can support Release 99, Release 5, and Release
6 t erminals. This flexibilit y assures t he maximum degree of forward- and backward-
compat ibilit y. Not e also t hat most UMTS t erminals t oday support GSM, t hus facilit at ing
use across large coverage areas and mult iple net works.
Once deployed, operat ors can minimize t he cost s of managing GSM/ EDGE and UMTS
net works, because t hese net works share many of t he same aspect s including:
 Packet - dat a archit ect ure
 Cell sit es

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 26
 Ant enna syst ems
 Backhaul circuit s
 Subscriber account management
 Service plat forms
Users largely don’t even need t o know t o what t ype of net work t hey are connect ed,
because t heir mult imode GSM/ UMTS devices can seamlessly hand off bet ween net works.
The changes being planned for t he core net work are anot her aspect of evolut ion. Here,
t he int ent is t o reduce t he number of nodes t hat packet s must t raverse. This will result
in bot h reduced deployment cost s and reduced lat ency. The key enabling t echnology is
EPC/ SAE, which is described in det ail lat er in t his paper.
The upgrade t o LTE will be relat ively st raight forward, wit h new infrast ruct ure support ing
HSPA, but soft ware upgradeable t o HSPA+ and LTE. Beginning at t he end of 2008,
UMTS/ HSPA base st at ions from some vendors will have LTE soft ware upgrades available
by t he second half of 2009. Base st at ion equipment is available for many bands
including t he 1. 7/ 2. 1 GHz AWS band and t he recent ly auct ioned 700 MHz bands in t he
US. Vendors and operat ors are planning LTE field t rials in 2008- 09 and commercial
deployment s by 2010.
On t he device side, mult i- mode chipset s will enable devices t o easily operat e across
UMTS and LTE net works. For example, one chipset vendor has announced a series of
chips t hat support t he following combinat ion of t echnologies: UMTS, HSPA+ and LTE;
EV- DO Rev B, UMB and LTE; and UMTS, HSPA+ , EV- DO Rev B, UMB and LTE.
31

One import ant and int erest ing aspect of t echnology deployment is t hat an advanced
t echnology such as LTE enables operat ors t o upgrade prior t echnologies, such as HSPA.
Examples include:
 VoI P for HSPA. Since LTE uses an I P core, once it is deployed, support ing voice
on HSPA via VoI P will be a much simpler t ask as it can share t he same core I P
net work as LTE.
 Device processing power. Support ing t he high t hroughput rat es wit h LTE ( e. g.,
50 Mbps or higher) will provide sufficient processing in t he device t o also support
very high HSPA rat es ( e. g. , 30 Mbps or higher) .
Table 4 shows t he rollout of EDGE/ HSPA/ LTE feat ures over t ime.
Tabl e 4: Ex pect ed UMTS/ LTE Feat ur e and Capabi l i t y Avai l abi l i t y
Year Feat ur es
2008 HSUPA seeing significant deployment moment um in net works and device
availabilit y.
First HSUPA net works wit h 5. 8 Mbps peak uplink speed capabilit y.
HSPA devices wit h 7. 2 Mbps downlinks widely available.
Various operat ors offering FMC based on UMA.
Operat ors announcing commit ment s t o femt o cell approaches.

31
ht t p: / / www. qualcomm. com/ press/ r eleases/ 2008/ 080207_Qualcomm_t o_Ship. ht ml

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 27
Year Feat ur es
Great er availabilit y of FMC
2009 Net works and devices capable of Release 7 HSPA+ , including MI MO,
boost ing HSPA peak speeds t o 28 Mbps

Enhanced I MS- based services ( for example, int egrat ed
voice/ mult imedia/ presence/ locat ion)

2010 Evolved EDGE capabilit ies available t o significant ly increase EDGE
t hroughput rat es
HSPA+ peak speeds furt her increased t o peak rat es of 42 Mbps based on
Release 8
LTE int roduced for next - generat ion t hroughput performance using 2X2
MI MO
Advanced core archit ect ures available t hrough EPC/ SAE, primarily for LTE
but also for HSPA+ , providing benefit s such as int egrat ion of mult iple
net work t ypes and flat t er archit ect ures for bet t er lat ency performance
Most new services implement ed in t he packet domain over HSPA+ and LTE
2011 and
lat er
LTE enhancement s such as 4X2 MI MO and 4X4 MI MO
LTE Advanced specificat ions complet ed.
2012 LTE Advanced pot ent ially deployed in init ial st ages.

Over t ime, t he separat e GSM/ EDGE Access Net work ( GERAN) , UMTS Access Net work
( UTRAN) , and core- infrast ruct ure element s will undergo consolidat ion, t hus lowering
t ot al net work cost and improving int egrat ed operat ion of t he separat e access net works.
For act ual users wit h mult imode devices, t he net works t hey access will be largely
t ransparent . Today, nearly all UMTS phones and modems support GSM / EDGE.
Figure 8 present s t he cont inuing advances in HSPA and LTE, plot t ed over t ime, showing
an approximat e doubling of t hroughput per year.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 28
Fi gur e 8: Peak Rat es f or Dow nl i nk and Upl i nk Ov er Ti me
32

DL R’99-384k
HSDPA 1.8M
HSDPA 3.6M
HSDPA 7.2M
HSDPA 14.4M
MIMO 2x2 28M
MIMO/64QAM 41M
DL LTE(10MHz) 140M
DL LTE(20MHz) 300M
100 kbps
1 M|to
10 Mbps
20 Mbps
100 kbps
1 Mbps
10 Mbps
100 Mbps
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
UL R’99 384k
HSUPA 1.5M
HSUPA 5.6M
HSUPA/16QAM 11M
UL LTE (10MHz) 25M
UL LTE (10MHz) 50M
• HSPA DL and UL peak throughputs expected
to double every year on average
• Limitations not induced by the technology itself
but time frames required to upgrade
infrastructure and transport networks, obtain
devices with corresponding capabilities and
interoperability tests
Downlink Speeds
Uplink Speeds

Despit e rapid UMTS deployment , market moment um means t hat even by t he end of t he
decade most worldwide subscribers will st ill be using GSM. By t hen, however, most new
subscribers will be t aking advant age of UMTS. Only over many years, as subscribers
upgrade t heir equipment , will most net work usage migrat e t o UMTS. Similarly, even as
operat ors st art t o deploy LTE net works at t he end of t his decade and t he beginning of
t he next , it will probably be t he middle of t he next decade before a large percent age of
subscribers are act ually using LTE. During t hese years, most net works and devices will
be t ri- mode—support ing GSM, UMTS, and LTE. The hist ory of wireless- net work
deployment provides a useful perspect ive. GSM, which in 2008 is st ill growing it s
subscriber base, was specified in 1990, wit h init ial net works deployed in 1991. The
UMTS Task Force est ablished it self in 1995, Release 99 specificat ions were complet ed in
2000, and HSPA+ specificat ions were complet ed in 2007. Alt hough it ’s been more t han a
decade since work began on t he t echnology, only now is UMTS deployment and adopt ion
st art ing t o surge.
Figure 9 shows t he relat ive adopt ion of t echnologies over a mult i- decadal period and t he
lengt h of t ime it t akes for any new t echnology t o be adopt ed widely on a global basis.

32
Source: 3G Americas’ member company.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 29
Fi gur e 9: Rel at i ve Adopt i on of Technol ogi es
33

1990 2000 2020 2010
LTE
UMTS/HSPA
S
u
b
s
c
r
i
p
t
i
o
n
s
GSM/EDGE
2030


One opt ion for GSM operat ors t hat have not yet commit t ed t o UMTS, and do not have an
immediat e pressing need t o do so, is t o migrat e direct ly from GSM/ EDGE or Evolved
EDGE t o LTE wit h net works and devices support ing dual- mode GSM- EDGE/ LTE
operat ion.
Competing Technologies
Alt hough GSM/ GPRS/ EDGE/ UMTS/ HSPA net works are dominat ing global cellular- t echnology
deployment s, operat ors are deploying ot her wireless t echnologies t o serve bot h wide and
local areas. This sect ion of t he paper looks at t he relat ionship bet ween GSM/ UMTS/ LTE and
some of t hese ot her t echnologies.
CDMA2000
CDMA2000, consist ing principally of 1xRTT and One Carrier- Evolved, Dat a- Opt imized
( 1xEV- DO) versions, is t he ot her maj or cellular t echnology deployed in many part s of
t he world. 1xRTT is current ly t he most widely deployed CDMA2000 version. A number of
operat ors have deployed or are deploying 1xEV- DO, where a radio carrier is dedicat ed t o
high- speed dat a funct ions. I n July 2008 t here were 100 EV- DO Release 0 net works and
42 EV- DO Rev A net works deployed worldwide.
34


33
Source: Rysavy Research proj ect ion based on hist orical dat a.
34
Source: www. cdg. org, July 14, 2008.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 30
EV- DO uses many of t he same t echniques for opt imizing spect ral efficiency as HSPA,
including higher order modulat ion, efficient scheduling, t urbo- coding, and adapt ive
modulat ion and coding. For t hese reasons, it achieves spect ral efficiency t hat is virt ually
t he same as HSPA. The 1x t echnologies operat e in t he 1. 25 MHz radio channels,
compared t o t he 5 MHz channels UMTS uses. This result s in lower t heoret ical peak rat es,
but average t hroughput s for high level of net work loading are similar. Under low t o
medium- load condit ions, because of t he lower peak achievable dat a rat es, EV- DO or EV-
DO Rev A achieves a lower t ypical performance level t han HSPA. Operat ors have quot ed
400 t o 700 kilobit s per second ( kbps) t ypical downlink t hroughput for EV- DO Rev 0
35
and
bet ween 600 kbps and 1. 4 Mbps for EV- DO Rev A.
36

Under low t o medium load condit ions, because of t he lower peak achievable dat a rat es,
EV- DO or EV- DO Rev A achieve a slight ly lower t ypical performance level t han HSPA.
Current ly deployed net work versions are based on eit her Rev 0 or Rev A radio- int erface
specificat ions. EV- DO Rev A incorporat es a more efficient uplink, which has spect ral
efficiency similar t o t hat of HSUPA. Operat ors st art ed t o make EV- DO Rev A
commercially available in 2007.
One challenge for EV- DO operat ors is t hat t hey cannot dynamically allocat e t heir ent ire
spect ral resources bet ween voice and high- speed dat a funct ions. The EV- DO channel is
not available for circuit - swit ched voice, and t he 1xRTT channels offer only medium-
speed dat a. I n t he current st age of t he market , where dat a only const it ut es a small
percent age of t ot al net work t raffic, t his is not a key issue. But as dat a usage expands,
t his limit at ion will cause subopt imal use of radio resources. Figure 10 illust rat es t his
severe limit at ion.

35
Source: Verizon BroadbandAccess Web page, July 29, 2005.
36
Source: Sprint press release January 30, 2007.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 31
Fi gur e 10: Radi o Resour ce Management 1x RTT/ 1x EV- DO v er sus UMTS/ HSPA
EV-DO
1xRTT
1xRTT
Speech
Blocking
Unavailable High-
Speed Data Capacity
Voice
High-Speed Data
1xRTT and 1xEV-DO UMTS/HSPA
T
h
r
e
e

1
.
2
5

M
H
z

C
h
a
n
n
e
l
s
O
n
e

5

M
H
z

C
h
a
n
n
e
l
Efficient Allocation of Resources
Between Voice and Data

Anot her limit at ion of using a separat e channel for EV- DO dat a services is t hat it
current ly prevent s users from engaging in simult aneous voice and high- speed dat a
services, whereas t his is possible wit h UMTS and HSPA. Many users enj oy having a
t et hered dat a connect ion from t heir lapt op—by using Bluet oot h, for example—and being
able t o init iat e and receive phone calls while maint aining t heir dat a sessions.
EV- DO will event ually provide voice service using VoI P prot ocols t hrough EV- DO Rev A,
which includes a higher speed uplink, QoS mechanisms in t he net work, and prot ocol
opt imizat ions t o reduce packet overhead, as well as addressing problems such as j it t er.
Even t hen, however, operat ors will face difficult choices: How many radio channels at
each base st at ion should be made available for 1xRTT t o support legacy t erminals versus
how many radio channels should be allocat ed t o EV- DO. I n cont rast , UMTS allows bot h
circuit - swit ched and packet - swit ched t raffic t o occupy t he same radio channel, where t he
amount of power each uses can be dynamically adj ust ed. This makes it simple t o
migrat e users over t ime from circuit - swit ched voice t o packet - swit ched voice.
Beyond Rev A, 3GPP2 has defined EV- DO Rev B as allowing t he combinat ion of up t o 15
1. 25 MHz radio channels in 20 MHz—significant ly boost ing peak t heoret ical rat es t o 73. 5
Mbps. More likely, an operat or would combine t hree radio channels in 5 MHz. Such an
approach by it self does not necessarily increase overall capacit y, but it does offer users
higher peak- dat a rat es. No operat ors have yet publicly commit t ed t o EV- DO Rev B.
Beyond Rev B, UMB will be based on an OFDMA approach like LTE. UMB support s radio
channels from 1. 25 t o 20 MHz. I n a 20 MHz radio channel, using 4X4 MI MO, UMB will
deliver a peak- dat a rat e of 280 Mbps. UMB and LTE are being developed basically
simult aneously, so it is logical t o assume t hat bot h t echnologies will exploit t he same
advances in wireless t echnology. Bot h UMB and LTE are more recent t han ot her OFDMA

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 32
t echnologies, like WiMAX, so it is also logical t o assume t hat t heir capabilit ies will exceed
init ial OFDMA designs.
No operat ors have commit t ed t o UMB, and t here are legit imat e quest ions about t he
commercial viabilit y of t he t echnology as more CDMA2000 operat ors such as Verizon
choose LTE as t heir next t echnology choice. Though t he migrat ion from CDMA2000 t o
LTE is feasible, it will be more complex t han for UMTS/ HSPA operat ors, especially in
achieving int erworking bet ween LTE and legacy net works.
CDMA2000 is clearly a viable and effect ive wireless t echnology and, t o it s credit , many
of it s innovat ions have been brought t o market ahead of compet ing t echnologies. Today,
however, t he GSM family of t echnologies—including UMTS—adds more cust omers in one
year t han t he ent ire base of CDMA2000 cust omers. And t he GSM family has in excess of
3. 6 billion subscribers—more t han nine t imes t he t ot al number of subscribers as t he
CDMA2000 family of t echnologies.
37

WiMAX
WiMAX has emerged as a pot ent ial alt ernat ive t o cellular t echnology for wide- area
wireless net works. Based on OFDMA and recent ly accept ed by t he I nt ernat ional
Telecommunicat ions Union ( I TU) as an I MT- 2000 ( 3G t echnology) under t he name
OFDMA TDD WMAN ( Wireless Met ropolit an Area Net work) , WiMAX is t rying t o challenge
exist ing wireless t echnologies—promising great er capabilit ies and great er efficiencies
t han alt ernat ive approaches such as HSPA. But as WiMAX, part icularly mobile WiMAX,
has come closer t o realit y, vendors have cont inued t o enhance HSPA, and perceived
WiMAX advant ages are no longer apparent . I nst ead, WiMAX has gained t he great est
t ract ion in developing count ries as an alt ernat ive t o wireline deployment . I n t he Unit ed
St at es, Clearwire, Sprint Next el and ot hers ( I nt el, Google, Comcast , Time Warner Cable,
Bright House Net works) have creat ed a j oint vent ure t o deploy a nat ionwide WiMAX
net work t hat is await ing Unit ed St at es Regulat ory Approval. I n addit ion, at t he t ime of
t his paper, t here are st ill no wide area deployment s of WiMAX in t he US. At best , t he
promises of mobile WiMAX is appealing but it remains unproven in t he real world.
Like GSM/ HSPA, WiMAX is not a single t echnology; it is a family of int eroperable
t echnologies. The original specificat ion, I EEE 802. 16, was complet ed in 2001 and
int ended primarily for t elecom backhaul applicat ions in point - t o- point , line- of- sight
configurat ions using spect rum above 10 GHz. This original version of I EEE 802. 16 uses a
radio int erface based on a single- carrier waveform.
The next maj or st ep in t he evolut ion of I EEE 802. 16 occurred in 2004, wit h t he release
of t he I EEE 802. 16- 2004 st andard. I t added mult iple radio int erfaces, including one
based on OFDM- 256 and one based on OFDMA. I EEE 802. 16- 2004 also support s point -
t o- mult ipoint communicat ions, sub- 10 GHz operat ion, and non- line- of- sight
communicat ions. Like t he original version of t he st andard, operat ion is fixed, meaning
t hat subscriber st at ions are t ypically immobile. Pot ent ial applicat ions include wireless
I nt ernet Service Provider ( I SP) service, local t elephony bypass ( as an alt ernat ive t o
cable modem or DSL service) , and cellular backhaul for connect ions from cellular base
st at ions t o operat or infrast ruct ure net works. Vendors can design equipment for eit her
licensed or unlicensed bands.
Vendors are now delivering I EEE 802. 16- 2004- cert ified equipment . This st andard does
not compet e direct ly wit h cellular- dat a and privat e Wi- Fi net works; t hus, it can provide

37
Source: I nforma Telecoms & Media, World Cellular I nformat ion Service, June 2008.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 33
complement ary services. I n addit ion t o operat or- host ed access solut ions, privat e ent it ies
such as municipal government s, universit ies, and corporat ions will be able t o use t his
version of WiMAX in unlicensed bands ( for example, 5. 8 GHz) for local connect ivit y,
t hough t here has been lit t le or no development in t his area.
The I EEE has also complet ed a mobile- broadband st andard—I EEE 802. 16e- 2005—t hat
adds mobilit y capabilit ies including support for radio operat ion while mobile, handovers
across base st at ions, and handovers across operat ors. Unlike I EEE 802. 16- 2004, which
operat es in bot h licensed and unlicensed bands, I EEE 802. 16e- 2005 ( referred t o as
mobile WiMAX) makes t he most sense in licensed bands. Operat ors have begun limit ed
mobile WiMAX net work deployment s in 2008. Current WiMAX profiles emphasize TDD
operat ion. Mobile WiMAX net works are not backward- compat ible wit h I EEE 802. 16- 2004
net works.
I nit ial mobile WiMAX net works will be deployed using 2X2 MI MO, TDD and 10 MHz radio
channels in a profile defined by t he WiMAX Forum known as WiMAX Wave 2. Beyond
Wave 2, WiMAX vendors are defining a new I EEE 802. 16e- 2005 profile called WiMAX
Release 1. 5, wit h product cert ificat ion expect ed by t he end of 2009. Mobile WiMAX
release 1. 5 includes various refinement s int ended t o improve efficiency and
performance, and will be available for deployment in a similar t imeframe as LTE. The
subsequent version, Mobile WiMAX 2. 0, will be designed t o address t he performance
requirement s being developed in t he I TU I MT- Advanced Proj ect , and will be st andardized
in a new I EEE st andard, I EEE 802. 16m. According t o Sprint Next el, I EEE 802. 16m will be
available in 2011.
38

I EEE 802. 16e- 2005 employs many of t he same mechanisms as HSPA t o maximize
t hroughput and spect ral efficiency, including high- order modulat ion, efficient coding,
adapt ive modulat ion and coding, and Hybrid Aut omat ic Repeat Request ( HARQ) . The
principal difference from HSPA is I EEE 802. 16e- 2005’s use of OFDMA. As discussed in
t he sect ion “ Technical Approaches ( TDMA, CDMA, OFDMA) ” above, OFDM provides a
pot ent ial implement at ion advant age for wide radio channels ( for example, 10 t o 20
MHz) . I n 5 t o 10 MHz radio channels, t here is no evidence indicat ing t hat I EEE 802. 16e-
2005 will have any performance advant age compared t o HSPA+ .
I t should be not ed, however, t hat I EEE 802. 16e- 2005 cont ains some aspect s t hat may
limit it s performance, part icularly in scenarios in which a sect or cont ains a large number
of mobile users. The performance of t he MAC layer is inefficient when scheduling large
numbers of users, and some aspect s—such as power cont rol of t he mobile st at ion—are
provided using MAC signaling messages rat her t han t he fast power cont rol used in
WCDMA and ot her t echnologies. Thus, while WiMAX uses OFDMA, t he performance will
likely be somewhat less t han HSPA due t o increased overhead and ot her design issues.
Relat ive t o LTE, WiMAX has t he following t echnical disadvant ages: 5 msec frames
inst ead of 1 msec frames, Chase combining inst ead of increment al redundancy, coarser
granularit y for modulat ion and coding schemes and vert ical coding inst ead of horizont al
coding.
39
One deployment considerat ion is t hat TDD requires net work synchronizat ion. I t
is not possible for one cell sit e t o be t ransmit t ing and an adj acent cell sit e t o be
receiving at t he same t ime. Different operat ors in t he same band must eit her coordinat e
t heir net works or have guard bands t o ensure t hat t hey don’t int erfere wit h each ot her.

38
Ali Tabassi, Sprint Next el, Fierce Wireless Webcast , “ WiMAX: Mobilizing t he I nt ernet ” , March 5,
2008.
39
I EEE I nt ernat ional Symposium on Personal, I ndoor and Mobile Radio Communicat ions: Anders
Furuskär et al “ The LTE Radio I nt erface – Key Charact erist ics and Performance” , 2008.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 34
This may int roduce problems as more operat ors int roduce net works in t he same
spect rum band; for example, t he 2. 5 GHz band in t he Unit ed St at es may be used for
bot h TDD and FDD operat ion.
Alt hough I EEE 802. 16e exploit s significant radio innovat ions similar t o HSPA+ and LTE,
it faces challenges such economies of scale and t echnology mat urit y. Very few operat ors
t oday have access t o spect rum for WiMAX t hat would permit t hem t o provide widespread
coverage.
I n reference t o economies of scale, GSM/ UMTS/ HSPA subscribers number in t he billions.
Even over t he next five years, t he number of WiMAX subscribers is likely t o be quit e low.
Forward Concept s predict ed in January 2008 38 million WiMAX subscribers in 2012
40
and
Juniper Research predict ed in May 2008 more t han 47 million subscribers by 2013.
41

This mat ches forecast s from a year ago when Art hur D. Lit t le summarized different
forecast s for t ot al WiMAX subscribers worldwide as bet ween 20 million and 100 million
by 2012,
42
a t iny fract ion of global wireless subscribers. Senza Fili Consult ing proj ect ed
54 million WiMAX subscribers by 2012 wit h emerging market s driving growt h.
43
To put
t his int o perspect ive, t he GSM family of t echnologies adds more subscribers every four
mont hs ( about 100 million) t han t he expect ed worldwide t ot al subscriber predict ion of
WiMAX by 2012.
Finally, from a t echnology st andpoint , mobile WiMAX on paper may be slight ly more
capable t han t oday’s available versions of HSPA. But by t he t ime it becomes available,
mobile WiMAX will act ually have t o compet e against evolved HSPA syst ems t hat will
offer bot h similar capabilit ies and enhanced performance. Furt her, by t hen, LTE will not
be t hat far from deployment .
One specific area where WiMAX has a t echnical disadvant age is cell size. I n fact , 3G
syst ems have a significant link budget advant age over mobile WiMAX because of soft -
handoff diversit y gain and an FDD duplexing advant age over TDD.
44
Art hur D. Lit t le
report s t hat t he radii of t ypical HSPA cells will be t wo t o four t imes great er t han t ypical
mobile WiMAX cells for high- t hroughput operat ion.
45
One vendor est imat es t hat for t he
same power out put , frequency, and capacit y, mobile WiMAX requires 1. 7 t imes more cell
sit es t han HSPA.
46
Given t hat many real world deployment s of HSPA will occur at
frequencies such as 850 MHz, and LTE at 700 MHz, WiMAX deployment s at 2. 5 GHz will
be at a significant disadvant age.
Wit h respect t o spect ral efficiency, WiMAX is comparable t o HSPA+ , as discussed in t he
sect ion “ Spect ral Efficiency” t hat follows. As for dat a performance, HSPA+ in Release 8—

40
“ WiMAX ' 08 The 3G+ Broadband Alt ernat ive” , ht t p: / / www. fwdconcept s. com/ WiMAX8. ht m
41
ht t p: / / www. rcrnews. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ art icle?AI D= / 20080509/ SUB/ 940077592/ 1008/ newslet t er32
42
Source: "HSPA and mobile WiMax for Mobile Broadband WirelessAccess", 27 March 2007, Art hur D.
Lit t le Limit ed.
43
Source: Press release of June 19, 2007 describing t he report "WiMAX: Ambit ions and Realit y. A
det ailed market assessment and forecast at t he global, regional and count ry level ( 2006- 2012) "
44
Wit h a 2: 1 TDD syst em, t he reverse link only t ransmit s one t hird of t he t ime. To obt ain t he same
cell edge dat a rat es, t he mobile syst em must t ransmit at 4. 77 dB higher t ransmit power.
45
Source: "HSPA and mobile WiMax for Mobile Broadband WirelessAccess", 27 March 2007, Art hur D.
Lit t le Limit ed.
46
Source: Ericsson public whit e paper, “ HSPA, t he undisput ed choice for mobile broadband, May
2007” .

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 35
wit h a peak rat e of 42 Mbps—exceeds mobile WiMAX in 10 MHz in TDD 2: 1 DL: UL using
2X2 MI MO of 40 Mbps.
47
The somet imes- quot ed peak rat e of 63. 4 Mbps for mobile
WiMAX in 10 MHz assumes no bandwidt h applied t o t he uplink.
Some have cit ed int ellect ual propert y right s as an area where WiMAX has an advant age.
There is lit t le subst ant ial, publicly available informat ion, however t o support such claims.
First , t he large HSPA vendors have invest ed heavily in t hese t echnologies—hopefully
giving t hem significant leverage wit h which t o negot iat e reasonable int ellect ual propert y
right s ( I PR) rat es wit h ot her vendors. Second, t he mobile WiMAX indust ry is in it s
infancy, and t here is considerable lack of clarit y when it comes t o how different
companies will assert and resolve I PR issues.
Finally, wireless- dat a business models must also be considered. Today’s cellular
net works can finance t he deployment of dat a capabilit ies t hrough a successful voice
business. Building new net works for broadband wireless mandat es subst ant ial capacit y
per subscriber. Consumers who download 1 gigabyt e of dat a each mont h represent a t en
t imes great er load on t he net work t han a 1, 000- minut e- a- mont h voice user. And if t he
fut ure is in mult imedia services such as movie downloads, it is import ant t o recognize
t hat downloading a single DVD- qualit y movie—even wit h advanced compression—
consumes approximat ely 2 gigabyt es. I t is not clear how easily t he available revenue per
subscriber will be able t o finance large- scale deployment of net work capacit y. Despit e
numerous at t empt s, no t errest rial wireless- dat a- only net work has ever succeeded as a
business.
48
Alt hough t here is discussion of providing voice services over WiMAX using
VoI P, mobile- voice users demand ubiquit ous coverage—including indoor coverage.
Mat ching t he cellular foot print wit h WiMAX will require nat ional roaming arrangement s,
complement ed by new dual- t echnology devices, or significant operat or invest ment s.
IEEE 802.20
I EEE 802. 20 is a mobile- broadband specificat ion developed by t he Mobile Broadband
Wireless Access Working Group of t he I EEE t hat was complet ed in 2008. Wit h vendors
focused heavily on LTE, UMB, and WiMAX for next - generat ion wireless services, it is not
clear whet her t here is sufficient moment um in t his st andard t o make it a viable
t echnology. At t his t ime, no operat or has commit t ed t o t he possible st andard. Not e t hat
802. 20 is very similar t o UMB. However, neit her t echnology has gained any moment um
at t his point in t ime.
Wi-Fi and Municipal Wi-Fi Systems
I n t he local area, t he I EEE 802. 11 family of t echnologies has experienced rapid growt h,
mainly in privat e deployment s. The lat est 802. 11 st andard, 802. 11n offers users
t hroughput s in excess of 100 Mbps, and improved range t hrough use of MI MO.
Complement ary st andards increase t he at t ract ion of t he t echnology. 802. 11e provides
qualit y- of- service enabling VoI P and mult imedia, and 802. 11i enables robust securit y.
Leveraging t his success, operat ors—including cellular operat ors—are offering hot spot
service in public areas such as airport s, fast - food rest aurant s, and hot els. For t he most
part , hot spot s are complement ary wit h cellular- dat a net works, because t he hot spot can

47
Source: Ericsson public whit e paper, “ HSPA, t he undisput ed choice for mobile broadband, May
2007” .
48
Source: Andy Seybold, January 18, 2006, comment ary: “ Will Dat a- Only Net works Ever Make
Money?” ht t p: / / www. out look4mobilit y. com/ comment ary2006/ j an1806. ht m

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 36
provide broadband services in ext remely dense user areas and t he cellular net work can
provide broadband services across much larger areas. Various organizat ions are looking
at int egrat ing WLAN service wit h GSM/ UMTS dat a services. The GSM Associat ion has
developed recommendat ions for SI M- based aut hent icat ion of hot spot s, and 3GPP has
mult iple init iat ives t hat address WLAN int egrat ion int o it s net works, including 3GPP
Syst em t o WLAN I nt erworking, UMA, I MS, and EPC/ SAE.
Many cit ies are now deploying met ro Wi- Fi syst ems t hat will provide Wi- Fi access in
downt own areas. These syst ems are based on a mesh t echnology, where access point s
forward packet s t o nodes t hat have backhaul connect ions. Alt hough some indust ry
observers are predict ing t hat t hese syst ems will have an adverse effect on 3G dat a
services, met ro Wi- Fi and 3G are more likely t o be complement ary in nat ure. Wi- Fi can
generally provide bet t er applicat ion performance over limit ed coverage areas, whereas
3G syst ems can provide access over much larger coverage areas.
Met ro syst ems t oday are st ill quit e immat ure and face t he following challenges:
 Many cit y proj ect s have been discont inued due t o t he difficult y of providing a
viable business model.
 Today’s mesh syst ems are all propriet ary. The I EEE is developing a mesh
net working st andard—I EEE 802. 16s—but t his may not be ready unt il 2008. Even
t hen, it is not clear t hat vendors will adopt t his st andard for out door syst ems.
 Coverage in most met ro syst ems is designed t o provide an out door signal. As
such, t he signal does not penet rat e many buildings in t he coverage area and
repeat ers are needed t o propagat e t he signal indoors. Many early net work
deployment s have experienced poorer coverage t han init ially expect ed, and t he
number of recommended access point s per square mile has increased st eadily.
 Operat ion is in unlicensed bands in t he 2. 4 GHz radio channel. Given only t hree
relat ively non- overlapping radio channels at 2.4 GHz, int erference bet ween public
and privat e syst ems is inevit able.
 Though mesh archit ect ure simplifies backhaul, t here are st ill considerable
expenses and net working considerat ions in backhauling a large number of
out door access point s.
Nevert heless, met ro net works have at t ract ed considerable int erest , and some number of
proj ect s are st ill proceeding. Technical issues will likely be resolved over t ime, and as
more devices support bot h 3G and Wi- Fi, users can look forward t o mult iple access
opt ions.
Comparison of Wireless Technologies
This sect ion of t he paper compares t he different wireless t echnologies, looking at
t hroughput , lat ency, spect ral efficiency, and market posit ion. Finally, t he paper present s a
t able t hat summarizes t he compet it ive posit ion of t he different t echnologies across mult iple
dimensions.
Data Throughput
Dat a t hroughput is an import ant met ric for quant ifying net work t hroughput
performance. Unfort unat ely, t he ways in which various organizat ions quot e t hroughput
st at ist ics vary t remendously, which oft en result s in misleading claims. The int ent of t his
paper is t o realist ically represent t he capabilit ies of t hese t echnologies.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 37
One met hod of represent ing a t echnology’s t hroughput is what people call “ peak
t hroughput ” or “ peak net work speed. ” This refers t o t he fast est possible t ransmission
speed over t he radio link, and it is generally based on t he highest order modulat ion
available and t he least amount of coding ( error correct ion) overhead. Peak net work
speed is also usually quot ed at layer 2 of t he radio link. Because of prot ocol overhead,
act ual applicat ion t hroughput may be 10 t o 20 percent lower ( or more) t han t his layer- 2
value. Even if t he radio net work can deliver t his speed, ot her aspect s of t he net work—
such as t he backhaul from base st at ion t o operat or- infrast ruct ure net work—can oft en
const rain t hroughput rat es t o levels below t he radio- link rat e.
Anot her met hod is t o disclose t hroughput s act ually measured in deployed net works wit h
applicat ions such as File Transfer Prot ocol ( FTP) under favorable condit ions, which
assume light net work loading ( as low as one act ive dat a user in t he cell sect or) and
favorable signal propagat ion. This number is useful because it demonst rat es t he high-
end, act ual capabilit y of t he t echnology. This paper refers t o t his rat e as t he “ peak user
rat e. ” Average rat es, however, are lower t han t his peak rat e and difficult t o predict
because t hey depend on a mult it ude of operat ional and net work fact ors. Except when
t he net work is congest ed, however, t he maj orit y of users should experience t hroughput
rat es higher t han one- half of t he peak- achievable rat e.
Some operat ors, primarily in t he US, also quot e t ypical t hroughput rat es. These rat es
are based on t hroughput t est s t he operat ors have done across t heir operat ing net works,
and incorporat e a higher level of net work loading. Though t he operat ors do not disclose
t he precise met hodology t hey use t o est ablish t hese figures, t he values provide a good
indicat ion of what users can t ypically expect .
Table 4 present s t he t echnologies in t erms of peak net work t hroughput rat es, peak user-
rat es ( under favorable condit ions) and t ypical rat es. I t omit s values t hat are not yet
known, such as t hose associat ed wit h fut ure t echnologies.
Tabl e 5: Thr oughput Per f or mance of Di f f er ent Wi r el ess Technol ogi es
( Bl ue I ndi cat es Theor et i cal Peak Rat es, Gr een Ty pi cal )

Dow nl i nk Upl i nk
Peak
Net w or k
Speed
Peak
And/ Or
Ty pi cal
User Rat e
Peak
Net w or k
Speed
Peak
And/ Or
Ty pi cal
User Rat e
EDGE ( t y pe 2 MS) 473. 6 kbps 473. 6 kbps
EDGE ( t y pe 1 MS)
( Pr act i cal Ter mi nal )
236. 8 kbps 200 kbps
peak
70 t o 135
kbps t ypical
236. 8 kbps 200 kbps
peak
70 t o 135
kbps t ypical
Evol ved EDGE
( t y pe 1 MS)
49

1184 kbps
50
473. 6
kbps
51



49
A t ype 1 evolved EDGE MS can receive on up t o eight t imeslot s using t wo radio channels and can
t ransmit on up t o four t imeslot s in one radio channel using 16 QAM modulat ion wit h t urbo coding.
50
Type 1 mobile, class 12 hardware, 10 slot s downlink ( dual carrier) , MTCS- 8- B ( 118. 4 kbps/ slot )
51
4 slot s uplink, MCS- 8- B

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 38

Dow nl i nk Upl i nk
Peak
Net w or k
Speed
Peak
And/ Or
Ty pi cal
User Rat e
Peak
Net w or k
Speed
Peak
And/ Or
Ty pi cal
User Rat e
Evol ved EDGE
( t y pe 2 MS)
52

1894. 4
53

kbps
947. 2
kbps
54



UMTS WCDMA Rel ’ 99 2. 048 Mbps 768 kbps
UMTS WCDMA Rel ’ 99
( Pr act i cal Ter mi nal )
384 kbps 350 kbps
peak
200 t o 300
kbps t ypical
384 kbps 350 kbps
peak
200 t o 300
kbps t ypical
HSDPA I ni t i al Devi ces
( 2006)
1. 8 Mbps > 1 Mbps
peak
384 kbps 350 kbps
peak
HSDPA 14. 4 Mbps 384 kbps
HSPA
55
I ni t i al
I mpl ement at i on
7. 2 Mbps > 5 Mbps
peak
700 kbps t o
1. 7 Mbps
t ypical
56

2 Mbps > 1. 5 Mbps
peak
500 kbps t o
1. 2 Mbps
t ypical
HSPA Cur r ent
I mpl ement at i on
7. 2 Mbps 5. 76 Mbps
HSPA 14. 4 Mbps 5. 76 Mbps
HSPA+ ( DL 64 QAM, UL
16 QAM)
21. 6 Mbps 11. 5 Mbps

HSPA+ ( 2X2 MI MO,
DL 16 QAM, UL 16 QAM)
28 Mbps > 5Mbps
t ypical
expect ed
11. 5 Mbps > 3 Mbps
t ypical
expect ed
HSPA+ ( 2X2 MI MO,
DL 64 QAM, UL 16 QAM)
42 Mbps 11. 5 Mbps
LTE ( 2X2 MI MO)
173 Mbps > 10 Mbps
t ypical
expect ed
58 Mbps > 5 Mbps
t ypical
expect ed

52
A t ype 2- evolved EDGE MS can receive on up t o 16 t imes slot s using t wo radio channels and can
t ransmit on up t o eight t imeslot s in one radio channel using 16 QAM modulat ion wit h t urbo coding.
53
Type 2 mobile, 16 slot s downlink ( dual carrier) at MTCS- 8- B
54
Type 2 mobile, 8 slot s uplink, MCS- 8- B
55
High Speed Packet Access ( HSPA) consist s of syst ems support ing bot h High Speed Downlink Packet
Access ( HSDPA) and High Speed Uplink Packet Access ( HSUPA) .
56
Typical downlink and uplink t hroughput rat es based on AT&T press release, June 4, 2008

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 39

Dow nl i nk Upl i nk
Peak
Net w or k
Speed
Peak
And/ Or
Ty pi cal
User Rat e
Peak
Net w or k
Speed
Peak
And/ Or
Ty pi cal
User Rat e
LTE ( 4X4 MI MO) 326 Mbps 86 Mbps

CDMA2000 1XRTT
153 kbps 130 kbps
peak
153 kbps 130 kbps
peak
CDMA2000 1XRTT 307 kbps 307 kbps
CDMA2000 EV- DO Rev 0
2. 4 Mbps > 1 Mbps
peak
153 kbps 150 kbps
peak
CDMA2000 EV- DO Rev A
3. 1 Mbps > 1. 5 Mbps
peak
600 kbps t o
1. 4 Mbps
t ypical
57

1. 8 Mbps > 1 Mbps
peak
300 t o 500
kbps t ypical
CDMA2000 EV- DO Rev B
( 3 r adi o channel s MHz)
9. 3 Mbps 5. 4 Mbps
CDMA2000 EV- DO Rev B
Theor et i cal ( 15 r adi o
channel s)
73. 5 Mbps 27 Mbps
Ul t r a Mobi l e Br oadband
( 2X2 MI MO)
140 Mbps 34 Mbps
Ul t r a Mobi l e Br oadband
( 4X4 MI MO)
280 Mbps 68 Mbps

802. 16e Wi MAX ex pect ed
Wave 1 ( 10 MHz TDD
DL/ UL= 3, 1X2 SI MO)
23 Mbps 4 Mbps
802. 16e Wi MAX ex pect ed
Wave 2 ( 10 MHz TDD,
DL/ UL= 3, 2x 2 MI MO)
46 Mbps 4 Mbps
802. 16m TBD TBD

Rysavy Research’s 2002 paper for 3G Americas on wireless dat a ant icipat ed EDGE
average performance of 110 t o 130 kbps and UMTS average performance of 200 t o 300
kbps. Act ual result s from operat or and vendor field t rials mat ched t hese predict ed
result s validat ing t he met hodology used t o predict performance. I n t he 2004 and 2005
versions of t his paper, t he 550 t o 800 kbps t hroughput performance of init ial HSDPA
devices has been borne out as fairly accurat e.

57
Typical downlink and uplink t hroughput rat es based on Sprint press release January 30, 2007.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 40
HSDPA Throughput in Representative Scenarios
I t is inst ruct ive t o look at act ual HSDPA t hroughput in commercial net works. Figure 11
shows t he t hroughput s measured in one net work wit h voice and dat a in one West ern
European count ry across t hree larger cit ies. The dat a shows t he percent age of samples
on t he X axis t hat fall below t he t hroughput shown on t he Y axis. For example, t he 75
percent ile is at 5 Mbps, meaning t hat 75% of samples are below 5 Mbps and 25% are
above. Significant ly, half of all t he measurement s showed 4 Mbps or higher t hroughput .
Fi gur e 11: HSDPA Thr oughput Di st r i but i on i n Depl oy ed Net w or k s
58

0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
1
0
0
%
9
5
%
9
0
%
8
5
%
8
0
%
7
5
%
7
0
%
6
5
%
6
0
%
5
5
%
5
0
%
4
5
%
4
0
%
3
5
%
3
0
%
2
5
%
2
0
%
1
5
%
1
0
%
5
%
0
%
T
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t

[
M
b
p
s
]


I n anot her net work st udy, Figure 12 shows t he downlink t hroughput performance of a
7. 2 Mbps device. ( peak dat a rat e capabilit y) . I t result s in a median t hroughput of 1. 9
Mbps when mobile, 1. 8 Mbps wit h poor coverage, and 3. 8 Mbps wit h good coverage.

58
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 41
Fi gur e 12: HSDPA Per f or mance of a 7.2 Mbps Devi ce i n a Commer ci al Net w or k
59

Good Coverage
Median bitrate
3.8 Mbps
Median bitrate
1.8 Mbps
Bad Coverage
Median bitrate
1.8 Mbps
Bad Coverage
-106 dBm
Mobile
Median bitrate
1.9 Mbps
Mobile
Median bitrate
1.9 Mbps


These rat es are consist ent wit h ot her vendor informat ion for t wo deployed HSPA
net works t hat support ed 7. 2 Mbps HSDPA. Test ers measured average FTP downlink
applicat ion t hroughput of 2. 1 Mbps in t he first net work, and 1. 9 Mbps in t he second
net work.
60

Release 99 and HSUPA Uplink Performance
HSUPA dramat ically increases uplink t hroughput s over 3GPP Release 99. However, even
Release 99 net works have seen significant uplink increases. Many net works were init ially
deployed wit h a 64 kbps uplink rat e. Lat er, t his increased t o 128 kbps. Lat er, operat ors
increased speeds t o 384 kbps peak rat es, wit h peak user- achievable rat es of 350 kbps.
The ant icipat ed 1 Mbps achievable uplink t hroughput wit h HSUPA can be seen in t he
measured t hroughput of a commercial net work, as document ed in Figure 13. The X axis
shows t hroughput rat e, t he Y axis shows t he cumulat ive dist ribut ion funct ion and t he
bars show t he number of samples obt ained for t hat t hroughput rat e on a relat ive basis.
The median bit rat e is 1. 0 Mbps.

59
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.
60
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 42
Fi gur e 13: Upl i nk Thr oughput i n a Commer ci al Net w or k
61

0
7
0
1
4
0
2
1
0
2
8
0
3
5
0
4
2
0
4
9
0
5
6
0
6
3
0
7
0
0
7
7
0
8
4
0
9
1
0
9
8
0
1
0
5
0
1
1
2
0
1
1
9
0
1
2
6
0
1
3
3
0
1
4
0
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Mobile
Median bitrate
1.0 Mbps
0
7
0
1
4
0
2
1
0
2
8
0
3
5
0
4
2
0
4
9
0
5
6
0
6
3
0
7
0
0
7
7
0
8
4
0
9
1
0
9
8
0
1
0
5
0
1
1
2
0
1
1
9
0
1
2
6
0
1
3
3
0
1
4
0
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0
7
0
1
4
0
2
1
0
2
8
0
3
5
0
4
2
0
4
9
0
5
6
0
6
3
0
7
0
0
7
7
0
8
4
0
9
1
0
9
8
0
1
0
5
0
1
1
2
0
1
1
9
0
1
2
6
0
1
3
3
0
1
4
0
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Mobile
Median bitrate
1.0 Mbps

These rat es are consist ent wit h ot her vendor informat ion for a deployed HSPA net work
t hat support ed 2. 0 Mbps HSUPA
62
uplink speed. Test ers measured average FTP downlink
applicat ion t hroughput of 1. 2 Mbps
63
.
LTE Throughput
As part of t he LTE/ SAE/ EPC Trial I nit iat ive ( LSTI ) , vendors are t est ing LTE t echnology.
Figure 14shows LTE t hroughput s in a 2X2 MI MO t rial net work reaching a maximum of
154 Mbps, a mean of 78 Mbps and a minimum of 16 Mbps. Unt il operat ors act ually
deploy complet e net works, t ypical rat es will not be available, but t he dat a suggest s t hat
users should be able t o obt ain t hroughput s an order of magnit ude higher t han t oday’s
3G net works.

61
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.
62
2 x spreading fact or ( 2xSF2) code configurat ion.
63
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 43
Fi gur e 14: LTE Measur ed Thr oughput i n Test Net w or k
64

Base station located at x.
L1 Throughput
Max: 154 Mbps
Mean: 78 Mbps
Min: 16 Mbps
User Speed
Max: 45 km/h
Mean: 16 km/h
Min: 0 km/h
Sub-urban area with line-
of-sight: less than 40%
of the samples
Heights of surrounding
buildings: 15-25 m

12
23
37
54
74
97
123
154
100 meters

Latency
Just as import ant as t hroughput is net work lat ency, defined as t he round- t rip t ime it
t akes dat a t o t raverse t he net work. Each successive dat a t echnology from GPRS forward
reduces lat ency, wit h HSDPA net works having lat ency as low as 70 milliseconds ( msec) .
HSUPA brings lat ency down even furt her, as will 3GPP LTE. Ongoing improvement s in
each t echnology mean all t hese values will go down as vendors and operat ors fine t une
t heir syst ems. Figure 15 shows t he lat ency of different 3GPP t echnologies.

64
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 44
Fi gur e 15: Lat ency of Di f f er ent Technol ogi es
65

100
700
600
500
400
300
200
GPRS
Rel’97
EDGE
Rel’99
EDGE
Rel’4
WCDMA
Rel’99
Evolved
EDGE
M
i
l
l
i
s
e
c
o
n
d
s
LTE HSPA HSDPA


The values shown in Figure 15 reflect measurement s of commercially deployed
t echnologies. Some vendors have report ed significant ly lower values in net works using
t heir equipment , such as 150 msec for EDGE, 70 msec for HSDPA, and 50 msec for
HSPA. Wit h furt her refinement s and t he use of 2 msec Transmission Time I nt erval ( TTI )
in t he HSPA uplink, 25 msec roundt rip is a realist ic goal. LTE will reduce lat ency even
furt her, t o as low as 10 msec in t he radio- access net work.
Spectral Efficiency
To bet t er underst and t he reasons for deploying t he different dat a t echnologies and t o
bet t er predict t he evolut ion of capabilit y, it is useful t o examine spect ral efficiency. The
evolut ion of dat a services will be charact erized by an increasing number of users wit h
ever- higher bandwidt h demands. As t he wireless- dat a market grows, deploying wireless
t echnologies wit h high spect ral efficiency will be of paramount import ance. Keeping all
ot her t hings equal, such as frequency band, amount of spect rum, and cell sit e spacing,
an increase in spect ral efficiency t ranslat es t o a proport ional increase in t he number of
users support ed at t he same load per user—or, for t he same number of users, an
increase in t hroughput available t o each user. Delivering broadband services t o large
numbers of users can best be achieved wit h high spect ral efficiency syst ems, especially

65
Source: 3G Americas' member companies. Measured bet ween subscriber unit and Gi int erface,
immediat ely ext ernal t o wireless net work. Does not include I nt ernet lat ency. Not e t hat t here is some
variat ion in lat ency based on net work configurat ion and operat ing condit ions.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 45
because t he only ot her alt ernat ives are using more spect rum or deploying more cell
sit es.
I ncreased spect ral efficiency, however, comes at a price. I t generally implies great er
complexit y for bot h user and base st at ion equipment . Complexit y can arise from t he
increased number of calculat ions performed t o process signals or from addit ional radio
component s. Hence, operat ors and vendors must balance market needs against net work
and equipment cost s. One core aspect of evolving wireless t echnology is managing t he
complexit y associat ed wit h achieving higher spect ral efficiency. The reason t echnologies
such as OFDMA are at t ract ive is t hat t hey allow higher spect ral efficiency wit h lower
overall complexit y; t hus t heir use in t echnologies such as LTE, UMB, and WiMAX.
The roadmap for t he EDGE/ HSPA/ LTE family of t echnologies provides a wide port folio of
opt ions t o increase spect ral efficiency. The exact t iming for deploying t hese opt ions is
difficult t o predict , because much will depend on t he growt h of t he wireless dat a market ,
and what t ypes of applicat ions become popular.
When det ermining t he best area on which t o focus fut ure t echnology enhancement s, it is
int erest ing t o not e t hat HSDPA, 1xEV- DO, and I EEE 802. 16e- 2005 all have highly
opt imized links—t hat is, physical layers. I n fact , as shown in Figure 16, t he link layer
performance of t hese t echnologies is approaching t he t heoret ical limit s as defined by t he
Shannon bound. ( The Shannon bound is a t heoret ical limit t o t he informat ion t ransfer
rat e [ per unit bandwidt h] t hat can be support ed by any communicat ions link. The bound
is a funct ion of t he Signal t o Noise Rat io [ SNR] of t he communicat ions link. ) Figure 16
also shows t hat HSDPA, 1xEV- DO, and I EEE 802. 16e- 2005 are all wit hin 2 t o 3 decibels
( dB) of t he Shannon bound, indicat ing t hat t here is not much room for improvement
from a link layer perspect ive. Not e t hat differences do exist in t he design of t he MAC
layer ( layer 2) and t his may result in lower t han expect ed performance in some cases as
described previously.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 46
Fi gur e 16: Per f or mance Rel at i ve t o Theor et i cal Li mi t s
f or HSDPA, EV- DO, and I EEE 802.16e- 2005
66

-15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Required SNR (dB)
A
c
h
i
e
v
a
b
l
e

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

(
b
p
s
/
H
z
)
Shannon bound
Shannon bound with 3dB margin
EV-DO
IEEE 802.16e-2005
HSDPA


The curves in Figure 16 apply t o an Addit ive Whit e Gaussian Noise Channel ( AWGN) . I f
t he channel is slowly varying and t he effect of frequency select ivit y can be overcome
t hrough an equalizer in eit her HSDPA or OFDM, t hen t he channel can be known almost
perfect ly and t he effect s of fading and non- AWGN int erference can be ignored—t hus
j ust ifying t he AWGN assumpt ion. For inst ance, at 3 km per hour, and fading at 2 GHz,
t he Doppler spread is about 5. 5 Hz. The coherence t ime of t he channel is t hus 1 sec/ 5. 5
or 180 msec. Frames are well wit hin t he coherence t ime of t he channel, because t hey
are t ypically 20 msec or less. As such, t he channel appears “ const ant ” over a frame and
t he Shannon bound applies. Much more of t he t raffic in a cellular syst em is at slow
speeds ( for example, 3 km/ hr) rat her t han at higher speeds. Thus, t he Shannon bound
is relevant for a realist ic deployment environment .
As t he speed of t he mobile st at ion increases and t he channel est imat ion becomes less
accurat e, addit ional margin is needed. However, t his addit ional margin would impact t he
different st andards fairly equally.
The Shannon bound only applies t o a single user; it does not at t empt t o indicat e
aggregat e channel t hroughput wit h mult iple users. However, it does indicat e t hat link
layer performance is reaching t heoret ical limit s. As such, t he focus of fut ure t echnology
enhancement s should be on improving syst em performance aspect s t hat maximize t he
experienced SNRs in t he syst em rat her t han on invest igat ing new air int erfaces t hat
at t empt t o improve t he link layer performance.

66
Source: 3G Americas’ member company.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 47
Examples of t echnologies t hat improve SNR in t he syst em are t hose t hat minimize
int erference t hrough int elligent ant ennas or int erference coordinat ion bet ween sect ors
and cells. Not e t hat MI MO t echniques using spat ial mult iplexing t o pot ent ially increase
t he overall informat ion t ransfer rat e by a fact or proport ional t o t he number of t ransmit
or receive ant ennas do not violat e t he Shannon bound, because t he per ant enna t ransfer
rat e ( t hat is, t he per communicat ions link t ransfer rat e) is st ill limit ed by t he Shannon
bound.
Figure 17 compares t he spect ral efficiency of different wireless t echnologies based on a
consensus view of 3G Americas cont ribut ors t o t his paper. I t shows t he cont inuing
evolut ion of t he capabilit ies of all t he t echnologies discussed. The values shown are
conservat ive and int ended t o be reasonably represent at ive of real- world condit ions. Most
simulat ion result s produce values under idealized condit ions; as such, some of t he
values shown are lower ( for all t echnologies) t han t he values indicat ed in ot her papers
and publicat ions. For inst ance, 3GPP st udies indicat e higher HSDPA and LTE spect ral
efficiencies t han t hose shown below.
Fi gur e 17: Compar i son of Dow nl i nk Spect r al Ef f i ci ency
67

0.1
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
UMTS to LTE
S
p
e
c
t
r
a
l

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

(
b
p
s
/
H
z
/
s
e
c
t
o
r
)

5
+
5

M
H
z
0.8
0.9
UMTS R’99
HSDPA
EV-DO Rev 0
Rev B
Cross-Carrier
Scheduling
Rev A,
MRxD,
Equalizer
UMB
2X2 MIMO
WiMAX
Wave 1
WiMAX
Wave 2
CDMA2000 to UMB WiMAX
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
LTE
2X2 MIMO
HSPA+
2X2 MIMO
HSPA+
SIC, 64 QAM
HSDPA
MRxD,
Equalizer
1.5
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
2.2
2.3
2.5
2.4
LTE
4X4 MIMO
UMB
4X4 MIMO
Future
improvements
Future
improvements
LTE
4X2 MIMO
Rel 1.5
2X2 MIMO
UMB
4X2 MIMO
Rel 1.5
4X2 MIMO
Rel 1.5
4X4 MIMO
Future
improvements



67
Source: Joint analysis by 3G Americas’ members. 5+ 5 MHz for UMTS/ HSPA/ LTE and CDMA2000,
and 10 MHz DL/ UL= 3: 1 TDD for WiMAX. WiMAX Wave 2 AMC not included. Mix of mobile and
st at ionary users. WiMAX Release 1. 5 dat a preliminary, based on expect ed feat ures.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 48

The values shown in Figure 17 are not all t he combinat ions of available feat ures. Rat her,
t hey are represent at ive milest ones in ongoing improvement s in spect ral efficiency. For
inst ance, t here are t erminals t hat employ mobile- receive diversit y but not equalizat ion.
The figure does not include EDGE, but EDGE it self is spect rally efficient , at 0. 3
bps/ Hz/ sect or. Relat ive t o WCDMA Release 99, HSDPA increases capacit y by almost a
fact or of t hree. Type 3 receivers t hat include Minimum Mean Square Error ( MMSE)
equalizat ion and Mobile Receive Diversit y ( MRxD) will effect ively double HSDPA spect ral
efficiency. HSPA+ in Release 7 includes 2X2 MI MO, which furt her increases spect ral
efficiency by about 20 percent and mat ches WiMAX Wave 2 spect ral efficiency. Met hods
like successive int erference cancellat ion ( SI C) and 64 QAM allow gains in spect ral
efficiency as high as 1.3 bps/ Hz/ sect or, which is close t o LTE performance in 5+ 5 MHz
channel bandwidt h. Terminals wit h SI C can also be used wit h Release 7 syst ems.
Wit h respect t o act ual deployment , some enhancement s, such as 64 QAM, will be
simpler for some operat ors t o deploy t han ot her enhancement s, such as 2X2 MI MO. The
former can be done as a soft ware upgrade, whereas t he lat t er requires addit ional
hardware at t he base st at ion. Thus t he figure does not necessarily show t he act ual
progression of t echnologies t hat operat ors will deploy t o increase spect ral efficiency.
Beyond HSPA, 3GPP LTE will also result in furt her spect ral efficiency gains, init ially wit h
2X2 MI MO, and t hen opt ionally wit h SI C, 4X2 MI MO and 4X4 MI MO. LTE is even more
spect rally efficient wit h wider channels, such as 10 and 20 MHz.
Similar gains are available for CDMA2000. Mobile WiMAX also experiences gains in
spect ral efficiency as various opt imizat ions, like MRxD and MI MO, are applied. WiMAX
Wave 2 includes 2X2 MI MO. Enhancement s t o WiMAX will come from a new profile
defined in Release 1. 5, as well as ot her fut ure enhancement s.
The main reason t hat HSPA+ wit h MI MO is shown as more spect rally efficient t han
WiMAX Wave 2 wit h MI MO is because HSPA MI MO support s closed- loop operat ion wit h
precode weight ing and mult icode- word MI MO, which enables t he use of SI C receivers.
Ot her reasons are t hat HSPA support s increment al- redundancy HARQ, while t he init ial
WiMAX profiles support only Chase combining HARQ, and t hat WiMAX has larger cont rol
overhead in t he downlink t han HSPA, because t he uplink in WiMAX is fully scheduled.
OFDMA t echnology requires scheduling t o avoid t wo mobile devices t ransmit t ing on t he
same t ones simult aneously. An uplink MAP zone in t he downlink channel does t his
scheduling.
LTE has higher spect ral efficiency t han WiMAX Wave 2 for a number of reasons:
68

- Closed- loop operat ion wit h precoded weight ing.
- Mult i codeword MI MO which enable t he use of SI C receivers.
- Lower Channel Qualit y I ndicat or delay t hrough use of 1 msec frames inst ead of 5
msec frames.
- Great er cont rol channel efficiency.
- I ncrement al redundancy in error correct ion.
- Finer granularit y of modulat ion and coding schemes.

68
I EEE I nt ernat ional Symposium on Personal, I ndoor and Mobile Radio Communicat ions: Anders
Furuskär et al “ The LTE Radio I nt erface – Key Charact erist ics and Performance” , 2008.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 49

WiMAX Release 1. 5 will address some of t hese it ems, and will t hus have increased
spect ral efficiency. Expect ed feat ures include reduced MAC overhead, adapt ive
modulat ion and coding, and ot her physical- layer enhancement s. At t he t ime of t his
paper, t he feat ure set is neit her public nor final, and hence t he spect ral efficiency values
shown are preliminary and subj ect t o change. Vendor est imat es for Release 1. 5 range
from about 77% t o 98% of LTE spect ral efficiency for downlink dat a.
69
Thus if t he final
spect ral efficiency analysis for WiMAX Release 1. 5 comes at t he low end of t he range, it
would fall well below LTE performance and could also fall below HSPA+ spect ral
efficiency. Since t here is a wide range in proj ect ed spect ral efficiency, t he assessment of
act ual performance of WiMAX Release 1. 5 relat ive t o HSPA+ and LTE must await furt her
analysis.
One available improvement for LTE spect ral efficiency not shown in t he figure is
successive int erference cancellat ion. This will result in a gain of 5% in a low mobilit y
environment and a gain of 10 t o 15% in environment s such as picocells in which t here is
cell isolat ion.
An import ant conclusion of t his comparison is t hat all t he maj or wireless t echnologies
achieve comparable spect ral efficiency t hrough t he use of comparable radio t echniques.
Figure 18 compares t he uplink spect ral efficiency of t he different syst ems.

69
Cont ribut ions t o 3G Americas by 3G Americas member companies.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 50
Fi gur e 18: Compar i son of Upl i nk Spect r al Ef f i ci ency
70

0.1
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
UMTS to LTE
S
p
e
c
t
r
a
l

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

(
b
p
s
/
H
z
/
s
e
c
t
o
r
)

5
+
5

M
H
z
0.8
0.9
UMTS R’99
to Rel 5
HSUPA Rel 6
LTE 1X2
Receive
Diversity
EV-DO Rev 0
EV-DO Rev B,
Interference
Cancellation
UMB 1X2
Receive
Diversity
EV-DO Rev A
HSPA+
Interference
Cancellation,
16 QAM
WiMAX
Wave 1
LTE 1x4
Receive
Diversity
CDMA2000 to UMB
WiMAX
Wave 2
Future
Improvements
Future
Improvements
Future
Improvements
1.0
Rel 1.5 1X2
Receive Diversity
UMB 1X4
Receive
Diversity
WiMAX
Rel 1.5 1X4
Receive
Diversity



The implement at ion of HSUPA in HSPA significant ly increases uplink capacit y, as does
Rev A of 1xEV- DO, compared t o Rev 0. OFDM- based syst ems can exhibit improved
uplink capacit y relat ive t o CDMA t echnologies, but t his improvement depends on fact ors
such as t he scheduling efficiency and t he exact deployment scenario. Wit h LTE, spect ral
efficiency gains increase by use of receive diversit y. I nit ial syst ems will employ 1X2
receive diversit y ( t wo ant ennas at t he base st at ion) , and lat er 1X4 diversit y, which
should increase spect ral efficiency by 50%. I t is also possible t o employ Mult i- User MI MO
( MU- MI MO) which allows simult aneous t ransmission by mult iple users on t he uplink on
t he same physical resource t o increase spect ral efficiency and is, in fact , easier t o
implement t han t rue MI MO because it does not require an addit ional t ransmit t er in t he
mobile device. Spect ral efficiency gains, however, wit h MU- MI MO are not as great as
wit h t he receive diversit y schemes.
Figure 18 shows WiMAX Wave 2 uplink spect ral efficiency t o be lower t han 3GPP and
3GPP2 t echnologies employing int erference cancellat ion. This is because of t he high pilot
overhead in I EEE 802. 16e, which account s for up t o 33 percent of t ones. Wit h t he
opt ional, but more efficient pilot st ruct ure implement ed, it is likely t hat I EEE 802. 16e
uplink spect ral efficiency will be on par.

70
Source: Joint analysis by 3G Americas’ members. 5+ 5 MHz for UMTS/ HSPA/ LTE and CDMA2000,
and 10 MHz DL/ UL= 3: 1 TDD for WiMAX. Mix of mobile and st at ionary users. WiMAX Release 1. 5 dat a
preliminary, based on expect ed feat ur es.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 51
Vendor est imat es for Release 1. 5 range from about 57% t o 98% of LTE spect ral
efficiency for uplink dat a and t he values shown are preliminary and subj ect t o change.
71

Figure 19 compares voice spect ral efficiency. I t assumes a round- robin t ype of
scheduler, as opposed t o a proport ional- fair scheduler t hat is normally used for
asynchronous dat a.
Fi gur e 19: Compar i son of Voi ce Spect r al Ef f i ci ency
72

50
350
300
250
200
150
100
UMTS to LTE
E
r
l
a
n
g
s
,


1
0
+
1
0

M
H
z
UMTS R’99
AMR 7.95 kbps
Interference
Cancellation
AMR 5.9 kbps
1xRTT
EVRC 8 kbps
Interference
Cancellation
EVRC-B 6 kbps
Rel 1.5
EVRC-B 6kbps
EV-DO Rev A
EVRC 8 kbps Rel 7, VoIP
AMR 7.95 kbps
500
450
400
CDMA2000 to UMB
LTE AMR 5.9 kbps
Rel 7 VoIP
AMR 5.9 kbps
Future
Improvements
Future
Improvements
UMB VoIP
EVRC-B 6 kbps
EVRC-B 6 kbps
Future
Improvements
WiMAX
Wave 2
EVRC 8 kbps
Rel 1.5
EVRC 8 kbps
LTE VoIP
AMR 7.95 kbps
WiMAX
UMTS R’99
AMR 12.2 kbps


Figure 19 shows UMTS R’99 wit h bot h AMR 12. 2 kbps and 7. 95 kbps vocoders. The AMR
12. 2 kbps vocoder provides superior voice qualit y in good ( e. g. , st at ic, indoors) channel
condit ions. UMTS has dynamic adapt at ion bet ween vocoder rat es, enabling enhanced
voice qualit y compared t o EVRC at t he expense of capacit y in sit uat ions t hat are not
capacit y limit ed.
Opport unit ies will arise t o improve voice capacit y using VoI P over HSPA channels.
Depending on t he specific enhancement s implement ed, voice capacit y could double over
exist ing circuit - swit ched syst ems. I t should be not ed, however, t hat t he gains are not
relat ed specifically t o t he use of VoI P; rat her, gains relat e t o advances in radio
t echniques applied t o t he dat a channels. Many of t hese same advances may also be
applied t o current circuit - swit ched modes. This is what t he CS over HSPA work it em will

71
Cont ribut ions t o 3G Americas by 3G Americas member companies.
72
Source: Joint analysis by 3G Americas’ members. 10 + 10 MHz for UMTS/ HSPA/ LTE and CDMA2000,
and 20 MHz DL/ UL= 3: 1 TDD for WiMAX. Mix of mobile and st at ionary users. WiMAX Release 1. 5 dat a
preliminary, based on expect ed feat ur es.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 52
achieve. However, ot her benefit s of VoI P are driving t he migrat ion t o packet voice.
Among t hese benefit s are a consolidat ed I P core net work for operat ors and sophist icat ed
mult imedia applicat ions for users.
EV- DO t echnologies could possibly exhibit a slight ly higher spect ral efficiency for VoI P
t han HSPA t echnologies ( t hough not for packet dat a in general) , as t hey operat e purely
in t he packet domain and do not have circuit - swit ched cont rol overhead.
73
Unt il VoI P
over EV- DO becomes available, HSPA will have t he significant advant age, however, of
being able t o support simult aneous circuit - swit ched and packet - swit ched users on t he
same radio channel.
Wit h respect t o codecs, in VoI P syst ems such as LTE, UMB and WiMAX, a variet y of
codecs can be used. The figures show performance assuming specific codecs at
represent at ive bit rat es. For codecs such as EVRC ( Enhanced Variable Rat e Codec) , t he
bit rat e shown is an average value.
Though WiMAX Release 1. 5 has high downlink and uplink spect ral efficiency for VoI P, it
has a disadvant age relat ive t o LTE because it only support s 5 msec frames while LTE
support s 1 msec frames. The use of 5 msec frames limit s t he number of HARQ
ret ransmissions in each 20 msec speech frame. LTE can support mult iple HARQ
ret ransmissions wit hin a 20 msec speech frame, whereas WiMAX can only support one.
Cost, Volume and Market Comparison
So far, t his paper has compared wireless t echnologies on t he basis of t echnical capabilit y
and demonst rat ed t hat many of t he different opt ions have similar t echnical at t ribut es.
This is for t he simple reason t hat t hey employ many of t he same approaches.
There is a point of comparison, however, in which t he differences bet ween t he
t echnologies diverge t remendously; namely, t he difference in volume involved including
subscribers and t he amount of infrast ruct ure required. This difference should t ranslat e t o
dramat ically reduced cost s for t he highest volume solut ions, specifically GSM/ UMTS.
Based on proj ect ions and numbers already present ed in t his paper, 3G subscribers on
UMTS net works will number in t he many hundreds of millions by t he end of t his decade,
whereas subscribers t o emerging wireless t echnologies such as I EEE 802. 16e- 2005 will
number in t he t ens of millions. See Figure 20 for det ails.

73
Transmit Power Cont rol ( TPC) bit s on t he uplink Dedicat ed Physical Cont rol Channel DPCCH in UMTS
R’99. See also I EEE Journal on Select ed Areas in Communicat ion, Vol 24, No. 1, Qi Bi, “ An Analysis of
VoI P Service Using 1 EV- DO Revision A Syst em” , January, 2006.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 53
Fi gur e 20: Rel at i ve Vol ume of Subscr i ber s Acr oss Wi r el ess Technol ogi es
74



Alt hough proponent s for t echnologies such as mobile WiMAX point t o lower cost s for
t heir alt ernat ives, t here doesn’t seem t o be any inherent cost advant age—even on an
equal volume basis. And when fact oring in t he lower volumes, any real- world cost
advant age is debat able.
From a deployment point of view, t he t ype of t echnology used ( for example, HSPA
versus WiMAX) only applies t o t he soft ware support ed by t he digit al cards at t he base
st at ion. This cost , however, is only a small fract ion of t he base st at ion cost wit h t he
balance covering ant ennas, power amplifiers, cables, racks, RF cards, . As for t he rest of
t he net work including const ruct ion, backhaul, and core- net work component s, cost s are
similar regardless of Radio Access Net work ( RAN) t echnology. Spect rum cost s for each
t echnology can differ great ly depending on a count ry’s regulat ions and t he spect rum
band. As a general rule in most part s of t he world, spect rum sold at 3.5 GHz will cost
much less t han spect rum sold at 850 MHz ( all ot her t hings being equal) .
As for UMTS/ HSPA versus CDMA2000, higher deployment —by a fact or of five—could
t ranslat e t o significant cost savings. For example, research and development
amort izat ion result s in a four- t o- one difference in base st at ion cost s.
75
Similarly, j ust as
GSM handset s are considered much less expensive t han 1xRTT handset s, UMTS
wholesale t erminal prices could be t he market leader in low- cost or mass- market 3G
t erminals. Development s such as single- chip UMTS complement ary met al oxide

74
Source: I nforma Telecoms & Media, WCI S Forecast , July 2008
75
Source: 3G Americas member analysis.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 54
semiconduct or ( CMOS) t ransceivers could be part icularly effect ive in making
UMTS/ HSDPA devices more affordable t o t he mass market .
76

Even LTE is on t he road t o a robust wireless ecosyst em and significant economies of
scale. I n June of 2008, t he Next Generat ion Mobile Net works ( NGMN) alliance confirmed
it s select ion of LTE. Dr. Pet er Meissner, Operat ing Officer of NGMN announced t hat ,
“ based on int ensive and det ailed t echnology evaluat ions, 3GPP LTE/ SAE is t he first
t echnology which broadly meet s it s recommendat ions and is approved by it s Board. ”
77

The NGMN is comprised of 18 mobile net work operat ors, 29 vendor sponsors and 3
Universit y research inst it ut es. I t s operat or members include: Allt el, AT&T, China Mobile,
France Telecom, Royal KPN, MSV Mobile Sat ellit e Vent ures, NTT DoComo, Reliance
Communicat ions, SK Telecom, Telecom I t alia, Telefonica, Telenor, TeliaSonera, Telst ra,
Telus, T- Mobile and Vodafone.
I n reference t o t he NGMN Alliance announcement , Michael Thelander, CEO and Founder
of Signals Research Group, a US- based wireless research consult ancy, st at ed t hat , “ t he
implicat ions could be significant , and if not hing else, eight een of t he world’s largest
mobile operat ors have spoken…”
78

Competitive Summary
Based on t he informat ion present ed in t his paper, Table 6 summarizes t he compet it ive
posit ion of t he different t echnologies discussed.
Tabl e 6: Compet i t i ve Posi t i on of Maj or Wi r el ess Technol ogi es
Technol ogy EDGE/ HSPA/ LTE CDMA2000/ UMB I EEE 802.16e
Wi MAX
Subscr i ber s Over 3 billion
t oday; 4 billion
expect ed by 2010
438 million
79

t oday; slower
growt h expect ed
t han GSM/ UMTS
Less t han 54 million
by 2012
Mat ur i t y Ext remely mat ure Ext remely mat ure Emerging/ immat ure
Adopt i on Cellular operat ors
globally
Cellular operat ors
globally for CDMA
2000. No
commit ment s t o
UMB.
Limit ed t o dat e
Cov er age/ Foot pr i nt Global Global wit h t he
general except ion
of West ern Europe
Very limit ed
Depl oy ment Fewer cell sit es
required at 700
and 850 MHz.
Fewer cell sit es
required at 700
and 850 MHz.
Many more cell
sit es required at 2. 5
GHz.

76
Source: Qualcomm press release Feb 13, 2007.
77
ht t p: / / www. umt s- forum. org/ cont ent / view/ 2479/ 172/
78
ht t p: / / www. 3gamericas. org/ English/ news_room/ DisplayPressRelease. cfm?id= 3359&s= ENG
79
Source: CDG, July 2008.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 55
Technol ogy EDGE/ HSPA/ LTE CDMA2000/ UMB I EEE 802.16e
Wi MAX
Dev i ces Broad select ion of
GSM/ EDGE/ UMTS/
HSPA
devices
Broad select ion of
1xRTT/ EV- DO
devices
None yet ; init ial
devices likely t o
emphasize dat a
Radi o Technol ogy Highly opt imized
TDMA for EDGE,
highly opt imized
CDMA for HSPA,
highly opt imized
OFDMA for LTE
Highly opt imized
CDMA for
Rev 0/ A/ B,
highly opt imized
OFDMA for Rev C
OFDMA in Wave 1,
more opt imized in
Wave 2,
highly opt imized in
Release 1. 5
Spect r al Ef f i ci ency Very high wit h
HSPA, mat ches
OFDMA approaches
in 5 MHz wit h
HSPA+
Very high wit h EV-
DO Rev A/ B
Very high, but not
higher t han HSPA+
Thr oughput
Capabi l i t i es
Peak downlink
user- achievable
rat es of over 4
Mbps t oday, wit h
significant ly higher
rat es in t he fut ure
Peak downlink
user- achievable
rat es of over 1. 5
Mbps, wit h
significant ly higher
rat es in t he fut ure
Peak downlink user-
achievable rat es will
depend on net work
design
Lat ency As low as 70 msec
wit h HSPA t oday,
wit h much lower
lat ency in t he
fut ure
As low as 70 msec
wit h EV- DO Rev A,
wit h much lower
lat ency in t he
fut ure
To be det ermined
Voi ce Capabi l i t y Ext remely efficient
circuit - voice
available t oday;
smoot hest
migrat ion t o VoI P
of any t echnology
Ext remely efficient
circuit - voice
available t oday
EV- DO radio
channels wit h VoI P
cannot support
circuit - voice users
Relat ively inefficient
VoI P init ially; more
efficient in lat er
st ages, but lower
t han LTE.
Voice coverage will
be much more
limit ed t han cellular
Si mul t aneous Voi ce
and Dat a
Available wit h
GSM
80
and UMTS
t oday
Not available t oday
Available wit h VoI P
Pot ent ially
available, t hough
init ial services will
emphasize dat a
Ef f i ci ent Spect r um
Usage
Ent ire UMTS radio
channel available
for any mix of
voice and high-
speed dat a
Radio channel
t oday limit ed t o
eit her
voice/ medium
speed dat a or high-
Efficient for dat a-
cent ric net works
only unt il lat er
versions

80
Wit h t he applicat ion of Dual Transfer Mode.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 56
Technol ogy EDGE/ HSPA/ LTE CDMA2000/ UMB I EEE 802.16e
Wi MAX
speed dat a only

Conclusion
Thanks t o const ant innovat ion, t he EDGE/ HSPA/ LTE family of t echnologies has proven it self
as t he predominant wireless net work solut ion, and offers operat ors and subscribers a t rue
mobile- broadband advant age. The cont inued use of GSM and EDGE t echnology t hrough
ongoing enhancement s allows operat ors t o leverage exist ing invest ment s. Wit h UMTS/ HSPA,
t he t echnologies’ advant ages provide for broadband services t hat will deliver increased dat a
revenue and provide a pat h t o all- I P archit ect ures. Wit h LTE, now t he most widely chosen
t echnology plat form for t he fort hcoming decade, t he advant ages offer a best - of- breed, long-
t erm solut ion t hat mat ches or exceeds t he performance of compet ing approaches. I n all
cases, t he different radio- access t echnologies can coexist using t he same core archit ect ure.
Today, HSPA offers t he highest peak dat a rat es of any widely available, wide- area wireless
t echnology. Wit h cont inued evolut ion, peak dat a rat es will cont inue t o increase, spect ral
efficiency will increase, and lat ency will decrease. The result is support for more users at
higher speeds wit h more applicat ions enabled. The scope of applicat ions will also increase as
new services become available such as locat ion informat ion and video. Great er efficiencies
will t ranslat e t o more compet it ive offers, great er net work usage, and increased revenues.
Because of pract ical benefit s and deployment moment um, t he migrat ion pat h from EDGE t o
HSPA t hen t o LTE is inevit able. Benefit s include t he abilit y t o roam globally, huge economies
of scale, widespread accept ance by operat ors, complement ary services such as messaging
and mult imedia, and an ast onishing variet y of compet it ive handset s and ot her devices.
Current ly more t han 210 commercial UMTS/ HSPA net works and 236 UMTS net works are
already in operat ion. UMTS/ HSPA offers an excellent migrat ion pat h for GSM operat ors, as
well as an effect ive t echnology solut ion for greenfield operat ors.
EDGE has proven t o be a remarkably effect ive and efficient t echnology for GSM net works. I t
achieves high spect ral efficiency and dat a performance t hat t oday support a wide range of
applicat ions. Evolved EDGE will great ly enhance EDGE capabilit ies—doubling and,
pot ent ially, quadrupling t hroughput s—making t he t echnology viable for many years t o
come.
Whereas EDGE is efficient for narrowband dat a services, t he UMTS/ HSPA radio link is
efficient for wideband services. Unlike some compet ing t echnologies, UMTS t oday offers
users simult aneous voice and dat a. I t also allows operat ors t o support voice and dat a across
t heir ent ire available spect rum.
HSPA has significant ly enhanced UMTS by providing a broadband dat a service wit h user-
achievable rat es t hat oft en exceed 1 Mbps on t he downlink in init ial deployment s and t hat
now exceed 4 Mbps in some commercial net works. Many net works are now being upgraded
t o include HSUPA providing users uplink rat es in excess of 1 Mbps.
Not only are t here cont inual improvement s in radio t echnology, but improvement s t o t he
core net work t hrough flat t er archit ect ures—part icularly EPC/ SAE—will reduce lat ency, speed
applicat ions, simplify deployment , enable all services in t he I P domain, and allow a common
core net work t o support bot h LTE and legacy GSM/ UMTS syst ems.
HSPA and it s advanced evolut ion can compet e against any ot her t echnology in t he world,
and it is widely expect ed t hat most UMTS operat ors will event ually upgrade t o t his

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 57
t echnology. Ot her innovat ions, such as MI MO and higher order modulat ion, will be deployed
over t he next several years. Evolved HSPA+ syst ems, wit h peak rat es of 42 Mbps, will
largely mat ch t he t hroughput and capacit y of OFDMA- based approaches in 5 MHz. 3GPP
adopt ed OFDMA wit h 3GPP LTE, which will provide a growt h plat form for t he next decade.
Wit h t he cont inued growt h in mobile comput ing, powerful new handheld- comput ing
plat forms, an increasing amount of mobile cont ent , mult imedia messaging, mobile
commerce, and locat ion services, wireless dat a has slowly, but inevit ably, become a huge
indust ry. EDGE/ HSPA/ LTE provides one of t he most robust port folios of mobile- broadband
t echnologies, and it is an opt imum framework for realizing t he pot ent ial of t his market .

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 58
Appendix: Technology Details
The EDGE/ HSPA/ LTE family of dat a t echnologies provides ever- increasing capabilit ies t hat
support ever more demanding applicat ions. EDGE, now available globally, already makes a
wealt h of applicat ions feasible including ent erprise applicat ions, messaging, e- mail, Web
browsing, consumer applicat ions, and even some mult imedia applicat ions. Wit h UMTS and
HSDPA, users are enj oying videophones, high- fidelit y music, richer mult imedia applicat ions,
and efficient access t o t heir ent erprise applicat ions.
I t is import ant t o underst and t he needs ent erprises and consumers have for t hese services.
The obvious needs are broad coverage and high dat a t hroughput . Less obvious for users,
but as crit ical for effect ive applicat ion performance, are t he needs for low lat ency, QoS
cont rol, and spect ral efficiency. Spect ral efficiency, in part icular, is of paramount concern,
because it t ranslat es t o higher average t hroughput s ( and t hus more responsive
applicat ions) for more act ive users in a coverage area. The discussion below, which
examines each t echnology individually, det ails how t he progression from EDGE t o HSPA t o
LTE is one of increased t hroughput , enhanced securit y, reduced lat ency, improved QoS, and
increased spect ral efficiency.
I t is also helpful t o specifically not e t he t hroughput requirement s necessary for different
applicat ions:
 Microbrowsing ( for example, Wireless Applicat ion Prot ocol [ WAP] ) : 8 t o 128 kbps
 Mult imedia messaging: 8 t o 64 kbps
 Video t elephony: 64 t o 384 kbps
 General- purpose Web browsing: 32 kbps t o more t han 1 Mbps
 Ent erprise applicat ions including e- mail, dat abase access, and VPNs: 32 kbps t o
more t han 1 Mbps
 Video and audio st reaming: 32 kbps t o 2 Mbps
Not e t hat EDGE already sat isfies t he demands of many applicat ions. Wit h HSPA, applicat ions
operat e fast er and t he range of support ed applicat ions expands even furt her.
Under favorable condit ions, EDGE delivers peak user- achievable t hroughput rat es close t o
200 kbps and init ial deployment s of HSPA deliver peak user- achievable downlink t hroughput
rat es of well over 1 Mbps, easily meet ing t he demands of many applicat ions. Lat ency has
cont inued t o improve, t oo, wit h HSPA net works t oday having round- t rip t imes as low as 70
msec. The combinat ion of low lat ency and high t hroughput t ranslat es t o a broadband
experience for users, in which applicat ions are ext remely responsive.
I n t his sect ion, we consider different t echnical approaches for wireless and t he parallel
evolut ion of 3GPP t echnologies. We t hen provide det ails on EDGE, UMTS/ HSPA, HSPA+ ,
LTE, and support ing t echnologies such as I MS.
EDGE
Today, most GSM net works support EDGE. I t is an enhancement t o GPRS, which is t he
original packet dat a service for GSM net works. GPRS provides a packet - based I P
connect ivit y solut ion support ing a wide range of ent erprise and consumer applicat ions.
GSM net works wit h EDGE operat e as wireless ext ensions t o t he I nt ernet and give users
I nt ernet access, as well as access t o t heir organizat ions from anywhere. Wit h peak user-

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 59
achievable
81
t hroughput rat es of up t o 200 kbps wit h EDGE using four t ime- slot devices,
users have t he same effect ive access speed as a modem, but wit h t he convenience of
connect ing from anywhere.
To underst and t he evolut ion of dat a capabilit y, we briefly examine how t hese dat a
services operat e, beginning wit h t he archit ect ure of GSM and EDGE, as depict ed in
Figure 21.
Fi gur e 21: GSM/ GPRS/ EDGE Ar chi t ect ur e
Public Switched
Telephone Network
External Data
Network (e.g., Internet)
Base
Station
Controller
Base
Transceiver
Station
Base
Transceiver
Station
Mobile
Switching
Center
Home
Location
Register
Serving
GPRS
Support
Node
Gateway
GPRS
Support
Node
IP
Traffic
Circuit-Switched
Traffic
Mobile
Station
Mobile
Station
Mobile
Station
GPRS/EDGE Data
Infrastructure

EDGE is essent ially t he addit ion of a packet - dat a infrast ruct ure t o GSM. I n fact , t his
same dat a archit ect ure is preserved in UMTS and HSPA net works, and it is t echnically
referred t o as GPRS for t he core- dat a funct ion in all t hese net works. The t erm GPRS may
also be used t o refer t o t he init ial radio int erface, now supplant ed by EDGE. Funct ions of
t he dat a element s are as follows:
1. The base st at ion cont roller direct s/ receives packet dat a t o/ from t he SGSN, an
element t hat aut hent icat es and t racks t he locat ion of mobile st at ions.
2. The SGSN performs t he t ypes of funct ions for dat a t hat t he MSC performs for
voice. Each serving area has one SGSN, and it is oft en collocat ed wit h t he MSC.
3. The SGSN forwards/ receives user dat a t o/ from t he GGSN, which can be viewed
as a mobile I P rout er t o ext ernal I P net works. Typically, t here is one GGSN per
ext ernal net work ( for example, t he I nt ernet ) . The GGSN also manages I P
addresses, dynamically assigning t hem t o mobile st at ions for t heir dat a sessions.
Anot her import ant element is t he HLR, which st ores users’ account informat ion for bot h
voice and dat a services. Of significance is t hat t his same dat a archit ect ure support s dat a
services in GSM and in UMTS/ HSPA net works, t hereby simplifying operat or net work
upgrades.
I n t he radio link, GSM uses radio channels of 200 kilohert z ( kHz) widt h, divided in t ime
int o eight t imeslot s comprising 577 microseconds ( us) t hat repeat every 4. 6 msec, as
shown in Figure 22. The net work can have mult iple radio channels ( referred t o as

81
“ Peak user- achievable” means users, under favorable condit ions of net work loading and signal
propagat ion, can achieve t his rat e as measured by applicat ions such as file t ransfer. Average rat es
depend on many fact ors and will be lower t han t hese rat es.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 60
t ransceivers) operat ing in each cell sect or. The net work assigns different funct ions t o
each t imeslot such as t he Broadcast Cont rol Channel ( BCCH) , circuit - swit ched funct ions
like voice calls or dat a calls, t he opt ional Packet Broadcast Cont rol Channel ( PBCCH) ,
and packet dat a channels. The net work can dynamically adj ust capacit y bet ween voice
and dat a funct ions, and it can also reserve minimum resources for each service. This
enables more dat a t raffic when voice t raffic is low or, likewise, more voice t raffic when
dat a t raffic is low, t hereby maximizing overall use of t he net work. For example, t he
PBCCH, which expands t he capabilit ies of t he normal BCCH, may be set up on a t imeslot
of a TDMA frame when j ust ified by t he volume of dat a t raffic.
Fi gur e 22: Ex ampl e of GSM/ EDGE Ti mesl ot St r uct ur e
82


EDGE offers close coupling bet ween voice and dat a services. I n most net works, while in
a dat a session, users can accept an incoming voice call, which suspends t he dat a
session, and t hen resume t heir dat a session aut omat ically when t he voice session ends.
Users can also receive SMS messages and dat a not ificat ions
83
while on a voice call. Wit h
net works support ing DTM, users wit h DTM- capable devices can engage in simult aneous
voice/ dat a operat ion.
Wit h respect t o dat a performance, each dat a t imeslot can deliver peak user- achievable
dat a rat es of up t o about 50 kbps. The net work can aggregat e up t o four of t hese
t imeslot s on t he downlink wit h current devices.
Table 7 shows t he different modulat ion and coding schemes for EDGE.
Tabl e 7: EDGE Modul at i on and Codi ng Schemes
84

Modul at i on and
Codi ng Scheme
Modul at i on Thr oughput per
Ti mesl ot ( k bps)
MCS- 1 GMSK 8. 8
MCS- 2 GMSK 11. 2
MCS- 3 GMSK 14. 8

82
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.
83
Example: WAP not ificat ion message delivered via SMS.
84
Radio Link Cont rol ( RLC) – layer 2 - t hroughput s. Applicat ion rat es are t ypically 20 percent lower.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 61
Modul at i on and
Codi ng Scheme
Modul at i on Thr oughput per
Ti mesl ot ( k bps)
MCS- 4 GMSK 17. 6
MCS- 5 8- PSK 22. 4
MCS- 6 8- PSK 29. 6
MCS- 7 8- PSK 44. 8
MCS- 8 8- PSK 54. 4
MCS- 9 8- PSK 59. 2


I f mult iple dat a users are act ive in a sect or, t hey share t he available dat a channels. As
demand for dat a services increases, however, an operat or can accommodat e cust omers
by assigning an increasing number of channels for dat a service t hat is limit ed only by
t hat operat or’s t ot al available spect rum and radio planning.
EDGE is an official 3G cellular t echnology t hat can be deployed wit hin an operat or' s
exist ing 850, 900, 1800, and 1900 MHz spect rum bands. EDGE capabilit y is now largely
st andard in new GSM deployment s. A GPRS net work using t he EDGE radio int erface is
t echnically called an Enhanced GPRS ( EGPRS) net work, and a GSM net work wit h EDGE
capabilit y is referred t o as GERAN. EDGE has been an inherent part of GSM
specificat ions since Release 99. I t is fully backward- compat ible wit h older GSM
net works, meaning t hat GPRS devices work on EDGE net works and t hat GPRS and EDGE
t erminals can operat e simult aneously on t he same t raffic channels. I n addit ion, any
applicat ion developed for GPRS will work wit h EDGE.
Many operat ors t hat originally planned t o use only UMTS for next - generat ion dat a
services have deployed EDGE as a complement ary 3G t echnology. There are mult iple
reasons for t his including:
1. EDGE provides average dat a capabilit ies for t he “ sweet spot ” of approximat ely
100 kbps, t hereby enabling many communicat ions- orient ed applicat ions.
2. EDGE has proven it self in t he field as a cost - effect ive solut ion and is now a
mat ure t echnology.
3. EDGE is spect rally efficient , t hereby allowing operat ors t o support large numbers
of voice and dat a users in exist ing spect rum.
4. EDGE provides a cost - effect ive wide- area dat a service t hat offers cont inuit y and
is complement ary wit h a UMTS/ HSPA net work deployed in high t raffic areas.
I t is import ant t o not e t hat EDGE t echnology is cont inuing t o improve. For example,
Release 4 significant ly reduced EDGE lat ency ( net work round- t rip t ime) —from t he
t ypical 500 t o 600 msec t o about 300 msec. Operat ors also cont inue t o make
improvement s in how EDGE funct ions, including net work opt imizat ions t hat boost
capacit y and reduce lat ency. The impact for users is t hat EDGE net works t oday are more
robust wit h applicat ions funct ioning more responsively. Release 7’s Evolved EDGE will
also int roduce significant new feat ures.
Devices t hemselves are increasing in capabilit y. Dual Transfer Mode ( DTM) devices,
already available from vendors, allow simult aneous voice and dat a communicat ions. For
example, during a voice call, users will be able t o ret rieve e- mail, do mult imedia

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 62
messaging, browse t he Web, and do I nt ernet conferencing. This is part icularly useful
when connect ing phones t o lapt ops via cable or Bluet oot h and using t hem as modems.
DTM is a 3GPP- specified t echnology t hat enables new applicat ions like video sharing
while providing a consist ent service experience ( service cont inuit y) wit h UMTS. Typically,
a DTM end- t o- end solut ion requires only a soft ware upgrade t o t he GSM/ EDGE radio
net work. There are a number of net works and devices now support ing DTM.
Alt hough HSPA net works provide an even bet t er user experience for some applicat ions,
t he fact is t hat many applicat ions—such as e- mail on smart phones—are served perfect ly
well by EDGE. Combining t he efficiency of EDGE for dat a wit h t he efficiency of GSM for
voice, operat ors can use GSM t echnology t o deliver a broad range of services t hat will
sat isfy t heir cust omers for many years.
Evolved EDGE
Recognizing t he value of t he huge inst alled base of GSM net works, 3GPP is current ly
working t o improve EDGE capabilit ies for Release 7. This work is part of t he GERAN
Evolut ion effort , which also includes voice enhancement s not discussed in t his paper.
Alt hough EDGE t oday already serves many applicat ions like wireless e- mail ext remely
well, it makes good sense t o cont inue t o evolve EDGE capabilit ies. From an economic
st andpoint , it is less cost ly t han upgrading t o UMTS, because most enhancement s are
designed t o be soft ware based, and it is highly asset efficient , because it involves fewer
long- t erm capit al invest ment s t o upgrade an exist ing syst em. Wit h 85 percent of t he
world market using GSM, which is already equipped for simple roaming and billing, it is
easy t o offer global service t o subscribers. Evolved EDGE offers higher dat a rat es and
syst em capacit y, and cable- modem speeds are realist ically achievable.
I n addit ion, many regions t o not have licensed spect rum for deployment of a new radio
t echnology such as UMTS/ HSPA or LTE. Also, Evolved EDGE also provides bet t er service
cont inuit y bet ween EDGE and HSPA, meaning t hat a user will not have a hugely different
experience when moving bet ween environment s.
Alt hough GSM and EDGE are already highly opt imized t echnologies, advances in radio
t echniques will enable furt her efficiencies. Some of t he obj ect ives of Evolved EDGE
include:
 A 100 percent increase in peak dat a rat es.
 A 50 percent increase in spect ral efficiency and capacit y in C/ I - limit ed scenarios.
 A sensit ivit y increase in t he downlink of 3 dB for voice and dat a.
 A reduct ion of lat ency for init ial access and round- t rip t ime, t hereby enabling
support for conversat ional services such as VoI P and PoC.
 To achieve compat ibilit y wit h exist ing frequency planning, t hus facilit at ing
deployment in exist ing net works.
 To coexist wit h legacy mobile st at ions by allowing bot h old and new st at ions t o
share t he same radio resources.
 To avoid impact s on infrast ruct ure by enabling improvement s t hrough a soft ware
upgrade.
 To be applicable t o DTM ( simult aneous voice and dat a) and t he A/ Gb mode
int erface. The A/ Gb mode int erface is part of t he 2G core net work, so t his goal is
required for full backward- compat ibilit y wit h legacy GPRS/ EDGE.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 63
The met hods st andardized in Release 7 t o achieve t hese obj ect ives include:
 Downlink dual- carrier recept ion t o increase t he number of t imeslot s t hat can be
received wit hout a need t o receive and t ransmit on t he same carrier from four on
one carrier t o 10 on t wo carriers for a 150 percent increase in t hroughput .
 The addit ion of Quadrat ure Phase Shift Keying ( QPSK) , 16 QAM, and 32 QAM as
well as an increased symbol rat e ( 1. 2x) in t he uplink and a new set of
modulat ion/ coding schemes t hat will increase maximum t hroughput per t imeslot
by 38 percent . Current ly, EDGE uses 8- PSK modulat ion. Simulat ions indicat e a
realizable 25 percent increase in user- achievable peak rat es.
 A reduct ion in overall lat ency. This is achieved by lowering t he TTI t o 10 msec
and by including t he acknowledgement informat ion in t he dat a packet . These
enhancement s will have a dramat ic effect on t hroughput for many applicat ions.
 Downlink diversit y recept ion of t he same radio channel t o increase t he robust ness
in int erference and t o improve t he receiver sensit ivit y. Simulat ions have
demonst rat ed sensit ivit y gains of 3 dB and a decrease in required C/ I of up t o 18
dB for a single cochannel int erferer. Significant increases in syst em capacit y can
be achieved, as explained below.
Dual - Car r i er Recei ver
A key part of t he evolut ion of EDGE is t he ut ilizat ion of more t han one radio frequency
carrier. This overcomes t he inherent limit at ion of t he narrow channel bandwidt h of GSM.
Using t wo radio- frequency carriers requires t wo receiver chains in t he downlink, as
shown in Figure 23. As previously st at ed, using t wo carriers enables t he recept ion of
more t han t wice as many radio blocks simult aneously.
Fi gur e 23: Ev ol v ed EDGE Tw o- Car r i er Oper at i on
85

Rx1
Tx (1)
Neighbor Cell Measurements
Uplink Timeslot
Downlink Timeslot
Slot N
Slot N + 1
(Idle Frame)
Slot N + 2 Slot N + 3
Rx2


Alt ernat ively, t he original number of radio blocks can be divided bet ween t he t wo
carriers. This eliminat es t he need for t he net work t o have cont iguous t imeslot s on one
frequency.

85
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 64
Fi gur e 24: EDGE Mul t i - Car r i er Recei ve Logi c – Mobi l e Par t
86

RF Transceiver
front ends
Carrier 1
Carrier 2
Carrier N
Transceiver carrier
frequency control
Decode
control
Multi-carrier radio
resource control logic
Baseband
processing:
demodulation,
channel
decoding
Radio protocol
stack
Downlink
logical
User application
data
Timeslot and
radio frequency
assignment unit
Timeslot and frequency
allocation messages
Radio resource control
Demodulator
and decoding
control

Channel capacit y wit h dual- carrier recept ion improves great ly, not by increasing basic
efficiencies of t he air int erface, but because of st at ist ical improvement in t he abilit y t o
assign radio resources, which increases t runking efficiency.
As net work loading increases, it is st at ist ically unlikely t hat cont iguous t imeslot s will be
available. Wit h t oday’s EDGE devices, it is not possible t o change radio frequencies when
going from one t imeslot t o t he next . Wit h an Evolved EDGE dual receiver, however, t his
becomes possible, t hus enabling cont iguous t imeslot s across different radio channels.
The result is t hat t he syst em can allocat e a large set of t ime slot s for dat a even if t hey
are not cont iguous, which ot herwise is not possible. Figure 25 shows why t his is
import ant . As t he net work becomes busy, t he probabilit y of being assigned 1 t imeslot
decreases. As t his probabilit y decreases ( X axis) , t he probabilit y of being able t o obt ain
5 t imeslot s on t he same radio carrier decreases dramat ically. Being able t o obt ain
t imeslot s across t wo carriers in Evolved EDGE, however, significant ly improves t he
likelihood of obt aining t he desired t imeslot s.

86
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 65
Fi gur e 25: Pr obabi l i t i es of Ti me Sl ot Assi gnment s
87



Figure 26 shows a dual- radio receiver approach opt imizing t he use of available t imeslot s.
( “ Rx1” refers t o receiver 1, “ Rx2” refers t o receiver 2, “ NCM” refers t o neighbour cell
monit oring, and “ M2” refers t o receiver 2 doing syst em monit oring. )
Fi gur e 26: Opt i mi zat i on of Ti mesl ot Usage Ex ampl e
88

Rx1
Tx
Neighbor Cell Measurements Uplink Timeslot Downlink Timeslot
Idle Frame
F4
5 Timeslot Allocation “Scavenged” from
Different Frequency Carriers
Rx2
NCM
F5 F3 F1
F2 F4
F5 F3 F1
F2 F4
F5 F3 F1
F2
Each Receiver Changes
Tuned Frequency Between
its Slots
F4
F5 F3 F1
F2 F4
F5 F3 F1
F2

Through int elligent select ion, a dual- carrier receiver archit ect ure can support eit her
dual- carrier recept ion or mobile- st at ion receive diversit y, depending on t he operat ing
environment .
Mobi l e St at i on Recei v e Di ver si t y

87
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.
88
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 66
Figure 27 illust rat es how mobile- st at ion receive diversit y increases syst em capacit y.
( BCCH refers t o t he Broadcast Cont rol Channel and TCH refers t o t he Traffic Channel. )
The BCCH carrier repeat s over 12 cells in a 4/ 12 frequency reuse pat t ern, which requires
2. 4 MHz for GSM. A fract ionally loaded syst em may repeat f12 t hrough f15 on each of
t he cells. This is a 1/ 1 frequency reuse pat t ern wit h higher syst em ut ilizat ion, but also
pot ent ially high co- channel int erference in loaded condit ions.
Fi gur e 27: Ex ampl e of 4/ 12 Fr equency Reuse w i t h 1/ 1 Ov er l ay
89


I n t oday’s EDGE syst ems, f12 t hrough f15 in t he 1/ 1 reuse layer can only be loaded t o
around 25 percent of capacit y. Thus, wit h four of t hese frequencies, it is possible t o
obt ain 100 percent of t he capacit y of t he frequencies in t he 4/ 12 reuse layer or t o
double t he capacit y by adding 800 KHz of spect rum.
Using Evolved EDGE and receive- diversit y- enabled mobile devices t hat have a high
t olerance t o co- channel int erference, however, it is possible t o increase t he load on t he
1/ 1 layer from 25 t o 50 percent and possibly t o as high as 75 percent . An increase t o 50
percent t ranslat es t o a doubling of capacit y on t he 1/ 1 layer wit hout requiring any new
spect rum and t o a 200 percent gain compared t o a 4/ 12 reuse layer.
Hi gher Or der Modul at i on and Hi gher Symbol Rat e Schemes
The addit ion of higher order modulat ion schemes enhances EDGE net work capacit y wit h
lit t le capit al invest ment by ext ending t he range of t he exist ing wireless t echnology. More
bit s- per- symbol means more dat a t ransmit t ed per unit t ime. This yields a fundament al
t echnological improvement in informat ion capacit y and fast er dat a rat es. Use of higher
order modulat ion exploit s localized opt imal coverage circumst ances, t hereby t aking
advant age of t he geographical locat ions associat ed wit h probabilit ies of high C/ I rat io
and enabling very high dat a t ransfer rat es whenever possible.
These enhancement s are only now being considered, because fact ors such as processing
power, variabilit y of int erference, and signal level made higher order modulat ions
impract ical for mobile wireless syst ems j ust a few years ago. Newer t echniques for
demodulat ion, however, such as advanced receivers and receive diversit y, help enable
t heir use.

89
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 67
Two different levels of support for higher order modulat ion are defined for bot h t he
uplink and t he downlink. I n t he uplink, t he first support level includes GMSK, 8- PSK,
and 16 QAM at t he legacy symbol rat e. This level of support reuses Modulat ion and
Coding Schemes ( MCSs) 1 t hrough 6 from EGPRS and adds five new 16 QAM modulat ed
schemes called uplink “ A” level schemes ( UAS) .
Tabl e 8: Upl i nk Modul at i on and Codi ng Schemes
Modul at i on
and Codi ng
Scheme
Name
Upl i nk EGPRS2 Suppor t Level A
Modul at i on
Ty pe
Peak Thr oughput ( k bps) –
4 sl ot s
MCS- 1 GMSK 35. 2
MCS- 2 GMSK 44. 8
MCS- 3 GMSK 59. 2
MCS- 4 GMSK 70. 4
MCS- 5 8- PSK 89. 6
MCS- 6 8- PSK 118. 4
UAS- 7 16 QAM 179. 2
UAS- 8 16 QAM 204. 8
UAS- 9 16 QAM 236. 8
UAS- 10 16 QAM 268. 8
UAS- 11 16 QAM 307. 2

The second support level in t he uplink includes QPSK, 16 QAM, and 32 QAM modulat ion
as well as a higher ( 1. 2x) symbol rat e. MCSs 1 t hrough 4 from EGPRS are reused, and
eight new uplink “ B” level schemes ( UBS) are added.
Tabl e 9: Upl i nk Modul at i on and Codi ng Schemes w i t h Hi gher Sy mbol Rat e
Modul at i on
and Codi ng
Scheme
Name
Upl i nk EGPRS2 Suppor t Level B
Modul at i on
Ty pe
Peak Thr oughput ( k bps)
– 4 sl ot s
MCS- 1 GMSK 35. 2
MCS- 2 GMSK 44. 8
MCS- 3 GMSK 59. 2
MCS- 4 GMSK 70. 4
UBS- 5 QPSK 89. 6
UBS- 6 QPSK 118. 4
UBS- 7 16 QAM 179. 2
UBS- 8 16 QAM 236. 8

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 68
UBS- 9 16 QAM 268. 8
UBS- 10 32 QAM 355. 2
UBS- 11 32 QAM 435. 2
UBS- 12 32 QAM 473. 6

The first downlink support level int roduces a modified set of 8- PSK coding schemes and
adds 16 QAM, and 32 QAM all at t he legacy symbol rat e. Turbo codes are used for all
new modulat ions. MCSs 1 t hrough 4 are reused, and eight new downlink “ A” level
schemes ( DAS) are added.
Tabl e 10: Dow nl i nk Modul at i on and Codi ng Schemes
Modul at i on
and Codi ng
Scheme
Name
Dow nl i nk HOM/ HSR Suppor t Level A
Modul at i on
Ty pe
Peak Thr oughput ( k bps) –
4 sl ot s
MCS- 1 GMSK 35. 2
MCS- 2 GMSK 44. 8
MCS- 3 GMSK 59. 2
MCS- 4 GMSK 70. 4
DAS- 5 8- PSK 89. 6
DAS- 6 8- PSK 108. 8
DAS- 7 8- PSK 131. 2
DAS- 8 16 QAM 179. 2
DAS- 9 16 QAM 217. 6
DAS- 10 32 QAM 262. 0
DAS- 11 32 QAM 326. 4
DAS- 12 32 QAM 393. 6

The second downlink support level includes QPSK, 16 QAM, and 32 QAM modulat ions at
a higher ( 1.2x) symbol rat e. MCSs 1 t hrough 4 are reused, and eight new downlink “ B”
level schemes ( DBS) are defined.
Tabl e 11: Dow nl i nk Modul at i on and Codi ng Schemes w i t h Hi gher Sy mbol Rat e
90

Modul at i on
and Codi ng
Scheme
Name
Dow nl i nk HOM/ HSR Suppor t Level B
Modul at i on
Ty pe
Peak Thr oughput ( k bps) –
4 sl ot s
MCS- 1 GMSK 35. 2

90
These dat a r at es require a wide- pulse shaping filt er t hat is not part of Release 7.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 69
MCS- 2 GMSK 44. 8
MCS- 3 GMSK 59. 2
MCS- 4 GMSK 70. 4
DBS- 5 QPSK 89. 6
DBS- 6 QPSK 118. 4
DBS- 7 16 QAM 179. 2
DBS- 8 16 QAM 2368
DBS- 9 16 QAM 268. 8
DBS- 10 32 QAM 355. 2
DBS- 11 32 QAM 435. 2
DBS- 12 32 QAM 473. 6

The combinat ion of Release 7 EDGE Evolut ion enhancement s shows a dramat ic pot ent ial
increase in t hroughput . For example, in t he downlink, a Type 2 mobile device ( one t hat
can support simult aneous t ransmission and recept ion) using DBS- 12 as t he MCS and a
dual- carrier receiver can achieve t he following performance:
Highest dat a rat e per t imeslot ( layer 2) = 118. 4 kbps
Timeslot s per carrier = 8
Carriers used in t he downlink = 2
Tot al downlink dat a rat e = 118. 4 kbps X 8 X 2 = 1894. 4 kbps
91

This t ranslat es t o a peak net work rat e close t o 2 Mbps and a user- achievable dat a rat e
of well over 1 Mbps!
Ot her Met hods Under Consi der at i on
This paper has emphasized t hose Evolved EDGE feat ures t hat 3GPP has agreed upon for
Release 7. However, t here are ot her feat ures being proposed t hat would boost EDGE
capabilit ies even furt her.
Advanced modulat ion enhancement s include t he addit ion of t urbo coding and 64 QAM t o
t he higher order modulat ion enhancement s already described. These enhancement s
increase t he robust ness of t he channel and t ake advant age of local areas of high C/ I
rat ios.
A second uplink carrier could also double uplink t hroughput . Two approaches have been
discussed. The first is a fully flexible dual- t ransmit t er approach. This approach has no
impact on t he net work, but may have significant impact on t he feasibilit y of t he mobile
st at ion, part icularly in t he handheld form fact or; it is current ly being researched and
discussed. The second approach is a const rained form of uplink dual carrier in which t he
spacing of t he t wo carriers is less t han 1 MHz and a single wideband t ransmit t er
generat es t he signal. This approach is easier t o implement in a mobile handset , but it
may impact legacy frequency planning. Proposals have been put forward out lining ways

91
For t he near fut ure, t wo carriers will be a scenario more pract ically realized on a not ebook comput er
plat form t han handheld plat forms.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 70
t o coexist wit h legacy frequency planning; t hese ideas are being researched and
discussed.
Ev ol v ed EDGE I mpl ement at i on
Table 12 shows what is involved in implement ing t he different feat ures defined for
Evolved EDGE. For a number of feat ures, t here are no hardware changes required for
t he base t ransceiver st at ion ( BTS) . For all feat ures, Evolved EDGE is compat ible wit h
legacy frequency planning.
Tabl e 12: Ev ol v ed EDGE I mpl ement at i on
92

 


I n conclusion, it is int erest ing t o not e t he sophist icat ion and capabilit y t hat is achievable
wit h, and planned for, GSM.
UMTS/HSPA Technology
UMTS has garnered t he overwhelming maj orit y of new 3G spect rum licenses wit h 236
commercial net works already in operat ion.
93
Compared t o emerging wireless
t echnologies, UMTS t echnology is mat ure and benefit s from research and development
t hat began in t he early 1990s. I t has been t horoughly t rialed, t est ed, and commercially
deployed. UMTS deployment is now accelerat ing wit h st able net work infrast ruct ures and
at t ract ive, reliable mobile devices t hat have rich capabilit ies. Wit h t he addit ion of HSPA
for high- speed packet dat a services, UMTS/ HSPA is quickly emerging as t he dominant
global mobile- broadband net work.
UMTS employs a wideband CDMA radio- access t echnology. The primary benefit s of
UMTS include high spect ral efficiency for voice and dat a, simult aneous voice and dat a
capabilit y for users, high user densit ies t hat can be support ed wit h low infrast ruct ure

92
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.
93
“ World Cellular I nformat ion Service, ” I nforma Telecoms & Media, June 2008.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 71
cost s, support for high- bandwidt h dat a applicat ions, and a clean migrat ion t o VoI P in t he
fut ure. Operat ors can also use t heir ent ire available spect rum for bot h voice and high-
speed dat a services.
Addit ionally, operat ors can use a common core net work t hat support s mult iple radio-
access net works including GSM, EDGE, WCDMA, HSPA, and evolut ions of t hese
t echnologies. This is called t he UMTS mult iradio net work, and it gives operat ors
maximum flexibilit y in providing different services across t heir coverage areas ( see
Figure 28) .
Fi gur e 28: UMTS Mul t i r adi o Net w or k
UMTS
Core Network
(MSC, HLR,
SGSN, GGSN)
GSM/EDGE
WCDMA,
HSDPA
Other
e.g., WLAN
Radio-Access Networks External Networks
Packet-Switched
Networks
Circuit-Switched
Networks
Other Cellular
Operators

The UMTS radio- access net work consist s of base st at ions referred t o as Node B
( corresponding t o GSM base t ransceiver syst ems) t hat connect t o RNCs ( corresponding
t o GSM base st at ion cont rollers [ BSCs] ) . The RNCs connect t o t he core net work as do
t he BSCs. When bot h GSM and WCDMA access net works are available, t he net work can
hand over users bet ween t hese net works. This is import ant for managing capacit y, as
well as in areas in which t he operat or has cont inuous GSM coverage, but has only
deployed WCDMA in some locat ions.
Whereas GSM can effect ively operat e like a spread- spect rum syst em
94
, based on t ime
division in combinat ion wit h frequency hopping, WCDMA is a direct - sequence, spread-
spect rum syst em. WCDMA is spect rally more efficient t han GSM, but it is t he wideband
nat ure of WCDMA t hat provides it s great est advant age—t he abilit y t o t ranslat e t he
available spect rum int o high dat a rat es. This wideband t echnology approach result s in
t he flexibilit y t o manage mult iple t raffic t ypes including voice, narrowband dat a, and
wideband dat a.
WCDMA allocat es different codes for different channels, whet her for voice or dat a, and it
can adj ust t he amount of capacit y, or code space, of each channel every 10 msec wit h
WCDMA Release 99 and every 2 msec wit h HSPA. WCDMA creat es high- bandwidt h t raffic
channels by reducing t he amount of spreading ( using a short er code) wit h WCDMA

94
Spread spect rum syst ems can eit her be direct sequence or frequency hopping.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 72
Release 99 and higher order modulat ion schemes for HSPA. Packet dat a users can share
t he same codes as ot her users, or t he net work can assign dedicat ed channels t o users.
To furt her expand t he number of effect ively operat ing applicat ions, UMTS employs a
sophist icat ed QoS archit ect ure for dat a t hat provides four fundament al t raffic classes
including:
1. Conv er sat i onal . Real- t ime int eract ive dat a wit h cont rolled bandwidt h and
minimum delay such as VoI P or video conferencing.
2. St r eami ng. Cont inuous dat a wit h cont rolled bandwidt h and some delay such as
music or video.
3. I nt er act i ve. Back- and- fort h dat a wit hout bandwidt h cont rol and some delay
such as Web browsing.
4. Back gr ound. Lower priorit y dat a t hat is non- real- t ime such as bat ch t ransfers.
This QoS archit ect ure involves negot iat ion and priorit izat ion of t raffic in t he radio- access
net work, t he core net work, and t he int erfaces t o ext ernal net works such as t he I nt ernet .
Consequent ly, applicat ions can negot iat e QoS paramet ers on an end- t o- end basis
bet ween a mobile t erminal and a fixed- end syst em across t he I nt ernet or privat e
int ranet s. This capabilit y is essent ial for expanding t he scope of support ed applicat ions,
part icularly mult imedia applicat ions including packet ized video t elephony and VoI P.
UMTS Release 99 Data Capabilities
I nit ial UMTS net work deployment s were based on 3GPP Release 99 specificat ions, which
included voice and dat a capabilit ies. Since t hen, Release 5 has defined HSDPA and
Release 6 has defined HSUPA. Wit h HSPA- capable devices, t he net work uses HSPA
( HSDPA/ HSUPA) for dat a. Operat ors wit h Release 99 net works are upgrading t hem t o
Release 5 or Release 6. Because Release 99 net works and devices are st ill in t he field,
t his sect ion describes t he dat a service available wit h Release 99. I n advance of Release
6, t he uplink in HSDPA ( Release 5) net works uses t he Release 99 approach.
I n UMTS Release 99, t he maximum t heoret ical downlink rat e is j ust over 2 Mbps.
Alt hough exact t hroughput depends on t he channel sizes t he operat or chooses t o make
available, t he capabilit ies of devices, and t he number of users act ive in t he net work limit
t he peak t hroughput rat es a user can achieve t o about 350 kbps in commercial
net works. Peak downlink net work speeds are 384 kbps. Uplink peak- net workt hroughput
rat es are also 384 kbps in newer deployment s, wit h user- achievable peak rat es of 350
kbps.
95
This sat isfies many communicat ions- orient ed applicat ions.
Channel t hroughput s are det ermined by t he amount of channel spreading. Wit h more
spreading, as in voice channels, t he dat a st ream has great er redundancy, and t he
operat or can employ more channels. I n comparison, a high- speed dat a channel has less
spreading and fewer available channels. Voice channels use downlink spreading fact ors
of 128 or 256, whereas a 384 kbps dat a channel uses a downlink spreading fact or of 8.
The commonly quot ed rat e of more t han 2 Mbps downlink t hroughput for UMTS can be
achieved by combining t hree dat a channels of 768 kbps, each wit h a spreading fact or of
4.

95
I nit ial UMTS net works had peak uplink rat es of 64 kbps or 128 kbps, but many deployment s
emphasize 384 kbps.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 73
The act ual t hroughput speeds a user can obt ain wit h WCDMA Release 99 depend on t he
Radio Access Bearer ( RAB) assigned by t he net work. Possible values include 768, 384,
128, 64, 32, and 16 kbps. The different rat es correspond t o t he amount of spreading. A
lower degree of spreading result s in more code space assigned t o t hat RAB; hence,
higher t hroughput . I n t oday’s Release 99 net works, operat ors have limit ed t he range of
operat ional dat a rat es using Release 99 channels t o 384 kbps as a result of t he
emergence of HSDPA, which provides a much more elegant way t o reach dat a
t hroughput in t he 2 Mbps range and higher.
Beyond t he maximum t hroughput support ed by t he RAB assigned by t he net work, user
t hroughput is also impact ed by t he radio condit ions and t he amount of dat a t o t ransfer.
The RAN t akes t hese element s int o account t o cont inuously adj ust t he inst ant aneous
t ransfer rat e based on operat ional condit ions and wit hin t he QoS const raint s of t he RAB.
The net work assigns RABs based on available resources. How t he net work assigns RABs
varies by infrast ruct ure vendor.
WCDMA has lower net work lat ency t han EDGE, wit h about 100 t o 200 msec measured in
act ual net works. Alt hough UMTS Release 99 offers at t ract ive dat a services, t hese
services become much more efficient and more powerful wit h HSPA.
HSDPA
HSPA refers t o net works t hat support bot h HSDPA and HSUPA. Most new deployment s
t oday are HSPA, and many operat ors are upgrading t heir HSDPA net works t o HSPA. For
example, in 2008, AT&T had upgraded most of it s net work t o HSPA. By t he end of 2008,
HSPA will be deployed t hroughout t he Americas. This sect ion covers t echnical aspect s of
HSDPA, while t he next sect ion covers HSUPA.
HSDPA, specified in 3GPP Release 5, is a high- performance packet - dat a service t hat
delivers peak t heoret ical rat es of 14 Mbps. Peak user- achievable t hroughput rat es in
init ial deployment s are well over 1 Mbps, and as high as 4 Mbps in some net works.
HSDPA is fully backward- compat ible wit h UMTS Release 99, and any applicat ion
developed for Release 99 will work wit h HSDPA. The same radio carrier can
simult aneously service UMTS voice and dat a users as well as HSDPA dat a users. HSDPA
also has significant ly lower lat ency, measured t oday on some net works as low as 70
msec on t he dat a channel.
HSDPA achieves it s high speeds t hrough t echniques similar t o t hose t hat push EDGE
performance past GPRS including higher order modulat ion, variable coding, and soft
combining, as well as t hrough t he addit ion of powerful new t echniques such as fast
scheduling. HSDPA elevat es t he performance level of WCDMA t echnology t o provide
broadband services, and it has t he highest t heoret ical peak t hroughput of any cellular
t echnology current ly available. The higher spect ral efficiency and higher dat a rat es not
only enable new classes of applicat ions, but also support a great er number of users
accessing t he net work.
HSDPA achieves it s performance gains from t he following radio feat ures:
 High- speed channels shared in bot h code and t ime domains
 Short TTI
 Fast scheduling and user diversit y
 Higher order modulat ion
 Fast link adapt at ion

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 74
 Fast HARQ
These feat ures funct ion as follows:
Hi gh- Speed Shar ed Channel s and Shor t Tr ansmi ssi on Ti me I nt er v al : First ,
HSDPA uses high- speed dat a channels called High Speed Physical Downlink Shared
Channels ( HS- PDSCH) . Up t o 15 of t hese channels can operat e in t he 5 MHz WCDMA
radio channel. Each uses a fixed spreading fact or of 16. User t ransmissions are assigned
t o one or more of t hese channels for a short TTI of 2 msec, significant ly less t han t he
int erval of 10 t o 20 msec used in Release 99 WCDMA. The net work can t hen readj ust
how users are assigned t o different HS- PDSCH every 2 msec. The result is t hat
resources are assigned in bot h t ime ( t he TTI int erval) and code domains ( t he HS- PDSCH
channels) . Figure 29 illust rat es different users obt aining different radio resources.
Fi gur e 29: Hi gh Speed–Dow nl i nk Shar ed Channel s ( Ex ampl e)
2 msec
Time
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
i
z
a
t
i
o
n

C
o
d
e
s
User 4 User 3 User 2 User 1


Fast Schedul i ng and User Di v er si t y : Fast scheduling exploit s t he short TTI by
assigning users channels t hat have t he best inst ant aneous channel condit ions, rat her
t han in a round- robin fashion. Because channel condit ions vary somewhat randomly
across users, most users can be serviced wit h opt imum radio condit ions and t hereby
obt ain opt imum dat a t hroughput . Figure 30 shows how a scheduler might choose
bet ween t wo users based on t heir varying radio condit ions t o emphasize t he user wit h
bet t er inst ant aneous signal qualit y. Wit h about 30 users act ive in a sect or, t he net work
achieves significant user diversit y and significant ly higher spect ral efficiency. The syst em
also makes sure t hat each user receives a minimum level of t hroughput . This approach
is somet imes called proport ional fair scheduling.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 75
Fi gur e 30: User Di v er si t y
High data rate
Low data rate
Time
User 2
User 1
User 2
User 1 User 2 User 1 User 2 User 1
S
i
g
n
a
l

Q
u
a
l
i
t
y


Hi gher Or der Modul at i on: HSDPA uses bot h t he modulat ion used in WCDMA—namely
QPSK—and, under good radio condit ions, an advanced modulat ion scheme—16 QAM.
The benefit of 16 QAM is t hat 4 bit s of dat a are t ransmit t ed in each radio symbol as
opposed t o 2 bit s wit h QPSK. Dat a t hroughput is increased wit h 16 QAM, while QPSK is
available under adverse condit ions. HSPA Evolut ion will add 64 QAM modulat ion t o
furt her increase t hroughput rat es. Not e t hat 64QAM was available in Release 7 and t he
combinat ion of MI MO and 64QAM will be in Release 8.
Fast Li nk Adapt at i on: Depending on t he condit ion of t he radio channel, different levels
of forward- error correct ion ( channel coding) can also be employed. For example, a
t hree- quart er coding rat e means t hat t hree quart ers of t he bit s t ransmit t ed are user bit s
and one quart er are error- correct ing bit s. The process of select ing and quickly updat ing
t he opt imum modulat ion and coding rat e is referred t o as fast link adapt at ion. This is
done in close coordinat ion wit h fast scheduling, as described above.
Fast Hybr i d Aut omat i c Repeat Request : Anot her HSDPA t echnique is Fast Hybrid
Aut omat ic Repeat Request ( Fast Hybrid ARQ) . “ Fast ” refers t o t he medium- access
cont rol mechanisms implement ed in Node B ( along wit h scheduling and link adapt at ion) ,
as opposed t o t he BSC in GPRS/ EDGE, and “ hybrid” refers t o a process of combining
repeat ed dat a t ransmissions wit h prior t ransmissions t o increase t he likelihood of
successful decoding. Managing and responding t o real- t ime radio variat ions at t he base
st at ion, as opposed t o an int ernal net work node, reduces delays and furt her improves
overall dat a t hroughput .
Using t he approaches j ust described, HSDPA maximizes dat a t hroughput s and capacit y
and minimizes delays. For users, t his t ranslat es t o bet t er net work performance under
loaded condit ions, fast er applicat ion performance, a great er range of applicat ions t hat
funct ion well, and increased product ivit y.
Field result s validat e t he t heoret ical t hroughput result s. Wit h init ial 1. 8 Mbps peak- rat e
devices, vendors measured consist ent t hroughput rat es in act ual deployment s of over 1
Mbps. These rat es rose t o over 2 Mbps for 3.6 Mbps devices and are close t o 4 Mbps for

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 76
7. 2 Mbps devices, assuming ot her port ions of t he net work ( for example, backhaul) can
support t he high t hroughput rat es.
I n 2008, t ypical devices support ing peak dat a rat es of 3.6 Mbps or 7. 2 Mbps became
available. Many operat or net works support 7. 2 Mbps peak operat ion, and some even
support t he maximum rat e of 14. 4 Mbps.
Table 13 defines t he different cat egories of HSDPA devices. ( Soft channel bit s are t he
number of bit s t he syst em uses for error correct ion. )
Tabl e 13: HSDPA Ter mi nal Cat egor i es
QPSK
QPSK
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
QPSK/
16QAM
28800 1.8 5 Cat egor y 12
14400 0.9 5 Cat egor y 11
172800 14.4 15 Cat egor y 10
172800 10.2 15 Cat egor y 9
134400 7.2 10 Cat egor y 8
115200 7.2 10 Cat egor y 7
67200 3.6 5 Cat egor y 6
57600 3.6 5 Cat egor y 5
38400 1.8 5 Cat egor y 4
28800 1.8 5 Cat egor y 3
28800 1.2 5 Cat egor y 2
19200 1.2 5 Cat egor y 1
Soft
Channel
Bit s
L1 Peak
Rat e ( Mbps)
Maximum
Number of
HS- DSCH codes
HS- DSCH
Cat egor y
QPSK
QPSK
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
Bot h
QPSK/
16QAM
28800 1.8 5 Cat egor y 12
14400 0.9 5 Cat egor y 11
172800 14.4 15 Cat egor y 10
172800 10.2 15 Cat egor y 9
134400 7.2 10 Cat egor y 8
115200 7.2 10 Cat egor y 7
67200 3.6 5 Cat egor y 6
57600 3.6 5 Cat egor y 5
38400 1.8 5 Cat egor y 4
28800 1.8 5 Cat egor y 3
28800 1.2 5 Cat egor y 2
19200 1.2 5 Cat egor y 1
Soft
Channel
Bit s
L1 Peak
Rat e ( Mbps)
Maximum
Number of
HS- DSCH codes
HS- DSCH
Cat egor y


HSPA t echnology is not st anding st ill. Advanced radio t echnologies are becoming
available. Among t hese t echnologies are mobile- receive diversit y and equalizat ion ( for
example, MMSE) , which improve t he qualit y of t he received radio signal prior t o
demodulat ion and decoding. This improvement enables not only higher peak HSDPA
t hroughput speeds, but makes t hese speeds available over a great er percent age of t he
coverage area.
HSUPA
Whereas HSDPA opt imizes downlink performance, HSUPA—which uses t he Enhanced
Dedicat ed Channel ( E- DCH) —const it ut es a set of improvement s t hat opt imizes uplink
performance. Net works and devices support ing HSUPA became available in 2007. These
improvement s include higher t hroughput s, reduced lat ency, and increased spect ral
efficiency. HSUPA is st andardized in Release 6. I t result s in an approximat ely 85 percent
increase in overall cell t hroughput on t he uplink and more t han 50 percent gain in user
t hroughput . HSUPA also reduces packet delays, a significant benefit result ing in
significant ly improved applicat ion performance on HSPA net works

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 77
Alt hough t he primary downlink t raffic channel support ing HSDPA serves is a shared
channel designed for t he support of services delivered t hrough t he packet - swit ched
domain, t he primary uplink t raffic channel defined for HSUPA is a dedicat ed channel t hat
could be used for services delivered t hrough eit her t he circuit - swit ched or t he packet -
swit ched domains. Nevert heless, by ext ension and for simplicit y, t he WCDMA- enhanced
uplink capabilit ies are oft en ident ified in t he lit erat ure as HSUPA.
Such an improved uplink benefit s users in a number of ways. For inst ance, some user
applicat ions t ransmit large amount s of dat a from t he mobile st at ion such as sending
video clips or large present at ion files. For fut ure applicat ions like VoI P, improvement s
will balance t he capacit y of t he uplink wit h t he capacit y of t he downlink.
HSUPA achieves it s performance gains t hrough t he following approaches:
 An enhanced dedicat ed physical channel
 A short TTI , as low as 2 msec, which allows fast er responses t o changing radio
condit ions and error condit ions
 Fast Node B- based scheduling, which allows t he base st at ion t o efficient ly
allocat e radio resources
 Fast Hybrid ARQ, which improves t he efficiency of error processing
The combinat ion of TTI , fast scheduling, and Fast Hybrid ARQ also serves t o reduce
lat ency, which can benefit many applicat ions as much as improved t hroughput . HSUPA
can operat e wit h or wit hout HSDPA in t he downlink, t hough it is likely t hat most
net works will use t he t wo approaches t oget her. The improved uplink mechanisms also
t ranslat e t o bet t er coverage and, for rural deployment s, larger cell sizes.
HSUPA can achieve different t hroughput rat es based on various paramet ers including t he
number of codes used, t he spreading fact or of t he codes, t he TTI value, and t he
t ransport block size in byt es, as illust rat ed in Table 14.
Tabl e 14: HSUPA Peak Thr oughput Rat es
11520
20000
20000
5837
20000
14592
2919
14592
7296
Transport
Block Size
2 Mbps 10 2 x SF2 4
2.9 Mbps 2 2 x SF2 4
1.46 Mbps 10 2 x SF4 2
1.46 Mbps 2 2 x SF4 2
2 Mbps 10 2xSF2 + 2xSF4 6
6
5
3
1
HSUPA
Category
2
10
10
10
TTI
2xSF2 + 2xSF4
2 x SF2
2 x SF4
1 x SF4
Codes
x Spreading
5.76 Mbps
2 Mbps
1.46 Mbps
0.73 Mbps
Data Rate



EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 78
I nit ial devices are Cat egory 5 enabling peak user rat es of close t o 2 Mbps as measured
in act ual net work deployment s. Cat egory 6 devices will ult imat ely allow speeds close t o
5 Mbps, alt hough only wit h t he addit ion of int erference cancellat ion met hods t hat boost
SNR.
Beyond t hroughput enhancement s, HSUPA also significant ly reduces lat ency. I n
opt imized net works, lat ency will fall below 50 msec, relat ive t o current HSDPA net works
at 70 msec. And wit h a lat er int roduct ion of a 2 msec TTI , lat ency will be as low as 30
msec.
Evolution of HSPA (HSPA+)
OFDMA syst ems have at t ract ed considerable at t ent ion t hrough t echnologies such as
3GPP LTE, WiMAX, and UMB. As already discussed in t his paper, however, CDMA
approaches can mat ch OFDMA approaches in reduced channel bandwidt hs. The goal in
evolving HSPA is t o exploit available radio t echnologies—largely enabled by increases in
digit al signal processing power—t o maximize CDMA- based radio performance. This not
only makes HSPA compet it ive, it significant ly ext ends t he life of sizeable operat or
infrast ruct ure invest ment s.
Wireless and net working t echnologist s have defined a series of enhancement s for HSPA,
some of which are specified in Release 7 and some of which are being finalized in
Release 8. These include advanced receivers, MI MO, Cont inuous Packet Connect ivit y,
Higher- Order Modulat ion and One Tunnel Archit ect ure.
Adv anced Recei v er s
One import ant area is advanced receivers for which 3GPP has specified a number of
advanced designs. These designs include Type 1, which uses mobile- receive diversit y;
Type 2, which uses channel equalizat ion; and Type 3, which includes a combinat ion of
receive diversit y and channel equalizat ion. Type 3i devices, which are not yet available,
will employ int erference cancellat ion. Not e t hat t he different t ypes of receivers are
release- independent . For example, Type 3i receivers will work and provide a capacit y
gain in a Release 5 net work.
The first approach is mobile- receive diversit y. This t echnique relies on t he opt imal
combinat ion of received signals from separat e receiving ant ennas. The ant enna spacing
yields signals t hat have somewhat independent fading charact erist ics. Hence, t he
combined signal can be more effect ively decoded, which result s in an almost doubling of
downlink capacit y when employed in conj unct ion wit h t echniques such as channel
equalizat ion. Receive diversit y is effect ive even for small devices such as PC Card
modems and smart phones.
Current receiver archit ect ures based on rake receivers are effect ive for speeds up t o a
few megabit s per second. But at higher speeds, t he combinat ion of reduced symbol
period and mult ipat h int erference result s in int er- symbol int erference and diminishes
rake receiver performance. This problem can be solved by advanced- receiver
archit ect ures wit h channel equalizers t hat yield addit ional capacit y gains over HSDPA
wit h receive diversit y. Alt ernat e advanced- receiver approaches include int erference
cancellat ion and generalized rake receivers ( G- Rake) . Different vendors are emphasizing
different approaches. The performance requirement s for advanced- receiver
archit ect ures, however, are specified in 3GPP Release 6. The combinat ion of mobile-
receive diversit y and channel equalizat ion ( Type 3) is especially at t ract ive, because it
result s in a large capacit y gain independent of t he radio channel.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 79
What makes such enhancement s at t ract ive is t hat t he net works do not require any
changes ot her t han increased capacit y wit hin t he infrast ruct ure t o support t he higher
bandwidt h. Moreover, t he net work can support a combinat ion of devices, including bot h
earlier devices t hat do not include t hese enhancement s and lat er devices t hat do. Device
vendors can select ively apply t hese enhancement s t o t heir higher performing devices.
MI MO
Anot her st andardized capabilit y is MI MO, a t echnique t hat employs mult iple t ransmit
ant ennas and mult iple receive ant ennas, oft en in combinat ion wit h mult iple radios and
mult iple parallel dat a st reams. The most common use of t he t erm “ MI MO” applies t o
spat ial mult iplexing. The t ransmit t er sends different dat a st reams over each ant enna.
Whereas mult ipat h is an impediment for ot her radio syst ems, MI MO—as illust rat ed in
Figure 31—act ually exploit s mult ipat h, relying on signals t o t ravel across different
uncorrelat ed communicat ions pat hs. This result s in mult iple dat a pat hs effect ively
operat ing somewhat in parallel and, t hrough appropriat e decoding, in a mult iplicat ive
gain in t hroughput .
Fi gur e 31: MI MO Usi ng Mul t i pl e Pat hs t o Boost Thr oughput and Capaci t y
Encoder Decoder

Test s of MI MO have proven very promising in WLANs operat ing in relat ive isolat ion
where int erference is not a dominant fact or. Spat ial mult iplexing MI MO should also
benefit HSPA “ hot spot s” serving local areas such as airport s, campuses, and malls,
where t he t echnology will increase capacit y and peak dat a rat es. I n a fully loaded
net work wit h int erference from adj acent cells, however, overall capacit y gains will be
more modest —in t he range of 20 t o 33 percent over mobile- receive diversit y. Relat ive t o
a 1x1 ant enna syst em, however, 2X2 MI MO can deliver cell t hroughput gains of about
80 percent . 3GPP has st andardized spat ial mult iplexing MI MO in Release 7 using Double
Transmit Adapt ive Array ( D- TxAA) .
96


96
For furt her det ails on t hese t echniques, refer t o t he 3G Americas whit e paper “ Mobile Broadband:
The Global Evolut ion of UMTS/ HSPA. 3GPP Release 7 and Beyond. ”

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 80
Alt hough MI MO can significant ly improve peak rat es, ot her t echniques such as Space
Division Mult iple Access ( SDMA) —also a form of MI MO—may be even more effect ive
t han MI MO for improving capacit y in high spect ral efficiency syst ems employing a reuse
fact or of 1.
Cont i nuous Pack et Connect i vi t y
I n Release 7, CPC enhancement s reduce t he uplink int erference creat ed by t he
dedicat ed physical cont rol channels of packet dat a users when t hose channels have no
user dat a t o t ransmit . This, in t urn, increases t he number of simult aneously connect ed
HSUPA users. CPC allows bot h discont inuous uplink t ransmission and discont inuous
downlink recept ion, where t he modem can t urn off it s receiver aft er a cert ain period of
HSDPA inact ivit y. CPC is especially beneficial t o VoI P on t he uplink, which consumes t he
most power, because t he radio can t urn off bet ween VoI P packet s. See Figure 32.
Fi gur e 32: Cont i nuous Pack et Connect i vi t y
Data
Pilot
Data
Pilot
Without CPC
With CPC


Hi gher Or der Modul at i on
Anot her way of increasing performance is t o use higher order modulat ion. HSPA uses 16
QAM on t he downlink and QPSK on t he uplink. But radio links can achieve higher
t hroughput s—adding 64 QAM on t he downlink and 16 QAM on t he uplink—precisely what
is added in HSPA+ . Higher order modulat ion requires a bet t er SNR, which is enabled
t hrough ot her enhancement s such as receive diversit y and equalizat ion.
HSPA+
Taking advant age of t hese various radio t echnologies, 3GPP has st andardized a number
of feat ures in Release 7 including higher order modulat ion and MI MO. Collect ively, t hese
capabilit ies are referred t o as HSPA+ . Release 8 will include furt her enhancement s.
The goals of HSPA+ are t o:
 Exploit t he full pot ent ial of a CDMA approach before moving t o an OFDM plat form
in 3GPP LTE.
 Achieve performance close t o LTE in 5 MHz of spect rum.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 81
 Provide smoot h int erworking bet ween HSPA+ and LTE, t hereby facilit at ing t he
operat ion of bot h t echnologies. As such, operat ors may choose t o leverage t he
EPC/ SAE planned for LTE.
 Allow operat ion in a packet - only mode for bot h voice and dat a.
 Be backward- compat ible wit h previous syst ems while incurring no performance
degradat ion wit h eit her earlier or newer devices.
 Facilit at e migrat ion from current HSPA infrast ruct ure t o HSPA+ infrast ruct ure.
Depending on t he feat ures implement ed, HSPA+ can exceed t he capabilit ies of I EEE
802. 16e- 2005 ( mobile WiMAX) in t he same amount of spect rum. This is mainly because
HSPA MI MO support s closed- loop operat ion wit h precode weight ing, as well as
mult icode- word MI MO, and enables t he use of SI C receivers. I t is also part ly because
HSPA support s I ncrement al Redundancy ( I R) and has lower overhead t han WiMAX.
Table 15 summarizes t he capabilit ies of HSPA and HSPA+ based on various met hods.
Tabl e 15: HSPA Thr oughput Evol ut i on
Technol ogy Dow nl i nk
( Mbps)
Peak Dat a
Rat e
Upl i nk ( Mbps)
Peak Dat a
Rat e
HSPA as def i ned i n Rel ease 6

14. 4 5. 76
Rel ease 7 HSPA+ DL 64 QAM,
UL 16 QAM
21. 1 11. 5
Rel ease 7 HSPA+ 2X2 MI MO,
DL 16 QAM, UL 16 QAM
28. 0 11. 5
Rel ease 8 HSPA+ 2X2 MI MO
DL 64 QAM, UL 16 QAM

42. 2

11. 5
HSPA+ 2X2 MI MO, Dual Car r i er
( ant i ci pat ed i n Rel ease 9)

84

11. 5

Beyond t he peak rat e of 42 Mbps defined in Release 8, Release 9 may specify 2X2 MI MO
in combinat ion wit h dual carrier operat ion which would furt her boost peak net work rat es
t o 84 Mbps.
HSPA+ will also have improved lat ency performance of below 50 msec, and improved
packet call set up t ime of below 500 msec.
HSPA+ wit h 28 Mbps capabilit y will be available for deployment by t he end of 2009, and
HSPA+ wit h 42 Mbps capabilit y on t he downlink and 11. 5 Mbps on t he uplink could be
ready for deployment by 2009 or 2010.
Given t he large amount of backhaul bandwidt h required t o support HSPA+ , as well as
addit ional MI MO radios at cell sit es, operat ors are likely t o init ially deploy HSPA+ in
limit ed “ hot spot ” coverage areas such as airport s, ent erprise campuses, and in- building
net works. Wit h advances in backhaul t ransport like met ropolit an Et hernet , however,
operat ors will be able t o expand coverage.
The prior discussion emphasizes t hroughput speeds, but HSPA+ will also more t han
double HSPA capacit y as well as reduce lat ency below 25 msec. Sleep- t o- dat a- t ransfer

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 82
t imes of less t han 200 msec will improve users’ “ always- connect ed” experience, and
reduced power consumpt ion wit h VoI P will result in t alk t imes t hat are more t han 50
percent higher.
From a deployment point of view, operat ors will be able t o int roduce HSPA+ capabilit ies
t hrough eit her a soft ware upgrade or hardware expansions t o exist ing cabinet s t o
increase capacit y. Cert ain upgrades will be simpler t han ot hers. For example, upgrading
t o 64- QAM support will be easier t o implement t han 2X2 MI MO for many net works. For
net works t hat have implement ed uplink diversit y in t he base st at ion, however, t hose
mult iple ant ennas will facilit at e MI MO deployment .
Dual - Car r i er HSPA
3GPP has defined a work it em for Release 8 t o invest igat e dual- carrier HSPA operat ion.
This approach coordinat es t he operat ion of HSPA on t wo adj acent 5 MHz carriers so t hat
dat a t ransmissions can achieve higher t hroughput rat es. The work it em assumes t wo
adj acent carriers, downlink operat ion and no MI MO. I n t his configurat ion, it will be
possible t o achieve a doubling of t he 21 Mbps maximum rat e available on each channel
t o 42 Mbps.
Alt hough t here is no increase in overall spect ral efficiency, t here are benefit s:
 Significant ly higher peak t hroughput s available t o users, especially in light ly-
loaded net works.
 Same maximum- t hroughput rat e of 42 Mbps as using MI MO, but wit h a less
expensive infrast ruct ure upgrade.
The following figure shows an analysis of dual- carrier performance using a cumulat ive
dist ribut ion funct ion. CDF indicat es t he probabilit y of achieving a part icular t hroughput
rat e and t he figure demonst rat es a consist ent doubling of t hroughput .

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 83
Fi gur e 33: Dual - Car r i er Per f or mance
97

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
C
D
F

[
%
]
Achievable bitrate [Mbps]


RAKE, single-carrier
RAKE, multi-carrier
GRAKE, single-carrier
GRAKE, multi-carrier
GRAKE2, single-carrier
GRAKE2, multi-carrier
Ped A, 10% load

One- Tunnel Ar chi t ect ur e
Anot her way HSPA performance can be improved is t hrough a flat t er archit ect ure. I n
Release 7, t here is t he opt ion of a one- t unnel archit ect ure by which t he net work
est ablishes a direct t ransfer pat h for user dat a bet ween RNC and GGSN while t he SGSN
st ill performs all cont rol funct ions. This brings several benefit s such as eliminat ing
hardware in t he SGSN and simplified engineering of t he net work.
There is also an int egrat ed RNC/ NodeB opt ion in which RNC funct ions are int egrat ed in
t he Node B. This is part icularly beneficial in femt o cell deployment s, as an RNC would
ot herwise need t o support t housands of femt ocells. The int egrat ed RNC/ NodeB for
HSPA+ has been agreed- upon as an opt ional archit ect ure alt ernat ive for packet -
swit ched- based services.
These new archit ect ures, as shown in Figure 34, are similar t o t he EPC/ SAE archit ect ure,
especially on t he packet - swit ched core net work side where t hey provide synergies wit h
t he int roduct ion of LTE.

97
Source: 3G Americas member company cont ribut ion.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 84
Fi gur e 34: HSPA One- Tunnel Ar chi t ect ur e
98


User Plane
Cont r ol Pl ane
Node B
RNC
SGSN
GGSN
Tradi t i onal HSPA
Archi t ect ure
Node B
SGSN
GGSN
Possi bl e HSPA+ wi t h
One-Tunnel Archi t ect ure
Node B
SGSN
GGSN
HSPA wi t h One-Tunnel
Ar chi t ect ur e
RNC



HSPA, HSPA+ , and ot her advanced funct ions provide a compelling advant age for UMTS
over compet ing t echnologies: The abilit y t oday t o support voice and dat a services on t he
same carrier and across t he whole available radio spect rum; t o offer t hese services
simult aneously t o users; t o deliver dat a at ever- increasing broadband rat es; and t o do
so in a spect rally efficient manner.
HSPA Voice Support
Voice support wit h WCDMA dedicat ed channels in UMTS net works is spect rally very
efficient . Moreover, current net works support simult aneous voice and dat a operat ion.
There are, however, reasons t o consider alt ernat e approaches including reducing power
consumpt ion and being able t o support even more users. One approach is called circuit -
swit ched voice over HSPA. The ot her is VoI P.
CS Voi ce ov er HSPA
HSPA channels employ many opt imizat ions t o obt ain a high degree of dat a t hroughput ,
which is why it makes sense t o use t hem t o carry voice communicat ions. Doing so wit h
VoI P, however, requires not only support ing packet ized voice in t he radio channel, but
also wit hin t he infrast ruct ure net work. There is an elegant alt ernat ive: To packet ize t he
circuit - swit ched voice t raffic which is already in digit al form, use t he HSPA channels t o
carry t he CS voice, but t hen t o connect t he CS voice t raffic back int o t he exist ing CS
infrast ruct ure ( MSCs, et c. ) immediat ely beyond t he radio access net work. This requires
relat ively st raight forward changes in j ust t he radio net work and in devices. The following
figure shows t he infrast ruct ure changes required at t he Node B and wit hin t he RNC.

98
Source: 3G Americas whit e paper, 2007, “ UMTS Evolut ion from 3GPP Release 7 t o Release 8. ”

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 85
Fi gur e 35: I mpl ement at i on of HSPA CS Voi ce
99

IuCS
IuPS
RNC
CS R99
AMR
adapt.
Transport
queues etc
HSPA
PS R99
NodeB
HSPA scheduler
Combined
to one
carrier
AMR adaptation
possible
CS mapped to R99 or HSPA bearer
depending on terminal capability
Scheduler prioritizes
voice packets


Wit h t his approach, legacy mobile phones can cont inue using WCDMA- dedicat ed t raffic
channels for voice communicat ions while new devices use HSPA channels. HSPA CS
voice can be deployed wit h Release 7 or lat er net works.
The many benefit s of t his approach, list ed below, make it highly likely t hat operat ors will
adopt it :
 Relat ively easy t o implement and deploy.
 Transparent t o exist ing CS infrast ruct ure.
 Support s bot h narrowband and wideband codecs.
 Significant ly improves bat t ery life wit h voice communicat ions.
 Enables fast er call connect ions.
 Provides a 50 t o 100% capacit y gain over current voice implement at ions.
 Act s as a st epping st one t o VoI P over HSPA/ LTE in t he fut ure.
VoI P
Once HSDPA and HSUPA are available, operat ors will have anot her opt ion of moving
voice t raffic over t o t hese high- speed dat a channels, which is using VoI P. This will
event ually increase voice capacit y, allow operat ors t o consolidat e t heir infrast ruct ure on
an I P plat form, and enable innovat ive new applicat ions t hat combine voice wit h dat a
funct ions in t he packet domain. VoI P is possible in Release 6, but it is enhancement s in

99
Source: 3G Americas whit e paper, 2007, “ UMTS Evolut ion from 3GPP Release 7 t o Release 8. ”

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 86
Release 7 t hat make it highly efficient and t hus at t ract ive t o net work operat ors. VoI P will
be implement ed in conj unct ion wit h I MS, discussed lat er in t his paper.
One at t ract ive aspect of deploying VoI P wit h HSPA is t hat operat ors can smoot hly
migrat e users from circuit - swit ched operat ion t o packet - swit ched operat ion over t ime.
Because t he UMTS radio channel support s bot h circuit - swit ched voice and packet -
swit ched dat a, some voice users can be on legacy circuit - swit ched voice and ot hers can
be on VoI P. Figure 36 shows a syst em’s voice capacit y wit h t he j oint operat ion of circuit -
swit ched and I P- based voice services.
Fi gur e 36: Abi l i t y f or UMTS t o Suppor t Ci r cui t and Pack et Voi ce User s
100

0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
VoIP
CS
CS + VoIP
Power reserved for PS traffic (W)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y
PS Evolution
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
VoIP
CS
CS + VoIP
Power reserved for PS traffic (W)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
VoIP
CS
CS + VoIP
Power reserved for PS traffic (W)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y
PS Evolution


VoI P capacit y gains are quant ified in det ail in t he main part of in t his paper. They range
from 20 percent t o as high as 100 percent wit h t he implement at ion of int erference
cancellat ion and t he minimizat ion of I P overhead t hrough a scheme called Robust
Header Compression ( ROHC) .
Whereas packet voice is t he only way voice will be support ed in LTE, wit h HSPA+ , it may
not be used immediat ely for primary voice services. This is because UMTS already has a
highly efficient circuit - swit ched voice service and already allows simult aneous voice/ dat a
operat ion. Moreover, packet voice requires a considerable amount of new infrast ruct ure
in t he core net work. As a result , packet voice will likely be used init ially as part of ot her
services ( for example, t hose based on I MS) , and only over t ime will it t ransit ion t o
primary voice service.
3GPP LTE
Alt hough HSPA and HSPA+ offer a highly efficient broadband- wireless service t hat will
enj oy success for t he remainder of t his decade and well int o t he next , 3GPP is working
on a proj ect called Long Term Evolut ion as part of Release 8. LTE will allow operat ors t o
achieve even higher peak t hroughput s in higher spect rum bandwidt h. Work on LTE

100
Source: 3G Americas member cont ribut ion.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 87
began in 2004 wit h an official work it em st art ed in 2006 and a complet ed specificat ion
expect ed in early 2009. I nit ial possible deployment is t arget ed for 2010.
LTE uses OFDMA on t he downlink, which is well suit ed t o achieve high peak dat a rat es in
high- spect rum bandwidt h. WCDMA radio t echnology is basically as efficient as OFDM for
delivering peak dat a rat es of about 10 Mbps in 5 MHz of bandwidt h. Achieving peak
rat es in t he 100 Mbps range wit h wider radio channels, however, would result in highly
complex t erminals, and it is not pract ical wit h current t echnology. This is where OFDM
provides a pract ical implement at ion advant age. Scheduling approaches in t he frequency
domain can also minimize int erference, t hereby boost ing spect ral efficiency. The OFDMA
approach is also highly flexible in channelizat ion, and LTE will operat e in various radio
channel sizes ranging from 1. 25 t o 20 MHz.
On t he uplink, however, a pure OFDMA approach result s in high Peak t o Average Rat io
( PAR) of t he signal, which compromises power efficiency and, ult imat ely, bat t ery life.
Hence, LTE uses an approach called SC- FDMA, which is somewhat similar t o OFDMA, but
has a 2 t o 6 dB PAR advant age over t he OFDMA met hod used by ot her t echnologies such
as I EEE 802. 16e.
LTE capabilit ies include:
 Downlink peak dat a rat es up t o 326 Mbps wit h 20 MHz bandwidt h.
 Uplink peak dat a rat es up t o 86.4 Mbps wit h 20 MHz bandwidt h.
 Operat ion in bot h TDD and FDD modes.
 Scalable bandwidt h up t o 20 MHz, covering 1. 4, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 MHz in t he
st udy phase.
 I ncreased spect ral efficiency over Release 6 HSPA by a fact or of t wo t o four.
 Reduced lat ency, t o 10 msec round- t rip t imes bet ween user equipment and t he
base st at ion, and t o less t han 100 msec t ransit ion t imes from inact ive t o act ive.
The overall obj ect ive is t o provide an ext remely high performance, radio- access
t echnology t hat offers full vehicular speed mobilit y and t hat can readily coexist wit h
HSPA and earlier net works. Because of scalable bandwidt h, operat ors will be able t o
easily migrat e t heir net works and users from HSPA t o LTE over t ime.
Table 16 shows LTE peak dat a rat es based on different downlink and uplink designs.
Tabl e 16: LTE Peak Thr oughput Rat es
LTE Conf i gur at i on Dow nl i nk ( Mbps)
Peak Dat a Rat e
Upl i nk ( Mbps)
Peak Dat a Rat e
Using 2X2 MI MO in t he Downlink and
16 QAM in t he Uplink

172. 8 57. 6
Using 4X4 MI MO in t he Downlink and
64 QAM in t he Uplink

326. 4 86. 4


EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 88
LTE is not only efficient for dat a but , because of a highly efficient uplink, is ext remely
efficient for VoI P t raffic. I n 10 MHz of spect rum, LTE VoI P capacit y will reach almost 500
users.
101

LTE implement s OFDM in t he downlink. The basic principle of OFDM is t o split a high- rat e
dat a st ream int o a number of parallel low- rat e dat a st reams, each a narrowband signal
carried by a subcarrier. The different narrowband st reams are generat ed in t he
frequency domain, and t hen combined t o form t he broadband st ream using a
mat hemat ical algorit hm called an I nverse Fast Fourier Transform ( I FFT) t hat is
implement ed in digit al- signal processors. I n LTE, t he subcarriers have 15 kHz spacing
from each ot her. LTE maint ains t his spacing regardless of t he overall channel bandwidt h,
which simplifies radio design, especially in support ing radio channels of different widt hs.
The number of subcarriers ranges from 72 in a 1. 4 MHz channel t o 1, 200 in a 20 MHz
channel.
The composit e signal is obt ained aft er t he I FFT is ext ended by repeat ing t he init ial part
of t he signal ( called t he Cyclic Prefix [ CP] ) . This ext ended signal represent s an OFDM
symbol. The CP is basically a guard t ime during which reflect ed signals will reach t he
receiver. I t result s in an almost complet e eliminat ion of mult ipat h induced I nt ersymbol
I nt erference ( I SI ) , which ot herwise makes ext remely high dat a rat e t ransmissions
problemat ic. The syst em is called ort hogonal, because t he subcarriers are generat ed in
t he frequency domain ( making t hem inherent ly ort hogonal) , and t he I FFT conserves t hat
charact erist ic. OFDM syst ems may lose t heir ort hogonal nat ure as a result of t he Doppler
shift induced by t he speed of t he t ransmit t er or t he receiver. 3GPP specifically select ed
t he subcarrier spacing of 15 kHz t o avoid any performance degradat ion in high- speed
condit ions. WiMAX syst ems t hat use a lower subcarrier spacing ( ~ 11 kHz) will be more
impact ed in high- speed condit ions t han LTE.
Fi gur e 37: OFDM Sy mbol w i t h Cy cl i c Pr ef i x
Cyclic Prefix
(4.8 usec)
Data
(66.7 usec)


The mult iple- access aspect of OFDMA comes from being able t o assign different users
different subcarriers over t ime. A minimum resource block t hat t he syst em can assign t o
a user t ransmission consist s of 12 subcarriers over 14 symbols in 1. 0 msec. Figure 38
shows how t he syst em can assign t hese resource blocks t o different users over bot h
t ime and frequency.

101
Source: 3GPP Mult i- member analysis.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 89
Fi gur e 38: LTE OFDMA Dow nl i nk Resour ce Assi gnment i n Ti me and Fr equency
Time
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
User 1
User 2
User 3
User 4
Minimum resource block consists of
14 symbols and 12 subcarriers


By having cont rol over which subcarriers are assigned in which sect ors, LTE can easily
cont rol frequency reuse. By using all t he subcarriers in each sect or, t he syst em would
operat e at a frequency reuse of 1; but by using a different one t hird of t he subcarriers in
each sect or, t he syst em achieves a looser frequency reuse of 1/ 3. The looser frequency
reduces overall spect ral efficiency, but delivers high peak rat es t o users.
LTE is specified for a variet y of MI MO configurat ions. On t he downlink, t hese include
2X2, 4X2 ( four ant ennas at t he base st at ion) , and 4X4. I nit ial deployment will likely be
2x2. 4X4 will be most likely used init ially in femt o cells. On t he uplink, t here are t wo
possible approaches: single user MI MO ( SU- MI MO) and mult i- user MI MO ( MU- MI MO) .
SU- MI MO is more complex t o implement as it requires t wo parallel radio t ransmit chains
in t he mobile device, whereas MU- MI MO does not require any addit ional implement at ion
at t he device. The first LTE release t hus incorporat es MU- MI MO wit h SU- MI MO deferred
for t he second LTE release.
4G, IMT-Advanced and LTE Advanced
LTE will address t he market needs of t he next decade. Aft er t hat , operat ors may deploy
Fourt h Generat ion ( 4G) net works using LTE t echnology as a foundat ion. Current ly, t here
are no official st andards or formal definit ions for 4G. Preliminary research is focused on
t echnologies capable of delivering peak rat es of 1 gigabit per second ( Gbps) in hot spot -
t ype scenarios and 100 Mbps while mobile, being fully I P- based, and support ing full
net work agilit y for handovers bet ween different t ypes of net works ( for example, 4G t o
3G t o WLAN) . The high dat a rat es will require radio channels wider t han 20MHz, most
likely in new spect rum, as discussed above in t he sect ion “ Spect rum. ”
Some companies are at t empt ing t o co- opt t he t erm “ 4G” t o refer t o wireless syst ems
t hat promise performance beyond current 3G syst ems. All of t hese syst ems are on par
wit h HSPA/ HSPA+ and LTE, however, and use of t he t erm “ 4G” for t hem is
inappropriat e. I TU is t he int ernat ionally recognized organizat ion producing t he official
definit ion of next - generat ion wireless t echnologies. Through it s Radio Communicat ions

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 90
Sect or ( I TU- R) , I TU is current ly working on a definit ion of 4G using t he name I MT-
Advanced. Current 3G syst ems came about t hrough I TU’s prior proj ect on I nt ernat ional
Mobile Telecommunicat ions 2000 ( I MT- 2000) .
As background for t his proj ect , I TU published a document , Recommendat ion I TU- R
M. 1645, t it led “ Framework and overall obj ect ives of t he fut ure development of I MT- 2000
and syst ems beyond I MT- 2000. ”
The I MT- Advanced proj ect schedule shows t he requirement s and evaluat ion crit eria
being published in 2008 wit h submissions t o occur t hrough 2009. 3GPP will address t he
requirement s in a version of LTE called LTE Advanced for which specificat ions could
become available in 2011. 3GPP will specify LTE Advanced in Release 10. WiMAX will
address t he I MT- Advanced requirement s in a version called Mobile WiMAX 2. 0, t o be
specified in I EEE 802. 16m.
No det ails are available yet on t hese advanced t echnologies, but ideas under
considerat ion include:
 Evolut ion of current OFDMA approaches.
 High- order MI MO ( e. g. , 4X4) .
 Wider radio channels ( e. g. , 50 t o 100 MHz) .
 Opt imizat ion in narrower bands ( e.g. , less t han 20 MHz) due t o spect rum
const raint s in some deployment s.
 Mult i- channel operat ion in eit her same or different frequency bands.
 Abilit y t o share bands wit h ot her services.
Globally, t here are a variet y of wireless research and development proj ect s, init iat ives,
and organizat ions t hat are advancing t he capabilit ies of wireless syst ems. These include
t he Wireless World Research Forum, Wireless World I nit iat ives, I nformat ion and
Communicat ion Technologies ( I CT) , research under t he European Union’s Sevent h
Framework Programme ( FP7) , Japan Mobile I T Forum ( mI TF) , t he Elect ronic and
Telecommunicat ions Research I nst it ut e ( ETRI ) in Korea, and t he Next Generat ion Mobile
Commit t ee ( NGMC) .
Given t his paper’s proj ect ion of mid- next - decade before OFDMA- based syst ems like LTE
have a large percent age of subscribers, it could be well t oward t he end of t he next
decade before any I MT- Advanced syst em has a large subscriber base. Needless t o say,
vendors will be looking at how t o leverage and enhance current OFDMA syst ems like
LTE, UMB, and WiMAX t o meet t he requirement s of I MT- Advanced.
UMTS TDD
Most WCDMA and HSDPA deployment s are based on FDD, in which t he operat or uses
different radio bands for t ransmit and receive. An alt ernat e approach is TDD, in which
bot h t ransmit and receive funct ions alt ernat e in t ime on t he same radio channel. 3GPP
specificat ions include a TDD version of UMTS, called UMTS TDD.
TDD does not provide any inherent advant age for voice funct ions, which need balanced
links—namely, t he same amount of capacit y in bot h t he uplink and t he downlink. Many
dat a applicat ions, however, are asymmet ric, oft en wit h t he downlink consuming more
bandwidt h t han t he uplink, especially for applicat ions like Web browsing or mult imedia
downloads. A TDD radio int erface can dynamically adj ust t he downlink- t o- uplink rat io
accordingly, hence balancing bot h forward- link and reverse- link capacit y. Not e t hat for

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 91
UMTS FDD, t he higher spect ral efficiency achievable in t he downlink versus t he uplink is
crit ical in addressing t he asymmet rical nat ure of most dat a t raffic.
The UMTS TDD specificat ion also includes t he capabilit y t o use j oint det ect ion in
receiver- signal processing, which offers improved performance. The vendor I P Wireless,
acquired by Next Wave in May 2007, had commercialized UMTS TDD.
One considerat ion, however, relat es t o available spect rum. Various count ries around t he
world including Europe, Asia, and t he Pacific region have licensed spect rum available
specifically for TDD syst ems. For t his spect rum, UMTS TDD, or in t he fut ure LTE in TDD
mode, is a good choice. I t is also a good choice in any spect rum t hat does not provide a
duplex gap bet ween forward and reverse links.
I n t he Unit ed St at es, t here is limit ed spect rum specifically allocat ed for TDD syst ems.
102

UMTS TDD is not a good choice in FDD bands; it would not be able t o operat e effect ively
in bot h bands, t hereby making t he overall syst em efficiency relat ively poor.
As discussed in more det ail in t he “ WiMAX” sect ion, TDD syst ems require net work
synchronizat ion and careful coordinat ion bet ween operat ors or guard bands, which may
be problemat ic in cert ain bands.
There has been lit t le deployment of UMTS TDD. Fut ure TDD deployment s of 3GPP
t echnologies are likely t o be based on LTE.
TD-SCDMA
TD- SCDMA is one of t he official 3G wireless t echnologies being developed, most ly for
deployment in China. Specified t hrough 3GPP as a variant of t he UMTS TDD Syst em and
operat ing wit h a 1. 28 Megachips per second ( Mcps) chip rat e against 3. 84 Mcps for
UMTS TDD, t he primary at t ribut e of TD- SCDMA is t hat it is designed t o support very high
subscriber densit ies. This makes it a possible alt ernat ive for wireless local loops. TD-
SCDMA uses t he same core net work as UMTS, and it is possible for t he same core
net work t o support bot h UMTS and TD- SCDMA radio- access net works.
TD- SCDMA t echnology is not as mat ure as UMTS and CDMA2000, wit h 2008 being t he
first year of limit ed deployment s in China in t ime for t he Olympic Games. Though t here
are no planned deployment s in any count ry ot her t han China, TD- SCDMA could
t heoret ically be deployed anywhere unpaired spect rum is available—such as t he bands
licensed for UMTS TDD—assuming appropriat e resolut ion of regulat ory issues.
IMS
I MS is a service plat form t hat allows operat ors t o support I P mult imedia applicat ions.
Pot ent ial applicat ions include video sharing, PoC, VoI P, st reaming video, int eract ive
gaming, and so fort h. I MS by it self does not provide all t hese applicat ions. Rat her, it
provides a framework of applicat ion servers, subscriber dat abases, and gat eways t o
make t hem possible. The exact services will depend on cellular operat ors and applicat ion
developers t hat make t hese applicat ions available t o operat ors.
The core net working prot ocol used wit hin I MS is Session I nit iat ion Prot ocol ( SI P) , which
includes t he companion Session Descript ion Prot ocol ( SDP) used t o convey configurat ion
informat ion such as support ed voice codecs. Ot her prot ocols include Real Time Transport
Prot ocol ( RTP) and Real Time St reaming Prot ocol ( RTSP) for t ransport ing act ual

102
The 1910- 1920 MHz band t arget ed unlicensed TDD syst ems, but has never been used.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 92
sessions. The QoS mechanisms in UMTS will be an import ant component of some I MS
applicat ions.
Alt hough originally specified by 3GPP, numerous ot her organizat ions around t he world
are support ing I MS. These include t he I nt ernet Engineering Taskforce ( I ETF) , which
specifies key prot ocols such as SI P, and t he Open Mobile Alliance, which specifies end-
t o- end service- layer applicat ions. Ot her organizat ions support ing I MS include t he GSM
Associat ion ( GSMA) , t he ETSI , CableLabs, 3GPP2, The Parlay Group, t he I TU, t he
American Nat ional St andards I nst it ut e ( ANSI ) , t he Telecoms and I nt ernet Converged
Services and Prot ocols for Advanced Net works ( TI SPAN) , and t he Java Communit y
Process ( JCP) .
I MS is relat ively independent of t he radio- access net work and can, and likely will, be
used by ot her radio- access net works or wireline net works. Operat ors are already t rialing
I MS, and one init ial applicat ion under considerat ion—PoC—is being specified by t he Open
Mobile Alliance. Ot her applicat ions include pict ure and video sharing t hat occur in
parallel wit h voice communicat ions. Operat ors looking t o roll out VoI P over net works
could also use I MS. 3GPP init ially int roduced I MS in Release 5 and has enhanced it in
each subsequent specificat ion release.
As shown in Figure 39, I MS operat es j ust out side t he packet core.
Fi gur e 39: I P Mul t i medi a Subsy st em
Call Session Control Function ( CSCF)
( SIP Proxy)
Home Subscriber
Server ( HSS)
SIP Application
Server
SIP
DI AMETER
I MS
UMTS/HSPA
Packet Core
Network
Media Resource
Function Control
Media Resource
Gateway Cont rol
Wi-Fi DSL
Multiple Possible Access Networ ks

The benefit s of using I MS include handling all communicat ion in t he packet domain,
t ight er int egrat ion wit h t he I nt ernet , and a lower cost infrast ruct ure t hat is based on I P
building blocks used for bot h voice and dat a services. This allows operat ors t o pot ent ially
deliver dat a and voice services at lower cost , t hus providing t hese services at lower
prices and furt her driving demand and usage.
I MS applicat ions can reside eit her in t he operat or’s net work or in t hird- part y net works
including ent erprises. By managing services and applicat ions cent rally—and
independent ly of t he access net work—I MS can enable net work convergence. This allows
operat ors t o offer common services across 3G, Wi- Fi, and wireline net works.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 93
Broadcast/Multicast Services
An import ant capabilit y for 3G and evolved 3G syst ems is broadcast ing and mult icast ing,
wherein mult iple users receive t he same informat ion using t he same radio resource. This
creat es a much more efficient approach for delivering cont ent such as video
programming t o which mult iple users have subscript ions. I n a broadcast , every
subscriber unit in a service area receives t he informat ion, whereas in a mult icast , only
users wit h subscript ions receive t he informat ion. Service areas for bot h broadcast and
mult icast can span eit her t he ent ire net work or a specific geographical area. Because
mult iple users in a cell are t uned t o t he same cont ent , broadcast ing and mult icast ing
result in much great er spect rum efficiency for services such as mobile TV.
3GPP defined highly- efficient broadcast / mult icast capabilit ies for UMTS in Release 6 wit h
MBMS. Release 7 includes opt imizat ions t hrough a solut ion called mult icast / broadcast
single- frequency net work operat ion which involves simult aneous t ransmission of t he
exact waveform across mult iple cells. This enables t he receiver t o const ruct ively
superpose mult iple MBSFN cell t ransmissions. The result is highly efficient WCDMA-
based broadcast t ransmission t echnology t hat mat ches t he benefit s of OFDMA- based
broadcast approaches.
LTE will also have a broadcast / mult icast capabilit y. OFDM is part icularly well- suit ed for
broadcast ing, because t he mobile syst em can combine t he signal from mult iple base
st at ions and because of t he narrowband nat ure of OFDM. Normally, t hese signals would
int erfere wit h each ot her. As such, t he LTE broadcast capabilit y is expect ed t o be quit e
efficient .
Fi gur e 40: OFDM Enabl es Ef f i ci ent Br oadcast i ng

An alt ernat e approach for mobile TV is t o use an ent irely separat e broadcast net work
wit h t echnologies such as Digit al Video Broadcast ing–Handheld ( DVB- H) or Media
Forward Link Only ( MediaFLO) , which various operat ors around t he world have opt ed t o
do. Though t his requires a separat e radio in t he mobile device, t he net works are highly
opt imized for broadcast .

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 94
EPC/SAE
3GPP is defining EPC/ SAE in Release 8 as a framework for an evolut ion or migrat ion of
t he 3GPP syst em t o a higher- dat a- rat e, lower- lat ency, packet - opt imized syst em t hat
support s mult iple radio- access t echnologies. The focus of t his work is on t he packet -
swit ched domain wit h t he assumpt ion t hat t he syst em will support all services—including
voice—in t his domain.
Alt hough it will most likely be deployed in conj unct ion wit h LTE, EPC/ SAE could also be
deployed for use wit h HSPA+ where it could provide a st epping- st one t o LTE. EPC/ SAE
will be opt imized for all services t o be delivered via I P in a manner t hat is as efficient as
possible—t hrough minimizat ion of lat ency wit hin t he syst em, for example. I t will support
service cont inuit y across het erogeneous net works, which will be import ant for LTE
operat ors t hat must simult aneously support GSM / EDGE/ UMTS/ HSPA cust omers.
One import ant performance aspect of EPC/ SAE is a flat t er archit ect ure. For packet flow,
EPC/ SAE includes t wo net work element s, called Evolved Node B ( eNodeB) and t he
Access Gat eway ( AGW) . The eNodeB ( base st at ion) int egrat es t he funct ions t radit ionally
performed by t he radio- net work cont roller, which previously was a separat e node
cont rolling mult iple Node Bs. Meanwhile, t he AGW int egrat es t he funct ions t radit ionally
performed by t he SGSN and GGSN. The AGW has bot h cont rol funct ions, handled
t hrough t he Mobile Management Ent it y ( MME) , and user plane ( dat a communicat ions)
funct ions. The user plane funct ions consist of t wo element s: A serving gat eway t hat
addresses 3GPP mobilit y and t erminat es eNodeB connect ions, and a Packet Dat a
Net work ( PDN) gat eway t hat addresses service requirement s and also t erminat es access
by non- 3GPP net works. The MME, serving gat eway, and PDN gat eways can be collocat ed
in t he same physical node or dist ribut ed, based on vendor implement at ions and
deployment scenarios.
The EPC/ SAE archit ect ure is similar t o t he HSPA One- Tunnel Archit ect ure discussed in
t he “ HSPA+ ” sect ion t hat allows for easy int egrat ion of HSPA net works t o t he EPC/ SAE.
Anot her archit ect ural opt ion is t o reverse t he t opology, so t hat t he EPC/ SAE Access
Gat eway is locat ed close t o t he RAN in a dist ribut ed fashion t o reduce lat ency while t he
MME is cent rally locat ed t o minimize complexit y and cost .
EPC/ SAE also allows int egrat ion of non- 3GPP net works such as WiMAX. EPC/ SAE will use
I MS as a component . I t will also manage QoS across t he whole syst em, which will be
essent ial for enabling a rich set of mult imedia- based services.
Figure 41 shows t he EPC/ SAE archit ect ure.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 95
Fi gur e 41: EPC/ SAE Ar chi t ect ur e
MME
GERAN
UTRAN
Rel’7 Legacy GSM/ UMTS
SGSN
Evolved RAN,
e.g., LTE
Serving
Gateway
PDN
Gateway
Non 3GPP
IP Access
PCRF
IP
Services,
IMS
EPC/ SAE Access Gat eway
Cont r ol
User Plane
One-Tunnel
Opt ion


Element s of t he SAE archit ect ure include:
 Support for legacy GERAN and UTRAN net works connect ed via SGSN.
 Support for new radio- access net works such as LTE.
 The Serving Gat eway t hat t erminat es t he int erface t oward t he 3GPP radio- access
net works.
 The PDN gat eway t hat cont rols I P dat a services, does rout ing, allocat es I P
addresses, enforces policy, and provides access for non- 3GPP access net works.
 The MME t hat support s user equipment cont ext and ident it y as well as
aut hent icat es and aut horizes users.
 The Policy Cont rol and Charging Rules Funct ion ( PCRF) t hat manages QoS
aspect s.

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 96

Acronyms
The following acronyms are used in t his paper. Acronyms are defined on first use.
1xEV- DO – One Carrier Evolved, Dat a Opt imized
1xEV- DV – One Carrier Evolved, Dat a Voice
1XRTT – One Carrier Radio Transmission Technology
2G – Second Generat ion
3G – Third Generat ion
3GPP – Third Generat ion Part nership Proj ect
3GPP2 – Third Generat ion Part nership Proj ect 2
4G – Fourt h Generat ion
8- PSK – Oct agonal Phase Shift Keying
AAS – Adapt ive Ant enna Syst ems
AGW – Access Gat eway
AMR – Adapt ive Mult i Rat e
ANSI – American Nat ional St andards I nst it ut e
ARQ – Aut omat ic Repeat Request
ARPU – Average Revenue Per User
ATM – Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AWGN – Addit ive Whit e Gaussian Noise Channel
BCCH – Broadcast Cont rol Channel
bps – bit s per second
BRS – Broadband Radio Service
BSC – Base St at ion Cont roller
BTS – Base Transceiving St at ion
C/ I – Carrier t o I nt erference Rat io
CAPEX- Capit al Expendit ure
CDF – Cumulat ive Dist ribut ion Funct ion
CDMA – Code Division Mult iple Access
CMOS – Complement ary Met al Oxide Semiconduct or
CP – Cyclic Prefix
CPC – Cont inuous Packet Connect ivit y
CRM – Cust omer Relat ionship Management
DAS – Downlink “ A” Level Scheme
dB – Decibel
DBS – Downlink “ B” Level Scheme
DC- HSPA – Dual Carrier HSPA
DSL – Digit al Subscriber Line

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 97
DTM – Dual Transfer Mode
D- TxAA – Double Transmit Adapt ive Array
DVB- H – Digit al Video Broadcast ing Handheld
E–DCH – Enhanced Dedicat ed Channel
EBCMCS – Enhanced Broadcast Mult icast Services
EDGE – Enhanced Dat a Rat es for GSM Evolut ion
EGPRS – Enhanced General Packet Radio Service
eNodeB – Evolved Node B
EPS – Evolved Packet Syst em
ERP – Ent erprise Resource Planning
ETRI – Elect ronic and Telecommunicat ions Research I nst it ut e
ETSI – European Telecommunicat ions I nst it ut e
E- UTRAN – Enhanced UMTS Terrest rial Radio Access Net work
EV- DO – One Carrier Evolved, Dat a Opt imized
EV- DV – One Carrier Evolved, Dat a Voice
EVRC – Enhanced Variable Rat e Codec
FCC – Federal Communicat ions Commission
FDD – Frequency Division Duplex
Flash OFDM – Fast Low- Lat ency Access wit h Seamless Handoff OFDM
FLO – Forward Link Only
FMC – Fixed Mobile Convergence
FP7 – Sevent h Framework Programme
FTP – File Transfer Prot ocol
G- Rake – Generalized Rake Receiver
Gbps – Gigabit s Per Second
GERAN – GSM EDGE Radio Access Net work
GGSN – Gat eway GPRS Support Node
GHz — Gigahert z
GMSK – Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying
GPRS – General Packet Radio Service
GSM – Global Syst em for Mobile communicat ions
GSMA – GSM Associat ion
HARQ – Hybrid Aut omat ic Repeat Request
HD – High Definit ion
HLR – Home Locat ion Regist er
HSDPA – High Speed Downlink Packet Access
HS- PDSCH - High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channels
HSPA – High Speed Packet Access ( HSDPA wit h HSUPA)
HSPA+ – HSPA Evolut ion
HSUPA – High Speed Uplink Packet Access

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 98
Hz – Hert z
I CT – I nformat ion and Communicat ion Technologies
I EEE – I nst it ut e of Elect rical and Elect ronic Engineers
I ETF – I nt ernet Engineering Taskforce
I FFT – I nverse Fast Fourier Transform
I M – I nst ant Messaging
I MS – I P Mult imedia Subsyst em
I MT – I nt ernat ional Mobile Telecommunicat ions
I PR - I nt ellect ual Propert y Right s
I P – I nt ernet Prot ocol
I PTV – I nt ernet Prot ocol Television
I R – I ncrement al Redundancy
I SI – I nt ersymbol I nt erference
I SP – I nt ernet Service Provider
I TU – I nt ernat ional Telecommunicat ions Union
JCP – Java Communit y Process
kbps – Kilobit s Per Second
kHz — Kilohert z
km – Kilomet er
LSTI – LTE/ SAE Trial I nit iat ive
MAC – Medium Access Cont rol
MBMS - Mult imedia Broadcast / Mult icast Service
Mbps – Megabit s Per Second
Mcps – Megachips Per Second
MCS – Modulat ion and Coding Scheme
MediaFLO – Media Forward Link Only
MHz – Megahert z
MI MO – Mult iple I nput Mult iple Out put
mI TF – Japan Mobile I T Forum
MMDS – Mult ichannel Mult ipoint Dist ribut ion Service
MME – Mobile Management Ent it y
MMSE – Minimum Mean Square Error
MRxD – Mobile Receive Diversit y
MSC – Mobile Swit ching Cent er
MU- MI MO – Mult i- User MI MO
msec – millisecond
NGMC – Next Generat ion Mobile Commit t ee
OFDM – Ort hogonal Frequency Division Mult iplexing
OFDMA – Ort hogonal Frequency Division Mult iple Access
PAR – Peak t o Average Rat io

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 99
PBCCH – Packet Broadcast Cont rol Channel
PCRF – Policy Cont rol and Charging Rules Funct ion
PCS – Personal Communicat ions Service
PHY – Physical Layer
PDN – Packet Dat a Net work
PoC – Push- t o- t alk over Cellular
QAM – Quadrat ure Amplit ude Modulat ion
QoS – Qualit y of Service
QPSK – Quadrat ure Phase Shift Keying
RAB – Radio Access Bearer
RAN – Radio Access Net work
RF – Radio Frequency
RNC – Radio Net work Cont roller
ROHC – Robust Header Compression
RTP – Real Time Transport Prot ocol
RTSP – Real Time St reaming Prot ocol
SC- FDMA – Single Carrier Frequency Division Mult iple Access
SAE – Syst em Archit ect ure Evolut ion
SDMA – Space Division Mult iple Access
SDP – Session Descript ion Prot ocol
SGSN – Serving GPRS Support Node
SI C – Successive I nt erference Cancellat ion
SI P – Session I nit iat ion Prot ocol
SMS – Short Message Service
SNR – Signal t o Noise Rat io
SU- MI MO – Single User MI MO
TCH – Traffic Channel
TDD – Time Division Duplex
TDMA – Time Division Mult iple Access
TD- SCDMA – Time Division Synchronous Code Division Mult iple Access
TD- CDMA – Time Division Code Division Mult iple Access
TI A/ EI A – Telecommunicat ions I ndust ry Associat ion/ Elect ronics I ndust ry Associat ion
TI SPAN – Telecoms and I nt ernet converged Services and Prot ocols for Advanced Net works
TTI – Transmission Time I nt erval
UAS – Uplink “ A” Level Scheme
UBS – Uplink “ B” Level Scheme
UMA – Unlicensed Mobile Access
UMB – Ult ra Mobile Broadband
UMTS – Universal Mobile Telecommunicat ions Syst em
us – Microseconds

EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 100
UTRAN – UMTS Terrest rial Radio Access Net work
VDSL – Very High Speed DSL
VoI P – Voice over I nt ernet Prot ocol
VPN – Virt ual Privat e Net work
WAP – Wireless Applicat ion Prot ocol
WCDMA – Wideband CDMA
Wi- Fi – Wireless Fidelit y
WiMAX – Worldwide I nt eroperabilit y for Microwave Access
WLAN – Wireless Local Area Net work
WMAN – Wireless Met ropolit an Area Net work
WRC- 07 – World Radiocommunicat ion Conference 2007

Additional Information
3G Americas maint ains complet e and current list s of market informat ion, including EDGE,
UMTS, and HSDPA deployment s worldwide, available for free download on it s Web sit e:
ht t p: / / www. 3gamericas. org.
I f t here are any quest ions regarding t he download of t his informat ion, please call + 1 425
372 8922 or e- mail Krissy Gochnour, Public Relat ions Administ rat or, at
info@3gamericas. org. ”
References
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EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 102
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This whit e paper was writ t en for 3G Americas by Rysavy Research ( ht t p: / / www. rysavy. com) and ut ilized a
composit e of st at ist ical infor mat ion from mult iple resources.



EDGE, HSPA, LTE: Broadband I nnovat ion Page 104
The contents of this paper reflect the research, analysis and conclusions of Rysavy Research and
may not necessarily represent the comprehensive opinions and individual view points of each
particular 3G Americas Board member company.

Rysavy Research provides this document and the information contained herein to you for
informational purposes only. Rysavy Research provides this information solely on the basis that
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Although Rysavy Research has exercised reasonable care in providing this information to you,
Rysavy Research does not warrant that the information is error-free. Rysavy Research disclaims
and in no event shall be liable for any losses or damages of any kind, whether direct, indirect,
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