A HOW-TO GUIDE

f o r LT E i n P u b l i c S a f e t y

Preparing for the Approaching Revolution in Public Safety Communications
• • • • • New Capabilities for Public Safety LTE: What It Is, What It Does How LTE Meets Public Safety Needs Preparing for LTE Building an LTE Network

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© 2010 e.Republic. All rights reserved. Alcatel, Lucent, Alcatel-Lucent, and the Alcatel-Lucent logo are trademarks of Alcatel-Lucent. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Alcatel-Lucent assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of the information presented, which is subject to change without notice. Copyright 2010 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.

A HOW-TO GUIDE
f o r LT E i n P u b l i c S a f e t y

Table of Contents
New Capabilities for Public Safety .................................................................... 4 LTE: What It Is, What It Does ............................................................................. 7 How LTE Meets Public Safety Needs ............................................................... 11 Preparing for LTE ............................................................................................. 18 Deploying an LTE Network .............................................................................. 24

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New Capabilities for Public Safety

New Capabilities for Public Safety
We live in a changing world, where public safety agencies must address new threats and challenges — both natural and man-made. Public safety agencies need wireless networks that provide more than they did in the past. It’s not enough to rely on a push-to-talk network for situational awareness. Mobile technology capable of sending and receiving bandwidthintensive data can help law enforcement and emergency response agencies do their jobs more effectively and safely. Public safety agencies need mobile broadband networks that let them share streaming real-time video, detailed maps and blueprints, high-resolution photographs and other files that narrowband systems can’t handle. Many public safety wireless networks today, however, are not capable of passing multimedia data to responders in the field — some are limited to voice communication only. Those that can handle the various types of data can’t transmit it quickly enough to make it truly helpful in the life-or-death situations public safety personnel often face. Long term evolution (LTE) will satisfy the growing need for broadband in public safety. LTE is a next-generation wireless technology that will put super-fast broadband in the hands of first responders. It will enable a firefighter at an incident scene to send real-time video to the emergency operations center. It will send high-definition video, high-resolution photos and detailed maps to police cars. And it will enable all these to be received in seconds rather than minutes. The speed and power of LTE will enable sharing of public safety data like never before, and it accomplishes things that third-generation (3G) technology simply can’t — even on today’s commercial networks. LTE is a new standard that can be used in radio access networks, which sit between mobile devices, such as cell phones, and the core network. As the name implies, it encompasses the evolutionary path from today’s radio networks to tomorrow’s all IP-based, ultrafast converged networks. LTE gives users the same experience in a mobile setting that they normally get only on fixed networks in their homes or workplaces, and it is the foundation on which future mobile technologies will be built. LTE will provide unprecedented capabilities for mobile broadband networks. It’s been declared by public safety and communications experts to be the technology of choice for mobile broadband communications for years to come. High-bandwidth capabilities can help law enforcement and emergency responders achieve faster responses, better situational awareness and improved safety — for both the public and responders. LTE drastically speeds the flow of information — in all directions — for more effective public safety in both day-to-day operations and emergencies. UNPRECEDENTED OPPORTUNITIES LTE will be a giant leap forward for interoperability, which has always been an issue since most agencies use their own private radio systems. These systems aren’t standardized, so they typically don’t connect to other systems. LTE also provides an unprecedented

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New Capabilities for Public Safety

opportunity for interoperability — even on a nationwide scale. LTE is based on common standards, and as a mobile technology, inherently supports roaming. Not only will it be used by public safety agencies, but it will also be widely used by commercial providers. It leverages the ecosystem of equipment, applications and devices made for the private sector. These factors all bring the costs down and ensure that communication devices will be highly available and roaming can be seamless. LTE is becoming increasingly available commercially in large cities across the United States. Verizon has announced plans for LTE deployment in 25 to 30 cities by the end of

Why LTE
LTE is a powerful new technology that will benefit public safety in numerous ways: Greater interoperability and enhanced interagency cooperation: • Sophisticated priority access mechanisms authorize and prioritize communication, so mission-critical data gets top priority. Standardized protocols and interfaces: • Roaming capabilities are built in. Unprecedented broadband capabilities: • LTE provides high capacity, allowing a wide variety of applications that have rich, multimedia content. • It provides low latency, enabling real-time services (VoIP, video). • It is much faster than 3G, employing advanced technologies and deployable in bandwidths ranging from 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz. Cost effective: • LTE’s simplified architecture lowers operating costs. • It leverages a rich, open ecosystem from commercial networks. • It complements existing/future narrowband radio networks. • It makes private networks more economically feasible. Highly reliable and secure: • LTE offers advanced quality of service. • It supports geographic redundant architecture and a flat-IP architecture, reducing points of failure. • It supports encryption/ciphering to enable secure communications.

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New Capabilities for Public Safety

Public Safety Spectrum in the U.S.
The United States Federal Communications Commission authorized a spectrumchannelization plan on July 31, 2007. The plan redistributed the 700 MHz band (698 MHz to 806 MHz) vacated by television broadcasters as part of their conversion to digital broadcasting. For the upper 700 MHz band, the plan established the following three spectrum blocks to help improve communications among public safety agencies: • 10 MHz in the upper 700 MHz D-block • The original 24 MHz public safety block, this time organized as an 12 MHz broadband block (including a 2 MHz guardband) • A 12 MHz narrowband block The paired broadband spectrum was introduced to enable provisioning of advanced public safety wireless communications services. 2010. A number of commercial wireless carriers plan to expand LTE in the coming years. LTE deployments and trials are also occurring in many cities around the world. In public safety, LTE could be deployed as early as 2011 by agencies receiving waivers from the FCC that allow early deployment in the 700 MHz band. Government agencies at the local, state and federal levels are now preparing to use LTE for public safety. As agencies begin moving forward with deployments, LTE also opens the door to numerous possibilities for economical implementation, including partnering with other jurisdictions or private-sector providers. Some larger agencies will be able to have their own LTE networks and won’t need to share with others. But for most agencies, sharing will be helpful because it will provide great benefits at lower cost. With LTE’s architecture, the network can keep each agency’s data secure and separate from the data of others. As LTE becomes available, experts predict more partnering on public safety networks. This aligns with federal desires for more regional networks, which contributes to the long-term goal of nationwide interoperability. Agencies also can have flexible coverage through partnerships with commercial operators, roaming with other public safety jurisdictions, and optimized cost and control when operating at “home” in their private LTE network. A larger public safety entity may possess and manage its own centralized equipment, enabling full control over its subscriber base and operations. Alternatively, core network equipment can be shared among multiple entities and managed by a service provider. This flexibility gives public safety entities some administrative control over their subscribers and network. LTE brings a real paradigm shift. To get the most out of LTE, public safety agencies may have to give up some control and work more closely with other agencies. But it can be a gradual process, and jurisdictions can find solutions to the issues along the way. Some agencies will gain more control, as they build their own, private LTE networks. Either way, getting more agencies onto LTE will bring greater interoperability, better communication among public safety personnel, and improved safety for both the public and first responders.

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LTE: What It Is, What It Does

LTE: What It Is, What It Does
LTE is a relatively new cellular technology intended to greatly increase the speed and capacity of mobile phone networks. LTE costs are lower than those for 3G, due to simpler architecture and a more open, standards-based design. Download and upload speeds are much faster due to technological advances. And LTE presents a much greater opportunity for interoperability. LTE standards are described in Release 8 of the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). The 3GPP has declared LTE to be the next-generation global standard for mobile communications. With faster, more reliable service via LTE, users get better performance. Just as 3G was an improvement over 2G, LTE is an improvement over 3G. Many of the technologies within LTE are better versions of 3G, while others are new technologies that didn’t exist when 3G was designed. In addition to providing better performance, LTE is less expensive than 3G on a cost-per-bit basis. That’s partly due to the fact that LTE is an all-IP technology. And because capacity is much greater with LTE, services can be delivered more efficiently and economically. With its advanced multiplexing, LTE data traffic can ride over high-speed Ethernet interfaces, whereas much 3G traffic flows over slower connections, such as time-division multiplexing (TDM). WHY LTE LTE is faster, simpler and more economically feasible than any other mobile communication technology. Working together, the following features and technologies make LTE much more powerful and reliable than 3G. Economically Feasible — LTE utilizes a simpler architecture, the latest high-speed technologies, and commercially available devices — all of which create economies of scale and reduce operating costs for public safety agencies. Better Performance — LTE’s numerous technological advances bring better overall performance. End-users will certainly notice an improved experience, and the technology itself will be more reliable.

Major Public Safety Organizations Endorse LTE
LTE has been endorsed by the country’s major public safety organizations as the technology of choice for the 700 MHz public safety band. Proponents include: • • • • • Public Safety Spectrum Trust (PSST) National Emergency Number Association (NENA) Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials (APCO) Major Cities Chiefs Association National Public Safety Telecommunications Council (NPSTC)

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LTE: What It Is, What It Does

Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology, for example, will likely be used often with LTE. MIMO puts several antennas on a tower, rather than one. With more antennas working for the same communication, performance is significantly improved. MIMO can employ multiple antennas on both ends — transmitter and receiver. MIMO increases data throughput without the need for additional bandwidth or increased transmitting power. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is another technology that will be used often with LTE, helping to make LTE superior to 3G, which relies on less robust code division multiple access (CDMA) technology. OFDM splits available spectrum into small units. That allows signals to be sent in smaller pieces, making LTE much more flexible and simple to work with than 3G. The smaller pieces also make communications less likely to be affected by interference, fading and other issues. High Throughput — LTE’s high capacity enables improved broadband speed. Both download and upload speeds are significantly faster than with 3G. Those who’ve been working on the development of LTE say users will be amazed at how much faster LTE is compared to 3G. Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), an advanced form of modulation that provides robust data transmissions when used over wide channels,

Download Speeds: A Giant Leap Forward
LTE is much faster than 3G — theoretically more than 15 times faster. The maximum theoretical download speed of LTE is 326 megabits per second (Mbps). For 3G, it’s around 20 Mbps. Speeds offered to users in the real world are actually much lower than these theoretical or laboratory figures. Both in theory and in practice, however, LTE is clearly a giant leap forward. While 3G typically provides 2 Mbps in download speed to real-world users, LTE is expected to provide 50-100 Mbps. Speed in the real world depends on several factors, such as the number of users on the system, distance from the cell tower or the number of antennas on the tower. Speed also depends on the size of the bandwidth channel being used. A channel that’s 10 MHz wide is faster than one that’s 5 MHz wide. Think of it as a highway. The wider the highway, the faster the traffic will flow. Weather can play a part too. Ground speed in a moving vehicle also can affect download speeds. All of these factors can have an impact on throughput at any given time. LTE, however, is the best technology for dealing with all these factors.

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LTE: What It Is, What It Does

Terms Related to LTE
While some of these terms appear often in this guide, and some appear minimally, this is all terminology you will see again if you look further into LTE. 3GPP — The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is a collaboration of several international telecommunications associations. The project began in 1998, and its original goal was to create a globally applicable 3G mobile phone system. The project sets standards and specifications for 3G and 4G/LTE. Backhaul (also known as Transport Network) — Connects all the LTE base stations (usually tower sites) to one another, and to other components in the LTE system. Backhaul is often microwave or fiber-optic technology. Backhaul is also present in 3G and land mobile radio (LMR) systems. Evolved NodeB (or eNodeB) — An LTE base station. Numerous base stations are linked to one core network. Communication flows from an end-user device to an eNodeB, and then from there to the core network. IP — Internet protocol (IP) is the method by which data travels from one computer to another over the Internet. Each computer has an IP address that uniquely identifies it. IP-based communication systems can transform voice signals into digital information that then can be sent over data networks. Latency — The length of time it takes a data packet to travel across a network connection. Latency is usually measured in milliseconds (ms). Excessive latency can cause numerous problems in receiving data, such as jitter, out-of-sync audio and interruptions to video streaming. Throughput — The average speed of data delivery over a network. Throughput is usually measured in bits per second (bps). allows LTE to be effective at bandwidths larger than 5 MHz. By comparison, 5 MHz is the maximum bandwidth that 3G can work with. Flat, IP-Based Architecture — The architecture for LTE is all IP-based. And it’s a flat architecture, meaning there are fewer layers in the network. LTE runs on a simpler network with fewer elements within it. The result is greater efficiency and less latency. Flat architecture also reduces costs because it’s simpler than previous cellular technologies. And LTE is extremely scalable, making it easier than ever before to add significant numbers of users. Low Latency — Typical 3G latencies can be 50-60 milliseconds (ms). With LTE, something around 5-10 ms is much more likely. Latency is very important when it comes to demanding applications, such as streaming video. Too much latency degrades the signal and frustrates the end-user.

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LTE: What It Is, What It Does

Greater Interoperability — With LTE’s standardized protocols and interfaces — and everyone using commercially available devices — more public safety personnel can talk to one another. LTE can put more agencies and individuals on the same communications platform. LTE supports an open-device ecosystem. And the all-IP nature of LTE helps with interoperability because more and more public safety agencies are moving to IP-based systems. Evolved Packet Core (EPC) — EPC is a new, all-IP mobile core network for LTE. It’s part of the specifications set forth in the 3GPP Release 8 standards. EPC unifies voice and data into one subdomain (they were separate subdomains in 2G and 3G). EPC is crucial for end-to-end IP service delivery across LTE. It also eases the introduction of new services and applications. Bandwidth Flexibility — LTE can be flexibly deployed with a wide range of channel sizes, or carrier bandwidths. These can range from 1.4 MHz wide up to 20 MHz. LTE works well at any level within this range. Improved Spectral Efficiency — LTE is better than previous technologies at maximizing the use of available spectrum frequency. This is a key asset, since frequency is allocated by the FCC, and everyone is limited by the amount of frequency they can use. LTE’s improved spectral efficiency lets the system maximize bandwidth, number of users and user experience. Lower Battery Drain on Devices — The 3GPP has established that LTE shall include single-carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA), which minimizes battery drain on the end-user device. It works by having the device only send information to a base station when it needs to, rather than the traditional method of sending data to the base station continuously.

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How LTE Meets Public Safety Needs

How LTE Meets Public Safety Needs
Public safety agencies need high-speed broadband — and they need it over wide coverage areas. They need communication systems that are highly interoperable, and technology tools that save them minutes and seconds — because that can mean saving lives. Fortunately for public safety agencies — and for citizens — LTE meets a wide variety of public safety needs, like no other technology before. That’s why key public safety organizations have endorsed LTE as the best broadband solution for public safety. Whether it’s police, fire or EMS, today’s responders need access to real-time information. Video, voice and data can be there instantly with LTE. Traditional LMR voice systems and silo networks no longer meet the needs of public safety agencies. Public safety networks must be reliable, available and secure. And they have to provide high quality of service (QoS), so users can count on the performance at all times. THE LTE SOLUTION The answer is a 700 MHz broadband data network. LMR has been the workhorse for years, but it simply can’t give public safety agencies everything they need today. Things have changed, and a narrowband technology isn’t enough anymore.

Public Safety LTE Solution - High Level
RAN Backhaul (IP/MPLS) Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
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Evolved Packet Core (Essential Signaling and Transport Control Components) Could be used as a Secure GW and aggregator

LTE Bearer Tra c LTE Signaling/Control OA&M
All Rights Reserved. © Alcatel-Lucent 2006.

eNB EPC HSS MME PCRF PGW

Base Station Evolved Packet Core (MME+S/PGW) Home Subscriber Server Mobility Management Entity Policy and Charging Rules Function Packet Data Gateway

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How LTE Meets Public Safety Needs

With LTE, public safety agencies are afforded new applications to help them keep the public safe — high-definition video, digital imaging, GIS, Web access, automatic vehicle location (AVL) and much more. Voice over IP is enabled too, including interoperability with LMR systems with the use of appropriate gateways. LTE brings improved interoperability, providing the basis for the nationwide interoperability of the future. LTE enables better situational awareness, improved decision-making, faster response times and optimum safety for first responders themselves. Unified Communications Infrastructure — With LTE, public safety agencies can provide voice, video and data all on the same network. This type of unified communication system has become increasingly popular in recent years, and LTE takes it to the next level with technological advances. With everything on one network, it’s easy to add more capabilities as you need them, or as funding becomes available. This helps agencies manage their budgets. That’s why many public safety agencies are planning to first roll out data services on LTE networks, and then add voice capabilities later. They can continue to use their LMR systems for voice until the time is right to move voice to the LTE network. When it’s time to add voice, agencies don’t need to throw out everything they already invested in with LTE. Instead, they just add voice to the LTE infrastructure, and keep moving forward. This is much more economical than in the past, when agencies would build a separate network to add a new capability, incurring extra costs for both deployment and operations. Ecosystem of Devices — Public safety has a tremendous opportunity with LTE to leverage commercially available equipment and devices. Applications, devices and other equipment have been developed mostly in the private sector for commercial purposes. It makes sense for public safety to take advantage of the tremendous foundation that’s been laid. And by using the same devices that are available everywhere, it’s easier to achieve interoperability in a variety of situations. USB dongles, PC cards and modems are likely to be used when LTE becomes available initially. Cell phones, smartphones and other multimedia-capable devices should be available later. LIMITATIONS WITH CURRENT SYSTEMS While some public safety agencies have effective broadband capabilities, most do not. With most public safety data networks, video is impossible. Bulk file transfers can’t happen either. Even sending e-mails with attachments can be difficult or impossible. The narrowband networks in place today simply can’t handle large files or streaming video. They don’t allow remote access to databases and they don’t let people share much information via the Web. Data rates are very slow. A typical agency might have a dedicated network for voice, another for low-rate data and maybe another for paging. With these separate networks, costs for deploying and managing

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How LTE Meets Public Safety Needs

Better Broadband = Improved Public Safety
With high speed, low latency and other features, LTE fulfills missioncritical public safety needs: • greater interoperability • better situational awareness • high-definition video streaming • high-speed data transmission • high-resolution photos • detailed mapping • more accurate vehicle location • transfer of very large files • faster Web, e-mail and text messaging • better access to remote databases • faster reporting • improved computer-aided dispatch • dependable telemetry/remote diagnostics • better security • works with older technologies

them are multiplied. Every time a change is made to one of these separate networks, there are new costs for equipment, testing, operations and devices. Some agencies deploy Wi-Fi hot spots, but those come with very limited range. Coverage isn’t good, so it generally doesn’t work well for public safety. Some agencies have broadband through commercial providers. This allows them to have access to the Web and e-mail, for example. But those networks get congested during catastrophes, emergencies or other public safety events, just when public safety communication is most critical. Limitations of LMR — LMR networks rely on narrowband systems that are optimized for voice, and they lack the capacity to support rich, multimedia content needed to improve response and cooperation among agencies. While efforts are under way to standardize LMR networks using APCO Project 25 (P25) open standards, many LMR systems are not yet standardized. This hampers interagency response because LMR systems used by neighboring cities or counties can’t communicate with each other. The problem is multiplied further when a multiagency response is required. This prohibits LMR from being the platform for a nationwide communication system for public safety. Limitations of 3G Networks for Data — 3G is fine for a citizen surfing the Web, but it doesn’t give public safety what it needs. 3G inherited numerous limitations from the network architecture used in 2G cellular systems. 3G is inferior to LTE in terms of performance and overall cost. 3G is not nearly fast enough for public safety, where extra seconds and minutes can mean the difference between life and death. It’s limited to 5 MHz in bandwidth, so it doesn’t have the flexibility and range of deployment options LTE has. 3G can’t properly handle high-speed applications when numerous users are on the system. It doesn’t use the available spectrum as efficiently as LTE, and latency is too high for demanding, real-time services, such as video. The network architecture is complex, adding to overall costs. And it’s not optimized for IP, which is unfortunate because IP is becoming increasingly common. WHAT LTE CAN DO FOR PUBLIC SAFETY LTE supports a wide variety of applications — including those that are bandwidthintensive, such as the streaming of high-definition video. With its high capacity and low

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How LTE Meets Public Safety Needs

latency, LTE can do things previous technologies simply couldn’t do. And it works with older technologies, so there will be no gap in services when it’s deployed. LTE will enable greater data sharing in both directions. Responders can send video, photos and other data from an incident scene back to command posts, and dispatchers and commanders can share data with responders out in the field. Significantly larger files can be sent. And it will all happen much faster than ever before. Once LTE is in place, a firefighter can send live, streaming video of the incident scene to the operations center. And that firefighter can instantly receive detailed, accurate blueprints of buildings affected by the fire. Police officers can receive high-resolution mug shots. Their squad cars can be pinpointed on maps more accurately than before. LTE will provide optimal information sharing. Video, digital imagery, maps, AVL, Web access, remote reporting and numerous other capabilities will be much stronger than they are today — and will thus be used much more often. Dispatchers will have more ways to send critical data to responders. LTE will enable much greater interoperability, and improved situational awareness. It will make the public — and public safety personnel — safer than they are today. SPECIFIC BENEFITS LTE is an improvement over current technologies in so many ways, it would be easy to miss some of the specifics. Yes, LTE is better overall. But it’s useful to look more closely at some of the ways in which LTE will improve public safety both in emergencies and in everyday operations. Following are some specifics. Interoperability — In the past, public safety agencies typically operated in communication silos. Each jurisdiction used different technologies and devices from different vendors. Thus most neighboring public safety agencies couldn’t communicate with one another on their radios and networks. Many jurisdictions solved this issue by adding radio gateways that can interoperate multiple radio frequencies. Because LTE is standards-based, it doesn’t require any special gateways to enable interoperability. LTE is based on standard technology that commercial operators will be using, so more people can communicate seamlessly. Public safety personnel on LTE devices will be able to roam into other jurisdictions and communicate instantly and easily. This is a big step forward for public safety. LTE is the first real technology that can enable nationwide interoperability for public safety. No matter where they are, personnel can use devices they’re familiar with, connect to other agencies during a response, and still be linked to their home networks as well. Situational Awareness — Immediate, dependable communication is critical during an incident response. The capabilities of LTE get everyone on the same page, faster than ever before. Is a firefighter down? Is she trapped or unconscious? A helmet camera streaming realtime video back to the operations center can be the difference between life and death. With LTE, information can be exchanged from anywhere, instantly, in many ways. Video can be sent from

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How LTE Meets Public Safety Needs

FCC Grants Waivers for Broadband Networks
In May 2010, the FCC granted waivers to 21 cities, counties and states seeking to build regional or statewide interoperable wireless broadband networks in the 700 MHz public safety broadband spectrum. The waivers allow these entities to build their networks even though the complete plan for the 700 MHz band is not yet finished. The FCC is requiring waiver recipients to use LTE because of its valuable contribution to interoperability. These initial waiver recipients will merely be scratching the surface of LTE deployment; they will certainly be followed by additional public safety LTE deployments throughout the country. For more information, visit www.fcc.gov. the scene to commanders. Messages, images, surveillance videos, floor plans, mug shots — whatever is needed — can be instantly disseminated to all responders who need the information. Data from the field can be integrated with incident-management databases, for the best possible situational awareness. The result is better decisionmaking by leaders, and better safety for both responders and the public. Video — LTE gives new meaning to the phrase “a picture is worth a thousand words.” Seeing what’s happening at an incident scene is much more helpful than hearing about it. It saves precious time and gives decision-makers at operations centers more data to work with. LTE provides fast transmission of even highdefinition video. And there are numerous applications for public safety. For example, during a school emergency, LTE, with proper integration, can provide responders with access to the video surveillance feed from inside the school, sending it directly to squad cars. Video streaming of crime scenes and video conferencing are other examples. And video can be sent quickly and easily, in both directions. With LTE, video will likely play a much larger role than ever before. Digital Imaging — LTE enables large files to be sent extremely quickly. Detailed images of crime scenes, disaster scenes, suspects and more — all in high resolution — can be sent whenever they’re needed. A photo can be received by a responder in the field in two seconds. It takes minutes with today’s public safety networks, making it impractical in many situations. With LTE, photos can be sent quickly in both directions. If an officer isn’t responding by radio, a dispatcher can instruct the squad car to send a photo. Dispatchers, first responders, commanders and others will be able to communicate more effectively. Large Data Files — If a firefighter needs to see blueprints of a commercial building that’s on fire, there aren’t many options for getting that information today. Sometimes it can be displayed from a CD on a laptop, but that’s time-consuming, and the information isn’t always up to date. With LTE, very large files, such as detailed blueprints, can instantly be sent to numerous devices. And information can be pulled from a variety of other databases as well — hazardous materials, for example. With LTE, volumes of data can be received in just seconds.

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How LTE Meets Public Safety Needs

GIS — Mapping has become a very useful tool in many applications. LTE will increase the power of maps for public safety. LTE has functionality that improves on existing GPS systems, for greater accuracy. With LTE, commanders will be able to track their people and vehicles more accurately. Having better, real-time map displays will allow them to coordinate a better response and keep their people safe. GIS data can be combined with other data to make these maps even more useful. With a better overall picture, commanders can also leverage LTE to keep everyone on the response team well informed. Automatic Vehicle Location — LTE makes AVL more accurate and reliable. LTE supports both GPS and assisted GPS. In assisted GPS, LTE base stations are used as additional reference points to more accurately fix the position of fire engines, police cars and other vehicles. The system will no longer rely on satellites alone. This is especially helpful in urban environments, where tall buildings can hinder GPS. And with LTE, photos or other data can be linked to location information. A police officer, for example, can automatically be shown crime or suspect information related to the neighborhood he’s entering in his squad car. Better AVL also gives improved situational awareness, and lets dispatchers quickly send additional information to a vehicle based on its location. Computer-Aided Dispatching — Today, most information that’s sent from dispatch to a responder is textual. It’s often an address, and not much more. With LTE, dispatch can also send high-definition video, high-resolution photos, detailed maps and other data pertinent to the response. Video from one responder can be sent to dispatch, and then from there it can go out to other responders. Access to Report Management Systems — LTE gives faster, greater access to central report management systems. Personnel out in the field will be able to access data within reporting systems from mobile devices like never before. Telemetry/Remote Diagnostics — LTE enables more data to be sent automatically from mobile devices so the data can be analyzed elsewhere. Patient data can be sent from an ambulance to the hospital, for example, so doctors have vital information before the patient arrives. Diagnostic information for a device or a vehicle can be sent automatically as well. Bulk File Transfer — Information sharing is at an all-time high. Bulk file transfers require high throughput, which public safety networks typically don’t have. With LTE, bulk file transfers will be very fast. Whether for multiple high-resolution images or huge amounts of raw data, large files will get there fast with LTE. Enhanced Day-to-Day Operations — Efficiency can be greatly increased when people have instant remote access to databases for vehicle records or suspect files, or can submit reports electronically. Public safety personnel are more effective when there’s less paperwork to do, or when they’re not waiting for information. The speed of LTE helps keep public safety personnel focused on their real work. It helps them do their jobs better. Decreased Load on Narrowband Channels — Without a data system, a police officer needing a license plate check has to call in on his radio and ask a dispatcher to look it up. It can take

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How LTE Meets Public Safety Needs

National Broadband Plan
The FCC released its first National Broadband Plan in March 2010. The plan maps out ways for the U.S. to become a world leader in the adoption of broadband. It also speaks to the great need for broadband in public safety and homeland security. The website for the plan — www.broadband.gov — presents the entire plan, along with helpful links allowing people to focus on individual issues within the plan, such as education, health care and public safety. many tens of seconds to fulfill this simple request, wasting valuable time on the narrowband radio system. With high-speed wireless broadband, the officer can do the lookup himself — and get the answer much more quickly. Transmission of large files can also put ureasonable pressure on narrowband channels. For example, it can take 10 minutes to download a mug shot on narrowband, but just a few seconds with LTE. By shifting requests like this and others to a broadband system, the narrowband system can handle other tasks more efficiently. Improved Task Force Operations — Task forces are often created quickly, bringing together individuals from numerous agencies who’ve not worked together before. LTE eases the burden of providing strong communications among the newly assembled group, with secure interoperability. The broadband data network can make it easy to collaborate with voice, video and multimedia data. LTE AND SECURITY LTE has several features that make it more secure than previous technologies. By using open-standard protocols and technologies, LTE is the product of years of work by a diverse collection of developers and other experts. Such a method is one of the best ways to provide security because hundreds of people working on it try to break the system while it’s being created. If there’s any kind of security issue, it’s exposed during development, and people fix it. The open standards approach results in everyone pooling their work for the best possible solution — and that includes security. LTE also makes use of some of the most advanced security mechanisms available. Mutual authentication occurs whenever a user device connects to the network. Thus the network ensures that it’s a valid user, and the device itself authenticates the network — so the bad guys can’t set up a fake network to get public safety devices to sign onto it. The network also verifies that devices have the proper advanced security features needed to ensure security. End-to-end security is achieved with strong data encryption, both within the devices themselves and the network. This also includes encryption at the base stations. And LTE architecture has two security layers, which are present in the core network and in the access components as well.

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Preparing for LTE

Preparing for LTE
LTE is on its way, and there’s no turning back. Over the next two years, LTE will be deployed throughout the United States. To keep pace with the rapid growth of LTE, it’s wise to start thinking about it now. It’s time to prepare, because things will be different. The goal is to put very fast broadband in the hands of our nation’s first responders. LTE is the way to do this. LTE networks can be laid over the top of LMR networks, using existing infrastructure for substantial cost savings. The simpler, less expensive network architecture of LTE will also bring savings. And interoperability will be greatly enhanced as LTE is deployed. Speed and performance will be much better than current technologies provide. Public safety agencies will see a big increase in efficiency, so they should be eager to prepare for LTE. Even those agencies opting to work with commercial service providers will want to be ready, since commercial carriers are already deploying LTE in numerous cities on a trial basis. WHAT TO DO Getting ready for LTE will take some work, but the effort will be well worth it. As public safety agencies prepare to create LTE networks, there are many key steps along the way. Determine whether to partner with other agencies. Some large public safety agencies won’t need to partner with other agencies, but for many, partnering with others is a sensible arrangement. By working with others to create an LTE network, you can have expanded buying power, grants, procurement opportunities and more. You would still be getting the benefits of LTE, but you wouldn’t be doing all the work and spending by yourself. Regional networks are becoming more common, as the federal government encourages such partnerships to make public safety dollars stretch further. With LTE, regional interoperability is a big step toward nationwide interoperability. In determining whether to partner with others, consider the size and network capabilities of your agency. Also consider your core competencies. Are neighboring agencies stronger than you in certain areas? Perhaps working together can shore up everyone’s weaknesses, and expand everyone’s strengths. Also, there can be beneficial partnerships with commercial carriers. For example, leaving your broadband network to a commercial carrier can let you stay focused on your core competencies. However, these arrangements do come with a monthly bill attached.

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Preparing for LTE

IP, MPLS and LTE
IP/multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) networks are perfectly suited for creating backhaul (transport) in LTE networks. IP/MPLS can handle highbandwidth, media-rich services that require end-to-end quality of service (QoS). And while IP/MPLS can evolve with future needs and LTE, it also enables multigenerational networks that need to incorporate 2G, 3G and 4G technologies. The use of both IP and MPLS has been growing consistently in recent years, and that growth is expected to continue. Many public safety agencies have already transitioned to IP/MPLS networks, to converge multiple services — voice, data and video — onto a single platform. Other agencies have at least started on this, by moving their LMR communications to IP. With IP/MPLS, multiple types of data for numerous agencies can be sent over the network, while keeping traffic separate and secure. MPLS also provides better flexibility and performance than previous technologies. MPLS can carry both mobile and fixed services simultaneously. It’s a mature technology that provides many options for the future.

Establish governance and/or regional agreement. How will you govern your new LTE network? If you’re working with other agencies, it will take extra effort to create a jurisdictional agreement everyone can support. If you’re working alone, you’ll still have some governance issues to sort out. Which of your users will have priority access to the network? In what situations? You’ll need policies that spell out the priorities within the agency. Even if you’re a single jurisdiction, you’ll need agreement between police, fire, EMS and possibly other agencies as well. If you’re partnering with other agencies, it gets more complicated. LTE provides an unprecedented opportunity to put together regional networks, but it can only work if jurisdictions agree on a governance model. How will you use the network, versus me? What’s my priority compared to yours? How do we handle users who roam into our region? It might not be easy to hammer out an agreement — public safety agencies can be set in their ways, and control is important to them — but the rewards can be great. And the public wins when agencies work together. “Jurisdictional priority” can be one way to address the issue. This gives each agency control of a portion of the network — base stations within its jurisdiction, for example. Thus each jurisdiction is truly part of the solution, while still retaining some ownership and control. Governance also plays a part during a multiagency response to a large incident. Much is determined by the location of the incident, as the “home” agency will have the most

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Preparing for LTE

control. In all cases, you want to make sure personnel have the bandwidth and access to get the resources they need. Assess what you have. Early on, look at what you have, and how you’re using it. Then you can determine how much of it you can leverage when creating your LTE network. You may have extensive facilities you can use, which will save a lot of money. Conduct an in-depth assessment of your existing network infrastructure and backhaul. What can you use from your LMR infrastructure? Do you have microwave? Fiber? Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS)? How is everything connected to the network? What do you own? What do you lease? Also look at your physical infrastructure. If you have existing tower sites for voice communications, it’s likely you can re-use most of them for your LTE network. But you have to look closely. How many towers do you have? Can they bear more weight? Hold more antennas? Can you add an LTE base station (eNodeB)? Is there enough power at the base of each tower to run more equipment? You also need to know how you’re currently connecting to all those sites. Identify system strengths and weaknesses. With LTE, there will be more data traffic — and it needs enough network capacity to get from place to place. Where does your system have room to grow? How can you achieve greater capacity? Are there bottlenecks in your network where you simply can’t add capacity? You need to identify

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Preparing for LTE

ng Connect Points to the Future
A program called ng Connect (ng for “next generation”) brings together companies that create infrastructure, devices, applications and content for broadband, to help develop the best possible uses of LTE and other broadband technologies. The goal is to share knowledge, work together and help create tomorrow’s end-to-end broadband ecosystem. For more information, visit www.ngconnect.org.

strengths and weaknesses, whether you have your own network or are leasing from a commercial carrier. If you’re leasing, can your carrier handle an increase in data traffic once LTE is here? If it’s your own network, can the equipment and infrastructure grow to meet future demands? Will you need more backhaul? Sometimes, additional technologies can bridge the gaps. MPLS, for example, can help your current backhaul run more efficiently, so you can expand capacity that way rather than building more backhaul. Future-proof when buying. It’s important to future-proof your network. You need to think about LTE now, so you don’t go down the wrong path in planning or purchasing. You want to make sure everything you do today will pay off later when LTE goes live — both for you and for neighboring jurisdictions. After assessing what you have, and identifying weaknesses moving forward, you’ll be better off when it comes to making purchases today. Choose technologies that will allow you to grow and get the most out of LTE. You can upgrade your transport network, improve connectivity to towers or make other network improvements as usual, but now you should also factor LTE into your thinking. Determine user requirements. Think ahead about what users will actually want to do once LTE is in place. What are their requirements? They could be different for each public safety agency. Will your users need high-definition video all the time? Will your agency want to do a lot of administrative or office work from a mobile environment? What will you use text messages for, and how often? Which databases will people need access to while out in the field? This type of application analysis and user analysis is an important step in preparing for LTE. Be sure to talk with actual users — police officers, firefighters and EMS personnel, for example — and understand how they will use the LTE system. Determine applications you need. Once you really know what your users need, you’ll know what kind of applications you’ll want on your network. Look into the throughput requirements for those applications. How much capacity will be required to fulfill the users’ needs? Think ahead; public safety agencies always want more and more applications that require broadband. Consider applications that improve situational

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Preparing for LTE

LTE Advanced
What’s the next generation after LTE? That would be LTE Advanced, a technology whose standards are still being defined by the 3GPP. Those standards are expected to be finalized in 2011. LTE Advanced will be a significant enhancement of LTE capabilities. For more information, visit www.3gpp.org/LTE-Advanced.

awareness. Also look at those that improve communications across different agencies and jurisdictions. Be aware that most of the commercial service providers limit bandwidth per month, which can be a problem if you anticipate needing video often. Consider solution requirements. Now that you’ve looked at user requirements and applications you’ll need, consider the overall solution. You can now start to think about users, capacity, coverage, existing infrastructure, device ecosystem and other factors as you continue to prepare for LTE. Create a business case. Whether you need your own private LTE network or want to partner with other public safety agencies, you need a strong business case you can present to decision-makers. A big part of it is financial. If you’re using a commercial carrier, find out what you’re spending for broadband from that carrier each month. Multiply that by the number of your users, and you’re probably paying a large sum each month. With LTE bringing down the cost of owning a network, it might be less expensive to build your own network than to continue paying for the use of someone else’s. Do a cost/ benefit analysis. What’s the best investment value for your organization? What makes sense? Sometimes partnering with another agency can dramatically lower your costs. If you move away from commercial carriers to build your own network, keep in mind that you’ll have to take on the maintenance and support of that network as well. But it’s like supporting your own LMR network, and the overall advantages could outweigh the new responsibility of maintenance and support. You can also pay for managed services for that, and still come out ahead. Decide on interoperability with LMR. An important decision to make is whether you want to connect your LTE and LMR networks.

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Preparing for LTE

There are two schools of thought. One says you should connect them because you want as much interoperability and flexibility as possible. The other says there’s no real problem in keeping them separate; eventually the voice will move over onto LTE anyway and LMR will fade out of the picture. At this point, no one seems certain about whether LMR will stick around. There would be advantages to converging voice and data onto one LTE network. For starters, the LTE handsets would be much less expensive than LMR devices. But they would likely have to be proven in the field before everyone in public safety migrates to them. Meanwhile, the investment in LMR has already been made, so it might be hard to move away from that anytime soon. People will have to wait and see. But eventually the decision will have to be made by each public safety agency. Decide whether to request FCC waiver. If you petition the FCC for a waiver that allows you to get started on deploying LTE in the 700 MHz spectrum, you’re not obligated to actually do anything even if you receive the approval. Still, you probably don’t want to apply unless you’re serious about it. Ideally you should file with a project that has a realistic chance of being approved — meaning, among other things, you should plan to use LTE. It should also be a project that has a realistic chance of actually being deployed if it is approved. If you’re thinking of applying for an FCC waiver, take some time to research the waivers that have already been granted by the FCC. Learn more about LTE. There is an increasing amount of information on the Internet regarding LTE. While it is a relatively new technology, people have been working on it and developing it for years. Thus, there is a lot more you can learn about LTE, if you seek out additional information.

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Deploying an LTE Network

Deploying an LTE Network
Putting an LTE network on top of your LMR system will provide significant broadband capabilities for your public safety agency. But before deploying, be sure you’re truly prepared (see previous section). Solid preparation is crucial. Once the prep work is done, managing the LTE deployment properly is extremely important. You need to stay on track regarding timelines, budget, logistics and more. Strong project management is a must. There are many steps along the way — purchasing, installation, end-to-end integration and testing, to name a few. Following are some key suggestions. Choose the right system integrator. It’s vital to have a good network integrator for LTE. Often, that same integrator is also the project manager, so you can have one company designing, integrating, deploying and maintaining your system. An experienced integrator can bring all the elements together to make your LTE project a success. Many vendors will be required for the end-to-end implementation, so you need an integrator that can manage the contributions of all. And it’s ideal to have an integrator that’s vendor-neutral, so you have more options throughout the process. Choose an integrator that offers multiple types of technologies and is familiar with the impacts of LTE on backhaul. Systems integration and configuration are very important in public safety because separate systems such as video surveillance or 911 centers must be integrated into the LTE network. The new LTE network should be fully interoperable with other systems, technologies and services. Be sure to select a system integrator with extensive experience. Hire a strong project manager. It’s very common for the system integrator to also be the project manager. The project manager must be organized, able to set priorities, manage risks and keep everyone working in the same direction according to plan. Deploying an LTE network is a large, complex endeavor. Many different components from a variety of vendors need to come together. There are a lot of players involved, and the project manager should help them work together. Networks are a lot more complicated than they used to be. Traditionally a network would be built for a single purpose. Today they’re built for multiple services. Today’s networks must be service-aware, and able to monitor and manage themselves to truly give public safety agencies what they need. A strong project manager is needed to help with the complexity of today’s networks.

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Deploying an LTE Network

Deploy in phases. Implementing the LTE network in phases has several advantages. By going slowly, you can learn as you go, and your users have time to adjust. LTE can do many things better than previous technologies. It’s best not to throw all the changes at your users all at once. A good approach is to implement your core LTE network first, and then follow a conservative, phased deployment model. Perhaps you work with just a few base stations at first, to see how that goes. Manage that small deployment as its own project. Take lessons learned and then expand on it. You can continue to roll out services from there. This helps you gain incremental knowledge along the way, benefiting everyone as things move forward. If any adjustments must be made during deployment, they’re easier to make on a smaller scale. And you can get valuable feedback from users. Getting this feedback in small deployments at the beginning helps you make subsequent deployments go more smoothly. Plan for quality assurance testing. Build time into the schedule for thorough testing. Testing helps you make sure the new LTE system really does meet the requirements of the public safety users. Make sure all the devices, applications and individual components within the system are working properly. Also test the entire LTE solution, from end to end. Test internally, during the design stage and at later stages. Also test everything later, with the users themselves, before full deployment.

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Deploying an LTE Network

Consider outsourcing for operations and maintenance. LTE is a new technology, and it will bring changes for public safety. Some agencies may be more comfortable outsourcing operations and maintenance. Outsourcing agreements can be cost-effective, and take the burden off the owners of the LTE networks. These agreements can cover either some or all aspects of the network, including operations and security. They can even apply to multivendor networks. Even if you don’t want to permanently outsource network operation, you might want to have the system integrator operate the LTE network for a while once it comes online to help you get off to a good start. Now that you have a better understanding of LTE, you can begin the real work of preparing for its implementation. LTE will be deployed over time, of course, but it will become increasingly important in the coming months. It will bring numerous improvements to public safety communications, greatly aiding first responders and other public safety personnel. There is much you can do to prepare. And because public safety communication is so important, it’s best to start now.

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Alcatel-Lucent sponsored and contributed to the development of this How-To Guide. Alcatel-Lucent is a leading LTE provider globally and a trusted partner in building public safety networks for state, regional and local governments. Alcatel-Lucent delivers complete, best-in-class communications solutions aligned with the most challenging mission imperatives of public safety networks, and tailored to meet the needs and requirements of governments. Alcatel-Lucent: serving those who serve the public in an always-on world. For more information, visit www.alcatel-lucent.com/industries or call 1-800-252-2835

For additional copies or to download this document, or to download For additional copies please visit: www.govtech.com/LTE this document, please visit: www.govtech.com/LTE

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