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01_mn1780eu10mn_0003_sbs_overview

01_mn1780eu10mn_0003_sbs_overview

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Sections

  • 1 Global system for mobile communication GSM
  • 2 Network elements for PLMN
  • 3 Radio access network: radio subsystem
  • 3.1 Base Station Controller BSC
  • 3.2 Base Transceiver Station Equipment BTSE
  • 3.3 Transcoder and Rate Adapter Unit TRAU
  • 3.4 Local Maintenance Terminal LMT
  • 3.5 Documentation
  • 4 Radio interface Um
  • 4.1 GSM900/GSM1800/GSM1900 frequency bands
  • 4.2 Radio Frequency Carriers RFC
  • 4.3 Physical channels
  • 4.4 Logical channels for cs services
  • 4.5 Example for signaling channels
  • 4.6 Logical channels for PS services
  • 4.7 Multiframes
  • 4.8 Timeslot structure
  • 5 Abis and Asub interface
  • 5.1 Asub and A interfaces
  • 5.2 Abis and Um interface
  • 6 GSM basic features
  • 6.1 Power control
  • 6.2 Cell (re)selection
  • 6.3 Handover
  • 6.4 Multiband operation
  • 7 Data transmission in GSM phase 2+
  • 7.1 High Speed Circuit Switched Data HSCSD
  • 7.2 General Packet Radio Service GPRS
  • 7.3 Enhanced data rates for GSM evolution EDGE
  • 8 Location services
  • 8.1 Architecture
  • 8.2 Positioning methods
  • 9 Exercises

SBS overview

Siemens

SBS overview

Contents
1 2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 5 5.1 5.2 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 Global system for mobile communication GSM Network elements for PLMN Radio access network: radio subsystem Base Station Controller BSC Base Transceiver Station Equipment BTSE Transcoder and Rate Adapter Unit TRAU Local Maintenance Terminal LMT Documentation Radio interface Um GSM900/GSM1800/GSM1900 frequency bands Radio Frequency Carriers RFC Physical channels Logical channels for cs services Example for signaling channels Logical channels for PS services Multiframes Timeslot structure Abis and Asub interface Asub and A interfaces Abis and Um interface GSM basic features Power control Cell (re)selection Handover Multiband operation Data transmission in GSM phase 2+ High Speed Circuit Switched Data HSCSD General Packet Radio Service GPRS Enhanced data rates for GSM evolution EDGE 3 7 11 16 18 20 22 24 27 29 30 32 34 39 44 48 52 55 56 60 65 66 68 70 74 77 80 84 92

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Siemens

SBS overview

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Location services Architecture Positioning methods Exercises

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MN1780EU10MN_0003
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SBS overview

Siemens

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Global system for mobile communication GSM

MN1780EU10MN_0003
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established and operated by its licensed operators. The MS may be a fixed station (e. The whole PLMN area is covered by a great number of radio cells. ATIS. A cell consists of a base station transmitting over a small geographic area that is represented as a hexagon. 4 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .3gpp. A cell is also called Base Transceiver Station BTS. TTA. Mobile Station MS and SIM The Mobile Station is the radio equipment needed by a subscriber to access the services provided by the PLMN. The nominal radius of a cell may be up to 35 km radius for the GSM900 system and up to 8 km radius for the GSM1800/GSM1900 system. The collaboration agreement brings together a number of telecommunications standards like ARIB. Radio cell A radio cell is the smallest service area in a PLMN. This standard was developed by the European Telecommunication Standards Institute ETSI (founded in 1988). for the specific purpose of providing land mobile communication services to the public. ETSI. The term “cell” comes from the (idealized) honeycomb shape of the areas into which the PLMN coverage area is divided. The Subscriber Identity Module SIM provides the mobile equipment ME with a subscriber's identity. CCSA. Today the Specifications for the GERAN (GSM and Edge Radio Access Network) can be found in the internet under www. and TTC. installed in a vehicle) or a portable handheld station. Public Land Mobile Network PLMN A Public Land Mobile Network is a network.org.Siemens SBS overview Standardization The Global System for Mobile Communications GSM is a ("2nd generation") standard for mobile communication.g. The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is a collaboration agreement that was established in December 1998.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SBS overview Siemens Cellular Network Maximum cell size GSM900 35 km (100 km) GSM1800 8 km Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Radio cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Siemens SBS overview 6 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .

SBS overview Siemens 2 Network elements for PLMN MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 7 .

in the Siemens solution: • • Operation & Maintenance Center for the Base Station Subsystem is the Radio Commander (RC) Operation & Maintenance Center for the Switching Subsystem is the Switch Commander (SC). which is composed of the following functional units: • • • Base Station Controller BSC Base Transceiver Station BTS Transcoding and Rate Adaption Unit TRAU The Network Switching Subsystem NSS (Phase ½) consists of the following functional units: • • • • • Mobile services Switching Center MSC Visitor Location Register VLR Home Location Register HLR Authentication Center AC Equipment Identity Register EIR. Functional units may be realized either as standalone Hardware HW units or associated with other GSM functional units in one HW unit. The Operation SubSystem OSS consists of Operation & Maintenance Centers OMC. The Radio SubSystem RSS consists of the Mobile Stations MS and the Base Station Subsystem BSS.Siemens SBS overview The major subsystems of a Public Land Mobile Network are: Operation and Maintenance Subsystem ("management system")) Switching Subsystem ("core network") Radio Subsystem ("radio access network") Network Elements The subsystems functions are grouped into functional units or network elements. 8 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SBS overview Siemens Radio SubSystem RSS = Mobile Station MS Network Switching Subsystem NSS + Subsystem BSS BTS Base Station AC HLR VLR EIR other networks BSC RC MS = ME + SIM T R A U PSTN ISDN Data Networks MSC SC Operation SubSystem OSS Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . 2 GSM PLMN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Siemens SBS overview 10 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .

SBS overview Siemens 3 Radio access network: radio subsystem MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 11 .

coaxial cables or microwave links. The following table summarizes the (terrestrial) RSS interfaces and their associated PCM lines: Interface A Asub Abis Gb PCM line PCMA PCMS PCMB PCMG Protocol Used CCSS#7 (open interface to circuit-switched core network) LAPD ("LPDLS". proprietary) LAPD ("LPDLM & LPDLR". proprietary) BSSGP (open interface between SGSN and Packet Control Unit PCU (located in BSC)) 12 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .Siemens SBS overview The Radio Subsystem RSS is composed of: • • • Mobile Station MS Base Station System BSS Radio Interface Um The Mobile Station and the Base Station System communicate across the Um interface ("air interface" or "radio link"). The connections between the network elements are typically PCM30 (or PCM24) lines running via copper lines. The BSS includes the: • • • Base Station Controller BSC Base Transceiver Station Equipment BTSE Transcoder and Rate Adapter Unit TRAU Note: The Siemens realization of GSM's BSS is called Siemens Base Station System SBS.

3 Radio Subsystem RSS Base Station System BSS BSC Abis Base Station Controller PCU M S A C BTSE Base Transceiver Station Equipment Asub TRAU Transcoder and Rate Adapter Unit S G S N Gb Fig.SBS overview Siemens Um To/from SSS Mobile Station BSS To/from OMS Radio Subsystem (RSS) Fig. 4 Base Station Subsystem BSS MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 13 .

14 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .Siemens SBS overview PCMB and LAPD configuration Time slots (signaling/traffic) can be assigned to a BTSE on up to four PCMB lines in case of the BTSplus family. On the BTSM side. The LAPD signaling timeslots may be 16 kbit/s sub slots (if max 2 TRX are used) or 64 kbit/s time slots. Minimum for each PCMB line at least one LAPDLE/LPDLM is required. These multiple links support load-sharing and fault recovery. these time slots are called LAPDLE while in the BSC database they are called LPDLM (although they may carry both LPDLM and LPDLR type signaling).

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SBS overview Siemens 4 PCMB lines between BSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Multiple Abis LAPD links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BTSplus 1 LAPD link per PCMB line Up to 8 objects LPDLM per BTSE PCMB#0 B T S p l u s PCMB#1 PCMB#2 PCMB#3 B S C BTSE Object: LAPDLE BSC Object: LPDLM Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0 BSC HC 1st Step 500 250 200 32 72 up to 240 1536 8 BR7. handles the signaling between access and core network. supervises the complete BSS (central Operation & Maintenance).0 HC BSC 2nd Step 900 400 200 36 120 up to 240 3072 16 * Given capacity is obtained under the assumption: • • • PCM30 lines are used network planning is properly done and normal network operational conditions are normal conditions.5 Controlled TRXs* Controlled Cells Controlled BTSE Controlled TRAU PCM lines LAPD (Abis+Asub) GPRS channels SS7L 250 150 100 20 46 up to 112 2x64 8 BR6. The BSC • • • switches traffic channels from the core network to the MS (via BTSE). 16 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .Siemens SBS overview 3. BSC HC is the abbreviation for the BSC High Capacity. The BSC high capacity step two is also called BSC/120. BSC capacity figures for different BSC releases are given in the following table: BR5. The BSC high capacity step one is also called BSC/72. The BSC is composed of max 2 shelves (in an indoor rack).1 Base Station Controller BSC The Base Station Controller is the "brain" of the Base Station System.

6 BSC/120 rack layout MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 17 .SBS overview Siemens Fig.

The BTSE provides up to 24 transceivers (TRX) and serves up to 24 cells (in picoBTS.. Two (main) product lines are in use: • • The ("classic") BTSone and the (new) BTSplus family.2 Base Transceiver Station Equipment BTSE The Base Transceiver Station Equipment comprises the radio transmission and reception equipment. and also the signaling processing for the radio interface. 241 BS240XL BS242 BS82 EMICROII BS20. +55 °C. 18 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG . including the antennas. 61 BTSE names indicate if they are used • • • indoor (-5 . last digit "2"). last digit "0"). 41 BS240. Max 2 PCMB lines terminate on BTSE. 22 BS60... Product Line BTSplus BTSplus BTSplus BTSplus BTSplus BTSplus BTSone BTSone Max Number of TRX 4 24 24 24 8 6 2 6 Max Total No of Racks (Radio/Service Racks) 5 (1/4) 8 (3/5) 7 (2/5) 1 2 ("cabinets") 3 ("cabinets") 1 2 (1/1) BTSE Type BS40. +55 °C. outdoor (-45 .Siemens SBS overview 3.. last digit "1") or indoor and outdoor (perhaps with some limitation. 21. The first digits give the number of TRX available. BS24x the number of cells is 12). Max 8 racks in total (max 3 of which provide TRX) make up a BTSE.

SBS overview Siemens Fig. 7 BS240 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 19 .

The TRAU (shelf) has a capacity of 120 speech channels.Siemens SBS overview 3. Up to eight (independent) shelves can be housed in the same rack.3 Transcoder and Rate Adapter Unit TRAU The Transcoder and Rate Adapter Unit performs de-/coding (for speech calls) and rate adaptation (for circuit-switched data calls). it is usually located near the MSC to save transport capacity on PCMS (typical PLMN speech takes 16 kbit/s bandwidth vs. The two main functional units of the TRAU are: • • Transcoder for speech coding/compression Rate Adapter for data rate adaptation Although the TRAU is (logically) part of the Base Station System (and controlled from the BSC). 64 kbit/s for PSTN speech). 20 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .

SBS overview Siemens Fig. 8 High Capacity TRAU Rack MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 21 .

Siemens SBS overview 3. For (central) operation and supervision of larger networks the RC's graphical user interface is better suited.25 connection realized as a dedicated link via a PSPDN or embedded within the Asub and A interfaces via a semi permanent connection through the MSC ("nailed-up connection").11 and HDLC+ proprietary layer specifications (ITU-T) using the LAPB protocol and is used for the BSC. TRAU and all BTSE. The O interface between RC and BSC is either a X. BTSE and TRAU and for local maintenance.4 Local Maintenance Terminal LMT The LMT software runs on a desktop or a laptop computer.21+V. The LMT's T interface is based on X. 22 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG . The LMT is indispensable for commissioning BSC.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Operation & Maintenance Interfaces on Base Station System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SBS overview Siemens SI DR E ES N MN IX OF OMC SIE OF MN N DR IX E S LAN O interface BTSE BSC TRAU T-Interface T-Interface T-Interface LMT Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

physical setup and cabling. Installation and Test Manuals ITMN explaining the step-by-step commissioning (incl.Siemens SBS overview 3.5 Documentation SBS documentation may be divided into the following main categories: System Descriptions providing information on network architecture and functions for e. Installation Manuals IMN dealing with the hardware related aspects of installation e. hardware and software architecture as well as external and internal interfaces.g.g. features.g. GSM-PLMN or GPRS-PLMN. switch settings). Performance Measurements PM providing information on performance counters and signaling message flows. Operator Guidelines OGL giving LMT and OMS-B handling information. Command Manuals CML referencing all available commands (and input parameter ranges) for LMT and OMSB. e. Technical Descriptions TED explaining functions. Maintenance Manuals MMN providing replacement procedures for all SBS modules. 24 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG . Operation Manuals OMN containing the most relevant (LMT and OMS-B) operating procedures.

database) "as planned" For LMT. WAP/MIA for Mobile Solutions Separate documents for "Common" and BS40/41. BTSE (all types). hardware related information. approximately 80 documents in total): Manual Abbreviations Command Manuals Glossary Installation Manuals Installation and Test Manuals Maintenance Manuals Network Integration Manual Operator Guidelines Output Manuals Operation Manuals Performance Measurements System Descriptions Technical Descriptions Terminology Abb. OMS-B. BS242. for BSC. BTSE and TRAU For BSC (via LMT) and OMS-B SBS counters and SBS message flows For GPRS PLMN. TRAU Step-by-step commissioning. BTSE (all types). BS82.SBS overview Siemens The documentation is provided electronically on CD-ROM as PDF (portable data format) files. BTSE. OMS-B. description. TRAU Replacement procedures incl. 10 Document types MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 25 . for BSC. Network System Concept. The operating documentation includes the following manuals (in alphabetical order. OMS-B. tools) All error messages for BSC. GSM-R. TRAU Explanation of terms IMN ITMN MMN NIMN OGL OML OMN PM SYD TED Hardware related information. graphical panels. CML Content Abbreviations For BSC. for BSC. BS240/241. BS2x/6x/11 information (hardware related) Guide to documentation Fig. interactive panel architect. BTSE (all types). OMS-B (commands. states and repertories. BS240XL. main menu. OMS-B. GSM PLMN. TRAU Testing network configuration (incl.

Siemens SBS overview 26 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .

SBS overview Siemens 4 Radio interface Um MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 27 .

Siemens SBS overview The Um interface is the radio interface between the BTSE (antenna) and the mobile station. Um Uplink Downlink BTSE Mobile Station Fig. 11 Um interface 28 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .

SBS overview Siemens 4. Downlink DL for the radio transmission between the BTSE and the MS. 12 Frequency ranges for GSM900. Each frequency range is divided into two sub-bands: 1. The fact that different frequency bands are used for uplink and downlink transmission is called Frequency Division Duplex FDD. Uplink UL for the radio transmission between the MS and the BTSE. 2.1 GSM900/GSM1800/GSM1900 frequency bands A specific frequency range is assigned to GSM900/GSM1800/GSM1900 systems. GSM1800 and GSM1900 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 29 . GSM 900 880 915 925 MHz 960 1710 GSM 1800 1785 1805 MHz 1880 1850 GSM 1900 1910 1930 MHz 1990 Uplink Downlink Uplink Downlink Uplink Downlink Primary GSM: 890-915 & 935-960 MHz Extended GSM: 880-915 & 925-960 MHz Railway GSM: 876-915 & 921-960 MHz Duplex Distance: 45 MHz GSM 1800 (DCS): 1710-1785 & 1805-1880 MHz Duplex Distance: 95 MHz GSM 1900 (PCS): 1850-1910 & 1930-1990 MHz Duplex Distance: 80 MHz Fig.

.Siemens SBS overview 4. C 200 kHz C C Fig. C C .. The differences between GSM900. 880 MHz (Extended) GSM 900 1710 MHz GSM 1800 (DCS) 1850 MHz GSM 1900 (PCS) Uplink 175 RFC (174 used) 915 MHz 925 MHz Downlink 960 MHz 1785 MHz 375 RFC (374 used) 1910 MHz 300 RFC (299 used) 1805 MHz 1880 MHz 1930 MHz 1990 MHz C C C 200 kHz ... GSM1800 (DCS) and GSM1900 (PCS) relate to: • • • Operating frequency Bandwidth of the sub-bands Number of Radio Frequency Carriers RFC available. GSM1800 (DCS) and GSM1900 (PCS) 30 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .2 Radio Frequency Carriers RFC Both sub-bands (Uplink and Downlink) are divided into Radio Frequency Carriers with a bandwidth of 200 kHz each (Frequency Division Multiple Access FDMA). 13 Radio frequency carriers for GSM900.

This safe distance is called reuse distance. In hilly regions or in densely populated areas with high traffic volume the cell radius is kept small. every radio cell uses one or more RFC. the same RFC must be used several times. 14 Radio frequency carriers and reuse distance MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 31 . a safe distance is required between the BTSE using the same RFC.SBS overview Siemens Depending on the traffic volume. To avoid cochannel interference. A small cell radius can be achieved by reducing the output power of the base station RFC 32 RFC 24 RFC 13 RFC 17 RFC 47 RFC 11 RFC 2 RFC 5 RFC 8 RFC 40 RFC 47 RFC 32 RFC 24 RFC 2 RFC 5 RFC 8 reuse distance (~ 4 r) Fig. The size of a single cell depends on topology and on traffic volume. Since the number of RFC is limited.

PCM 30 TDMA Frame (125 µs) RFC x RFC y 0 15 31 e am Fr s) A M 5m TD . respectively.Siemens SBS overview 4.61 (4 RFC y RFC x RFC y RFC x 200 kHz 200 kHz Fig. 15 Time division multiple access TDMA t Uplink FDD Downlink RFC 7 RFC 7 RFC 7 RFC 6 1 6 1 6 1 RFC RFC RFC 5 1 5 1 5 1 RFC RFC RFC 4 1 4RFC 4 1 RFC 1 RFC 3RFC 3RFC 3 1 1 1 RFC 2 1 2 1 2 1 RFC RFC TDMA RFC 1 1 1 1 1 1 RFC RFC RFC 0RFC 0RFC 0 1 1 1 1 2 3 RFC RFC 1 RFC 1 RFC 1 RFC 1 RFC 1 RFC 1 RFC 1 174 f RFC RFC RFC RFC 3 RFC 3 RFC 3 RFC 3 RFC 3 RFC 3 RFC 3 RFC 3 RFC 3 RFC 3 RFC 3 RFC 3 RFC 3 RFC 3 RFC 3 RFC 3 RFC 3 RFC 3 1 2 3 RFC RFC 3 RFC 3 RFC 3 RFC TDMA 3 RFC 3 RFC 3 174 FDMA FDMA Fig. This is comparable to Pulse Code Modulation (transmission) technology where PCM30/24 frames are composed of 32/24 time slots. f=frequency) 32 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG . 16 Frequency division multiple access and time division multiple access (t=time.3 Physical channels One RFC is divided into eight time slots (Time Division Multiple Access TDMA).

17 Physical channel MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 33 . Physical Channel Uplink Downlink corresponding Traffic Channel Traffic Channel RFC RFC Fig.SBS overview Siemens A physical channel is defined by the timeslot number (in the TDMA frame) on a specific carrier (RFC) in the uplink band and the corresponding carrier in the downlink band. A physical channel may carry only one or several logical channels ("multiplexing").

02.4 Logical channels for cs services Logical channels carry payload (speech or data) or signaling. Signaling channels Three types of signaling channels are used: Broadcast Control Channels (CS and PS) Common Control Channels (CS and PS) Dedicated Control Channels (CS only) TIP Channel Combinations The allowed channel combinations of logical channel types are specified in GSM Rec. 05. For circuit-switched CS traffic there is a clear separation between the physical channels used for payload and those used for signaling. 34 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .Siemens SBS overview 4.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Logical channels for circuit-switched traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SBS overview Siemens Logical Channels Logical Channels Traffic Channels Traffic Channels Signaling Channels Signaling Channels Broadcast Broadcast Control Control Channels Channels BCCH BCCH Common Common Control Control Channels Channels CCCH CCCH Dedicated Dedicated Control Control Channels Channels DCCH DCCH Full Rate TCH/F Half Rate TCH/H Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

) 36 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .4. 2. Fast Associated Control Channel FACCH. The FACCH data are inserted into the TCH burst instead of traffic data (bit stealing). 4. Slow Associated Control Channel SACCH.. the FACCH may contain handover information). 2. 2. after the set-up of the call. surrounding cells.g. PLMN code. network code. 3. 3. Broadcast Control Channel BCCH (defined per cell) which informs the mobile station about various cell parameters including country code.4. Random Access Channel RACH which is an UL channel to indicate a mobile station’s request for a dedicated channel.Siemens SBS overview 4. 4.e. Access Grant Channel AGCH. which is used in ASCI (Adv. when the SDCCH has been already released. Frequency Correction Channel FCCH carrying information for frequency correction of the MS downlink ("fine tuning" of MS to BTS).3 Dedicated control channels Dedicated Control Channels are full duplex (bi-directional) channels. weather information. Paging Channel PCH which is used DL to page mobile stations. which is always associated with a TCH and is used for the transmission of signaling data. Speech Call Items. Cell Broadcast Channel CBCH used by the cell broadcast service for distributing e. RF channels used within the cell where the mobile is located. to assign a dedicated channel to a mobile station. also used DL. local area code. which is always associated with a TCH or SDCCH (embedded within the same frame structure). and frequency hopping sequence number. Synchronization Channel SCH providing information about the frame number and BTS identification code BSIC.4. indicated by a "stealing flag" (i. 3. They are subdivided into the 1.2 Common control channels Common Control Channels are specified as unidirectional channels. The SACCH is used for the transmission of radio link measurement data. The following sub-channels are distinguished: 1.1 Broadcast control channels The broadcast control channels are defined for the BTSE to MS direction (downlink) only and are subdivided into the: 1. 4. either on the downlink or the uplink. paging MS using Voice Group Call Service / Voice Broadcast Service VBS). 4. Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel SDCCH which is normally assigned after the MS access request has been granted and is used for signaling purposes (set-up of the calls etc. Notification Channel NCH.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SBS overview Siemens DL Frequency Correction Channel FCCH Synchronization Channel SCH Broadcast Control Channel BCCH Cell Broadcast Channel CBCH Random Access Channel RACH Access Grant Channel AGCH Paging Channel PCH Notification Channel NCH Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel SDCCH Slow Associated Control Channel SACCH Fast Associated Control Channel FACCH Broadcast Control Broadcast Control Channel BCCH Channel BCCH DL DL DL UL Common Control Common Control Channel CCCH Channel CCCH DL DL DL DL & UL Dedicated Control Dedicated Control Channel DCCH Channel DCCH DL & UL DL & UL Fig. . . . . . . . 19 Signaling channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Siemens SBS overview 38 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .

The information contained in the BCCH is received and used by all MS that camp the BTS covering area.SBS overview Siemens 4. MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 39 .5 Example for signaling channels The BTS periodically broadcasts common system information via BCCH logical channel.

A number of access control messages are then exchange between the MS and the network as long as an TCH is allocated to the MS. everything via SDCCH channel too. 40 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG . • MS requests the assignment of the dedicated signaling channel via RACH •The network assigns a dedicated signaling channel (SDCCH) and sends the information which channel is assigned to MS via AGCH • MS provides information on the requested service and transmits the subscriber identity via SDCCH. 20 Example: Broadcast Channel information Mobile originated call An example to illustrate the task of the Um interface logical channels is a MOC.Siemens SBS overview BCCH cell identity: 262041422 BTSE Fig.

RACH Request of a SDCCH 12142341234 BTSE Fig. when an emergency call needs to be set up. due to LU or IMSI attach/detach. 21 Example: Random Access Channel MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 41 .SBS overview Siemens The MS requests dedicated channel though the RACH also when paged (mobile terminating call MTC). This logical channel contains the MS Random reference and the dedicated channel request cause.

22 Example: Access Grant Channel 42 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .Siemens SBS overview The BSC assigns a SDCCH to the MS via the Access Grant Channel AGCH. AGCH SDCCH provided 12142341234 BTSE Fig.

authentication. The SDCCH is allocated to the MS by the network whenever the RACH is received and SDCCH resources are available. dialed digits. traffic channel assignment) for call setup is exchanged over the SDCCH.SBS overview Siemens All of the signaling information (i.e. SDCCH Control Information BTSE Fig. 23 Example: Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 43 .

6. for a mobile originated packet transfer or downlink (PDTCH/D) for a mobile terminated packet transfer. It is temporarily dedicated to one MS or to a group of MSs in the PTM-M case.1 Packet Data Traffic Channels (PDTCH) PDTCH is a channel allocated for data transfer. All packet data traffic channels are unidirectional. A PDTCH. • • • • • GPRS introduces the following new types of logical channels: PBCCH (packet broadcast control channels) PCCCH (packet common control channels) PDCCH (packet dedicated control channels) PDTCH (packet data traffic channels) 4. The packet data logical channels are mapped onto the physical channels that are dedicated to packet data. one MS may use multiple PDTCHs in parallel for individual packet transfer. when used for multislot operation shall be full-rate 44 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .6 Logical channels for PS services For packet-switched PS traffic. the same physical channel may carry both signaling and payload. The physical channel dedicated to packet data traffic is called a Packet Data Channel (PDCH). A PDTCH when used for single timeslot operation may be either full-rate (PDTCH/F) or half-rate (PDTCH/H) depending on whether it is carried on a PDCH/F or PDCH/H respectively.Siemens SBS overview 4. either uplink (PDTCH/U). In the multislot operation.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SBS overview Siemens Logical Channels Logical Channels Logical Channels Packet Traffic Packet Traffic Traffic Channels Channels Channels Packet Signaling Signaling Channels Packet Signaling Channels Channels Packet Broadcast Packet Broadcast Control Channel Control Channel PBCCH PBCCH Packet Common Packet Common Control Channel Control Channel PCCCH PCCCH Packet Data Traffic Channel Packet Associated Control Channel Packet Timing Advance Contr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Logical channels for packet-switched traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.4 Packet Dedicated Control Channels (PDCCH) 1. This channel is used downlink only. PPCH can be used for paging of both circuit switched and packet data services. Packet Access Grant Channel PAGCH is used in the packet transfer establishment phase to send resource assignment to an MS prior to packet transfer. Packet Associated Control Channel PACCH conveys signaling information related to a given MS. 4.3 Packet Common Control Channel (PCCCH) 1.Siemens SBS overview 4.6. the packet data specific system information is broadcast on BCCH. that are currently assigned to one MS. 2. This channel is used downlink only. 4. 4. 46 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG . 3. This channel is used downlink only. This channel is used uplink only. The signaling information includes e. Packet Broadcast Control Channel PBCCH broadcast packet data specific System Information. This channel is used uplink only. If PBCCH is not allocated. Packet Notification Channel PNCH is used to send a PTM-M (Point To Multipoint . acknowledgements and power control information.Multicast) notification to a group of MSs prior to a PTM-M packet transfer.2 Packet Broadcast Control Channels (PBCCH) 1. Packet Paging Channel PPCH is used to page an MS prior to downlink packet transfer.6. 2. Packet Random Access Channel PRACH is used by MS to initiate uplink transfer for sending data or signaling information.g. Packet Timing advance Control Channel PTCCH is necessary to allow estimation of the timing advance for one MS in packet transfer mode. The PACCH shares resources with PDTCHs.

. . . . . MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Packet switched Signaling channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SBS overview Siemens Packet Broadcast Packet Broadcast Control Channel Control Channel PBCCH PBCCH DL Packet Broadcast Control Channel PBCCH UL Packet Random Access Channel PRACH Packet Access Grant Channel PAGCH Packet Paging Channel PPCH Packet Notification Channel PNCH Packet Common Packet Common Control Channel Control Channel PCCCH PCCCH DL DL DL DL & UL Packet Dedicated Packet Dedicated Control Channel Control Channel PDCCH PDCCH DL & UL Packet Associated Control Channel PACCH Packet TA Control Channel PTCCH Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The TDMA frames are forming the multiframes.Siemens SBS overview 4. 48 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG . for a handover). A so-called stealing flag in the normal burst indicates this. one slot is used for SACCH signaling information and one slot remains unused (for full rate). Not only subscriber information (speech/data) can be transmitted in a traffic channel TCH. There are different multiframes in case of: Circuit switched Traffic channels Circuit switched signaling channels Packet switched channels 4.1 Traffic channel multiframe (CS) For circuit-switched traffic. a TCH is always allocated together with its associated slow-rate channel (SACCH).7. TCH are sent on 24 timeslots.7 • • • Multiframes There are 8 timeslots per TDMA frame. Twenty-six TDMA frames (=120 ms) are grouped together to form one multiframe for speech/data. signaling information FACCH is transmitted instead of TCH.g. If the signaling requirement increases (e.

. . . . MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SBS overview Siemens 7 T 0 1 time T 8 bursts per cycle TCH S SACCH unused T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T SS S S T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T S 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Traffic channel multiframe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 Signaling channel multiframe (CS) For circuit-switched traffic. BCCH. The FCCH is sent on timeslot 0 in frames 0. 27 Signaling channel multiframe (including FCCH. 21. fifty-one TDMA frames (=235. 7 T 0 8 B P c y c le t im e d o w n li n k DOWNLINK FC C H SCH BCC H A G C H /P C H 1 0 1 2 6 10 11 12 20 22 21 30 31 32 40 41 42 UPLINK U P L IN K R AC H Fig. 31 and 41. 20. SCH.e. The BCCH with the AGCH/PCH uses 40 slots per multiframe. The remaining timeslots are used by the AGCH/PCH.Siemens SBS overview 4. 11. while the SCH is sent in timeslot 0 on frames 1.. 10.7. 30 and 40. 0). The uplink direction contains a RACH. These 40 timeslots are grouped together as 10 groups of four. and AGCH/PCH all on the same timeslot (i. BCCH and AGCH/PCH) 50 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG . The BCCH use the first four timeslots of the first group of 10. As an example the following figure shows the basic combination including (downlink direction) a FCCH. SCH.4 ms) are grouped together to form one signaling channel multiframe.

For packet common control channels PCCH. 3 further blocks. indicated in B0) PBCCH indicates PCCCH blocks & further PDCHs with PCCCH • UL: PDCH with PCCCH: all blocks to be used for PRACH. which is subdivided into 12 blocks with 4 TDMA frames each. Every thirteenth TDMA frame is idle. to carry out timing advance updates procedures or interference measurements for power control. which are related to each other via convolutional coding). 52 TDMA Frames = PDCH Multiframe 4 Frames 1 Frame B0 B1 B2 i B3 B4 B5 i B6 B7 B8 i B9 B10 B11 i B0 . conventional 51-type multiframes can be used for signaling or 52-type multiframes.SBS overview Siemens 4. 28 GPRS multiframes MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 51 .64). The idle frames are used by the MS to determine the various base station identity codes BSIC.3 Packet switched Multiframes The packet data traffic is arranged in 52-type multiframes (GSM Rec. 03. 52 TDMA frames are combined to form one GPRS traffic channel multiframe. One block (B0-B11) contains one radio block in each case (4 normal bursts.7. PACCH PDCH without PCCCH: PDTCH & PACCH only Fig.B11 = Radio Blocks (Data / Signalling) i = Idle frame • BCCH indicates PDCH with PBCCH (in B0) Idle frame: • Identification of BSICs • Timing Advance Update Procedure • Interference measurements for Power Control • DL: this PDCH bears PDCCH & PBCCH PBCCH in B0 (+ max. PDTCH.

the remaining time lag resulting from the alteration of distance of a moving mobile station is controlled with the aid of the normal guard period of 8. different kinds of bursts are used: Normal burst Access burst Frequency correction burst Synchronization burst Dummy burst The modulation is applied for the useful duration of the burst. GP = Guard Period: These "8. The 1 bit is called stealing flag and indicates whether the 57 bits are really user data or FACCH signaling information. Synchronization bursts are used to establish an initial bit and frame synchronization (time synchronization).25" bits serve to guard phase deviations (due to moving MS) and to reduce the transmission power. Its structure is shown below: • • T = Tail Bits: This burst section consists of three bits (always coded with "000") and is needed for synchronization at the receive side.Siemens SBS overview 4. Frequency correction bursts are sent by the BTSE and are used by the mobile station to adjust its receiver and transmitter frequencies (frequency synchronization).25 bit duration. To minimize interference. Depending on the type of logical channel transmitted. • • The access burst has an extended guard period that helps to control the initial time lag of the signals due to the distance between mobile station and BTSE. Training Sequence: This burst section contains 26 bits used for synchronization. Eight different training sequences have been defined by GSM. Once the time lag has been corrected (timing advance). Synchronization Channel and Frequency Correction Channel). which contain the coded and encrypted traffic information (speech or data) in 2 x (57 +1) bits. the mobile station is required during the guard periods to attenuate its transmission amplitude and to adjust possible time shifts and amplitudes of the bursts. 52 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG . Coded (encrypted) bits: There are two burst sections.8 • • • • • Timeslot structure The RF signal sent in a timeslot is called "burst". The normal burst is used to carry information on traffic channels and on signaling channels (exception: Random Access Channel. the useful duration of the burst is equivalent to 148 bits excluding the access burst that has a useful duration equivalent of 88 bits. In general.

T 3 Coded Bits 58 Training Sequence 26 Coded Bits 58 T 3 GP 8.25 T GP MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 53 . 29 Normal burst Bursts on Um interface: Duration 577 µs or 156.25 GP 1 S 26 Training 1 S 57 Encrypted 3 8. 30 Burst formats 3 8.SBS overview Siemens Dummy bursts are inserted if TCH timeslots on the BCCH carrier are not filled with user data to reach a constant level of the BCCH carrier. which is the serving cell (for call set up).25 Normal Burst Fig. Sequence 36 Encrypted 3 T 68. This is necessary because the level of the BCCH carrier is evaluated for handover decisions and also for the decision. 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 ..25 bit Normal Burst 3 T 57 Encrypted Access Burst 8 T 41 Synch.25 T GP 64 Extended Training Sequence 39 Encrypted 3 8. .25 T GP Frequency Correction Burst 3 T 142 Fixed Bits Synchronization Burst 3 T 39 Encrypted Dummy Burst 3 T Fig...25 T GP 58 Mixed Bits 26 Training 58 Mixed Bits 3 8..

Siemens SBS overview 54 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .

SBS overview Siemens 5 Abis and Asub interface MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 55 .

Siemens SBS overview 5. Therefore.g. are submultiplexed to one sub slot with 16 kbit/s on the PCMS line. timeslot 31 is used for LPDLS signaling between TRAU and BSC on the PCMS line.g. One of the 4 PCMA lines carries the signaling information to the MSC. OMAL is transmitted with 64 kbit/s on a single PCMA line. e. An OMAL signaling link defined as AINT (nailed up connection) is. As a result. 56 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG . timeslot 16 of one of the PCMA lines is occupied.1 Asub and A interfaces Timeslot 0 of every PCM line carries the Service Word / Frame Alignment Word (SW/FAW) which is used e. four timeslots on the TRAU's 4 PCMA lines remain empty. for synchronization and is therefore unavailable for payload. Note: Not every TRAU carries CCSS7 signaling information. Correspondingly. three timeslots on the other PCMA lines remain empty. The traffic timeslots on the PCMA line. This signaling requires a transmission rate of 64 kbit/s. Often. put in timeslot 30. Timeslot 16 on the Asub interface is commonly used to carry CCSS7 signaling information. containing 64 kbit/s of speech. whereas three timeslots on the other PCMA lines remain empty.

SBS overview

Siemens

31 30 16
C C S S 7 L O P M D A L L S

Asub

BSC

e f g h

a b c d

S W / F A W

0

TRAU

L P D L S

O M A L

C C S S 7

S W / F A W

X

e a f b g c h d
16 0

A

XXX

TRAU

XXX XXX
30 31

MSC

X

empty

Fig. 31 Time slot assignment on Asub and A interfaces (basic pattern, w/o HSCSD or NUC)

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Siemens

SBS overview

5.1.1

TRAU matrices, multislot connections and pooling

Several time slots on Um / Abis / Asub can be combined and finally mapped into a single 64 kbit/s time slot on A interface in a (circuit-switched) multi slot connection. Currently, mobile stations (and SBS, at least for CS connections) support the combination of max 4 (sub) slots on Um / Abis / Asub. The most commonly used time slot distribution between PCMS and PCMA is defined in the BSC database as "not_compatible_with_cross_connect" (former TRAU Matrix 1). The sorting rules are: All channels related to multi slot connections (from all PCMA) with max 4 TSL/connection are assigned to the first time slots on Asub. All channels related to multi slot connections (from all PCMA) with max 2 TSL/connection are assigned next on Asub. All ordinary channels are assigned in an optimal order without wasting space on Asub. TIP Note: TSLA, which cannot be assigned to a TSLS, must be configured as "no_def". For every change in multi slot configuration, the matrix is rearranged for the (new) optimal distribution. Thus, every modification may change the time slot distribution. Nailed-up connections are available in BSC and TRAU. Due to hardware limitations, however, NUC through TRAU require that time slots on PCMA and PCMS are identical, resulting in an auxiliary sorting rule.

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Example: "Not compatible with cross-connect" (matrix type 1)
TS no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 PCMS (sub slots) 0-10 0-5 0-1 0-2 0-3 0-4 1-5 1-6 1-7 1-8 1-9 2-10 2-11 2-12 2-13 CCSS#7 2-14 3-15 0-17 0-18 0-19 0-20 0-21 NUC 0-22 0-23 1-24 1-25 1-26 OMAL LPDLS 1-22 1-23 2-24 2-25 2-26 2-22 2-23 3-24 3-25 3-26 3-22 3-23 0-25 0-26 0-27 3-14 1-16 1-17 1-18 1-19 1-20 1-21 0-15 2-16 2-17 2-18 2-19 2-20 2-21 1-15 3-16 3-17 3-18 3-19 3-20 3-21 0-10 0-5 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 3-10 3-11 3-12 3-13 0-10 2-15 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 3-9 0-11 0-12 0-13 0-14 0-10 2-15 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4 0-6 0-7 0-8 0-9 1-10 1-11 1-12 1-13 1-14 PCMA#0 1 2 3 4 MSL x 2 6 7 8 9 MSL x 4 11 12 13 14 15 CCSS#7 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 NUC 25 26 27 not used not used OMAL not used PCMA#1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 not used not used not used not used not used PCMA#2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 MSL x 2 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 not used not used not used not used not used

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g. while EGPRS coding scheme MSC7 needs on Abis side 4x16kbit/s TS). the BSC selects the appropriate number of Abis resources from the common Abis pool. 60 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG . Each subpool belongs to a single PCM line.2 Abis and Um interface The higher data rates for packet switched services introduced in BR7. GPRS coding scheme CS4 requires 2x16kbit/s TS. routed together with one associated LAPD link to manage a correct fault propagation from the LAPD link to the Abis resources. The pool concept no longer assigns a fixed relation between the air interface and the appropriate Abis .0 require an enhanced Abis capacity. associates them to the radio channel and signals their association to radio channels and Abis resources to the BTS. first of all the service type ( e. which is defined per base station site. The dimension of the pool is defined by the operator and can be changed via OAM commands. The flexible Abis Allocation Strategy (FAAS) is based on Abis pools and appropriate Abis subpools. When a user requires radio timeslots in a cell. An Abis pool is composed by one or several subpools.Siemens SBS overview a 5. An Abis pool is the amount of 16kbit/s subslots. The amount of allocated 16kbit/s abis resources per radio time slot depends on several factors. which can be configured per base station site via O&M procedures.

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As the capacity of each air interface timeslot can vary during runtime. Overlapping between pools and subpools are forbidden With the common pool concept any radio timeslot is dynamically associated to an appropriate number of Abis resources from the Abis pool.Siemens SBS overview Dynamic Abis Resource allocation is applied both to packet switched services and to circuit switched services. It is not necessary to guarantee that the subslots are adjacent. belonging to the same or different Abis pools can be defined on the same PCM line Subpools can be distributed over all PCM lines belonging to a base station site (at least one subpool per line) The Abis subslots allocated to a radio channel may be distributed over different subpools and consequently over different PCM lines. According to the service applied. 62 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG . the appropriate number of Abis resources is dynamically allocated. Abis pools and Abis subpools have the following properties and relations: • • • • Different Abis subpools. the dynamic Abis allocation adopts the Abis capacity to the required air interface capacity.

SBS overview

Siemens

Abis Pool for BTSM:1

Abis Pool for BTSM:2

CELL_1

CELL_2

C C O O RR E E

subpool subpool

subpool

BSC

CELL_3

BTSM:1
subpool
C C O O R R E E

CELL_4

CELL_5

CELL_6

BTSM:2
Fig. 33 Abis pools per BTSM

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6

GSM basic features

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Thus. The aim is to use the lowest possible TX power still yielding acceptable transmission quality. Power Control for the MS is based on uplink measurements. 66 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG . the power consumption of the Mobile Station and the total interference level in the radio system are minimized. Optionally the Service Dependent Power Control offers to define for the fourteen different service groups different threshold levels. are made to determine whether a power increase or decrease is required. The last one comprises adaptive power correction step sizes dependent on measured values for the signal level and quality. Threshold comparisons. The measurement averaging process and the power control decision algorithm for each call in progress are performed by the BTS. In addition. Power Control for the BTS is based on downlink measurements.1 Power control Power Control is used to adapt the RF output power (of the MS and the BTS) dynamically to the propagation conditions on the radio path. either static or adaptive. gathered by the BTS. preceded by a measurement averaging process. gathered by the MS. for circuit switched services it can be .Siemens SBS overview 6. Power Control can be set independently for uplink and downlink. The criteria for power control decisions are the received signal strength the received signal quality. if set.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 RF power control . . .SBS overview Siemens Power Out 2 Power Out 1 SIEMEN S Distance D1 Distance D2 BTSE Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 67 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Packet switched Connections From a serving GPRS cell the MS is executing the cell reselection to a neighbor GPRS cell.Siemens SBS overview 6. While moving within the radio network in idle mode. i. TIP Handover is only used for circuit switched connections and the BSS is deciding about the HO execution.2 Idle Mode Cell (re)selection MS measures the received level on each RF carrier. Therefore.e. This so called Cell Reselection (packet switched) is performed by the MS in the same way as for circuit-switched connected MS in idle mode. the Received Signal Code Power is the measure for receive level in case of UMTS neighbor cells. For intersystem cell reselection. Based on these measurements one can estimate whether a cell will be an appropriate serving cell from the radio propagation point of view. whether there will be a sufficient “link quality”. another cell may be more appropriate to serve the MS. Also it is possible to do cell reselection from a GPRS cell to a UMTS (packet switched) cell. From the radio propagation point of view it is worth to select a new (neighbor) cell if the received level from that neighbor cell exceeds the received level of the current serving cell: • Receive level (neighbor cell) > Receive level (serving cell) The inter-system cell reselection from GSM to UMTS allows a MS to reselect to the UMTS system. cell reselection may be performed. 68 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 69 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SBS overview Siemens MS direction of movement Receive Level BTS1 BTS2 BTS1 BTS2 Radius of Cell 2 for selection Radius of serving cell 1 Cell Reselection Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Cell (re)selection . . . . . . . . . .

It derives from signal strength measurements carried out by the MS on the BCCH carriers broadcast by the adjacent BTS.3.BTS distance (in concentric cells) The decision whether a handover is required for a call in progress derives from threshold comparisons that are applied to the respective (averaged) measurement results.3 6. In addition. in addition) MS .1 Handover Intra GSM HO Handover is required to maintain an ongoing call when the Mobile Station passes from one cell coverage area to another. Handover takes place between radio channels that may belong • • to the same BTS (intracell handover) or to different BTS (intercell handover). "better cell" is the overwhelming HO cause determining the cell boundaries.Siemens SBS overview 6. the following network criteria may be evaluated: a) serving cell congestion (directed retry for call setup. 70 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG . Handover means that a call in progress is switched over seamlessly from one radio channel to another.BTS distance (in extended cells) c) RX level and (optional. In a well-planned network. The handover due to radio criteria is determined from • • uplink measurement results (gathered by the BTS) and downlink measurement results (gathered by the MS). the better cell criterion is optional. If the handover is controlled by the BSC or MSC. In Adaptive Multirate Handover. the change is between different "codecs". a) received signal strength b) received signal quality (determined from Bit Error Rate) c) MS . HO due to BSS resource management criteria) b) MS . which are imperative.BTS distance (determined from timing advance) d) better cell (power budget of serving cell relative to adjacent cells) In detail. respectively. it is called inter-BSC or inter-MSC handover. the radio criteria are In contrast to the first three criteria.

The final handover decision and handover execution. This target cell list forms the basis for the final handover decisions made in the BSC or the MSC. however. The measurement averaging processes. the power budget criterion is applied to set up a list of preferred handover target cells in a decreasing order of priority. the threshold comparison processes as well as the target cell list compilation for each call in progress are performed by the BTS.SBS overview Siemens BSC 2 3 2 MSC1 1 BSC 1 1 2 3 Fig. 36 Types of handovers intracell handover intercell handover – intra-BSC intercell handover – inter-BSC If an intercell handover is to be initiated. are made by the BSC or MSC. MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 71 .

2 HO to UMTS Calls started in the GSM system are handed over to the UMTS system when the user moves into the area with better UMTS coverage or the UMTS coverage only. the following network criteria may be evaluated: 72 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .3. In this case always the MSC is executing the HO.Siemens SBS overview 6. The BSS initiates a handover to UMTS according due to radio criteria in one of the following reasons: • • • • Emergency Handover Better cell Sufficient UMTS coverage serving cell congestion (directed retry for call setup) In addition.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SBS overview Siemens HLR U-MSC / VLR Iu (cs) RNC Iub MSC / VLR A BSC Abis Node-B Node-B BTS / CCU BTS / CCU Location Area UE/MS Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 73 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Combined UMTS / GSM network architecture Location Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The inner area is the GSM1800 frequency and the outer area is the GSM 900 frequency. The transceiver equipment for both frequency bands is located in the same BTSE. This BTS can be supplied with a single BCCH and offers carrier frequencies in both GSM900 and GSM1800 bands. This allows a network operator to use an already existing network infrastructure when expanding a GSM900 network with GSM1800 equipment and vice versa. with an appropriate management of the target cell list. For example a concentric BTS is configured. the operation of "dual band" MS as well as handover between cells belonging to different bands is also supported.4 Multiband operation Multiband Operation means that the same network operator provides GSM services in both GSM900 and GSM1800 frequency bands. Therefore. Multiband operation may even feature a "Common BCCH". 74 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .Siemens SBS overview 6.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 75 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Network with mixed cell configuration GSM900/ GSM1800 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SBS overview Siemens BTS-5 GSM1800 BTS-4 GSM 1800 BTS-0 GSM 900 BTS-3 BTS-2 GSM 900 GSM 900 BTS-1 GSM 900 GSM1800 BSC Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Siemens SBS overview 76 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .

SBS overview Siemens 7 Data transmission in GSM phase 2+ MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 77 .

. transmission rates of up to 553. in GSM phase 2+ new bearer services with rates exceeding those of ISDN are defined: • • • High Speed Circuit Switched Data HSCSD General Packet Radio Service GPRS Enhanced Data Rates for GSM (Global) Evolution EDGE High Speed Circuit Switched Data HSCSD HSCSD (Rec.. The higher bandwidth is achieved by combining 1-8 physical channels for one subscriber.). video streaming or video telephony.2 kbit/s per physical channel by changing the GSM modulation procedure (8PSK instead of GMSK).. GPRS is a packet-switched bearer service. Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution EDGE EDGE (Release`99) supports up to 69. the data transmission codec is changed such that a maximum of 14.6 kbit/s is available per physical channel. General Packet Radio Service GPRS With GPRS it is possible to combine 1-8 physical channels for one user.g. merely the GSM-PLMN software requires modification. More problematic is the high demand on (radio) resources. 78 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .2 kbit/s. GPRS also enables point-to-multipoint transmission and volume-dependent charging. As opposed to HSCSD. For implementing HSCSD.6 kbit/s (meeting 3G requirements) would be possible by combining up to 8 channels. GPRS is resource efficient for applications with a short-term need for high data rates ("bursty traffic" e. Thus.2 kbit/s. surfing the Internet. meaning that several subscribers can use the same physical channel. E-mail. 02. e. However. HSCSD theoretically supports transmission rates up to 115.4 kbit/s instead of 9.4 kbit/s per physical channel enable theoretical transmission rates of up to 171. just as with HSCSD. extensions of the GSM network and protocol architecture are required for GPRS implementation. Theoretically.g.Siemens SBS overview To increase the data transmission rates. A combination of GPRS and EDGE offers high bandwidth and highly economical frequency resource utilization at the same time. Various new coding schemes with transmission rates of up to 21. Additionally.34) is a circuit switched data service (only point-to-point) for applications with higher bandwidth demands and continuous data stream.

05 .SBS overview Siemens Data transmission in GSM Phase 2+ HSCSD. EDGE: combining 1 .2 / 59.6 kbit/s 59.2 kbit/s 43..4 kbit/s no HW changes. 39 Data transmission in Phase 2+ HighSpeed Circuit Switched Data General Packet Radio Service 14. 21.6 kbit/s EGPRS Fig.4 kbit/s HW and protocol changes.2 kbit/s 21.2 kbit/s new modulation type: 8-PSK instead of GMSK Fig.4 kbit/s 115. GPRS and EDGE MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 79 .4 kbit/s 171. GPRS. 40 Netto transmission rates for HSCSD.8 TS Phase 1/2: max 9..2 kbit/s 473.6 kbit/s (per TS) TS 1 •••• 8 HSCSD (Circuit-Switched): 14. resource efficient EDGE (CS / PS): max 43.2 kbit/s Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution ECSD 345. but high demand on radio resources GPRS (Packet-Switched): 9.

HSCSD is particularly suited for real-time applications e. but the BSC may modify the number of TCH used by the connection (in this case the data rate per TCH changes accordingly).g. 80 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG . video communication.4 kbit/s or 64 kbit/s in later versions). Symmetric and pseudo-asymmetric services In symmetric service the timeslot allocation for downlink and uplink is symmetric and the same data rates are used in downlink and uplink direction. High Speed Circuit Switched Data provides the following kinds of services: 14.no compression at data rates 19.2 kbit/s.Siemens SBS overview 7.1 High Speed Circuit Switched Data HSCSD High Speed Circuit Switched Data provides circuit switched data transmission using up to max. 38. 8 TCH simultaneously. For non-transparent HSCSD connections the BSC is also allowed to change the user data rate (data compression on the air i/f. In pseudo-asymmetric service the timeslot allocation for downlink and uplink is symmetric but the data rate used in uplink direction is lower than in downlink direction. Transparent / Non-transparent services For transparent HSCSD connections the BSC is not allowed to change the user data rate. on fixed network side -to and from modem of internet provider .4 kbit/s data (in a single time slot).

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 kbit/s 57. . . . . . 41 High-speed circuit switched data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .inefficient for bursty traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 kbit/s / 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .main features Disadvantages: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 kbit/s Advantages: + high data rates + multislot operation + no new network elements + only software modification Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SBS overview Siemens High-Speed Circuit Switched Data HSCSD 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 kbit/s 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 81 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .new MS required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

All kinds of handovers are supported.Siemens SBS overview The following conditions characterize an HSCSD connection: • • • • • • • All n radio timeslots are located on the same TRX. The quality measurements reported on the main channel are based on the worst quality measured on the main and the unidirectional downlink timeslots used. 82 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG . In symmetric configuration individual signal level and quality reporting for each channel is applied. Reasons for the change of the resource allocation may be either a lack of radio resources. Flexible air resource allocation The BSC is responsible for flexible air resource allocation. Only TCH/F are used. The same frequency hopping sequence and training sequence is used. For an asymmetric HSCSD configuration individual signal level and quality reporting is used for those channels. which have uplink SACCH associated with them. handover and/or maintenance of the service quality. It may modify the number of TCH/F as well as the channel coding used for the connection. Handovers All TCH used in an HSCSD connection are handed over simultaneously. The BSC may modify the number of timeslots used for the connection and the channel coding when handing over the connection to the new channels. In both symmetric and asymmetric HSCSD configurations the neighbor cell measurements are reported on each uplink channel used. The change of the air resource allocation is done by the BSC using new service level upgrading and downgrading procedures.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 83 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 HSCSD 2 TS on air IF 2*14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SBS overview Siemens 4*14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 HSCSD BSC 2*14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 HSCSD 64 TS used for HSCSD 4*14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 HSCSD HHHH BTSE TRAU 0 TRAU 1 64 TS used for HSCSD 2*14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 HSCSD transmission examples . . . . . . . .4 HSCSD MSC HH BTSE TRAU 2 Air IF Abis Asub A Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 HSCSD 4 TS on air IF 4*14. . . . . . . . .

contains the routing information or can inquire about location information from the HLR Interfaces New interfaces are defined for GPRS. routing/traffic management.2 General Packet Radio Service GPRS GPRS offers packet-switched data transmission but requires new network elements making up the packet-switched core network: 7.between GPRS and an external packet data network PDN Gn . tracing the location.2.between two GPRS support nodes GSN within the same PLMN 84 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG . paging. Gateway GPRS Support Node GGSN realizes functions comparable to those of a gateway MSC. access control. For example Mobility Management. Gb allows the exchange of signaling and user data: Gi .Siemens SBS overview 7.1 Core network elements Serving GPRS Support Node SGSN is on the same hierarchic level as an MSC and handles functions comparable to a Visited MSC. For example performs interworking between a GSM PLMN and a packet data network PDN. The most important are: • • • Gb .between an SGSN and a BSS. it performs security functions.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 GPRS Support Nodes SGSN: Interface to Base Station System GGSN: Interface to Packet Data Network Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 85 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Packet Switches in the Core Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SBS overview Siemens GPRS subscription data (GPRS Register GR) G R HLR SSS PSTN ISDN BSS VMSC / VLR Gb GMSC PCU SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node Gn GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node Gi Internet Intranet X. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The operational mode depends on the service an MS is attached to (GPRS or GPRS and other GSM services) and on the mobile station’s capacity of handling GPRS and other GSM services simultaneously. power control. e. broadcast control information allocates resources for UL and DL packet data transfer performs access control. timing advance measurements) GPRS Mobile Station A GPRS MS can work in three different operational modes. In principle.2 Radio network units Packet Control Unit PCU In the SBS. Locating the PCU in the BSC is the most practical solution. however. the PCU is realized by the PPXX module in the BSC. e. "Class C" operational mode: The MS is attached exclusively to GPRS services. 86 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .g. The PCU: • • • • manages GPRS radio channels (Radio Channel Management). 03. access request and grants converts protocols (between interfaces Gb and Um). but the MS cannot handle them simultaneously.Siemens SBS overview 7. Channel Codec Unit CCU In the SBS the CCU is included in the Carrier Unit module of the BTSE. • • • "Class A" operational mode: The MS is attached to GPRS and other GSM services and the MS supports the simultaneous handling of GPRS and other GSM services. congestion control. used also for SBS.60).g. The CCU performs: • • Channel coding (including forward error correction FEC and interleaving) and Radio channel measurements (including received quality and signal level. BSC or SGSN (GSM Rec.2. the PCU may be placed in BTS. "Class B" operational mode: The MS is attached to GPRS and other GSM services.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .) • scheduling data transmission (UL/DL) • protocol conversion (Gb<-->Um) GSN site CCU • Channel Coding (FEC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Congestion Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 PCU. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .) Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 87 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CCU. . . . . . . . . . . . . MS . . . . . . . . . . . . TA. . interleaving. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SBS overview Siemens Um CCU CCU BTSE GPRS-MS: • Class-A • Class-B • Class-C Abis Gb PCU BSC PCU • Channel Access Control functions • Radio Channel Management (Power Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .) • Radio Channel Measurement functions(received quality & signal level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

e. 88 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG . In case of vertical allocation strategy several MS are multiplexed on the same timeslots. Distribution of the physical channels for various logical packet data channels is based on blocks of 4 normal bursts each. The advantage is that the MS get the maximum possible capacity. In principle.3 Radio interface The tasks of layer 1 radio interface relate to the transmission of user and signaling data as well as to the measuring of receiver performance. determination and updating of the delayed MS transmission (timing advance TA).2. up to 8 packet data channels can be seized simultaneously. The allocation can be done in two ways: • • Horizontal Allocation Vertical Allocation In case of horizontal allocation strategy the MS are placed in separate timeslots.Siemens SBS overview 7. to combine several physical channels of one radio carrier. This means that signaling and the packet data traffic of several mobile stations can be statistically multiplexed into one packet data channel. power control and channel coding. In packet switched traffic a main difference to circuit-switched services is that several mobile stations in parallel can use a physical channel and a packet data channel. Therefore the packet data channel can be seized asymmetrically. i. UL and DL for GPRS packet data are assigned separately. This is named multiplexing. On the other hand it is also possible for a mobile station to use more than one packet data channel at the same time. called radio blocks. cell selection. This leads to the advantage that the scare resources of the air interface are saved.

46 Radio Interface MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 89 . Several MS multilplexed one TS Vertical Allocation Horizontal Allocation Fig. 45 Multiplexing and TS combining Transmission of user & signaling data Measure signal strength Cell Selection Allocation of physical channel (Packet Data Channel PDCH) dynamically: 1 or 4 Radio Blocks L1tasks Power Control (1 Radio Block = 4 Normal Burst in 4 consecutive TDMA-frames) Timing Advance Fig.SBS overview Siemens Several TS allocated to one MS Up to 8 time slots of a TDMA frame can be combined dynamically for a user for the transmission of GPRS packet data.

CS-1 corresponds to a user data rate of 9.e.64).64).2. Coding schemes can be assigned as a function of the quality of the radio interface.have been defined for the transmission of packet data traffic channel PDTCH (Rec. 03. while CS-3 corresponds to a user data rate of 15.4 kbit/s. Usually. CS-2 corresponds to a user data rate of 13. signaling information (RLC/MAC Signaling Block) or user information (RLC Data Block) and a Block Check Sequence BCS. this means inserting redundancy. respectively. CS-1 makes use of the same coding scheme as specified for SDCCH (GSM Rec.CS4 .Siemens SBS overview 7. It consists of a half rate convolutional code for forward error correction FEC.4 kbit/s. Coding Schemes New GPRS coding schemes . CS-2 and CS-3 represent punctured versions of the same half rate convolutional code as CS-1. In the case of GPRS.e. i. 90 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG . Channel coding starts with the division of digital information into transferable blocks. to 8 burst blocks with 57 bit each).CS1 . i. the data to be transferred (prior to encoding) comprise: • • • a header for the Medium Access Control MAC (MAC Header).05 kbit/s. 03.03). CS-4 has no redundancy in transmission (no FEC) and corresponds to a data rate of 21. re-arrangement in time. channel coding includes a process of interleaving. Furthermore. groups of 4 burst blocks each are coded together. interleaving is carried out across four normal bursts in consecutive TDMA frames (and. 05. Normally. The convolutional radio blocks are interleaved to a specific number of bursts/burst blocks. These radio blocks.6 kbit/s.4 Channel coding Channel coding is modified substantially for packet switched purposes (GSM Rec. The functional blocks (radio blocks) are protected by convolutional coding against loss of data.

48 Channel coding MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 91 .2 kbit/s (theoretically) 21.4 kbit/s Fig.SBS overview Siemens Common coding of 4 Bursts (Radio Block) CS-1 CS-2 CS-3 CS-4 9.4 kbit/s 15. 47 Coding Schemes collect user data signaling Radio Block MAC Header RLC Data Block BCS MAC Header RLC/MAC Control Block BCS Convolutional coding (not CS-4) Puncturing (only CS-2.05 kbit/s 13. CS-3) Radio Block rate 1/2 convolutional coding Radio Block (Redundancy !) puncturing Radio Block (456 Bits) Interleaving 57 Bit 57 Bit 57 Bit ••• 57 Bit 57 Bit 8 Burstblocks Um: Allocation of PDCH for 1 / 4 Radio Blocks = 4 / 16 Normal Bursts Fig.6 kbit/s 1-8 channel Up to 171.

. Since EDGE is based on a different concept.8 kbit/s gross transmission rate). the new modulation technique is more sensitive to interference and therefore requires good radio conditions. which it takes in "ordinary" GSM to send a bit.04.. In the same time interval. EDGE nearly triples the data transmission rates (because of protocol overhead the factor is not exactly 3). EDGE changes the modulation used on the radio interface. In SBS up to this release the EGPRS is implemented. As new coding schemes cannot significantly increase performance (GPRS uses 21.Siemens SBS overview 7. A similar concept is used in the American market for enhancing the capabilities of the D-AMPS networks.3 Enhanced data rates for GSM evolution EDGE EDGE (GSM 10. which closely cooperates with the ETSI in this regard.59. and no more than 8 timeslots are available on a carrier. in EDGE a symbol representing 3 bits is transmitted. it can be used together with HSCSD and GPRS. The standardization of the UWC-136 HS system is done within the UWCC (Universal Wireless Communication Consortium).) is an alternative concept to increase data transmission rates.4 kbit/s net transmission rate with 22. The respective variants are called: • • Enhanced Circuit Switched Data ECSD and Enhanced General Packet Radio Service EGPRS. 92 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG . GSM 05.. Similar to HSCSD and GPRS.

1. 50 Comparison of GSM modulation (left) and EDGE modulation (right) MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 93 .0) (0.1.2 kbit/s Fig.1.0) 1 I (0.0.1) (1.1) I (1.0) (0.833 ksym/s 114 bit 22.0.SBS overview Siemens T 57+1 information bits TS 57+1 information bits T GP x3 T 57+1 information symbols TS 57+1 information symbols T GP every symbol contains 3 bits TS training sequence T tail bits GP guard period Fig.833 ksym/s 346 bit 69. 49 Normal bursts in GSM (upper) and EDGE (lower) Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying Q 8-Phase Shift Keying Q (0.8 kbit/s Symbol rate: Payload/burst: Gross rate: 270.0) (1.1) 1 bit per symbol 3 bit per symbol Symbol rate: Payload/burst: Gross rate: 270.0.1) 0 (1.1.0.

g.50 0.6 44.75 1.00 3 3 3 1.6 22.37 0.Siemens SBS overview E 7.49 3 2 2 Code rate 0.6 14.92 1.8 17.6 21.80 Puncturing Useful bits schemes ----2 2 3 181 268 312 428 176 224 296 272+24 352 448 592 544+48 2*448 2*544 2*592 B A A C B A (padding) Family ----C B A (padding) Logical Channels The logical channels. are the same as for "ordinary" GPRS.00 0.3.05 13.4 15. i.1 Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS) For Enhanced GPRS.4 8.66 0. and Channel Coding 9 new coding schemes have been developed for EGPRS: Coding Scheme CS-1 CS-2 CS-3 CS-4 MCS-1 MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-4 MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-7 MCS-8 MCS-9 Modulation GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK GMSK 8PSK 8PSK 8PSK 8PSK 8PSK User data rate (kbit/s) 9.e.66 0.4 27.53 0. high interference level the data transmission rate is dynamically reduced to an optimum balance between speed and error correction capabilities.2 13.8 11. in case of e.2 29. which can be used with EGPRS. the following main features are relevant: new coding schemes allow higher data transmission rates because of 8PSK modulation with different levels of protection by check bits.2 0.76 0.4 59.00 0. 94 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG . link quality control ensures an adaptation of data transmission rates depending on the condition of the air interface.8 54.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 95 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 EGPRS Coding Schemes 8-PSK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SBS overview Siemens ~ 69 kbit/s Data Rate (per time slot) Family A Family B GPRS Family C M C S 8 M C S 9 ~ 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 kbit/s M C S 5 M C S 6 M C S 7 M C S 1 C S 1 M C S 2 C S 2 M C S 3 C S 3 M C S 4 C S 4 GMSK Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The base station system decides. An example of the achievable data rates in dependence of the Modulation and Coding Scheme MCS used and the Carrier/Interference ratio is shown in the figure below (GSM 900.2 Link adaptation Link adaptation is based on the MS measurements of the bit error rate. 96 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .3. Depending on the number of bit errors a quality level is determined and reported to the base station system.Siemens SBS overview 7. whether a change of the coding scheme increases the performance and informs the MS about the new coding scheme to be used. without frequency hopping). based on this quality level. TU50.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 97 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SBS overview Siemens Throughput in kbit/s 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 MCS-9 (A) MCS-8 (A) MCS-7 (B) MCS-6 (A) MCS-5 (B) MCS-4 (C) MCS-3 (A) MCS-2 (B) MCS-1 (C) C/I in dB Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Link adaptation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0 software.3 Architecture The EGPRS architecture includes an EDGE capable GSM mobile station (MS). Edge Mobile Station Two classes of mobile stations are provided. The FAAS (Flexible Abis allocation Strategy) feature guarantees the higher capacity requirement on Abis. The number of E-CU and G-CU can be chosen depending on the capacity demands for Edge. E-CU are only supported for BTSE types belonging to the BTSplus generation.Siemens SBS overview 7. One class of mobile station is able to apply the 8PSK modulation in both the uplink and the downlink directions. which is connected via the air interface (Um) to the E-CU that supplies EDGE functionality. To reach the high data rates that are foreseen by the MCS.3.CUs) supporting GMSK modulation. The packet switched traffic output from the E-CU in the BTS is transmitted to the Packet Control Unit (PCU) of the BSC from where it is routed to the GPRS backbone. 98 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG . This is realized by the BR7. This requires peripheral processors for packet switched traffic handling providing the Packet Control Unit functionality of the Type "PPXX" modules. which means that they support advanced facilities and capabilities. BSS Configuration with EDGE The BTSE can be equipped with Edge capable carrier units (E. The other class applies 8PSK modulation in the downlink direction and GMSK modulation in the uplink direction.CUs) featuring the new 8-PSK modulation technique and/or "normal" carrier units (G. it is necessary to support Concatenated PCU frames.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 99 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Changes in Existing Network Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SBS overview Siemens HLR/GR Mobile DTE Visited MSC/VLR Sie m Gateway MSC PSTN IS D N Internet Intranet PSPDN BTSE BTSE with E-CU en s B S C FAAS with BR7. . . . . . . . . . . . .0 packet switched: GPRS PCU Serving GSN Gateway GSN PPXX modules in BSC Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Siemens SBS overview 100 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .

54 Location Services ∆r MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 101 .SBS overview Siemens 8 Location services r' r Fig.

navigation). 102 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG . Location Services (LCS) provide MS positions to location applications ("LCS clients"). Safety services (e. LCS are driven by regulatory requirements (US Federal Communication Commission requires location of emergency calls by end of 2001). fleet management. Information services (e. Tracking services (e. localization of vehicles). tourist information. Among these services are • • • • Location dependent billing (e.Siemens SBS overview Location Services (LCS) offer the opportunity to deploy new value added services based on the known position of the mobile station. WGS 084 coordinates Reference System). To describe the position of the MS universal latitude and longitude are used according to a defined geodetic reference system (e. emergency calls.g.g.g. Beside offering commercial benefits. restaurant finder).g. home zone). g.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SBS overview Siemens . . . . MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 103 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

This is used when receiving an LCS request to identify the requesting LCS client and to authorize it to use the specified request requests info from HLR about the MS to be located manages subscriber privacy receives the final location estimate and determines whether they satisfy the requested QoS (retry. via TCP/IP) or from other PLMN stores LCS subscription information on a per-LCS-client basis.1 Architecture The new network entities are: Serving Mobile Location Center (SMLC) • • • • • • • • • • manages the overall coordination and scheduling of resources required to perform MS positioning in a PLMN determines the positioning method to be used based on the QoS.Siemens SBS overview 8.g. the network capabilities and the MS location capabilities calculates the final location estimate and accuracy and it in a location response to a requesting Gateway Mobile Location Center (GMLC) there may be more than one SMLC in one PLMN Gateway Mobile Location Center (GMLC) supports access to the LCS by external applications (e. reject) generates LCS related charging and billing rates 104 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .

. . . . . . . . 55 LCS network architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 105 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SBS overview Siemens SMLC Lb Um BTSE Abis BSC A MSC / VLR Lg Lg GMLC Le External LCS Client Lh Different PLMN GMLC HLR Fig. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

E-CITA. A-GPS …) and manages the resources required by the chosen method.Siemens SBS overview 8.2 • • • • • Positioning methods (Enhanced) Cell-ID/Timing Advance Enhanced Observed Time Difference (E-OTD) Time/Angle of Arrival (TOA/AOA) (Uplink) Time Difference of Arrival (U-TDOA) Assisted-Global Positioning System GPS (A-GPS) The positioning methods introduced are The accuracy of some of the positioning methods depend on cell size. The E-CITA PCF calculates position received from the E-CITA PRCF (including collection of the required prediction data from the SMLC database) and returns back the calculated location estimate. As examples two important methods (E-CITA and A-GPS) are described in more detail in the following. shape and cell planning. SMLC positioning functions The Common PRCF (Positioning Radio Coordination Function) determines the positioning method to be used (CITA. 106 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SBS overview Siemens CI Accuracy [m] Fix Time Impact on handset Impact on network 1030. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .000 CI/TA ~500 E-CI/TA 100 . . . . . . . . . 56 Comparison of Positioning Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 U-TDOA 50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200 E-OTD 50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . antenna) 3GPP: None SMLC SMLC SMLC + LMUs SMLC + Reference network OMA SUPL: LSU Fig. . .125 A-GPS 5 – 75 3s None 5s None 5s None 5s Yes (SW) SMLC + LMUs 5s None 5-10s Yes (GPS chip. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 107 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2. The output of the SMLC is shape. Combining to this information the Timing Advance value of the MS. the SMLC will compute the location by matching the measured data with the prediction data. In GSM every MS that is in dedicated mode measures and reports continuously the actual radio conditions to the network.1 Enhanced CITA The basic location information in cellular network is the actual Cell ID of the serving cell.Siemens SBS overview 8. the algorithm is able to estimate the positioning error described by an uncertainty circle or ellipse for a given confidence level. 108 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG . for example a point on the surface of the earth with an uncertainty circle. The E-CITA is a positioning method that uses the CITA enhanced by a comparison of predicted receive levels and measured receive levels. These reports contain information about reception power levels (RXLEV) of the serving cell and up to six neighboring cells. In case of a positioning request. Beside the position. the CITA method is realized. To realize this method the SMLC has to be filled with prediction power level data.

r 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Measurement reports MS measurements Comparison 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 SBS Fig. 57 MS measurements BTS measurements CGI. 58 Location estimation SMLC MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 109 . Y. RXLEV Field strength predictions Position X. TA.SBS overview Siemens Signal Strength 1 Cell ID MS BTS 1 Signal Strength 2 Signal Strength 3 BTS 3 BTS 2 BSC Fig.

The basic idea behind network assisted GPS (A-GPS) is that the GPS receiving system is distributed: • • MS with GPS receiver Reference GPS network The GPS reference network consists of GPS receiving stations . The SMLC is determining the position with use of the GPS data. It consists of a list of visible satellites to facilitate the acquisition of the satellites signals for the MS.2. To overcome these drawbacks. tracking all GPS satellites at all times. In case of using the GPS method in mobile networks the large time to first fix.Siemens SBS overview 8. low sensitivity (no coverage indoors or in urban canyons). and excessive battery consumption are the disadvantages. network assisted GPS (A-GPS) is used. The MS measures only the times of arrival (called “pseudoranges”) which enables a lower signal level. 110 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG . This data is used to model the satellite orbits and clocks well into the future. In the SMLC the A-GPS positioning method can be provided along with other lower accuracy positioning methods like CITA and E-CITA. The Siemens mobile A-GPS functionality is integrated into the SMLC. The MS obtains this so called assistance data from the radio network. Therefore the A-GPS method requires a handset with integrated GPS receiver.2 Assisted GPS Conventional GPS is a known solution for positioning.

60 Location estimation MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 111 . Data & position calculation ments + Measure data Assist Fig. 59 MS measurements and assistance data Sattelite Signals GPS Reference data Assistance data Pseudo ranges GPS data GPS Position Calculation CITA. Y. ECITA PCF A-GPS MS Position X.SBS overview Siemens GPS Reference Network SMLC BSC Ass. r SBS SMLC Fig.

Siemens SBS overview 112 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .

SBS overview Siemens 9 Exercises MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 113 .

Siemens SBS overview 114 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .

Name the main differences between HSCSD. and FDD? What type of burst is used for traffic channels? Which manual provides background information on SBS features? Where do you find information on the BS240 commissioning procedure? Why is power control performed? What is the name for operating TRX of different bands in the same cell? What does HSCSD stand for? What are transparent and non-transparent modes of operation? What are the differences between GPRS and HSCSD? What is the (theoretical) maximum data rate for GPRS? How many logical channels are used in GPRS? Explain the difference between GMSK and 8-PSK. EGPRS. What is Link Adaptation? Which methods are used for Location Services? What are their main differences? MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG 115 .SBS overview Siemens What means GSM? What means PLMN? What are the major subsystems in a PLMN? Which subsystem is responsible for monitoring of the BSS and SSS? List the major functions of the network components of the BSS Name the most important interfaces defined by GSM? What is a radio cell? What influences the size of a radio cell and what is the maximum size of a radio cell in GSM900? Find out the correlation between the guard period of an access burst and the maximum size of a GSM cell. GPRS and ECSD. What is the frequency range for GSM900 (extended band)? How many radio frequency carriers are available in GSM900? Can a cell have more than one RFC? What is meant by TDMA. FDMA.

Siemens SBS overview 116 MN1780EU10MN_0003 © 2002 Siemens AG .

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