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  • 1AC – Plan Text
  • Economy – Protectionism Uniqueness
  • Economy – Protectionism Impact: Chinese Econ
  • Economy – Protectionism Impact: Japanese Econ [1/2]
  • Economy – Protectionism Impact: Japanese Econ [2/2]
  • Economy – Protectionism Impact: Environment [1/2]
  • Economy – Protectionism Impact: Environment [2/2]
  • Economy – Protectionism Impact: EU Relations [1/2]
  • Economy – Protectionism Impact: EU Relations [2/2]
  • Economy – Protectionism Impact: Laundry List
  • Economy – Protectionism Impact: Wars
  • Economy – Ext: Education Solves Econ
  • Economy – 2AC War Add-on
  • CTE – Ext: NCLB Kills CTE
  • CTE – 2AC Agriculture Add-on
  • CTE – 2AC Internet Add-on [1/2]
  • CTE – 2AC Internet Add-on [2/2]
  • CTE – Internet Add-on (Poverty !)
  • CTE – 2AC Manufacturing Add-on [1/2]
  • CTE – 2AC Manufacturing Add-on [2/2]
  • CTE – 2AC Nanotech Add-on
  • CTE – 2AC Science Diplomacy Add-on [1/2]
  • CTE – 2AC Science Diplomacy Add-on [2/2]
  • CTE – Green Jobs: 2AC Venture Capital Add-on
  • CTE – Green Jobs: 2AC Oil Shocks Add-on
  • CTE – Green Jobs: Ext- Job Shortages
  • CTE – Green Jobs: Ext- Chemical Industry Impact
  • Defense-Industrial Base – Ext: Education Key to DIB
  • Defense-Industrial Base – Ext: Nat. Standards Key to DIB
  • Defense-Industrial Base – 2AC Sino-Indian War Add-on [1/2]
  • Defense-Industrial Base – 2AC Sino-Indian War Add-on [2/2]
  • Defense-Industrial Base – 2AC Competitiveness Add-on
  • Defense-Industrial Base – Competitiveness Key to Heg
  • Solvency – Ext: Putting CTE in NCLB Solves
  • Solvency – Title I Key
  • Solvency – Ext: Poverty Key
  • Solvency – Poverty Key: 2AC Moral Obligation
  • Solvency – Poverty Key: 2AC Poverty Add-on
  • Solvency – Poverty Key: 2AC Segregation Add-on
  • Solvency – Poverty Key: 2AC Dropouts Add-on
  • NCLB Bad – Race to the Bottom
  • NCLB Bad – Low-Income Schools
  • NCLB Bad – High-Stakes
  • NCLB Bad – AT: Doesn’t Hurt Everyone
  • NCLB Bad – AT: Tests Prove it’s Good
  • NCLB Bad – AT: NAEP Worse
  • AT: Status Quo Solves (NGA)
  • AT: Status Quo Solves (DOE Grants)
  • AT: States – Standards Key
  • AT: States – Uniformity Fails
  • AT: States – Can’t Solves CTE
  • AT: States – Spending DA
  • AT: States – Trade-off DA
  • AT: States – Cali Econ DA
  • AT: States – AT: Deficit Spending
  • AT: States – Evolution DA [1/2]
  • AT: States – Evolution DA [2/2]
  • Ext: Texas Spills Over
  • AT: States – Links to Politics
  • AT: Repeal NCLB CP
  • AT: Higher Education CP
  • AT: Liberal Arts CP
  • AT: Disads
  • AT: Recruitment Trade-off DA
  • Plan Popular – Teachers Unions
  • Plan Popular – Ext: Teachers Unions Like Plan
  • Plan Popular – Ext: Teachers Unions Key to Agenda
  • Plan Popular – Moderate Democrats
  • Plan Popular – AT: Link Turns
  • Plan Popular – AT: Historical Examples
  • Plan Unpopular
  • Plan Unpopular – Political Capital
  • Plan Unpopular – AT: Link Turns
  • 2AC Layne Thumper [1/5]
  • 2AC Layne Thumper [2/5]
  • 2AC Layne Thumper [3/5]
  • 2AC Layne Thumper [4/5]
  • 2AC Layne Thumper [5/5]
  • Neg Bonus – Nuclear War Outweighs Education

Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff

Markoff, Mehta, Astead, Kostrinsky Wave One

Education/Jobs Affirmative
Education/Jobs Affirmative............................................................................................................................................1 1AC – Plan Text..............................................................................................................................................................4 1AC – Inherency.............................................................................................................................................................5 1AC – Inherency ............................................................................................................................................................6 1AC – Economy..............................................................................................................................................................7 1AC – Economy..............................................................................................................................................................9 1AC – Economy............................................................................................................................................................10 1AC – Economy............................................................................................................................................................11 1AC – Economy............................................................................................................................................................12 1AC – CTE....................................................................................................................................................................13 1AC – CTE....................................................................................................................................................................14 1AC – CTE....................................................................................................................................................................15 1AC – CTE....................................................................................................................................................................16 1AC – CTE....................................................................................................................................................................17 1AC – CTE....................................................................................................................................................................18 1AC – CTE....................................................................................................................................................................19 1AC – CTE....................................................................................................................................................................20 1AC – CTE....................................................................................................................................................................21 1AC – Defense-Industrial Base.....................................................................................................................................22 1AC – Defense-Industrial Base.....................................................................................................................................23 1AC – Defense-Industrial Base.....................................................................................................................................24 1AC – Defense-Industrial Base.....................................................................................................................................25 1AC – Defense-Industrial Base.....................................................................................................................................26 1AC – Space..................................................................................................................................................................27 1AC – Space..................................................................................................................................................................29 1AC – Space..................................................................................................................................................................30 1AC – Space..................................................................................................................................................................31 1AC – Space..................................................................................................................................................................33 1AC – Space..................................................................................................................................................................34 1AC – Solvency............................................................................................................................................................35 1AC – Solvency............................................................................................................................................................36 Economy – Ext: No Jobs  Protectionism..................................................................................................................37 Economy – Protectionism Uniqueness.........................................................................................................................38 Economy – AT: Buy America  Protectionism..........................................................................................................39 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Chinese Econ ........................................................................................................40 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Japanese Econ [1/2]...............................................................................................41 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Japanese Econ [2/2]...............................................................................................42 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Environment [1/2].................................................................................................43 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Environment [2/2].................................................................................................44 Economy – Protectionism Impact: EU Relations [1/2].................................................................................................45 Economy – Protectionism Impact: EU Relations [2/2].................................................................................................46 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Laundry List..........................................................................................................47 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Economy................................................................................................................48 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Economy................................................................................................................49 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Economy................................................................................................................50 Economy – Protectionism Impact: Wars.......................................................................................................................51 Economy – Ext: Education Solves Econ.......................................................................................................................52 Economy – 2AC War Add-on.......................................................................................................................................53 CTE – Ext: NCLB Kills CTE.......................................................................................................................................54 CTE – 2AC Agriculture Add-on...................................................................................................................................55 CTE – 2AC Internet Add-on [1/2]................................................................................................................................56 CTE – 2AC Internet Add-on [2/2]................................................................................................................................57 CTE – Internet Add-on (Freedom of Speech !)............................................................................................................58

Peace through superior firepower.



Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff

Markoff, Mehta, Astead, Kostrinsky Wave One

CTE – Internet Add-on (Freedom of Speech !)............................................................................................................60 CTE – Internet Add-on (Freedom of Speech !)............................................................................................................61 CTE – Internet Add-on (Poverty !)...............................................................................................................................62 CTE – 2AC Manufacturing Add-on [1/2].....................................................................................................................63 CTE – 2AC Manufacturing Add-on [2/2].....................................................................................................................64 CTE – 2AC Nanotech Add-on......................................................................................................................................65 CTE – 2AC Science Diplomacy Add-on [1/2].............................................................................................................66 CTE – 2AC Science Diplomacy Add-on [2/2].............................................................................................................67 CTE – Green Jobs: 2AC Venture Capital Add-on........................................................................................................68 CTE – Green Jobs: 2AC Oil Shocks Add-on................................................................................................................69 CTE – Green Jobs: Ext- Job Shortages.........................................................................................................................70 CTE – Green Jobs: Ext- Chemical Industry Impact......................................................................................................71 Defense-Industrial Base – Ext: Education Key to DIB.................................................................................................72 Defense-Industrial Base – Ext: Nat. Standards Key to DIB.........................................................................................73 Defense-Industrial Base – 2AC Sino-Indian War Add-on [1/2]...................................................................................74 Defense-Industrial Base – 2AC Sino-Indian War Add-on [2/2]...................................................................................75 Defense-Industrial Base – 2AC Competitiveness Add-on............................................................................................76 Defense-Industrial Base – Competitiveness Key to Heg..............................................................................................78 Defense-Industrial Base – Education Key to Competitiveness.....................................................................................79 Defense-Industrial Base – Education Key to Competitiveness.....................................................................................80 Solvency – Ext: Putting CTE in NCLB Solves.............................................................................................................81 Solvency – Ext: National Standards Good....................................................................................................................82 Solvency – Ext: National Standards Good....................................................................................................................83 Solvency – Title I Key..................................................................................................................................................84 Solvency – Ext: Poverty Key........................................................................................................................................85 Solvency – Poverty Key: 2AC Moral Obligation.........................................................................................................86 Solvency – Poverty Key: 2AC Poverty Add-on...........................................................................................................87 Solvency – Poverty Key: 2AC Segregation Add-on.....................................................................................................88 Solvency – Poverty Key: 2AC Dropouts Add-on.........................................................................................................89 NCLB Bad – Race to the Bottom..................................................................................................................................90 NCLB Bad – Low-Income Schools..............................................................................................................................91 NCLB Bad – High-Stakes.............................................................................................................................................92 NCLB Bad – AT: Doesn’t Hurt Everyone....................................................................................................................93 NCLB Bad – AT: Tests Prove it’s Good......................................................................................................................94 NCLB Bad – AT: NAEP Worse...................................................................................................................................95 AT: Status Quo Solves (NGA)......................................................................................................................................96 AT: Status Quo Solves (DOE Grants)..........................................................................................................................97 AT: Teachers Unions Bad.............................................................................................................................................98 AT: Teachers Unions Bad.............................................................................................................................................99 AT: States....................................................................................................................................................................100 AT: States....................................................................................................................................................................101 AT: States....................................................................................................................................................................103 AT: States – Standards Key........................................................................................................................................104 AT: States – Uniformity Fails.....................................................................................................................................105 AT: States – Can’t Solves CTE...................................................................................................................................106 AT: States – Spending DA..........................................................................................................................................107 AT: States – Trade-off DA..........................................................................................................................................108 AT: States – Cali Econ DA.........................................................................................................................................109 AT: States – AT: Deficit Spending.............................................................................................................................110 AT: States – Evolution DA [1/2]................................................................................................................................111 AT: States – Evolution DA [2/2]................................................................................................................................113 Ext: Texas Spills Over................................................................................................................................................114 AT: States – Links to Politics.....................................................................................................................................115 AT: Repeal NCLB CP.................................................................................................................................................116 AT: Higher Education CP...........................................................................................................................................117 AT: Liberal Arts CP....................................................................................................................................................118

Peace through superior firepower.



Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff

Markoff, Mehta, Astead, Kostrinsky Wave One

AT: Disads..................................................................................................................................................................119 AT: Recruitment Trade-off DA..................................................................................................................................120 Plan Popular – Teachers Unions.................................................................................................................................121 Plan Popular – Ext: Teachers Unions Like Plan.........................................................................................................122 Plan Popular – Ext: Teachers Unions Key to Agenda................................................................................................123 Plan Popular – Moderate Democrats..........................................................................................................................124 Plan Popular – AT: Link Turns...................................................................................................................................125 Plan Popular – AT: Historical Examples....................................................................................................................126 Plan Unpopular...........................................................................................................................................................127 Plan Unpopular – Political Capital..............................................................................................................................128 Plan Unpopular – AT: Link Turns..............................................................................................................................129 2AC Layne Thumper [1/5]..........................................................................................................................................130 2AC Layne Thumper [2/5]..........................................................................................................................................131 2AC Layne Thumper [3/5]..........................................................................................................................................132 2AC Layne Thumper [4/5]..........................................................................................................................................133 2AC Layne Thumper [5/5]..........................................................................................................................................134 Neg Bonus – Nuclear War Outweighs Education.......................................................................................................135

Peace through superior firepower.



Peace through superior firepower. and mathematics through career and technical education programs. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Plan Text Plan: The United States federal government should increase need-based allocations under Title I of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 to include uniform proficiency standards for science. Mehta.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. engineering. Astead. / 4 . technology.

However.8 percent and New York ranks 14th with 18.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.8 percent. depending on which results in a higher weighting. their Title I stimulus allocations differ dramatically. As might be expected. Oklahoma. Instead. Utah appears slated to receive the least Title I stimulus funding per poor student at $428. Title I stimulus distribution is expected to be the same in 2009 and 2010. distribution of stimulus Title I funds will be channeled through two Title I funding formulas: 50 percent through Targeted Grants and 50 percent through Education Finance Incentive Grants (EFIGs). only two of them. As a result. with little connection to student poverty levels. In fact. The Targeted formula allocates dollars based on either the actual number of poor students or the proportion of poor students. $13 billion in Title I funds is a small part of the total pot of stimulus funding (as much as $140 billion) aimed for education. Furthermore. Mehta. New America Foundation. Grant allocations are skewed by small state minimums. This is unexpected given that Wyoming ranks fairly low in terms of percent of students living in poverty .002 in Title I funds per poor student. hold harmless amounts. Nevada would move from 33rd ($564 per poor student) to 46th ($505 per poor student) in per poor student funding. it would rank 41st with $531 per poor student using 100% EFIG. / 5 .net/blog/ed-money-watch/2009/closer-look-title-i-stimulus-spending-9747) Yesterday we took a look at total stimulus funding per student as estimated by the House Education and Labor Committee's stimulus allocation data.2 percent of students in poverty and ranks 47 th out of 51 on that indicator. DC and New York. Peace through superior firepower. Conversely. we will take a closer look at the estimated 2009 Title I funding distributions per poor student in each state and the District of Columbia (Puerto Rico is not included in Census estimates). it favors states with many small districts that educate a large proportion of poor students or states with large districts but relatively small proportions of poor students. Ed Money Watch. According to the House stimulus bill. of the 10 states expected to receive the most Title I stimulus funding per poor student.2 percent) of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Even though Utah and Wyoming have similar percentages of students living in poverty. allocations are the result of complicated Title I funding formulas that don't appear to do a great job of providing the maximum benefit to states with large impoverished populations. (.9 percent. These findings show that current allocations do not effectively target states with the largest impoverished populations. We used 2007 census data for our analysis. and Tennessee. http://www.. 7. and state expenditure factors. the Targeted Grant formula uses poverty weights to provide more money to districts with larger impoverished populations. These outcomes for the Title I stimulus allocations are unexpected. Mississippi. Today. New Hampshire.Arizona.) Although Louisiana ranked 29 th in per poor student funding in the stimulus allocation with $593. Our analysis suggests that Wyoming is expected to receive the most stimulus funding per poor student at $1. Mississippi has the most students living in poverty (27. The lack of continuity between projected Title I stimulus funding per poor student and percent of students living in poverty can in some part be attributed to the complicated formulas used to calculate the Title I distributions. Writer. Arkansas. Astead. Alabama. Utah has 10. Funds should flow to states and districts with the neediest populations. it is only expected to receive $503 dollars in Title I funding per poor student via the stimulus. rank in the top 25 states in terms of student poverty. Admittedly.3 percent.493. of the ten states expected to receive the least Title I stimulus funding per student. Both of these formulas target funds based on the number of poor students in a state or district as measured by the census. The District of Columbia ranks third in terms of student population living in poverty at 24. but its sole purpose is to improve educational opportunities and outcomes for poor students. To the untrained eye. the state with the smallest number of students living in poverty . Title I stimulus funding appears to be allocated randomly. We hope that the final stimulus bill enables those funds to do just that.newamerica. six of them are in the top 25 states in terms of student poverty . Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Inherency Contention : Inherency Stimulus increased Title I education funding – but it’s not targeted towards low-income schools Cohen 1/29 (Jennifer.43rd out of 51 at 10. is expected to receive $1.

" he said. U." Peace through superior firepower. states have a patchwork of rules that vary from state to state. "A high school diploma needs to mean something.. Finn Jr. "I know that talking about standards can make people nervous. study finds. Mehta.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. The Fordham study measured test scores of 36 elementary and middle schools against accountability rules in 28 states. such as Arizona and Wisconsin. 9 – Staff Writer." Every state. and we actually don't. The study comes as the Obama administration indicates it will encourage states to adopt common standards." Education Secretary Arne Duncan said recently. he said. "And it's produced results I would call unfair from one state to the next. needs standards that make children college.and career-ready and are benchmarked against international standards. Under No Child Left Behind. which conducted the study with the Kingsbury Center at the Northwest Evaluation Association. a national study found. 2/20.S. “Academic standards vary by state. The study underscores wide variation in academic standards from state to state. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Inherency No Child Left Behind creates a patchwork of state standards for proficiency causing overall education to stagnate Quaid. "But the notion that we have 50 different goal posts doesn't make sense. such as Massachusetts. It was issued Thursday by the Thomas B. It found the schools failed to meet yearly progress goals in states with more rigorous standards. said Chester E. an often controversial issue on which previous presidents have trod lightly. Fordham Institute. No Child Left Behind is misleading. But they met yearly progress goals in states with lower standards." he said.” http://www.com/news/2009/feb/20/academic-standards-vary-by-state-us-study-finds/) Some schools deemed to be failing in one state would get passing grades in another under the No Child Left Behind law.washingtontimes. / 6 . no matter where it's from. president of the nonprofit Fordham Foundation. "It misleads people into thinking that we have a semblance of a national accountability system for public schools. Washington Times (Libby. the study found. Astead.

Eugenia. on average. psychology. India. not just for the future of American technological leadership. and 19% added 150 minutes or more per week. physical education. That's one reason why enrollments of U. high school seniors scored last among 16 countries tested.S. The U.com/yourvoices/42109707.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. and math education are key to job growth and the economy Paulus. America is no longer a world contender. The depressing reality is that when it comes to educating the next generation in these subjects. If you are an educator in science like me. For example.startribune. computer science. science. students reach their senior year of high school. and more than half (54%) did so by 150 minutes or more per week. In physics. down from third place 25 years ago. more than half (53%) of these districts cut instructional time by at least 75 minutes per week in social studies. 8 . art and music. biological sciences. mathematics. recess. according to the Third International Mathematics and Science Study. agricultural sciences.S.S. the Center on Education Policy (CEP) conducted a deeper analysis of 2006-07 survey data first reported in July 2007 on the amount of instructional time devoted to specific subjects. including social studies. In fact. earth. Eight out of ten districts that reported increasing time for ELA did so by at least 75 minutes per week . engineering. 72% indicated that they reduced time by a total of at least 75 minutes per week for one or more of these other subjects. Here is what we learned about the magnitude of changes in instructional time in elementary schools from districts that reported increases or decreases in time for certain subjects since NCLB took effect in 2002: The shifts in instructional time toward English language arts (ELA) and mathematics and away from other subjects were relatively large in a majority of school districts that made these types of increases and decreases. By the time U. http://www.Head Research Associate @ Center on Education Policy (Jennifer. It is reported that just 26% of the 2003 high school graduates scored high enough on the ACT science test to have a good chance of completing a first-year college science course. / 7 .S. Engineering and Mathematics. http://www. Among the disciplines that the National Science Foundation includes under STEM are engineering. students have fallen far behind their competitors in much of Western Europe and in advanced Asian nations like Japan. Most high school graduates are not adequately prepared for college-level science courses.S.showDocumentByID&nodeID=1&DocumentID=234) As part of an ongoing study of the impact of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). Technology. “STEM Education. they rank below their counterparts in 17 other countries in math and science literacy. now ranks below 13 other countries in the percentage of 24-year olds with a college degree in these subjects. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Economy Contention : The Economy No Child Left Behind is destroying focus on STEM education – overvalues ELA McMurrer. This trend has disturbing implications. Astead. the largest international study of scientific achievement ever conducted.html? elr=KArksLckD8EQDUoaEyqyP4O:DW3ckUiD3aPc:_Yyc:aUdcOy9cP3DieyckcUsI) STEM is the acronym for Science. and the same percentage (53%) cut time by at least 75 minutes per week in science.cep-dc.cfm?fuseaction=document.org/index. atmospheric and ocean sciences. “Instructional Time in Elementary Schools. Districts that also reduced instructional time in other subjects reported total reductions of 32%. Mehta. Among the districts that reported both increasing time for ELA or math and reducing time in other subjects.” The Star Tribune. but for the Peace through superior firepower. economics and other natural and social/behavioral sciences. Districts that increased instructional time for ELA and/or math did so by 43%. 63% added at least 75 minutes per week. 9 – Professor @ North Hennepin Community College (Dr. on average. Among districts that reported adding time for math. students in science and engineering majors have been flat or declining-even as the demand for these skills increases. U. tech. or lunch. You don't have to be a scientist to recognize that the status quo is a recipe for big trouble. physical sciences. U. A Closer Look at Changes for Specific Subjects.” February. Most districts that increased time for ELA or math also reported substantial cuts in time for other subjects or periods. brace yourself for what you will find if you look for data on science education in America collected during the past few years. China and South Korea. These approaches will fail – science.

Astead. Mehta. placing the Peace through superior firepower. This is creating an imbalance between the supply of such workers and the burgeoning demand for them. Kostrinsky Wave One broader economy.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. / 8 . there is a shortage of highly-skilled workers and a surplus of lesser-skilled workers. Already.

Many Americans are also fearful about the implications of foreign investment. employees benefit as these companies maintain their competitive edge and grow. Finally. This is partially due to concerns created by the economic downturn..S.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. jobs requiring a PhD in science and technology were filled by people who were born abroad. And it is not just in the United States. And their U. U. gross domestic product would then be 4% higher than otherwise by 2025 and 10% higher in 30 years. wherever that talent may be. science and engineering workforce in peril. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Economy [Paulus Continues. We also see protectionist rhetoric particularly pronounced in this political year where the benefits of trade are being openly questioned by individuals from across the political spectrum. as an example. A recent Pew Research Center poll found that 48 percent of Americans see free trade agreements as a bad thing for the country.ustreas. U.gov/press/releases/hp1004.S.S. Astead. According to the Eric A. Hanushek. schools is vital to maintaining America's global leadership. Mehta.S. Many countries are now considering further restrictions on foreign investment in certain sectors of their economies. In the wake of September 11th.htm) Unfortunately. and to maintain or improve their global leadership position they have to hire the best talent. but it is also the result of a broad-based transformation underway across regions and within all sectors of our economy.S. International competition from free trade. effective school reform could easily stimulate the economy more than conventional strategies. could raise the performance of its high school students in math and science to the levels of Western Europe within a decade. That may not sound like much. appears threatening to Americans already skeptical about the overall benefits of globalization. doctoral positions and graduate programs in science at the nation's leading universities are often filled with foreign students. The consequences of this could be enormous. bright young Indian or Chinese scientists may well have better opportunities at home than in the U. Previously served as Deputy National Security Advisor to the President for International Economic Affairs (David H. up from 24% in 1990. also pose serious economic risks. despite its clear benefits to the United States and Colombia. Consider what would happen if the U.S. Until recently. America has compensated for its failure to adequately educate the next generation by importing brainpower. As globalization accelerates. where there is reluctance to pass the Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement. some countries seem resolved that the only sure protection is the rejection of foreign capital. Peace through superior firepower. While some investments may pose genuine national security concerns. Talent is the most important commodity in the global marketplace and ever more fungible as advanced technology makes borders less relevant. the United States may not be able to rely on the international market to meet its needs. broader restrictions on foreign direct investment. we also see Americans increasingly concerned about competing for jobs against people from around the world. In an increasingly globalized world. But Hanushek figures that the 4% annual increase alone would be enough to offset the entire cost of America's public K-12 school system for the same year. such as Bush tax cuts. the recent market developments have contributed to a climate of increased distrust and anxiety among Americans that is fueling support for protectionist policies. and are also considering limits to sovereign wealth fund investment.S. companies are global leaders in a variety of industries. This message has reached Capitol Hill. In 2000. 8 – former Under Secretary for International Affairs within the United States Department of the Treasury. Market downturns combined with job losses to foreigners is creating momentum towards protectionism McCormick. / 9 . "Looking Past Today: Staying Competitive in a Changing Global Economy" http://www. a stunning 38% of U. However. as do the frequent headlines about investment by sovereign wealth funds. concerns about national security have led Congress and the public to take a careful look at investment from outside our borders. and only 30 percent seeing them as a good thing. no text omitted] future of the U. whether explicit or implicit. Improving the teaching and learning of mathematics and science in U. The Dubai Ports World case epitomizes this concern. Similarly.S. as the global competition for science and engineering talent is intensifying. Because the quality of a nation's workforce has such a huge influence on productivity. a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution in Stanford University. But this is a difficult reality for many Americans to accept.

it risks turning a global recession into a 1930s-style depression. and world trade plummeted. This Buy American momentum is bad economics. and to improve the safety net available to displaced workers during the transition period. If the provision is not diluted. The risks of retaliation and a trade war are very real. "Buy American" would effectively ban Canadian steel products and other raw materials from infrastructure projects receiving stimulus funds. Wrapped in the cloak of "Buy American" patriotism. not create them. Brown put it at Davos. just as the world economy was sinking as it is today. and by threatening to destabilize trade and capital flows.S. which essentially shut off imports into the U. especially during times of hardship. I feel the pain far more acutely than consumers feel the benefits of cheap clothing. If I am a textile worker whose job is lost because Chinese imports have caused my factory to close. "Protectionism protects nobody. depends to fund its deficits. "Congress Wants a Trade War" http://online. Let's hope that President Obama presses his Democratic colleagues in Congress to listen to him. The pain tends to be localized while the benefits are spread broadly. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Economy Protectionist momentum in the context of jobs collapses the economy and causes trade wars Malkiel.S.and imparts the flexible skills that make our citizens ready for the future jobs that we cannot even imagine.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. does not manufacture enough steel to meet domestic demand. the U. wine and vegetables from California. Our trading partners retaliated.S." He said on ABC News that he doesn't want anything in the stimulus bill that is "going to trigger a trade war. such trade does not make everyone better off. Astead. protectionist sentiments are rising. the economic powerhouse that it is.S. Since the U. wheat from Kansas. Moreover. and oil from Texas and Louisiana while we sell pharmaceuticals to the rest of the country. The specialization that trade makes possible allows all of us to live better. and the spread of "beggar thy neighbor" policies throughout the world. is the biggest exporter in the world. violates its trade agreements and its obligations to the World Trade Organization. Obama will find a very hostile reception during his first international trip to Canada later this month. In 1930. Foreign steel would only be allowed if domestic products were either unavailable or drove up the cost of the project by 25% or more. and that is why free trade is often a tough sell. The situation is the same with respect to world trade. To be sure. (That act is still on the books although it was weakened during the 1980s.wsj. We also need to revamp our educational system so that it prepares workers for the jobs that are available today -. They are an irresponsible and self-defeating response to a downturn in world economic activity. Both we and the Chinese are better off if we can import inexpensive clothing from China and sell them large-scale computers and data storage equipment. The European Union has said that it will not stand by idly if the U. Congress passed the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act.com/article/SB123380102867150621. Hostility has been no less evident in Europe and China. / 10 . Citizens like me in New Jersey would be far worse off if we could not buy pineapples from Hawaii.) We must avoid repeating the disastrous mistakes of the past. Most economic historians now conclude that the tariff contributed importantly to the severity of the world-wide Great Depression. Beggar-thy-neighbor policies create more beggars and hostile neighbors. No one person's benefit can compare with the loss felt by the textile worker. the provision could delay some shovel-ready infrastructure projects. This House provision caused a palpable anxiety during the recent World Economic Forum at Davos. And competitive markets have spurred the innovation revolution that has made the U. Asked about Buy American on Tuesday. Mehta. least of all the poor. and to British Prime Minister and Labour Party head Gordon Brown." Peace through superior firepower. But the total benefits do exceed the costs. as one of his last acts. Buy American provisions and other forms of protectionism will destroy jobs. retaliation could cost America more jobs than the provision would create. Buy American provisions invite retaliation by other nations. President Barack Obama told Fox News that "we can't send a protectionist message.html) As the world-wide recession deepens. It could also destabilize the global capital flows on which the U." He's right. and America's closest allies are furious. President Herbert Hoover made the situation even worse by signing a "Buy America Act" requiring all federal government projects to use American materials. 2/5 – professor of economics at Princeton University (Burton G. As Mr.. the Senate version of the bill contains even stronger anti-free-trade provisions. The solution for the displaced worker is job retraining and adjustment assistance. Suppose that we did not allow free trade between the 50 American states. since sufficient American-made materials may not be immediately available. The U.S. Later. The House of Representatives' version of the economic stimulus bill contains a provision that only American-made steel and other products be used for the infrastructure projects.S. Mr.S.

As happened in the 1930s.is great. 3-3-09. would mitigate the negative impacts of free trade on the small pool of affected workers. As an economically enfeebled South Korea withdraws foreign aid from North Korea. embodies exactly the wrong spirit and runs in precisely the wrong direction from the global system that will be necessary to create the future we all want. 7 – senior fellow and director of Hudson Institute's Center for Employment Policy. 9 – professor at the Yale School of Management and chairman of Garten Rothkopf. She is the former chief economist at the U. or help to the hundreds of millions of people who are now falling back into poverty? Incorporating vocational training into high schools stops the slide toward protectionism Furchtgott-Roth. / 11 .en/) About Trade & Technology. Addressing these workers’ problems would be far better for the economy. will the government be more likely to compromise with terrorists to alleviate at least one source of pressure? As Ukraine strains under the weight of an IMF bailout. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Economy Protectionism escalates and causes nuclear exchange Garten.hudson.a war or a jihad against unpopular minorities.truthabouttrade. Astead. or a treaty to manage climate change. a global advisory firm (Jeffrey E. for example -. The temptation for governments to whip up enthusiasm for something that distracts citizens from their economic woes -. economic nationalism is also sure to poison geopolitics. is a civil war with Cold War overtones between Europe and Russia be in the cards? And beyond all that. Mehta.org/index. with its implicit autarchic and save-yourself character. if necessary—and encourage young people to get as much education as possible. could we see an even more irrational activity from Pyongyang? As the Pakistani economy goes into the tank. Governments under economic pressure have far fewer resources to take care of their citizens and to deal with rising anger and social tensions. than sliding toward protectionism. Truth http://www. and for most other American workers.S.org/content/view/13454/54/lang. Department of Labor (Diana. The Dangers of Turning Inward. Whether or not they are democracies. America needs to take a fundamental look at its education system. This prepares them for a succession of careers.cfm?fuseaction=publication_details&id=5285&pubType=Trd) In addition to workforce training. economic nationalism. "Adjusting to Free Trade" http://www. their tenure can be threatened by popular resentment. and enables them to change jobs more easily.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Peace through superior firepower. Such changes. That's not all. many of which have repeatedly been proposed by President Bush and rejected by Congress. rather than just one. how will economically embattled and inward-looking governments be able to deal with the critical issues that need global resolution such as control of nuclear weapons. We need to reduce our high-school dropout rates—by incorporating vocational training. The point is.

" and embraced interventions that support domestic producers at the expense of our trading partners. safer. My colleague Robert Barro found that this link exists not because democracies increase prosperity. The Recovery Act's "Buy American" clause forbids spending on public works "unless all of the iron. To avoid the terrible path of the 1930s that led to prolonged depression and global conflict. social scientists have tried to understand why democracies and wealth go together. Free trade brings prosperity to the world's poorer countries. But the United States is now contemplating policies that threaten our ability to argue that an economically connected world is stronger and safer. My own research finds little connection between trade and economic growth among rich or middle-income countries. especially during a downturn. and us. the United States must maintain its commitment to globalization. 9 – professor of economics at Harvard University. In the dark years that followed.” The Boston Globe. Mehta. Trade is crucial for the prosperity of the world's poorer countries . My father was born in Berlin in 1930. at the start of an earlier global downturn. / 12 . setting off a global tariff war. for many of our trading partners have only a tenuous link to peaceful democracy. and manufactured goods used in the project are produced in the United States. director of the Rappaport Institute for Greater Boston (Edward L. Astead. but in the poorest places. Since the pioneering work of Martin Lipset 50 years ago. Few findings in social science are more robust than the fact that democracies almost never fight one another. where democracies are least stable.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. but because prosperity supports democracy. If the current downturn causes democracies to become dictatorships. Since dictators are far more likely to slaughter their own people. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Economy Free trade contains all other impacts by increasing democratic independence – protectionism results in backsliding and war Glaeser. In today's fearful economic climate. it is worth remembering that worse terrors than double-digit unemployment have stalked human history. Democracy is bolstered by prosperity and damaged by downturns. policy-makers have again cried "buy American. “Building walls with US trading partners. a 20 percent drop in the ratio of trade to GDP is associated with per capita incomes growing by 1 percent less per year. ending decades of democracy and ushering in a long period of dictatorship and political turmoil. Protectionism is bad economics and worse foreign policy. like the Weimar Republic. Peace through superior firepower. Between 1929 and 1934. are unable to deliver economic success. steel. lexis) FREE TRADE is a child of economic confidence. The appeal of democracy's enemies increases when democracies." That clause sends a terrible message to our trading partners. then the probability of conflict between those places and our own democracy will increase. strengthening their transitions to democracy and making their citizens. when democracy still held sway over most of Central and Western Europe. The United States had adopted the Smoot-Hawley Tariff. world trade declined by two-thirds. Today as we contemplate an international recession. thuggish dictators snuffed out nascent republics and Europe descended into the madness of war. protectionism is pessimism's progeny. America may be faced with the awful choice of military intervention or standing by and watching the deaths mount. Reductions in trade had a devastating impact on Argentina in the 1930s.

such as solar panel installers and wind turbine technicians. As the San Francisco Chronicle reported after a summit on green-collar jobs. the need for human capital is proving to be a barrier to the continued growth and expansion in energy efficiency and sustainability. the industry lacks the skilled workforce necessary to implement and use these technologies. CTE Provides Solutions Career and technical education (CTE) programs are poised and ready to ease the workforce bottleneck that could limit job growth in sustainability and meet the need for green-collar job training across career areas. 8 – Assoc Director of Public Policy @ Association for Career and Technical Education (Alisha. Despite the fact that the term “sustainability” has only been around for two decades.pdf) High-tech companies like Siemens. and aim to invest in and expand these programs and opportunities so that even Peace through superior firepower. Americans purchased more than 330. the Apollo Alliance predicts that the nation could generate three to five million more green jobs over the next 10 years. SunMicrosystems. “California’s new green tech economy won’t get very far if the state doesn’t develop the workforce that eco-friendly businesses need. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – CTE Contention : Job Training Green initiatives growing and demand for green jobs is inevitable – but worker shortages kill effectiveness. but with skilled-worker shortages in areas like engineering. along with local business and industries. Randall Swisher. Unfortunately.5 million jobs in 2006 to renewable energy or energy efficient industries. roofers. there must be a greater focus by policymakers and business and industry leaders on providing the training and retraining necessary to help shape this new workforce and ensure the continued pipeline of skilled workers.6 and Subaru Isuzu Automotive7 have launched green initiatives. the demand to make buildings more energy efficient increases the need for insulation workers.11 As federal. Hewlett-Packard. However. carpenters. Mehta. and another 2. About 250.8 and rental car companies are increasing their fleets of hybrids as well. building inspectors. Growing Workforce Needs The demand for sustainability has created two parallel workforce phenomena— the development of new careers in the green industry. there is a tremendous shortage of individuals with the necessary skills in sustainability practices. in manufacturing. construction managers and electricians.10 This should serve to further increase the demand for new products and processes focused on generating and conserving energy. should look to CTE programs as the answer to this workforce challenge. technical education is key Hyslop. manufacturing and construction technology. high-quality CTE programs already exist around the country to help prepare students for sustainable careers. A report commissioned by the American Solar Energy Society attributed 8. and the “greening” of all other jobs. http://www. construction and operation. homes already have some type of solar energy system. Community and political leaders.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. the new jobs often lack qualified applicants.000 hybrid automobiles in 2007.500 homeowners have installed their own wind turbine.S.acteonline.12 For example. / 13 .13 These jobs are high skill.” California already lacks enough solar panel installers. executive director of the American Wind Energy Association. For example. In many instances. They exist in sectors as diverse as landscaping and automotive manufacturing.000 U. creating products and processes that conserve energy and resources.org/uploadedFiles/Publications_and_E-Media/files/files-techniques2009/Theme_2%281%29.15 The sustainability industry has the power to dramatically revive employment in many areas around the country as green-collar careers can replace the jobs of workers in areas with stagnant job growth or layoffs. To some capacity. and mainstream public interest has only recently peaked. state and local governments mandate or incentivize more energy from alternative sources.9 Twenty-eight states have mandates generally requiring that up to 25 percent of their energy be obtained through renewable sources in the next two decades. sustainability issues are growing very important in a number of career pathways. Astead. and needs more workers with experience in green building Many jobs in green industries use the same technical skills as existing industries. high wage and in high demand. has estimated that by 2030. Apple. nearly a half-million new jobs could be created in the wind industry. From construction to business management. and employers seeking more “green-collar” workers often face bleak prospects. while the technologies to support the sustainability industry have been or are being created.

If we wait until they’re out of high school to start training them. legislative and political director. and sets an example through state-of-the-art green buildings that become part of the curriculum. For example. CTE programs are flexible and responsive to economic and workforce needs. A number of high schools have started to offer this type of exploration and integration of sustainability concepts. leaders of California’s State Building and Construction Trades Council think the state needs more CTE in high schools.”21 Hansen’s comments point to the need to expose students to careers in green areas early in their educational experience. we’re going to lose a lot of people. an “ECOnomics” course will combine 11th-grade economics standards with a look at how the forces of the market. said.” with more specific programs of study that link secondary and postsecondary coursework. Often organized around 16 career clusters. and Natural Resources” and “Manufacturing. and at the same time remains extremely relevant to students and their lives. no text omitted] more students can participate.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.22 Aiken University High School in Cincinnati has instituted a special environmental sciences program where coursework in all subjects is linked to environmental issues.23 Peace through superior firepower. Jay Hansen. Astead. auto mechanics and technology. / 14 . “We’re not going to be able to build anything and do any green retrofits until we have a workforce to do that.place affect the environment. It is also the answer to ensuring that students gain the sustainability knowledge they need to be successful in whatever career they may choose. CTE offers unique opportunities for students to explore career options at the same time they are receiving the strong academic foundation necessary to succeed in the 21st century economy. A CTE Tech Prep articulation agreement that provides college credit will allow students to follow a clear career path to Cincinnati State University in a variety of environmental fields. Exposing Students to Green Curriculum Today’s CTE is becoming more rigorous in response to the growing skill needs in the current economy. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – CTE [Hyslop Continues. placing CTE offers early exposure to students regarding sustainable energy career options through curriculum integration. Food. California’s Lake Tahoe Unified School District has plans for a green academy at South Tahoe High School that would expose students to careers in green construction. provides the “cutting edge” training necessary to ensure future employees meet workforce pipeline needs. and that students are exposed to careers in sustainability early enough to consider them as future options. For example. such as “Agriculture. CTE has often been turned to as the answer as policymakers around the country examine ways to reform high schools and help more students earn high school diplomas and transition to postsecondary education. Mehta.

The remainder of this manuscript will explain the various aspects in which the NCLB policy may affect CTE programs.com/labor-employment/laborsector-performance-labor-force/12275431-1. “No Curriculum Left Behind: The Effects of the No Child Left Behind Legislation on Career and Technical Education.2 decline in the amount of vocational credits earned and a 2. math. Peace through superior firepower. the adequate yearly progress (AYP) provision. Austin and Mahlman (2002) add.html) At all levels of education. green sustainability movements will collapse Hyslop. 2004) found a national .allbusiness. Phelps (2002) points out that.edu/ejournals/CTER/v31n3/pdf/fletcher.pdf) It is possible that many assume the NCLB policy does not affect CTE programs because the objectives of NCLB appear to be directed towards the core academic courses such as English. from career exploration to specific job training. Around the country.efficient and sustainable technology will be for naught. Mehta. should look to CTE programs as the answer to the sustainability workforce challenge. Despite the limited research on how NCLB affects CTE programs. and science. president of the ACTE. suggested that “NCLB was ‘squeezing career and technical education’ out of the curriculum”. and CTE legislation objectives. 1). 5).lib. in an article by Lewis (2004). In fact. / 15 . 6 – Workforce Development and Education @ The Ohio State University (Edward C Fletcher Jr. Finally.” 4/1/09. along with local businesses and industries. ). the National Assessment of Vocational Education ([NAVE]. http://www. this manuscript will point out various implications for CTE programs. Without critical CTE activities providing a skilled and ready workforce.8 decline in the percentage of students who are occupational concentrators. anecdotal evidence suggests otherwise. CTE has an essential role to play in energy and environmental sustainability. These programs should be recognized for their leadership and expanded so that even more students can participate. Tom Applegate. these aspects include CTE teacher qualifications.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Community and political leaders. CTE school reform initiatives. Absent effective CTE. 9 – Assoc Director of Public Policy @ Association for Career and Technical Education (Alisha. CTE programs focused on a wide variety of green ideas and practices are now in place to ensure the continued pipeline of skilled workers with a strong knowledge foundation.” http://scholar.vt. “Career and technical education (CTE) is not immune from the provisions of NCLB” (p. “In many states CTE students are now in the same ‘high-stakes kettle’ as students in other tracks…One hypothesis is that CTE is an area to which students with low scores or special needs are steered” (p. “CTE's Role in Energy and Environmental Sustainability. However. Astead. he further stated that if that is the result “then we really shot ourselves in the foot in terms of some of our other missions in education” (¶ 7). Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – CTE NCLB kills focus on science and engineering career education Fletcher. all of the investments in new energy.

such as coal. would help to avoid the periodic economic instability that arises from fluctuations in world oil prices. First. on a downward path for every major sector of the economy. cost-effective package that achieves substantial energy savings and related environmental benefits. but is also the principal source of sulfur dioxide that causes acid rain.2 Improving enbergy security It is impossible to run a modern society without substantial amounts of energy. we expand the diversity of energy sources so that choice is increased and markets become more difficult to manipulate. Proposals to expand oil drilling may endanger sensitive natural habitats such as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.epi. for example.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. One central example of such a problem is global warming. Overall air and water quality have improved by some measures. Tellus Institute (James P. including carbon dioxide. atmospheric mercury. recessions. industries and households alike. it encourages the substitution of fuels with lower emissions of greenhouse gasses and other pollutants. can lead to increased environmental impacts even when emissions (or other damages) per unit of output are declining. atmospheric lead . Coal is the nation's primary source of electricity. Mehta. To achieve this. / 16 .g. and continued economic growth. http://www. 2 .1. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – CTE Efficiency and renewable projects solve climate change and oil dependence Barrett. is to significantly curtail greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental problems. the goal is to assemble a feasible. J. for those with higher emissions. and other pollutants. while good in itself.S.most notably carbon dioxide. 1.Economic Policy Institute. in recent decades energy prices have been extremely volatile.have been virtually eliminated. Many of these problems have been reduced through end-of-pipe controls and other measures over recent decades. This report did not set any particular target or goal for emissions reduction. which have contributed to two major U.org/publications/entry/studies_cleanenergyandjobs/) The consumption of coal. Ongoing events such as the recent string of years with record-breaking average temperatures and the thinning of glacial and polar ice make clear that this is a problem that will become increasingly urgent over time. the policy set examined here focuses on improvements in energy efficiency and increased use of renewable energy resources..S. One goal of this project was to improve national energy security. In a similar vein. a necessary by-product of fossil fuel combustion . and a number of serious environmental problems .e. threatening the economic health of U. Andrew Hoerner. more efficient use of electricity could help protect industry from the economic impacts of electricity price spikes such as those recently seen in California. and puts aggregate emissions of major pollutants.S.are trapping extra solar heat. with potentially catastrophic worldwide consequences. other problems have proven more intractable. and natural gas has introduced a number of unintended side effects throughout the world. such as natural gas. Combustion of fossil fuels is the principal source of air pollution and a number of other environmental problems. Astead. Steve Bernow and Bill Dougherty. However. Second.5 The vast majority of the world's leading scientists now agree that human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases . Peace through superior firepower. In addition. and the policy package addresses this issue in two ways. A substantial reduction in fossil fuel consumption will be necessary if the U. petroleum. Reducing consumption of oil. Center for a Sustainable Economy. we improve energy efficiency in all sectors in order to reduce the vulnerability of the economy by cutting the share of energy purchases in total industry costs and household budgets. However. Instead.

The more the ice melts. in the immortal words that Chief Seattle probably never spoke. It appears that an initial warming pulse triggered other warming processes. and the more the Arctic warms. http://www. Astead.000 gigatonnes of carbon into the atmosphere. Lush subtropical forests grew in polar regions. the more sunshine is absorbed by the sea. The world's geography would be transformed much as it was at the end of the last ice age.guardian. The climate system is already experiencing significant feedbacks. bringing long-term sea level rises of 70-80 metres. And as the Arctic warms.5m years to the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Peace through superior firepower. To see how far this process could go. Award for Scientific Freedom and Responsibility from the American Association for the Advacement of Science] told the Guardian last week. At first sight this looks like wise counsel from the climate science adviser to Defra. with more frequent and severe droughts. when a global temperature increase of 6C coincided with the release of about 5. the release of billions of tonnes of methane – a greenhouse gas 70 times stronger than carbon dioxide over 20 years – captured under melting permafrost is already under way. The collapse of the polar ice caps would become inevitable. when sea levels rose by about 120 metres to create the Channel. But the idea that we could adapt to a 4C rise is absurd and dangerous. transport and industrial infrastructure. Sir David King [Director of the Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment at the University of Oxford]. Watson's call was supported by the government's former chief scientific adviser. This is a remarkable understatement. complete with ports. Billions would undoubtedly die. Mehta. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – CTE Warming causes extinction Tickell. Or perhaps the beginning of our extinction. Many scientists warn that this historical event may be analogous to the present: the warming caused by human emissions could propel us towards a similar hothouse Earth.uk/commentisfree/2008/aug/11/climatechange) [Quals Added] We need to get prepared for four degrees of global warming. and sea levels rose to 100m higher than today. and much of the world's most productive farmland. cities. All the world's coastal plains would be lost. Bob Watson [PhD in Chemistry. / 17 .Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. The Earth's carrying capacity would be hugely reduced. floods and hurricanes. 8/11. Weather would become extreme and unpredictable. look 55. "the end of living and the beginning of survival" for humankind. the North Sea and Cardigan Bay out of dry land. 8 – Environmental Researcher (Oliver. who warned that "if we get to a four-degree rise it is quite possible that we would begin to see a runaway increase". notably the summer melting of the Arctic sea ice. both as CO2 and as methane from bogs and seabed sediments.co. Global warming on this scale would be a catastrophe that would mean.

The computer models. or about as certain as science gets) that heattrapping emissions from human activities have caused "most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century. which can create new food shortages in new regions. The Washington Quarterly 31. Iss. destructive weather events. said this shouldn't have happened until sometime late in the 21st century. ice in the Arctic Ocean melted. in November 2007. Every national academy of science. / 18 . Timeframe is irrelevant – must stop irreversible chain reactions Podesta and Ogden. whether humans were the cause. there's no serious question about the general shape of what's to come. In the developing world. It is therefore critical that policymakers do all they can to prevent the domino of the first major climate change consequence. Its last report synthesized data from the early part of the decade. The reports have found since 1995 that warming is dangerous and caused by humans. 7 – *President of the Center for American Progress and ** Senior National Security Analyst at the Center for American Progress (John and Peter.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. it will be the developing nations in the earth's low latitudinal bands. The most threatening first dominos. In the early years of the global warming debate. In other words. Mehta. Bush have agreed that we are heating the planet.by late September. Jan/Feb) "Scientists Are Divided" No.1. which are just a few years old. which can drive human migration. that will be most adversely affected by climate change. which can lead to conflict over remaining resources. long lists of Nobel laureates. as well as sub-Saharan African countries. found it is "very likely" (defined as more than 90 percent certain. not the latest scary results. Foreign Policy. 32. so much ice had melted that both the Northwest and Northeast passages were open. there was 25 percent less ice than ever measured before. And it wasn't a one-time accident. the spread of disease. there is a more thorough scientific process here than on almost any other issue: Two decades ago. the United Nations formed the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (lPCC) and charged its scientists with synthesizing the peer-reviewed science and developing broad-based conclusions. and their cascading geopolitical implications are identified in this essay. Peace through superior firepower. Indeed.both because member countries must sign off on the conclusions and because there's a time lag. of course. It melts a little every summer. even though the IPCC projects that temperature increases at higher latitudes will be approximately twice the global average. even a relatively small climatic shift can trigger or exacerbate food shortages. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – CTE The warming debate is over – it’s real and caused by humans McKibben. whether it be food scarcity or the outbreak of disease. The panel's most recent report. and whether it would be a significant problem. human migration. p. such as what we're now seeing in the Arctic. many scientists now think that the IPCC has been too conservative . By the end of the summer season in 2008. and in recent years even the science advisors of President George W. and natural resource competition. These crises are all the more dangerous because they are interwoven and self-perpetuating: water shortages can lead to food shortages. The Security Implications of Climate Change. Winter 2007) Consequently. 9 – Environmental Studies @ Middlebury (Bill. 170. there was great controversy over whether the planet was warming. Even skeptics can't dispute such alarming events. Although the details of future forecasts remain unclear." If anything. That debate is long since over. water scarcity. In the summer of 2007. Once underway. where they are situated. but this time was different . you could circumnavigate the Arctic on open water. from toppling. Astead. this chain reaction becomes increasingly difficult to stop. they re not.

6 Peace through superior firepower.800 billion readily available to us. The U. What goes up must come down. have brought the realization that fundamental changes in energy use are necessary for continued sustainability of the chemical and allied industries. 99 – partner with Petroplan. energy use constitutes about 24 percent of the global consumption of energy.timeshighereducation. etc. discovery and implementation of innovative and more energy efficient technology are. domestic. and must remain. coal. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – CTE Oil economy causes extinction Campbell.4 or about 7. One company has publicly reported5 achievements of more than 20 percent improvement in energy efficiency in a ten year period from 1994 to 2004. etc. It is logical for environmentalists to predict apocalypse. The price of natural gas is at an all time high in the United States. These two books in their different ways will help us understand our predicament. Yet there is much that we could do to ameliorate the transition to a leaner economy based on renewable energy.asp?storyCode=160650&sectioncode=34) Education Magazine The oil age is 150 years old and now just about half over. Uncertainties in the reliability of supply. as oil production peaks.1 The U.S. Indeed. which is the highest price in the world.2 Industrial activity accounts for 33 percent of all the energy (fossil fuels. / 19 .A Workshop Report. Global events in the last three decades. etc) for fossil fuel resources. Sustainability in the Chemical Industry: Grand Challenges and Research Needs .S. pg.) Competition with other industries (transportation. Recently. water. Mehta. The fourfold increase in oil prices since the mid-1990s has driven the CPI to discover energy efficient technologies that have contributed to more useful products. are the result of great advances in chemical and biological sciences and technology. too. leaving a global economy seemingly bent on concentrating wealth. the chemical products resulting from these advances require considerable energy input or intensity.S. The readily available and relatively inexpensive sources of fossil fuels that the chemical industry has enjoyed for the last century are in part responsible for the present situation. Chairperson.3. However the exploration. In short. and in the 21st century we will have to deal with the downside. these include business risks associated with the: Increasingly higher cost of energy which is reflected in the increasing production cost of chemical products. agriculture being heavily dependent on petroleum for synthetic nutrients and water supply. 88 percent of which is derived from fossil fuels (petroleum. however.J. “The extinction of Hydrocarbon Man?” Times Higher http://www.) as well as ones causing acid rain and ground-level ozone pollution (NOx. We have consumed about 820 billion barrels of the 1. chemical process industry (CPI) consumes nearly 25 percent of this. Similar to the discussion in Chapter 3. ongoing pursuits. The implications for sustainability of the high energy use in the CPI are well documented.uk/story. energy use in the CPI is significant. sustainability is key to maintaining a competitive chemical industry Trainham et al. the price of a barrel of oil reached more than $60. It may turn out to be virtual wealth as the fuel that drives it becomes first expensive and then in short supply.co. electricity. reduced emissions. with the mean value staying substantially above the price over the last 20 years. Impacts on global climate change from emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2. 54-55) The high standard of living accorded by the availability of food. clothing. COMMITTEE ON GRAND CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABILITY IN THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY under the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology. 5 (James A. This places the U. However.7 percent of all the energy resources used in the United States. and natural gas combined). And. chemical industry at an economic competitive disadvantage.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. and recreation. shelter. and is likely to continue to fluctuate. there are numerous examples of real gains made by the chemical industry in addressing the high energy intensity.) used in the U. We are now on the cusp. Trainham III. and improved productivity. etc. may peak not long after oil for not wholly unrelated reasons. The great social struggles of capitalism.S. socialism and communism that sought an equitable reward from this abundant energy have run their course. transportation. Astead. Population. a consultancy that specialises in petroleum forecasts and depletion analysis (C.

Its "Responsible Care" initiative. (the 1987 report of the United Nations' World Commission on Environment and Development). to seek continuous improvement in performance. that the attainment of Sustainable Development will call for action on the part of the people. Sustainability in the environmental sense means not placing an intolerable load on the ecosphere and maintaining the natural basis for life. that the chemical industry plays a major role in providing/ supporting performance improvements. Although today we cannot define the needs of future generations. therefore. Innovation at all levels and in all fields of activity is the most effective instrument for ensuring that the economic. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – CTE Competitive chemical industry solves extinction ICCA. Through these efforts the industry is improving its efficiency. In addition. In the advances made in its own operations. In view. In itself. and environmental Peace through superior firepower. Under the concept of "Responsible Care". hence. Its products and services are instrumental in meeting the needs of mankind. as examples. information technologies. there needs to be provided as large a measure of equal opportunities. governments. Energy Efficiency Programmes are also part of this framework. Seen from society's viewpoint. The global chemical industry believes that the key to improving the performance of the industry is both its commitment to achieving environmentally sound Sustainable Development and improved performance and transparency. research and development progress and. to the financing of both public works and the exercise of public responsibilities. June 20. Sustainable Development will only come about if three goals .” online: http://www.economic. It follows. sustainability means that human beings are the centre of concern. economic and social concerns must be integrated if the world's peoples are to advance and develop without jeopardizing the natural environment on which all life depends. such as the energy sector. It is present in all areas of life. chemical companies are committed. its improved performance and in the improvements to the human condition made through its products. freedom. it is clear that the chemical industry with its unique capabilities is in a position to make a decisive contribution to Sustainable Development. To determine the limits of acceptability and scope for action requires a set of conventions which society at large accepts as valid. the challenge for today's leaders is to pursue policies that will leave available an array of choices for future generations to meet their own needs. environmental and society-related . businesses and organisations around the world. as well. companies are also confronted with new challenges and must act responsibly. social justice and security as possible. of the population increase worldwide. to educate all staff and work with customers and communities regarding product use and overall operation. reducing risks to health and the environment and making better products which. the chemical industry is an important supplier to a broad range of downstream industries and is.cefic. Commitment by the world chemical industry to the concept of Sustainable Development requires words to be transposed into company-specific action programmes in order to provide a framework for all those working in the sector. it helps to solve the problems of other sectors of industry. Thereby. therefore. THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY's LEADERSHIP IN INNOVATION The very notion of Sustainable Development will require new approaches in a number of areas. / 20 . is that environmental. self-monitoring systems and other voluntary programmes such as Sustainable Technology (SUSTECH).can be reconciled. Astead. transport .right through to leisure activities. Sustainability in economic terms means the efficient management of scarce resources as well as a prospering industry and economy. health and protection of the environment. Since living standards are determined to a large degree by material considerations. a customer of a broad range of products and services from other industries. environmental industries and the waste disposal sector. “SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY. housing. The main challenges facing the world include:* Optimizing the benefits obtained from depleting resources * Assuring against excessive strains placed on the eco-system * The dynamic growth of the world population * Remedying social and economic inequalities These are challenges on a global scale. Due to its size. particularly. 2 (International Council of Chemical Associations). Education-Industry Partnerships.htm) The key finding of "Our Common Future".be/position/icca/pp_ic010. in turn.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. in aljl aspects of safety. CONTRIBUTION OF THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT The chemical industry is a key industry. They must take account of the consequences of their actions upon society and future generations. last but not least. The global chemical industry has realized this challenge. The chemical industry views Sustainable Development as a challenge put before all parts of society. it is a large-scale provider of jobs and makes a significant contribution to wealth creation and. It follows. employment in other industries. the chemical industry sees cause for optimism and believes that Sustainable Development can be the intellectual framework around which the chemical industry. from food and clothing. other industries and other sectors of society can reach consensus on how to improve living standards and the environment. Mehta. help individual and industry customers. communications.

recycling and solving environmental problems. Trade as an engine of economic growth is essential for Sustainable Development. The chemical industry is a major industrial sector and an essential contributor to welfare and employment on a global scale. thus. are being advanced. the long-term future of the industry must be rooted in a dynamic policy. in order to play a constructive role in Sustainable Development. to new technologies and environmental improvements. which can contribute to society meeting its goals for Sustainable Development. This includes bringing to a halt the growing intervention by governments in industry and their ever increasing demands to raise income by taxation. as well as those of society. In order to maintain this position under the imperative of Sustainable Development. What they need. thus setting the scene for the world market. this means:* a consistent orientation towards products.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Wealth creation and profits are fundamental to Sustainable Development. The chemical industry's contribution is to continue innovation of new products that meet customer needs and manufacturing processes that reduce risks to health and the environment. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – CTE [ICCA Continues. thus imposing a disproportionate load on the business community. and contribute. The challenge facing the chemical industry is to maximize innovation. They sustain economies (not just the chemical industry). The inter-relation of economic systems is complex. For the individual company. Astead. This is being manifested by:* an increase of imports and exports of goods as well as services * growing outward and inward flows of direct investment * an ever increasing exchange of technology transfers * globalization of monetary and financial schemes. is. The chemical industry is firmly convinced that leadership in innovation represents the best way of attaining Sustainable Development. / 21 . environmental and society-related requirements. freedom and fairness in international trade. via re-investment and R&D. Mehta. keeping up international competitiveness as a pre-requisite of sustainable job creation. A climate needs to be fostered within which such growth may take place on the basis of a clear set of rules with predictable consequences. first and foremost. Profits are needed to create flexible company structures oriented towards economic. handling and use of chemical compounds. no text omitted] goals. technologies and solutions which offer the greatest promise for the future * development of new integrated environmental technologies * a close cooperation with the customers of the chemical industry * adaptation to the conditions of global competition * bringing the most promising products quickly on the market * strengthening the R&D effort which requires resources which can only be financed from profitable earnings * actively contributing ideas and suggestions to the policy debates taking place in society * improving process yield (efficiency). Multi-national chemical companies apply common standards in spreading investment capital and stimulating markets around the globe. but also to reprocessing. with a variety of relationships among countries. is becoming more and more apparent. whereby continual innovation and re-engineering of companies result in an increase of productivity and. by which investors may be guided in their long-term decision-making process. APPROACH TO THE ECONOMIC GOAL OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT The internationalization of the economy at large. in conjunction with a growing trend towards global competition. Peace through superior firepower. This contribution is based upon the knowledge and experience the industry has acquired from applying innovation not only to making.

better lives.S. access to technology and technological innovation is what separates the developed world from developing nations.heritage. engineering jobs that need to be filled and every year only 60. Marshall. But the STEM crisis extends far beyond economic prosperity. Policy Analyst for Homeland Security in the Douglas and Sarah Allison Center for Foreign Policy Studies. there are multiple fundraising activities for sport teams but few for science fairs or math competitions.S. continually sending U.S. citizens working in STEM fields. vulnerable in times of war.pdf) //HM Every day. national defense. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Defense-Industrial Base Contention : Total Primacy STEM education in K-12 is key to competitiveness and a strong defenseindustrial base Carafano et al.S. leaving the U. and Jena Baker McNeill. India. “Improving U. engineers graduate—leaving more than two-thirds of these STEM positions vacant. In America.D. Detrimental to national competitiveness. companies as well—evidence that U. From computer chips to microwaves. let alone gain. the positive correlation between STEM expertise and economic prosperity has been recognized with increased investment. and Dan Lips. These centers are not only funded by Indian companies but by U. But times are changing. In today’s world. place more emphasis on extracurricular activities than on STEM education. technology begets technology.S. In some parts of the world. low achievement in STEM fields at all levels of education and beyond is becoming not only culturally acceptable—it is becoming the norm. Likewise.000 engineers per year). Every year. and Jennifer A. designed. Senior Policy Analyst in Education in the Domestic Policy Studies Department (James Jay. China has gained ground in electrical engineering and computing. a competitive edge. 6/16 – Ph.S. Astead. has recently experienced a 600 percent increase in research and development (R&D) centers. Even so. the U. a division of the Kathryn and Shelby Cullom Davis Institute for International Studies.to 22-year-olds do not have a high school diploma.S. Multidisciplinary research is a prerequisite for any nation to maintain. For years. http://www. The U. such as China and India (each of which graduates 600. and India has made enormous strides toward becoming the leader in accounting and financial services. Sixty-eight percent believe that the U.S. Director of Domestic Policy Studies.org/Research/Education/upload/SR_57. there are 200. depends on science. independent researcher. The physicist must work with the structural engineer to create alternative energy sources. and math to maintain its position as the world superpower.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Such technologies keep the economy thriving and protect the country in times of war. from cell phones to antibiotics. work to be performed in other countries is not a sustainable solution: Over time globalization will directly and negatively impact America’s industrial economy.000 U. and manufactured in foreign countries. and Ethel Machi. more and more high-tech. students who excel in sports are considered heroes while students who excel in science are considered geeks. Ninety-five percent of Fortune 500 CEOs believe that there is a severe shortage of U. is less focused on STEM than other countries. and homeland security. graduates are not meeting domestic business demands in quantity or in quality. K–12 education is compulsory. stays on its current trajectory. neither can do it alone.S. engineering. While STEM engineering work can arguably be outsourced to other nations. When a company fails to make progress in materials science. which in turn empowered its military and fueled its economy. for example. 30 percent of 18. technology.S. a new technology is brought to market by the STEM workforce. The ocean engineer must work with the nuclear engineer to create world-class submarines. Competitiveness with K-12 STEM Education and Training. it means a competitor’s microchips will be smaller. Assistant Director of the Kathryn and Shelby Cullom Davis Institute for International Studies and Senior Research Fellow for National Security and Homeland Security in the Douglas and Sarah Allison Center for Foreign Policy Studies. America is rapidly moving toward a future where its top defense technologies are invented. Peace through superior firepower.S. Advances in robotics can improve manufacturing. / 22 .000 U. Schools across the U. In many schools. high-paying jobs will be sent overseas. enabling people around the world to live longer.S. If the U.S.-dominated science and technology fields filed record numbers of patents. Falling behind in any technological field has a detrimental domino effect because every field is dependent on the others. Mehta. In an alarming development.

for many years. and against Vietnam in 1979. have carefully crafted their excuse for enmity. Each instance involved a sudden.S. On June 13. against Tibet in 1950.financialsense.” Two recent items reveal Moscow’s intentions.” and that the United States is – from now on – to be described as Russia’s enemy. "is that China has no such [hostile] intention. The American side prefers to believe that Marxism-Leninism is dead. like the Russians. frmr analyst @ Defense Intelligence Agency. Mehta. against India in 1962. relationship.html) Clenched Fist. we catch a glimpse of Beijing's evil intentions. Poli Sci Ph.S. that China is evolving into a "normal" country. 2005." The People's Daily bitterly complains that the Americans oppose Chinese military expansion in Asia. The Chinese government.. I believe that the political process in Russia. "My analysis in the last four years. but they are nonetheless real. Secretary of State Colin Powell gave the keynote address at the Asia Leadership Forum in Bangkok. In fact. In 1989 America’s leaders could not see the Kremlin’s intentions because intentions are invisible to the naked eye. through its official organ (The People's Daily)." The People's Daily has also stated: "U. Astead. have all along clung to the Cold War mentality and held fast to the principle of containment in their policy toward China. Psychologically. They are not as easy to see as Moscow’s. was guided to this end. Thailand. if we look at recent history we find that China has sent its armies against at least five neighboring countries since World War II: against Korea and the U. This means that Russia can move tank and motorized infantry divisions to NATO’s doorstep. The Cold War is to be renewed. It has been my contention..S.S. The American side has supposedly manufactured an imaginary "China threat. – no chance of a peaceful rise Nyquist. from 1989 to the present. unprovoked strike against foreign forces outside China. President Vladimir Putin has announced that he is suspending Russia’s commitment to follow the Conventional Forces in Europe treaty (CFE). President Putin’s intentions are clear.” and their intention is to smash America.N. against Russia in 1969. says that U. America is the “main enemy” once again. Wrap China in a blanket of dollars and Communist ideology will find itself smothered. If we examine Chinese propaganda with a psychological eye. “One http://www. Contrary to Chinese propaganda. Preach 'China Military Threat'?" According to Beijing's official organ. The Chinese." Peace through superior firepower." says the Daily.. First. The received wisdom of our time holds that peace can be established through technology transfers and trade." A typical column published by The People's Daily rhetorically asks: "Why Does U. forces in 1950. American officials and analysts hardly agree there is a China threat. "." he explained. China wishes to live in peace with its neighbors and the U.S. in which Russia pretended to liberalize and move toward capitalism.S. After all.R. Right-wing forces are determined to destroy a "fragile" Sino-U. that this was the KGB’s intention from the outset. 7 – Analyst @ Financial Sense.S. the Americans are determined to misread China's intentions. former U. and observable. program @ UC Irvine (J.S. Second. Now Russia and China will emerge together as “one clenched fist. the outrage expressed by Beijing inadvertently reveals the malevolence of China's leaders. it is still the traditional countries [like Russia and China] that constitute strategic threats.com/stormwatch/geo/pastanalysis/2007/0427. It was a repeat of Lenin’s New Economic Policy of the 1920s. And like the Russians. opposition to Chinese military expansion? Only a would-be aggressor feels thwarted by the collective security arrangements of neighboring countries. Right-wing forces . Russian radio news broadcasters have been ordered to make 50 percent of their reporting on Russia “positive. And so America’s leaders were fooled. why would The People's Daily express outrage at U. they will blame the American side. The collapse of Communism was a staged event..D. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Defense-Industrial Base China and Russia are gearing up to topple the U. "In the opinion of the United States.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. He said that China's increased military spending doesn't threaten the United States. / 23 . drawing investment and technology from the West.

pdf) Since the 1950s. so that no potential aggressor may be tempted to risk his own destruction. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Defense-Industrial Base Defense-industrial deters war with China and Russia and solves terrorism and prolif Watts. for the federal government to set about imposing a purportedly more efficient or effective structure on the US defense industrial base.20081015. http://www. The bulk of this report is contained in three chapters. equally important. what kind of defense industry is in the best interests of the United States. In hindsight. and defense-industry leaders were probably right not to go very far down the road in trying to heed it.Takfiri and Khomeinist terrorist groups and their state sponsors. passage in Eisenhower’s January 1961 speech: A vital element in keeping the peace is our military establishment.” Usually forgotten or ignored has been an earlier. particularly of nuclear weapons. Our arms must be mighty. just as it was during World War II. 8 – Senior Fellow @ The Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments (Barry D. by the military-industrial complex. nor would it be wise.” CBA. During the 1990s. especially in the foreseeable future? Second. the worsening problem of proliferation. tends to dominate contemporary discussions of the US defense industrial base._The_US_Defense_In/R. including the Department of Defense and Congress. the longer-term challenge of authoritarian capitalist regimes epitomized by the rise of China and a resurgent Russia. Mehta. and played a pivotal role in developing the worldwide web. such advice seems to have overlooked the unique requirements and government-imposed constraints that pervade major weapons programs.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. / 24 . that have consumed so much American blood and treasure in Iraq. in a few cases. From a competitive perspective. While some defense companies tried to follow this advice. schedule. not least. In fairness. American defense companies provided the bombers and missiles on which nuclear deterrence rested and armed the US military with world-class weapons. The main focus of this report is on a larger question. There is the immediate threat of the violence stemming from Salafi. whether sought or unsought. ready for instant action. and reliable guided munitions cheap enough to be employed in large numbers. How prepared is the US defense industrial base to meet the needs of the US military Services in coming decades? The Cold War challenge of Soviet power has largely ebbed. Peace through superior firepower. Chapter 1 traces the evolution of the US defense industrial base since World War II. what steps might be undertaken to begin bringing about the required changes? There do not appear to be easy answers to either question. if the defense industry best suited to cope with the challenges of the early twenty-first century is substantially different from the one which exists today.org/4Publications/PubLibrary/R. integrated industrial base that would serve multiple customers. Chapter 2 offers an assessment of the industry’s performance to date. and. put a man on the moon in less than a decade. therefore. In the face of these more complex and varied challenges. weapon performance. it would surely be premature to begin dismantling the US defense industry. those critical of the defense industry tend to concentrate on these acquisition shortcomings.20081015. “The US Defense Industrial Base. most had little success. the vital question about the defense industrial base is whether it will be as much a source of long-term advantage in the decades ahead as it has been since the 1950s. there is a growing list of defense programs that have experienced problems with cost. successfully orbited the first reconnaissance satellites. including low-observable aircraft. Chapter 3 addresses two questions: first. Present and Future. Past. It is probably not possible. Nevertheless. rather than the need to maintain American military strength. Critics have long emphasized President Eisenhower’s warning in his farewell television address that the nation needed to “guard against the acquisition of undue influence. is at least as much to blame for many of these programmatic difficulties as US defense firms.csbaonline. the federal government. US political leaders and defense industry analysts called for replacing a defense industry largely isolated from the commercial sectors of the US economy with a single. wide-area surveillance and targeting sensors._The_US_De fense_In. but new challenges have emerged. Astead. and. While the percentage of US gross domestic product going to national defense remains low compared to the 1950s and 1960s. Eisenhower’s warning about undue influence. the US defense industrial base has been a source of long-term strategic advantage for the United States. They also contributed to the development of modern digital computers.

or those of Ronald Reagan. either accidentally or deliberately. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Defense-Industrial Base Failure to check China’s rise causes nuclear war Farah. You only need to be a student of history. Does this sound like the work of friends? We have a clear choice before us in dealing with the next great threat to America's future .Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. In ignoring China's military expansion. We are making our worst fear a virtual inevitability." Freeman quoted this official as saying. a former U. http://www. is not an existential risk. 9. It was just two years ago that a top Chinese military official said Beijing would use nuclear weapons against the U. Vol. you care more about Los Angeles than you do about Taipei. You don't have to be a prophet to see it. Mehta.com/news/opinion/la-op-dustup10oct10. said in 1999 that a PLA official had told him China would respond with a nuclear strike on the U.D.S. There is also a risk that other states may one day build up large nuclear arsenals. in the event of a conflict with Taiwan. Journal of Evolution and Technology.full. "In the end. "If the Americans draw their missiles and position-guided ammunition on to the target zone on China's territory.nickbostrom. “A U. editor and CEO of WorldNetDaily (Joseph.S. There was a real worry among those best acquainted with the information available at the time that a nuclear Armageddon would occur and that it might annihilate our species or permanently destroy human civilization. to be launched in conjunction with a conventional assault on U. Code-named "Pearl Harbor II" by the Pentagon. I think we will have to respond with nuclear weapons. Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter. its threats even against the United States. Such a war might however be a local terminal risk for the cities most likely to be targeted. carriers in the Pacific. Astead. War with Russia is the highest magnitude impact Bostrom. its threats against Taiwan. 2 . http://www.-China war?” LA Times Opinion.S.0. we shall see that nuclear Armageddon and comet or asteroid strikes are mere preludes to the existential risks that we will encounter in the 21 st century." Zhu Chenghu.com/existential/risks.latimes. assistant secretary of Defense.S. 7 – founder. if Americans defended Taiwan against an invasion from the mainland.[4] Russia and the US retain large nuclear arsenals that could be used in a future confrontation.Ph.story) China is the Evil Empire of the future. / 25 .1215555. More recently. a major general in the People's Liberation Army. the plan was designed to leave America's key allies in the Pacific Japan and Taiwan . we learned of China's plans for a cyberwar attack on the U. since it would not destroy or thwart humankind’s potential permanently.virtually defenseless. Philosophy @ Oxford and really smart dude (Nick. said at an official briefing.html) A much greater existential risk emerged with the build-up of nuclear arsenals in the US and the USSR. Unfortunately.follow the policies of Richard Nixon. we serve only to ensure a costly battle against the expansionist power in the future. An all-out nuclear war was a possibility with both a substantial probability and with consequences that might have been persistent enough to qualify as global and terminal. Peace through superior firepower. between India and Pakistan for instance.S. Note however that a smaller nuclear exchange.S. Chas Freeman.

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1AC – Defense-Industrial Base
We promise we’re not crazy – history proves the probability of a peaceful rise is zero and attempts at integration will fail Kagan, 5 - senior associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
(Robert, “The Illusion of 'Managing' China,” Published in the Washington Post, May 15th, 2005, http://www.carnegieendowment.org/publications/index.cfm?fa=view&id=16939) The history of rising powers, however, and their attempted "management" by established powers provides little reason for confidence or comfort. Rarely have rising powers risen without sparking a major war that reshaped the international system to reflect new realities of power. The most successful "management" of a rising power in the modern era was Britain's appeasement of the United States in the late 19th century, when the British effectively ceded the entire Western Hemisphere (except Canada) to the expansive Americans. The fact that both powers shared a common liberal, democratic ideology, and thus roughly consonant ideas of international order, greatly lessened the risk of accommodation from the British point of view. Other examples are less encouraging. Germany's rise after 1870, and Europe's reaction to it, eventually produced World War I. Even the masterly Bismarck, after a decade of successful German self-management, had a difficult time steering Europe away from collision. The British tried containment, appeasement and even offers of alliance, but never fully comprehended Kaiser Wilhelm's need to challenge the British supremacy he both admired and envied. Right up until the eve of war, highly regarded observers of the European scene believed commercial ties among the leading powers made war between them unlikely, if not impossible. Japan's rise after 1868 produced two rounds of warfare -- first with China and Russia at the turn of the century, and later with the United States and Britain in World War II. The initial Anglo-American response to Japan's growing power was actually quite accommodating. Meiji Japan had chosen the path of modernization and even Westernization, or so it seemed, and Americans welcomed its ascendancy over backward China and despotic Russia. Then, too, there was the paternalistic hope of assisting Japan's entry into the international system, which was to say the Western system. "The Japs have played our game," Theodore Roosevelt believed, and only occasionally did he wonder whether "the Japanese down at bottom did not lump Russians, English, Americans, Germans, all of us, simply as white devils inferior to themselves . . . and to be treated politely only so long as would enable the Japanese to take advantage of our national jealousies, and beat us in turn." Today we look back at those failures and ruminate on the mistakes made with the usual condescension that the present has for the past. But there is no reason to believe we are any smarter today than the policymakers who "mismanaged" the rise of Germany and Japan. The majority of today's policymakers and thinkers hold much the same general view of global affairs as their forebears: namely, that commercial ties between China and the other powers, especially with Japan and the United States, and also with Taiwan, will act as a buffer against aggressive impulses and ultimately ease China's "integration" into the international system without war. Once again we see an Asian power modernizing and believe this should be a force for peace. And we add to this the conviction, also common throughout history, that if we do nothing to provoke China, then it will be peaceful, without realizing that it may be the existing international system that the Chinese find provocative.

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1AC – Space
Contention : Space

STEM education key to maintaining the space industry – the alternative is loss of space dominance Pollack, 5 (Susan W., Ms. Pollack graduated as a member of the Industrial College of the Armed Forces
class of 2005. Some of her assignments prior to attending ICAF include contracts specialist at the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command and deputy director of the acquisition support cadre at the Missile Defense Agency. She has a Bachelor of Arts degree in international relations from Saint Joseph’s University and has completed the Advanced Program Management Course at the Defense Systems Management College., THE FUTURE OF OUR NATION’S SPACE INDUSTRY WORKFORCE, http://www.dtic.mil/cgi bin/GetTRDoc? AD=ADA449454&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf) “The harsh fact is that the US need for the highest quality human capital in science, mathematics, and engineering is not being met . . . .In a knowledge-based future, only an America that remains at the cutting edge of science and technology will sustain its current world leadership.”82 Introduction: There is a crisis looming in America’s science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce base that has serious implications for the future of America’s space industry, and our nation’s economic and national security. Today, trends indicate other nations are on the verge of passing the US in scientific excellence and technological innovation.83 This comes at a time when the US is more dependent on its military, civil, and commercial-supporting space assets than any other nation. To maintain American preeminence in space, our nation must reinvigorate and inspire a new generation of STEM talent, as well as increase investments in research and development (R&D) and infrastructures. Troubling Trends
of STEM Education and the R&D Connection: The Council on Competitiveness found that innovation is the single most important factor in determining America’s success through the 21st century.84 While the report recommends increased funding in R&D, the US government has reduced funding in national R&D over the past ten years, including cuts in the President’s FY 2006 R&D budget. Studies link a strong

correlation between reduced R&D funding to the decline in the number of graduates in the STEM subjects.85 Over the past decade, our nation has lost more than 600,000 scientific and technical aerospace jobs which have also adversely impacted the number of students earning degrees in STEM. Meanwhile, nearly 30 percent of the aerospace workforce will be eligible to retire in 2008. 86 The current US educational system will not provide enough students with the needed STEM skills to fill the critical positions being vacated by the retiring babyboomers.87 Concurrently, other nations are building up their science and technology (S&T) infrastructures and
capabilities. A disturbing trend is the low performance of American students in the math and science subjects. Math and science achievement scores of US students fall below international averages.88 The results of a recent international survey, conducted by the Program for International Student Assessment in the spring of 2003, indicate the learning gap between the US and its competitors in Europe and Asia is widening in basic math and science skills at the eighth through twelfth grade levels. This is alarming since technology and innovation in the space industry depends on high tech skills in the STEM subjects, yet this is precisely where the best US students are not excelling. Space science education gets taught within the Earth science curriculum in the grades K-9. This narrow focus on space science is dangerously small relative to our nation’s reliance on space. A Department of Defense (DoD) senior official recently stated that the need for US citizens in defense work is critical and that the downturn in America’s science and engineering workforce has become “an issue of national security.”89 Solutions

to Improve the National STEM Workforce: It is imperative our nation take action to ensure the scientific proficiency needed in our future workforce. There are numerous policy improvements and on-going initiatives the government should pursue to increase student interest in math and science in the formative years, and to widen the pipeline of scientists and engineers who drive innovation.
The US government and industry are taking some steps in the right direction to address the issues discussed in the first two points below. However, our nation should act now to implement the recommendations stated in recommendations three through six . First, the Federal

government should develop a clear policy of sustaining long term research to encourage young people to enter careers in science, mathematics or engineering. Developing a top-notch space industry workforce requires a top-down vision by the President that reaches out to the nation and across the government as the inspirational basis necessary to develop and sustain a knowledgeable and skilled workforce. The Administration is
addressing this need and has recently announced a five-year Mathematics and Science Initiative that will engage in a public campaign to highlight the importance of mathematics and science education, and to recruit, train and retain teachers with strong backgrounds in mathematics and science. Second, early outreach programs are vital to developing and sustaining a knowledgeable workforce.

The Council on Competitiveness notes that we lose our future scientists and engineers around the junior high school years.90 Successful outreach initiatives which expose children to the STEM subjects can help to reverse this trend. DoD implements a Starbase program which provides students in K-12 with a week of math and science based
simulations and experiments in space-related fields.91 The National Aeronautics and Space Administration educational outreach program, “Inspiring the Next Generation of Explorers”, influences youths 13 to pursue science and engineering educational opportunities. The Boeing

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Company’s Summer Science Camp has successfully led students to pursue careers in science and engineering.92 Third, the Federal government should lift the visa restrictions for foreign students applying to enter the US. Post 9/11 immigration controls have resulted in a 32 percent drop in

Peace through superior firepower.



Sixth. Federallyfunded research has long been a significant factor in US patent productivity and economic strength. training. there is an urgent need for all the stakeholders involved. and the failure to fund basic R&D programs. Conclusion: STEM talent is the center of gravity in a knowledge-based economy that has raised the bar on innovation.96 As the government tries to reduce its budget deficits. including the government. / 29 . We must take deliberate steps to nurture our nation’s children in math and science in the formative years and attract and retain enthusiastic educators who will hand off the pride and the passion to the next generation . Just as President Kennedy inspired our nation in the race to the Moon. and workforce development. Astead.97 There is a real disconnect between the Administration’s plans for the new space exploration initiative. and educational and science and technology infrastructures are key to our nation’s vitality and future security. Although there is a lot of good coming from existing initiatives. we should be offering and requiring advanced Earth and space science courses at the middle and high school levels while helping students integrate learning into future careers. to develop an integrated plan for education. no text omitted] the number of international student applications in 2004. One-third of today’s US workforce of scientists and engineers were born outside the US94 The challenge regarding foreign students is to find a balance between scientific exploration and security. Peace through superior firepower. Congress should resist R&D cuts proposed in the President’s FY 2006 budget. These programs motivate STEM talent and lead to the innovation our space industry needs for competitive advantage. we must now inspire the nation’s young people to create a new generation of innovators to protect our national interests in space across the military. and professional societies. more should be accomplished. Fifth. President Bush’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology recently released a report which recommends improving our country’s K-12 education to ensure future innovation and improve the nation’s STEM capabilities. academia.99 The nation’s space industry. civil and commercial sectors. sufficient training for teachers is critical since they are the ones who inspire and motivate our nation’s children to dream and learn.93 Foreign students graduating from US universities with degrees in science and engineering have been an important asset in our industry workforce and have contributed to basic science and new innovations. the nation desperately needs to create an educational system of S&T schools. Children. The children we are educating today are the STEM workforce that will successfully lead the US in the 21st century. from kindergarten through graduate school.95 Fourth. It is clear that a long term solution to developing a skilled space industry workforce begins with improved math and science education.98 In summary. knowledge base. Mehta. and economic prosperity requires an urgent response from the government to accelerate and resource current initiatives while developing a national human capital strategy and vision to inspire the next generation workforce. America’s economic progress depends on a continuing supply of STEM talent engaged in and funded across the R&D spectrum. industry.. but do not have the capital to go from concept to delivery. and in an integrated approach. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Space [Pollack Continues. R&D programs in mathematics and engineering are being reduced. Congress should also assist entrepreneurs who have plans to build space components. At present. At a minimum. there is no central database for collaboration and sharing information at the national level.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. teachers.

dtic. 2003. many in China believe the goal of space control (vis-àvis the US) is to achieve space domination. Astead. we have all watched China’s rise over the last decade as a major world power. concerns. In private. This event fulfilled one of the key milestones set forth in China’s 2000 White Paper for Space Activities – a document which stressed the importance of and the future ambitions and milestone for the Chinese space program. etc. In light of China’s skepticism and mistrust for US policies. launch capability. Chinese officials added a space lab and an orbiting space station as part of their 3-step plan for manned spaceflight (having achieved step one with the launch of Shenzhou V). As noted by Hui Zhang. She has a Bachelor of Arts degree in international relations from Saint Joseph’s University and has completed the Advanced Program Management Course at the Defense Systems Management College.106 In follow-up to the FY03 Annual Report to Congress on the Military Power of the People’s Republic of China. groundtested. however. The White Paper is essentially the roadmap for China’s space activities. Much of the unclassified literature deals with expected responses by the Chinese to US policy and developments in space. and by all indications have the national will and state sponsorship to achieve their vision. Peace through superior firepower. China’s rise as a space power has raised many of the same questions. the FY04 report noted China making progress in anti-satellite ground-based laser technology. and would soon space-test parasitic micro-satellite and nano-satellite technology that could be launched and detonated close to US satellites. it should be expected that regardless of China’s officially stated policy. Regardless. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Space Specifically. Anti-satellite technology is the one area that seems to garner the most attention and debate. As noted in the FY03 Annual Report to Congress on the Military Power of the People’s Republic of China. China’s official public stance on space weaponization is that they oppose the militarization of space.. 102 It is important to note that much of China’s space program remains shrouded in secrecy – especially the degree to which the military is involved. thus making China the newest member in a select group of countries with manned space programs (the US and Russia being the other two). In light of the preponderance of open-source information about US space systems. The interest the Chinese have shown in such technology makes it feasible they could develop (if they do not already possess) the capacity to disrupt or destroy US space-based system. a senior analyst within the Department of Defense admitted that much of what we know and try to draw conclusions from comes from open written media as well as on-line sources . Will China Weaponize Space?: One of the most hotly debated topics with regard to US national security is the issue of placing offensive weapons in space.107 There is sufficient reason to believe. Lieutenant Colonel Liwei’s successful spaceflight embodies the vision set forth in the Paper – a vision that reflects the importance China places on the exploitation of space and the space program’s role in protecting national interests. a research associate in the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard 15 University's John F.103 Our understanding (at the unclassified level) of future Chinese ambitions in space. Estimates in classified literature are almost certain to be more specific. China’s increasing interest in space (backed up by capital investments in its space program) mirrors its growing economy and emergence as a major power – both regionally and globally.mil/cgi bin/GetTRDoc? AD=ADA449454&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.101 In updating the 2000 White Paper. any move by the US to place offensive weapons in space will be met by similar attempts by the Chinese. 5 (Susan W. weapons. Pollack graduated as a member of the Industrial College of the Armed Forces class of 2005. Mehta. Chinese officials probably consider the development of anti-satellite technology inevitable. Some of her assignments prior to attending ICAF include contracts specialist at the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command and deputy director of the acquisition support cadre at the Missile Defense Agency. that adversaries such as China can and will pursue technology capable of denying us the use of our own space systems – especially if we pursue a similar strategy of weaponizing space. the FY04 report noted a January 2001 Hong Kong newspaper article that said China had developed. The Chinese know where they want to go with their space program. On October 15.100 China’s slow but steady progress in achieving success in space reflects drive and determination. and more accurate. Kennedy School of Government. THE FUTURE OF OUR NATION’S SPACE INDUSTRY WORKFORCE.104 Is China’s stated opposition to space weaponization rhetoric or genuine policy they intend to pursue? The former is probably closer to the truth since it is likely that the Chinese will react in kind to whatever path the US pursues. one word best describes the assessment of the military threat that China poses to the United States space program – speculative. is based on observations of actual events and interpretation of statements made by Chinese officials. In trying to assess the status and makeup of China’s space industry. The foundation of China’s stable communist government lies in nationalism and steady economic growth -.a successful space program helps contribute to both as it lends credibility and legitimacy to the government and provides yet another possible area to commercially challenge the United States.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. 105 At the unclassified level.pdf) With a great deal of awe (and some apprehension). http://www. less speculative. therefore. and issues faced during the Cold War space race with the Soviet Union. While it is known that the military is heavily involved in the commercial launch industry (all of China’s launch and tracking centers are run exclusively by the military). the Chinese probably have enough knowledge to field systems that could jam US communications and navigation (GPS) satellite systems. the extent to which the military is involved in other aspects of China’s space program is largely unknown at the unclassified level. / 30 . the Chinese taikonaut Lieutenant Colonel Yang Liwei launched aboard the Shenzhou V. Overview of China’s Program.. Ms. The suspected capabilities the Chinese possess (in the unclassified arena) are probably based on assessments and estimates of how China’s known and potential technologies might be used to field offensive space capabilities to counter US systems. Chinese space expansion will be hostile Pollack. In addition.

Gen Ridgeway said that US was confronted with two choices in Korea -truce or a broadened war. likely to persist whether or not the Taiwan conflict is resolved. Singapore. short of using nuclear weapons. And the conflagration may not end there as opportunistic powers elsewhere may try to overturn the existing world order.95 Such attacks. He said military leaders considered the use of nuclear weapons mandatory if the country risked dismemberment as a result of foreign intervention. to protect the ’use of outer space by all nations for peaceful purposes and for the benefit of all humanity’. even without the added complications of accidents and further misperception. sensor nodes and command and control installations on the Chinese mainland could well be perceived as a precursor to an all-out war. There is a temptation. commander of the US Eighth Army which fought against the Chinese in the Korean War. “China’s Military Space Strategy”. The threat posed by this Chinese effort cannot be neutralised by arms-control agreements. In such circumstances. then a full-scale war becomes unavoidable. in turn. as the Bush administration’s own National Space Policy declares.S. East Asia will be set on fire. the US had at the time thought of using nuclear weapons against China to save the US from military defeat. The balance of power in the Middle East may be similarly upset by the likes of Iraq. the growing Chinese capability for space warfare implies that a future conflict in the Taiwan Strait would entail serious deterrence and crisis instabilities. to view China’s counterspace programmes in moralistic terms. before Washington has the opportunity to invest fully in redundant space capabilities. The US estimates that China possesses about 20 nuclear warheads that can destroy major American cities. With the US distracted. This approach is undesirable and best avoided: Beijing’s desire to defeat the stronger by asymmetric means is not a reflection of its deviousness. on space launch sites. especially in the United States. Extinction Strait Times. hostilities between India and Pakistan. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Space Absent U. the United States has no choice but to run an offence–defence arms race. even if employing only conventional warheads. and win. Pg. It is grounded in the objective conditions that define the relationship between the two countries: competing political goals. In south Asia. ingenta) Finally. If the US had to resort to nuclear weaponry to defeat China long before the latter acquired a similar capability. Rather. This strategic challenge has compelled Beijing to exploit every anti-access and battlespace-denial technology potentially available. In his book The Korean War. Survival. told a gathering at the Woodrow Wilson International Centre for Scholars in Washington that although the government still abided by that principle. 50 years later. there were strong pressures from the military to drop it. Mehta. dominance. 7 – Senior Associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (Ashley.96 The emergence of potent Chinese counterspace capabilities makes US military operations in Asia more risky than ever. even though all countries stand to profit from the absence of threats to their assets in space. this means South Korea. Japan. US Strategic Command officials have publicly signalled that conventionally armed Trident submarine-launched ballistic missiles would be appropriate weapons for executing the prompt strikes that might become necessary in such a contingency. or because of the Bush administration’s disinclination to negotiate an accord that bans the weaponisation of space. In the region. Already. which could have led to the use of nuclear weapons. each armed with its own nuclear arsenal. the Philippines and.istration. If such a clash were to compel Beijing to attack US space systems at the beginning of a war. Such outcomes would be particularly likely in a conflict in the next decade. If China were to retaliate. 2K. Beijing has already told the US and Japan privately that it considers any country providing bases and logistics support to any US forces attacking China as belligerent parties open to its retaliation. Will a full-scale Sino-US war lead to a nuclear war? According to General Matthew Ridgeway. It would be difficult for all sides to limit the intensification of such a conflict. Autumn. China’s space expansion will cause escalatory wars over Taiwan Tellis.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. could enter a new and dangerous phase. to a lesser extent. nor provoked by mendacity on the part of the United States or the Bush admin. June 25. A Chinese military officer disclosed recently that Beijing was considering a review of its "non first use" principle regarding nuclear weapons. Astead. Beijing also seems prepared to go for the nuclear option. But if this fundamental goal is threatened by Chinese counterspace activities aimed at American space assets. the United States should seek. / 31 . provoke the United States to contemplate pre-emptive attacks or horizontal escalation on the Chinese mainland. president of the military-funded Institute for Strategic Studies. there is little hope of winning a war against China. Gen Ridgeway said that Peace through superior firepower. The threat has not arisen due to a lack of a space arms-control regime. it is rooted entirely in China’s requirement that it be able to defeat the United States in a regional conflict despite its conventional inferiority. a personal account of the military and political aspects of the conflict and its implications on future US foreign policy. Conflict on such a scale would embroil other countries far and near and -horror of horrors -raise the possibility of a nuclear war. If Washington were to conclude that splitting China would better serve its national interests. the very prospect of such a ‘space Pearl Harbor’94 could. l/n THE high-intensity scenario postulates a cross-strait war escalating into a full-scale war between the US and China. Russia may seek to redefine Europe's political landscape. Major-General Pan Zhangqiang.

/ 32 . Kostrinsky Wave One should that come to pass. we would see the destruction of civilization. Astead. Peace through superior firepower.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Mehta.

navy.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. or transportation budgets. A continuation of it is thus minimally acceptable. the status quo. On the other hand. Immediately we see that the impact on the budget of significant increases in space weapons will be decreases in funding for combat aircraft. would opt not to counter US deployments in kind. one that would assist in extending the current period of American hegemony well into the future. not a perpetuation of it. if not all. occupation. an attempt by any other state to dominate space would be part of an effort to break the land-sea-air dominance of the United States in preparation for a new international order. The years of investment it would take to achieve a minimal counter-force capability—essentially from scratch—would provide more than ample time for the US to entrench itself in space. One of the more cacophonous refrains against weapons procurement of any kind is that the money needed to purchase them is better spent elsewhere. Are there not a thousand uses that are more beneficial for the money? But funding for weapons does not come directly from education. But would another state? If America were to weaponize space today. the US could do no less than engage in a perhaps ruinous space arms race. and space weapons in particular. perhaps far more compelling reason that space weaponization will in time be less threatening to the international system than without it. 2005. This is a tough sell for supporters of a strong military. and readily counter preliminary efforts to displace it.” September 14. and America must expect severe condemnation and increased competition in peripheral areas. and deploy a minimal space weapons system with the capacity to engage a few targets around the world could displace a half a dozen or more aircraft carrier battle groups. save graciously decide to step aside.eparl. As leader of the current system. but the likelihood of a hemorrhaging arms race in space should the US deploy weapons there—at least for the next few years—is extremely remote. it is unlikely that any other state or group of states would find it rational to counter in kind. The tremendous effort in time and resources would be worse than wasted. there is also a sense that it is at least tolerable to the majority of states. Most states. with the weaponizing state at the top. and the concomitant loss of military power from the denial of space to our alreadydependent military force could cause the immediate demise of the extant international system. Such an event would be disconcerting to nations that accept the current international order (including the venerable institutions of trade. This creates a dilemma for both pro and anti-space weaponization camps. The entry cost to provide the infrastructure necessary is too high. It is an even more difficult dilemma for those who oppose weapons in general. And America would respond … finally. but at all weapons. It comes from military budgets. The action would be a challenge to the status quo. even to states working towards its demise. the surface battle fleet. hundreds of billions of dollars. 5 – Professor of Comparative Military Studies at the US Air Force’s School of Advanced Air and Space Studies (Everett C. So long as the US does not employ its power arbitrarily. Placement of weapons in space by the United States would be perceived correctly as an attempt at continuing American hegemony. Although there is obvious opposition to the current international balance of power. It is a simple cliché but a powerful one. entire aircraft procurement programs (such as the F-22). This rationality does not dispute the fact that US deployment of weapons in outer space would represent the addition of a potent new military capacity. http://www. and law that operate within it) and intolerable to the US. / 33 . my concern is limited to the problem of letting technology take us where it will. There is another. “US Military Transformation and Weapons in Space. This is a mighty task. Ramifications for the most critical current function of the army. With the downsizing of traditional weapons to Peace through superior firepower. But such an outcome is less threatening than any other state doing so. and several heavy armored divisions. Mehta. and marines are profound—pacification. Space weapons in particular will be very. The longer the US dithers on its responsibilities. This would clearly be threatening. depending on how aggressively America uses its new power.net/pages/space_hearing_images/ConfPaper%20Dolman%20US%20Military%20Transform%20& %20Space. Space advocates must sell their ideas to fellow pro-weapons groups by making the case that the advantages they provide outweigh the capabilities foregone. the situation would be bearable initially and grudgingly accepted over time.pdf) Indeed. or housing. And so the question should not be directed at particular weapons. So long as America is the state most likely to acquire a breakthrough technology in this area. at minimum. very expensive. The tens (likely hundreds) of billions of dollars needed to develop. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Space American space dominance makes war structurally impossible Dolman. and control of foreign territory. it is concern for the unanticipated arrival of technology X that initially motivates my own preference for a policy advocating immediate deployment of space weapons. the more likely a potential opponent could seize low-earth orbit before America could respond. They might oppose US interests with asymmetric balancing. But what if an enemy of democratic liberalism should suddenly acquire the means to place quickly and cheaply multiple weapons into orbit? The advantages gained from controlling the high ground of space would accrue to it as surely as to any liberal state. test. finance. and ground forces. Astead.

need for precision to allay the low volume of fire. there are those who will benefit and those who will suffer.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. At a time when many are calling for increased capability to pacify and police foreign lands. The transgressor state is less likely to succumb to the security dilemma if it perceives its national survival is not at risk. The tragedy of American power is that it must make a choice. And yet. Hence. Should the US use its advantage to police the heavens (assuming the entire cost on its own). There is no question that corrupted power is a dangerous thing. Moreover. space weapons are offensive by their very nature. and the worst choice is to do nothing. the enhanced ability to deny any attempt by another nation to place military assets in space . This force would be precise. Without sovereignty at risk. Over time. space weapons proponents must advocate reduction of these capabilities in favor of a system that will have no direct potential to do so. measured. there appears no one best option. while the US is unchallenged in space. But they also offer no advantage in the mission of territorial occupation. Peace through superior firepower. It is this introspection. but perhaps only Americans are so concerned with the possibility that they themselves will be corrupted. in the process of choosing. the US must forego some of its ability to intervene directly in other states because its capacity to do so will have been diminished in the budgetary trade-offs required. No other state has such potential for selfrestraint. and unstoppable retaliation. the US could prepare outer space for a long-overdue burst of economic expansion. the tremendous expense of space weapons inhibits their indiscriminate use. They deter violence by the omnipresent threat of precise. and tremendous cost of space weapons will guarantee they are used only for high value. Transformation of the American military assures that the intentions of current and future leaders will have but a minor role to play in international affairs. No matter the choice selected. Mehta. As leader of the international community. At the same time. and the world will not be threatened by the specter of a future American empire. From low-Earth orbit (LEO). / 34 . the world of sovereign states will recognize that the US does not threaten self-determination internally. unstoppable. fear of a space dominant American military will subside. They fear what they could become. such an action would serve to discourage competing states from fielding opposing systems. and did so in a way that was perceived as tough. To be sure. the likelihood of a future war in space is remote. over time its control of LEO could be viewed as a global asset and a public good. Why would a state expend the effort to compete in space with a superpower that has the extraordinary advantage of holding securely the highest ground at the top of the gravity well? So long as the controlling state demonstrates a capacity and a will to use force to defend its position. in effect expending a small amount of violence as needed to prevent a greater conflagration in the future. A state employing offensive deterrence through space-weapons can punish a transgressor state. in light of the no-end-in-sight occupation of Iraq and Afghanistan. but is in a poor position to challenge its sovereignty. not more. though it challenges any attempts to intervene militarily in the politics of others. but perhaps it is perfectible. The US will maintain its position of hegemony as well as its security. if the US were willing to deploy and use a military space force that maintained effective control of space. As such. it has a great advantage—the moral ambiguity of its people regarding the use of power. would do much to stabilize the international system and prevent an arms race in space. and efficient. They offer no advantage if the target set considered is not global. enforcing international norms of innocent passage and property rights . Astead. time sensitive targets. The limited requirement for collateral damage. It is not perfect. they are far less threatening to the international environment than any combination of weapons employed in their stead. or to readily engage and destroy terrestrial ASAT capacity. the United States finds itself in the unenviable position that it must make decisions for the good of all. On the issue of space weaponization. Moreover. and allow unhindered peaceful use of space by any and all nations for economic and scientific development. the argument that the unilateral deployment of space weapons will precipitate a disastrous arms race is misplaced. Seizing the initiative and securing low-Earth orbit now. this self-angst that makes America the best choice to lead the world today and tomorrow. no text omitted] accommodate heightened space expenditures. America will maintain the capacity to influence decisions and events beyond its borders. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Space [Dolman Continues. Whether or not the United States desires to be a good neighbor is not necessary to an opposing state’s calculation of survival. and deadly. Much in the manner that the British maintained control of the high seas. makes the possibility of large scale space war and or military space races less likely. and has severely restricted its own capacity to do so. non-arbitrary. The operational deployment of space weapons would increase that capacity by providing for nearly instantaneous force projection worldwide. the ability of the US to do all three will wane significantly. with military force if necessary.

With more than 50 different sets of standards. align curriculum with academic standards.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Students continue to move through the nation’s schools gaining widely varying levels—mostly low—of knowledge. http://www. There also are opportunities to enhance secondary schools. While NCLB’s impact and connection to secondary education is still limited. Evidence of this abounds. the areas that NCLB seeks to coordinate with Perkins are related to state plans (Title I. School-wide improvement programs. Targeted Assistance Programs). according to NCLB. 5 – Fellow @ the Center for American Progress. college and career awareness and preparation programs and other similar programs. and Elena Rocha. not raising expectations. Section 1111) and local plans (Title I. Another area of coordination is for targeted assistance to schools (Section 1115. 3 Peace through superior firepower. placing greater emphasis on accountability for student learning and specifying the authorization of federal dollars through fiscal year 2007. skills and preparedness. Such action can lead. Accountability. Federal standards are key to stop the race to the bottom created by states – the alternative is a failing education system Brown. as illustrated below. 2 – National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium (D. integrating vocational and technical education programs. NCLB requires that states hold districts and schools accountable for getting all their students to “proficient” achievement levels. coordination and involvement of Perkins in ESEA to enhance the federal focus on secondary education (Perkins is currently the largest federal investment in secondary schools). Section 1114) and coordinating these plans with provisions under the Perkins Act where applicable. there is no national measure/yardstick/standard/benchmark for academic achievement at each of the grade levels. Astead. But the decentralized system of schooling continues mostly unchanged. Jason. and Fiscal Equity.americanprogress. to weakening curriculum and lowering. is also an impediment—a false sense of student performance. where Perkins could be coordinated with state and local plans. Section 1112). / 35 . are described as strategies to assess student needs.” November 2005. there has been counter pressure for states to game the system by lowering both standards and proficiency definitions. But what can be considered a step forward in many respects. the standards movement advanced with passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act. “THE NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT OF 2001: Opportunities for Career Technical Education.” With the pressure to increase student performance. Only national curriculum standards and national definitions and measures of student performance at proficiency levels can prevent this behavior. Fellow @ the Center for American Progress (Cindy. Mehta. all states have developed both curriculum and student performance standards and hold their districts and schools accountable for meeting yearly student achievement goals that grow tougher each year. “The Case for National Standards.org/kf/standards-based_framework. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Solvency Contention : Solvency Putting CTE under No Child Left Behind for targeted assistance solves job training Phelps. National cries for increased expectations and evidence of higher student achievement are more than 30 years old. Today.pdf) In 2001. including the “integration of vocational technical programs” into school-wide improvement programs (Title I. providing professional development for school personnel. the new law does offer numerous opportunities for coordination with Perkins. but allows them to adopt their own definitions of “proficiency. NCLB built upon and made significant changes to the 1994 laws. perversely. In general. NASDCTEc and the CTE community worked to increase the ties.” July 2002) During the reauthorization of ESEA.

prompting the government in 1983 to publish A Nation at Risk that warned of a “rising tide of mediocrity” in education that threatened future national security. and enabled one of the most diverse populations of any country to thrive. They provide the human and materiel resources needed to build a strong military force and enable government leaders and institutions to work effectively within the domestic and international environments." Low-income education is critical to the success of overall education policies – globalization means the workforce must be fully optimized McGuire. and technology build the foundation needed to compete in the Information Age. While the 1. Mehta. however. Gamble Co. who also has been speaking out this year on the need for national standards. Peace through superior firepower. social studies. history. two negative trends emerged during this period. “A free Nation can rise no higher than the standard of excellence set in its schools and colleges. Hunt Jr. the significance of these and other shortfalls within the US education industry is magnified by three factors. 5 (“Nationwide Standards Eyed Anew. overall student performance began to decline. With an eye toward this new environment. produced a superior military capability. of North Carolina. India. "I don't think this discussion has gotten to the place where people are ready to do it yet. Kennedy.3 million-member union has not taken an official position on the issue. "and I'm telling you. Civics. they're making rapid progress. Astead. and America’s well being will be defined largely by the success of those minorities. the executive vice president of the American Federation of Teachers. and political science cultivate democratic values and instill an understanding of America’s role in the world. Kostrinsky Wave One 1AC – Solvency Specifically. While the industry was expanding to serve the needs of veterans and the ensuing “baby boomer” generation. http://www." he added. because they're going to have the bulk of the intellectual and creative talent in the world. the Education Industry Study Seminar conducted an executive-level analysis of the US education industry to assess national security implications and offer policy recommendations. James B. First.. rapidly advancing technologies. Colonel in the US Army. science. very closely the educational progress in Asia--China. And I don't think the average American understands the impact of this for our future. a Democrat. Despite these successes. Globalization’s radically expanding economic competition leaves no room for US industries to be less than fully optimized. and several others. and that would be a good thing. and that has devastating consequences for us. whereas we're making minuscule progress." Given that global situation. "especially in subjects like math and science and related courses. Shifting US demographics will soon create a majority of minorities.pdf) The US education industry produces the Nation’s most vital national security resource—sons and daughters educated in a variety of subjects. the education system satisfied America’s national security requirements—it fueled the world’s most powerful economic engine. Math.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. lexis) "I've been watching very.” The US education industry took its present form following World War II. educated citizens are the economic backbone of the country. Globalization. she argues that national standards and curriculum frameworks "could also influence teacher preparation. Singapore. a retired global-marketing officer for the Cincinnati-based Procter &amp. In the words of President John F. personally thinks it makes "a lot of sense" to have national standards. 4 (Mark. Wehling." said former Gov.iii Second. minority and low-income students were achieving at levels far below that of other socioeconomic groups.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA435137 &Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. STEM standards are key at the national level – best for job training and global leadership Education Weekly. a condition that perpetuated poverty and other social ills. Collectively." Antonia Cortese. the Supreme Court’s Brown vs." said Robert L.iv Although both trends have seen some improvement. Vietnam. the United States needs to define a common set of standards. and shifting US demographics represent a new strategic environment that increases the importance of education to national security. "but I think the discussion among governors is at the point where they recognize they are facing very tough competition. From then until the turn of the century. Board of Education ruling in 1954 required the industry to focus on providing equity in education.” 12/7. Rapidly advancing technologies yield untold capabilities and reward the extremely talented who develop and exploit them. / 36 .dtic.

which had called for a blanket ban on H-1B visas. Senate voted to impose strict conditions on companies that receive federal bailout money.” An even bigger blow came two weeks later when U. the U. “We will restore a sense of fairness and balance to our tax code by finally ending the tax breaks for corporations that ship our jobs overseas. “So what we see happening is potential for protectionism.” Protectionism is indeed widespread and real. Mehta. In early February. because as a condition for support the governments are saying that we need not only to restore financial wellbeing but also to contribute to domestic job growth.-based IT consulting firm Tower Group. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Ext: No Jobs  Protectionism Protectionist policies are increasing due to outsourcing of American jobs UPI 3/10 ("Protectionism threatens India's IT sector. Although the final version was watered down from the original.S. Peace through superior firepower. President Barack Obama. Astead." United Press International. regardless what the government structure is. which termed the restriction as “irrational. in his first address to the Congress.upiasia.S.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.” he said. research director at the U. it was still a big blow to the Indian IT sector.com/Economics/2009/03/10/protectionism_threatens_indias_it_sector/5138/) Nevertheless. http://www." Obama said. “Nations across the world are looking at supporting their industries and as a part of that. will also want to see that the industries are held to account. said that there would be no tax breaks in outsourcing. limiting the hiring of foreigners with H-1B temporary-work visas. “The threat of protectionism for the Indian IT sector comes almost from everywhere.S. But what’s drawing worry lines across the Indian IT sector is the fact that protectionism is suddenly dominating the policies of almost every government. Nelsestuen. you will suddenly see taxpayers and stakeholders and all those who contribute to support the government. until now protectionist rhetoric remained just that – rhetoric.” said Rodney A. / 37 .

this is going to be a very. So any country that tries to export its problems.html JEFFREY BROWN: It's not only between the U. All countries are suffering downturns. is that it won't work. Jeffrey Brown is an American journalist and a senior correspondent and news anchor for the NewsHour with Jim Lehrer on PBS since May 2005. director of the Peterson Institute for International Economics. very profound issue.and in some cases. but it's clear that. policy director and chief international economist at the AFL-CIO.pbs. in response to worker protests -. but it could become a major friction point between a lot of countries. both among economic relations.09. Interview Transcript. this is a global crisis.19. Welcome to you both. and the whole trade system will spiral downward. “In Bad Economy. Fred Bergsten is Director of the Peterson Institute for International Economics. Are such moves appropriate? Or do they signal a shift toward protectionism? We talk about all this now with Fred Bergsten. http://www. Most of those are minor to date. but the economic crisis has accelerated trade disputes – now is key to stop protectionist measures Bergsten and Brown. and Canada that trade is becoming a critical issue. export its unemployment. The problem.governments around the world are acting or threatening to act to prop up their own companies and workers. but between countries more broadly.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Astead. create jobs at the expense of others is going to face instant retaliation by others. of course. try to close their markets and create jobs at home at the expense of others. FRED BERGSTEN. and Thea Lee. JEFFREY BROWN: Fred Bergsten. As the president says today in Ottawa. To what extent do you see the trade issue becoming a source of friction as the global economy weakens? FRED BERGSTEN: I think the trade issue will become a major source of friction. let me start first. / 38 . 2. Peace through superior firepower. In hard times -. Countries around the world are going to be tempted to try to export their problems to their neighbors. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Uniqueness Protectionism is a minor concern now. Over 30 countries have put in new trade barriers just since the Group of 20 had its summit meeting here in Washington back in mid-November. Mehta.org/newshour/bb/business/jan-june09/trade_02-19.S. Peterson Institute for International Economics: Good to be here. Countries Contemplate Protectionist Measures” PBS. It just won't work. as the recession deepens and broadens.

S. in Washington for meetings with trade officials and US lawmakers.htm) **Adam Tonelson is a research fellow with the US Business and Industry Council Although some U. That support would go above and beyond the 30% tax break the stimulus plan offered to manufacturers of things like wind turbines and solar cells. already have their own protectionist measures in place.401&show_article=1) "Some of these measures of course cause a lot of discomfort to many of us including Singapore. "We are monitoring the situation very closely.that means perpetuating inefficient industries at home. While Singapore was not directly affected by the restriction. Without pointing at the United States. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – AT: Buy America  Protectionism Buy America was watered down. Mehta. trading partners reacted strongly against the original buy American rule . Buy American was watered down in the stimulus AFP 6/6 ("'Buy American' plan leads to ire." Lim told reporters. whether they are explicit or hidden in the form of government bureaucracies that favor their own firms. and might require direct cash payments from the government. Many of our trading partners. The Buy American clause originally said that infrastructure projects designed to kick-start the US economy out of a languishing recession could only use US-made manufactured materials. the tiny trade-dependent state understood the concerns of countries hit by the action. "[U. but it put us on the brink of more protectionism Hargreaves 3/6 – CNN money staffwriter (Steve." Supporters of the free market It's precisely that line of thinking that's got the free traders so worried. the island nation's trade minister.breitbart." said Lim Hng Kiang.cnn. the latter of which threatened a lawsuit . confusion.php?id=CNG." Agence France-Presse http://www." Tonelson said. But it was later watered down to show that such procurement could only take place in a manner consistent with Washington's international treaty obligations. "We're going to try to beat this as far as we can. manufacturers] are already shut out of many procurement contracts.Tonelson sees little downside to more government support. Tonelson sees it as a springboard for further protections. pointing out that some nations were exploiting "gray areas" in global trade rules. To free traders . he said. "'Buy American' cuts bothways" http://money. and hampering a global economic recovery. Some businesses and officials complained the amendment is proving virtually meaningless in practice. "How much more harm could these provisions do?" Although the buy American clause was watered down. the global trade watchdog.com/2009/03/06/news/economy/stimulus_protection/index.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. isn't seen as particularly restrictive.dd912210b093ea987c89da799e3901ac.S. "We've got this important precedent that's been set. / 39 .com/article. Lim said it might be difficult to pin down countries that took steps that bordered on protectionism at the World Trade Organization.including former Presidents George Bush and Bill Clinton . driving the cost of goods up and the quality down. Peace through superior firepower. Buy American." he said. he said. Astead. But there's a fear it could grow. in its watered down form. He named renewable energy as one sector deserving more government support.especially Canada and Brazil.

Since the crisis broke out. exports have plunged.S. "Protectionism doesn’t pay) AHerndon Global trade is now in dire straits . compared to the same period the prior year -. / 40 . Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Chinese Econ Protectionist policies cause a significant contraction in the Chinese economy Deming.on its own. Prof.133 trillion worth of goods from countries around the world -an 18. without neo-conservative or Central Intelligence Agency prompting. China also experienced negative export growth in November. The financial crisis reflects a chronic illness resulting from global economic structural imbalance and financial risk accumulation. Minister of Commerce for PRC. when compared to the prior year. The fundamental interest of every country is to step up consultation and cooperation and keep international trade smoothly flowing. some in Japan might lick their lips at the prospect of World War II revisited and look to annex a slice of China. security and economic growth – the very direction the White House now seems to prefer. 2/20 (Chen. During the Great Depression. amid a contraction in global trade. In 2008. much less outright military invasion because the economy (against all predictions) suddenly collapses.once occupied by Japan.the highest one-month drop since 1990.into nervous breakdowns. Astead. Thanks to shrinking external demand caused by the economic crisis. Meanwhile. That’s why wise policy encourages Chinese stability. East Asia Expert.6% in November 2008. Given the size and openness of our country. These imports are boosting the economic development of China's trading partners. China still firmly believes that trade protectionism isn't a solution to the world's problems. World War Three Tom Plate. the growth in China's domestic markets can be translated into greater market potential and investment opportunities for other countries. India might make a grab for Tibet. China imported $1. given to the WSJ. Yet even so. In the heat of the crisis. and unemployment pressure has mounted. Communications @ UCLA. 6/28/’3 (Neo-cons a bigger risk to Bush than China. the Chinese government has put forward a series of measures aiming at stimulating domestic demand. products and technology. major trading countries have seen their export growth tumble or have suffered huge contractions. Peace through superior firepower. Germany's exports dropped 10. That would knock Asia into chaos. Protectionist policies would make things even worse. the U. and Pakistan for Kashmir .Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Healthy international trade can help revive the world economy. and a 17. A massive flood of refugees would head for Indonesia and other places with poor border controls. l/n) But imagine a China disintegrating. Then you can say hello to World War III. Adjunct. and the consequences would be hard to even predict. unprecedented financial crisis and protectionist policies have inflicted a severe impact on China and other countries. China's economic growth has slowed. Strait Times.5% increase over the prior year.5% decline last month. it's critical that all countries refrain from pointing fingers at each other or pursuing their own interests at the expense of others. Asia style. and there is no quick fix to this malady. which don’t’ want them and cant handle them. recovered from its economic woes because the Roosevelt administration implemented the New Deal and shunned protectionism. That would send Singapore and Malaysia. This year China will continue to increase imports and send buying missions abroad for large-scale purchase of equipment. Mehta.

stanford. because of an almost-twenty-year baby "bust. In an effort to secure political support from the construction industry. As of 2004 the large majority of economists and policy makers concur regarding what reforms Japan needs and there are definite signs of progress.edu/docs/122) AHerndon During the miracle years. the world will be better off if Japan again becomes an economic engine of growth.08 percent (estimate for 2004) and may soon start declining. as a result of the communication and computer revolutions. http://spice. Japan faces strong international competition. Still. Because of Japan's massive global impact. the very nature of global economic competition has changed. Because until very recently large Japanese companies would not lay off permanent employees. government is not as concerned about trade issues as prior to the War on Terror. Already." Japan's population is growing at a mere 0. Because Japan was a Cold War ally. many Japanese industries still have high costs compared to companies in other developed nations. Japan is increasingly open to foreign investment. Government protection of highly inefficient industries such as construction and food processing wastes resources and causes Japanese individuals and firms to pay much more for products than would otherwise be the case. even though the amount is very low by the standards of developed countries. Companies now must make swift business decisions in order to remain competitive. Peace through superior firepower. An increasing number of Japanese and foreign observers believe that the only long-term solution to Japan's structural economic problems will be the rise of a political party strong enough to wrest power from the LDP thus ending the excessive coddling of special interests groups at the expense of the nation's economic health. Very soon Japan will have the highest percentage of citizens over 65 of any developed country. who are still unable to pay them back. While there has been moderate deregulation. Astead. The most effective way to combat the enormous cost of these demographic changes is through impressive economic growth. The situation is now dramatically different. Japanese companies are now significantly changing employment practices in order to again become healthy. Although the nonperforming loan problem remains substantial. In the face of dramatic new economic challenges the Japanese system continues to change much too slowly. Meanwhile. they are solid LDP supporters and have been protected from foreign competition as consumers suffer. The ruling Liberal Democratic Party and bureaucrats friendly to the farm lobby are responsible for this situation. However. Also. For example. / 41 . much further reform must occur before the Japanese economy returns to full health. These reforms must continue to progress because demographic changes in Japan's population also threaten the nation's economic viability. Protectionism makes life worse for most Japanese. the United States ignored Japanese policies that discouraged imports. Even though Japan's full-time farmers constitute a miniscule percentage of the nation's workforce. Also." the Japanese should move more in the direction of freer and more unregulated capitalism and away from the still somewhat inflexible state-directed system that was created to solve a different set of economic problems than the ones that exist today. which has created a credit crunch for potentially strong firms who need capital.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Japanese Econ [1/2] Global protectionism will collapse the Japanese economy Ellington. 4 (Lucien. the typical Tokyo family spends about one third more of its household income each year on food than that of a New York family in part because of informal and formal trade barriers that still keep much foreign produce out of Japan. Although they do not need to "become like us. the LDP often supports useless public works projects thus increasing Japan's already high-government deficit. the total amount of bad debt has been reduced.S. it periodically is critical of Japan's barriers to imports. American students can learn much about an important country and about economics from Japan's successes and failures. During the 1980's Bubble. Recently the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) won impressive gains in national elections. Stanford Program for International Research. Japan's relatively inflexible economic system still makes it difficult for Japanese companies to respond as quickly to competitive challenges as their foreign counterparts. Japan has entered into agricultural free trade agreements recently with other nations thereby weakening the excessive power of farmers. Mehta. Japan's state-directed banking system made an enormous number of loans to nonproductive companies. Japan had few economic competitors in Europe and none in Asia. Although the U.

The Japanese slowdown of contemporary times is the largest slowdown we have ever seen.com/india/news/japanthe-world- AHerndon We at Orpheus are unequivocal about our view that Japanese economy leads not only America. as salaries are still poor and corporates highly conservative. Depression happened in an era of falling interest rates. Peace through superior firepower. or it's still ongoing. If the country shares its stockpile of rice. And there can be many reasons it did not get the much deserved attention by macroeconomists around the world. There is too much emotion involved to result in any profound learning.com. about 40 per cent.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Business Standard. This is no simple hypothesis and can really change how Ben Bernanke handles the ongoing global credit crisis. Third. 8 (Mukal. The depression in mood has not eased and a suicide happens every 15 minutes. The regulatory body was formed a century ago in 1907. Nobody likes asking or answering uncomfortable questions. meaning that the companies are worth less than their strip value. Fifth. maybe because the slowdown happened in the most prosperous 20 years of the world economy. the Japanese market has the largest proportion of listed debt-free companies in the world. international food crisis can really ease and prices can fall by half. the Japanese depression of 13 years pales the three-year falls of the Great Depression. And more Japanese want to emigrate. Japan is the most energy efficient country in the world. yen not only strengthened over this period. "Japan and the World Economy." economy/329181/) http://www. Above all this. Economists like Bernanke and many others swear by the Great Depression as the most important lesson of macroeconomics. Mehta. The excesses of the 1980s collapsed as prices in real estate fell 1/100 to 1/10. More than half of the listed companies are below price to book of 1. Astead. The bestselling book was The Complete Manual of Suicide written in 1993. And there are people still paying mortgage for houses bought at the peak of 1980's. / 42 . And talking about failure is admitting to a mistake. First. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Japanese Econ [2/2] Japanese Economy key to Global economy Pal. which is hard. This is the power Japan can exercise on a global forum today. It took 15 years for Dow to cross its 1929 high.business-standard. holding the yen could have bettered that performance. because we have few econohistorians today and fewer readers of econohistory. Nikkei fell more than 80 per cent from 1990 till 2003. conventional economics failed in Japan. because Japanese are not too happy talking about it. but the overall world economy. Second.000 people taking their lives every year. and has technological capabilities which it's selling to neighboring China and world over. This means that if gold quintupled since 2000. But in size and proportions. maybe because markets are not sure whether it's over. Despite all this negativity in the mood which is linked with economic depression. The reticent two halves of have and have-not's were polarised. after a banking crisis caused a run on the banks and bankruptcies. while even after 25 years the Nikkei is still far away from historical highs seen in 1980's. which coincidecidentally happened exactly on the centenarian year of the Federal Reserve in 2007. which are supposed to do more good than bad. but has historically outperformed gold by nearly 100 per cent. Sixth. humans understand things in retrospect and not in the present. with average 30. Fourth. All economic axioms were junked in this time by Japan.

to sell their goods in Europe. European leaders suggested that. China. so have less to invest in new technologies or to save for the future. Whereas the beneficiaries of liberalisation are widely dispersed. various European trade unions have applauded calls for punitive trade measures against non-EU competitors. The Lieberman-Warner bill is endorsed not only by major Green groups but also by electricity providers and their associated trade unions. resource-saving technologies. purchasing cars that are less expensive. they are actually counterproductive. But in reality. including “green” subsidies. Consider bananas. tariffs and quotas. Protectionism. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Environment [1/2] Protectionism kills the environment. These could be grown in the cold climates of Finland. leading to unnecessary waste of scarce natural and human resources.ug/D/8/20/610203) AHerndon In January. companies from the US. The idea behind such protectionism is to create a “level playing field” – where European and American producers are not disadvantaged by their self-imposed restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions. Astead. 8 (Caroline. which produced just one car – the Ambassador – which was technologically inferior. dirtier production methods and thus will use scarce resources less sustainably.co. a London-based think tank. naked or cloaked in green. They favour the status quo by rewarding inefficient producers and thus delaying the adoption of cleaner." http://www. Mehta. these claims should not be heeded seriously. In 1984. Canada. Until 1984.more pollution and less investment in green conservation Boin. Director. Thus. / 43 . harms the vast majority of people as well as the environment – and is best avoided. Although some claim that trade barriers would help the environment. claiming that we all must consume less. "Protectionism hurts consumers and enviorment. they will continue to use older. such as environmentalists. The benefits of trade would be replaced by losses in consumer welfare and environmental degradation. more technologically advanced and efficient . India demonstrates the follies of protectionism. The competitive market process. As a result bananas are less expensive and resources are used more sustainably.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. India began to open its market to foreign car producers. and was unaffordable to all but the elite. But to do so would be far more costly than growing them in warm places. is inherently more sustainable than the regulated economy advocated by eco-doom mongers. underpinned by free trade between and within nations. less trade means less wealth. This process exploded after the reforms of 1991 and millions of Indians have benefited from competition. They artificially increase costs. Trade barriers of any kind. Environmental ideologues continue to make dour prognostications about our planet’s future. the beneficiaries of trade restrictions are concentrated and tend to be very effective in lobbying national governments to protect their business from competition.newvision. which translates into fewer resources available to invest in environmental conservation. But instead of levelling the playing field. India had one car manufacturer. Although the US trade representative criticised this proposal. Such demands may suit the protectionist agenda but they have little merit in terms of their practical ability to enable humanity to use scarce natural and human resources in an ever-more sustainable manner. especially when supported by moralists. India and other countries should be forced to purchase emissions permits in the EU’s Emissions Trading Scheme. This effect would be exacerbated by reduced investment from multinational companies. Instead. harm both consumers and producers. belched pollutants. cleaner. have fewer children and trade less with each other to address climate change. Which is why they are grown in places such as Costa Rica and the Ivory Coast. Moreover. Based on their scaremongering and frankly embarrassing record of false predictions in recent decades. Consumers and producers spend more to purchase the same goods and services. and Russia. big business and organised labour unite. it is far more moral to support liberalisation. this game would artificially make all players one-legged and one-armed. who claim that such protections benefit the earth. Peace through superior firepower. Similarly. Greens. legislation being considered in the US Senate – the LiebermanWarner bill – would have a similar effect. environment programme at the International Policy Network. applying a carbon tax to imports from countries that do not cap their emissions. and then exporting them to consumers around the world.

for furs. an Asian fish that can tolerate polluted waters. leading to even more extinctions. Enviormental Lexis) AHerndon Author. Cockroaches hav e been around for 300 million years essentially unchanged and probably will be around for millions more. Introduction of brown tree snake to Guam has resulted in extinction of nine of eleven native bird species. Development in tropical areas causes more extinctions due to the great diversity found in tropical rain forests (half all species on Earth). Biological magnification of pesticides has reduced predatory bird populations. Professor Estrella Mountain Community College. low reproductive rates. The carp. sharks for fins. A spectacular exception was the large meteorite strike sixty-six million years ago near the Yucatán peninsula in Mexico that either caused the extinction of dinosaurs and 75% of all marine species. Tropical reefs are also under siege by water pollution.000 years ago with development of social and language skills to apply increasingly better stone tool technology to trap and kill the larger animals. Some economists argue that as per capita income increases. Commercial trade causes exploitation of tigers. and having economic value: all make the human species susceptible to extinction. Ph. Recovery from these extinctions took millions of years. Conservation biology is a discipline that brings together many fields to attempt to solve biodiversity problems. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Environment [2/2] Environmental collapse causes extinction Farabee. Human activities that reduce biodiversity began about 30. or was the nail in the coffin of the dinosaurs. It attempts to develop practical approaches to preventing extinction of species and destruction of ecosystems. as well as disrupting the local environment.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. jaguars. species with limited habitats. Nearly half the rain forests are gone already. Acid deposition is implicated in the worldwide decline in amphibian populations. Water hyacinth escaped from captivity and has become a hazard to navigation. high territory requirements. Global climate change may be so rapid that many species cannot adjust . "The Biosphere and Mass exticiton.000 to 30. elephants for tusks for ivory. very little undisturbed rain forest will exist outside of national parks. Kudzu. / 44 . and cacti for gardeners. as can mass extinctions: they differ in scale. Sustainability is concept that it is possible to meet economic needs while protecting environment. Extinctions occur when environments change too fast. etc. Habitats may be fragmented into small pieces that cannot support the population. has beome a major pest throughout the south. A major cause of extinction is the loss of habitat to support a species. Hunting contributes to the estimated extinction of 15. Island species. By 2010. environmental degradation first increases.D. a plant native to Asia. rhinoceros for rhino horn powder. Mehta. Development in Tropical Regions Human-caused environmental changes and extinctions are accelerating in the tropics. is now more prevalent than our native fish. Astead. Most conservation biologists believe biological diversity is good and each species has a value all its own. The habitat for a species may be totally destroyed through natural events or human activities. Fish stocks are being depleted by overfishing. Local extinctions can occur. By as early as 2010 (less than 15 years!) all rain forests will be gone if present trends of exploitation and human population growth continue. If this pace continues nearly half all species could be extinct by 2050. There have been several natural mass extinctions in the history of earth followed by recovery. predators. There have been five environmental changes (mostly cooling) of global proportions that resulted in the five mass extinctions in Earth history.000 species a year. scope and the numbers of species involved. leopards. Peace through superior firepower. cheetahs..Accidental or purposeful introduction of new species can cause extinction of endemic species.J. then decreases as people become affluent enough to begin to protect the environment. Species are not equally likely to suffer extinction. 7 (M. susceptibility to pollution.

television and online customers with coverage in all media and news in all formats.S. John Bruton. That may not be easy to achieve. said he would like to see the White House take a harder line with Congress on the issue. and I suppose that that is now reflected in Congress. costing American jobs as other countries retaliate.S.09. http://news. The National Interest. Proquest) While Russia has not stood in the way of any decisive U. "I think it is something that arose from the presidential and congressional election. A resurgence of Muslim extremism of the Taliban variety could then even acquire a regional scope. / 45 . “US trading partners complain about protectionism” Associated Press / Accessed through MSN Money.-EU strategic collaboration with regard to Iraq and Iran. 7.msn. products. financial and (to some degree) military support-the Euro-Atlantic community could foster a genuinely stable and possibly even democratic post-Saddam regime. The Associated Press is the backbone of the world's information system serving thousands of daily newspaper. has already tempted Moscow to resume its earlier pressure on Georgia and Azerbaijan to abandon their aspirations for inclusion in the Euro-Atlantic community and to step up its efforts to undermine any enduring U. not to mention the cleavage between America and Europe as well as the increased American-Iranian tensions. as Congress is considering adding similar measures to other spending bills. Winter 03/04. military efforts to alter the strategic realities of the region. Peace through superior firepower. trade agreements. military power reinforced by the EU's political. Buy American supporters want to make sure that the billions of U.S.manufactured products. But acting together-with the threat of U. but the benefits of cooperation outweigh the costs of any compromise.com.The United States' largest trading partners are warning that protectionist moves by Congress could poison global trade relations. The Obama administration is looking for ways to reassure trading partners as it prepares to detail its trade policy in coming weeks. political and military presence in Central Asia. These risks could be lessened by closer U.8. there also is uncertainty about Obama's commitment to free trade.S.S. Obama had criticized some U. the current geopolitical earthquake in the Persian Gulf could jeopardize America's efforts to consolidate the independence of the Caspian Basin states. The EU Commission's ambassador to Washington. We saw heated election rhetoric. Mehta. EU and Canadian officials worry the practice is widening. Though much of the trading partners' ire is aimed at Congress. passed in February. That would make it more difficult for the United States to engage the Central Asian states in a larger regional effort to combat Islamic fundamentalism in Afghanistan and Pakistan.moneycentral. markets because of the "Buy American" provision in the massive stimulus bill. For the United States.S.S. which requires the use of U.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. taxpayer dollars being spent to revive the economy create jobs at home. it would mean less opportunity for self-serving inaction. Many U. Some municipalities in Canada have begun organizing boycotts of U. American preoccupation with the mess in Iraq.S.com/provider/providerarticle. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: EU Relations [1/2] Protectionism crushes US-EU relations AP. a joint approach would mean less freedom of unilateral action. "My concern is increasing because we are seeing protectionist measures being introduced under the guise of other measures. unemployment rate is at its highest level in 25 years. Former National Security Advisor. “Hegemonic Quicksand”.S. radio.S. It is the largest and oldest news organization in the world. despite President Barack Obama's assurances that he wants to keep U. Businesses in the European Union and Canada complain they have been shut out of U. Issue 74." Bruton told The Associated Press.S." US-EU relations are key to preventing Russian aggression in Central Asia Brzezinski. markets open. The U. As a candidate seeking support from working-class voters.aspx? feed=AP&date=20090608&id=9987235) WASHINGTON (AP) . for the European Union. 03 (Zbigniew. Astead. given divergent American and European perspectives.S. exporters fear the provisions will backfire. and EU and Canadian officials say they are reviewing their options.

Washington has systematically converted NATO into what can only be called the military vehicle of an American global imperial rule. This time Washington may have badly misjudged the possibilities. The question is whether George W.8. Georgien. Mikhail Saakashvili in order to force the next US President to back the NATO military agenda of the Bush Doctrine. Estonia . Rather than initiate discussions after the 1991 dissolution of the Warsaw Pact about a systematic dissolution of NATO. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: EU Relations [2/2] The impact is Russia-US thermonuclear war F. William Engdahl is a leading analyst of the New World Order.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. In 1999. NATO. Washington. but this time with possible nuclear consequences. William Engdahl. and Slovakia followed suit in March 2004. is the fact that since the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact in 1991 one after another former member as well as former states of the USSR have been coaxed and in many cases bribed with false promises by Washington into joining the counter organization. Bulgaria .08. as it did in Iraq . Now Washington is putting immense pressure on the EU members of NATO.Washington risks nuclear war by miscalculation” Current. What is playing out in the Caucasus is being reported in US media in an alarmingly misleading light. Poland and the Czech Republic joined NATO. as I stressed in my July 11 piece in this space. especially Germany and France . and a prolific author http://current.htm The dramatic military attack by the military of the Republic of Georgia on South Ossetia in the last days has brought the world one major step closer to the ultimate horror of the Cold War era—a thermonuclear war between Russia and the United States—by miscalculation. Peace through superior firepower. Mehta. / 46 . that they vote in December to admit Georgia and Ukraine . making Moscow appear the lone aggressor. “Russia Georgia War . Moskau: Atomarer geopolitischer Machtpoker .com/items/89192617_russia-georgia-war-washington-risks-nuclear-war-by-miscalculation. 8. Bush and Dick Cheney are encouraging the unstable Georgian President. The underlying issue. linked by a network of military bases from Kosovo to Poland to Turkey to Iraq and Afghanistan . Astead. Romania . Lithuania . former Warsaw Pact members Hungary . Latvia . F.

and make it more difficult to use trade as a tool to spread American values and bolster U.S. and it reinforces the habits of liberty. and the fight against corruption. combat corruptive practices. This move enjoyed broad bipartisan support at the time of the Administration’s initial consultations with Congress. In short. and strengthen environmental protection. Trade Representative (USTR) Rob Portman re-emphasized this point by warning that “canceling this port deal would be contrary” to U.S. Astead. This move is about far more than just trade. http://www. it would do the opposite. and Anthony B.8 percent average compound growth rate. the Administration authorized the negotiation of a free trade agreement with the UAE in 2004 as part of President Bush’s plan to create a Middle East Free Trade Area (MEFTA) by 2013.S. countries that increased their barriers to trade managed only a 1. services. is a pillar of national defense . FTAs contain provisions that safeguard investors from discrimination and uncompensated expropriation of property. along with the rights of U. agriculture. The Bush Administration’s 2002 National Security Strategy correctly identifies “free trade and free markets” as the keys to a secure America and necessary components of our national security strategy. not weaken them. A successful strategy for improving national security must include free trade and investment. firms and consumers.S. countries with freer trade policies experience higher per-capita GDP growth than countries that maintain trade barriers. Mehta. Economic freedom. Protectionism would endanger U.06.S. and investments between member countries. FTAs serve to promote U.1 percent in per capita GDP. / 47 .heritage.4.” The opportunity to promote economic freedom in the UAE through free markets and free trade should not be sacrificed in the current debate on the port deal. It allows people to lift their lives out of poverty. insure nondiscriminatory government procurement. prosperity—the cornerstone of security—strain relationships with important allies in the war on terrorism.S.cfm Protectionism of this sort is no way to boost national security. These results support the 9/11 Commission’s recommendation that “a comprehensive U. FTAs open markets. As pointed out in the U. strategy to counter terrorism should include economic policies that encourage development. increase regulatory transparency and eliminate excessive red tape. interests. Last month. Finally. and increase economic opportunity and prosperity. more open societies. interests.org/research/tradeandeconomicfreedom/wm1006.5 percent. of which free trade is a major component. Countries whose trade policies were unchanged experienced an average compound growth rate of 2. A strong economy. According to The Heritage Foundation’s Index of Economic Freedom. bolstered by free trade. Daniella Markheim is Jay Van Andel Senior Analyst in Trade Policy. and opportunities for people to improve the lives of their families and to enhance prospects for their children’s future. 3.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. beliefs that fighting terrorism means promoting policies that create “opportunities for people to improve their lives and the lives of their families. Kim is Research Data Specialist. National Security Strategy: “Economic growth supported by free trade and free markets creates new jobs and higher incomes. Each element of an FTA strengthens the transparent and efficient flow of goods. America’s free trade agreements (FTAs) go beyond winning lower tariffs on U. and services exports. Free Trade and Free Markets.S.S. protect investors. The USTR negotiates agreements that include transparent dispute resolution and arbitration mechanisms to guarantee that the agreements are upheld. In fact. manufacturing. in the Center for International Trade and Economics at The Heritage Foundation.” Consistent with the 9/11 Commission’s recommendations. the USTR announced that it intends to resume free trade talks with the UAE in March.S.” Last week. protect and enforce intellectual property rights. protect labor rights. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Laundry List Protectionism (causes terrorism) / (decks national security) / (kills global liberty) Markheim and Kim. U. Peace through superior firepower. Countries that opened their trade policies between 1995 and 2004 saw their per-capita GDP grow at an average compound rate of 2. “Free Trade with the UAE Supports America's National Security Interests” The Heritage Foundation. leads to faster economic growth and improved standards of living. spurs economic and legal reforms.

Now the barricades are going up. The 300 tariff hikes signed by President Bush complied with WTO rules.must. and that's better than starting without that underlying belief. a self-destructive virus that strangled trade and was only wiped out by a world war. the "800-pound gorilla because the importer has more clout in this situation. "At the start of this year. but it will harm their economies." Levy observes. Adam Smith makes clear his distaste for what the modern world calls protectionism: "To give the monopoly of the home-market to the produce of domestic industry. the WTO says. The G-20's defense of free trade is laudable. But the public grows impatient as the pain of recession intensifies. "this will worsen the contraction of world trade and undermine confidence in an early and sustained recovery in global economic activity. some appear to be skirting its spirit. The law passed despite the failure of the Fordney-McCumber Tariff." several include trade-limiting government aid and subsidies. the measures could limit imports. most WTO members appeared to have successfully kept these pressures under control. The nature of the debate changes." the WTO report states. downward spiral. June 09. a pure play for votes. The allure of protectionism is growing. for example. making the downward spiral uncontrollable and unstoppable. Smoot-Hawley was a craven concession to the perceived public will. Astead. Bush increased 300 tariffs in the final days of his administration. Some of the actions are no doubt acceptable under WTO rules — and the organization says its listing "implies no judgment by the WTO Secretariat on whether or not such measure. Fordney-McCumber greatly limited European agricultural imports. Chapter 2 of "The Wealth of Nations". or its intent.americanbanker. and various buying and hiring restrictions. French President Nicolas Sarkozy threatened to repatriate auto manufacturing from Eastern Europe. and Sarkozy has not withdrawn his repatriation remarks." country by country." Desperate times often bring damaging measures. and UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown promised "British jobs for British workers. Although most stimulus bills "clearly favor the restoration of trade growth globally. "It's difficult for politicians who want to stay in office — or alive." leading to a panicked. The world has experienced the misfortune of protectionism before.S." he warns. Congress successfully inserted "buy-America" provisions into the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. This protectionist stance may win them votes. and anti-dumping actions on the rise.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. But when survival of key domestic industries is in doubt "it's natural to say we can't have all those cars coming into the U. Mehta. "Clearly there's enough understanding that extreme trade wars can be destructive. Indeed.000 imported products considered sensitive. and the "buy-America" provisions in the stimulus bill were altered to the same effect." Levy calls the U." the WTO says. Rosta is the Editor-in-Chief of Industrial Equipment News. Peace through superior firepower. introduced reference prices for "around 1. And as anti-trade measures pile up. chairman and director of the Levy Forecasting Center. in almost all cases. but they made it greater. An escalating imposition of retaliatory measures ensued amid already weakened economies. In no time other industries sought and were granted similar "protection. But Brown still stands behind his "British jobs for British workers" cry." Protectionism could "push a particular player to default. Argentina." says David Levy. / 48 . and is considered one of the basic non-tariff trade barriers. is protectionist in nature.. “Protectionism Is not Self-Defense” US Banker." But it is clear that." which was solidified by Smoot-Hawley in 1930. in many cases.. depending on their situation — too ignore the temptation. thus lengthening and deepening the recession. http://www. The global economy is in a delicate state: "Rattle it and it can break. But overproduction eroded prices. enacted in 1922 to protect the American farmer. Its latest survey covered the September 2008 to March 2009 period. and pointed to more than 200 measures.com/usb_article. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Economy Protectionism devastates the global economy –making material recovery impossible Joseph Rosta. and American farmers continued to suffer." While G-20 nations and most other free-trading countries strive to meet the letter of international trade law.S. High tariffs didn't create the Great Depression. with higher tariffs. So newly elected President Herbert Hoover raised tariffs even more." according to most recent report from the director-general to the organization's Trade Policy Review Body.html?id=200905221SXXYW2W Former President George W. In Book IV. be either a useless or a hurtful regulation. But protectionist acts will only further stifle world trade. often with multiple effects. other restrictions. Statesponsored reference pricing allows domestic companies to sell their goods at just below market prices. the World Trade Organization regularly tracks "trade and trade-related measures.

contains a provision. Astead." He is right. On January 30th. "Buy American" bill contains stronger anti-free-trade provisions. "Buy American". yes. and to improve the safety net available to displaced workers during the transition period. He also said.S. and (3) President Herbert Hoover made the situation even worse by signing a "Buy America Act" requiring all federal government projects to use only American manufactured materials. all countries agreed on "the critical importance of rejecting protectionism and not turning inward in times of financial uncertainty. We know that world trade allows both parties to be better-off by importing inexpensive commodities from country A. foreign steel in federal projects would only be allowed if domestic products were either unavailable or drove up the cost of the projects by 25 per cent or more. many of those countries. but also the Americans do not learn from the history! If we go back to 1930s. it's time to say that history really repeats itself. and world trade plummeted. at the World Economic Summit in Davos. while accusing China of dumping them below cost. The EU nations have reversed direction and tightened their own trade rules. protectionist sentiments get a boost to "save" jobs. And competitive markets have spurred the innovation revolution that has made the US the economic powerhouse that it is. and selling them our commodities on which we have comparative advantage over country A. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Economy Protectionism collapses the economy – history flows aff Ahsan. However. Switzerland. for instance. according to the WTO. Unfortunately." http://www." He also added that the solution for the displaced worker is job retraining and adjustment assistance. But. But. the US Congress passed the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act. chicken and beef. Since the US is the biggest exporter in the world. and the European Union (EU). when the US met at an emergency meeting in Washington with the world's 20 largest economies. As a step towards retaliation. the truth is US government's intervention in 1930s in fact prolonged depression .thefinancialexpress-bd. / 49 . as the world-wide recession leading to depression deepens. Thus. the WTO is as powerless as the United Nations (UN). (2) In 1930 when the world economy was sinking as it is today. "Protectionism does not create jobs. all the nations would have been better off. and poor people in this world will experience most of the pain. Mehta.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. if all the countries worked together and coordinated with each other. and thus may be entitled to exceptions to the restrictions. But what are the US politicians doing? The House of Representatives' version of the economic stimulus bill. Thus. In October 2008.2 per cent in 2008. Economic Proffessor Texas Tech U. least of all the poor. we will see that three of the Uncle Sam's attempt led the World to the Great Depression: (1) Tighter monetary policy during the depression which allowed to fall money supply at least one third. the US is planning retaliatory tariffs on Italian water and French cheese to punish the EU for restricting imports of U. it destroys it. for instance by resuming subsidies to dairy farmers' exports and effectively barring Chinese screws and bolts from their market. Protectionism will simply destroy jobs. in one his article on the Wall Street Journal says. India is proposing to increase tariffs on foreign steel at the request of its steel industry. The EU has already declared that it will not stand by idly if the US violates its trade agreements and its obligations to the World Trade Organization (WTO). Though more than 50 nations are covered by treaties with the United States. Burton Malkiel." Surely most of the parties forgot their promise just like before . Princeton Universities Economics Professor. and it also risks turning a global recession into a 1930s-style great depression. "No one person's benefit can compare with the loss felt by the displaced worker. requires that all "manufactured goods" bought by taxpayers for the stimulus be produced domestically. British Prime Minister and Labour Party head Gordon Brown said that protectionism will lead to "longer and deeper" recession . global trade is expected to shrink by more than 2. he already flooded the market with liquidity. International trade analysts say the current rash of trade constraints could make it harder for global economic growth to recover from the current downturn. 2009. Peace through superior firepower. Policymakers neglected the fact that "Buy American" provision invites retaliation by other nations too. not create them. Financial Times Express. United State's trading partners also retaliated. Protectionism in the name of "Buy American" will surely destabilize trade and capital flows.1 per cent this year after growing by 6. which essentially shut off imports into the US Consequently. But the total benefits do exceed the costs. retaliation could cost America more jobs than the proposed provision would create. So. The Federal Reserve chairman Ben Bernanke is also a student and researcher of the great depression. Now.html) AHerndon Not only the Bangladeshis. have issued protests about the proposed legislation. and kept interest rate near zero.com/2009/02/12/58600. "Protectionism protects nobody. 2/12 (Mainul.

there is a bill that would give U. it should be clear that we want to encourage — rather than squelch — economic growth. Taken together. The Colombia free trade pact is a perfect example. prosperous economy. more prosperity ensues. Today. 8 (Kurt.4 percent. taking the top marginal rate to 63 percent from 25 percent. There is plenty of disguised protectionism going around today in the form of misleading claims about America’s manufacturing output. yet it should also be clear that people gain prosperity faster in areas with more economic freedom. though employment in manufacturing is dropping due to improvements in productivity. If you restrict economic freedom by increasing taxes or laying on more bureaucratic red tape. There is also plenty of obstructionism about trade agreements as well.S. No matter what happens with this presidential election. Democrats are planning tax increases that make Bill Clinton’s hike look mild. Astead. but let’s not lose sight of the goal — a strong. labor unions. that ultimately sucked cash from a capital-starved economy.S. There are also proposed increases for dividends and capital gains. That seems unambiguously good for us.S. The Washington Post continues with a second point on how we could squelch the recovery: Increasing taxes in a downturn. Big mistake. It would be a huge mistake to adopt protectionism as the Smoot-Hawley legislation did prior to the Great Depression.com/author/admin/) AHerndon Free trade has been one of the chief engines of global prosperity. Roosevelt’s Treasury crafted taxes to punish business. all by itself. these will make the U. Effective top rates approach 50 percent. In fact. exporters improved access to Colombian markets.2 percent. Peace through superior firepower.fundmasteryblog. Colombia’s goods can now come here largely without restriction. economy sluggish and more like that of Europe… (…) If you improve and enhance economic freedom. Perhaps worse. yet Congress is holding it up due to opposition primarily from U. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Economy Protectionism restrict economic growth and causes economic decline Brouwer. Our economy is resilient. Co-founder large financial advisory firm that was founded in 1987. manufacturing output has never been higher.6 percent increase. FDR hiked the top rate to 90 percent. But. Author of three books on mutual fund investing. including an undistributed profits tax and an excess profits tax. Hoover more than doubled income tax rates. / 50 . Add in the promised repeal of the Bush tax cuts and you have an additional 4. or for some 12.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. The proposals start with lifting the cap on Social Security payroll taxes — an effective increase in the top marginal tax rate of 6. There is certainly room for disagreement on how to achieve growth. http://www. you inevitably reduce prosperity. Mehta.

Some countries are taking a direct approach. global treaties have made it more difficult to enact draconian barriers. Noting that protectionism is widely viewed as having deepened and prolonged the Great Depression. with countries from Russia to the United States to China enacting measures aimed at limiting the flow of imported goods." said World Bank Group President Robert B.S. France. whether for trade. with aid pouring out from governments including the United States. "I think the one thing that people forget is that at the end of the day. critics contend. But most are taking more creative steps that fall into the gray area of what is considered legal under international trade law.furthers economic disaster TWP. or taxes on imports -. a host of nations has imposed a total of 47 measures that restrict trade at the expense of other countries. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Protectionism Impact: Wars Protectionism sparks global trade wars. Is that really the kind of path we want to go down?" Peace through superior firepower. which many experts say is greatly overcapacity. Trade Representative during the Bush administration." The Bank said that. Zoellick. illustrating the tit-for-tat responses that experts fear could grow in coming months. make it tougher for nations to take the more sweeping measures that triggered the trade wars of the 1930s. according to a World Bank report unveiled yesterday.html) AHerndon At least 17 of the 20 major nations that vowed at a November summit to avoid protectionist steps that could spark a global trade war have violated that promise. and they tend to build upon each other and provoke more responses. "Leaders must not heed the siren-song of protectionist fixes. the report concludes. Protectionist measures may also sharply worsen the collapse of global trade. Britain. Their inability to keep their November promises is another indication of how difficult it will be to implement any agreement reached next month on a global scale. Mehta. has raised tariffs on more than 600 items. which made a bad situation much. now total some $48 billion globally. is that actions like these could touch off countermeasures that could lead to broader trade wars. Ecuador. That has led to a new measure of caution when putting up trade barriers.represent only about a third of all measures taken. Some measures. That action is being taken in retaliation against Washington for canceling a program that allowed Mexican truck drivers the right to transport goods across the United States. / 51 . much worse. The report noted that current trade laws. The era of globalization has made countries more interdependent than ever before. "There are consequences for this kind of action. It comes one day after Mexico vowed to slap new restrictions on 90 U. That could prevent the natural readjustment of the industry. since last November. the World Bank said. Additionally. he added "economic isolationism can lead to a negative spiral of events such as those we saw in the 1930s. Canada. may distort global production for products like cars and trucks . which the World Bank said is facing its steepest decline in 80 years as global demand dries up. http://www." said Sean Spicer. allowing automakers to continue to produce more cars than consumers need. stimulus packages or bailouts. however. The report underscores a "worrying" trend toward protectionism as countries rush to shield their ailing domestic industries during the global economic crisis.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. China. a official at the Office of the U. The fear.S. for instance. The report comes ahead of an April 2 summit in London in which the heads of state from those 20 industrialized and developing economies will seek to shape a coordinated response to the economic crisis. 3/18 (The Washington Post. National bailouts and subsidies proposed worldwide for the auto industry. Argentina and Brazil. products. with supply chains for a single car made in China or a plane made in the United States now often relying on components manufactured in many other nations. Germany.washingtonpost.raising tariffs. our failure to comply with NAFTA is going to result in the loss of more jobs here in America. The most obvious trade restrictions -. "Trade Barriers threaten Global Economy.com/wpdyn/content/article/2009/03/17/AR2009031703218. Astead.

"Education can pioneer new areas for jobs. "And we have a special programme for these people to give them chances to come back to vocational training.so it means that we have to keep investing.com/4766681) How can a small." Language learning is also a key to this effort to compete . which identified Finland as the world's most competitive economy. speaking at Finland's education ministry in Helskini. so it must. rather than having primary and secondary schools. invest heavily in education and training. in research and in higher education.and the success is apparent in the hugely impressive standards of English to be heard throughout Helsinki. associated more with mobile phone company Nokia than with timber-felling. (…) The emphasis on investing in education has created a system where as much as possible is delivered to students without charge.egloos. such as ICT [information and communication technology]. We always need new skills for the labour force . In a relatively short of space of time. a minister in a centre-left coalition government. there are no university fees and students can stay in the upper secondary stage (loosely equivalent to sixth forms) for up to four years. affluent country such as Finland maintain a high-wage.currently about 8% . / 52 . Peace through superior firepower." she says. And in particular. BBC News Reporter. Ms Haatainen. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – Ext: Education Solves Econ Finland proves. School meals are free to all pupils. "We don't divide at an early stage between students who do well and those that don't manage so well in schools. Re-skilling workers Compared to the UK. as a matter of economic survival.Education is the new age way of sustainable economic growth Egloo. so that they can manage in the changing labour market.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Astead. she says the country's educational success can be attributed to the "unified" school system. Finland has transformed itself from an agricultural country to a high-tech economy. we believe we have to invest in education. Finland has a higher unemployment rate . "In Finland.and an aim of the education policy is to improve adult education. says that this economic imperative is best served by having a broad-based. http://ziny96. And the fast-forward button has been education. citing its "culture of innovation". whether it's from shop staff or people talking to overseas visitors. high-skill economy? It can't compete with the low-cost economies of Asia." This policy received an endorsement last month from an annual report from the World Economic Forum. open-access education system. Re-posted on his blog. 8 (Michael. "We have lots of people who do not have any education beyond basic education and they have been in the labour force for a long time. which sees children staying at the same school between the ages of seven and 16. Mehta.

that’s Paulus.” 2/26. In the 19th century France and Great Britain became wealthy through colonialism and the control of foreign resources. Kostrinsky Wave One Economy – 2AC War Add-on STEM education key to the economy – builds a robust workforce that increases GDP and offsets recessions. One of the causes of World War I was the economic rivalry that existed between the nations of Europe. / 53 . http://www.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. will competition for resources and economic rivalries with the Middle East. Hopefully the economy gets better before it gets worse and the terrifying possibility of World War III is averted. fascist movements arose to seek economic and social control. 9 (“Will this recession lead to World War II. to war. After the Great Depression ruined the economies of Europe in the 1930s. This forced other up-and-coming nations (such as Germany) to be more competitive in world trade which led to rivalries and ultimately. Mehta. With most of North America and Western Europe currently experiencing a recession. Asia. or South American cause another world war? Add in nuclear weapons and Islamic fundamentalism and things look even worse.com/x-3108-Baltimore-Republican-Examiner~y2009m2d26-Will-this-recession-lead-toWorld-War-III) Could the current economic crisis affecting this country and the world lead to another world war? The answer may be found by looking back in history. From there fanatics like Hitler and Mussolini took over Germany and Italy and led them both into World War II.examiner. Economic decline causes nuclear war The Baltimore Examiner. Peace through superior firepower. However sometimes history repeats itself. Astead.

2002. High Schools That Work. According to the Center on Education Policy (2006). “The Future of Career and Technical Education. 2006). Jason. In a review of the literature.edu/ejournals/CTER/v31n3/pdf/fletcher. CTE will be increasingly squeezed off the plate in terms of student enrollment in courses unless CTE champions and leaders can clearly show that these programs • are contributing to the academic success of students as measured by the state academic tests • serve as a motivation for students to stay in school and help students perform better in their academic courses. **note: AYP = Adequate Yearly Progress. AYP causes a trade-off Phelps. 2 – National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium (D.. NCLB decreases enrollment in CTE courses Daggett.com/pdf/CTE%20white%20paper. are in urban districts” (p. be at risk. Circle.leadered. thereby reducing the time available for students to take career technical education courses. This likely influences CTE curricula. applied academics. they must build upon the lessons learned and successes they have experienced with such initiatives as Tech Prep. 2005. As states. In addition.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. and school-to-career programs. If CTE leaders are to meet these challenges. CTE programs will.lib. some states already have increased the academic requirements for graduation. 2005. The goal that all students will be able to perform at proficient levels by 2014 means that states and locals will be intensely focusing on academic achievement. / 54 . will be impacted by AYP. school districts. Herman & Dietel. findings indicate that the increased pressure on assessment mandated by NCLB seems to have a negative impact on the quality of instruction and results in narrowing of the curricula (Abrams et al. It also reinforces the unfortunate belief that students must choose to take either career technical or academic education—students can take both and succeed in both during their high school careers. Mehta. While NASDCTEc supports all students receiving sufficient academic coursework to make successful post-high school transitions. among others. “No Curriculum Left Behind: The Effects of the No Child Left Behind Legislation on Career and Technical Education. school-to-work. and schools come to grips with the new NCLB requirement of 100 percent of students – in each of nine subgroups – achieving proficiency in their academic requirements. http://www. 6 – Workforce Development and Education @ The Ohio State University (Edward C Fletcher Jr. 2006. anecdotal evidence indicates that curricula may be getting “left behind” in relation to other areas. career academies. many students need more than additional academic coursework to improve their academic achievement. Some have forecasted that this focus on academics will result in a reduction of secondary CTE programs. the testing requirements on schools created by No Child Left Behind Peace through superior firepower. is that school districts with fewer funds are more likely to spend more time preparing students in math and reading. Neill. Austin & Mahlman. 2003. once again. “Urban districts are increasingly experiencing the greatest effects…about 90% of the schools in restructuring. but it will face substantial new challenges as a result of the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation. Weland. including CTE students.pdf) Another issue expressed by Diane Rentner. 2 – President of the International Center for Leadership in Education (Willard R.” International Center for Leadership in Education. 2005). the last stage of NCLB’s sanctions.vt. which in turn may cause those students to have a less rich curriculum (Mantel. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – Ext: NCLB Kills CTE NCLB trades off with CTE – curriculum trade-off Fletcher. “THE NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT OF 2001: Opportunities for Career Technical Education.pdf) Career and technical education (CTE) has weathered many storms in the recent past. ix). Astead. project coordinator at the Center on Education Policy.” http://scholar.” July 2002) All students. Due to the increased emphasis on core academic programs.

Fall 2003." Educational technology is the "overall methodology and set of techniques employed in the application of instructional principles" (Cleary.org/OurPlanet/imgversn/143/lugar. Fundamental research will generate the innovations that will be necessary to feed the world.lib. The leading position of the United States in agriculture can be attributed in part to its infrastructure for developing and delivering new technologies. that means eating more meat.assistant professor of agriscience education @ North Carolina A&T University (Antoine. The long-term environmental consequences could be disastrous for the entire globe. new ways need to be generated to deliver instruction in the total secondary agricultural education program (National Research Council. Given the urgency of expanding food production to meet world demand. every painting ever painted. This will raise demand for feed grain at the same time that the growing world population will need vastly more basic food to eat. and other media (Commission on Instructional Technology. Instructional technology is the media born of the communication revolution which can be used for instructional purposes. The day is near when every child will be able to stretch a hand over a keyboard and reach every book ever written. The United States can take a leading position in a productivity revolution. People in rapidly developing nations will have the means greatly to improve their standard of living and caloric intake. Astead. we must invest much more in scientific research and target that money toward projects that promise to have significant national and global impact. “USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION IN NORTH CAROLINA AND VIRGINIA. Collapse of ag causes extinction Lugar. Instructional technology is a division of the body of knowledge known as "educational technology. At stake is not only preventing starvation and saving the environment. Instructional technology can help keep educational programs aligned with new developments in agriculture. Agricultural education in secondary schools is part of the infrastructure of this remarkable system. it is easy to lose sight of the long-range challenges. That’s a tall order. 1988). and that poverty and famine have often bred fanaticism and terrorism. yields on average 8.html) In a world confronted by global terrorism. 1970). For the United States. But we do so at our peril. for example. 1976. it’s been done before. http://scholar. Advances in the use of fertilizer and water. To triple our production by 2050. Mehta. It includes television. but also world peace and security. Indiana. 4 – U. / 55 . Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – 2AC Agriculture Add-on Technical education key to ag industry – continuous innovation is key Alston. improved machinery and better tilling techniques combined to generate a threefold increase in yields since 1935 – on our farm back then.edu/ejournals/JCTE/v20n1/alston. For agricultural education to remain viable. 3 .3 to 8. Inevitably.8 to 3 tonnes per hectare. My farm in Marion County. my dad produced 2. people destroy timber resources and even rainforests as they try to create more arable land to feed themselves. that will mean a major shift in the way we conduct and fund agricultural science.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. But of course there is no guarantee that we can achieve those results again. the demand for affordable food will increase well beyond current international production levels.vt.html#FFA) United States agriculture is one of the most productive systems in the world.” Journal of Career and Technical Education Volume 20. 1999). Number 1. http://www. One of the most daunting of them is meeting the world’s need for food and energy in this century. And our success at increasing food production may play a decisive humanitarian role in the survival of billions of people and the health of our planet. As good land disappears. Can we possibly boost output that much? Well. and every symphony ever composed (Clinton. Working to feed the world will minimize factors that contribute to global instability and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Productivity revolution To meet the expected demand for food over the next 50 years . Complicating a solution to this problem is a dynamic that must be better understood in the West: developing countries often use limited arable land to expand cities to house their growing populations. Peace through superior firepower. Much US agriculture has seen similar increases. we will have to produce an annual average of 25 tonnes per hectare. 1). Senator (Richard. 1998). videotapes. burgeoning nuclear threats and other crises. turmoil in the Middle East. data lines. With this technological change. History tells us that states may go to war over access to resources.S. computers. we in the United States will have to grow roughly three times more food on the land we have. With the world population expected to grow from 6 billion people today to 9 billion by mid-century.unep. p. researchers have suggested that perhaps curriculum development initiatives and educational delivery approaches in local schools have not kept pace with the rate of technological change that the agricultural industry has experienced over the past decade (National FFA Organization.6 tonnes of corn per hectare – typical for a farm in central Indiana.

the Middle East and Asia foresee similar retirement rates. Bureau of Labor Statistics has identified computer-based jobs as one of the hottest areas of growth. nine U. this “dark Web” is 500 times the size of the Internet as we know it. The number of newly declared computer science majors has actually declined by 32 percent over the last four years. 8 – Ph.S. Mehta.S. Europe. This is particularly evident with the growing Web traffic from young people. It took more than 200 years for the U. / 56 . Even more concerning. The digital equivalent of that same information is now created every 15 minutes—and this is just the beginning. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – 2AC Internet Add-on [1/2] Internet expansion falling off due to job vacancies Joyce. A decade after the introduction of the World Wide Web.S. but also true for the schools. and the next phase of business differentiation relies on the network for the real-time information and services that will foster rewarding customer interactions. We are seeing now that everything physical will eventually be connected to everything else. developers and problem solvers. is that many women and underrepresented minorities are not even considering science and engineering programs as a field of interest. students and high school guidance counselors. photographs. Wireless access will be everywhere—integrating personal communication and computing devices.ed States has outpaced the number of outsourced jobs to emerging nations. especially in computer science. By 2010. Although Yahoo! has already indexed many billions of Web pages. In a little more than two years. That is the equivalent of 9 quintillion typed characters. jobs are created. With only 40 million new workers coming in. the voluntary attrition in the Unit. about 70. Library of Congress to build its collection of mil.S. worldwide Internet traffic will hit 9 exabytes per month. but the mix is now shifting to other devices such as cell phones.pdf) During the genesis of the Internet. One is a myth. believed by parents. with growth rates anywhere from 40 to 70 percent in the United States alone.com/uploadedFiles/Publications_and_Online_Media/files/files-techniques-2008/Facingthe-IT-Talent-Squeeze-in-a-Networked-Economy. college graduates each year earn engineering degrees. Peace through superior firepower. business-education partnerships.D. A critical part of this mission is a stronger commitment from corporate leadership to work closely with schools at multiple levels. businesses and other institutions that will use technology around the world. computers were considered the sources of value and the network was viewed as a simple pipe between them. And that’s only the virtual Web. for every job outsourced from the United States. math and engineering. that number will probably reach 14 billion. Education and Social Policy from Harvard. and those involving specific skill sets—such as systems analysis.lions of books. database administration and computer science—will be some of the fastest-growing occupations through 2012. Astead. Canada. http://acte. PDAs and set-top boxes. Just about all the early inhabitants of the Internet were computers. the number of computing devices connected to the Internet had grown to 100 million. The U. educators and industry leaders must advance the nation’s competitiveness by keeping the innovation pipeline fortified with fresh ideas and talent. The world is becoming a much more networked place. The technology industry is experiencing a squeeze for talent.000 of the 1 million U. Adding to the talent squeeze is the retirement of approximately 70 million baby boomers that will leave the workforce over the next 15 years.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. publication of the Association for Career and Technical Education. Technological advancements depend on encouraging top students to be the next researchers. Furthermore.hodgsonconsult. an entirely different level of instant and complex collaboration across the increasingly critical global human network. There are a couple of reasons for this problem. helping to prepare students for the workforce. U. Ever since the dotcom bust in the United States there’s been a steep drop-off in the number of students pursuing science and engineering degrees. This is true on a global scale for not only technology companies. China and India produce 6. recordings. has authored numerous publications on workforce issues. The global competition for skills and jobs is escalating. maps and manuscripts.” Techniques. “Facing the IT Talent Squeeze in a networked global economy. more pages are hidden behind corporate firewalls or in private databases. both for development and deployment. this will make the shortage of computer-skilled employees even more dramatic. and schoolto-career transition (Peter J. nearly 1 million of whom are in engineering. Workforce Development Manager @ Cisco Systems Inc.cording to a government study. IBM estimates that by 2010. This is absolutely not the case. who interact via instant messaging. the amount of digital information is expected to double every 11 hours.4 million graduates a year. According to the Council on Competitiveness. that computer science and engineering jobs are all being outsourced to China and India.5 million additional IT field professionals will be needed by the end of this year. By some estimates.S. At least 1. Today we are seeing an Internet-driven revolution. cell phones and MySpace as they watch TV and YouTube on the Web. This is nearly two times the number of letters you’d need to write down all the words ever spoken. Those who question the future growth of this communication technology and its effectiveness need only to look at the amount of digital information being created today. connecting home and business networks and providing ubiquitous access. hospitals. The Squeeze Meeting the opportunities ahead will require a technically skilled workforce. Ac. enough for 4 trillion novels.

Attract Untapped Groups—Women and minorities continue to be underrepresented in computer science and engineering fields.hodgsonconsult.pdf) The Internet is on the verge of yet another expansion.com/uploadedFiles/Publications_and_Online_Media/files/files-techniques-2008/Facingthe-IT-Talent-Squeeze-in-a-Networked-Economy. It is critical to attract and encourage a diverse pool of workers. We must take advantage of the opportunity to build on our partnership successes to ensure that we are well positioned for the future. Astead. mentoring networks or other initiatives. It is important to get the word out by working with local employers and demonstrating to students and workers the connections between local educational pathways. whether it’s through classroom interaction. Mehta. and schoolto-career transition (Peter J. Academic and business leaders must reach out to our successors and serve as role models.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Here are the challenges that the United States must undertake to meet our collective education and workforce goals. publication of the Association for Career and Technical Education. / 57 . Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – 2AC Internet Add-on [2/2] Low-income education key to job growth that solves internet expansion Joyce. business-education partnerships. has authored numerous publications on workforce issues. 8 – Ph. http://acte.D. Peace through superior firepower. Create More Interest—We must continue to foster interest in technology careers among young people. “Facing the IT Talent Squeeze in a networked global economy. Education and Social Policy from Harvard.” Techniques. Workforce Development Manager @ Cisco Systems Inc.

This has led to the prediction that it will completely revolutionize government and democracy. amongst other human rights. This section addresses the impact of ICT development and. (2003) found that some studies have addressed the question of media and democracy. including many authoritarian regimes. http://www.org/ojs2/index. European Parliament Hearing on Free Speech. That must be protected at all costs—the alternative is war and genocide D’Souza.eu. At one end of the spectrum there are supposedly minor infringements of this fundamental right which occur daily in Western democracies and would include abuse of national security laws to prevent the publication of information which might be embarrassing to a given government: at the other end of the scale are the regimes of terror which employ the most brutal moves to suppress opposition.” http://www. “THE CONTRIBUTION OF ICT TO FREEDOM AND DEMOCRACY: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF A RCHIVAL DATA ON THE MIDDLE EAST. must be considered to be a primary right. 8 [Prof @ Institute for Research on Innovation and Technology Management @ Ted Rogers School of Management. and nations.int/hearings/speech/freedom_en. information and even the freedom to exercise religious beliefs. as well as those on the global stage such as the United Nations. regions. thoughts. the media and to fashion them into instruments of propaganda. For this reason alone the right to freedom of expression. Morrisett (2003) points out that ICTs can be used to enhance the democratic process in form of e-government in which citizens are able to effectively impact the decision-making process in a timely manner within and between institutionally. 96 [Frances D’Souza. Kalathil et al. e-voting and the dissemination of opinions. either through anonymity or access.democracy is the use of information and communications technologies and strategies by “democratic sectors” within the political processes of local communities. It is significant that one of the first indications of a government’s intention to depart from democratic principles is the ever increasing control of information by means of gagging the media. and/or rallying social action about things that concern citizens. Brinkerhoff (2005) states that the Internet facilitates the expression of liberal values. Once governments are able to draw a cloak of secrecy over their actions and to remain unaccountable for their actions then massive human rights violations can. more specifically. it is relatively easy for governments to capture. 2. expressing “democratic intent”. the Internet and mobile cell phones on the promotion of freedom of expression in a region that is governed mostly by such regimes.ejisdc. for the promotion of ethnic conflict. including the right to life. such as individualism and freedom of speech. / 58 . In addition. Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights. although this does not always guarantee its protection. and preventing the freeflow of information from abroad. Their efforts make this one of the most dynamic and important areas of e-democracy development. the Internet has the potential to revolutionize political activity far more profoundly than the telephone or television ever did. It has been argued. Ryerson University. Government institutions are making significant investments in the use of ICTs in their work. specifically protected in the major international human rights treaties. Mehta. that in the absence of free speech and an independent media. Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. and do. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – Internet Add-on (Freedom of Speech !) Internet technology is key to freedom of speech Shirazi. Enshrining the right to freedom of expression The right to freedom of expression is formally protected in the major international treaties including the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. politically or geographically distinct networked communities. ideas. Furthermore.europarl. it is enshrined in many national constitutions throughout the world. it is impossible to protect other rights. engaging in comparative case studies of the Internet across a variety of developing counties. states.php/ejisdc/article/download/499/255] ICTs provide new tools for efficient public participation in the democratic process in the form of e-democracy. as it were. Clift (2003) argues that e. Ferdinand (2000) argues that as a means of communication.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Prof of anthropology @ Oxford. to the extent that the outcome will be a new wave of democratization world-wide. war and genocide. and will undoubtedly be discussed at this Hearing. upheld.democracy activities of government institutions whether local or international. freedom of expression is. as authoritarian regimes will find it increasingly difficult to survive and as established democracies transform. take place.htm] In the absence of freedom of expression which includes a free and independent media. Astead. Clift (2003) uses the phrase “representative e-government” to describe the e. even for those countries which are not signatories to the above international treaties through the concept of customary law which essentially requires that all states respect the human rights set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by Peace through superior firepower. egovernment.

Is free Peace through superior firepower. Mehta. Kostrinsky Wave One virtue of the widespread or customary respect which has been built up in the post World War II years.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Astead. 3. / 59 .

and war. Astead. They are normally Peace through superior firepower. 5. Of the 126 developing countries listed in the 1993 Human Development Report. as indeed there are between poverty. Because of this essential powerlessness. the right to freedom of expression and development. In particular. including the need to protect public morals and public order and perfectly understandable attempts to prevent racism. where free speech causes insult or injury to the rights and reputation of another. The mechanisms employed by governments to restrict the freeflow of information are almost endless and range from subtle economic pressures and devious methods of undermining political opponents and the independent media to the enactment of restrictive press laws and an insist-ence on licensing journalists and eventually to the illegal detention. In recent years several landmark cases have helped to define more closely what restrictions may be imposed by government and under what circumstances. especially when compared to such violations as torture and extra-judicial killings. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – Internet Add-on (Freedom of Speech !) speech absolute? While it is generally accepted that freedom of expression is. checks on free speech or on the independence of the media. It is reasonably safe to assume that the vast majority of people do not ever welcome war. There seems to be no doubt that there is a clear association between poverty and war. it is a comparatively short distance between government censorship of an offensive book to the silencing of political dissidents. many justifications are nevertheless sought by governments to suppress information which is inimical to their policies or their interests. there are permitted restrictions encoded within the international treaties which in turn allow for a degree of interpretation of how free free speech should be. Censorship tends to have small beginnings and to grow rapidly. The link between poverty. the limits of free speech are consistently tested in national law courts and. sexism. however trivial. Of the total 63 countries in conflict. the poor are not able to have influence over their own lives. Examples of censorship To some the right to free speech may appear to be one of the fringe human rights. 6. but it also denies people the information which they must have in order to monitor their governments actions and to ensure accountability. The poor are denied access to information on decisions which deeply affect their lives. the poor are unable to influence the ruling elite in whose interests it may be to initiate conflict and wars in order to consolidate their own power and position. In this sense democracy empowers people. wealthy Western democracies. Thus. limiting free speech or media freedom where it impinges on the individual’s right to privacy. / 60 .Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. or where free speech would create a public disturbance. And the distance between such silencing and the use of violence to suppress a growing political philosophy which a government finds inconvenient is even shorter. in the regional courts such as the European Commission and Court of Human Rights. the public interst. Mehta. It is also sometimes difficult to dissuade the general public that censorship. is no bad thing! It requires a recognition of some of the fundamental principles of democracy to understand why censorship is so immensely dangerous. war was ongoing in 30 countries and severe civil conflict in a further 33 countries. violence. if any. While this may seem a somewhat luxurious distinction preoccupying. and thus not arbitrarily imposed: proportionate to the legitimate aims pursued. not only sets in place laws and procedures which can and will be used by those in authority against those with less authority. Allowing a government to have the power to deny people information. perhaps even more importantly. 55 are towards the bottom scale of the human development index which is an indicator of poverty. or rather the lack of it. it has been 60ondition60 by the European Court that any restriction must comply with a three-part test which requires that any such restriction should first of all be prescribed by law. religious intolerance and damage to the individual’s reputation or privacy. hear or discuss. are thus powerless and have no voice. the international treaties are concerned that there should be a balance between competing rights: for example. generally assumed to be something to do with banning obscene books or magazines. torture and disappearances of journalists and others associated with the expression of independent views. 4. let alone other aspect of society. These justifications include arguments in defence of national and/or state security. war and denial of free speech There are undoubted connections between access to information. and demonstrably necessary in a democratic society in order to protect the individual and/or the state. One can argue that democracy aims to increase participation in political and other decision-making at all levels. including what they wish to see. where speech is construed as incitement to violence or hatred. The 60ondition of democracy is that people are able to make choices about a wide variety of issues which affect their lives. unlike the American First Amendment Rights which allow few. the extent to which the media in the republics of former Yugoslavia were manipulated by government for purposes of propaganda. Who censors what? Despite the rather strict rules which apply to restrictions on free speech that governments may wish to impose. the violent role played by the government associated radio in Rwanda which incited citizens to kill each other in the name of ethnic purity and the continuing threat of murder issued by the Islamic Republic of Iran against a citizen of another country for having written a book which displeased them. read. and remains the cornerstone of democracy. There have been dramatic and terrible examples of the role that censorship has played in international politics in the last few years: to name but a few. Given that these permitted restrictions are necessarily broad. perhaps.

One has therefore to conclude that it is impossible for a particular government to wage war in the absence of a compliant media willing to indulge in government propaganda. more often than not by propaganda. But voices are silenced. succeeded because there weren’t the means to challenge it. Astead. Thus. Mehta. extreme nationalist sentiments and war by their governments. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – Internet Add-on (Freedom of Speech !) coerced. / 61 . Government sponsored propaganda in Rwanda. avert war. This is because the government needs civilians to fight wars for them and also because the media is needed to re-inforce government policies and intentions at every turn. and do. the freedom to express one’s views and to challenge government decisions and to insist upon political rather than violent solutions.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. If the majority of people had a democratic voice they would undoubtedly object to war. Peace through superior firepower. as in former Yugoslavia. are necessary aspects of democracy which can. into fear.

000) deaths). suicides. they found that including those by genocide—or about eight million per year. entertainment. the Indonesian massacre of 1965-66 (perhaps 575. the equivalent of an ongoing. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – Internet Add-on (Poverty !) Internet expansion solves poverty Kamarck. throughout the world. and other forms of behavioral violence occur one at a time. and disability suffered by those who occupy the bottom rungs of society. the discrepancies between the rich and poor nations have increased dramatically and alarmingly. Internet innovation has transformed business. I am contrasting “structural” with “behavioral violence. Comparing this frequency of deaths from structural violence to the frequency of those caused by major military and political violence. and the perpetrators who fill them are far from being the main causes of most violent deaths. the chances for him to make good on a broad social justice agenda will increase in spite of the other challenges he faces. that evolves from the experience of men in maximum security prisons and hospitals for the criminally insane must begin with the recognition that these institutions are only microcosms. as cause to effect. Any theory of violence.” by which I mean the non-natural deaths and injuries that are caused by specific behavioral actions of individuals against individuals. it was clear that even war cannot begin to compare with structural violence. This is. During the past decade. *Structural violence operates more or less independently of individual acts. it can transform approaches to poverty at home and abroad. as contrasted with the relatively lower death rates experienced by those who are above them. Mehta. even a hypothetical nuclear exchange between the U. p 191-196] The deadliest form of violence is poverty. Structural violence is also the main cause of behavioral violence on a socially and epidemiologically significant scale (from homicide and suicide to war and genocide). perpetrated on the weak and poor every year of every decade. By “structural violence” I mean the increased rates of death. whereas murders. and the lowest discrepancies in death rates and life expectancy. Focusing merely on those relatively few men who commit what we define as murder could distract us from examining and learning from those structural causes of violent death that are far more significant from a numerical or public health. such as . capital punishment. The government's efforts should be focused on expanding access to Internet and other technologies for as many Americans as possible while continuing to develop our national broadband capacity. (232 million).org/node/19414] In the past decade. in fact accelerating. and the U. When they 18 million deaths a year could be attributed to the “structural violence” to which the citizens of all the other nations were being subjected. Structural violence differs from behavioral violence in at least three major respects attempted to arrive at the number of excess deaths caused by socioeconomic inequities on a worldwide basis.benton. compared the life expectancies of those living in the other socioeconomic systems against Sweden. electronic database and Internet technologies have driven down the cost of government overhead while significantly elevating the productivity of the nation's anti-poverty programs. because it may appear to have had other (natural or violent) causes. or genocide. thermonuclear war. In an Obama administration.R. Astead. suicide. They are not where the major violence in our society takes place. 8 [Elaine Kamarck. Fraud has been reduced while the needs of the economically distressed are addressed in a more timely manner.S. on the average. the Vietnam war (possibly two million. or human. These are not acts of God. independent of individuals and groups (politicians. Kohler and Alcock the deaths we attribute to homicide. political parties. standpoint. Not a day goes by without realizing that trying to understand them and their violent behavior in purely individual terms is impossible and wrong-headed. and that structure is itself a product of society’s collective human choices. and about their families and friends. and Peace through superior firepower. *The lethal effects of structural violence operate continuously. every fifteen years. 1939-1945). wars. The 14 to 18 million deaths a year caused by structural violence compare with about 100. Sweden was their model of the nation that had come closes to eliminating structural violence. “Look to the Internet to fight poverty. you are forced to recognize the truth in Gandhi’s observation that the deadliest form of violence is poverty. It had the least inequity in income and living standards. information technology has begun to transform anti-poverty efforts and bring to the poverty world some of the increases in productivity that have been common in the private sector. for they are inextricably related to each other. * Structural violence is normally invisible. In other words. In the past two decades. Those excess deaths (or at least a demonstrably large proportion of them) are a function of class structure. voters) whose decisions may nevertheless have lethal consequences for others. This has freed up money for other pressing anti-poverty needs. Violence: Our Deadly Epidemic and its Causes. rather than sporadically. / 62 . The finding that structural violence causes far more deaths than behavioral violence does is not limited to this country. concerning how to distribute the collective wealth of the society. especially a psychological theory. professor of Psychiatry at the Harvard Medical School. soldiers in warfare. If Presidentelect Obama can expand on this. which continues year after year. Any approach to a theory of violence needs to begin with a look at the structural violence in this country. in effect. Director of the Center for the Study of Violence.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.S. 1954-1973). lecturer in public policy at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government. and so on. You cannot work for one day with the violent people who fill our prisons and mental hospitals for the criminally insane without being forcible and constantly reminded of the extreme poverty and discrimination that characterizes their lives. and even government. and a member of the Academic Advisory Council of the National Campaign Against Youth Violence. The question as to which of the two forms of violence—structural or behavioral—is more important. or lethal is moot. Hearing about their lives. 96 [James. unending.” Dec 1 http://www. such as World War II (an estimated 49 million military and civilian deaths. Outweighs nuclear war Gilligan.S. and the highest overall life expectancy in the world. dangerous. executions.000 deaths per year from armed conflict. as many people die because of relative poverty as would be killed by the Nazi genocide of the Jews over a six-year period.

scientists and engineers that will intensify as the baby boom generation retires.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. an ad that appeared in the January 16 issue of Pennsylvania’s Butler Eagle newspaper provides compelling evidence of the situation. so that people can graduate from high school and get a two-year degree or a certificate and then get into a good job in manufacturing. there are many opportunities to get into jobs in manufacturing where they will have the chance to be innovative and creative and entrepreneurial and do the kind of things they really like to do.hodgsonconsult. and their dreams and their passions. that the industry faces unprecedented challenges.” Engler also noted . will help them make better decisions. you don’t necessarily need to be as academically savvy as young people going on to a four-year college. “Certainly two-year colleges and technical colleges are a great stepping stone into a technical career.” Wagner notes that part of finding those interesting. president of The Manufacturing Institute.” she says is. / 63 . hoping to interest young people in careers in manufacturing.000 for young people with the right skills and education. and we are supporting the development of industry-led certificates and two-year degrees. manufacturing offers “a broad range of high-paying.I. says. history and continues to support our economy. NAM President John Engler noted. Wagner says.” she says. Noting that the latest report from the National Center for Education and the Economy discusses providing all students with opportunities for technical education as well as academic education.” According to Jerry Jasinowski. In fact. at which point they will have the opportunity to build upon those two-year degrees by going on to other institutions of higher learning. including “a serious shortage of skilled production workers. “an aspirational campaign to help young people think about their hopes. The Facts About Modern Manufacturing.” If there is any doubt about the need the manufacturing industry has for skilled workers. creative and high-paying jobs means students have to go on after high school and get some postsecondary education. “We are very supportive of two-year colleges to help them understand what the workplace competencies are for the 21st century workforce.” “Dream It. “Manufacturing Success. Mehta. publication of the Association for Career and Technical Education (Susan. tuition-free manufacturing training program at Penn United Technology’s L. however.pdf) When NAM and its research and education arm. and then to understand that can come not just from being a rock star or a movie star or a basketball star.G. 7 – Contributing Editor of Techniques. “Nothing could be more important than helping our young people understand the opportunities for careers as they think about who they are and what they want to be. So we are very supportive of helping young people think about their future and then providing them with a lot of options about how they would get there. in October 2006. which still had 10 spots available in the winter classes. such as those in manufacturing. managing director of NAM’s Center for Workforce Success.” Wagner believes that providing students with better information about career opportunities.” Peace through superior firepower. Stacey Wagner. “We certainly think this is a very good idea. Do It.com/uploadedFiles/Publications_and_EMedia/files/files-techniques-2007/March07_Thm1.S. we hope they will want to move up the career ladder. interesting jobs with average annual compensation of nearly $65. “Manufacturing output in America is at the highest level in U.H. It helps people get both the technical education that they need to go on to technical jobs as well as an academic background.” Techniques. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – 2AC Manufacturing Add-on [1/2] Plan key to manufacturing Reese. Training Center. this is simply not the case.” campaign and Web site. and might help change the fact that more than half of those who go straight into a four-year college after high school end up dropping out. Dreams of Success NAM is taking actions to address the need for skilled workers in the industry and has even launched the “Dream it.T. One of the things that I think is a long-held myth is that if you go into a technical career. Astead. The Manufacturing Institute. Do it. Then. released the handbook. A network of more than 100 manufacturers in southwestern Pennsylvania ran the ad offering job placement with their partner companies to individuals who complete the six-month. at some point. Of course. http://acte.

Americans believe manufacturing as the most important industry for economic prosperity. Manufacturers Face Critical Threats to Competitiveness. 3) advanced talent management.thomasnet. Of those with more than $100 million in revenue. including the public perception of pursuing a career in manufacturing. 9 (Jorina June 30 “U. Small and mid-sized manufacturers are especially at risk. exports and drive more net-wealth creation than any other industry.” Thomas Net News http://news. Astead. considering the manufacturing sector employs 13 million Americans and drives job growth in industries such as logistics. 4) global engagement. the American Small Manufacturers Coalition (ASMC) said in an announcement of its own new findings. which include: 1) customer-focused innovation.com/IMT/archives/2009/06/new-studies-identify-critical-threats-to-competitivenessfor-us-manufacturers. transportation and business services. In Deloitte LLP and The Manufacturing Institute's new Public Viewpoint on Manufacturing survey. manufacturing competes effectively on a global scale. manufacturers to successfully compete in the global economy. 2) systemic continuous improvement. marketing. "In a country where 282. However. / 64 .S. The ASMC asked manufacturers where they stood within the "next-generation manufacturing" framework of competitiveness strategies. This should come as little surprise to most.html?t=recent) Two new reports identify significant threats that could impede the ability of U. Moreover. The majority of respondents (71 percent) also view manufacturing as a national priority and 59 percent believe that U. a serious gap exists between the strategies U. released this month. One-third of respondents who had annual revenues less than $10 million are neither at nor near "world-class" in any strategy. should further invest in manufacturing industries. It is perceived as the backbone of the economy and the one that contributes the most to the United States' economic success. the ASMC has found that more than a quarter of American manufacturers — about 90." ASMC Board Chair Michael Klonsinski said.S.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Based on the study's findings. according to the research. 82 percent of respondents agree that America's manufacturing base is key to the country's economic prosperity." according to the study. merely 14 percent are under-performing. manufacturers believe to be critical to success and their progress in implementing those strategies. 5) extended enterprise management and 6) having sustainable products and processes.S.S. this is a significant threat to U. Mehta.000 small and mid-sized firms comprise the backbone of the industry. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – 2AC Manufacturing Add-on [2/2] Key to the economy – outweighs all other internals Fontelera. The results are "a wake-up call. manufactured goods represent two-thirds of U.S. the public viewpoint survey found that 81 percent of respondents believe the manufacturing industry significantly impacts their standard of living and 74 percent say that the U. competitiveness and the viability of these companies.S." Likewise. "The consequences of inaction could trigger more job losses in manufacturing and ultimately a lower standard of living for all Americans. Peace through superior firepower.000 firms — are at risk of not being able to compete on the global stage.S.

universities supported by the NSF. was Eric Drexler's Engines of Creation." The book that made a big impression on me. college students. entrepreneurs and marketers. “The field is wide open.” 2/28. nanotechnology is mostly seen as the province of Ph.asp?nid=2973) The U. in the mid-'80s. any product would be manufacturable by assemblers at a cost no greater than that of wood . undergraduate students – and the general public. Peace through superior firepower. subsequently published under the title "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom. teachers and the general public. essentially complete cleanup of the environment. “There are many opportunities. technical professionals. cures for cancer and the common cold by augmentation of the human immune system. where just about everything could be made cheaply.” said Healy. and restoration of extinct species. “Why the future doesn’t need us” Wired Magazine.com/news. providing teaching tools and enhancing their enthusiasm for helping students pursue science and engineering careers. Mehta. “But we don’t have much time because the technology is moving forward quickly. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – 2AC Nanotech Add-on Plan’s workforce expansion key to nanotech development NTW. http://www. but also for specialists such as patent attorneys. “We still have a long road ahead in educating people. nanotechnology will directly employ more than two million workers worldwide. 2K – Cofounder. which Drexler cowrote. imagines some of the changes that might take place in a world where we had molecular-level "assemblers. Goals of the effort include: Exposing young people to nanotechnology research to help encourage them toward careers in science and engineering.04/joy. http://www. Yet 80 percent of the people recently surveyed by the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies admitted to knowing little or nothing about it. incredibly inexpensive pocket supercomputers . chief scientist of Sun Microsystems (Bill.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. A subsequent book.” Healy added. Nanotechnology is already here.S.nanotechwire.html) The many wonders of nanotechnology were first imagined by the Nobel-laureate physicist Richard Feynman in a speech he gave in 1959.” Today." Assemblers could make possible incredibly low-cost solar power. though some of the most important aspects of it are still 10 or 15 years away. The most important skill will be the ability to work with people in other disciplines – to be an interdisciplinary person.” A consortium of 13 U. Unbounding the Future: The Nanotechnology Revolution. it will need people at all education and skill levels to meet needs that range from cutting-edge research to maintenance of manufacturing equipment. in which he described beautifully how manipulation of matter at the atomic level could create a utopian future of abundance.in fact. / 65 .S. scientists and engineers. Creating and distributing educational materials for children. government is investing a billion dollars a year in the technology of the very small. “Programs Focus on Work Force for Nanotechnology. But as the industry grows.spaceflight more accessible than transoceanic travel today. Nano leads to utopia – solves all impacts Joy. Training teachers and guidance counselors about experimental sciences. and Focusing efforts on populations having disproportionately low employment and education in the sciences.D. pharmacists.wired. 6 (Nanotech Wire. teachers. The National Science Foundation (NSF) estimates that by the year 2015. not just for technical people.com/wired/archive/8. and almost any imaginable disease or physical problem could be solved using nanotechnology and artificial intelligences. whose efforts are headquartered at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Astead. the NNIN supports a broad base of educational programs focused on K-12 students.

Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff

Markoff, Mehta, Astead, Kostrinsky Wave One

CTE – 2AC Science Diplomacy Add-on [1/2]
Science education key to science diplomacy Lord and Turekian, 7 (Kristin and Vaughan, respectively. Elliott School of International Affairs, The
George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA.; Chief international officer, AAAS, Washington, DC 20005, USA. “Time for a New Era of Science Diplomacy.” http://www.scienceonline.org/cgi/content/full/315/5813/769#AFF1)///HM It is time to adopt science diplomacy for a new era. Old-fashioned diplomacy between governments, while necessary, is no longer sufficient. In this age of the Internet, rapid and relatively low-cost travel, and 24-hour global news, the power of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), private companies, and social networks is rising. To protect and advance U.S. interests, the U.S. government needs to accelerate its engagement with these new actors and to build positive relationships with foreign publics, as well as their diplomats. Science and technology (S&T) offer a promising entry point for engaging citizens and civil society organizations worldwide. An opinion piece on the op-ed page of the Washington Times called on the U.S. government to recognize the opportunities afforded by widespread respect for American S&T (4). We concur. But without the engagement and commitment of the U.S. scientific community, the government cannot succeed. Why Diplomacy Through Science? Nearly 4 years ago, the United States entered a complex and difficult war with Iraq. Since then, global public opinion regarding the United States has reached all-time lows. Polls in 33 countries indicate that only 40% of those surveyed view America's influence in the world as mainly positive. In contrast, 45% view China positively and 58% hold favorable views of Europe. Dislike of America extends to long-time friends and allies. Only 30% of Canadians, 21% of Germans, and 15% of Turks hold favorable opinions of the United States (5). Readers may ask why this matters if the U.S. government is charged with protecting U.S. interests, not winning popularity contests overseas. The answer is that, increasingly, our interests depend on the support (or at least acquiescence) of foreign populations. Negative images of the United States translate directly into constraints on American influence and ability to implement policy. Engaging foreign citizens is the goal of public diplomacy. As the 9/11 Commission report (6) underscored, engaging foreign public opinion is vital to winning the global struggle of ideas. President Bush clearly agrees, having appointed one of his closest advisers, Karen Hughes, to the position of Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs in 2005. Despite this high-level attention, however, promoting America's image overseas continues to be a daunting task, particularly in predominantly Muslim countries. In our view, public diplomacy is most effective when exercised through deeds rather than words. The U.S. government should focus on doing things that positively affect foreign societies and speak to what we stand for as a nation. We should foster tangible initiatives that promote education, economic growth, human well-being, and hope. If we understand public diplomacy in these terms, the role of S&T is pivotal. Scientific education creates citizens with the critical thinking skills necessary for successful participatory governance and competition in the global economy. S&T are linked strongly with economic development (7). Zogby public opinion polls in several Middle Eastern nations, where the United States is particularly unpopular, indicate that S&T are the single most respected elements of American society (8). Social science research indicates that collaboration to solve common problems is one of the best ways to foster positive relations between groups (9). Under Secretary Hughes increasingly appreciates the unifying power of science (10). She held major events on breast cancer awareness in the Middle East and has launched a project on fighting malaria (11). She has created new International Science Fulbright awards and supported activities, led by Under Secretary of State for Democracy and Global Affairs, Paula Dobriansky, to cultivate networks of women scientists and engineers (12). Yet, in an era where international skepticism about U.S. foreign policy abounds, government can only do so much. Ultimately civil society--including scientists and engineers--will need to join in this diplomacy of deeds in order for the new science diplomacy to succeed. The fact that science is, and should remain, outside the realm of politics only makes scientists better suited for this task. How can the U.S. science community contribute to science diplomacy and remind the world that Americans are defined by more than specific U.S. government policies? Individual scientists can contribute by realizing that they are valuable ambassadors of goodwill. They can intensify their global activities and promote greater engagement with counterparts worldwide. They can increase their efforts to invite foreign peers to review scientific articles and papers. Senior U.S. researchers can use their own international networks, including former students and postdocs working outside of the United States, to reach out to junior scientists in other countries, to collaborate with peers, and to promote broader international cooperation. U.S. scientists should make a special effort to engage with scientists from countries where the United States is misunderstood or disliked--not to justify or promote any government policy, but to build bridges and trust. They can engage more with university students and the general

Peace through superior firepower.



Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff

Markoff, Mehta, Astead, Kostrinsky Wave One

CTE – 2AC Science Diplomacy Add-on [2/2]
[Lord and Turekian Continue, no text omitted] public overseas, not just other scientists, and let them know how scientists from all nations make a collective difference in their lives. In so doing, U.S. scientists will make the world a better place, and perhaps improve foreigners' views of America along the way. Scientists can also encourage their universities, research institutions, professional societies, and laboratories to adopt global engagement as a priority. Although a large sum of individual efforts is important, effective global engagement will be most influential if it engages whole organizations as well. Many of the major U.S. scientific and engineering societies already have specific offices or initiatives dedicated to international collaborations. To give just one example, in January AAAS joined the U.S. Department of State, the Kuwaiti government, and a Kuwaiti science NGO to convene a conference in Kuwait City to promote networks of women scientists and engineers in the broader Middle East (see figure above). AAAS has also recently started a pilot program that remotely links U.S. researchers with university-level science students in developing and emerging countries in order to share and discuss seminal papers across a range of scientific disciplines (13). Yet, despite current efforts, scientific organizations can do more. Of course, all this assumes that scientists and engineers are willing to be ambassadors and to participate in the new science diplomacy. Why would they? The answer is threefold. First, while science holds great benefits for diplomacy, diplomacy also benefits science. For instance, in large-scale programs such as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) (14), scientists from major powers such as China, India, Russia, Korea, Japan, the European Union, and the United States will work together in an unprecedented international agreement to develop fusion energy. Moreover, diplomacy can create opportunities to conduct research in parts of the world critical to scientific advancement. Scientific research ranging from astronomical observation in Australia to archaeological research in Libya depends on broader access, as well as diplomatic support. Second, the health of the U.S. scientific community depends on the continued willingness of foreign scientists and students to come to the United States for study, research, and work. Visa difficulties, combined with a perception that the United States does not welcome foreigners, reduced the number of foreign students coming to the United States after 9/11. This trend is beginning to reverse, but negative perceptions persist and it is important to remain vigilant. The U.S. economy benefits greatly from foreign scientists and science (15).We must ensure that the United States remains attractive and welcoming. Third, scientists are citizens. Like their counterparts outside of the scientific community, many scientists and engineers share concerns about negative perceptions of the United States.

Science Diplomacy key to innovation and the economy Dobriansky, 6 - Under Secretary of State for Democracy and Global Affairs
[Dr. Paula J., "The Art of Science Diplomacy" http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/67518.pdf] As President George W. Bush stated, “Science and technology have never been more essential to the defense of the nation and the health of our economy.” To remain at the forefront of scientific and technological achievement, America must cooperate globally. Historically, global leadership in science and technology is transitory, and leaders must expend considerable effort to maintain their position. As Secretary Rice stated, “Today, dynamic advancements in science and technology are transforming the world— making it possible for more and more people to compete equally across all fields of human endeavor. America must remain at the forefront of this new world.” Our economy benefits from collaborative efforts. Science and technology are major drivers of innovation in the United States and an important source of exports. Economists estimate that the increase in American productivity growth that began in the mid-1990s is entirely due to technology investments.

Peace through superior firepower.



Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff

Markoff, Mehta, Astead, Kostrinsky Wave One

CTE – Green Jobs: 2AC Venture Capital Add-on
Sustainability efforts skyrocket venture capital investment BCNS, 9 (Bay City News Service, “'Green industry' offers hope for Silicon Valley,” February 18th, 2009,
http://www.paloaltoonline.com/news/show_story.php?id=11268) An emerging "green industry" could offer huge economic gains for Silicon Valley, according to an economicoutlook analysis released Tuesday. The outlook showed the region suffering recessionary economic woes in 2008, but analysts cautiously report the emerging green industry could offer huge economic gains for the area. In a special analysis companion to the "Silicon Valley Index 2009," published each year by community groups Joint Venture Silicon Valley Network and Silicon Valley Community Foundation, financial analysts detailed trends in the valley's portfolio that are both worrisome and favorable. "The national trends have finally overtaken the Silicon Valley and brought us down," said Russell Hancock, president and CEO of Joint Venture. This year's report, he said, indicates the area has the economic equivalent of a head cold that could threaten to escalate into pneumonia if left untreated. Employment numbers began to fall into negative percentages in November 2008, lagging behind nationwide negative
employment trends until year's end, analysts reported. The metropolitan statistical area encompassing San Jose, Sunnyvale and Santa Clara posted a 1.3 percent drop from December 2007 to December 2008.Home foreclosure sales are higher than the statewide average and the demand for commercial real estate has dropped, the report said. However, the region is better poised than most to reinvent itself, Hancock

said. "We don't have a single industry that has been our mainstay for generations," he said. "It's an idea-driven, knowledge-intensive economy." Hancock said clean technology, especially solar technology, is thriving, and could be the key to invigorating the Silicon Valley economy. While venture capital investment fell 7.7 percent from 2007 to 2008, capital investments in clean tech are up 94 percent, according to the report. Data shows this sum accounts for 31 percent
of all national clean industry investment over the same time period. This sector has reportedly supported job growth at 23 percent since 2005, the report said. "This is the world's epicenter for solar technology right now," Hancock said. "Maybe we won't be the Silicon Valley anymore; maybe we're the green valley." In California, 15 percent of new hybrid vehicles, 10 percent of electric cars and 5 percent of new natural gas vehicles are registered in the Silicon Valley, according to the report. As the region's focus shifts toward cleaner forms of technology, the report highlights

the need for additional education and training to help employees make this transition. "People are self-starters, but wouldn't it be nice if there were industry partnerships with our educational institutions," he said. Hancock was quick to add that local colleges are "oversubscribed and underfunded," and lack the resources to make such partnerships a reality.

Strong VC solves the economy Portland Business Journal, 2 (“Venture industry gears up for major transition” lexis)
So where is the venture capital industry heading? More importantly, what effect will this have on the U.S. economy as a whole? To date, much of the carnage in the venture industry has been masked by an illusion of investment
activity. Many venture funds have spent the last two years performing triage on their existing portfolios. The bulk of new venture dollars invested by these firms has been used to prolong the survival of struggling portfolio companies. Many of these companies will fail, resulting in poor returns for the limited partners who supply the venture firms with the capital they need to survive. As a result, the number of active venture firms will decrease dramatically over the next five years. Particularly vulnerable are first-time venture funds that were caught up in the internet bubble and now have little value or track record to show for their invested dollars. While I've heard some colleagues predict a decline in the number of firms of 15 percent to 20 percent, I expect we'll see a much sharper decline on the order of 40 percent to 50 percent. Why such a sharp decline? The institutions that back venture firms continually expanded the number of funds they invested in throughout the 1990s. By attempting to spread the risk of their venture fund portfolios through diversification, institutions failed to realize the venture industry has a scarce pool of experienced and talented venture capitalists. The result was a dilution of the overall quality of the venture capitalists they backed, which subsequently led to significant losses. A majority of institutions realize their mistake and will likely revert to their old strategy of concentrating their investment dollars in the hands of a more limited set of venture capitalists. In particular, venture funds that have provided institutions with consistent returns over a long period of time will receive the highest allocations. We will see a continually maturing venture industry during the next decade, resulting in fewer but larger venture firms. While some niche venture funds focused on a particular industry sector will continue to exist and thrive, the majority of investment dollars raised by venture funds in the future will be concentrated among the top 20 to 30 firms. Like many industries, the 80/20 rule applies to the venture industry as well. In aggregate, the venture capital industry will grow and become a more established asset class in the coming years. The influence and importance of venture capital as a vital engine for growth

has no equal in our economy or our country. According to an economic impact study released last year by the National Venture Capital Association, the $273.3 billion of venture capital invested during the 30 year period from 1970 to 2000 created 7.6 million U.S. jobs and more than $1.3 trillion in revenue as of the end of 2000. The study also shows that although venture capital represented less than 1 percent of U.S. investment activity during the 1970 to 2000 period, companies created with venture capital were responsible for 5.9 percent of the nation's jobs and 13.1 percent of the U.S. Gross Domestic Product in 2000.

Peace through superior firepower.



This means that the US economy. indeed. Mehta.stern. Shocks collapse the global economy and magnify their impact Setser.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.0% and 3. Yet while recent recessions have all been linked to an increase in the price of oil. And. GDP growth was 3. Peace through superior firepower. not all oil price spikes lead to a recession. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – Green Jobs: 2AC Oil Shocks Add-on Plan solves oil shocks by offsetting oil with renewables – that’s Barrett. confirming that high oil prices in the first half of 2004 put a dent on real consumer demand.S. the reduction in the G7 growth rate may be closer to 1% of GDP. Some (Goldman Sachs) are more pessimistic. Global growth would also deaccelerate from its current very strong pace. private estimates of the negative effects of an oil shock currently range between 0. The 2003 spike associated with the invasion of Iraq is a good example. Oxford (Brad.0%.edu/~nroubini/papers/OilShockRoubiniSetser.pdf) These effects are not trivial: oil shocks have caused and/or contributed to each one of the US and global recessions of the last thirty years.3% to 1% of US and G7 GDP growth. Looking ahead. persistence of oil prices at recent high levels of $43-44 per barrel (or even higher prices) could further slow down the U. Astead.3% average rate could be expected to see a slowdown of its growth to a level between 4. http://pages. and calculate that if oil prices were to increase further to levels closer to $45. the first estimate for Q2:2004 U.3%0. which was growing in Q4:2003 and Q1:2004 at about a 4. Private sector estimates generally suggest that a persistent 10% increase in the price of oil – say an increase from $30 to an average of $35 over the course of 2004 -. Thus. 4 – Research Associate @ the Global Economic Programme University College. economy below a 3% growth rate.nyu.would reduce the US and the G7 growth rate by about 0.S.3%.4% within a year. / 69 .

but in the industries of the future: industries like wind turbine manufacturing. operation and maintenance. green jobs are the kind of family-supporting jobs that once anchored the American middle class. America’s growing green economy faces a looming labor shortage in sectors like manufacturing. 8 (“Green-Collar Jobs in America's Cities. Some are a bridge to high-skill professional jobs or entrepreneurial opportunities. 90 percent of respondents indicated a moderate to severe shortage of qualified. http://www. Astead. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – Green Jobs: Ext. This labor shortage is only likely to get more severe as baby-boomers skilled in current energy technologies retire. for example. and installation. In a 2005 survey by the National Association of Manufacturers. Green jobs exist. 2008. Peace through superior firepower. we need to prepare the next generation of Americans for the important work that lies ahead. requiring more education than a high school diploma.americanprogress. but less than a four-year degree.org/issues/2008/03/green_collar_jobs. skilled production employees like machinists and technicians. Many are in the skilled trades: manufacturing.Job Shortages Labor shortages kill green job growth Center for American Progress. in a range of industries and at every skill and wage level. energy efficiency retrofits. in the power sector. In short. and green building. the National Renewable Energy Lab has identified a shortage of skills and training as a leading barrier to renewable energy and energy efficiency growth. construction.” March 13th. others are perfect entry level or transitional jobs for urban residents looking for a pathway out of poverty. Most are “middle-skill” jobs. solar panel installation. Clearly if America is to rise to the global energy challenge. nearly onequarter of the current workforce will be eligible for retirement in the next five to seven years. Mehta. / 70 . construction and installation. Similarly. and are growing.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.html) Unfortunately. and capture the economic opportunity it represents.

Chairperson. Sustainability in the Chemical Industry: Grand Challenges and Research Needs . / 71 .Chemical Industry Impact Chemical industry solves extinction – job training key Trainham et al. Yet these same systems provide critical services on which society and the economy depend—clean water. Historically unprecedented population growth. clean energy. need the systems orientation of green chemistry and sustainability science. but education has not kept up.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.g. 69) This reality needs to be communicated through education and training. ecology. with accompanying exponentially expanded throughput of industrial materials. Moreover. air. Anthropogenic impact fundamentally alters the chemistry. COMMITTEE ON GRAND CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABILITY IN THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY under the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology. Astead. the reach of humans has been extended dramatically in the last 100 years through technology and globalization. has led to unavoidable pollution and health challenges. growth demands and technological advances place ever growing requirements for natural and synthetic materials. This knowledge cannot remain marginal to the education of citizens. Peace through superior firepower. Kostrinsky Wave One CTE – Green Jobs: Ext. productive soil. Mehta. and safe food. and biology of living and nonliving systems. including throughout supply chains to final product users. As central topics in the science communities and related to the health and stability of societies today. the actions are segregated (and therefore marginalized) in Environment Health and Safety (EH&S) offices or in debates about ethics and social responsibility. pg. and biogeochemical cycles). While having always influenced the physical environment. The scale and accelerating rate of change results in activity and waste streams that disrupt and degrade natural systems worldwide (e. Today. these issues are migrating to the core of corporate strategy. healthy air.A Workshop Report. yet we still design feedstocks and final products. Not only does the knowledge base of scientists need augmenting but those working in industry. In management education. it is still relatively segregated and marginalized in the study of ecology and other environmental sciences. Trainham III. and maintain industries that produce them as though we were ignorant of these changes. 5 (James A. hydrologic.

pose critical national security challenges for the United States. This is not a matter merely of national pride or international image. and from national prosperity provide the foundation for national cohesion.S. In a knowledge-based future. America’s international reputation. depends on its reputation for excellence in these areas. they increasingly fill American university graduate studies seats and job slots in these areas. but the world is changing. technology. Mehta. Second only to a weapon of mass destruction detonating in an American city. / 72 . and engineering is not being met. The internationalization of both scientific research and its commercial development is having a significant effect on the capacity of the U. while salaries are often more lucrative in areas requiring less demanding training.pdf) The scale and nature of the ongoing revolution in science and technology.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.library. Complacency with our current achievement of national wealth and international power will put all of this at risk. 1 (A bipartisan commission set up to evaluate the current national security climate and propose changes needed to meet new threats has issued a report that calls for major changes in governmental structures and processes. Today.S. and what this implies for the quality of human capital in the 21st century. and higher education. thanks to science. Kostrinsky Wave One Defense-Industrial Base – Ext: Education Key to DIB Education key to defense industrial base and national security The United States Commission on National Security. In such a future. performance is not keeping up with its reputation. Current institutional arrangements among government. and with discipline they will outstrip us. and education for the common good over the next quarter century. technology. Peace through superior firepower. only a well-trained and educated population can thrive economically. math.S. and its success has inspired other nations to recognize the true sources of power and wealth in science. U. Astead. do find these professions attractive and. mathematics. “Road Map for National Security: Imperative for Change.edu/nssg/PhaseIIIFR. nationals. need for the highest quality human capital in science. we can think of nothing more dangerous than a failure to manage properly science. as well as the defense industrial base. even were they so inclined. As a result too few American students are qualified to take these slots. It is an issue of fundamental importance to national security.unt. only an America that remains at the cutting edge of science and technology will sustain its current world leadership. Non-U. America remains today the model of creativity and experimentation. from health care to banking to retail business. These changes are transforming most facets of the American economy. Other countries are striving hard. One reason for this is clear: American students know that professional careers in basic science and mathematics require considerable preparation and effort. however. since America’s strength has always been tied to the spirit and entrepreneurial energies of its people. The harsh fact is that the U. private proprietary expenditure on technology development far outdistances public spending. and business have served the nation well over the past five decades. Another reason for the growing deficit in high-quality human capital is that the American kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12) education system is not performing as well as it should. higher education.” http://govinfo. This is an ironic predicament. and technical preparation superior to that of many Americans.S. government to harness science in the service of national security and to attract qualified scientific and technical personnel. and therefore a significant aspect of its global influence.

The importance of nationwide standards may become painfully clear during the upcoming school year. CEO of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and executive publisher of the Journal Science. Now we're holding out hope for elements of subsequent proposals. Sens. At least two NCLB revision bids are in play. engineering. Connecticut Democrat. particularly as American students overall continue to score worse than students in other industrialized nations.S. but the problem persists in some regions. the performance gap between math and reading test scores for white versus minority youngsters has narrowed since 2002. an essential next step is clear: Scrap the crazy-quilt pattern of wildly differing tests and proficiency thresholds that currently vary from state to state. Vernon Ehlers. Rep. Mehta. sixth-ninth and 10th12th). he authorized an additional $33. Revise NCLB to set voluntary nationwide education standards. and math education programs. when NCLB will require science testing at least once in each of three grade spans (third-fifth. So. it often remains unacceptably wide — up to 40 percentage points in some states. and the National Assessment of Educational Progress. George Miller. standards and learning goals vary from place to place. But one critical piece is missing. overwhelmingly approved by a bipartisan Congress pursuing a first-rate science and mathematics education for all children at a time when American youngsters lag behind many of their peers abroad. black. proposes changes to increase funding. female or in any other category. and Science Act. nationwide standards in science and math. Minnesota Republican — pitched their All Students Can Achieve Act to help close the performance gap between white and minority students. Science literacy is. either. Kostrinsky Wave One Defense-Industrial Base – Ext: Nat. Policy-makers clearly see scientific discovery and science education as keys to the nation's health. Moreover. especially for consistent science standards.net/news/2007/newsclips/070817. floated the Standards to Provide Educational Achievement for Kids Act..htm)///HM Washington Times. to be developed by the National Assessment Governing Board with public input. male. Hispanic. A recent study confirmed better student test scores in most though not all regions since enactment in 2002. all children deserve our very best efforts to teach them science and mathematics. Sen. Peace through superior firepower. Astead. President Bush just signed the America Competes Act. the NCLB approach is working.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. technology. the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Even where the gap is shrinking. Earlier this year. economic and security challenges: When the president signed the America COMPETES Act. whereas most other industrialized countries do have nationwide educational standards. Chris Dodd. after all. whose formal title is the Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology. It's no wonder.isbe. and Rep. Earlier. which sadly remains pending. Connecticut independent. U. the achievement gap actually has widened.6 billion over the next three fiscal years for science. the National Research Council. These disparities are dramatic and discouraging. Standards Key to DIB Need National Standards – key to national security Leshner. Mary Landrieu. or SPEAK. The trend is even worse when researchers look at average test scores. and Norm Coleman. widely accepted guidelines set forth by Project 2061 at AAAS. Education. California Democrat. American children deemed proficient in science and math in one state might miss the mark if their families move. but in fact a baseline requirement for any student hoping to compete for jobs in the 21st century. rather than the percentage of students meeting different state proficiency levels. The American Association for the Advancement of Science applauded the bill. With the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act up for renewal. Whether they're rich. poor. Joe Lieberman. white. Let's seize the positive momentum and move now toward voluntary nationwide science standards as well. http://www. uniform set of national science standards. Michigan Republican. fairness and flexibility in measuring progress. 8/15/07. Louisiana Democrat. The core concepts of both bills are on the mark. no longer merely a luxury for the gifted and wealthy. / 73 . which again points to the need for a coherent. calling for voluntary. They could be based on well-tested. Nationwide. Though sometimes criticized for its emphasis on students' math and reading scores. There's no need to cook such standards up from scratch. In Washington state. keeping America competitive will require tapping every potential talent pool and bringing them to the highest possible levels of achievement. the Center on Education Policy reported. 7 (Alan I.

com/readArticle. / 74 . Astead. Money. Israel. Russia is not the super power it once was. Alienating India in order to give the militants a partial victory would be a strategic disaster for the United States. It also incorporates components from several other countries including Britain. should help Islamabad advance its militant demands on India. The 2008 annual report to Congress from the Office of the Secretary of Defense on the Military Power of the People’s Republic of China had as its key finding. In Tibet. Rather than interfere with these discussions. The diplomacy behind the agreement will expand a relationship that was started by President Ronald Reagan in 1984 when he signed a memorandum of understanding on high-tech sales to India. An arms deal will pull the military of the two countries together and foster interoperability. the larger common threat is from China. India has found this relationship less appealing. India will have to obtain the technology and weapons systems from foreign sources to do so. Sweden and France are also in the hunt for one of the world’s richest export opportunities. http://www. From the Indian perspective. The implementing legislation was signed by President Bush on Oct. whose terrorists were waging a campaign in the Indian province of Kashmir long before 9/11. particularly during the Soviet period. 8 – consultant on international economics and national security issues (William R. has been India’s primary source for military equipment. the Indian frigate Tabar. But since the collapse of the USSR. The immediate benefit is that it boosts America’s chances in competition with Russia and France when bidding on the eight nuclear reactors India plans to import by 2012.” In the air. Under Secretary of State Nicholas Burns said when the nuclear deal was signed that it was. India is the only country on the Asian mainland that has the heft to counter China. Russia. “positive for United States national security interest because it will help us cement our strategic partnership with India.aspx?ARTID=33188) From Beijing’s perspective.S. Russia under Vladimir Putin has aligned Russia with China to counter American “hegemony. “China’s expanding and improving military capabilities are changing East Asian military balances. For example. in the wake of growing unrest by the Tibetan people against Chinese oppression. Indian naval officers now speak in the Pentagon’s language of “net centric warfare. Germany.-India Agreement for Cooperation on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. The Senate vote was 86-13. Beijing’s rapid economic rise is giving the Communist regime the means to project its power across a wide arc. a country that poses no danger to Islamabad unless provoked. major airfields and ballistic missile sites. The larger gains go beyond the nuclear pact itself. and India itself. For example. Petersburg. which is very important for our global interests. and is now looking for increased access to the American defense industry. not external. Instead. 8. is a Russian design built in St. The way for closer ties was opened with the ratification of the U. Ukraine. a retired Indian Navy commodore. improvements in China’s strategic capabilities have implications beyond the Asia-Pacific region. its equipment is second rate. where it is the main source of support for the military dictatorship in Myanmar (Burma). Germany. the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal — that India needs to dominate. Obama raised fears in India regarding a potential U. Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari understands that the threat to the survival of his democratic government is internal. Mehta. perspective. has identified three littoral regions — the Arabian Sea.” From the U. Beijing has built all-weather military roads linking army bases. There is already an ongoing and productive peace process. a senior Indian Navy planner recently told Defense News. Beijing has built naval bases along Burma's coastline in the Bay of Bengal.” India has turned to France. Obama’s thinking seems to be that to win greater Pakistani cooperation against militants in its border provinces with Afghanistan. and it is no longer an ally against China. and Britain for arms. Zachariah Mathews. aiding Pakistan keeps India focused to the west. Pakistan now wants to normalize relations with India. Kostrinsky Wave One Defense-Industrial Base – 2AC Sino-Indian War Add-on [1/2] Defense-industrial base averts Sino-Indian war Hawkins. is a vital source for technology to speed its economic development. Denmark. however. New Delhi also needs to improve its general naval capabilities. a week after it was passed by both houses of Congress. but a common cause for the Islamic terrorist movement. During his presidential campaign. is not the only reason Washington wants an American firm to win the Indian bid. tilt towards Pakistan in the Kashmir dispute.S. with both Barack Obama and Joe Biden voting with the majority (along with John McCain and Hillary Clinton). 19. China is increasing its ability to launch strikes deep into India. India needs to match the ability of Chinese nuclear submarines to remain submerged while launching nuclear missiles. Lockheed Martin's F-16 Fighting Falcon and Boeing's F-18 Super Hornet have already emerged as the front-runners in the competition to sell 126 fighter jets to India worth $12 billion. Afghanistan and Kashmir are not separate issues. allowing the Chinese more freedom of action in Southeast Asia. While the United States and India have a common enemy in radical Islam. Rather. and to improve its military capabilities.S. Russia.frontpagemag. the U. which has included important back-channel negotiations over Kashmir. Washington.S. Peace through superior firepower.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. by both aircraft and missiles. need to make clear to Islamabad that the legitimacy of its claim to sovereignty over its border areas depends on preventing its territory from being used for attacks against its neighbors. Obama needs to keep focused on the larger strategic importance of closer ties with New Delhi. India is an emerging great power in Asia whose alignment with the United States is vital to the maintenance of a balance of power favorable to American security interests. the U.S.” President-elect Obama needs to understand the value of what President Bush has left him. better designed to service Chinese warships than the non-existent Myanmarese fleet. Such a policy would only embolden jihadists and reward radical elements in Pakistan’s army and intelligence services who are the political enemies of the country’s new democratic government. which sank a pirate ship off the African coast Nov. in concert with NATO and India.

the region has no history of successful multilateral security cooperation or arms control. / 75 . Kostrinsky Wave One Defense-Industrial Base – 2AC Sino-Indian War Add-on [2/2] Escalates throughout Asia Poole-Robb. and religious differences in Asia. China and Japan are amongst the top four or five global military spenders.com/p/articles/mi_m0JIW/is_1_54/ai_75762211) The areas of maximum danger and instability in the world today are in Asia. Also. Fraud. But there are a number of negative tendencies that must be of serious There are deep-seated historical. The Asia-Pacific region spends more on defense (about $150 billion a year) than any other part of the world except the United States and Nato Europe. Terrorism and Other Threats to Global Business p. in Southeast Asia. 1 – Professor of Security Studies at the Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies (Paul. Unlike in Europe. concern. followed by the Middle East and parts of the former Soviet Union. or it could slide into confrontation and military conflict. territorial. Astead. 181-182) Most likely scenario for global war Dibb. ideological. Peace through superior firepower. The strategic situation in Asia is more uncertain and potentially threatening than anywhere in Europe. Indonesia--which is the world's fourth-largest country--faces a highly uncertain future that could lead to its breakup.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. India and Pakistan have nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles. which would encourage an optimistic view. and these two countries are more confrontational than at any time since the early 1970s. Risky Business: Corruption. Mehta. 2 – analyst at Merchant International Group and Alan Bailey (Stuart. http://findarticles. Asia also has more nuclear powers than any other region of the world. There are positive tendencies. including the resurgence of economic growth and the spread of democracy. it is possible to envisage war in Asia involving the major powers: remnants of Cold War ideological confrontation still exist across the Taiwan Straits and on the Korean Peninsula. Such multilateral institutions as the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and the ASEAN Regional Forum have shown themselves to be ineffective when confronted with major crises. Asia's security is at a crossroads: the region could go in the direction of peace and cooperation.

standard of living. gross domestic product.S. China. Given the strength of democracy in Germany and its preoccupation with absorbing the former East Germany. The result would be a much more dangerous world in Peace through superior firepower. rather than cooperating with each other. Turmoil in Asia and Europe would force major economic readjustment in the United States. in the long run. European concerns about Germany appear exaggerated.an unlikely prospect -. in the past. withdrawal could not. interests. exports and imports and jeopardizing U.S.S. Such a development would threaten U. perhaps reducing U. Vol. No. Europe. and potential new regional powers such as India. Germany -. withdrawal is likely to lead to an intensified struggle for regional domination. The extension of instability.S. Given that total imports and exports are equal to a quarter of U. both sought regional hegemony. Either in cooperation or competition with Russia. Mehta. it’s key to longterm innovation and technological dominance which is the base project power. Japan is likely to increase its military capability dramatically -. such a power might seek global hegemony and the United States would face another global Cold War and the risk of a world war even more catastrophic than the last. investments in these regions. With the shifting balance of power among Japan. Given a U. Korea. China. Russia. 84 Realistically and over the longer term. 2. however.S. That danger would only increase if the United States withdrew from the world. their own nuclear weapons. prosperity.Europe or East Asia could become dominated by a hostile power.especially since unification -. isolationism had disastrous consequences for world peace.would be the natural leading power. that’s Carafano.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Without U. Already several rogue states such as North Korea and Iran are seeking nuclear weapons and long-range missiles.to balance the growing Chinese forces and still-significant Russian forces. it could obviously become a nuclear weapon state relatively quickly. perhaps by purchase. If the United States stayed out of such a war -. In the 1920s and 1930s.in the region. and precluding its domination by rival powers. Pg. In Western and Central Europe. ‘95 Spring. defense effort.S. protection.S. U. the United States was but one of several major powers. European competition for regional dominance could lead to major wars in Europe or East Asia. What might happen to the world if the United States turned inward? Without the United States and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). a neo-isolationist approach might well increase the danger of major conflict. It could also build long-range missiles and carrier task forces. and hostile hegemony in East Asia. conflict.S. and world economies.S. with the domination of Europe or East Asia. Similarly. to say nothing of the plutonium stockpile Japan has acquired in the development of its nuclear power industry. threaten world peace. By withdrawing from Europe and Asia. The higher level of turmoil in the world would also increase the likelihood of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and means for their delivery.S. the cost of necessary adjustments might be high. Hegemony over the Persian Gulf by either Iran or Iraq would bring the rest of the Arab Middle East under its influence and domination because of the shift in the balance of power. Kostrinsky Wave One Defense-Industrial Base – 2AC Competitiveness Add-on STEM education key to hegemony and competitiveness. The same is also true of Japan. increasing the risk of war between the Arabs and the Israelis. the weak oilrich states of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) would be unlikely to retain their independence. it could gain a significant capability to damage the U. In the Persian Gulf. This could result in arms races.S. the shock of a U. Astead. Germany might seek influence over the territories located between them. If either Iraq or Iran controlled the region that dominates the world supply of oil.S. Given Japanese technological prowess. the Saudis might seek to acquire. To preclude this development. At that time. / 76 . U. and the Persian Gulf would harm the economy of the United States even in the unlikely event that it was able to avoid involvement in major wars and conflicts. Iran and Iraq have. Higher oil prices would reduce the U. Without U.S. including the possible acquisition by Japan of nuclear weapons. stabilizing the region. Now that the United States is the world's preponderant power. result in the renationalization of Germany's security policy.S. the West European nations might compete with each other for domination of East-Central Europe and the Middle East. if it should so decide.S. protection. 18. Any country that gained hegemony would have vast economic resources at its disposal that could be used to build military capability as well as gain leverage over the United States and other oilimporting nations. A power that achieved such dominance would seek to exclude the United States from the area and threaten its interests-economic and political -. the United States would deliberately risk weakening the institutions and solidarity of the world's community of democratic powers and so establishing favorable conditions for the spread of disorder and a possible return to conditions similar to those of the first half of the twentieth century. and the nations of Southeast Asia already fear Japanese hegemony. Japan would have to look after its own security and build up its military capabilities. Indonesia. Britain and France fear such a development. require a greater U. and a united Korea could come significant risks of preventive or proeruptive war. withdrawal could be even greater. Multiple scenarios for nuclear war Zalmay Khalilzad. But it would be a mistake to assume that U. Israeli security problems would multiply and the peace process would be fundamentally undermined. (Former Assist Prof of Poli Sci @ Columbia). and eventually undermine U. The Washington Quarterly. Besides. German efforts are likely to be aimed at filling the vacuum. withdrawal from the world.

/ 77 . would be harmed. the security of every nation in the world. Mehta. the Peace through superior firepower. If this happened.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. including the United States. which many states possessed WMD capabilities. Kostrinsky Wave One likelihood of their actual use would increase accordingly. Astead.

these two threats are increasingly connected. There is. the objective is economic superiority. Indeed.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Mehta. Crucial to America's ability to prevail over these past challenges was our technological and industrial leadership. the threat posed by our increasing dependence on oil imports from the Middle East. However. generation after generation. and assemble the means of execution. They are almost certainly what America will have to pursue in order to prevail over the contemporary challenges involving economic competitiveness and energy dependence. second. Perpetual innovation and technological leadership might even be said to be the American way of maintaining primacy in world affairs. The United States needs a national strategy focused upon developing new technologies and creating new industries. 7 – Senior Fellow at the Foreign Policy Research Institute (Rocco. and especially our ability to continuously recreate it.3 Peace through superior firepower. most obviously from Germany and Japan in the first half of the twentieth century and from the Soviet Union in the second half.2 The United States of course faced great challenges to its security and economy in the past. the United States has been unique among great powers in its ability to keep on creating and recreating new technologies and new industries. Moreover. a threat most obviously represented by such rising economic powers as China and India. Every successful strategy must define an objective or mission. / 78 .” Orbis. of course. the threat posed by our declining competitiveness in the global economy.1 There is. and people. and the means of execution will have to include a partnership of industry. Kostrinsky Wave One Defense-Industrial Base – Competitiveness Key to Heg Competitiveness outweighs all other internal links Martino. government. determine a solution. There is therefore an urgent need for America to resume its historic emphasis on innovation. as China and India themselves are greatly increasing their demand for Middle East oil. Volume 51. “A Strategy for Success: Innovation Will Renew American Leadership. Issue 2) Much of the foreign policy discussion in the United States today is focused upon the dilemma posed by the Iraq War and the threat posed by Islamist terrorism. first. These problems are. America also faces other challenges to its physical security and economic prosperity. Astead. and these are more long-term and probably more profound. both immediate and important. the solution is new industries which build upon the contemporary revolution in information technology. In this case.

as well as government science and statistics agencies and commissions. One economist estimates that “trailing other developed countries on education measures may reduce U. rely so heavily on foreign talent to fill critical positions in teaching. response was immediate and dramatic.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. There may be no attack. / 79 . A number of developments — including heightened security after September 11.14 For most of the 20th century. engineering and mathematics. The indicators range from measurable declines in U. just under 6 percent indicated plans to pursue a degree in engineering — nearly a 33 percent decrease in interest from the previous decade.13 Investment in basic research: In the United States.12 This is not surprising when nearly 70 percent of middle school students are assigned to teachers who lack a major and certification in mathematics. We cannot and should not.7 Today. Astead. a major part of the effort to restore America's scientific pre-eminence. Rather.S. In the face of the declining interest and proficiency of Americans in science. no catastrophe that will suddenly demonstrate the threat. the American education system provided a substantial part of the talent and proficiency needed to sustain and improve our way of life.S.S.S. and we should continue to do so. American industry has become increasingly dependent — some would say overly dependent — on foreign nationals to fill the demand for talent in a variety of fields that require strong backgrounds in science. selfdetermined choices. there will be a slow withering. if less visible.11 Student achievement: In a recent international assessment of 15-year-olds' math problem-solving skills. however. technology. If we wait for a dramatic event — a 21st-century version of Sputnik — it will be too late.S. economy becomes even more reliant on workers with greater knowledge and technological expertise.093 percent to 0. research and education. Kostrinsky Wave One Defense-Industrial Base – Education Key to Competitiveness STEM education key to the economy and competitiveness Archey et al. funding for basic research in the physical sciences has declined by half (from 0.tap2015. President Eisenhower signed into law the National Defense Education Act. engineering and mathematics. the first Earth orbit satellite. One of the pillars of American economic prosperity — our scientific and technological superiority — is beginning to atrophy even as other nations are developing their own human capital. 5 – Former President and CEO.”15 All projections suggest that the discrepancy between supply and demand of domestic talent will grow more pronounced. The United States is at such a critical point in our own history. a widening gap between a complacent America and countries with the drive. innovation.org/about/TAP_report2. and by their own desire to escape totalitarian regimes and live in a free society. however. the United States had the smallest percentage of top performers and the largest percentage of low performers compared to the other participating developed countries. History is replete with examples of world economies that once were dominant but declined because of myopic. no moment of epiphany.1 million high school seniors in the United States who took a college entrance exam in 2002. our nation faces a more serious. technology. research and industry. math and engineering. many foreign scientists were attracted to pursue research in the United States by the American scientific enterprise's top-notch facilities and financial support. economic growth by as much as a half percentage point a year.pdf) Almost 50 years ago. In addition. the domestic supply of qualified workers is not keeping up with the skill demands. Less than a year later. to U.046 percent) as a percentage of the gross domestic product (GDP). to soaring numbers of students in Asia majoring in these fields. the Soviet Union shocked Americans by launching Sputnik.9 but it also offers lucrative tax breaks to attract companies to conduct research and development (R&D) in the country. Foreign competition: China not only graduates four times as many engineers as the United States. commitment and vision to take our place. Employers are increasingly interested in hiring people who not only can execute well but also can create the next wave of innovation.8 has extensively documented the critical situation in U. AeA. The United States has always welcomed the best and brightest from other countries to study and work here. as the U. students' lagging interest and measured performance in math and science.10 Interest in engineering: Out of the 1. Mehta. challenge. since 1970. science.S. growing competition from other countries for the same foreign talent and the technological capacity for foreign talent to work in their home countries — have underscored the need for greater scientific and technological self-sufficiency in our country. Virtually every major respected organization representing business. Today. The U. “Tapping America’s Potential. a gradual decline. a business and technology advocacy group (William T. such as patents and scientific articles. Peace through superior firepower.” http://www.

Students there know they're expected to go on to college. strong intellectual property laws and efficient capital markets are among the reasons that America has for decades been best at transforming new ideas into successful businesses. U.S. Talent in this country is not the problem -. Government must work with educators to reform schools and improve educational excellence. and our primary and secondary schools were long considered the world's best. The writer is chairman of Microsoft Corp.washingtonpost.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. science and problem-solving skills they need to succeed in the knowledge economy. But if we are to remain competitive. Last year. But our status as the world's center for new ideas cannot be taken for granted. The most important factor is our workforce. Companies must advocate for strong education policies and work with schools to foster interest in science and mathematics and to provide an education that is relevant to the needs of business. On the contrary. it's an amazing school where educators have augmented traditional teaching methods with a rigorous. But on an international math test in 2003. This is not to say that the growing economic importance of countries such as China and India is bad. First.com/wpdyn/content/article/2007/02/23/AR2007022301697. We must also make it easier for foreign-born scientists and engineers to work for U. Government and businesses can both play a role. Peace through superior firepower. and co-chairman of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. we must demand strong schools so that young Americans enter the workforce with the math. Education has always been the gateway to a better life in this country.the issue is political will. U.S.S.the world's best -have pioneered key technologies such as the microprocessor. If the United States is to remain a global economic leader. Mehta. Today we know that these elements are outweighed by a single critical factor: innovation. universities -. / 80 . high school students ranked 24th out of 29 industrialized nations surveyed. (…) During the past 30 years. This combination is working: 100 percent of High Tech High graduates are accepted into college. Kostrinsky Wave One Defense-Industrial Base – Education Key to Competitiveness Education key to competitiveness – outweighs other internals Gates. companies. Our schools can do better. Other governments are waking up to the vital role innovation plays in competitiveness. Astead. Contrast that with the national average of 17 percent. the world benefits as more people acquire the skills needed to foster innovation. innovation has been the catalyst for the digital information revolution. project-centered curriculum. we need a workforce that consists of the world's brightest minds. creating industries and generating millions of highpaying jobs. economic leadership and the foundation for our competitiveness in the global economy. we must foster an environment that enables a new generation to dream up innovations. His wife is a director of The Washington Post Co. I visited High Tech High in San Diego. http://www. Government investment in research.S. Two steps are critical. and 29 percent major in math or science. Innovation is the source of U. we must build on the success of such schools and commit to an ambitious national agenda for education. regardless of where they were born. 7 (Bill. To remain competitive in the global economy.S. Scientists and engineers trained in U.html) For centuries people assumed that economic growth resulted from the interplay between capital and labor.

these success stories are more random local acts of excellence than systemic initiatives across the national CTE landscape. these strategies must be scientifically based. Integration of the two works – dropouts clause proves Phelps. No Child Left Behind will bring enormous pressures from within the test-driven education system to raise the proficiency standards for all students. Jason. for professional development.400 pages. Among other things. sustainable. such strategies may include “approaches such as breaking larger schools down into smaller learning communities and other comprehensive reform approaches. by gender. some wonderful success stories have emerged out of CTE’s extensive reform efforts over the last several years. but also to the academic proficiencies of served student populations on state academic tests — if CTE is to remain a viable program in our secondary schools. This proficiency will be measured in large part by satisfactory performance – including demonstrable improvement – on state tests in reading. schools must identify for nine subgroups (students with disabilities. 2 – National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium (D. 2 – President of the International Center for Leadership in Education (Willard R. Solution: No CTE Program Left Behind Fortunately. remedial education. and NCLB recognizes this concept. are fairly straightforward. all with the goal of raising students’ academic achievement. etc. The NCLB legislation totals more than 1. “The Future of Career and Technical Education.” As with other parts of NCLB. The Dropout Prevention Act can be found in Title I.leadered. and science • any school that does not achieve AYP for all students two years in a row will face serious consequences from both state and federal authorities. counseling atrisk students. mathematics. and mathematics and soon thereafter in science • beginning in 2002-03. Peace through superior firepower. writing. Therefore. all students must reach a specified proficiency level in reading. creating alternative school programs. Astead.com/pdf/CTE%20white%20paper. low socioeconomic status. / 81 . Mehta. Part H of NCLB and is designed to support activities that prevent school dropouts and support former students’ reentry into schools. however. and for implementation of strategies for school dropout prevention and reentry. “THE NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT OF 2001: Opportunities for Career Technical Education. and developing clear linkages to career skills and employment. ethnic minorities. this will raise the anxiety level of all administrators dramatically.” International Center for Leadership in Education. http://www. LEP. They are: • by 2004-05.) where all students are today and then demonstrate adequate yearly progress (AYP) for each subgroup for each of the next 12 years until they all achieve 100 percent proficiency.” July 2002) Career technical education has long claimed that its programs can be used as a strategy in preventing school dropouts. and widely replicable. Kostrinsky Wave One Solvency – Ext: Putting CTE in NCLB Solves Integrating CTE into No Child Left Behind expands job training Daggett.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. or student-to-teacher ratio reduction. Resources can be used to collect data on the effectiveness of programs in preventing dropouts. The salient points. writing. it is more essential than ever for career and technical education to be able to prove that it contributes not just to the applied workplace competency demands of business. Unfortunately.pdf) While the workplace has brought increasingly rigorous academic and technology-related skill requirements as criteria for career success.

the more troubling story is the contrasting progress reported by most states. Creating a single set of standards would ensure that all students were given the same opportunity to learn to a high standard no matter where they reside and allow for meaningful comparisons of student academic achievement across states. state testing results really tell the public little about how schools are performing and progressing. http://www.state. A state with high content standards may have student performance scores that appear low (or even high if student proficiency cut scores are set low). July 09 . Peace through superior firepower. and 50 definitions of proficiency. in fact. they provide the public with a false sense of the condition of education at the local. This progress is just not verified by NAEP. Today. Consequently. and Elena Rocha. and science would provide the public with a much more accurate picture of how United States’ students are progressing nationally and state-by. Fellow @ the Center for American Progress (Cindy. and implement a set of core education content standards in math and science in grades K–12 and give states incentives to voluntarily adopt them. and Fiscal Equity. 50 state assessments. reporting of state assessment results are misleading. the differences in scores. “The Case for National Standards. But the establishment and implementation of national standards and the testing and reporting of student achievement in two or three core subjects like reading. Creating a single set of standards is the only way to improve academic achievement PE Magazine. Astead.org/PEmagazine/pe_0709_NSPE_Today_Policy.americanprogress. STEM Support Grows" # The Standards to Provide Educational Achievement for Kids (SPEAK) Act would create. More importantly. others choose not to aim as high. math. state and national levels.) As noted above. Accountability. The No Child Left Behind Act allows for great variability in the measures. overall progress on NAEP is. adopt. and benchmarks for academic achievement in math and science across states—more than 50 different sets of academic standards.html) Align. whereas a state with lower standards can report higher levels of academic achievement among their students. standards. Among those states. for states with data available. which can be drastic. only three show any progress at even the “basic” level on the latest National Assessment of Educational Progress…. however.National Society of Professional Engineers ("NSPE TODAY: POLICY PERSPECTIVES As Stars http://www. Kostrinsky Wave One Solvency – Ext: National Standards Good National standard resolves education shortfalls Brown.org/kf/standards-based_framework. (See Chart 6. None of these states made any progress in eighth grade reading at NAEP's “proficient” level.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. As the Thomas B. While some states have high expectations of their students and therefore high standards for their performance. “Almost twenty states have reported gains from 2003 to 2005 in the percentage of eighth-graders rated “proficient” (or the equivalent) in reading on their own state tests. relate to how high states set their standards.” November 2005. when comparing 2005 state and NAEP data). Some states reporting gains from 2003 to 2005 on their own tests had declining rates of proficiency on NAEP. Fordham Foundation has pointed out.” (See Chart 5 which highlights the largest differences in proficiency results. 5 – Fellow @ the Center for American Progress.pdf) As disappointing as the minimal. / 82 . Mehta.nspe.

Schools and districts that do not meet annual targets for the percentage of students who score proficient on those exams face an escalating series of federal sanctions. Those findings call into question whether the state-reported gains are real or illusory. was released here April 10 during the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. the law is encouraging states to lower the bar for passing state tests or otherwise adjust their definition of "proficiency" downward in order to avoid identifying too many schools as missing their targets. according to the researchers. Illinois. Massachusetts. Kostrinsky Wave One Solvency – Ext: National Standards Good National standards key to check achievement gaps Education Week. / 83 . a study released last week concludes. Mehta. Astead. Berkeley. and those gaps have grown to unprecedented levels since the federal No Child Left Behind Act became law in 2002." Under the federal law. A similar widening occurred between state and federal gauges of math performance in eight of 12 states. 7 (“Gaps in Proficiency Levels on State Tests And NAEP Found to Grow.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. a professor of education and public policy at Berkeley who led the study. Oklahoma. and Washington. Kentucky. In all but two states--Arkansas and Massachusetts--the disparity between the share of students proficient on state reading tests and on NAEP. Nebraska. "State leaders are under enormous pressure to show that students are making progress. Peace through superior firepower. Texas. North Carolina.” 4/18. The researchers compiled state and federal testing results for the period 1992 to 2006 from 12 states: Arkansas. grew or remained the same from 2002 to 2006. Iowa. New Jersey. California. Critics have suggested that. "So. rather than raising academic standards. a congressionally mandated program that tests a representative sample of students in every state. with the target rising to 100 percent proficiency in 201314. states must give reading and math tests annually in grades 3-8 and at least once in high school. lexis) Far greater shares of students are proficient on state reading and mathematics tests than on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. a nonprofit research group based at the University of California. The study by Policy Analysis for California Education. they are finding inventive ways of showing higher test scores." said Bruce Fuller.

Health insurance is budgeted for a 7 percent increase. Lake Wales High School is expected to see a decrease of 27 students and Babson Park Elementary is expected to see a decrease of 14 students. The schools held back 2 percent from the current budget year as well.com. Mehta. Bok Academy will see about 145 more students next year as the school expands. Hillcrest Elementary is expected to see a decrease of only three students while Janie Howard Wilson Elementary is expected to see a decrease of 48 students. Employer retirement rates for the Florida retirement system will not change from last year for eligible employees. State reductions from the Florida Education Finance Program (FEFP) will decrease from $3." said Lake Wales Charter Schools Board Chairman David Ullman. ROTC and Title 1 funds (given to schools with high numbers of low-income students). The expenditure base at each school incorporates a minimum 2 percent hold-back as a contingency if state funds are adjusted." Ullman said.With a decrease in student funding. Florida Newspaper. are estimated to decrease 14 percent. Peace through superior firepower. "It's consistent with what the county is seeing across the board.810 to $3. though all but one school is seeing a decrease in students. Polk Avenue Elementary is expected to see a decrease of 35 students. there will not be any salary increases for Lake Wales Charter Schools employees next year. / 84 ." The expenditure base and special revenue funds program revenue. but employees will be able to choose from dual plan options for medical and dental insurance.5 percent from last year's count. "We had that 2 percent hold-back and we come to the end of the year and didn't need it.560 per student The student count for all six schools increased . which includes funds from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). http://www. 6/16 (Shelly.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Astead.com/article/20090616/news/906165037?Title=Charter-schools-see-decrease-in-funding) LAKE WALES .newschief. News Chief. Kostrinsky Wave One Solvency – Title I Key Title I funding is key – low levels are killing school effectiveness and leading to teacher lay-offs Goodrin. "That's what helped us this year.

There is another reason.xxxii As a result.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA435137 &Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. while others are relatively new.dtic. / 85 . This law pushes states to monitor. Some have existed for many years. shortages of graduates with advanced science and math skills. and the emerging demographic shifts in the US. they now have clear national security implications. The US government is currently addressing this challenge through the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. An essay on page 18 further describes the importance of learning standards. Educators and government officials who champion the need to improve minority student achievement often do so by pointing to the need for equity among the entire population and by recognizing that poor education is largely responsible for social ills such as poverty and crime. http://www. and identify further actions that will raise the level of traditionally low-performing students.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Colonel in the US Army. Mehta. assess. it is not surprising that parts of the education industry have not fully embraced this initiative. Astead. however. Moreover. With an undertaking of this size. and school-choice issues. make reasonable adjustments to the law when necessary. Kostrinsky Wave One Solvency – Ext: Poverty Key Need to address low-income education – key to overall workforce McGuire. The need to overcome them. the rapid race to stay at the forefront of advancing technologies. to hold the schools and their leaders accountable. whether it is through their economic participation in the US workforce or through their direct service in the US Armed Services.pdf) The education industry faces several challenges. whereas these challenges have merely represented obstacles or socioeconomic nuances in the past. low teacher retention. and to take action to raise the achievement of those students who fall short of the learning standards. The need for these groups to improve cannot be overstated.xxxiii The challenge is to stay focused on the end goal. powerful teacher unions. these groups are playing a growing role within America’s economy and national security. that makes this challenge even more worth confronting: the percentage of Hispanics and African Americans making up the US population is increasing. Peace through superior firepower. The most important challenges are poor achievement among minority students. however. Poor achievement among minority students is the most publicized and among the most important challenges. 4 (Mark. and report the performance of virtually every student. is greater than ever because of globalization’s explosive economic competition.

In the American Creed it has been the main ground upon which ‘equality of opportunity’ and ‘free outlet for ability’ could be based. Mehta. News & World Report for nearly two decades. the central problem facing American high schools in 2008 is still the problem of the color line — and the premier civil rights issue of the day is arguably the achievement gap. 8 – covered social policy for U. when college is often a prerequisite for obtaining a decent job in the global economy. / 86 . Today. Kostrinsky Wave One Solvency – Poverty Key: 2AC Moral Obligation Moral obligation for low-income education Whitman. And even as urban crime rates have plunged during the last 15 years. pg. former researcher/teacher @ the John F. incarceration rates among young black males have soared — so much so that a staggering 60 percent of black male dropouts now have served time in prison by the time they are in their midthirties. In the modern era.S. B. education is more critical than ever to ensuring equal opportunity for disadvantaged black and Hispanic students.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. In few areas of American life are the country’s professed ideals so at odds with reality. Astead.A. As Gunnar Myrdal observed as far back as 1944 in An American Dilemma. This ongoing failure to deliver equal educational opportunities to poor black and Hispanic youth is not just an economic and personal tragedy but a moral problem as well.” 1 Peace through superior firepower. his landmark study of race relations. nearly three out of four young black men who have dropped out of high school are jobless. Sweating the Small Stuff: Inner-City Schools and the New Paternalism. “Education has always been the great hope for both individual and society. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard. 11) Yet for all the progress of the last century. in Poli Sci @ Amherst (David. A school record that was good enough to land a well-paid factory job a quarter century ago is no longer good enough.

p 191-196] The deadliest form of violence is poverty. The relationship between education and poverty is quite clear. soldiers in warfare. capital punishment. and Peace through superior firepower. that evolves from the experience of men in maximum security prisons and hospitals for the criminally insane must begin with the recognition that these institutions are only microcosms. 96 [James. In other words. They are not where the major violence in our society takes place. unending. educated people have higher earning potential and are better able to improve the quality of their lives. whereas murders. Any theory of violence. and so on. executions. 6 (Habibullah and Jeremy. the Vietnam war (possibly two million. 1939-1945).000) deaths).” by which I mean the non-natural deaths and injuries that are caused by specific behavioral actions of individuals against individuals. as cause to effect.S. By “structural violence” I mean the increased rates of death. Hearing about their lives. * Structural violence is normally invisible. and the highest overall life expectancy in the world. This is.S. as many people die because of relative poverty as would be killed by the Nazi genocide of the Jews over a six-year period. political parties. voters) whose decisions may nevertheless have lethal consequences for others. and about their families and friends. You cannot work for one day with the violent people who fill our prisons and mental hospitals for the criminally insane without being forcible and constantly reminded of the extreme poverty and discrimination that characterizes their lives. / 87 . The 14 to 18 million deaths a year caused by structural violence compare with about 100. the Indonesian massacre of 1965-66 (perhaps 575. for they are inextricably related to each other. rather than sporadically. Kohler and Alcock the deaths we attribute to homicide. and to broaden the range of available options (UNESCO 1997). social. such as World War II (an estimated 49 million military and civilian deaths. on the average. a key ingredient for the maintenance of economic growth. dangerous.sg/PartnerAdmin/ViewContent?module=DOCUMENTLIBRARY&oid=157294) Despite the inherent difficulties in quantifying the real contribution of education to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or other national income aggregates. Sweden was their model of the nation that had come closes to eliminating structural violence. It is also a key factor in improving the quality of governance that has a significant impact on national income.R. the equivalent of an ongoing. or human.edu. and the perpetrators who fill them are far from being the main causes of most violent deaths. suicide. concerning how to distribute the collective wealth of the society. Education empowers a person and it helps them to become more proactive. The question as to which of the two forms of violence—structural or behavioral—is more important. Structural violence is also the main cause of behavioral violence on a socially and epidemiologically significant scale (from homicide and suicide to war and genocide). *Structural violence operates more or less independently of individual acts. as contrasted with the relatively lower death rates experienced by those who are above them. Study. U21 Global Poverty Center. *The lethal effects of structural violence operate continuously. Violence: Our Deadly Epidemic and its Causes. or genocide. and the lowest discrepancies in death rates and life expectancy. Not a day goes by without realizing that trying to understand them and their violent behavior in purely individual terms is impossible and wrong-headed. 1954-1973). standpoint. Comparing this frequency of deaths from structural violence to the frequency of those caused by major military and political violence. and other forms of behavioral violence occur one at a time. independent of individuals and groups (politicians. The finding that structural violence causes far more deaths than behavioral violence does is not limited to this country. and human. Astead. These are not acts of God. Mehta. Any approach to a theory of violence needs to begin with a look at the structural violence in this country. such as . especially a psychological theory. It had the least inequity in income and living standards. throughout the world. you are forced to recognize the truth in Gandhi’s observation that the deadliest form of violence is poverty. and disability suffered by those who occupy the bottom rungs of society. of course. Education is recognized as a basic human right and it is closely linked to virtually all dimensions of development economic. it was clear that even war cannot begin to compare with structural violence. every fifteen years. thermonuclear war. professor of Psychiatry at the Harvard Medical School. they found that including those by genocide—or about eight million per year. http://www.S. During the past decade. Focusing merely on those relatively few men who commit what we define as murder could distract us from examining and learning from those structural causes of violent death that are far more significant from a numerical or public health. gain control over their lives. Poverty outweighs nuclear war Gilligan. wars. Director of the Center for the Study of Violence. and the U. which means they are less likely to be marginalized within society at large. in effect.u21global.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. the discrepancies between the rich and poor nations have increased dramatically and alarmingly. I am contrasting “structural” with “behavioral violence. even a hypothetical nuclear exchange between the U. suicides. Structural violence differs from behavioral violence in at least three major respects attempted to arrive at the number of excess deaths caused by socioeconomic inequities on a worldwide basis. which continues year after year. Kostrinsky Wave One Solvency – Poverty Key: 2AC Poverty Add-on Education is the instrumental tool in alleviating poverty Khan and Williams. in fact accelerating. When they 18 million deaths a year could be attributed to the “structural violence” to which the citizens of all the other nations were being subjected. it has always been considered a powerful instrument for reducing poverty and inequality through productivity enhancement which is. and a member of the Academic Advisory Council of the National Campaign Against Youth Violence. because it may appear to have had other (natural or violent) causes.000 deaths per year from armed conflict. perpetrated on the weak and poor every year of every decade. and that structure is itself a product of society’s collective human choices. Those excess deaths (or at least a demonstrably large proportion of them) are a function of class structure. or lethal is moot. compared the life expectancies of those living in the other socioeconomic systems against Sweden. (232 million).

http://www.html . by race. some of the nation's most distinguished Black religious leaders came together to lead our country through difficult times and to encourage our people to fight for equality and justice. Nationwide. SCLC today fulfills that same role.quickanded. These conditions will not likely be addressed through school assignment policies. Efforts to integrate by economic factors face their own complications.com/2009/05/condition-of-education-economicand. such as providing incentives for effective teachers to work in them. Without such efforts. we've gained strength to have an even greater impact.com/news.louisianaweekly. who attend a high-poverty school. defined as schools with ten percent or less of students eligible for free and reduced-price lunch. And over the past 50th years. head on. Either they must attempt to address large-scale housing and location decisions that are the basis for school segregation in the first place. By contrast. bachelor's degree from the University of Iowa and a master's of public policy degree from the College of William and Mary (Chad. Solutions must do one of two things. 62 percent of whites attend a school where the student body is more than 75 percent white. that segregation must end." Those leaders issued a document declaring that civil rights are essential to democracy. about a third of black and Hispanic children attend a high-poverty school. and that all Black people should reject segregation absolutely and nonviolently.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. / 88 . These numbers are in part a reflection of growing segregation in our nation's schools. Peace through superior firepower. A third of all black and Hispanic students attend such schools. The former would require localities to emphasize mixed-use neighborhoods and other zoning tools to address de facto segregation. The Supreme Court has ruled that even non-binding race windows are unconstitutional in school assignment plans. only four percent of black and six percent of Hispanic children attend low-poverty schools. Mehta. Kostrinsky Wave One Solvency – Poverty Key: 2AC Segregation Add-on Status quo education policies are equivalent to segregation Adleman. 8 (The Louisiana Weekly.blog) Over the next few days I'll highlight some of the charts and tables I found most interesting. rather than the problem itself. or they must ignore the problem entirely and address the symptoms. highminority schools." said Steele. The latter would suggest focusing more resources and attention on these schools. while only four percent of white children and 13 percent of Asian/ Pacific Islanders do. “The Condition of Education: Economic and Racial Segregation. Since 1990. It is a critical time for Black America. Segregation is racist and an independent D-rule TLW. Astead. the percentage of students attending a school with a minority population comprising at least 75 percent of the student body has risen from 16 to 24.” http://www. "When America faced a crisis in race relations and civil rights in 1957. schools will be powerless to counter prevailing societal living patterns. defined as a school where 75 percent of the students are eligible for free or reduced-price lunch.php?viewStory=215) "This is a critical time for America. The one at left looks at the percentage of students. 5/28 – Policy Analyst @ Education Sector. not least of which is the flight of effective teachers out of low-income.

Sweating the Small Stuff: Inner-City Schools and the New Paternalism. by some measures black and Latino students are less likely to graduate from high school in a timely fashion today than in 1990. of the costly toll of the achievement gap.” and they remain the locus of the nation’s dropout problem.000 of the more than 20. where many black male dropouts eventually turn to crime. Education Week’s June 2007 “Diplomas Count” report shows that. Astead. 14-15) The second factor feeding current disparities in achievement — this time at the end of the educational pipeline — is the high dropout rates of black and Latino students. / 89 . But a stunning 60 percent of all black male high school dropouts in their mid-thirties have prison records — a grim measure. These dropout rates are even worse in urban schools in high-poverty neighborhoods. if ever there was one. Nearly half of black students nationwide and about 40 percent of Hispanic students attend those 2.000 failing high schools. Mehta. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard. These inner-city schools have been likened to “dropout factories. Kostrinsky Wave One Solvency – Poverty Key: 2AC Dropouts Add-on Low-income schools have high drop-out rates Whitman.A. former researcher/teacher @ the John F. High school dropouts have a particularly devastating impact in poor black communities. Peace through superior firepower. black educational attainment rose dramatically. pgs. only 58 percent of Hispanics and 53 percent of blacks graduate on time. while nearly eight out of ten white students graduate with a high school diploma in four years. During much of the last century. in Poli Sci @ Amherst (David. News & World Report for nearly two decades. B. About 2.000 high schools in the United States produce almost half of the nation’s dropouts. the black high school dropout rate stopped plummeting. 8 – covered social policy for U. A disheartening 30 percent of African-American males in their mid-thirties who did not attend college now have prison records. In fact.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. But in the last 15 years.S. where 60 to 80 percent of students typically fail to get a diploma in four years.

New Jersey. / 90 . Figure 1 compares the intermediate targets and actual performance levels for Kansas and Missouri. States are provided a fair amount of discretion in defining the level of performance that is “proficient.” and in setting intervening performance targets for the years leading up to 2013-14. California. Kansas set the proficiency level for its students at about 50 percent compared to 13 percent in Missouri. according to the researchers." said Bruce Fuller. a nonprofit research group based at the University of California. The study by Policy Analysis for California Education. Texas.edu/efap/Publications/costing_out.pdf) NCLB sets as its target that all students reach proficiency on these measures by 2013-14.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. rather than raising academic standards. and Washington. Mehta. Massachusetts. Thus. In 2002.” 4/18. was released here April 10 during the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Oklahoma. grew or remained the same from 2002 to 2006.maxwell. 7 (“Gaps in Proficiency Levels on State Tests And NAEP Found to Grow. In all but two states--Arkansas and Massachusetts--the disparity between the share of students proficient on state reading tests and on NAEP. "So. the average proficiency rate in Missouri was less than 40 percent of the rate in Kansas. with the target rising to 100 percent proficiency in 201314. states have an incentive to set low proficiency levels and to backload the required proficiency improvements over the 12-year period (Kim and Sunderman 2004. Critics have suggested that. lexis) Far greater shares of students are proficient on state reading and mathematics tests than on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Illinois. Vagueness of “proficiency” causes a race to the bottom Yinger. Kostrinsky Wave One NCLB Bad – Race to the Bottom State policies under NCLB cause achievement gaps Education Week. Professor of Public Administration @ Syracuse. North Carolina. Ryan 2003). Kentucky. Nebraska. a congressionally mandated program that tests a representative sample of students in every state. a professor of education and public policy at Berkeley who led the study. and those gaps have grown to unprecedented levels since the federal No Child Left Behind Act became law in 2002." Under the federal law. The researchers compiled state and federal testing results for the period 1992 to 2006 from 12 states: Arkansas. a study released last week concludes. Astead. and Anna Lukemeyer. states must give reading and math tests annually in grades 3-8 and at least once in high school. Associate Professor of Public Administration @ UNLV (John. Peace through superior firepower. “The No Child Left Behind Act: Have Federal Funds Been Left Behind?” http://www cpr. "State leaders are under enormous pressure to show that students are making progress. the law is encouraging states to lower the bar for passing state tests or otherwise adjust their definition of "proficiency" downward in order to avoid identifying too many schools as missing their targets. and William Duncombe. Those findings call into question whether the state-reported gains are real or illusory.syr.3 While for both states the average student was well above these targets through 2004. 6 – Professor of Public Administration and Economics @ Syracuse. Schools and districts that do not meet annual targets for the percentage of students who score proficient on those exams face an escalating series of federal sanctions. To highlight differences in the stringency of accountability standards. Iowa. they are finding inventive ways of showing higher test scores. A similar widening occurred between state and federal gauges of math performance in eight of 12 states. Berkeley.

Under NCLB.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. and William Duncombe. Mehta. schools with many disadvantaged students generally face harsher sanctions than other schools (Kim and Sunderman 2004).syr. the potential cost increases to state governments to provide adequate resources to high-need districts could be large enough to dominate other types of costs. and Anna Lukemeyer. Depending on assumptions about inefficiency. Peace through superior firepower. In a study on costs of implementing NCLB in Texas. Astead. or $1. Driscoll and Fleeter (2003) estimate that “intervention costs” represent over 95 percent of additional costs from NCLB and average $760 per student. which can potentially lead to a number of perverse incentives (Ryan 2003). In a recent analysis for Ohio. Professor of Public Administration @ Syracuse.064 per pupil. / 91 .maxwell.edu/efap/Publications/costing_out. 6 – Professor of Public Administration and Economics @ Syracuse. Kostrinsky Wave One NCLB Bad – Low-Income Schools Low-income schools get harsher sanctions under NCLB – hurts education Yinger. Associate Professor of Public Administration @ UNLV (John.4 billion of additional spending. “The No Child Left Behind Act: Have Federal Funds Been Left Behind?” http://www cpr.pdf) Another important issue for evaluating either a state accountability system or NCLB is that districts with a high concentration of disadvantaged students cannot be expected to achieve the same level of student performance as other districts unless they receive additional resources. Imazeki and Reschovsky (2006) estimate that meeting AYP associated with a passing rate of 70 percent would require $4.

and (b) the fairness of the assessment and the long-lasting affects of categorizing students based on their performance is debatable and problematic. Kostrinsky Wave One NCLB Bad – High-Stakes State policies under NCLB are high-stakes – decreases teaching quality and causes drop-outs Fletcher. resulting in utilizing the assessments for invalid uses. frequent low performance on high-stakes testing may result in dropping out of high school (Harvey & Koch. 2004). Pedulla. A nationwide survey disseminated by the National Board on Educational Testing and Public Policy found that the increase in testing students contradicts teachers’ perspectives of administering proper educational practices (Abrams et al. assessments are considered high-stakes depending on the level of consequences. Sunderman. 28 states will enact a requirement for their students to pass a state-mandated assessment to meet their graduation requirements (Vogler. including decisions about promotion to the next grade level. 2003). The intended purpose of using high-stakes testing is to ensure accountability among all students and schools. assessments may have high-stakes for schools because of their inability to demonstrate progress and may result in state intervention or full state control over school administrators. assessment experts tend to disagree with using one assessment to make multiple decisions such as indicating the performance of students. in addition. Austin and Mahlman (2002) point out two dilemmas that involve high-stakes assessment: (a) the current educational policies (such as NCLB) and public expectations of the assessments often outweigh the capabilities of the assessments. 2003. According to Goertz and Duffy (2003). 2002). 2006. the overwhelming perceptions among teachers are negative (Abrams. therefore making the assessment high-stakes.edu/ejournals/CTER/v31n3/pdf/fletcher. For students. In addition. Peace through superior firepower. In a review of the literature. Plake. Neill. 2003. in-grade retention. Astead. 2004). / 92 . 2004. In a review of the literature on teacher perceptions of the increase in testing. and assisting in revamping instructional methods (Goertz & Duffy.vt. making decisions regarding the future of schools and students. Vogler. and graduating from high school (Harvey & Koch. Neill. In 2008. 6 – Workforce Development and Education @ The Ohio State University (Edward C Fletcher Jr. These high-stakes assessments are used for making important decisions about students. Mehta. an increase in stress and decrease in morale were also factors noted by teachers and students. Kim.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. 2005. 2004).lib. Tracey.pdf) Another issue regarding raising standards by testing is that some high schools set a cutoff score for their students and require that they meet or exceed it to warrant a diploma. The study also indicates that teachers sacrifice good teaching practices by focusing on test-taking strategies and studying the content mirrored on state tests.. & Orfield.” http://scholar. 2006). “No Curriculum Left Behind: The Effects of the No Child Left Behind Legislation on Career and Technical Education. yet. seven states will place student scores on transcripts or diplomas (Goertz & Duffy. This appears to be the consensus among current research (Herman & Dietel. 2004). the end results often create a difficult circumstance. 2003). & Madaus.

a strong majority of teachers agreed that "struggling students. Schools that fail to educate them face sanctions. Astead. Even before the financial crisis. Faced with massive budget cuts. the pattern was evident in states using standardized testing and accountability.6352426. And that should worry you if you have a smart kid in school because Florida is adopting the federal law. The report revealed that schools did increase math and reading scores for low-performers.com/news/local/orl-locorlmike thomas-smart-kids-0070509jul05. But this came with a consequence. than an A student into an A+ student." The struggling students receive much more oneon-one time in the classroom. In it. this dynamic was taking place. an education research center. This means more pressure on schools to elevate struggling students. they are being put in the position of rationing education. Those schools that continually fail to do so could be taken over by the state.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. who tend to be low-income minority kids. Now the state and federal measuring sticks are being combined. No Child Left Behind was passed in 2002.0. It's not hard to figure where they will direct limited resources when they get more credit for turning an F student into a D student. 7/5 – Columnist.orlandosentinel. "While the nation's lowest-achieving youngsters made rapid gains from 2000 to 2007. The evening after they took the FCAT for the first time. Peace through superior firepower. "Borrring!"How much time had these smart kids spent prepping for a test that basically is designed to measure minimum standards? Is it relevant for them? Could that time be better spent on other pursuits? Fordham shed more light on its study with a teacher survey.column) No Child Left Behind is leaving a most unlikely group of kids behind — the smart ones.I've had my own doubts about this. Last year. No Child Left Behind closely tracks progress made by low-performing students. The timing couldn't be worse for school districts. Kostrinsky Wave One NCLB Bad – AT: Doesn’t Hurt Everyone NCLB spills over – decreases overall education quality Thomas. Mehta. with their administrative staffs and teachers thrown out. I asked them: "So how was it?"They rolled their eyes. Orlando Sentinel (Mike." the report states. / 93 . This is separate from Florida's accountability system. meaning more resources thrown at those students who often are least interested in taking advantage of them. are their top priority. examined standardized test scores between 2000 and 2007. which grades schools based on FCAT scores. the highest 10 percent made "minimal gains. not advanced students. http://www. the performance of top students was languid."The report noted that even before No Child Left Behind was passed. including the loss of their students to other schools. I once was a soccer coach of a very bright group of third-grade girls. There also is a growing emphasis on dropout prevention. the Fordham Institute. The lowest 10 percent did a lot better.

administrators and even private management companies are still continuing to fail urban students and their families. Kostrinsky Wave One NCLB Bad – AT: Tests Prove it’s Good NCLB fails – can’t even increase ELA and math scores Eastman.philly. 6/29 (A. and from claims of insufficient resources and funding to lack of parental involvement. These numbers hardly constitute the success Chubb claims for the Philadelphia school district or its private management companies. politicians. slipping further and further behind. The public schools in Philadelphia. Despite their best efforts.they need a revolution. from teachers to tests. As the pendulum of blame for this failure swings back and forth from lawmakers and administrators to teachers. the children in our urban schools continue to languish. need more than just reformation . as in just about every other big city. Astead.M. as well as for the educators charged with enforcing the NCLB policies. The guarantees of greater accountability for student learning and for the improvement of sub-par public schools promised by the Bush administration's No Child Left Behind legislation have created what has proved to be an insurmountable challenge for federal and state governments. 51 percent of 11th-graders still tested below basic proficiency in math and 41 percent were below in reading (2008 PSSA results). teachers. Mehta. / 94 .Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.” http://www.com/dailynews/opinion/20090629_Real_education_reform__Start_with_a_teardown. Peace through superior firepower.html) JOHN Chubb's recent op-ed "21st-century School Reform" failed to mention that while city schools have improved overall in standardized test scores. major school reforms have failed to yield astounding results. public schools. Across the country. victims of an education system that has become not only broken but immobile. “Real education reform: Start with a teardown.

and the governance of education. Diane Ravitch specializes in education policy issues such as standards and testing. challenging content standards in every subject area. proficient. 50 Standards: The Continuing Need for National Voluntary Standards in Education” http://www. Astead. important purposes. July 9th. even as we fret about our inability to figure out how to develop good ones. 9 (Nonresident Senior Fellow. Even as we debate whether we should have any national standards. eighth. federally funded examination of a national sample of students in the fourth. and twelfth grades—are based on rigorous. basic. Questions on the National Assessment of Educational Progress—the congressionally mandated. Kostrinsky Wave One NCLB Bad – AT: NAEP Worse NAEP is much more accurate Ravitch. Peace through superior firepower. While the nation was in an uproar about the proposed national history standards.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Government Studies.edu/articles/1996/summer_education_ravitch. NAEP's independent governing board has identified performance standards that it calls "achievement levels" (advanced. NAEP assessed a broad cross-section of American students using its own carefully developed curriculum framework. There is no doubt that NAEP's curriculum frameworks represent national content and performance standards that are credible with educators and the public. we have high national standards at hand for specific.brookings. An education historian and former assistant secretary of education for research. “50 States. high national standards are already available. Mehta. below basic).aspx) At the same time that we have low national standards in common use. / 95 . which is closely aligned with the core issues in the national history standards.

Not by a long shot." says Andrew Rotherham of Education Sector (who has an interesting post about the standards push here). which favored maintaining the autonomy of the states over education policy. if the committee doesn't have a good mechanism for reviewing and incorporating recommendations. 6/16 – Duke University and Writer @ The New Republic (Seyward. "He certainly shouldn't dictate the content of standards. vice president for national programs and policy at the Thomas B. Mehta. to keep their achievement standards weak because they don't want their students and schools labeled as failing. "You'll get standards that are impossible to teach. / 96 . this would be costly--even with the $350 million available from the Department of Education. embarrassing evidence that current education standards don't work. "The politics are going to be in states with low standards that know if they sign on to high standards. but he can help the states with finding the money to develop the tests.. another problem could emerge among states that agreed to adopt the standards. states are encouraged. http://blogs. Astead." Jennings says. Bush and Bill Clinton kicked off efforts to define standards at the national level and were cut off by Congress. They wouldn't be forced to administer common tests. the committee will need to be clear about how a final proposal will be formulated--who exactly will make the decision of what to send to the states. If states want an infinite number of tests based on common standards. States have agreed to participate in the NGA-CCSSO project. “Will the Push for National Education Standards Succeed?” The Plank – Official TNR Blog. Once the draft standards are released. http://blogs. Among other problems. "The other thing that's different is the economic crisis. Fordham Institute.com/tnr/blogs/the_plank/archive/2009/06/16/will-the-push-for-national-education-standardssucceed. "There are too many incentives to keep the bar low.com/tnr/blogs/the_plank/archive/2009/06/16/will-the-push-for-national-education-standardssucceed. Peace through superior firepower.tnr." He suggests--as many education experts do--that Congress reevaluate and revise NCLB to make it a better law that doesn't support what Duncan calls "the race to the bottom. They could come up with myriad tests to assess how students are performing with regard to the new standards. in part." Petrilli explains. in many ways. who knows if it will be enough money." But these factors don't mean the standards project will be a success. "It's the mush that is ineffective. . Jennings notes that Duncan should view the 1990s as a cautionary tale: Both George H." Jennings says. they're going to have a lot more kids failing and looking bad. it seems. there's much to be excited about with regard to the project and Duncan's approach to it.tnr." Needs federal money Darby. “Will the Push for National Education Standards Succeed?” The Plank – Official TNR Blog. and there hasn't been a concerted effort to get input from education interest groups. There's an extra sense of urgency that we're slipping economically and that could be in part because we're slipping academically." Petrilli says. Then.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.aspx) Several education experts I've spoken to this week say Duncan's support is needed. or if it tries to split the difference by including what all or most parties want in the proposal-making it too expansive. the committee is working behind closed doors and disconcerting some with its lack of transparency: The names of the experts haven't been released. the states have to agree to adopt the standards. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: Status Quo Solves (NGA) NGA proposal is a joke Darby. particularly because they are in dire straits [because of the economic crisis].W. 6/16 – Duke University and Writer @ The New Republic (Seyward. "If 20 or 40 states agree on a common test. But the question remains: Will it actually work? Several people I spoke with aren't swooning just yet. says Mike Petrilli. And that's where politics will really come in: Under NCLB. "you're going to be hearing from every corner of society. The standards could meet their demise then. some of the biggest names in education are also skeptical. it would seem you could develop it with that kind of money. president and CEO of the Center for Education Policy." What's more. He's removed a major obstacle. "We've had seven years of experience under No Child Left Behind with widely varying state standards. For one thing.." says Jack Jennings.aspx) Indeed." Still. It's clear to governors and business leaders that other countries are doing better than the United States. "The reason for common standards and tests is that it's cheaper to do at once rather than 50 times. and. It's been a very public demonstration that some states are asking more or less of kids. because of very public.

/ 97 .” http://www. “Education Reform: Obama Ups the Ante. There’s also a push to benchmark the standards to international ones. “It is much more important for Americans to understand where we fall against other countries. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: Status Quo Solves (DOE Grants) It’s the same thing as the NGA proposal and only for math and English Crawford. students stack up against those of other countries.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Astead. Peace through superior firepower. Advocates see common standards as key to bolstering school curricula and ensuring that education systems are capable of producing a competitive workforce that must increasingly face off against workers in other countries. giving educators a clear view of how U. What has come with the global economy is global competition. The college and career-ready standards will be based in part on input from major employers and workforce development boards. a nonprofit affiliate of the U.” says Lydia Logan.S.html) The Education Department is committing $350 million of the $4. 7/7 – Researcher for the Kiplinger Letters (Jonathan N.S.com/businessresource/forecast/archive/Obama_ups_ante_on_education_reform_090707. executive director of the Institute for a Competitive Workforce. the Council of Chief State School Officers and not-for-profits ACT (American College Test Program).kiplinger. The effort to establish common standards for math and English is led by the National Governors Association. the College Board and Achieve.35 billion to help create common standards. We are not just competing with the person next door or in the next state but with those in other countries. Chamber of Commerce. Mehta.

and they’ll tell you the same thing: As a general rule. and society itself.38%. An experiment: Try moving those “good” teachers from decent school districts—where the kids show up each day. So. good teachers. Astead.—to one of those South Central LA shit-holes. and bad schools are found in bad neighborhoods. He blamed the teachers for this. See if these “good” teachers. in itself. bright-eyed and attentive. where 97. You hear these charges everywhere.org/macaray03202009. self-sustaining districts and see if the students in these schools don’t continue to score significantly higher. on time. having completed their homework. a California resident. Is Peace through superior firepower. how about the disintegration of the American family and the decline in parental supervision/involvement? Being a good student requires discipline. as part of that same experiment. Granted. Maher came armed with statistics. child psychologist. prepared. they contradict it. Moreover. In non-union North Carolina. less than 1% of California’s tenured/post-probationary teachers get fired. can’t seem to do. and not a “social scientist” dispensing wisdom. so we shouldn’t be looking to this man for enlightenment. families are in crisis.5% of tenured/post-probationary teachers get fired. since 1973)? Or the assimilation of non-English-speaking immigrants? Or the decrease in per capita funding on California public education? Or the chaos created by school boards arbitrarily mandating wholesale changes in “educational ideology” every two years (LAUSD has spent hundreds of millions of dollars on consultants)? Ask any teacher. Minnesota. causing her to hastily lock the doors and windows of her Prius and speed away. given that she lives in Brentwood. Wisconsin. 29th in science.7% are non-union. Simple as that. He noted with dismay that the U. More significantly. 9 (March) . The same teachers who were winning those awards for excellence belonged to the “powerful” teachers’ union. Maine and Washington. Still. California is actually tougher on prospective candidates. her daughters attend prestigious private schools. people know this “formula” to be true. Moreover. March 13. despite Maher’s display of civic pride and self-righteous indignation (“We need to bust this union. For Huffington to be riffing on the state of public education is. having eaten a nutritious breakfast. Fact: During the 1950s and 1960s. move the “incompetent” teachers to these healthy. with its “powerful” teachers’ union. where crime is rampant. and that barely 50% of California’s public school pupils manage to graduate from high school. 6. in real dollars. Which raises the question: Has anything else changed in California (and the rest of the country. good schools are found in good neighborhoods. that figure is only 1.5% of the teachers are non-union. a certain level of respect for authority. So do South Dakota. In one of his signature tirades. accusing it of contributing to the crisis in public education by not allowing the school district to remove incompetent teachers. Maher piously maintained that these teachers were unqualified to run a classroom. neighborhoods are ravaged. And in North Carolina. by virtue of their innate “classroom abilities. but has the potential to side-track any realistic hopes of education reform. and California in particular. railed against the “powerful” California teachers’ union. big union. because the teachers’ unions are so domineering and evil—because their leaders will do anything to maintain union hegemony. even with the “bad” teachers now running the show. ranked 35th in the world in math. has a college degree and a teaching credential and managed to survive the scrutiny of a lengthy probationary period. application and.S. Let that sink in a moment: Good schools. overmatched and underprivileged kids. cultural attitudes or demographics? For openers.” he declared). Have we witnessed any “breakdowns” in these areas over the last 40 years? Or how about the rise in urban poverty? Or the hollowing-out of the middle-class (the average worker hasn’t received a pay increase. he was utterly mistaken. And. a miniscule . "The Myth of the "Powerful" Teachers' Union" http://www. had he taken five minutes to research the subject. say. An even more startling comparison: In California. It’s the assertion that “powerful” teachers’ unions are responsible for the decline of public education in the United States in general. comedian and uber-liberal Bill Maher joined the attack on his HBO show.32%.html) There’s a myth circulating out there that not only threatens to ruin the reputation of America’s school teachers. Maher is a professional comic trolling for laughs. see if the graduation rates in these depressed communities rise significantly. or real estate agent. Mehta. on average.counterpunch. including not allowing demonstrably inferior teachers to be fired—school administrators are powerless to act. Maher made a huge deal of the fact that. Although every teacher in the LAUSD (Los Angeles Unified School District). and the closest she’s ever come to an inner-city school was the day she accidentally drove by one. school administrators fire.” are able to improve the test scores of these stunted. / 98 . he’d have realized that this figure represents the national average—with or without unions. etc. the teachers in those classrooms were union members. among others. The statistics not only don’t support his argument. it’s 0. Arianna Huffington. where 100% of the teachers are non-union. it was demoralizing to hear someone this hip say something so stupid and simplistic.former labor union rep (David. Although this ratio clearly outraged him (he appeared visibly upset by it). Kostrinsky Wave One AT: Teachers Unions Bad Evil teacher unions are a myth which sidetracks education reform and gives false perceptions of good teachers Macaray. See if these “good” teachers can do what a generation of parents themselves. On Friday. the late-to-the-party liberal and celebrity blogger. only 0. Propagators of this myth claim that the reason test scores of American children have sunk so low in recent years is because our public school teachers are too incompetent and lazy to provide adequate instruction. considering his liberal creds (from the environment to civil liberties to corporate mischief to drug law reform).03% of tenured/post-probationary teachers get fired—the exact same percentage as California. where 92. Connecticut. has been echoing such claims for years. it’s not uncommon for parents in California to lie about their home addresses in order to get their children assigned to better schools. In South Carolina. for that matter) in the last 40 years to lead one to believe there might be causes other than labor unions to explain the drop in graduation rates? Have there been any significant changes in. because of the union’s protective shield. Fact: Oregon has a good public school system.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. sociologist. and 40% of the students live in foster care.91% of its probationary teachers. remarkable. You can look it up. perhaps. Maher. California’s public school system was routinely ranked among the nation’s finest. Vermont. In Georgia. Not only is the promise of good schools one reason why people with kids buy homes in good neighborhoods.

/ 99 . No grievance. India has a decent school system. Wisconsin is 98%. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: Teachers Unions Bad that because the folks living in these states are exceptionally bright? Is it because their teachers are extraordinarily talented? Or is it because these school districts are stable. and don’t face a fraction of the challenges facing California? For the record. by law. it was the first to make it compulsory. with no recourse to union representation and no access to the grievance procedure. Fact: Teachers can be fired. Two full years. But school attendance is not mandatory. accordingly. One wonders what their national test scores would be if those many millions who can’t read or write were factored in. Could any arrangement be more favorable to management? Peace through superior firepower.. relatively homogeneous. one that scores well. they fire you. comparing the scores of American students in foreign countries is a bit misleading. Also. Fact: During the first two years of employment. Oregon or Connecticut—has the authority to insist that management keep unqualified teachers? Since when does a labor union dictate to management? Since when does the hired help tell the bosses what to do? The accusation is absurd on its face. Oregon and Washington teachers are 100% unionized. Indeed. Mehta. In India (where I once lived and worked). any teacher in the LAUSD can be fired for any reason. Who honestly believes a teachers’ union—whether in California. India has 400 million people who are illiterate.S. the teachers in these aforementioned good schools are overwhelmingly unionized. No union. etc. In the U. Astead.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. That means our national average is going to incorporate test scores of every kid from every background in every neighborhood in the country. you must attend school until at least age 16 (some states have even higher age requirements). Nothing. If the district doesn’t like you for any reason. great emphasis is placed on education. Connecticut is 98%. The United States was not only the first nation in the world to offer free public education.

But the question remains: Will it actually work? Several people I spoke with aren't swooning just yet. to keep their achievement standards weak because they don't want their students and schools labeled as failing. It's been a very public demonstration that some states are asking more or less of kids. States have agreed to participate in the NGA-CCSSO project. For one thing." Jennings says. They wouldn't be forced to administer common tests. "If 20 or 40 states agree on a common test. and there hasn't been a concerted effort to get input from education interest groups. this would be costly--even with the $350 million available from the Department of Education. vice president for national programs and policy at the Thomas B. who knows if it will be enough money." Peace through superior firepower." Petrilli says. "It's the mush that is ineffective. the committee will need to be clear about how a final proposal will be formulated--who exactly will make the decision of what to send to the states. the states have to agree to adopt the standards." Petrilli explains. in many ways. it would seem you could develop it with that kind of money. they're going to have a lot more kids failing and looking bad. if the committee doesn't have a good mechanism for reviewing and incorporating recommendations." He suggests--as many education experts do--that Congress reevaluate and revise NCLB to make it a better law that doesn't support what Duncan calls "the race to the bottom. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States Uniform state standards fail – they’ll try to keep the bar low and create impossible requirements Darby. And that's where politics will really come in: Under NCLB. in part." Still.tnr. http://blogs. If states want an infinite number of tests based on common standards." Jennings says. "There are too many incentives to keep the bar low." says Andrew Rotherham of Education Sector (who has an interesting post about the standards push here). "We've had seven years of experience under No Child Left Behind with widely varying state standards. Mehta. It's clear to governors and business leaders that other countries are doing better than the United States. states are encouraged. Then. "The other thing that's different is the economic crisis. embarrassing evidence that current education standards don't work. There's an extra sense of urgency that we're slipping economically and that could be in part because we're slipping academically. 6/16 – Duke University and Writer @ The New Republic (Seyward. Once the draft standards are released. "You'll get standards that are impossible to teach. says Mike Petrilli. "The reason for common standards and tests is that it's cheaper to do at once rather than 50 times. because of very public. and.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.aspx) Indeed. "you're going to be hearing from every corner of society. They could come up with myriad tests to assess how students are performing with regard to the new standards. the committee is working behind closed doors and disconcerting some with its lack of transparency: The names of the experts haven't been released. "The politics are going to be in states with low standards that know if they sign on to high standards. / 100 . “Will the Push for National Education Standards Succeed?” The Plank – Official TNR Blog.. Fordham Institute.. it seems.com/tnr/blogs/the_plank/archive/2009/06/16/will-the-push-for-national-education-standardssucceed. The standards could meet their demise then. Among other problems. . there's much to be excited about with regard to the project and Duncan's approach to it." What's more." But these factors don't mean the standards project will be a success. Astead. some of the biggest names in education are also skeptical. another problem could emerge among states that agreed to adopt the standards. or if it tries to split the difference by including what all or most parties want in the proposal-making it too expansive. Not by a long shot.

So there you have it: Three of the most influential education leaders in the country. but all raising their eyebrows at the current state and testing-industry-led effort to get there. as they were required to do by No Child Left Behind." she cautioned. RHEE. so they can obscure how far behind their students actually are. states that have made the right choice instead of Peace through superior firepower. We do need "fewer.” Don’t ask how they decide or who exactly gets to figure it out.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. They’d find it severely difficult to measure the success of their children’s education. 6/10 – associate editor at The American Prospect.gov/?q=node/3699/print) And now that I’ve brightened your day a little." which are considered by many education experts to be the strongest in the country." he said.org/csnc/blogs/tapped_archive? month=06&year=2009&base_name=weingarten_rhee_and_klein_we_d -. Weingarten said. . Don’t get close to those numbers.” I’d have to tell them about a state where 90 percent of students passed the local math test—but where six out of ten failed the “gold standard” test from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). and clearer" national standards. If America wanted to do something very smart. 50 standards. Because if you did. when political and educational leaders all too often found that the quickest way to raise scores wasn’t better teaching—but easier tests or lower pass scores. American Federation of Teachers President. there was one topic about which Weingarten. Please—no questions. there are notable exceptions. deeper. And Klein warned that low-performing states still have every incentive to maintain their own standards and assessments. Rhee. then it can't control its outcomes. But it was also a first step. standardswriting often leads to more complexity and confusion for teachers. in which 46 states and the testing industry will work together to create high school reading and math standards. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States Most qualified sources agree – even attempts at uniformity would devolve into disparate standards Goldstein. and Michelle Rhee. which she regards as fairly toothless. don’t touch them. don’t even sneeze at them! Don’t ask what 50 different states mean by “proficient. it passed with bipartisan acclaim. And they would find that the problem starts. but at the state level.” http://www. New York City schools Chancellor. schools Superintendent (Dana. Don’t ask if proficiency in New Mexico is related at all to proficiency in New Hampshire.. Indeed. "If a state can't control its standards or assessments.3. Joel Klein. I would in all honesty have to answer—“Not very much. Five years ago. Of course. D. when you come across those numbers by which it is so tempting to paint a picture of excellence—don’t inquire too closely.” And it left each of those 50 tests dangerously open to meddling. It mandated testing in every state and brought greater accountability for all students to schools across the nation. 50 tests. It settled on an approach of “50 states. If parents asked me how much confidence they can take home from their sons’ and daughters’ test scores. And most of all. and Klein agreed: All are skeptical of the Common Core Initiative announced last week by the National Governors' Association. "Will we be able to call out if this effort doesn't mean anything more than it has to date?" Rhee agreed that "we shouldn't be naive" about the NGA effort..Tapped is the group blog of The American Prospect) Despite the awkwardness. Astead. when President Bush brought No Child Left Behind before Congress. AND KLEIN: WE DON'T TRUST STATE-LED STANDARDS PUSH. because we have so many standards to begin with. “RANDI. citing Randi Weingarten. all supporters of national standards.2. Differences in standards means CP doesn’t solve Dodd.prospect. "What we've done politically is that every time something is important to anybody. they would find the same kind of doubt and uncertainty in nearly every state.C. I hope you parents in the audience will do me one favor in return. local politicians may not want to undo the years of work they've put into developing statespecific standards and assessments. The consensus among these urban educators was that state legislators have less than a stellar track record in implementing education reform with teeth. you’d find out you were being mislead—that that picture of excellence was an illusion.senate. I’d have to tell them about students in another state who passed the state-designed test at a rate of 85 percent—and then turned around and failed the NAEP test at a rate almost as high. "It's very political. Mehta. Standard 4. tomorrow every state would adopt Massachusetts' standards. It demanded proficiency but didn’t tell us what proficiency meant. 7 – Connecticut Senator ("Senator Dodd's Prepared Remarks at the Launch of the SPEAK Act" http://dodd. It was a huge step forward. / 101 . richer. And if parents held all 50 sets of standards up to that kind of scrutiny. it becomes part of the standards . in large part.

/ 102 . But if you want an explanation for those misleading figures I spoke of earlier. Kostrinsky Wave One the easy one. Mehta. states that have maintained or are working towards rigorous systems. it starts with No Child Left Behind and its Peace through superior firepower.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Astead.

our students are losing ground to students overseas. “[Asian countries] are making rapid progress. no text omitted] unfinished work. Today. we rank 20th out of 25 nations. “If we don’t work toward unified standards. It’s getting harder and harder to lift or dig or assemble your way to success the way you once could. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States [Dodd Continues. whereas we’re making miniscule progress. somebody else will”—but unfortunately for us. In one international assessment of the reading and math skills of 15 year olds. when we fail to compete as one nation. we’re going to wonder why we didn’t do anything about it while we still had time. I wish I could say. Across the board. Mehta.” The truth is that we no longer live in the economy of old. But at some point. That may be fine for a while—a decade. Lower scores and lower expectations are going to translate to an America that is less competitive on the world stage. Children here in Washington are no longer just entering the job market with children in Dallas and Chicago. Peace through superior firepower. if we do nothing to address this decline. because they’re going to have the bulk of the intellectual and creative talent in the world. America is going to reach a tipping point. Astead. when public education doesn’t work. That’s the work we’ve come here to complete—to standardize our standards. countries with national standards are outpacing us. “I’m telling you. / 103 . In a study of fourth graders. you’ve got to think your way to success—and so. everybody else already has.” said one global marketing expert. the United States ranks 24th among 29 industrial and developing nations.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. And I don’t think the average American understands the impact of this for our future. maybe two. from kindergarten through high school. and that has devastating consequences for us. And I am sorry to report to my fellow parents that. our entire country will get left behind. And if it happens. They’re entering with children in Shanghai and Mumbai and Taipei who are receiving the kind of education today that you could once only get in America.

/ 104 . The larger trend line is clear: The news is much rosier if you believe state reports than if you believe the national assessment. South Carolina should get on board. well-tested national science standards developed by the National Assessment Governing Board. his education secretary and bipartisan leaders in Congress are showing leadership.S. and make science “cool” again. Preparing a math.) States may say that such discrepancies merely reflect the different subject matter they test versus the content assessed by the feds.chief executive officer of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and executive publisher of the journal AND Director of Project 2061 (the AAAS science-literacy initiative) (Alan I. and the national average fell by a point. This bill would provide incentives for states to adopt robust. (Eighth-grade NAEP reading results were disappointing almost everywhere. Perhaps this is why the Golden State posted gains of nine points in its proportion of eighth graders reaching proficiency on reading. So if you’re a governor or education commissioner. 5 (Chester E.S.S. whereas its percentage of students reaching “basic” and “proficient” on NAEP dropped a point each. California. is a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution and chairman of the Koret Task Force on K–12 Education. Fordham Foundation.and science-literate workforce will of course require more than uniform standards. Mehta. http://www. Its own test results show the number of eighth graders proficient in reading rose 8 points (from 55 percent to 63 percent) between 2003 and 2005. provide consistently high-quality textbooks. only at the “basic” level. Vernon Ehlers.html)//HM But there are perverse incentives at play here. founding partner with the Edison Project and legislative director for Senator Daniel P. you have a strong incentive to relax your definition of “proficiency” in reading and math and make your own state tests easier. Finn Jr. too. Previously. Sen. nationwide education standards in science. That's bad for the U.S. Chris Dodd. But surely that’s not the case for all states. No Child Left Behind seeks to help all students reach “proficiency” by 2014 and requires states to develop tough accountability systems to ensure that their schools are making progress toward that end. economy: McKinsey & Co.greenvilleonline. promising dividends for tomorrow's workforce and for our economy.-students-need-shared-science-standards--too) Top-performing U. Yet the percentage of Arizona eighth graders scoring at NAEP’s “proficient” level actually fell two points during the same biennium.hoover. But only three of these states show any gains on NAEP and. are the next logical step. D-Connecticut. He served as assistant U. Last week’s good news is shadowed by early evidence that some states may be doing just that. Chester E. Closing the racial gap in science scores among U. President Barack Obama. they face a cascade of interventions. and other consequences.org/publications/digest/2905221. "Alan Leshner and Jo Ellen Roseman: U. just re-introduced their SPEAK Act (“Standards to Provide Educational Achievement for All Kids”). and Jo Ellen. has laudably rejected “whole language” reading instruction and other faddish ideas that have partially infected the national test. Astead. for example. even then. R-Michigan. and Rep. America further must improve teacher pay and classroom support. but they need encouragement and support to persist.. students need shared science standards. and you want your state’s schools to look good. Voluntary. Uniform standards and federal funding are key to top-level US scientists which is key to the economy Leshner and Roseman 6-22-09 .S. (If schools are not progressing. senior fellow of the Hudson Institute. A clear roadmap for improving science-learning standards has already been set forth.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.S.com/article/20090622/OPINION/906220304/Alan-Leshner-and-Jo-Ellen-Roseman-U. He is also president and trustee of the Thomas B. consulting firm say that closing the science gap between U.3 trillion to $2.3 trillion in 2008. (The percentage of Arizona’s students reaching NAEP’s lower “basic” level also dropped by a point. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – Standards Key National is better – state results are corrupted Finn.) But here’s the catch: The states define “proficiency” however they like. We analyzed data from state tests as well as the national assessment and looked at states’ progress on both over the past two years. exiting students.) Consider Arizona. science students are still among the world's elite. the firm reported. education secretary for research and improvement from 1985 to 1988. he was professor of education and public policy at Vanderbilt University. Peace through superior firepower. students might have added another half-trillion dollars. and international students could have increased America's gross domestic product by $1. too" http://www. Adequate funding will also be essential. Moynihan. along with reading and math.S. The result? Nineteen states (of the 29 with available and comparable data) reported their eighth-grade students made progress on state reading exams. But many other young people are lagging.

Astead. Mehta. The organizers of the project.” lexis) States have long determined what schoolchildren should learn. the Council of Chief State School Officers and the National Governors Association. the council’s executive director. But the new initiative would change that.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. even with uniformity Chicago Tribune. Peace through superior firepower. experts say. Illinois joins effort toward national standards. / 105 . education system. 5/19 (Tara Malone. said this month that he expected 25 to 35 states to join. Gene Wilhoit.S. "To better compare students. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – Uniformity Fails No incentive for lasting participation. and when. acknowledge that it’s unlikely all 50 states will get onboard with the new approach because of long-standing support for state control of education. under a system of local oversight that is at the core of the U.

/ 106 . Mehta. As a result. “Retooling Career Technical Education.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. several challenges remain. State assessment systems rarely measure the workplace and industry-specific skills that employers demand. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – Can’t Solves CTE States can’t implement CTE – no linkages to industry and structural barriers Wakelyn.” http://www. 7 – Education Division @ NGA Center for Best Practices (David. Peace through superior firepower.PDF) Although CTE programs are shifting away from an old voc-ed mentality to embrace the demands of the innovation economy. Deeply held ideological differences about student capabilities and expectations further delay needed reforms. These skills are largely absent from state education standards as well. state leaders still confront structural challenges. Astead. making the educational response to emerging growth industries slow or nonexistent. state education and economic systems have few linkages.org/Files/pdf/0706TECHED. Too often.nga. Even when reforms occur. CTE curricula typically fit poorly with state standards and assessments.

aspx)///HM Still.tnr. Astead." Jennings says. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – Spending DA Costs tons of $$$ Darby. "The reason for common standards and tests is that it's cheaper to do at once rather than 50 times. who knows if it will be enough money.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. 9 (Seward. Mehta. “Will the Push for National Education Standards Succeed?”. another problem could emerge among states that agreed to adopt the standards." Peace through superior firepower. If states want an infinite number of tests based on common standards. it would seem you could develop it with that kind of money. Among other problems. / 107 . this would be costly--even with the $350 million available from the Department of Education. They could come up with myriad tests to assess how students are performing with regard to the new standards. "If 20 or 40 states agree on a common test.com/tnr/blogs/the_plank/archive/2009/06/16/will-the-push-for-national-education-standardssucceed. http://blogs. They wouldn't be forced to administer common tests.

Department of Economics at Dartmouth. they did so at the expense of drawing resources away from spending on other programs. while mandated increases in state education aid did increase total spending on education. The greatest impacts were on hospitals. public health. and Department of Economics UCSan Diego (Katherine. and public buildings.org/papers/w10701. Each dollar of increased education funding a locality received from the state resulted in an average decline in funds from the state for other purposes of about 20 cents. and welfare. and Nora. highways.pdf?new_window=1) We find that states did change their spending patterns in a way that partially offset the mandated increase in their education spending (although not in a way that diminished their progressivity). reacted to the increased state revenue-raising and spending by cutting back on their own revenue-raising and their spending on both education and other programs. fire protection. Astead.nber. in turn. / 108 . Localities. Mehta. 4 .Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Peace through superior firepower. These effects were greater in higher-income counties. but there were also significant declines in spending on police. "THE EFFECT OF MANDATED STATE EDUCATION SPENDING ON TOTAL LOCAL RESOURCES" http://www. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – Trade-off DA State funded education trades off Baicker and Gordon. Thus.

truthdig. The controversy reached into the Los Angeles High School faculty.com/report/item/20080929_banking_collapse_lands_on_americas_schools/) Although the Bush administration and Congress took a hands-off attitude toward Wall Street—until the collapse— Washington enthusiastically reached into the classrooms of every public school in the country with the No Child Left Behind Act. Astead. which amounted to $24.4 billion last year under the No Child Left Behind Act. Without such testing—in California it is called the California High School Exit Examination—schools could lose federal funding. Mehta. Peace through superior firepower.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. 8 – lecturer in journalism at the University of Southern California’s Annenberg School for Communication and is vice president of the Los Angeles City Ethics Commission (Bill. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – Cali Econ DA Repealing No Child Left Behind would skyrocket California’s budget deficit Boyarsky. This legislation. requires the states to assess students before they receive high school diplomas. passed early in the Bush administration with bipartisan support. The testing is the most controversial feature of No Child Left Behind. "Banking Collapse Lands on America’s Schools" http://www. / 109 .

and for consistency we construct total revenue and direct expenditure by aggregating up spending and revenues from these categories. Most spending on schools. These revenues have plunged as the economy has gone into freefall. Our totals are. highways. County-areas received just over 40 percent of their revenues as intergovernmental grants from the state. and Department of Economics UCSan Diego (Katherine. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – AT: Deficit Spending Most states passed laws prohibiting deficit spending—counterplan would get rolled back Schifferes 7/2 – Economics reporter. Peace through superior firepower. 4 – Department of Economics at Dartmouth. "US states face budget meltdowns" http://news. Together they make up about one-third of all public spending.bbc. Astead. consistently constructed over time to contain the largest sources of revenues and expenditures. unlike the federal government. "THE EFFECT OF MANDATED STATE EDUCATION SPENDING ON TOTAL LOCAL RESOURCES" http://www. States have a limited ability to do deficit spending—means that funding to other areas are largely impacted Baicker and Gordon.stm] The 50 US states play a much more important role in the US system than local authorities do in a European context.co. however. and forbidding them to borrow money to pay for current spending. Real county-area revenues per capita in our sample grew from $1565 on average in 1982 to $2272 in 1997. and welfare. police. In 1997.12 The totals presented here are therefore smaller than actual totals reported in the Census of Governments data and education spending as a share of our total spending measure is a larger ratio than education spending as a share of the reported Census of Governments total. with three-quarters of those earmarked for education – so changes to this funding stream are likely to have a substantial impact on other aspects of state and local budgets.org/papers/w10701. Most localities. have limited ability to run deficits so it is not surprising that revenues exceed expenditures on average. Mehta.pdf?new_window=1) We analyze primarily major revenue and expenditure categories. States rely on sales taxes and property taxes at the local level to fund much of their spending.uk/2/hi/business/8130318. elementary and secondary education expenditures comprised over 60 percent of our measure of total direct spending by local governments. And the states also have an important constraint that the Federal government does not .Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. At the same time. Other major categories of expenditures include hospitals. and Nora. BBC News [Steve.they have nearly all passed laws in the past 20 years requiring them to have a balanced budget. Mean real per capita direct expenditures (excluding intergovernmental expenditures) grew from $1345 in 1982 to $1919 in 1997.nber. This has hit them very hard as the US recession starts to bite. or 10% of US GDP. roads and welfare support is made at the state level. / 110 . they have faced higher bills to pay for the casualties of the recession.

And why. "What we now have is Son of Strengths and Weaknesses. philosophical. "Will publishers cave in to pressure from the Texas board to include junk science in their textbooks? It has happened before. scientific. and Biology standards (TEKS) with loopholes and language that make it even easier for creationists to attack science textbooks. "But textbooks that please the Texas board will be rejected in other states. Executive Director of the National Center for Science Education (NCSE). Although the "strengths and weaknesses" wording that has been part of the standards for over a decade was finally excised--wording that has been used to pressure science textbook publishers to include creationist arguments--a number of amendments put the creationist-inspired wording back in. ultimately hurting their professional opportunities. Eugenie Scott. not a draw. "The board majority chose to satisfy creationist constituents and ignore the expertise of highly qualified Texas scientists and scientists across the country.org/2008/01/thecreationist-buffoonery-and-its-dangerous-implications/) Make no mistake. Scott. 8 – Evangelical minister for 14 years (Lee. Thus exposed. Astead. "This is a setback for science education in Texas. stasis and the sequential nature of groups in the fossil records. and yet as blind as we are we seem to have failed to learn it.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Thanks to such laws as No Child Left Behind. not a victory. The changes will not immediately affect curricula in Texas high schools. Religion has ever been a sanctuary of those who seek to secure their eminence at the expense of others. a project director for NCSE. administrative and judicial. Publishers will have to choose between junk science and real science. The decisions will not only affect Texas students for the next ten years. eviscerate the Constitution. The new standard directs students to "analyze and evaluate the sufficiency of scientific explanations concerning any data of sudden appearance. The revised wording opens the door to creationism in the classroom and in the textbooks.S.html) The board majority amended the Earth and Space Science. and effectively dismantle American democracy by instituting religious indoctrination in the schools and halls of public policy making. http://dissidentvoice. "The final vote was a triumph of ideology and politics over science. the Institute for Creation Research and the Discovery Institute. their mission is to redefine the United States of America." cautioned Dr. creationism intends to redefine science." says Scott. the revised biology standard (7B) reflects two discredited creationist ideas--that "sudden appearance" and "stasis" in the fossil record somehow disprove evolution. Teachers teach to the test.physorg. not to mention diminishing America’s leadership in science and technology." "Let's be clear about this. "The Creationist Buffoonery and Its Dangerous Implications". urging the board to reject language that misrepresents or undermines the teaching of evolution. The true mission of creationism is theocracy. in fact. History is unequivocal in teaching this lesson." says Dr. and replace it with a meaningless shell of supernatural speculation and deceit. but "the standards will affect standardized tests and textbooks. the need to fight it on all fronts. theological." says Josh Rosenau. is made even more clear. They mean to supplant all of these things with a form of oligarchy wrapped in the shrouds of a dumbed down science and legalistic religion. / 111 . which the board likewise ignored. cheapens theology as well as condemning America’s students to an inferior education. The creationist attack on the teaching of evolution devalues science." For example. "Having students 'analyze and evaluate all sides of scientific evidence' is code that gives creationists a green light to attack biology textbooks. There's a reason creationists are claiming victory." NCSE presented the board with a petition from 54 scientific and educational societies. There is no higher imperative if we mean to preserve America’s intellectual Peace through superior firepower. and there is little room for doubt their true intentions." Other new standards include language such as "is thought to".com/news157728177. one need only consult the web sites and publications of such notable creationist organizations as the the Creation Museum." says Rosenau." Teaching creationism dooms American democracy and means they can’t solve the case Salisbury. Creationists are quite explicit in their stated goals. Creationists aim to not only destroy science in an effort to protect their creationist fairy tales. notes Rosenau. ubiquitous standardized tests are central to measuring student progress and proficiency. or "proposed transitional fossils" to make evolutionary concepts seem tentative when. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – Evolution DA [1/2] Texas’ science standards would cause a national shift to creationism teaching – their textbooks spill over AIP 3/31 – American Institute of Physics ("Science setback for Texas schools" http://www. such concepts are well-documented and accepted by the scientific community. but could result in watered-down science textbooks across the U. Mehta. And if one doubts this. and textbooks have to reflect this. you might ask? The answer is not hard to fathom.

Mehta. Kostrinsky Wave One Peace through superior firepower. Astead.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff freedom. Markoff. / 112 .

si. In the former Yugoslavia nationalist aggression tears at the stability of Europe and could easily spread. and openness. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – Evolution DA [2/2] Democracy prevents extinction Diamond. December 1995. Most of these new and unconventional threats to security are associated with or aggravated by the weakness or absence of democracy. the global ecosystem. / 113 . Mehta. accountability.htm) This hardly exhausts the lists of threats to our security and well-being in the coming years and decades. Astead. http://wwics. chemical. The flow of illegal drugs intensifies through increasingly powerful international crime syndicates that have made common cause with authoritarian regimes and have utterly corrupted the institutions of tenuous. “Promoting Democracy in the 1990s: Actors and instruments. 95 – professor. and biological weapons continue to proliferate. popular sovereignty.edu/subsites/ccpdc/pubs/di/di. lecturer. foreign aid. issues and imperatives : a report to the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict”. democratic ones. Peace through superior firepower. The very source of life on Earth.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. and democracy (Larry. and author on foreign policy. Nuclear. adviser. appears increasingly endangered. with its provisions for legality.

Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Kostrinsky Wave One Ext: Texas Spills Over Texas spills over and kills solvency Newton. The Texas State Board of Education finalized its new science standards during a meeting in late March 2009. Because of Texas’ purchasing power. Peace through superior firepower. a series of amendments weakened these standards and opened the door for creationist teachers to bring nonscientific ideas into the science classroom.org/cms/sites/default/files/journal/Summer09. Astead. "Creationism in the New Texas Standards http://www.nestanet. Although the new Earth and Space Science standards crafted by an expert writing team mandated robust earth science instruction in Texas high schools. the standards Texas uses to select textbooks have a major influence on national textbook content. Mehta. 9 (Summer Issue) . National Center for Science Education (Steven.pdf) for Earth and Space Science" The State of Texas is one of the nation’s largest buyers of K-12 textbooks. / 114 .Public Information Project Director.

Mehta. http://www. / 115 . which is leaning toward encouraging states to cooperate on a plan to establish national academic standards for core subjects. This obvious problem is receiving attention from President Barack Obama’s administration. This is because the Bush administration did not want to broach the divisive issue of national academic standards.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. 9 (Educational patchwork: States should cooperate on ending the glaring inconsistencies among academic standards. school districts that had surpassed mediocre but were within states with high standards could end up being labeled as failures. meaning that mediocre school districts could continue to be mediocre if the state set low achievement standards — yet be rated as successes under the federal law. Peace through superior firepower.com/news/2009/feb/22/educational-patchwork/)/HM A new study has confirmed what many critics of the No Child Left Behind federal education law have said all along. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: States – Links to Politics Obama will take the blame – he is championing state cooperation Las Vegas Sun. Astead. that many school districts judged as failures would be judged as successes if only they were located in a different state. So states were allowed to continue setting their own standards.lasvegassun. Just as unfairly.

Kostrinsky Wave One AT: Repeal NCLB CP No Child Left Behind is improving education—data proves—BUT a new national standard is key Washington Post 5/10 ("What Test Results Suggest. Consider. NCLB is now up for reauthorization. / 116 . Mehta. it doesn't help much if a child does well in fourth grade but graduates ill prepared for college or the workplace.contrary to the hypothesis of some critics -. Unfortunately. we hope." not the "whys" behind the scores. an even stronger picture of NCLB's benefits emerge. This is no time for retreat on No Child Left Behind" lexis) THE GOOD news that America's elementary and middle school students have made impressive improvements in reading and math is unfortunately tempered by the dismal performance of high school students. can be traced to the standards-based reforms embodied in the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) law and the state efforts that predated it. better efforts to improve teaching and. NAEP officials report only the "what. Minority students who were long overlooked by the education system still trail their white counterparts. students at ages 9 and 13 did significantly better on 2008 tests than their counterparts of the early 1970s. evidence that the emphasis on reading and math has -. There is a need for even more rigor in school curriculums. and. After all. Improved performance of younger students. for instance.helped students to do well in other subjects such as science and history. When the longterm trend results are viewed in the context of other national assessments. the adoption of common. there's not a minute to waste. although gaps did not change significantly from 2004 to 2008. and particularly minorities. white and Hispanic 9-year-olds all posted higher scores than in previous years. There have been welcome gains in shrinking achievement gaps between white and minority students since 1971. Educational reforms that seem to be helping younger students must be strengthened and applied to the later grades. but it's significant that black and Hispanic students of all age groups made greater gains in math than white students since 1973 and that black. the scores of 17-year-olds stayed alarmingly flat over 35 years.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. and the NAEP report is a clear prompt not to retreat from its principles. as the latest results from federal tests show. Peace through superior firepower. According to the new long-term trend report on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). national standards. Astead.

an in-depth assessment of all sectors is beyond the scope of this report. 4 (Mark. Elementary school teachers in particular are often not as passionate or trained in STEM subjects as they are in the arts. Ph.D. Nearly 90 percent of K-12 students attend public schools. High school students are not being trained at a high enough level to compete with international students once they reach college. In many cases. has the biggest challenges. 6/16 – Senior Policy Analyst in Education in the Domestic Policy Studies Department (Dan. xi Magnet schools are more rare and offer concentrated curriculums for students with specific interests and advanced talents.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA435137 &Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc. charter. http://www.2 percent of the public schools and address specific community needs. this is due to the poor-quality education at early levels that leaves students ill equipped to pursue higher levels of STEM education.pdf)) Given the education industry’s size. private schools receive public funds in at least five states and the District of Columbia. Astead.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Competitiveness with K–12 STEM Education and Training"Ethel Machi. not enough students are making it to the advanced levels of STEM studies.dtic. Peace through superior firepower.. this paper focuses on K-12 because it is most important to national security. Plan is a prerequisite – lack of K-12 STEM education kills potential for higher-level STEM Lips et al. Too few freshmen who declare a STEM major graduate with a degree in STEM. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: Higher Education CP K-12 key to labor force and defense McGuire. but very few liberal arts majors migrate to STEM. Marshall is Director of Domestic Policy Studies. This result is the problem of the “leaky pipeline.pdf) In today’s schools.heritage. The K-12 system includes public (traditional. Many STEM students migrate to liberal arts. Brief assessments of the other key sectors are provided in an essay on page 21.x Traditional public schools are most common. An unfortunate consequence is that many students mirror their teachers’ preferences and acquire a lifelong disinterest in STEM by the time they reach middle school. offering a balanced curriculum to a broad student body. / 117 . "Improving U. Mehta. is Assistant Director of the Kathryn and Shelby Cullom Davis Institute for International Studies and Senior Research Fellow for National Security and Homeland Security in the Douglas and Sarah Allison Center for Foreign Policy Studies. Instead. Jennifer A. K-12 sets the foundation for all subsequent education and training and prepares citizens for entry into the labor force. and operate with more autonomy than traditional public schools.” In the education pipeline from elementary to graduate education. and magnet) and private (parochial and non-parochial) schools. the majority of math and science teachers do not have math or science degrees. and is compulsory up to age 16. at The Heritage Foundation http://www. an independent researcher. but only with state and local government approval. and James Jay Carafano. Jena Baker McNeill is Policy Analyst for Homeland Security in the Douglas and Sarah Allison Center for Foreign Policy Studies.org/Research/Education/upload/SR_57. Further. often cater to a narrow student body. However. it is the largest sector within the industry. Private schools operate outside of government control because government funding is not normally provided.S. a division of the Kathryn and Shelby Cullom Davis Institute for International Studies. Charter schools represent 3. Colonel in the US Army.

High-quality preparation of Americans for the working world is more important than ever. over the next quarter century.S. economy in general. But education in science.34 But it is misleading to equate “information science” with “science” itself. therefore. but specifically for the defense industry. clearly. economy. The United States will need sharply growing numbers of competent knowledge workers. 1 (A bipartisan commission set up to evaluate the current national security climate and propose changes needed to meet new threats has issued a report that calls for major changes in governmental structures and processes. “Road Map for National Security: Imperative for Change. At the base of American national security.edu/nssg/PhaseIIIFR. Quality education in the humanities and social sciences is essential in a world made increasingly “smaller” by advances in communication and in global commerce.” http://govinfo. / 118 .Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. many of them in information sciences. is the strength of the American economy. but also on a populace that can effectively assimilate a wide range of new tools and technologies. an area in which there are already significant shortages. the interplay of bioscience. national security. and information science will combine to reshape most existing technologies. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: Liberal Arts CP Only STEM education solves the aff – our evidence is comparative The United States Commission on National Security. Mehta. many of them requiring significant technical expertise. The technology-driven economy will add twenty million jobs in the next decade. mathematics. It was basic science and engineering excellence that brought about the information revolution in the first place and.library. Peace through superior firepower. for America’s ability to lead depends particularly on the depth and breadth of its scientific and technical communities.unt. Astead. and engineering has special relevance for the future of U. which must simultaneously develop and defend against these same technologies. The health of the U. will depend not only on professionals that can produce and direct innovation in a few key areas.S. nanotechnology.pdf) Education is the foundation of America’s future. This is critical not just for the U.S.

Some of the money will also go to charter schools and teacher pay-for-performance programs. Astead. Nearly all states have agreed to develop common academic standards for math and English.” http://www. An open competition will determine grant winners. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: Disads Disads non-unique – math and English funding Crawford.com/businessresource/forecast/archive/Obama_ups_ante_on_education_reform_090707. Peace through superior firepower. / 119 . 7/7 – Researcher for the Kiplinger Letters (Jonathan N.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.kiplinger. Mehta. The White House wants states to use the funds for programs and methods that will better prepare K-12 students for college and the workforce. “Education Reform: Obama Ups the Ante.35-billion pot of federal money. The Department of Education will issue grants to states that demonstrate innovative ideas for improving performance and a track record of successful implementation. rather than choosing to go it alone. A chunk of the federal education money will help states establish rigorous testing programs to gauge whether students are ready for work or college.html) The Obama administration is zeroing in on improving the nation’s schools by providing states with an unprecedented $4.

" Burns said. Kostrinsky Wave One AT: Recruitment Trade-off DA Retired US Generals agree. But we need to make sure our recruits in the future are educated.all former commanders of Pennsylvania's 28th Infantry Division of the Army National Guard -. as well as major generals Wesley Craig. http://www. / 120 . so we would like our legislators to be at the forefront of a program so critical to national security and the success of our children and youth: early childhood education." which cites new statistics from the Pentagon showing that 75 percent of young people ages 17 to 24 are unable to enlist because they lack a high school diploma. the at-risk children who did not benefit from the early learning were five times more likely to be chronic offenders. They found that the at-risk children who attended were 44 percent more likely to complete high school than the children who did not attend. Astead.America's men and women in uniform stand ready to keep the country safe. "Make no mistake about it -.com/article/pressRelease/idUS162605+03-Jun-2009+PRN20090603) Retired military leaders from across Pennsylvania held a news conference at the State Capitol today. Researchers tracked the progress of at-risk children who participated in the program together with similar children who did not participate.released a new report called "Ready. have a criminal background. Reuters Reporter. responsible and top-notch. This is a threat to national security. "Given all the threats that this nation faces around the world -. a groundbreaking early education program. The generals cited a 40-year study of Michigan's Perry Preschool. With that knowledge.we must do everything possible to invest in the most important component of any military -. "Our national security 20 years from now is dependent on the investment our country makes in young people today. and Joe Perugino -.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.reuters. The retired generals said that investments in early childhood education will increase the number of young Americans who graduate and qualify to serve. Pennsylvania leads the nation in our forward thinking." said Harrington. and Unable to Serve.A successful education system is the key to maintain national security and military readiness Doster.its fighting men and women." Craig said. "We know from the research that investing in early education will help us build a stronger military and a stronger country. (…) Joining the Pennsylvania generals for the event was Lancaster County resident and Silver Star recipient Specialist Jason Harrington. calling for increased investment in early childhood education to improve school success and preserve military readiness for the future. Mehta." Peace through superior firepower. or are physically unfit. Retired Military Brass Say Early Education Key to National Security. The group highlighted research showing that quality early education programs significantly increase graduation rates and reduce later crime among at-risk children who participate. with five or more arrests. 6/3 (Steven. Willing. Harrington served in Ramadi. among other reasons. Iraq with the Pennsylvania National Guard's 28th Infantry from June 2005 to June 2006. "It is disturbing for me to learn that so many young Americans are ineligible to serve in the military. members of his company and of himself after being stranded by an IED attack. Dan O'Neill. By age 27. Retired Major General William Burns. PA. We cannot begin just with basic training: we have to start early. former Deputy Commandant of the US Army War College in Carlisle. it's our duty to make these early opportunities available to more kids who need them. He was awarded the Silver Star when he successfully coordinated a rescue of his wounded sergeant." Perugino said.

are on the verge of demolishing the chief threat to their monopoly—school vouchers for low-income families in the District of Columbia.. Abundant evidence suggests that common.com/wp- From my office in Washington. which includes at least six lobbyists. The American Federation of Teachers is the most powerful lobby in congress—they control the agenda at all times Carney 2/26 – senior reporter for the Evans-Novak Political Report and Washington Examiner columnist (Timothy P. $5. The top five lobbying firms. But the image of the hard-working self-sacrificing teacher is not the proper symbol for the teachers unions in this country. Reviewing the filings of the NEA. Mehta. / 121 . the top recipient of military contracts most years. Kostrinsky Wave One Plan Popular – Teachers Unions Teachers Unions support national standards Weingarten 2/16 – president of the American Federation of Teachers (Randi. which shelled out $2. rigorous standards lead to more students reaching higher levels of achievement. Lockheed Martin. through their allies in the Democrat-controlled Congress. it will be another triumph for a near-monopoly that has lined the coffers of nearly every member of Congress and deployed an army of lobbyists throughout Washington. "Teachers unions say 'jump.html) Standards" http://www. which provides $7. The result is 51 benchmarks of varying content and quality. The NEA employs four different lobbying firms in Washington. which don’t want competition from private schools.C. the teachers unions look an awful lot like those corporate special interests Democrats supposedly oppose. Public school teachers. After Minnesota adopted rigorous math standards.html) Teachers unions.just as every state in the union has its own standards. defense contractors. in addition to their in-house lobbying arm. Theirs is a noble undertaking. the NEA spent $10. I can ride a few stops on the Metro and be in Maryland. Again.com/opinion/columns/TimothyCarney/Teachers-unions-say-jump-Congress-sayshow-high-40384837. students there ranked fifth in the world on the mathematics portion of that assessment. on closer inspection. Take defense contractors. scored on a par with the highestperforming countries in both math and science on a recent international assessment. Here in the United States. There are many areas in education around which we need to build consensus.' Congress says 'how high?'" http://www. and the NEA and AFT combined gave more than the top four oil companies combined. didn’t equal the AFT and the NEA in federal contributions in the 2008 cycle. Academic standards for students in the rest of the country. The countries that consistently outperform the United States on international assessments all have national standards. are a mixed bag. spent more on politics than any other defense firm in the 2008 elections. school voucher program after next school year. When the House passed the $410 billion omnibus appropriations bill this week—funding the normal operations of government for the next seven months—it included a provision that effectively would end the D. the AFT. the voucher program is in Congress’s crosshairs because of the lobbying efforts and campaign contributions of the teachers’ unions. than the top two defense contractors. they do dangerous and difficult work with inadequate support.500 in federal taxpayer money to some low-income district parents to use on private or religious schools. They still spent less than the American Federation of Teachers. "The Case for National dyn/content/story/2009/02/15/ST2009021502025. assessments and time for professional development for teachers based on those standards. While there are legitimate doubts about the educational results of the D.washingtonpost. and their K Street hires reveals that lobbying to kill DC vouchers was a priority. combined. They are more like huge corporations with high-powered lobbying arms and cozy connections with important politicians. voucher program.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff.27 million. Both of the teachers unions gave more than any oil company. are not well paid. These contributions give the unions clout. according to data from the Center for Responsive Politics. A good place to start would be revisiting the issue of national standards. for the most part. and federal lobbying records show they use this clout. Over the past two years. unfortunately. which has been recognized for setting high standards. students in Massachusetts.C. with core curriculum. Peace through superior firepower.7 million on lobbying. Astead.washingtonexaminer. These three jurisdictions are so close in miles yet have very different standards for what their students should know and be able to do -.8 million in the last cycle—with nearly every AFT dime going to Democrats. and in places like D.C. Beltway bandits. If they win in the end and kill this program. I can see beyond the Capitol to Virginia. The top two teachers unions— AFT and the National Education Association—spent more combined. influential industries—most of them pale in their influence efforts compared to the teachers unions.

NYSUT proudly represents teachers in more than a dozen charter schools. including five here in Buffalo. The record clearly demonstrates the commitment of teachers unions to improving public education. Yes. Dozens of teachers unions in New York have negotiated innovative compensation models — from stipends for those who earn national certification to New York City’s bold experiment in school-based performance pay. Obama recently pushed for even more reform — rewarding teacher excellence. strict discipline. Peace through superior firepower. and urge caution so that a proliferation of charters does not undermine full support for traditional public schools. such as charter schools. especially in our cities where the achievement gap and all its ramifications threaten the vibrancy of local economies.000 professionals in education and healthcare.com/149/story/626941. Charter schools can provide opportunities for innovation and experimentation. higher academic standards.funded program to develop “learning communities” that focus on ending the achievement gap. NYSUT is affiliated with the American Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association (Richard C. Under the leadership of Randi Weingarten.buffalonews.html) Reform is a challenge teachers unions embrace. the state’s largest union representing over 600. We also believe charters must be accountable for the tax money they receive and transparent in how they spend it.. "Richard C. Astead. This deeply held belief in reform is why NYSUT was an early advocate for smaller classes. holding teachers more accountable and promoting innovation. / 122 . quality early childhood education programs and the professional development necessary to provide every child with the most qualified teachers possible. And local unions in Dunkirk and Fredonia have begun taking part in a National Education Association. Rather than considering those subjects taboo. Iannuzzi: Teachers unions embracing reform" http://www. that’s right. Mehta. the American Federation of Teachers has launched a $1 million innovation fund to implement sustainable reform efforts developed by union members. we have been speaking of the same things. Union leaders understand we have a responsibility to make schools work.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Kostrinsky Wave One Plan Popular – Ext: Teachers Unions Like Plan Education reform popular among teacher unions Iannuzzi 4/2 – president of New York State United Teachers.

/ 123 . Without an large. http://corner.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. for example. Linking the Democrats with their crazy leftist pals in the academy is the best way to beat them. 2/5/2008. there are simply no conservative lobbying organizations to counter them.nationalreview. one for K-12 and one for higher education.” The Corner. broad-based lobby group. The problem is that we haven’t developed any institutional way of harnessing public antipathy to educational bias. the public is with us. “Conservatives Dropped the Ball. was a disaster for the academy in the public eye. 8 – adjunct fellow of the Hudson Institute and a Senior Fellow at the Ethics and Public Policy Center (Stanley. Fighting the education culture war would have accumulated political capital. say. When it comes to the left-leaning craziness of the education system. we can’t effectively counter-balance the massive teacher-professor-based education lobbies. a blog of The National Review. they are vastly outspent and outgunned. modeled on. and when they do. Kostrinsky Wave One Plan Popular – Ext: Teachers Unions Key to Agenda Plan popular – liberal education lobbies overwhelm conservative opposition and build pol cap Kurtz.com/post/?q=NmMxMGMxYzc5YjdiNGRiZmE4YmVkN2JmNWRmNDA3ZTA=) The NEA and the higher education lobby are massive. And again. Conservatives rarely even show up for most legislative battles over education. What we need is a mass-membership organization. The Bush administration’s attitude was that Bill Bennett/Lynn Cheney-type culture war issues sap political capital that could more profitably be put toward the war effort or social security reform. and far more influential on the Hill than most people realize. Astead. able to rally folks who want to do something about our education system — or perhaps separate organizations. Peace through superior firepower. Yet when it comes to higher education. The public is with us on this. Democrats are completely in the pocket of these liberal lobby groups. and even Republicans legislators have little reason to oppose them and plenty of reason to fear them. such education battles as the Bush administration has chosen to fight intentionally avoid precisely the "culture war" issues that might make a real difference. for example. The Lawrence Summers dispute. This was a huge mistake. People for the American Way. Mehta.

They also endorsed the Obama administration´s desire to extend student learning time to stay globally competitive and called for investments in state-of-the-art data systems so school systems can track student performance across grades. towns and teachers. we believe we must embrace promising new approaches to education policy if we are to prepare our children to fill the jobs of the future. and Blanche Lincoln (D-AR)." Saying that "now is the time to explore new paths and reject stale thinking. Kostrinsky Wave One Plan Popular – Moderate Democrats Moderate Dems love the plan – letter to Obama proves AC. Other signatories on the letter include Senators Mary Landrieu (D-LA). / 124 . Mark Warner (D-VA) and Herb Kohl (D-WI). our GDP could have been up to $2. and signed by seven of their moderate colleagues. Based on this report. regional and racial backgrounds in the United States and the gaps between American students and their peers in other industrialized nations." they wrote to President Obama. we share your sense of urgency in moving an education reform agenda through Congress. Michael Bennet (D-CO). Tom Carper (D-DE). Mehta." The letter was initiated by Senators Evan Bayh (D-IN). Astead.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. leaders of the Senate Moderate Dems Working Group. and Poland." the moderate Democrats commended President Obama for his focus on teacher quality and noted a recent report by McKinsey and Company that highlights the achievement gaps that persist among various economic. Joseph Lieberman (ID-CT)." The senators expressed support for new pay-for-performance teacher incentives and expansions of effective public charter schools. Peace through superior firepower. To retain our global economic leadership.3 trillion higher last year. Bill Nelson (D-FL). "As legislators. schools. the senators noted that "had the United States closed the gap in education achievement with better-performing nations like Finland. Claire McCaskill (D-MO). http://www.americanchronicle. Iceland. four out of every 10 new American jobs will require at least some advanced education or training. "By 2016.com/articles/view/107638) Washington—Ten moderate Senate Democrats today sent a letter to President Barack Obama voicing support for his key education goals and pledging to "lend our voices to the debate as proponents of education reform. 6/25 (American Chronicle.

Works for Wal-Mart. central equals public. Most citizens will see no inherent danger in bringing central planning to public education. too dependent on the varying affluence levels among the states. Astead. that is. and within their divergent communities. It doesn't take a crystal ball to see this coming. making a case for nationalizing public education will attract broader support than the three previous venues (banking. plus relocation opportunities without compensation penalties. Kostrinsky Wave One Plan Popular – AT: Link Turns No opposition to nationalized education standards Cary 6/11 – frequent contributor to American Thinker (Lee. Mehta.com/2009/06/nationalizing_public_education. which will go away. It's clear from his campaign rhetoric what will come next -America's public education system. "Nationalizing Public Education Comes After Health Care" http://www. And. What groups will oppose this? Besides home schoolers. The pragmatic case for uniform public education will cite economy-of-scale advantages whereby the federal government will eliminate multiple duplications of effort in a currently over-staffed management equation where every school district constructs its own buildings.that'll sell. Large metropolitan school districts that are almost all dismal failures will gladly turn over their responsibility to the federal government. Obama will claim that taxpayers will pay less for nationalized education since the increase in their federal taxes will be less than what they're now paying in local school taxes. / 125 . Compared to the complexity of redesigning the American health care system. Peace through superior firepower. Anything less is unfair. Many will welcome the end of the politico-educational fiefdoms called school districts. They'll be required to meet the same certification standards as national teachers. Why not centralize all those processes and save time. public equals central. and jump through bureaucratic hoops that'll eventually dissuade many from being their child's teacher as well as their parent. hires its own staff. President Obama will proclaim public education K-12 as too crucial to the future of the nation to be left in the hands of volunteer citizen committees. and manages its own curriculum to its own state's standards. and health care). also known as School Boards and Independent School Districts. effort and money? will be the argument. All of America's youth are entitled to an equal opportunity to receive a world class education. the distribution of school financing is.html) So we come to the point where the financial markets. And. rationalizing the nationalizing of public education K-12 will be a snap. So the argument will go. Candidate Obama's language about reforming public education was more emphatic and detailed than his discussion of health care. Lower taxes . Obama will say. buys its own materials.americanthinker. After all. Equal opportunity demands equal funding.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. autos. the auto industry and eventually the health care industry will function under the aegis of the federal government. Most teachers and administrators will welcome the opportunity to become GS workers and enjoy the benefits of greater and more equitable pay.

with a deeper understanding among the public of what's at stake." Proponents also argue that during the 1990s." agreed Ms. / 126 ." But Mr. I think. but today there's far greater public knowledge and understanding than there was in 1992. Peace through superior firepower. 5 (“Nationwide Standards Eyed Anew." said Michael Cohen. the director of education policy at the Center for American Progress. consider it more deeply in a bipartisan fashion. Ravitch said. Kostrinsky Wave One Plan Popular – AT: Historical Examples Last decade irrelevant – future will be bipartisan Education Weekly.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. a lot of public discussion needs to take place." Ms. 50 states are now involved in the effort to decide what standards are most important and how to measure them.. Astead. a situation that was not the case 15 years ago. says Ms. Thanks to the NCLB law. "I think a lot of conversation. "And. the public was not engaged. Cohen and others argue that the context is different now . Ravitch. far less attention was focused on the question of performance standards--or how good is good enough--because the content standards themselves were still under development.” 12/7. When the debate came up during the 1990s. All states also now participate in NAEP reading and math tests in grades 4 and 8. lexis) "I think the lesson from the last 10 to 15 years. Mehta. "It's just a different context now. therefore. regardless of which party is in office. she says. who as an Education Department official helped lead the Clinton administration's work on voluntary national tests. Brown. the president of the Washington-based Achieve Inc. "is that it's difficult to separate any of the substantive issues around national standards and testing from the politics of education at the federal level. politicians can take a second look at this and.

Congress has changed direction only twice in the past 50 years. The first was when it passed the Elementary and Secondary Education Act in 1965. said Kati Haycock. the president of the Center on Education Policy.org/research/education/bg1775. "The tendency of policy is toward inertia.stanford. "Darling-Hammond report calls for moving away from K-12 tests and sanctions" http://ed. Mehta. but it is unlikely to rewrite the law or add major new provisions.. But truth--always a rare commodity--is growing rarer still as the nation approaches November. during the administration of President Lyndon B. according to Washington observers. Congress may be ready to amend the accountability rules and add efforts to improve states’ curricula. Congress put more teeth into the law by requiring states to hold schools accountable for meeting goals for student performance in reading and mathematics. and discussion about this complex and bipartisan law is deteriorating into a partisan mud fight.cfm) Will Rogers once said." said Jack Jennings. In K-12 education. Kostrinsky Wave One Plan Unpopular Reforms are unpopular – Congress prefers inertia on NCLB Hoff. The next time was when Congress required states to adopt standards for student performance in the 1994 version of the ESEA. Astead.Education Week (David J. 8 . Jennings.edu/suse/news-bureau/displayRecord.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. In passing the latest version of the ESEA. The ESEA created the Title I program for disadvantaged students—the largest federal K-12 program. the director of the Education Trust. / 127 . a Washington group that has tracked implementation of the NCLB law.heritage. But Congress and the new president—Democrat or Republican— would be unlikely to be interested in making the dramatic changes recommended in the forum's report. Johnson. for example. according to Mr. One staunch supporter of the NCLB law said major changes are unlikely. to maintain the same policy or add on to it incrementally. Jennings' organization has convened a group of researchers to evaluate federal efforts to improve schools and recommend whether the federal law should be just tinkered with or totally overhauled. a Washington nonprofit that lobbies for improving the educational opportunities of disadvantaged children NCLB debates create partisan fights Kafer. who worked as an aide to House Democrats on education issues from 1967 through 1994. the No Child Left Behind law—championed by President Bush—in 2001. "If you ever injected truth into politics. Mr. Mr." This is especially true when it comes to education and the federal law known as the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). http://www.php?tablename=susenews&id=436) Federal policymakers almost certainly will be ready to do a thorough review of the NCLB law and other K-12 legislation. you would have no politics. 4 – Senior Education Policy Analyst @ Heritage (Krista. Peace through superior firepower. one experienced policy hand said. “No Child Left Behind: Where Do We Go From Here?” Heritage Foundation Report 7/6/04. Jennings said.

Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff

Markoff, Mehta, Astead, Kostrinsky Wave One

Plan Unpopular – Political Capital
Drains political capital – election proves Lemann, 8 (Nicholas, “What No Child Left Behind Left Behind,” Writer @ The Washington Monthly,
http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/features/2008/0808.lemann.html) Both presidential candidates have left themselves some room to maneuver on No Child Left Behind, partly just by not talking about it very much. John McCain could conceivably have come all out for vouchers, and abandoned No Child Left Behind as an unwarranted exercise of federal power. He didn’t. Barack Obama could have called for eliminating No Child Left Behind, as Hillary Clinton did (although she voted for it in 2001), for liberal reasons: too much testing and teaching to the test; too little funding and teacher autonomy. He didn’t. It’s safe to assume that no matter who wins the election, No Child Left Behind will not be going away. But to fix it—really fix it—will require dramatic changes and considerable investment of political capital. Neither candidate has indicated that he has that in mind. There isn’t any good way to ensure that students have basic skills, which they desperately need in order not to be left behind in the twenty-first-century economy, without testing. But to start with tests is to go at the problem backward. What schools need is, first, a national standard of what proficiency in reading and math means; second, a curriculum that gets students to that level; and finally, tests tailored specifically to that curriculum. That way teaching the class and "teaching to the test" are the same thing. And the schools with students farthest from proficiency are going to need a lot of extra resources to get them there.

Obama has tons of pol cap, but the plan drains it Stickings, 9 – Assistant Editor, The Moderate Voice
(Michael, “Don't Ask, Don't Tell, Here We Are Back in Culture War Hell,” The Moderate Voice, 1/16/09, lexis) First, how is it œstartling. The œpronouncement was blunt, to be sure, but, as Fox admits, Obama has long been opposed to the policy. Second, its not like the policy is extremely popular, whereas Obama is. He’ll need to spend much of his political capital on the stimulus package, of course, and then on health care, energy, and education reform, among other initiatives, but the good thing is, he has a lot of capital to spend. There would certainly be opposition both from within the military and from without, and it could become a minor distraction, but Obama would no doubt be able to handle it while making a strong case for doing away with the policy. Third, it is the right that wants to, and intends to, reopen the culture wars, as Palin and others tried to do during the presidential campaign, and it will go there regardless. Yes, this would give them an opening, but standing up for the rights of gays and lesbians to serve their country against bigots who want them to keep quiet about who they are or, better, to get the hell out of the military altogether is a fight Obama and the opponents of the policy should be willing to have. (more¦) Newstex ID: MODV-0001-31100840

Peace through superior firepower.



Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff

Markoff, Mehta, Astead, Kostrinsky Wave One

Plan Unpopular – AT: Link Turns
Plan can’t be popular – no constituency for reform Saba, 8 - president of the American Board for Certification of Teacher Excellence
(Dave, “Student Success Strategy,” American Board for Certification of Teacher Excellence blog, December 3 rd, http://www.abcte.org/blog/2008/12/student-success-strategy) It has been incredibly difficult to gain momentum for the systemic change necessary for success in all of America’s schools. True change requires a comprehensive strategy that focuses on the many variables that affect student performance. While many individual programs are working toward this goal, those organizations working alone will not produce the education our students deserve and require in order to be competitive in the world market. The politics of education overshadows the merits of education change in America. The two camps have become so entrenched that many politicians determine which side they need to be on by who supports or fights against any given program. While conservatives usually focus on working toward education reform, that reform is perceived as principally revolving around school choice. As Andy Rotherham opined in a recent blog, conservatives are seen as “reflexively hostile to public schools.” On the other side, there are powerful groups that want to maintain the status quo. They have been very effective in positioning themselves as the student advocate through a comprehensive strategy to push for smaller class sizes, universal pre-k, more spending on education in general, higher salaries for teachers and reduced testing for students. These have the appearance of advocating for students when they really benefit the adults. A state group will work at the state level toward these goals, often with the advice and additional resources of a national group. Meanwhile, education reform groups operate in a single silo with national leadership and maybe a state group that is advocating for a single item in the reform agenda. Each state represents a win or lose scenario for each group. But each silo really only impacts a small number of students so it is too easy to marginalize that group when compared to the entire system. Reaching a small number of students has not, and will not, induce systemic change to provide better opportunities for all students. The position from the defenders of the status quo is that each education reform does not address the larger need of all students so we should continue to stay with the current and implement their strategy.

Peace through superior firepower.



Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff

Markoff, Mehta, Astead, Kostrinsky Wave One

2AC Layne Thumper [1/5]
1. Education is a social-service – job-training Baillie, 72 [Susan PhD, MS in Education from Indiana University and PhD in Social Services from Syracuse
University, Adjunct Associate Professor, and Director of Graduate Medical Education at the David Geffen School of Medicine, “The Potential Role of the School as a Site for Integrating Social Services. A Report.”, Educational Policy Research Center and Office of Education (DHEW), Washington DC, EBSCO]//VIJAY Finally, it would appear that education could play a vital and central role in an integrated social service program. First, there are educational facilities in virtually every community: they are reasonably accessible. Second, these facilities are primarily utilized during the daytime hours of nine—to—three. And most of these school buildings currently are used only sparingly during other hours. Third, educational services are an integral element of social services. That is, they address a very important felt need of a large number of individuals. Aside from the core educational program of kindergarten through twelfth grade, there are a number of other educational needs which are intimately related to other social services: day care——early childhood education centers, vocational education, prenatal and nutritional education, job training and re—training, and so forth. The integration of social services with education offers an obvious potential for improving the quality and nature of the services which are provided. At the same time, it also appears to present some possibilities for reducing costs. The problem with all of this, of course, is that the claims made on behalf of social service integration are largely a priori in nature. That is, they make a considerable amount of rational sense, but leave unanswered the question: Will it work? The notions in our heads of how things “ought to” work so often collide with what actually happens.

2. Counter-interpretation – social services include education in vocational training USDVA, 7 [“Social Services, Except Child Care,” March 23 http://www.vetsuccess.gov/resources/industries/profile?id=47]
Careers in social services appeal to persons with a strong desire to make lives better and easier for others . Workers in this industry usually are good communicators and enjoy interacting with people. Social services workers assist the homeless, housebound, and infirm to cope with circumstances of daily living; counsel troubled and emotionally disturbed individuals; train or retrain the unemployed or underemployed; care for the elderly, and physically and mentally disabled; help the needy obtain financial assistance; and solicit contributions for various social services organizations. About 102,000 establishments in the private sector provided social services in 1998. Thousands of other establishments, mainly in State and local government, provided many additional social services. For information about government social services, see the Career Guide statements on Federal Government, and State and local government, excluding education and hospitals. Social services contain four segments—individual and family services, residential care, job training and vocational rehabilitation services, and miscellaneous social services. (The child-care services industry, including day care and preschool care centers, is covered in a separate Career Guide statement.) Individual and family social services establishments provide counseling and welfare services including refugee, disaster, and temporary relief services. Government offices distribute welfare aid, rent supplements, and food stamps. Some agencies provide adult day care, home-delivered meals, and home health and personal care services. Other services concentrate on children, such as big brother and sister organizations, youth centers, and adoption services. Workers in crisis centers may focus on individual, marriage, child, or family counseling.

Residential care facilities provide around-the-clock social and personal care to children, the elderly, and others who have limited ability to care for themselves. Workers care for residents of alcohol and drug rehabilitation centers, group homes, and
halfway houses. Nursing and medical care, however, is not the main focus of establishments providing residential care, as it is in nursing or personal care facilities (see the statement on health services, elsewhere in the Career Guide).

Job training and related services establishments train the unemployed, underemployed, disabled, and others with job market disadvantages. Vocational specialists and counselors work with clients to overcome deficient education, job skills, or experience. Often industrial psychologists or career counselors will assess the job skills of a client and, working with both the employer and the client, decide whether the client would be better served by taking additional job training, by being placed in a different job with his or her current skills, or by restructuring the job to accommodate any skill deficiency. Miscellaneous social services include many different kinds of establishments, such as advocacy
groups, antipoverty boards, community development groups, and health and welfare councils. Many miscellaneous social services organizations are concerned with community improvement and social change. They may solicit contributions, administer appropriations, and allocate funds among other agencies engaged in social welfare services.

Peace through superior firepower.



there is no evidence that school improvement strategies by themselves can close these gaps in a substantial. has documented a powerful association between social and economic disadvantage and low student achievement. the new approach incorporates policies and practices whose effectiveness is reinforced by the preponderance of evidence presently available from serious research. after-school and summer programs. continues to be a vitally important strategy for promoting upward mobility and for working toward equal opportunity and overall educational excellence. Improving our schools. Despite the impressive academic gains registered by some schools serving disadvantaged students. cultural.//LAURA June 25 “A Broader. including physical health. First. professor of practice at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. on underachieving disadvantaged children. poverty. While recognizing that the relations between cause and effect in education are often ambiguous. the approach is informed by a large and powerful body of literature from researchers over the years who have examined the powerful impact on student achievement of numerous contextual and environmental factors such as early learning. Second. however. testing. Astead. consistent. and that an academic program revolving around standards. alone or in combination. bolder approach for education—one that is powerful enough to produce a large reduction in the current association between social and economic disadvantage and low student achievement. Helen F. and sustainable manner. NCLB also requires a rate of achievement growth that exceeds the results of even the most effective school improvement measures. Bureacracy Disad A. and the cognitive. policy makers to rethink their assumptions and adopt a broader. Bolder Approach for Education Given the limitations of conventional policy. ex. Ladd (Duke University.boldapproach. is a professor in the Steinhardt School of Culture. Mehta. both here and abroad. Schools can—and have—ameliorated some of the impact of social and economic disadvantage on achievement. bolder approach we support is also informed by research. It seeks to build working relationships between schools and surrounding community institutions. and on persistently underachieving schools. The effectiveness of NCLB has also been weakened by its unintended side effects. No Child Left Behind and the public discussion it has supported have cast a bright light on the achievement gap.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. and accountability can. D from Harvard. The broader. The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Framework Cannot by Itself Meet the Challenge Through its disaggregated reporting requirements. bolder approach pays attention not only to basic academic skills and cognitive growth narrowly defined. conventional education policy making focuses on learning that occurs in formal school settings during the years from kindergarten through high school. Ph. and Human Development at New York University)). Evidence demonstrates. It assigns value to the new knowledge and skills that young people need to become effective participants in a global environment. such as a narrowing of the curriculum. Peace through superior firepower. Education. 9 ( Tom. and by the incentives that NCLB generates for schools to focus instruction on students who are just below the passing point. The potential effectiveness of NCLB has been seriously undermined. prof of econ and public policy). therefore. but to development of the whole person. and the ability to respect and work with persons from different backgrounds. and non-academic skills. by its acceptance of the popular assumptions that bad schools are the major reason for low achievement. however. health. A Broader. but it also recognizes the importance of high-quality early childhood and pre-school programs. bolder approach breaks with the past by embracing an expanded concept of education in two respects. The persistent failure of policy makers to act on that evidence—in tandem with a school-improvement agenda—is a major reason why the association between social and economic disadvantage and low student achievement remains so strong. teacher training. offset the full impact of low socioeconomic status on achievement. parenting.html The Challenge More than a half century of research. Nevertheless. including citizenship.assistant secretary for Elementary and Secondary Education with the United States Department of Education. Education policy in this nation has typically been crafted around the expectation that schools alone can offset the full impact of low socioeconomic status on learning. that achievement gaps based on socioeconomic status are present before children even begin formal schooling. The new approach recognizes the centrality of formal schooling. social development. This broader. Pedro Noguera (PhD.S. and programs that develop parents’ capacity to support their children’s education. Kostrinsky Wave One 2AC Layne Thumper [2/5] 3. either here or abroad. we believe that the time has come for U. character. / 131 . there is solid evidence that policies aimed directly at education-related social and economic disadvantages can improve school performance and student achievement. and character development that occurs outside schools. including NCLB. creativity.org/statement. the broader. in and of itself. Weakening that association is the fundamental challenge facing America’s education policy makers. from birth through the end of formal schooling. No Child Left Behind is victim to bureaucratic constraints Payzant et al. Bolder Approach To Education” http://www. In particular. at the expense of both lower-performing and higher-performing students.

In such analyses attention will be focused less on the problems of individuals or clients. surely. Nonetheless he still supervises a large number of postgraduate students and was until recently the Research Director for the Social Sciences Division in the University. social administration has continued to concentrate its attention on government action through the five social services: health. is a relatively young and developing subject and it is not surprising. have also failed to provide the necessary framework within which to study social development. Astead. despite the pioneering work of Titmuss in outlining the three divisions of welfare and Townsend in formulating the basis of a sociological approach to social policy.5 million ESRC Growing Older Programme. Senior Lecturer and Reader in Social Policy. Social Administration and the Social Construction of Welfare”. This is not only confusing for students and others but more importantly this division may be exploited by those whose interests would be harmed by alternative analyses of social policy. Existing conceptions of social policy do not provide an adequate framework for the study of the social production and exploitation of inequality. Crushes policy debate Walker. than on the behavior of organizations. and have succeeded in sowing the seeds of alternative and more sociological approaches. these critiques have usually remained implicit. 1999-2004. education. by and large. for the most part.3 However. as a result. / 132 . Furthermore. and the need for a reassessment of the scope of social policy teaching and research has not been openly and consistently recognized. However. Unless social policy teaching and research adapts its tools and methods to take account of these social factors it is likely to become increasingly detached from the real world of social welfare. professions and classes in order to balance descriptions of the institutional framework through which the welfare state is administered with analysis of the social production and maintenance of inequality. housing and personal social services. and the UK National Collaboration on Ageing Research. partly reflects the fact that economists and sociologists. there are signs hat important social developments which affect welfare fundamentally. It is argued that the essential aspect of social policies are their distributional implications or outcomes. such as health insurance and employers fringe benefits. EPSRC. like their famous predecessors. For example. 81 (Dr Alan Walker joined the Department in 1977 and has been a Lecturer. of course. as the amalgam of disciplines within which social policy is studied is anachronistically called. social administration has not yet succeeded in providing a systematic framework for the analysis of the perpetuation and growth inequalities in ‘welfare state’ societies. Whether or not the welfare state is in or on the brink of a crisis. the impact of inflation and income policies on stratification are rarely considered by social administrators. social security. both as an activity or practice and as an academic subject. MRC and AHRC New Dynamics of Ageing Programme and is also Director of the European Research Area in Ageing and is spending most of his time on research. “Social Policy. 2001-2004. Social administration. nor to attempt to define precisely the boundaries of social policy. choosing instead. arc not receiving critical attention from social administrators because they fall outside of the compass of the subject as it has developed since the Second World War. Kostrinsky Wave One 2AC Layne Thumper [3/5] B. including the state. has increased in recent years. ’ This. He was appointed Professor of Social Policy in 1985 and was Head of Department from 1988 to 1996. at best describing them and at worst ignoring them. There are signs that. He directed the £3. firmly established. with a split emerging between what some social policy analysts do and what is traditionally defined as being the concern of social administration. therefore.2 The evolution of this realization has been accompanied by periodic expressions of dissatisfaction about the limitations of the definition of ‘social policy’. Alternative definitions of social policy are needed to ensure that the analysis of welfare is more comprehensive than that carried out so far within the framework of social administration. BBSRC. by a wide range of social institutions and groups. the boundaries of the subject are becoming increasingly blurred. ebsco) Abstract Teaching and research in social administration have been dominated by the study of the public social services. As a result. The tendency to equate social policy with the institutionalized welfare state has reinforced the insular tendencies in British social administration. Recent analyses of the political economy of welfare have. overemphasized the importance of government in the distribution of resources and fostered a false image of the benevolent state as the embodiment of welfare principles. It is not intended to lay claim to large sections of disciplines such as economics and politics. they are too often seen as being the province of economists alone. and far from being incorporated into a theory of social policy. traditional conceptions oldie subject have proved to be remarkably resilient. exposed some short-comings in the current conceptions of social policy.4 Whilst the coverage of welfare provisions in the private sector. These aims would Peace through superior firepower. Mehta. social administration. the fact that thirty years of institutionalized social service provision has not produced a major change in the unequal structure of British society is now. if its scope is questioned from time to time. He is currently Director of the £20 million ESRC. to remain passive. The task of social policy analysis is to evaluate the distributional impact of existing policies and proposals and the rationales underlying them. Social policies may be made implicitly or explicitly.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. Some of the limitations of this approach have been exposed by the perpetuation and growth of inequality in welfare state societies.

Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. or the social differentiation of welfare . If social administration is to encompass adequately the analysis of welfare or dis-welfare.8 However. Although a definition of social policy is proposed. therefore. is by definition. Astead. social administrators are in danger of ignoring the distributional outcomes of decisions made by other powerful social institutions and groups. this is not posited as a final answer. Peace through superior firepower. One important reason for this is the successful social construction of ‘welfare’ as ‘the welfare state’ or government intervention in welfare. But while they continue to concentrate on government and its legislation. which Slack has dismissed as neither profitable nor interesting. as an absence of clear agreement amongst analysts on the meaning of concepts that arc generally held to be central to the subject. The fact that social administration is a field rather than a discipline’ should not be allowed to inhibit attempts at the clearer definition of the scope and meaning of social policy. This process of re-examination assumes. but as a tentative suggestion. Mehta. that it is possible and desirable to arrive at a single definition of social policy or social administration.’ Neither is it my intention to attempt to re-open the discussion on the shopping-list of ‘social’ as opposed to other policies. / 133 . As Donnison has argued: ‘The distinctive feature of our subject is neither its body of knowledge (for most of this could be incorporated into other disciplines) nor its theoretical structure (for it has very little). which it is hoped might play some part in an ongoing and fruitful discussion. Despite some well-known exceptions. the study of social administration has focused its attention almost exclusively on the public welfare activities of government. this paper attempts to tackle some of the issues surrounding the continuing difficulty of studying social welfare within the framework of existing definitions of social policy as social administration. is translated into a reluctance to investigate some integral pans of the institutionalized policy process. no text omitted] be presumptuous and. then some discussion of the nature of the subject is clearly called for. as the result of the distributional outcomes of various institutionalized social policies. including other sectors of the state as well as financial and business concerns. Titmuss referred to this as the ‘unsoluble problem’. if this will facilitate the study of welfare as a whole. Social administration has.7 Rather. This need is further emphasized by the implications for the study of social policy of the failure of the welfare state significantly to affect either the prevailing distribution of resources and power in society. Existing consensus appears to be confined to the study of certain parts of the policy system. and we arc not interested in methodology for its own sake. When this lack of agreement. it must at some stage re-examine its definition and scope. inter-disciplinary. reinforced this stereotype through research and teaching. of course. I think. the problem is not so much a lack of alternative and untainted terms. Kostrinsky Wave One 2AC Layne Thumper [4/5] [Walker Continues. in turn. fruitless tasks for a subject that.

5. A Report. Adjunct Associate Professor. / 134 . Second.pdf] For this purpose. mental health. Astead. Kostrinsky Wave One 2AC Layne Thumper [5/5] 4. mental. adoption services. Integrated social services – education is key to comprehensive social services – critical to effectiveness of all social services Baillie. revitalizing low-income communities. services for children and adults in foster care. older individuals. The term “integrated social services” (with or without education) has acquired particular meanings and connotations. For many it also suggests making social services more accessible to potential clients. Educational Policy Research Center and Office of Education (DHEW).senate. welfare. It should be made clear at the outset. it might be a way for providing social services at a lower cost. referral. (7) literacy and mentoring programs. (5) the preparation and delivery of meals. of the individual. “The Potential Role of the School as a Site for Integrating Social Services. No limits explosion – we’re the only educational policy that’s topical – even exclusive defs include job training S. and (9) services related to the provision of assistance for housing under Federal law. http://finance. In either case. reducing poverty.gov/sitepages/leg/091506leg1. Peace through superior firepower.” broadly defined. and individuals with disabilities (including physical. For instance. With this organization of social services no attention is ‘paid to the unique set of needs. It is based on the undeniable fact that different people have differing requirements for social services. (2) transportation services. 5 [A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to repeal the excise tax on telephone and other communications. (6) health support services. it is intimately related——though it need not be——to various notions of community involvement. Washington DC. services for the prevention of crime and the provision of assistance to the victims and the families of criminal offenders. The current practice is to have an independent set of services. including: (1) child care services. and prevention of.1321. day care services for adults. however. “integrated social services” is often a code— word for a fairly well articulated approach to the provision or delivery of social services. and services related to soup kitchens or food banks. Nor is there any assurance that he will be made aware of or receive all the services to which he is legally entitled. Job-training – they limit all affs that train people for jobs they don’t already have – means the unemployed couldn’t get jobs because they didn’t have one before – bad for the topic because it eliminates most poverty job-training affs B. (3) job training and related services. social services is defined as services directed at helping people in need. 72 [Susan PhD. and services to meet the special needs of children. that we are also dealing with something other than the “logical—semantic” sorts of considerations just described. (4) information. and so forth. Mehta. Finally. (8) services for the prevention and treatment of juvenile delinquency and substance abuse.”. and empowering low-income families and lowincome individuals to become self-sufficient. job training. it might lead to some manner of improved social services. with each addressing a particular aspect of an individual’s needs——physical health. First. and employment services. participation. EBSCO] There wou1d appear to be two rationales for examining the feasibility of integrating social services with schools. improving outcomes of low-income children. or emotional disabilities). and counseling services. protective services for children and adults. domestic violence. Limits Disad A. and services related to the intervention in. or control. MS in Education from Indiana University and PhD in Social Services from Syracuse University. recreation. services related to the management and maintenance of the home.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. and Director of Graduate Medical Education at the David Geffen School of Medicine. we are talking about increased “efficiency” or “effectiveness.

edu/nssg/PhaseIIIFR. 1 (A bipartisan commission set up to evaluate the current national security climate and propose changes needed to meet new threats has issued a report that calls for major changes in governmental structures and processes. Kostrinsky Wave One Neg Bonus – Nuclear War Outweighs Education Nuclear war outweighs education The United States Commission on National Security.Northwestern Education/Jobs Aff Markoff. technology.unt. we can think of nothing more dangerous than a failure to manage properly science. Mehta. Second only to a weapon of mass destruction detonating in an American city. and education for the common good over the next quarter century. “Road Map for National Security: Imperative for Change. and what this implies for the quality of human capital in the 21st century.library. pose critical national security challenges for the United States. Peace through superior firepower. / 135 .pdf) The scale and nature of the ongoing revolution in science and technology. Astead.” http://govinfo.

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