Last Update: Wednesday 31 July, 2002

1. Some Basic Phrases Guten Morgen goot-en mor-gen Good Morning Guten Abend goot-en ah-bent Good Evening Auf Wiedersehen owf vee-dair-zayn Goodbye Danke dahn-kuh Thank you Ja/Nein yah/nine Yes/No Wie geht es Ihnen? vee gayt es ee-nen How are you? (formal) Ich bin müde. ikh bin moo-duh I'm tired. Ich habe Hunger. ikh hah-buh hoong-er I'm hungry. Gut/Es geht/So lala goot/ess gate/zo lahlah Good/OK Wie heißen Sie? Guten Tag goot-en tahk Hello/Good Day Gute Nacht goot-eh nakht Good Night Bitte bih-tuh Please Bitte schön bih-tuh shurn You're welcome Herr/Frau/Fräulein hair/frow/froi-line Mister/Misses/Miss Wie geht's? vee gayts How are you? (informal) Ich bin krank. ikh bin krahnk I'm sick. Ich habe Durst. ikh hah-buh dirst I'm thirsty. Schlecht/Nicht Gut shlekht/nisht goot Bad/Not Good Wie heißt du?

vee hie-ssen zee What's your name? (formal) Ich heiße... ikh hie-ssuh I am called... Woher kommen Sie? vo-hair koh-men zee Where are you from? (formal) Wo wohnen Sie? vo voh-nen zee Where do you live? (formal) Ich komme aus den Vereinigten Staaten. ikh koh-muh ows dane fair-ine-ik-ten shtat-en I am from the United States. Wie alt sind Sie? vee alt zint zee How old are you? (formal) Ich bin ____ Jahre alt. ikh bin ____ yaa-reh alt I am ____ years old. Sprechen Sie Deutsch? shpreck-en zee doytch Do you speak German? (formal)

vee hiesst doo What's your name? (informal) Mein Name ist... mine nah-muh isst My name is... Woher kommst du? vo-hair kohmst doo Where are you from? (informal) Wo wohnst du? vo vohnst doo Where do you live? (informal) Ich wohne in... ikh voh-nuh in I live in... Wie alt bist du? vee alt bisst doo How old are you? (informal)

Sprichst du Englisch? shprikhst doo eng-lish Do you speak English? (informal)

Französisch, Italienisch, Spanisch, Russisch, Japanisch frahn-tsur-zish, ee-tahl-yay-nish, spahn-ish, roos-ish, yah-pahn-ish French, Italian, Spanish, Russian, Japanese Ich spreche... ikh shpreck-uh I speak... Ich verstehe [nicht]. ikh fehr-stay-eh [nisht] I [don't] understand. Entschuldigen Sie ehnt-shool-dih-gun zee Ich spreche kein... ikh shpreck-uh kine I don't speak any... Ich weiß [nicht]. ikh vise [nisht] I [don't] know. Es tut mir leid. ehs toot meer lite

Excuse me Bis später/bald biss shpay-ter/bahlt See you later/soon Ich liebe dich. ikh leeb-uh dish I love you.

I'm sorry Tag/Tschüs/Tschau tahk/tchews/chow Hi/Bye Ich liebe Sie. ikh leeb-uh zee I love you (all).

Note: Ich is not actually pronounced ikh. There is no equivalent sound in English. It is somewhere between ish and ikh and somewhat like a soft hiss of cat. 2. Pronunciation German letter A E I O Ö U B D G Ch Au Ei eu, äu Ie J Qu S ß Sp St Sch Th V English sound Ah Eh ee or ih Oh Er Oo b, but p at end of syllable d, but t at end of syllable g, but k at end of syllable guttural, almost like sh ow (as in "cow") Eye Oy Ee Y Kv z or ss at end of word Ss shp (at beginning of word) sht sh t f

either masculine. -o and -on. Nouns referring to things that end in -al. restaurants. -enz. -ett. we would say direct object instead of accusative. -or and -us. These may seem strange.and most nouns ending in -nis and -sal are also neuter. -ling. -ma. as are nouns ending in -ant. -keit. -tum. -ment. -heit. or indirect object instead of dative. -ei. -il. -ismus. -anz. Male persons or animals. Alphabet a b c d e f g h i ah bay day ay eff gay hah ee j k v ts yoht s kah el en oh pay koo ehr t u v x y z ess tay oo fow eeks irp-se-lon tset tsay l n o p q r m em w vay Note: ß isn't said when reciting the alphabet. chemical elements. -sis. feminine or neuter. -ast. as are nouns that end in -chen. metals. -ät. -iv. -tät. German rivers and numerals are all feminine. -an. Some people will write it ss instead of ß. and days are all masculine. Nouns and Cases All nouns have a gender in German. There really isn't a lot of logic to which nouns are which gender. countries and provinces are all neuter. Although these cases may make learning new words difficult. as well as most words with the prefix ge. -ung and -ur. Female persons or animals. -it. -ie. hotels. All nouns in German are capitalized as well. Young persons or animals. continents. -tel. as are nouns ending in -a. -ig. -ik. and -um. -lein. cinemas. -tion. -ier. -ent. It's actually a double s. -ich. the seasons.W Z 3. but remember that English uses cases also. -sion. so you must memorize the gender of each noun. -in. they actually help with word order because the . -schaft. letters of the alphabet. however. All nouns (as well as pronouns and adjectives) have a case depending on what function they serve in the sentence. 4. -icht. months. -ar.

These. will be in the nominative case.position of words in a sentence is not as crucial in German as it is in English. The book of the girl. Nom. Masc. Fem. dieses dieser dieses dieser des der des der Note: Jener is an older word found in written German that was used to mean that or those. dieser diese dieses diese der die das die Acc. Fem. An) Masculine Feminine Neuter Nom. Other der-words . That. Notice the last letter of each of the words above. einem (ine-em) einer(ine-er) einem Gen. Pl. Dort or da may accompany the definite articles for emphasis. Neu. einen (ine-en) eine ein Dat. And the reason for that is because words can occur in these four cases: Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive subject of the sentence direct objects indirect objects indicates possession or relationship The girl is reading. and the ones you look up in a dictionary. They correspond to the last letters of the words for the definite articles. diesen diese dieses diese den die das die Dat. Note: The nouns I give you. Neu. We give it to the guide. Words that are formed this same way are called der-words because they follow the pattern of the der-die-das declension. Pl. 5. but today in spoken German the definite articles are used. diesem dieser diesem diesen dem der dem den Gen. Das is also a universal demonstrative and therefore shows no agreement. ein (ine) eine (ine-uh) ein Acc. Those) This / These That / Those Masc. We see the guide. Articles and Demonstratives Definite Articles (The) Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Nominative der (dare) die (dee) das (dahs) die Accusative den (dane) die das die Dative dem (dame) der dem den Genitive des (dess) der des der Indefinite Articles (A. eines (ine-es) einer eines Demonstratives (This.

sie for feminine nouns and es for neuter nouns. and welcher-which. Sie veer we eer you (all) zee they. du. When referring to nouns as it. Mancher (many) and solcher (such) are also der-words. she. die and das can be subsituted for er. sie. to Have. but they are used almost always in the plural. 7. the definite articles der. sie and es to show more emphasis.to become (hah-ben) (vair-den) habe hah-buh haben hah-ben werde vair-duh werden vair-den hast hahst habt hahbt wirst veerst werdet vair-det hat haht haben hah-ben wird veert werden vair-den Past (Imperfect) Tense sein haben werden vahhahhahvoorvoorwar var waren hatte hatten wurde wurden ren tuh ten duh den hahhahvoorvoorwarst varst wart vart hattest hattet wurdest wurdet test tet dest det vahhahhahvoorvoorwar var waren hatte hatten wurde wurden ren tuh ten duh den .to be (zine) I am Ich bin ikh bin we are wir sind veer zint You are (fam. they or the people in general.are: jeder-every. zee. one wir ihr sie. Subject (Nominative) Pronouns Subject Pronouns ich du er. and to Become Present tense of sein . Present tense of haben .). es. it. However.. you use er for masculine nouns. To Be. 6. er. we. ess.) du bist doo bihst you are ihr seid eer zide He/she/it is er/sie/es ist air/zee/ess isst they (you) are sie sind zee zint Note: You must use the subject pronouns (ich. mahn I you (familiar) he. I will leave them out of future conjugations. man ikh doo air.to have Present tense of werden .. however. you (formal) Note: Man can be translated as one.

Ich habe Hunger.) Wen Whom (dat. = I am bored. Ich habe Durst. Ich habe Langeweile. 9.) Wem How Come vain vaim Warum vah-room Wieso vee-zo . = I am afraid. 8. many viel(e) nohkh shone nikht vah nicht wahr often oft ohft r schade shah-duh of course klar klahr gern gehrn perhaps vielleicht fee-likht zoh-fort zikh-erlikh zohndehrn shleesslikh a little a little not at all not a bit ein bisschen ein wenig gar nicht kein bisschen immediately sofort sure(ly) rather sicher(lich) sondern schließlich ine bisskhen ine vaynikh gar nikh t kine bisskhen feel(uh finally ) Es gibt is commonly used to mean there is/are. Ich habe Angst. = I am hungry.Haben is frequently used in expressions that would normally take to be in English. = I am homesick. = I am thirsty. Useful Words and but very or here also both und aber sehr oder hier auch beide oont really wirklich veerk-lish right! tsoo-zahzusammen anyway men alle jetzt also noch schon ahl-luh yetst al-zoh shtimt oo-berüberhaupt howpt guhenough genug nook exactly genau guh-now mahnchsometimes manchmal mal always immer im-er never nie nee stimmt ah-ber together zair all oh-der now Here so another already isn't it? too bad gladly owkh by-duh ehtsome etwas vahss only nur noor again wieder vee-der hohhopefully hoffentlich fentlikh zvishbetween zwischen en destherefore deshalb halp a lot. Question Words Who What Why Wer Was vehr vahs Whom (acc. Ich habe Heimweh.

000 Wie vahn voh vee Where from Woher vo-hair Where to Which Wohin vo-hin Welch.When Wann Where Wo How 10. Numbers 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1.velsh Null Eins Zwei Drei Vier Fünf Sechs Sieben Acht Neun Zehn Elf Zwölf Dreizehn Vierzehn Fünfzehn Sechzehn Siebzehn Achtzehn Neunzehn Zwanzig Einundzwanzig Zweiundzwanzig Dreißig Vierzig Fünfzig Sechzig Siebzig Achtzig Neunzig Einhundert Eintausend nool ines tsvy dry feer fewnf zecks zee-bun ahkht noyn tsayn elf tsvurlf dry-tsayn feer-tsayn fewnf-tsayn zeck-tsayn zeep-tsayn ahkh-tsayn noyn-tsayn tsvahn-tsikh ine-oont-tsvahn-tsikh tsvy-oont-tsvahn-tsikh dry-sikh feer-tsikh fewnf-tsikh zekh-tsikh zeep-tsikh ahkh-tsikh noyn-tsikh ine-hoon-duhrt ine-tow-zuhnt .

previous. Add an -s to the day to express "on Mondays. nächsten .next. vorigen .Note: Sometimes Zwo (tsvoh) is used instead of Zwei to avoid confusion with Drei. Days of the Week Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday (N & E Germany) Sunday Day Morning afternoon Evening Night Today tomorrow Tonight yesterday last night Week Weekend Daily Weekly Montag Dienstag Mittwoch Donnerstag Freitag Samstag Sonnabend Sonntag der Tag (e) der Morgen der Nachmittag (e) der Abend (e) die Nacht (e) heute morgen heute Abend gestern gestern abend die Woche (n) das Wochenende (n) täglich wöchenlich mohn-tahk deens-tahk mit-vock don-ers-tahk fry-tahk zahms-tahk zon-nah-bent zon-tahk dehr tahk mawr-gun nakh-mih-tahk ah-bunt nahkt hoy-tuh mawr-gun hoy-tuh ah-bunt geh-stairn geh-stairn ah-bunt voh-kuh voh-ken-en-duh teh-glikh wer-khen-likh Note: To say on a certain day or the weekend. 11." All days. letzten . etc.every.last (as in the last of a series)." 12. months and seasons are masculine so they all use the same form of these words: jeden . Tuesdays. Months of the Year January (Austria) February Januar Jänner Februar yah-noo-ahr yeh-ner fay-broo-ahr . use am. In der Woche is the expression for "during the week. And the use of commas and periods is switched around in German.

Directions North South East West 15. 13. 14.(Austria) March April May June July August September October November December month year monthly yearly Feber März April Mai Juni Juli August September Oktober November Dezember der Monat (e) das Jahr (e) monatlich jährlich fay-ber mehrts ah-pril my yoo-nee yoo-lee ow-goost zehp-tehm-ber ok-toh-ber no-vehm-ber deh-tsem-ber moh-naht yaar moh-naht-likh jehr-likh Note: To say in a certain month. Colors and Shapes orange orange square pink rosa circle purple violett / lila triangle das Viereck der Kreis das Dreieck der Norden der Süden der Osten der Westen . use im. use im. Seasons Winter Spring Summer Autumn der Winter der Frühling der Sommer der Herbst dehr vin-ter dehr frew-ling dehr zom-mer dehr hehrpst Note: To say in the (any season).

blue yellow red black brown gray white green 16.. Um 8 Uhr.. Time What time is it? (It is) 2 AM 2 PM 6:20 half past 3 quarter past 4 quarter to 5 10 past 11 20 to 7 Noon Midnight in the morning in the evening It's exactly. It's cold Beautiful Hot Clear Icy Warm blau gelb rot schwarz braun grau weiß grün rectangle oval octagon cube sphere cone cylinder das Rechteck das Oval das Achteck der Würfel die Kugel der Kegel der Zylinder Wie spät ist es? Es ist Zwei Uhr nachts Es ist Zwei Uhr nachmittags Es ist Sechs Uhr zwanzig Es ist halb vier Es is Viertel nach vier Es ist Viertel vor fünf Es ist zehn nach elf Es ist zwanzig vor sieben Es ist mittags Es ist mitternachts morgens abends Es ist genau. Early late(r) 17.. At 8. Es ist kalt schön heiß klar eisig warm vee ist dahs vet-ter hoy-tuh es seet nahkh ray-gen ows ess isst kahlt shern hise klahr ise-ikh varm . früh spät(er) vee shpayt isst ess ess ist tsvy oor nahkts tsvy oor nahk-mih-tahks zex oor tsvahn-tsikh hahlp feer feer-tel nahk feer feer-tel for fewnf tsyan nahk elf tsvahn-tsikh for zee-bun mih-tahks mih-ter-nahks mawr-guns aah-bunts ess ist guh-now oom akht oor frew shpayt(er) Wie ist das Wetter heute? Es sieht nach Regen aus. Weather How's the weather today? It looks like rain..

ist schlecht vin-dikh beh-verlkt doons-tikh School foykt neh-beh-likh ess schnite ess rayg-net ess freert dahs vett-er klairt sikh owf isst shlehkt Parents Mother Father Son Daughter Brother Sister Grandfather Grandmother Grandson Granddaughter Niece Nephew Cousin (m) Cousin (f) Uncle Aunt Boy Girl Man Woman Friend (m) Friend (f) die Eltern die Mutter (ü) der Vater (ä) der Sohn (ö.Windy Cloudy Hazy Muggy Humid Foggy It's snowing It's raining It's freezing The weather is clearing is bad 18. . e) die Tochter (ö) der Bruder (ü) die Schwester (n) der Großvater (ä) die Großmutter (ü) der Enkel (-) die Enkelin (nen) die Nichte (n) der Neffe (n) der Vetter (n) die Kusine (n) der Onkel (-) die Tante (n) der Junge (n) das Mädchen (-) der Mann (ä. er) die Frau (en) der Freund (e) die Freundin (nen) Note: The letters in parentheses indicate the plural form of the noun. Family windig bewölkt dunstig schwül Feucht Nebelig Es schneit Es regnet Es friert Das Wetter klärt sich auf.

u or au add an umlaut. Masculine Neuter ein Rock Zwei Röcke ein Heft zwei Hefte ein Mann Zwei Männer ein Buch zwei Bücher 3. Formation of Plural Nouns Plural nouns in German are unpredictable. Masculine and neuter nouns usually add -e or -er. Many masculine plural nouns ending in -e add an umlaut as well. Nouns that end in a vowel other than an unstressed -e and nouns of foreign origin add -s. o. To Know People and Facts kennen . here are some rules that can help: 1. Feminine nouns usually add -n or -en.19. Many nouns with a stem vowel of a. However. Plurals that end in -er add an umlaut when the stem vowel is a. o . eine Lampe zwei Lampen eine Tür zwei Türen eine Studentin zwei Studentinnen 2. Nouns that end in -in (such as the female equivalents of masculine nouns) add -nen.to know facts kenne ken-nuh kennen ken-nun weiß vise wissen vih-sun kennst kenst Kennt kent weißt vighst wisst vihst kennt kent kennen ken-nun weiß vise wissen vih-sun 20. Possessive Adjectives . Masculine and neuter singular nouns that end in -er either add an umlaut or change nothing at all. so it's best to memorize the plural form with the singular. ein Hobby zwei Hobbys ein Hotel zwei Hotels 21. but neuter plural nouns ending in -e don't. u or au.to know people wissen . Masculine Neuter ein Bruder Zwei Brüder ein Fenster zwei Fenster 4.

Ihr-your (Sie form). Kunde. meinem meines Fem. Neffe. you can switch the word order around without affecting the meaning. seinhis/its. the following sentences: Ich esse den Apfel translates into I eat the apple. Nom. Note that only the masculine changes in this case. whereas English relies mainly on word order. for example. Junge. Mein Acc. Here are the accusative forms of the definite and indefinite articles. Soldat. Löwe. ihr-their. Mensch. Personal Pronouns . Fem. you would have to say the apple eats me. Tourist. And wen (whom) is the accusative of wer (who). ihr-her. meine meine meiner meiner Neu. Herr. mein mein meinem meines Pl. Riese. Accusative Case The accusative case corresponds to direct objects. meinen Dat.Nominative & Accusative ich I mich me wir we Uns us du you dich you ihr you euch you er he ihn him sie they sie them sie she sie her Sie you Sie you es It es It German uses the case system to show the function of a word in a sentence. Neuter Plural Definite Den die das Die Indefinite einen eine ein keine Note: Some masculine nouns add an -(e)n to the accusative form. Vorfahre. unser-our. if you were to change word order. Komponist. Den Apfel esse ich is also I eat the apple. . and kein-no/not any. Take. Nachbar. In German. euer-your (ihr form). Zeuge). but in English.Masc. meine meinen meiner Note: Other words that are formed like mein are: dein-your (du form). such as international nouns ending in -t (Dirigent. Journalist). and the following nouns: Elefant. nouns ending in -e denoting male persons or animals (Drache. 22. Polizist. Student. Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc. English does not accomodate for the direct object to be placed before the subject and verb like German does. Patient.

Neuter Plural Definite dem der dem den Indefinite einem einer einem keinen Note: Those same masculine nouns that added an -(e)n in the accusative form also add an -(e)n in the dative form. But German relies on the endings of the dative case. more often in writing than in speech. Except the weak masculine nouns that added -(e)n in the accusative and dative. we use the words to or for to indicate an indirect object. for example der Name becomes des Namens and das Herz becomes des Herzens. Here are the dative forms of the definite and indefinite articles. There are some irregular nouns that add -s after -en in the genitive case as well.23. Femine and Plural nouns do not change in the Genitive case. unless the accusative case is a pronoun. Personal Pronouns mir me uns us dir you euch you ihm him ihnen they ihr her Ihnen you ihm it In sentences that show with both a direct and indirect object. Genitive Case The genitive case is used to show possession. I give (to) my brother a tie. For proper nouns. Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc. And all plural nouns add an -(e)n in the dative plural. Ich schenke meinem Bruder eine Krawatte. Masculine and Neuter nouns add an -s if the word is more than one syllable. or an -es if the word is one syllable. When speaking. most people use von (of) plus the dative case to show possession. Fem. unless they already end in an -n or -s. 24. . I give it to my brother. And wem (to/for whom) is the dative of wer (who). Dative Case The dative case corresponds to indirect objects. Usually in English. Ich schenke sie meinem Bruder. whereas English would add an apostrophe and an -s. they also also add -(e)n in the genitive. German only adds an -s to the noun. the noun in the dative case precedes the accusative noun.

my mother's purse der Bleistift des Studenten . To Do or Make Machen . des Plural der Indefinite eines einer eines keiner 25. Definite des der Neu.to do or make mache mock-uh machen mock-en machst mockst macht mockt macht mockt machen mock-en 26. e) Pilot (en) Polizist (en) Ingenieurin Köchin Pilotin Polizistin Präsidentin Priesterin Sekretärin Flugbegleiter (in) Taxifahrerin hairdresser Friseur custodian cashier waiter nurse postal worker judge writer Hausmeister Kassierer Kellner Krankenpfleger Krankenpflegerin Postangestellte (n) Richter Schriftsteller Postangestellte (n) Richterin Schriftstellerin Verkäuferin president Präsident (en) priest secretary flight attendant taxi driver Priester Sekretär Flugbegleiter Taxifahrer salesperson Verkäufer dentist Zahnarzt (ä.the student's pencil Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc.the size of the house die Tasche meiner Mutter . Work and School male worker Arbeiter architect Architekt (en) female Arbeiterin Architektin male Anwalt (ä. Fem.die Farbe des Vogels . e) Arzt (e) Bankangestellte (n) Dirigent female Anwältin Ärztin Bankangestellte (n) Dirigentin Friseurin Hausmeisterin Kassiererin Kellnerin mechanic Automechaniker Automechanikerin librarian TV reporter engineer cook pilot police officer Bibliothekar Bibliothekarin lawyer doctor bank employee conductor Fernsehreporter Fernsehreporterin Ingenieur Koch (ö.the color of the bird die Grösse des Hauses . e) Zahnärztin .

er) die Schere (n) das Radiergummi (s) das Buch (ü. You would only say Ich bin Kellner if you mean I am a waiter. while all the feminine add -nen in the plural. er) Linguistik Geschichte Naturwissenschaft Psychologie Soziologie Geographie Informatik Wirtschaft Chemie Kunst Musikkapelle die Klasse (n) das Mittagessen die Schulsachen die Heftmaschine (n) das Lineal (e) die Kreide das Heft (e) das Blatt Papier der Taschenrechner (-) die Hausaufgaben der Junge (n) die Freundin (nen) die Schülerin (nen) die Studentin (nen) die Lehrerin (nen) schwer . instead I am a person from Berlin. German does not use articles before professions.Note: Besides the plural forms shown above. er) der Bleistift (e) die Schultasche (n) der Kugelschreiber / der Kuli das Mädchen (-) der Freund (e) der Schüler (-) der Student (en) der Lehrer (-) die Noten High School Subject Linguistics History Natural Science Psychology Sociology Geography Computer science Economics Chemistry Art Band Class Lunch School Supplies Stapler Ruler Chalk Notebook Sheet of Paper Calculator Homework Boy Friend (f) Pupil (f) Student (f) Teacher (f) Hard die Oberschule (n) das Fach (ä. which is Ich bin Berliner. Also. because it translates to I am a jelly donut. the rest of the male professions are the same (they do not add anything) in the plural. School University Foreign languages Literature Social Studies Biology Philosophy Earth science Math Geometry Mechanical Engineering Physics Music Drawing Test Lunchtime Dictionary Scissors Eraser Book Pencil Schoolbag Pen Girl Friend (m) Pupil (m) Student (m) Teacher (m) Grades die Schule (n) die Universität (en) Fremdsprachen Literatur Sozialkunde Biologie Philosophie Erdkunde Mathematik Geometrie Maschinenbau Physik Musik Zeichnen die Prüfung (en) die Mittagspause das Wörterbuch (ü. This is why JFK was made fun of for saying Ich bin ein Berliner.

e) Easy Vacation Assignment leicht die Ferien (pl. among. by means of (transportation) von from (person. below. beneath vor in front of. about unter under. town or place) mit with. into (building.) die Aufgabe (n) Prepositions that take the Accusative case durch through gegen against um around für For ohne without Preps. that take the Genitive case während During trotz in spite of anstatt instead of wegen because of Preps. on (vertical surfaces. before zwischen Between . that may take Acc. Prepositions der Kurs (e) das Semester (-) der Stundenplan (ä. above. next to über over.Course Semester Schedule 27. that take the Dative case aus out (of). or direction). feminine or plural countries) neben beside. denotes border or limiting area) auf onto. to (some public buildings) hinter Behind in in. open space. at home of or place of business nach after. an at. or Dat. to (cities and countries) zu to (mostly people and specifically named buildings) gegenüber across from außer except for. enclosed space. to. for bei near. on (horizontal surfaces). from (country. by seit since. at. besides Preps. across.

Write it on the board. Put it beside the house. Es ist unter dem Tisch. It is under the table. Stellen Sie die Flaschen vor die Tür. Stell es auf den Tisch. The lamp is between the sofa and the table. Dative: location & position Das Bild hängt über dem Sofa. Stell es unter den Tisch. legen and setzen use the accusative case. But one exception is zu Hause .For the two-way prepositions: the dative form indicates position and location and answers the question where? The accusative form indicates direction and movement and answers the question where to? For example: In die Schule means to school and uses the accusative form because it is a direction. and Ich gehe nach Hause is I am going home. He is in the kitchen. The bottles are in front of the door. Schreib es an die Tafel. In der Schule means in school and uses the dative form because it is a location. Put the bottles in front of the door.at home (dat. The picture hangs over the sofa. It is beside the house. It is on the board. Put it on the table. Stellen Sie es neben das Haus. Es steht an der Tafel. He hangs the picture over the sofa. Put the lamp between the sofa and the table. It's lying on the table. Die Lampe steht zwischen dem Sofa und dem Tisch. He goes into the kitchen.(to) home (acc. Drive the car behind the house. Put it under the table. Er geht in die Küche. Stell die Lampe zwischen das Sofa und den Tisch.) and nach Hause . 28. Die Flaschen stehen vor der Tür. liegen and sitzen use the dative case. Der Wagen steht hinter dem Haus. Es liegt auf dem Tisch. Note: Stellen. Es ist neben dem Haus. Accusative: movement & direction Er hängt das Bild über das Sofa. Prepositional Contractions an dem auf das für das in das am aufs fürs ins to/at the upon the for the into the . Fahren Sie den Wagen hinter das Haus.) Ich bin zu Hause is I am at home. while stehen. The car is behind the house. Er ist in der Küche.

Nationality Germany Deutschland Deutscher England England Engländer France Frankreich Franzose USA die USA Amerikaner Russia Russland Russe Switzerland die Schweiz Schweizer Italy Italien Italiener Spain Spanien Spanier Japan Japan Japaner China China Chinese Austria Österreich Österreicher Australia Australien Australier Belgium Belgien Belgier Canada Kanada Kanadier Denmark Dänemark Däne Finland Finnland Finnländer Greece Griechenland Grieche Holland Holland Holländer die Netherlands Niederländer Niederlande Ireland Irland Ire Korea Korea Koreaner Mexico Mexiko Mexikaner Norway Norwegen Norweger Portugal Portugal Portugiese Sweden Schweden Schwede Country Fem. of the to the through the around the Masc. Countries and Nationalities zum ans beim im vom zur durchs ums to the to/on the at the in the from. Nationality Deutsche Engländerin Französin Amerikanerin Russin Schweizerin Italienerin Spanierin Japanerin Chinesin Österreicherin Australierin Belgierin Kandierin Dänin Finnländerin Griechin Holländerin Niederländerin Irin Koreanerin Mexikanerin Norwegerin Portugiesin Schwedin Adjective or Language Deutsch Englisch Französisch Amerikanisch Russisch Schweizerisch Italienisch Spanisch Japanisch Chinesisch Österreichisch Australisch Belgisch Kanadisch Dänisch Finnisch Griechisch Holländisch Holländisch Irisch Koreanisch Mexikanisch Norwegisch Portugiesisch Schwedisch .zu dem an das bei dem in dem von dem zu der durch das um das 29.

Poland Egypt Polen Ägypten Pole Ägypter Polin Ägypterin Polnisch Ägyptisch. Heute ist es nicht kalt. It is not cold today. or it could negate any part (verb.to go komme koh-muh kommen koh-men gehe geh-uh gehen geh-in That's my wife. Ich fliege nach Deutschland . Negative Sentences Nicht and kein are forms of negation. And when aus is used with feminine or plural countries. but usually precedes the part of the sentence to be negated.I'm flying to Germany.) Ich fliege in die Schweiz . It is declined as an ein-word. das ist keine Kusine. Das ist meine Frau. Nicht also follows expressions of time. It you want to negate an entire sentence. noun. 32. adjective) or all of a sentence.I am from Switzerland. That's not my wife. No.I'm flying to Switzerland. or not any. To and From Countries and Cities To nach From aus In in Note: In also means to when it is used before a country that has a definite article (feminine and plural countries. To Come and to Go kommen . Ich bin aus der Schweiz . Kein is used to negate nouns that either have no articles or are preceded by the indefinite article. It is cold today.I am from Germany. Ich bin aus Deutschland . not a. the definite article must also be used. Heute ist es kalt. Nicht always follows the verb. Das ist nicht meine Frau.to come gehen . Arabisch 30. . Ist das eine Kusine? Is that a cousin? Nein. Nicht negates nouns preceded by a definite article or a possessive adjective. Kein precedes the nouns in sentences. 31. but nicht means not and kein means no. that's not a cousin. nicht comes last.

The main verb is in the infinitive form and at the end of the sentence. They express an attitude about an action or condition described by the main verb. you.to ought to wollen . Conjugating Regular verbs To conjugate means to give the different forms of a verb depending on the subject. The modal auxiliary is conjugated and placed where the verb should be. Nicht dürfen translates to must not. Ich möchte eine Fahrkarte kaufen means I would like to buy a ticket. The following table . they run vs. ( I can buy a ticket) Kann is the conjugated auxiliary verb and kaufen is the main verb in infinitive form.to be able to kann können kannst könnt kann können müssen .to be allowed to darf dürfen darfst dürft darf dürfen Note: Nicht müssen translates to do not have to or do not need to. Modal Verbs kommt kohmt gehst gehst kommen koh-men geht gate geht gate gehen geh-in German has 6 of them. Du darfst es nicht machen is you must not (or are not allowed) to do it. he/she/it runs).to like mag mögen magst mögt mag mögen Note: This subjunctive of mögen expresses would like to and is used more often than the indicative of mögen. we. 34. sollen .to have to muß müssen mußt müsst muß müssen dürfen . no ending and -s ending (I. können .to want soll Sollen will wollen sollst Sollt willst wollt soll Sollen will wollen Subjunctive of mögen möchte möchten möchtest möchtet möchte möchten mögen . English only has two regular conjugations in the present tense. Refer back to the subject pronouns and the conjugations of to be and to have. Du mußt es nicht machen is you don't have to do it.kommst kohmst kommt kohmt 33. Ich kann eine Fahrkarte kaufen.

is in the same format. antworten-to treffen-to meet swim desire answer bezahlen-to pay tanzen-to dance essen-to eat ziehen-to move for entdecken-to beginnen-to begin Trinken-to drink sehen-to see discover reisen-to travel singen-to sing erfinden-to invent vergessen-to forget ergänzen-to studieren-to study fischen-to fish waschen-to wash complete sparen-to save kennen-to know rauchen-to smoke warten-to wait (money) (people) erzählen-to tell Trennen-to separate wischen-to wipe versprechen-to bekommen-to get winken-to wave promise English has three ways of expressing the present tense. take off the -en ending and add these endings: -e -en -st -t -t -en Regular Verbs kaufen-to buy Arbeiten-to work besuchen-to visit passieren-to happen bleiben-to remain. Ich mache meine Hausaufgaben can be translated as I do my homework or I'm doing my homework. kommen-to come dauern-to last schlafen-to sleep think schwimmen-to wünschen-to wish. I do run. All three of these tenses are translated as one tense in German (ich laufe. Ich mache gerade meine Hausaufgaben is translated as I'm doing my homework. I am running. you can add gerade after the verb to indicate the progressive form. To form regular verbs in German. .) However. such as I run. verdienen-to earn sitzen-to sit helfen-to help stay (money) verstehen-to stehen-to stand lernen-to learn brauchen-to need understand sagen-to say rufen-to call fliegen-to fly gewinnen-to win liegen-to lay lehren-to teach suchen-to look for verlieren-to lose gehen-to go Stecken-to put schreiben-to write benutzen-to use fragen-to ask finden-to find laufen-to run erlauben-to permit machen-to make Denken-to think lieben-to love rennen-to run Glauben-to believe.

Examples in English would be: I wash myself. Accusative: Ich fühle mich nicht wohl .I'm taking off my coat. This is when you use the dative reflexive pronouns instead of the accusative ones.35. Reflexive Verbs sich ärgern sich freuen to get angry to be happy sich aufregen sich erkälten sich anziehen sich ausziehen sich setzen sich vorstellen to get excited to catch a cold to get dressed to get undressed to sit down to imagine sich ausruhen to rest sich hinlegen to lie down sich verletzen to get hurt sich beeilen sich erholen to hurry to relax sich (wohl) fühlen to feel (well) Reflexive Verbs + Accusative: sich ärgern über sich erinnern an sich freuen über sich gewöhnen an sich kümmern um to be angry at/about to remember to happy about to get used to to take care of . then the reflexive pronoun is in the dative case since the other object is in the accusative case. Also note that parts of the body and articles of clothing use the definite article.I don't feel well. When a clause contains another object besides the reflexive pronoun. Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs express an action that reciprocates back to the subject. In other words. Usually the -self words are a clue in English. not a possessive. Reflexive Pronouns Accusative mich dich sich uns euch sich Dative mir uns dir euch sich sich The reflexive pronoun follows the verb and agrees with the subject. however there are more reflexive verbs in German than in English. whoever is speaking is doing an action to himself. he hurts himself. Dative: Ich ziehe mir den Mantel aus . we hate ourselves.

essen-to eat. laufen-to run 2) Some verbs change the e to ie in the 2nd and 3rd person singular. Exceptions: Irregularities in Regular verbs 1) Some verbs require an umlaut over the a in the 2nd and 3rd person singular. helfen-to help. tragen-to carry. schlafen-to sleep. sprechen-to speak. Sehen-to see sehe sehen siehst seht sieht sehen Examples: lesen. werfen-to throw *nehmen has another irregularity: it doubles the m and drops the h* nehme nehmen nimmst nehmt nimmt nehmen . Fahren-to travel fahre fahren fährst fahrt fährt fahren Examples: fallen-to fall. empfehlen-to recommend. treffen-to meet. geschehen-to happen. waschen-to wash.sich interessieren für to be interested in sich verlieben in to fall in love with Reflexive Verbs + Dative: sich erkundigen nach to ask about sich fürchten vor to be afraid of 36. befehlen-to command. sterben-to die. stehlen-to steal 3) Some verbs change the e to an i in the 2nd and 3rd person singular. Geben-to give gebe geben gibst gebt gibt geben Examples: brechen-to break.to read.

have -t for du form ending instead of -st. Tun-to do / Segeln-to sail Tue tun segle segeln tust tut segelst segelt Tut tun segelt segeln 37. Reden-to speak rede reden redest redet redet reden 5) Verb stems ending in an s or z sound. Verbs with Prepositions arbeiten an + dative erzählen von + dative fahren mit + dative haben Angst vor + dative helfen bei + dative halten von + dative handeln von + dative träumen von + dative denken an + accusative lachen über + accusative lesen über + accusative nachdenken über + accusative schreiben an + accusative schreiben über + accusative sprechen über + accusative warten auf + accusative to work on to talk about to go (by means of) to be afraid of to help with to think of. to value to deal with to dream of to think of to laugh about to read about to think about to write to to write about to talk about to wait for . add an e before three endings.4) Verb stems ending -d or -t. Sitzen-to sit sitze sitzen sitzt sitzt sitzt sitzen 6) Infinitives ending in -n (not -en) only have -n ending for wir and sie forms. Infinitive stems ending in -el or -er can drop the e in the ich form.

but ankommen is to arrive. appear to shop to pack up to watch TV to deliver to put away to fall asleep to begin to wake up to go away to dry (dishes) zuhören mitnehmen einsteigen anzünden ausgeben anziehen ausziehen ansehen aufräumen ausleeren aufmachen zumachen anmachen ausmachen abräumen vorstellen aufwischen abwischen einladen to listen to to take with to board to light (candles) to spend to put on clothes to take off clothes to look at. Kommen is to come.mit.vorweg. Ich will jetzt ausgehen means "I want to go out now." Verbs with Separable Prefixes abholen ankommen anrufen aufhören aufstehen ausfüllen ausgehen aussehen einkaufen einpacken fernsehen austragen wegstellen einschlafen anfangen aufwachen weggehen abtrocknen to pick someone up to arrive to call up to stop to get up to fill in (the blanks) to go out to look like.los. Er kommt um fünf Uhr an means "he is arriving at 5. When conjugated.zusammenThese prefixes are added to the infinitive and change the meaning of the verb. Separable Prefixes to ask for to believe in to care for ab. the infinitive goes to the end of the sentence as usual.zurückan. the prefix goes to the end of the sentence.zu.aus." With modals. but the prefix remains attached.bitten um + accusative glauben an + accusative sorgen für + accusative 38.bei." But Er kommt um drei Uhr means "he is coming at 3.auf.nach.vorbei. watch to tidy up (clothes) to empty to open to close to turn on to turn off to clear (the table) to introduce to mop up to wipe clean to invite vorbeikommen to come by vorschlagen to suggest züruckkommen to come back auswandern to emigrate mitkommen to come with .

therefore gearbeitet is the past participle. if and only if. Regular verbs use a form of haben or sein and a past participle.is the stem. unternehmen .zerThese prefixes always remain attached to their infinitives. and versprechen . gewinnen . they are inseparable. as compared to the separable prefixes which can stand alone as different words. if stem ends in -t or -d) to the end.to promise.ent. The stress on the following verbs in not on the prefix. The form of haben or sein is placed where the verb should be. and übersetzen . therefore gemacht is the past participle.to visit.to overtake.I asked my brother. and -sag.ge. they are separable.is the stem. so studiert is the past participle.to the beginning of the verb stem and -t (or -et. but they are much more commonly used as inseparable prefixes. Unter and über can function as separable prefixes. Present Perfect or Past Indefinite Tense This tense is used more often than the simple past. and is equivalent to I have asked or I asked. When prefixes are stressed. so they are all inseparable: unterhalten . Haben or Sein Most verbs use haben. therefore gesagt is the past participle. and -arbeit.to undertake. The inseparable prefixes are unstressed syllables. Some examples of verbs with inseparable prefixes are besuchen . Sagen is to ask.to entertain. when they are not stressed. Machen is to do/make.to win. Ex: Ich habe meinen Bruder gefragt . Studieren is to study and studier.to translate. and the past participle goes to the end of the sentence.anschauen to look at zusehen to observe 39.is the stem. especially in conversation. Verbs ending in -ieren only add the -t ending. 40.veremp. Inseparable Prefixes be. but a few use sein. and -mach. both of these conditions are met: .to tell.miss. erzählen . überholen .is the stem. Arbeiten is to work.er. Past participles are made by adding ge.

The new stems in between must be memorized. and then add the prefix to the beginning. I had to would be translated as Ich habe gemußt. All modals. cannot take a direct object. as well as reflexive verbs. you use a form of haben or sein and a past participle. With inseparable prefixes. 2. but forming the participles is much more complicated. and it may take a different auxiliary verb than its base verb. The reflexive pronouns follow the auxiliary verb as in Ich habe mir den Arm gebrochen.prefix when forming the past participle. use haben instead of sein in the present perfect tense. for they are unpredictable and many contain vowel and consonant changes. 41. then the past participles of the modals are used. stehen takes haben. With separable prefixes.) When modals are used in the present perfect tense with a dependent infinitive. Irregular Past Participles that use Haben beginnen begin begonnen beschliessen decide beschlossen bitten ask gebeten brechen break gebrochen empfehlen recommend empfohlen essen eat gegessen .and end with -en (with some exceptions). there is no ge. it is actually Ich habe nach Hause gehen müssen. such as angekommen and aufgestanden. but aufstehen takes sein. "I have been studying German for two years" translates to Ich studiere Deutsch schon zwei Jahre. I had to go home would be translated as ich habe nach Hause gehen gemußt.e. When there is no other infinitive in the sentence. From the participle of the base verb. the past participle is not used.in a past participle. Logically. But note that the prefix does change the entire meaning of the verb. The verb is intransitive (i. such as besucht and verloren. whether the verb is regular or irregular. However. For example. The past participles begin with ge. I broke my arm. To express something that has been going on or happening for a period of time. The infinitive of the modal acts as the past participle. German using the present tense (rather than the past) and the word schon. The verb expresses motion or change of condition. Irregular Past Participles Like regular verbs. the prefix comes before the ge.1.

water hold be called help sound let.finden fressen frieren geben gewinnen gießen halten heißen helfen klingen lassen leiden lesen liegen lügen nehmen reissen riechen rufen scheinen schlafen schließen schneiden schreiben schreien schweigen schwingen sehen senden singen sitzen sprechen stehen tragen treffen trinken tun vergessen find eat (of animals) freeze give win pour. allow suffer read recline lie take tear smell call shine sleep shut cut write cry be silent swing see send sing sit speak stand wear meet drink do forget gefunden gefressen gefroren gegeben gewonnen gegossen gehalten geheißen geholfen geklungen gelassen gelitten gelesen gelegen gelogen genommen gerissen gerochen gerufen geschienen geschlafen geschlossen geschnitten geschrieben geschrieen geschwiegen geschwungen gesehen gesandt gesungen gesessen gesprochen gestanden getragen getroffen getrunken getan vergessen .

and many have irregular past participles. like all irregular verbs. bleiben fahren fallen fliegen geboren gehen gelingen geschehen kommen laufen passieren reisen reiten remain drive fall fly be born go succeed happen come run happen travel ride geblieben gefahren gefallen geflogen geboren gegangen gelungen geschehen gekommen gelaufen passiert gereist geritten Irregular Stem brannbrachdachkannnannrannwandwußPast Participle gebrannt gebracht gedacht gekannt genannt gerannt gewandt gewußt . Sein Verbs and Past Participles The following verbs use sein as the auxiliary verb. but take the endings for regular verbs instead of irregular verbs. (Ge-stem-t) Infinitive brennen-to burn bringen-to bring denken-to think kennen-to know (people) nennen-to call. They form their past participles like regular verbs.verlassen verlieren verstehen verzeihen waschen werfen ziehen leave lose understand forgive wash throw pull verlassen verloren verstanden verziehen gewaschen geworfen gezogen Some verbs change their stems. name rennen-to run wenden-to turn wissen-to know (facts) 42.

schwimmen sein springen steigen sterben treten wachsen werden 43. e) das Wasser der Wein das Bier die Milch das Ei (er) der Honig der Imbiss der Käse der Senf die Torte (n) silverware das Besteck soft drink die Limonade Ice cream das Eis 44. Vegetables and Meats Fruit das Obst pumpkin der Kürbis (e) . Food and Meals breakfast lunch dinner glass fork spoon knife napkin plate Tea steak cake chicken coffee fish ham jam rice salad soup swim be jump climb die step grow become geschwommen gewesen gesprungen gestiegen gestorben getreten gewachsen geworden das Frühstück das Mittagessen das Abendessen das Glas (ä. er) die Gabel (n) der Löffel (-) das Messer (-) die Serviette (n) der Teller (-) der Tee das Steak der Kuchen das Huhn der Kaffee der Fisch der Schinken die Marmelade der Reis der Salat die Suppe bread pepper salt ice vinegar oil sugar butter table dishes juice water wine beer milk egg honey snack cheese mustard pie das Brot (e) der Pfeffer das Salz das Eis der Essig das Öl der Zucker die Butter der Tisch (e) das Geschirr der Saft (ä. Fruits.

The genitive case implies of. a glass of water .ein Stück Kuchens a slice of pizza . Genitive Partitive die Ananas (-) der Apfel (ä) die Aprikose (n) die Banane (n) die Birne (n) die Erdbeere (n) die Himbeere (n) die Kirsche (n) die Limone (n) die Zitrone (n) die Orange (n) der Pfirsisch (e) die Traube (n) das Gemüse der Blumenkohl die Bohne (n) die Erbse (n) die Gurke (n) die Karotte (n) die Kartoffel (n) der Kohl olive raddish lettuce tomato onion meat roast veal lamb beef ham pork bacon sausage poultry duck goose chicken turkey fish die Olive (n) der Rettich (e) der Salat die Tomate (n) die Zwiebel (n) das Fleisch der Braten (-) das Kalbfleisch das Lammfleisch das Rindfleisch der Schinken (-) das Schweinefleisch der Speck die Wurst (ü. e) das Geflügel die Ente (n) die Gans (ä. so to say a glass of water. you would literally say a glass (in the nominative case) water (in the genitive case.ein Glas Wassers a piece of cake . er) der Truthahn (ä.ein Stück Pizza 46. e) das Huhn (ü.pineapple Apple apricot banana Pear strawberry raspberry Cherry Lime Lemon orange Peach Grape vegetable cauliflower Bean Pea cucumber Carrot Potato cabbage 45. e) der Fisch (e) The genitive partitive is mostly used when talking about quantities of food. Commands Gehen-to go du form conjugated form.) Remember to add -(e)s to the masculine nouns in the genitive. minus -(s)t Geh! ihr form conjugated form Geht! Sie form conjugated form with Sie following Gehen Sie! .

dass-that. nachdem sie gegessen hat. A dependent (or subordinate) clause also contains a subject and verb. the conjugated verb form precedes the two infinitives. Verbs that change their stem vowel from e to i use the changed stem in the du form. weil-because. währendwhile. In clauses introduced by subordinating conjunctions. and oder are the coordinating conjunctions. but is introduced with a subordinating conjunction and cannot stand alone as its own sentence. ob-whether. Imperative of Sein du form Sei! ihr form Seid! Sie form Seien Sie! 47. Ich bliebe zu Hause. I am sick. Subordinating Conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions are used to connect an independent and dependent clause together. and bin must go to the end. bis-until. I'm staying home because I am sick. The easiest way to tell the two types of conjunctions apart is to memorize the coordinating ones. conjunction. and wie-how.Note: Verbs that take an umlaut in conjugations leave it off in commands. She's coming to your place after she has eaten. nachdem-after. All commands require an exclamation point. damit-so that. She has eaten. There are also other conjunctions (called coordinating) that do not affect word order. the conjugated verb is forced to the end of the clause (not sentence) and a comma is placed before the conjunction. wennif/when. (weil is the subordinating conjunction. Ich bliebe zu Hause. Sie hat gegessen.) Sie kommt nach zu dir. She's coming to your place. Some examples are als-when. An independent (or main) clause contains a subject and verb and can stand alone as its own sentence. Ich bin krank. Und. bevor-before. and interrogative words can also act as subordinating conjunctions. The rest of the conjunctions act as subordinating. I'm staying home. weil ich krank bin. aber. when a double infinitive construction is involved.) However. denn . 1. (nachdem is the sub. obwohl-although.) . da-since. Sie kommt nach zu dir. and they do affect word order. and hat must go to the end.for/because. (The double infinitive always goes to the end of the clause or sentence.

whereas normally the prefix would go to the end. während Sie in Berlin sind. Holiday Phrases Frohe Weihnachten! Frohe Ostern! Gutes Neues Jahr! Herzlichen Glückwunsch zum Geburtstag! Alles Gutes zum Geburtstag! The German National Anthem: Deutschland-Lied by Heinrich Hoffman von Fallersleben Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit für das deutsche Vaterland! Danach lasst uns alle streben brüderlich mit Herz und Hand! Einigkeit und Recht und Frieheit sind des Glückes Unterpfand Blüh im Glanze dieses Glückes blühe deutsches Vaterland! Merry Christmas! Happy Easter! Happy New Year! Happy Birthday! .Ich weiß nicht. 2. the prefix remains attached to the verb. (während is a subordinating conjunction. following the infinitive. ob er hat mitkommen wollen. The subordinate clause becomes the first position. 48. If there is a separable prefix verb in a dependent clause. Hans will call you. I don't know if he wanted to come along.) 3. and the subordinating clause occupies the first position of the sentence. Er ist immer müde. Während Sie in Berlin sind. He is tired when he must get up early. Er ist müde. When a sentence begins with a subordinating conjunction. so the second position must be occupied by the verb of the main clause. wenn er früh aufstehen muss. wenn er früh aufsteht. When there are two verbs in a dependent clause (such as a modal and an infinitive). telefoniert Hans mit Ihnen. He is always tired when he gets up early. Hans will call you while you're in Berlin. While you are in Berlin. 4. and the entire verb goes to the end of the sentence. so the verb of the main clause must occupy the second position. Hans telefoniert mit Ihnen. telefoniert. the modal goes last. the main clause begins with the conjugated verb in keeping with the normal word order of German that states verbs are always in the second position.

With courage. flourish. Hast seit frühen Ahnentagen Hoher Sendung Last getragen Vielgeprüftes Österreich. Mutig in die neuen Zeiten. Let us all pursue this purpose brotherly. Land of hammers. Flourish in this blessing's glory. land of spires. You are in the centre of the Continent Like a strong heart. Land of fields. Land am Strome. Land of mountains. zukunftsreich! Heimat bist du großer Söhne. You have borne since the earliest days. Einig laß in Brüderchören. German fatherland. Unity and right and freedom are the pawns of happiness. Working cheerfully and full of hope. You are the home of great sons. Vaterland. In fraternal chorus let us take in unity . Watch us striding free and believing. Heiß umfehdet. fiercely contested. Land der Hämmer. Vielgerühmtes Österreich. The Austrian National Anthem: Österreichische Bundeshymne by Paula von Preradovic Land der Berge. into new eras. Land der Dome. Much tried Austria. Frei und gläubig sich uns schreiten. The burden of a high mission. Volk. with a rich future. begnadet für das Schöne. Highly praised Austria. wild umstritten leigst dem Erdteil du inmitten einem starken Herzen gleich. with heart and hands. dir Treue schwören. Arbeistfroh und hoffnungsreich. Strongly fought for. A nation blessed by its sense of beauty. Land der Äcker. Vielgeliebtes Österreich.Unity and right and freedom for the German fatherland. land of streams.

Helfen. our country. I heard him coming. Ich lasse meinen Sohn die Post abholen. English often uses a present participle./We're building a house. I'm having my son pick up the mail. Like the modals. After verbs of this type. these verbs require a double infinitive construction when forming the present perfect tense if there is a dependent infinitive involved. Ich habe ihn geholft. Places street die Straße (n) strass-uh die pharmacy Apotheke (n) die drugstore Drogerie (n) factory die Fabrik ah-pohtek-uh drohger-ee fah- bank hotel die Bank (en) das Hotel (s) bahnk hoh-tel . lassen and verbs indicating the senses (such as sehen and hören) function like modal auxiliaries. Lassen can have different meanings depending on how it is used in the sentence. I see him coming. lassen means to let or allow. Ich habe ihn kommen hören. Ich sehe ihn kommen. Our much beloved Austria. 50. Usually. Wir lassen uns ein Haus bauen. Last Update: Wednesday 31 July. I helped him.The oath of allegiance to you. We're having a house built. but German uses a dependent infinitive. lassen and the senses Helfen. as in Laß den Jungen spielen! Let the boy play! (Notice that lassen takes an accusative object) But it can also mean to have something done or to have someone do something. 2002 49.

hoff e) die Bäckerei beck-er(en) ie stadium movie theater hardware store cemetery backery ise-endas Eisenwarenwar-engeschäft (e) geh-sheft shoodas Schuhshoe store gehgeschäft (e) sheft . denker) mall das Gebäude (-) guh-boyduh das Haus (ä. shtaht e) die Kneipe (n) knighpuh bar cathedral village der Dom (e) dome das Dorf (ö. e) der bookstore Buchladen (ä) airport der Flughafen (ä) die Garage (n) museum church square monument building house grocery store library hospital garage town hall castle school city das Rathaus raht(ä) house das Schloss shlohss (ö.(en) restaurant das Restaurant (s) das Theater (-) res-tohrahn tay-ahter lah-den moo-zayum keer-kuh plahtz butcher shop dry cleaner's die Metzgerei (en) die Reinigung (en) breek metsgeh-rie rien-eegunk boochlah-den flookhahf-en gahrahzhuh theater store der Laden (ä) das Museum (Museen) die Kirche (n) der Platz (ä. er) house das Lebensmittelgeschäft (e) die Bibliothek (en) das Krankenhaus (ä. dorf er) der freedFriedhof (ö. er) die Schule (n) shoo-luh das Denkmal (ä. er) das Stadion (Stadien) das Kino (s) lay-bunsmittel-gehsheft beeb-leeoh-tek krahnken-house shtahdee-on kee-noh die Stadt (ä.

and is used less often in spoken German than the present perfect tense. er) das Auto (s) die Straßenbahn (en) das Moped (s) das Rad (ä.. drop the umlaut found in the infinitive before adding the endings. however it used more often in writing. 52. etc. where you use mit der instead of dem (because it's feminine). Imperfect Tense In English. Mögen changes the g to ch as well. you saw. All regular verbs add these endings to their original stems: -te -ten -test -tet -te -ten Note: Verb stems ending in -d or -t. train. wissen and the modal verbs are preferred in the simple past tense than in the present perfect tense. he cried. Transportation bus train airplane ship boat motorcycle automobile streetcar moped bike car on foot der Bus (se) der Zug (ü.stationery store das Schreibwarengeschäft (e) shribevar-engehscheft 51. er) der Wagen (-) zu Fuss boos tsook flook-tsoyk shiff boat moh-toh-raht ow-toh shtrass-en-bahn mo-ped raht vah-gen foos Note: To say by bus. . even in conversational German. use mit dem and the noun. e) das Flugzeug (e) das Schiff (e) das Boot (e) das Motorrad (ä. this tense corresponds I did. For the modal verbs. haben. werden. Nevertheless. add an -e before all endings for pronunciation. sein. The one exception is streetcar. etc.

travel finden-to find lesen-to read nehmen-to take sangfuhrfandlas- nahm. sie. es konnte The following verbs are called mixed verbs because although they have an irregular stem. sie.nennen-to . Irregular Stems in Imperfect Tense Irregular verbs have a different stem for the past tense and add different endings than those of the regular verbs.rufen-to call schlafen-to sleep schreiben-to sehen-to see sprechen-to speak stehen-to stand tragen-to carry waschen-to wash helfen-to help sahsprachstandtrugwuschhalfnann- kommen-to come kamgehen-to go ging- schrieb. they still use the imperfect endings for regular verbs. You will have to memorize these stems. Imperfect tense of Mixed Verbs wissen bringen denken kennen brennen nennen rennen wenden ich wußte brachte dachte kannte brannte nannte rannte wandte du wußtest brachtest dachtest kanntest branntest nanntest ranntest wandtest er. Irregular Stems bleiben-to stay bliebessen-to eat fliegen-to fly geben-to give aßfloggabriefschlief- singen-to sing fahren-to ride. These are the same stems that are used in the present perfect tense as well. as they are unpredictable.Imperfect tense of Modals können müssen dürfen sollen wollen mögen ich du wir ihr sie konnte mußte mußte mußtet durfte durfte durftet sollte sollte wollte wollte mochte mochte mochtet konntest mußtest durftest solltest wolltest mochtest konnten mußten konntet konnten mußten durften sollten wollten mochten solltet wolltet durften sollten wollten mochten er. wußte brachte dachte kannte brannte nannte rannte wandte es wir wußten brachten dachten kannten brannten nannten rannten wandten ihr wußtet brachtet dachtet kanntet branntet nanntet ranntet wandtet sie wußten brachten dachten kannten brannten nannten rannten wandten 53.

the du form ending becomes -est (du aßest. erfinden (erfandst. e) die Schublade (n) das Besteck das Geschirr das Spülbecken (-) der Schreibtisch (e) der Wecker (-) das Regal (e) . 54.) The other main verbs that are conjugated without the -e. er) ground floor 1st floor floor roof shower bathtub steps stove oven refrigerator dishwasher faucet pot. er) die Dusche (n) die Badewanne (n) die Treppe (n) der Herd (e) der Backofen (ö) der Kühlschrank (e) die Geschirrspülmaschine (n) der Wasserhahn (ä.write name Irregular Imperfect Endings -en -st -t -en Note: There are no endings for the 1st and 3rd person singular. House and Furniture window das Fenster (-) curtain die Gardine (n) clock die Uhr (en) bookcase das Bücherregal (e) lamp die Lampe (n) table der Tisch (e) sofa das Sofa (s) chair der Stuhl (ü.) If the verb stem ends in -t or -d. and schneiden (schnittst.are braten (brietst. For example. If the verb stem ends in an s sound (such as aß-). pan drawer silverware dishes kitchen sink desk alarm clock shelf toilet die Toilette (n) wastebasket der Papierkorb (ö. to cut).(du fandst) while sich befinden is conjugated with the -e.(du befandest dich. Most verb stems do add -est in the du form. finden is conjugated without the -e. to invite). laden (ludst. to invent). stehen is conjugated without the -e. e) picture das Bild (er) nightstand der Nachttisch (e) vase die Vase (n) dresser die Kommode (n) bed das Bett (en) Erdgeschoss erster Stock der Boden (ö) das Dach (ä.(du standst) while verstehen is conjugated with the -e. e) armchair der Sessel (-) mirror der Spiegel (-) towel das Handtuch (ü. to roast). e) der Topf (ö. but some do not. to suffer).) Similarly. er) bathroom sink das Waschbecken (-) der (Kleider)schrank (clothes) closet (ä. leiden (littst. the ihr form ending becomes -et while the du form ending sometimes becomes -est.(du verstandest.

aus such as country. Das Auto kommt von rechts. von particular direction or person When talking about directions or going to a place. We are at school. Direction When talking about locations. Ich komme aus den USA. or at public buildings Ich bin in der Kirche. Wir sind in der Schule. Location vs. The car comes from the right. He is at the lake. e) die Decke (n) die Tür (en) der Garten (ä) 55. Ich arbeite bei I work at McDonald's. in an auf enclosed spaces denotes border or limiting area on surfaces. Sie sind auf der Bank. It's on the table. Sie kommt aus dem Zimmer. town or building comes from open space. ceiling door garden. the prepositions in and auf followed by the accusative case or zu and nach followed by the dative case are used.rug room bathroom bedroom living room kitchen hallway balcony furniture wall lawn der Teppich (e) das Zimmer (-) das Badezimmer (-) das Schlafzimmer (-) das Wohnzimmer (-) die Küche (n) der Flur (e) der Balkon (e) die Möbel die Wand (ä. McDonald's. the prepositions in. while aus and von (also followed by the dative case) are used to signify origin. Das Bild ist an der Wand. e) der Rasen television telephone VCR CD Player computer radio pillow cupboard blanket. Tante. I live at my Aunt's Ich wohne bei meiner (house). I'm at church. . Es ist auf dem Tisch. before name of place or business bei where someone lives or works comes from enclosed or defined space. Er ist am See. I come from the USA. auf and bei (followed by the dative case) are used to signify fixed locations. Ich weiß es von ihm. I know it from him. yard der Fernseher (-) das Telefon (e) der Videorekorder (-) der CD-Spieler (-) der Computer (-) das Radio (s) das Kopfkissen (-) der Schrank (ä. She comes from the bedroom. an. They are at the bank. The picture is on the wall.

He's going to the market. Ich gehe auf die Bank. while nach Hause is a direction and means (to) home. Note: Remember the two idioms with Haus: zu Hause is a location and means at home. e) pullover der Pulli (s) woman's suit das Kostüm (e) sports jacket das Sakko (s) bag. and die USA (pl. die Niederlande (pl. I'm going to the bank. McDonald's. countries and cities that have definite articles* open spaces or public buildings Ich gehe in die I'm going to church. beach. Ich fliege nach I'm flying to Austria. Kirche. Österreich. er) der Ohrring (e) der Handschuh (e) die Jeans die Armbanduhr (en) die Brille der Anzug (ü. Clothing jacket dress blouse shirt T-shirt skirt sweater tie sock shoe boot sandal purse die Jacke (n) die Kleid (er) die Bluse (n) das Hemd (en) das T-Shirt (s) der Rock (ö. Countries and cities that nach have no articles * Only a few countries include the articles. Ich fliege nach Paris.in building or enclosed space.). die Türkei (f.). or places. auf zu She's going to the specifically named buildings Sie geht zum Strand. die Schweiz (f. I'm flying to the USA.). such as der Iran (m. I'm flying to Paris.). Sie gehen zu They're going to and people McDonald's.). e) der Pullover (-) die Krawatte (n) die Socke (n) der Schuh (e) der Stiefel (-) die Sandale (n) die Handtasche (n) ring necklace bracelet earring glove jeans watch glasses man's suit der Ring (e) die Halskette (n) das Armband (ä. Er geht auf den Markt. because they are not neuter. pocket underwear pants die Tasche (n) die Unterwäsche die Hose (n) . Ich fliege in die USA. 56.

such as tonight. and independent adjectives. use wohl (probably) with the future tense. The bread is fresh. in both German and English. Asking Questions 1. Predicate adjectives (Das brot ist frisch. My friend should be home now. e) swimsuit der Badeanzug (ü. Use a question word + verb + subject 4. Werden werde wirst wird werden werdet werden I will fly to Germany. Just use the present tense forms of werden and put the other infinitive to the end of the sentence. Mein Freund wird jetzt wohl zu Hause sein. to do so. Future Tense The future tense is simple to form in German. Simply add a question mark 2. and implies a future action. . (Expresses probability) 58. You will help me! Du wirst mir helfen! We will learn Latin. etc. Note that German usually relies on the present tense to indicate the future (this is called implied future). Declensions of Adjectives There are three types of declensions for adjectives: adjectives used with der words. and uses time expressions. adjectives used with ein words. tomorrow. yet it uses the present tense. Invert the verb and subject 3.) are not declined and usually follow a form of sein. e) 57. To express present or future probability. Ich werde nach Deutschland fliegen. Add nicht wahr to the end of the statement 59. Wir werden Latein lernen. Wir gehen morgen nach Deutschland is translated as we are going to Germany tomorrow.belt scarf der Gürtel (-) der Schal (s) raincoat coat hat der Regenmantel (ä) der Mantel (ä) der Hut (ü.

den guten Wein die gute Milch das gute Brot die guten Freunde Dat. and neuter accusative. They are the same as the endings for the der words (with the exception of the masculine and neuter genitive. des guten Weines der guten Milch des guten Brotes der guten Freunde Adjectives used after ein words (Weak Endings) Masc. kein guter Wein keine gute Milch kein gutes Brot Freunde keinen guten keine guten Acc. dem guten Wein der guten Milch dem guten Brot den guten Freunden Gen. Neu. Wein Milch Brot Freunden keines guten keiner guten keines guten keiner guten Gen. Plural Nom. Neu. andere (other). Neu. The strong endings (below) are used on adjectives that have no preceding article. tall hoch light hell . keine gute Milch kein gutes Brot Wein Freunde keinem guten keiner guten keinem guten keinen guten Dat. guten Weines guter Milch guten Brotes guter Fruende Note: Viele (many). der gute Wein die gute Milch das gute Brot die guten Freunde Acc. guter Wein gute Milch gutes Brot gute Fruende Acc. In the singular. guten Wein gute Milch gutes Brot gute Fruende Dat.Adjectives used after der words (Weak Endings) Masc. and mehrere (several) are all plural expressions that do not act as limiting words. The rest of the endings are the same. Adjectives that follow them take strong endings.) Independent Adjectives (Strong Endings) Masc. but in the plural they function as normal limiting words. Adjectives short Kurz high. Fem. 60. einige (some). Plural keine guten Nom. mancher (many a) and solcher (such) also use strong endings (when used with another adjective in the singular. Weines Milch Brotes Freunde The only difference between the adjectives used after der words and the adjectives used after ein words are the masculine and neuter nominative. wenige (few). gutem Wein guter Milch gutem Brot guten Fruenden Gen. Fem. they turn into manch ein and so ein). Fem. Plural Nom. These types of attributive adjectives are the weak endings.

use the construction so + adjective or adverb + wie to mean as + adjective or adverb + as. Eine Waschmaschine ist nicht so schwer wie ein Kühlschrank. Die Küche ist so gross wie das Wohnzimmer. A washing machine is not as heavy as a refrigerator. You can also add nicht in front of the so for a comparison of inequality. Comparative . thick thin narrow weak strong deep lazy cheap dumb early near nice expensive crazy far beautiful curious old young interesting fantastic breit dick dünn eng schwach stark tief faul billig dumm früh nah nett teuer verrückt weit schön neugierig alt jung interessant fantastisch dark terrible sweet in love serious clean dirty shy nervous worried right wrong jealous drunk popular excellent valuable alone important busy sick ready dunkel furchtbar süß verliebt ernsthaft sauber schmutzig schüchtern nervös besorgt richtig falsch eifersüchtig betrunken beliebt ausgezeichnet wertvoll allein wichtig beschäftigt krank fertig comfortable bequem inexpensive preiswert wonderful wunderbar 61. Comparative and Superlative For comparisons of equality. The kitchen is as big as the living room.long loud quiet cute perfect sad happy dear famous different easy difficult pretty ugly small large good bad new tired angry annoying Lang Laut Ruhig Niedlich Perfekt Traurig Glücklich Lieb Berühmt unterschiedlich Leicht Schwierig Hübsch Häßlich Klein Groß Gut Schlecht Neu Müde Wütend Ärgerlich wide fat.

She is the most intelligent. groß. t or s sound. Jens läuft schneller als Ernst. such as alt. kurz.) This is the only form of the superlative of adverbs. although English sometimes uses the word more before the adjective instead of the ending. lang. Jens runs faster than Ernst. klug. German always uses the -er ending. o. Sie ist am intelligentesten. oft. roh. and dunkel becomes dunkler instead of dunkeler. krank. Lydia is more intelligent than her brother. warm. froh. followed by als (than). add -(e)st to the adjective. hart. Superlative 1. voll and zart. Irregular Forms Adj. schwach. rasch. Adjectives that never add an umlaut are flach. The superlative also has an alternative form: am + adjective or adverb + sten. The same adjectives that took an umlaut in the comparative take an umlaut in the superlative as well. scharf.1. The adjectives that end in -el. stark. grob. -en. kalt. Ein radio is billiger als ein Fernseher. Hans is am jüngsten. Hans is the youngest. 2. -en or -er. Some one-syllable adjectives and adverbs whose stem vowel is a. or -er retain the -s in the superlative form. add -er to the adjective or adverb. toll. Lydia ist intelligenter als ihr Bruder. To form the superlative. but either forms of the superlative can be used for adjectives. jung. / Adv. A radio is cheaper than a TV. Teuer becomes teurer instead of teuerer. dumm. The ending -est is used when the word ends in -d. For comparisons of superiority and inferiority. Adjectives that end in -el. When the adjective or adverb ends in a d. an e is inserted between the stem and ending (am grössten is an exception. stolz. schlank. gern gut hoch nah viel Comparative lieber besser höher näher mehr Superlative am liebsten am besten am höchsten am nächsten am meisten . or an s sound. drop the -e in the comparative form. -t. arm. or u add an umlaut in the comparative. klar. 2.

Sports Golf Fußball Volleyball Football Basketball Baseball Hockey Tennis Kegeln Segeln Reiten Boxen Rollschuhlaufen Schlittschuhlaufen Skilaufen Radfahren Schwimmen 63. desto besser. These suits are the least expensive.Common forms of the comparative Je mehr. The prices are getting higher and higher. Je mehr Geld er hat. 62. Nature Barn bridge Die Scheune (n) Die Brücke (n) stream sky der Bach (ä. Keep in mind that the comparative and superlative forms take normal adjective endings when they precede a noun. Julia wird immer hübscher. Haben Sie billigere Anzüge? Do you have less expensive suits? Diese Anzüge sind die billigsten. And the adjective form of the superlative must always take an adjective ending because it is preceded by the definite article. The more. the better. the happier he is. Die preise werden immer höher. e) der Himmel golf soccer volleyball football basketball baseball hockey tennis bowling sailing horseback riding boxing roller-skating ice-skating skiing bicycling swimming . desto glücklicher ist er. The more money he has. Julia is getting prettier and prettier.

er) Die Pflanze (n) Die Stadt (ä. er) die Blume (n) der Ozean (e) der Baum (ä. e) Das Feld (er) Der Wald (ä. Object Pronouns Subject (Nom. e) Das Meer (e) Die Bucht (en) island air desert pond grass leaf flower ocean tree country valley coast jungle der Insel (n) die Luft die Wüste (n) der Teich (e) das Gras das Blatt (ä.) er he sie she es It wir we ihr you (pl. then that pronoun precedes the dative noun or pronoun. e) das Land (ä. e) Der See (n) Die Fluss (ü.Hill beach Lake River street Farm Field forest plant City Sea Bay Der Hügel (-) Der Strand (ä. e) Die Straße (n) Der Bauernhof (ö. er) die Küste (n) der Dschungel (-) mountain Der Berg (e) meadow die Wiese (n) mountain Das Gebirge range 64.) ich I du you (fam. Note: Some verbs always take indirect objects (Dative case).) mir (to) me dir (to) you ihm (to) him ihr (to) her ihm (to) it uns (to) us euch (to) you ihnen (to) them Ihnen (to) you Note: The dative form precedes the accusative form in sentences.) sie they Sie you (pol. Except when the accusative is a pronoun. er) das Tal (ä.) mich me dich you ihn him sie her es it uns us euch you sie them Sie you Indirect Objects (Dat.) Direct Objects (Acc. even if they seem to take direct objects in English: .

to answer (a person) schenken to give bringen to bring danken to thank zuhören to listen to gehören to belong to glauben to believe helfen to help gratulieren to congratulate begegnen to meet antworten 65. e) die Zehe (n) die Zunge (n) das Gesicht (er) die Wange (n) 66.words that correspond to who. Relative Pronouns Relative clauses begin with relative pronouns . the . and the correct case depending on its function in the clause. e) das Handgelenk (e) die Haut (ä. that and which in English. e) das Fussgelenk (e) das Gehirn das Haar (e) der Hals (ä. e) das Herz (en) der Kiefer (-) chin knee bone head lip stomach nail mouth nose ear back shoulder forehead tooth toe tongue face cheek das Kinn (e) das Knie (-) der Knochen (-) der Kopf (ö. These may be omitted in English. whom. er) die Nase (n) das Ohr (en) der Rücken (-) die Schulter (n) die Stirn (en) der Zahn (ä. which is put into the correct gender depending on the noun it refers to. (In the following example. Parts of the Body body arm eye cheek belly leg chest finger foot ankle brain hair neck hand wrist skin heart jaw The following four need an object as a subject: schaden to be harmful to schmecken to taste good to stehen to suit passen to fit The following two need the subject and object inverted from the original English construction: fehlen gefallen to be missing to to be pleasing to der Körper (-) der Arm (e) das Auge (n) die Backe (n) der Bauch (ä. but must be included in German. e) die Hand (ä. A comma always precedes the relative pronoun. e) der Finger der Fuss (ü. e) die Lippe (n) der Magen (ä) der Nagel (ä) der Mund (ü. e) das Bein (e) die Brust (ü.

heißt Donau. den ich letzte Woche gesehen habe. Nom. Fem. Relative pronouns have the same gender and number as the nouns they refer to. was Julia's. war Julias. that through Vienna flows. it is accusative. Da and Wo Compounds Dative . That's the coat (that) I bought yesterday. and the forms closely resemble those of the definite articles: Masc. that I last week seen have. den ich gestern gekauft habe.relative pronoun is in the masculine accusative case because Mantel is masculine. Gen. Nominative The river. and is a direct object of the verb "to buy". Neu. Wer war die Frau. with whom I you seen have? Who was the woman (whom) I saw you with? 67. while the gender and number are determined by the noun. Accusative The dog. der durch Wien fliesst. is called the Danube. My father is the only person (to) whom I have told nothing about it. therefore. the preposition determines the case. When a relative pronoun follows a preposition. Das is der Mantel. den dem die die der das das dem Plural die die denen dessen deren dessen deren Examples Der Fluss. The preposition and pronoun always stay together as one unit as well. mit der ich dich gesehen haben? Who was the woman. The dog that I saw last week was Julia's. Mein Vater ist der einzige Mensch. My father is the only person. to whom I nothing about it told have. Der Hund. Dat. dem ich nichts davon erzählt habe.) The conjugated verb goes to the end of the sentence as well. The river that flows through Vienna is called the Danube. der Acc.

However. auf dem Tisch (on the table) becomes darauf (on it) in der Tasche (in the pocket) becomes darin (in it) vor der Schule (in front of the school) becomes davor (in front of it) hinter den Häusern (behind the houses) becomes dahinter (behind them) zwischen dem Haus und der Schule (between the house and the school) becomes dazwischen (between them) Da(r) Compounds daraus damit davon dazu dadurch dafür out of it/them with it/them from it/them to it/them through it/them for it/them dagegen darin daran darauf dahinter davor against it/them in it/them in it/them on top of it/them behind it/them in front of it/them darüber darunter daneben over it/them underneath it/them next to it/them dazwischen between it/them dabei darum on me/you that's why Note: Dabei and darum are idioms. Ohne. when you need to refer to a thing. Not all prepositions + pronouns can be replaced by the da(r) compounds.if the preposition begins with a vowel) plus the preposition is used. and seit can never form a da(r) compound. That's why you have no luck.(or dar. ausser.Personal pronouns are used after prepositions when referring to people. Hast du Geld dabei? Do you have any money on you? Darum hast du kein Glück. and here are others that cannot: ohnedies bis dahin seit dem without it until then since stattdessen trotzdem deswegen instead nevertheless for that reason ausserdem besides währenddessen in the meanwhile . a compound using da.

I'm thinking about it.as the prefix. = Die Stadt. hat viel gekostet. er) das Kaninchen (-) die Katze (n) das Katzchen (-) die Kuh (ü. I'm talking about it. e) die Henne (n) der Adler (-) das Kücken (-) die Ameise (n) die Biene (n) die Fliege (n) die Heuschrecke (n) die Motte(n) die Mücke (n) . in der wir wohnen. has a large concert hall. = Die Uhr. womit er reist. worin wir wohnen. Die Uhr. The city.There are also corresponding questions word that use wo(r). Mit ihr! With her! Wo compounds can also be used as shortcuts for the relative pronouns because you do not need to the know the gender or case to form the relative pronoun. Animals animal Bear squirrel Fox Hare Dog Calf Rabbit Cat Kitten Cow Lion Mouse Horse das Tier (e) der Bär (en) das Eichhörnchen (-) der Fuchs (ü. cost a lot. mit der er reist. The watch. and use a preposition and the corresponding personal pronoun to answer. e) die Hase (n) der Hund (e) das Kalb (ä. hat ein großes Konzerthaus. use a preposition and wen/wem. hat viel gekostet. with which he travels. Ich denke daran. in which we live. e) das Pferd (e) bull wolf worm bird rooster hen eagle chick ant bee fly grasshopper moth mosquito der Stier (e) der Wolf (ö. Worüber sprechen Sie? What are you talking about? Woran denkst du? What are you thinking about? Mit wem gehst du ins Theater? Who are you going to the Theater with? Ich spreche darüber. hat ein großes Konzerthaus. e) der Löwe (n) die Maus (ä. Die Stadt. e) der Wurm (ü. er) der Vogel (ö) der Hahn (ä. When asking about people. This shortcut can only be used with things and not people. Wo(r) can be substituted in all of the above da(r) compounds. 68.

Ich spiele nicht gern Basketball. Past perfect: Ich hatte in Wiesbaden gewohnt. Ich habe Julia am liebsten. Or just use haben with any of the four phrases for general likes/dislikes. but it becomes the subject in German. And of course. 70. Past Perfect Tense The Past Perfect Tense or Pluperfect corresponds to the English had + past participle and refers to something that had already happened when something else happened. I don't like to play Basketball.Rat Turtle Snake die Ratte (n) die Schildkröte (n) die Schlange (n) butterfly spider der Schmetterling (e) die Spinne (n) 69. To use it correctly. It literally means to please. Das Zimmer is the object in English. And the object in German (mir) would become the subject in English (I). Ich habe das Restaurant nicht gern. lieber. Ich spiele gern Fussball. you could always just use the verb mögen to express likes and dislikes. I don't like the restaurant. I like to play soccer. Ich habe Fussball gern. Likes and Dislikes Use the words gern. The room pleases me. I like to play tennis most of all. I like soccer. I like Julia most of all. . you must switch the object in English with the subject in German. nicht gern. Ich spiele lieber Hockey Ich spiele am liebsten Tennis. It consists of the imperfect of haben or sein and a past participle and is comparable to the present perfect tense. Gefallen is another verb used for expressing likes. It is always in the dative case in German. I prefer to play hockey. I (have) lived in Wiesbaden. I like the room. German sentence Literally Translated Das Zimmer gefällt mir. Present perfect: Ich habe in Wiesbaden gewohnt. I had lived in Wiesbaden. and am liebsten after a verb to express preferences.

2. In sentences with dependent clauses (phrases that have a subject and verb but cannot stand alone as sentences). (followed by past tense) Whenever he comes.. Then the verb is still in the second position. I want to go home. (followed by future tense) Ich weiß. the order is subject .. I don't know when (or at what time) he's coming. I'm going to school tomorrow by bus. Wenn er kommt. When he comes.. 3. If he comes.) Als is used in past time contexts for a single event.place. and wann is an adverb of time or a question word and can be used in declarative sentences. I believed you. Ich will nach Hause gehen. but the subject follows it... Sometimes another element begins a sentence instead of a subject. Als. the conjugated verb goes to the end of the sentence.verb . such .manner . Ich gehe morgen mit dem Bus in die Schule.Present perfect: Was ist passiert? What (has) happened? Past perfect: Was war passiert? What had happened? 71. wenn and wann All three words correspond to when and act as subordinating conjunctions (therefore. as well as in future time. Tomorrow I'm going to school by bus. the verb in the dependent clause is last.. Review of Word Order 1. 72. 4. Ich habe dir geglaubt. In sentences with more than one verb or with past participles. wann er kommt. In most sentences. Kann ich jetzt gehen? Can I go now? 5. When I found him.. Dependent clauses are introduced with a comma and certain conjunctions.. the conjugated verb remains in the normal position and the infinitive or past participle goes to the end of the sentence... Morgen gehe ich mit dem Bus in die Schule. Als ich ihn fand. When asking questions..time . you can usually just invert the subject and verb. wenn is used to mean whenever or if.

bis-until. following the infinitive. If you have both direct and indirect pronouns in your sentence. and wie-how. However. 6. I stay in bed when I am sick. or implies something is obvious emphasis emphasis . these conjunctions use normal word order: und-and. Ich bleibe im Bett. therefore the subject and verb in the following clause are inverted. So basically the only time the accusative is placed before the dative is when the accusative is a pronoun. aber-but. I stay in bed. wenn-if/when. Doch Ja Aber yes. When I am sick. 8. wenn ich krank bin. remember that if the direct object is a noun it is placed after the indirect object. Er ist müde. ob-whether. He is tired when he must get up early. He is always tired when he gets up early. dass-that. Ich schenke meinem Bruder eine Krawatte. obwohl-although. wenn er früh aufsteht. the modal goes last. Flavoring Particles German has many words that cannot be translated literally into English. da-since. 7. oder-or. 9. Ich schenke sie meinem Bruder. used for persuasion. If the direct object is a pronoun. it acts as an element. 73. nachdem-after. If there is a separable prefix verb in a dependent clause. it goes before the indirect object. denn-for/because. bleibe ich im Bett. I give it to my brother. and the entire verb goes to the end of the sentence. wenn er früh aufstehen muss. damit-so that. Er ist immer müde. whereas normally the prefix would go to the end. weil-because. I give my brother a tie. während-while. bevor-before. And when a dependent clause begins a sentence. of course really is it ever counteracts negative statement. When there are two verbs in a dependent clause (such as a modal and an infinitive).as als-when. Wenn ich krank bin. the prefix remains attached to the verb. These words are mostly for emphasis.

sometime. by her singing the Lorelei has done. he sees not the rocky reef edge. Ich glaube. Ihr gold'nes Geschmeide blitzet Sie kämmt ihr gold'nes Haar. The breeze is cool and it darkens. was soll es bedeuten Daß ich so traurig bin. her golden jewelry flashes she combs her golden hair. just Mal Die Lorelei Heinrich Heine Ich weiß nicht. or adds emphasis to question immediacy used in suggestions.Denn well then gerade right now nur. the peak of the mountain sparkles with evening's setting sun. Sie kämmt es mit gold'nem Kamme Und singt ein Lied dabei. The fairest maiden sits perched right up there wondrously. Der Gipfel des Berges funkelt Im Abendsonnenschein. Die Luft ist kühl und es dunkelt. The sailor in tiny vessel is seized with a savage woe. he looks only up toward the height. Und das hat mit ihrem Singen Die Lorelei getan. I think that the waves have devoured at last the sailor and boat. die Wellen verschlingen Am Ende Schiffer und Kahn. Ein Märchen aus alten Zeiten Das kommt mir nicht aus dem Sinn. what it is portending that I am so depressed. Und ruhig fließt der Rhein. Er schaut nicht die Felsenriffe. Die schönste Jungfrau sitzet Dort oben wunderbar. Er schaut nur hinauf in die Höh'. bloss only. Den Schiffer im kleinen Schiffe ergreift es mit wildem Weh. Das hat eine wundersame Gewaltige Melodei. or softens commands I know not. . and peaceful flows the Rhine. a legend from olden days past will not leave my mind alone. She combs with a comb all golden and thus she sings a song. someday indicates impatience. that has a mysteriously tyrannical melody. and that's the deed.

"It" has no real meaning in the first sentence. Three children are coming today. Es kommen heute drei Kinder. Everything is fine. Es begins the sentence.Last Update: Wednesday 31 July. She makes her judgments rather quickly.) Alles ist in Butter. daß er sich vor nichts fürchtet. I can't believe that he's not afraid of anything.) . Er haßt es. Es can also be used to anticipate a dependent clause or infinitive phrase. it's raining). Colloquial Expressions and Idioms In informal speech and writing. Other idioms: Sie ist mit ihrem Urteil immer sehr schnell bei der Hand. (Literally: She is quick at hand with her judgments. Geht es = geht's Es is also used as an impersonal pronoun (es regnet. He hates not knowing anything about it. and the true subject follows the verb. (Literally: Everything is in butter. This is almost like in English when we say I hate it when that happens instead of I hate when that happens. 2002 74. but it is not incorrect to say it. Ich kann es nicht glauben. but it can also be used as an introductory word for emphasis or stylistic reasons. No one is at home. es is commonly contracted with the preceding word by 's. nichts davon zu wissen. Es ist niemand zu Hause.

Frankfurt (a city) Frankfurter (a person from Frankfurt) The suffix -in This suffix designates a female person and is added to the male counterpart. All nouns ending in -ung are feminine. The definite article precedes the adjective. der Alte . and is used to form adjectives and adverbs from nouns.the old woman . the prefix un.die Wanderung (the hike) The suffix -er This suffix designates a person is from a certain place.the old man die Alte . wandern (to hike) .Architektin (female architect) 76.Er geht mit dem kopf durch die Wand. (Literally: He goes with his head through the wall. Architekt (male architect) . and using the gender of the last word.kindhaft (childlike) The suffix -ung This suffix may be added to the stem of a verb to form a noun. das Kind (the child) . The adjectival nouns take the regular adjective endings for adjectives preceded by a der word as well. He does as he pleases. which is now capitalized because it is functioning as a noun.gives a word a negative or opposite meaning. adjectives can sometimes be used as nouns. Die Woche (week) + der Tag (day) = der Wochentag (Days of the week) The prefix unAs in English.endlos (endless) The suffix -haft The suffix -haft is used to form adjectives from nouns so as to designate related qualities.) 75.unklar (unclear) The suffix -los This suffix is often the equivalent of the English suffix -less. klar (clear) . Word Formation Noun compounds German uses compounds more often than English and they are formed by simply putting the two words together (sometimes adding an -n or -s in between). Adjectival Nouns When referring to people. das Ende (the end) .

However. Welches Datum is heute? What is today's date? Heute ist der neunte Oktober. if agent is mentioned . You must use the construction am + -en to answer a question beginning with Wann? But you use the construction der + -e to answer the question Welches Datum? Wann sind Sie geboren? When were you born? Am achzehnten Mai. On February 2nd would be am 2. active verb to a tense of werden plus the past participle of verb in active sentence 3.everything that is old die Alten . and -ste for 20 and up.the old people 77. The exceptions are erste. just add -te to the cardinal numbers for 1-19. siebte. dritte.das Alte . accusative object of active sentence to nominative subject of passive sentence 2. On May 18th. when saying this out loud. you would say am zweiten Februar. Februar. subject to von + dative object in the passive sentence. Ordinal Numbers To form the ordinal numbers. Passive Voice To change a sentence from the active to the passive. Today is October ninth. 78. first third fourth fifth sixth eighth ninth tenth erste dritte vierte fünfte sechste achte neunte zehnte eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth elfte zwölfte dreizehnte vierzehnte fünfzehnte sechzehnte achtzehnte neunzehnte zwanzigste second zweite seventh siebte seventeenth siebzehnte In writing dates. German uses the number followed by a period. change three things: 1. and achte.

Present Tense Viele Studenten lesen diesen Roman.). = Dieser Roman wurde von vielen Studenten gelesen. This . = This novel is read by many students. Present Perfect Tense Viele Studenten haben diesen Roman gelesen. Problems with the Passive False Passive Grammatically. Many students read this novel. etc. Imperfect Tense Viele Studenten lasen diesen Roman. the actual construction is Das Haus hat verkauft werden müssen because of the double infinitive construction. = This novel will be read by many students. Past Perfect Tense Viele Studenten hatten diesen Roman gelesen. but it cannot be used if preceded by a limiting word (such as an article or adjective. = Dieser Roman ist von vielen Studenten gelesen worden. Many students had read this novel. = This novel has been read by many students. but you only need to worry about these in the present perfect and past perfect tenses. = This novel had been read by many students. = Dieser Roman wird von vielen Studenten gelesen. Future Tense Viele Studenten werden diesen Roman lesen.) Passive with modals Shifts in tense will only affect the modal part of the sentence. The infinitive forms of the past participles are used with modals in the passive voice as well. = Dieser Roman war von vielen Studenten gelesen worden. Durch can replace von when the agent is an impersonal force (fire. the past participle of werden is worden and not geworden. wind. 79. the false passive is the same as sein + an adjective. = This novel was read by many students. Double infinitives always go to the end of the sentence. *Notice that in the passive voice. Many students have read this novel. Many students will read this novel. Many students read this novel. = Dieser Roman wird von vielen Studenten gelesen werden. And where you might expect something like Das Haus hat werden müssen verkauft.

there would be no accusative object. you. This blouse is being dry-cleaned Man reinigt diese Bluse. such as a dative object or time expression. We can't remove the stain. while the true passive indicates the house is in the process of being sold (action). they. Sein + zu + an infinitive can be used with können or müssen to express the possibility or necessity of an action. That can be done quickly. we. They are dry-cleaning this blouse. (Here werden agrees with the apparent subject. Diese Bluse wird gereinigt. people and constitutes the subject. Man + modal + an infinitive is frequently used with müssen or können. Avoiding the Passive 1. Das Haus ist verkauft is the false passive. Man translates to one. The stain cannot be removed. but if it were turned into the passive. 4. The thief was caught Man fand den Dieb. Passive with Absentee Subjects Passive forms may have a definite or indefinite subject. 80. Das kann schnell gemacht werden. can be put in the first position. then es is omitted. Man antwortet ihnen nicht is an active sentence. es is used as the subject. But sometimes there is no accusative object. Since a verb cannot be in the first position of sentence without turning the sentence into a question. or no apparent subject at all.construction describes a condition rather than an action. The passive would have to be es wird ihnen nicht geantwortet. 3. while das Haus wird verkauft is the true passive. The construction man + an active verb can be used instead of the passive voice. . Sich lassen + an infinitive can replace können and a passive infinitive.) But if another element. es. There is no apparent subject. They caught the thief. The accusative object of an active sentence becomes the nominative subject of the passive sentence. Das ist schnell zu machen. Den Flecken kann man nicht entfernen. only an implied es. Ihnen wird nicht geantwortet can also be used as the passive. That is quickly done. so the form of werden remains wird to agree with es. 2. Der Flecken kann nicht entfernt werden. The false passive sentence indicates that the house is already sold (condition). Der Dieb wurde gefunden.

Das läßt sich machen. Post Office and Bank letter postcard stamp der Brief die Postkarte die Briefmarke teller bill check der Kassierer (in) der Schein der Scheck die Schachtel der Videorecorder die Kamera die Videokamera der Film die Uhr das Taschentuch das Parfüm der Geldbeutel das Radio das Rasiermesser die Größe die Abteilung die Glückwunschkarte . 82. in order to not freeze. 81. so that she won't freeze . and um…zu when the understood subject of the infinitive is the same as the subject of the main clause. Sie macht das Fenster zu.Das kann gemacht werden. damit sie nicht friert. Shopping box VCR camera video camera film watch handkerchief perfume wallet radio razor size department (in store) greeting card 83. damit and um…zu (so that. Damit is also followed by a dependent clause. in order to) show the goal of an action. Showing Purpose Weil (because) + a dependent clause shows the reason for an action. That can be done. = Sie macht das Fenster zu. however. She closes the window. Commonly. you use damit when the subject of the main clause is different from the subject of the dependent clause. um nicht zu frieren. That can be done. whereas um…zu introduces an infinitive. = She closes the window.

. while ohne. durch die Stadt zu fahren. If a separable prefix is used in the infinitive.phone booth mailbox mail slot address return address label packing tape package postmark die Telefonzelle der Briefkasten der Briefeinwurf die Adresse der Absender das Etikett das Paketklebeband das Paket der Poststempel checkbook ATM key lock filing cabinet safety deposit box notepad credit card das Scheckbuch der Geldautomat die Schlüssel das Schloß der Aktenschrank das Bankschließfach der Notizblock rubber band das Gummiband ink pad string das Stempelkissen die Schnur die Kreditkarte die security camera Überwachungsanlage security guard die Wache drive-thru der Autoschalter window safe der Tresor 84. (Um. Sein + zu + an infinitive are used the same way in English and German. without looking at me. ohne and anstatt can be used with zu as well. the zu is inserted between the prefix and the stem. but the construction is far more common in German. Zu with Infinitives Infinitives are usually preceded by zu except when modals are used... Statt hier zu sitzen. Hast du Lust. Instead of sitting here. and translated as present participles in English. Es ist zu früh.zu are used with infinitives. ohne mich anzusehen. She said it. zu is used to indicate purpose. It takes a long time to drive through the city. Sie sagte es.) Er kam.. Um. .. sollten wir ihn suchen. Um. He came in order to pick up the book. sich aufzustehen..zu and anstatt.zu must be used instead of just zu when the English equivalent "in order to" can be used sensibly. They introduce infinitival clauses. um das Buch abzuholen. den Dom zu besichtigen? Do you feel like visiting the cathedral? Es dauert lange. It is too early to get up.. we should look for him.

Office / School Supplies compact disc disc document computer monitor keyboard mouse printer memo paper photocopier typewriter software file cabinet briefcase die Compact Disc die Diskette das Dokument der Komputer der Monitor die Tastatur die Maus der Drucker die Mitteilung das Papier das Fotokopiergerät die Schreibmaschine die Software die Akten der Schrank die Aktentasche calculator eraser notebook folder colored pencil ruler pencil sharpener pencil pen scissors glue binder chalk chalkboard backpack stapler der Rechner der Radiergummi das Heft der Prospekt der Buntstift das Lineal der Spitzer der Bleistift der Kuli die Schere der Klebstoff der Ordner die Kreide die Tafel der Rucksack die Heftmaschine 86. The genitive case is used to express indefinite time. Wir müssen am Sonntag zurück. Three years ago it was just as cold here. in and vor are in the dative case. In der Nacht wird es kalt. Last Sunday I stayed home. Expressions of Time The accusative case is used to indicate definite time when no preposition is used. That can't be done. Das ist in jedem Laden zu finden. That can be found in any store. She's going to Germany next week.Das ist nicht zu machen. . Letzten Sonntag blieb ich zu Hause. We must return on Sunday. It gets cold at night. and may refer to the future or past. Time expressions with the prepositions an. Er hats uns voriges Jahr besucht. He visited us last year. 85. Sie fährt nächste Woche nach Deutschland. Vor drei Jahren war es hier genau so kalt.

as far as the (noun) across from the (noun) . Eines Morgens kommet er zu spät. One day he was sick. e) links rechts neben bei geradeaus along the (noun) over the (noun) past the (noun) up to. e) die Flugkarten das Gepäck der Koffer (-) der Handkoffer (-) der Pass (ä. 87. and ander. Sollen wir ein anderes Mal wiederkommen? Should we come again at another (a different) time? Möchtest du noch einen Raum anschauen? Would you like to look at another (one more) room? das Zollamt das Büro der Fluglinie das Reisebüro das Auskunftsbüro der Bahnhof (ö. Ein(e) ander.takes the adjective endings for adjectives preceded by ein words. One morning he'll be late.and noch ein.both mean another. e) die Abfahrt (en) die Ankunft (ü. but they cannot be used interchangeably. noun +) entlang über (+ acc. noun) an (noun) vorbei bis zu (noun) gegenüber von (noun) 88. Travelling / Airport Customs Office Airline Office Travel Agency Information Office Train Station departure arrival flight tickets baggage bag suitcase passport left right next (to) near straight ahead (acc.Eines Tages war er krank. Noch ein means one more. Another Ein(e) ander.means a different one.

and adds the following endings: -e -en -est -et -e -en haben hätte hätten hättest hättet hätte hätten sein wäre wären wärest wäret wäre wären werden würde würden würdest würdet würde würden Some exceptions include: Imperfect Subjunctive II brachte dachte durfte brächte dächte dürfte ...89. For weak (regular) verbs. The present tense of Subjunctive II is derived from the imperfect tense of the indicative. adds an umlaut where possible.. Cosmetics / Toiletries toothbrush toothpaste dental floss hair brush comb shampoo curling iron razor mousse die Zahnbürste die Zahnpasta der Zahnfaden die Bürste der Kamm das Shampoo der Lockenstab das Rasiermesser der Schaum hair spray der Haarfestiger hair dryer der Fön nail polish der Nagellack mascara lipstick powder soap makeup perfume cologne das Maskara der Lippenstift der Puder die Seife die Schminke das Parfüm das Kölnisch Wasser shaving cream die Rasiercreme 90. the subjunctive II is identical to the imperfect tense.then (wenn. Subjunctive II or General Subjunctive This subjunctive mood is used to make statements that are contrary to fact. the present tense of the subjunctive II takes the past tense stem of the imperfect.. Subjunctive II or the general subjunctive is used with if. dann) statements and conditional sentences. For strong (irregular) verbs. instead of factual statements that are made in the indicative mood. Subjunctive I or special subjunctive is a less common mood that is used with indirect discourse. There are two forms of the German subjunctive: Subjunctive II and Subjunctive I.

then he'll come tomorrow. Kommt er heute nicht. It is composed of a form of the subjunctive of sein or haben and a past participle. wenn disappears and dann may be replaced by so. However. stehen. dann wäre ich ins Kino gegangen. nennen. Dann can be omitted in these sentences also. and forces the conjugated verb to the end of the clause. Wenn clauses may be introduced by a verb. II: Wenn ich Zeit gehabt hätte. then (wenn. II: Wenn ich Zeit hätte. and in this case.konnte mochte sollte wollte mußte hatte wußte könnte möchte sollte wollte müßte hätte wüßte The past tense of Subjunctive II is derived from the past perfect tense of the indicative. A conditional sentence may begin with the dann clause as well.... Wir trinken den Kaffee nicht. this construction cannot be used with modal auxiliaries. wenn er zu heiß ist. and rennen. Conditional sentences These sentences are based on an if. Wenn ich Zeit dann ginge ich ins Kino. If I had time. werfen. brennen. (dann) ginge ich ins Kino. sterben. kennen. If I had time. If he's not coming today. These eight verbs use the würde construction in the wenn clause because the one word forms are archaic. If I had had time. but dann is never used and the clause uses normal word order. dann) pattern in both English and German. Present Subj. Remember that wenn is a subordinating conjunction. We don't drink coffee if it is too hot. Wenn clauses tend to avoid the würde construction. I would go to . Forms of würden + an infinitive Würde and an infinitive translate to would + infinitive and is more common than the one word form in the dann clause. (so) kommt er morgen. conversational German tends to replace many subjunctive II forms of strong verbs with the würde construction.. haben or sein. Moreover. except with these eight verbs: helfen. Past Subj. (then) I would go to the movies. (then) I would have gone to the movies.

please.) These three distinctions are quite subtle. Subjunctive I or Special Subjunctive The Subjunctive I form is used with indirect discourse when reporting what someone says in a formal. Was willst du? = What do you want? Was möchtest du? = What would you like? Hätte gern is also becoming common as a synonym for "would like" especially when ordering food. the subjunctive forms of mögen has become almost a synonym of wollen. dann würde ich ins Kino gehen. dann flöge ich nach Deutschland. . Wir hätten gern zwei Colas. the tendency is to avoid the subjunctive I and to choose instead between the indicative and subjunctive II. use the subjunctive II form of the modals. Deutschland fliegen. bitte. sie. 91. Wenn ich Geld hätte. In everyday conversation. Note that these polite forms are only limited to the modal verbs. Other uses of Subjunctive II To be more polite. while the subjunctive II can be used to imply the statement is open to question (since subjunctive II is used with contrary to fact statements. For this reason. although they are important. sein. I would fly to dann würde ich nach Germany. es könnte Könnten sie mir bitte helfen? Could you please help me? Dürfte ich Ihr Telefon benutzen? Could I use your phone? In modern German. haben and werden. impartial way. you may hear Würden Sie mir helfen? but never Hülfen Sie mir? 92. the movies. If I had money. Subjunctive II forms of modals können müssen dürfen sollen wollen mögen ich du wir ihr sie könnte müsste müsste müsstet dürfte dürfte dürftet sollte sollte wollte wollte möchte möchte möchtet könntest müsstest dürftest solltest wolltest möchtest könnten müssten dürften sollten wollten möchten könntet solltet wolltet könnten müssten dürften sollten wollten möchten er. The indicative can also be used to imply a statement of fact.hätte. = We would like two colas.

93. The future tense of Subjunctive I is just like the regular future tense in the indicative. Parts of a Car brake horn hood flat tire die Bremse (n) die Hupe (n) die Motorhaube (n) die Reifenpanne (n) wheel car traffic light highway das Rad (ä. It is composed of the subjunctive I form of haben or sein and a past participle. the subjunctive II forms must be used instead. then the indirect quotation will also be in subjunctive II. (Subjunctive I only has one tense when referring to past time. If the direct quotation is in any tense referring to past time in the indicative. er) der Wagen (-) die Ampel (n) die Autobahn (en) . then the future tense of subjunctive I is used.The present tense of Subjunctive I is derived from the present tense of the indicative and formed by adding the following endings to the stem of the verb. If the direct quotation is in the present tense of the indicative. The only difference is that werden uses the subjunctive I forms.) If the direct quotation is in the future tense. Note that the subjunctive I forms never have the stem vowel change found in their present indicative counterparts. The tense used in an indirect quotation is dependent upon the tense used in the direct quotation that underlies it. as compared to the three tenses of the indicative. In certain cases. then the indirect quotation must be in the present tense of the subjunctive I. then the indirect quotation is in the past tense of the subjunctive I. -e -en -est -et -e -en The only exception is sein. which has no endings in the ich and er forms: sei seien seiest seiet sei seien The past tense of Subjunctive I is derived from the present perfect tense of the indicative. If the original quotation is in subjunctive II. the subjunctive I forms and the indicative forms are identical. In this case.

gear trunk tire windshield wiper seat belt seat steering wheel parking space der Gang (ä. It usually functions as an adjective and takes the nomal adjective endings. In the Ocean scuba diver der Taucher wet suit flipper der Wasseranzug die Schwimmflosse shipwreck helm anchor der Schiffbruch der Helm der Anker oxygen tank der Lufttank snorkel mask starfish jellyfish der Schnorchel die Tauchermaske der Seestern die Qualle treasure chest die Schatzkiste barnacle coral seashell wave die Entenmuschel die Koralle die Muschel die Welle . Sometimes they are used like present participles in dependent clauses as in English. e) der Reifen (-) der Scheibenwischer (-) der Sicherheitsgurt (e) der Sitz (e) das Lenkrad (ä. er) die Parklücke (n) intersection (one-way) street pedestrian sidewalk traffic jam ticket (traffic) sign license plate die Kreuzung (en) die (Einbahn)straße (n) der Fussgänger (-) der Fussgängerweg (e) der Stau (s) der Strafzettel (-) das (Verkehrs)schild (er) das Nummernschild (er) 94. Present Participle To form the present participle. kochendes Wasser boiling water die führenden Kritiker the leading critics 95. simply add -d to the infinitive. but this is rare and almost never used in spoken German. e) der Kofferraum (ä.

" Both introduce a dependent clause. both require the subjunctive II. In Space astronaut space shuttle control panel satellite spaceship alien asteroid space suit lunar rover der Astronaut die Raumfähre die Kontrolltafel der Trabant das Raumschiff der Fremdling der Asteroid der Raumanzug das Mondfahrzeug beaker test tube galaxy Earth moon sun planet rings crater stars comet das Becherglas das Reagenzglas die Milchstraße die Erde der Mond die Sonne der Planet die Höfe der Krater die Sterne der Komet landing capsule das Landungsgerät space station die Raumstation .sea urchin sea horse seaweed fishing line fish hook der Seeigel sand das Seepferdchen bubble der Seetang clam die Angelschnur crab der Angelhaken die Krabbe die Muschel die Blase der Sand 96. they both mean "as if" or "as though. He acts as though he had nothing better to do. 97. Als ob / Als wenn The conjunctions als wenn and als ob are interchangeable. In addition. als wenn er nichts Besseres zu tun hätte. Als ob ich das nicht wüßte! As if I didn't know that! Er tut. so the conjugated verb must go to the end.

solar pannel

die Sonnenzellen

rocket robot nebula

die Rakete der Roboter der Nebelfleck

meteor shower der Meteorschwarm constellation solar system 98. Future Perfect das Sternbild das Sonnensystem

laboratory das Labor

The future perfect tense is comparable to the other perfect tenses. It is formed with the future of haben or sein, and the past participle. The future perfect deals with the future as if it were already past time (he will have done it), or it is used to imply probability (that was probably him.) The latter case commonly uses the past tense in English though. Er wird gegangen sein. He will have gone. Ich werde es genommen haben. I will have taken it. Es wird dunkel geworden sein. It will have become dark. Das wird Rudi gewesen sein. That will have been Rudi. / That was probably Rudi. When using modals, the future perfect tense can create the double infinitive construction, so make sure to put the double infinitive at the very end. Die Uhr wird sehr viel haben kosten müssen. 99. Make Believe Stuff dragon fairy elf giant tower knight squire der Drache die Fee der Elf der Riese der Turm der Ritter der Edelknabe unicorn shield sword lance ax das Einhorn der Schild das Schwert die Lanze das Beil

drawbridge die Zugbrücke crown die Krone

court jester der Hofnarr king minstrel armor dungeon moat castle der Minnesänger queen die Rüstung princess der Kerker prince der Burggraben throne das Schloß der Thron der Prinz die Prinzessin die Königin der König

100. Spelling Reform Recently, there has been a spelling reform of the German language. The following are a few points that have changed: 1. Write ss after a short vowel, and ß after a long vowel or diphthong. Please note that ß is not used in Switzerland or Liechtenstein and a lot of people don't pay attention to this rule anyway. Also, there is no capital letter that corresponds to the lower case ß, so it must be written as SS. 2. Words that are now capitalized: (auf) Deutsch, Mittag, Abend, Morgen, Recht haben, Leid tun… 3. The forms of Du (familiar you) are no longer capitalized in letters. 4. A comma is not necessary when two independent clauses are joined by und.

101. Review of Declensions of Nouns 1) Feminine Singular nouns remain unchanged in all Singular cases. Singular: Typewriter Street Nom. die Schreibmaschine die Straße Acc. die Schreibmaschine die Straße

Dat. Gen.

der Schreibmaschine der Straße der Schreibmaschine der Straße

2) All Neuter and most Masculine Singular add -s or -es (if one syllable) to Genitive Singular. Singular: Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen. Shoe der Schuh den Schuh dem Schuh des Schuhes Shirt das Hemd das Hemd dem Hemd des Hemdes

3) Masculine nouns that end in -e in Nom. Sing. and designate living things add -n to form both Singular and Plural for all cases. Lion(s) Singular Plural Nom. der Löwe die Löwen Acc. den Löwen die Löwen Dat. dem Löwen den Löwen Gen. des Löwen der Löwen 4) All Dative Plural either adds -n or -en. Man Woman Child Nom. Sing. der Mann die Frau das Kind Dat. Pl. den Männern den Frauen den Kindern 5) In Plurals of all declensions of all genders, the Nominative, Genitive, and Accusative Plural are the same. Forest Nom. Sing. der Wald Nom. Pl. die Wälder Acc. Pl. die Wälder Dat. Pl. den Wäldern Gen. Pl. der Wälder Pear die Birne die Birnen die Birnen den Birnen der Birnen

-er. -en to Dative Fruit (fem. der Vater die Väter Acc. -e. -ern to Dative Man/men (masc. den Vater die Väter Dat. Sing. unless it already ends in -s or -n. or an umlaut over the stem vowel with a final -e. half of feminine and neuter that are one syllable Group 3 -Singular follow rules -Plural adds umlaut to stem vowel and -er to Nominative. Most singular declensions can be formed from the first three rules above.Note: To form the Dative Plural. Plural Nom. Plural Nom. -r. Genitive. die Frucht die Früchte Acc.) Sing. then add nothing. -en. Some may add -n. -er. Genitive.) Sing. but plural nouns are more complex and irregular. end in -el. -en. die Frucht die Früchte Dat. and Accusative. des Vaters der Väter Nouns belonging to this group: Most nouns whose Nom.) Sing. and some nouns do not change from singular to plural. der Frucht den Früchten Gen. add -n or -en to the Nominative Plural. der Frucht der Früchte Nouns belonging to this group: Masculine that are one syllable.and end with -e Group 2 -Singular follows rules -Plural sometimes adds umlaut to stem vowel and -e to Nominative. Plural . Group 1 -Singular follows rules -Plural adds umlaut to stem vowel and -n to all datives Father(s) (masc. dem Vater den Vätern Gen. and Accusative. and neuter nouns that begin with Ge.

Accusative. Plural Nom. das Auto die Autos Acc. Plural Nom. no feminine nouns Group 4 -Singular adds -en to all Masculine Dative. and das Hotel. das Auto die Autos Dat. such as das Radio. dem Auto den Autos Gen. most masculine that denote living things. may add -en to Accusative Singular -All plural add -en Heart(s) Name(s) .Nom. no neuter nouns Group 5 -Add -s to Genitive Singular -Add -s to all plural forms Auto(s) (neu. dem Studenten den Studenten Gen. Group 6 . Acc. Plural die Frau die Frauen die Frau die Frauen der Frau den Frauen der Frau der Frauen Nouns belonging to this group: Most feminine that are more than one syllable. der Mann den Mann dem Mann des Mannes die Männer die Männer den Männern der Männer Nouns belonging to this group: Many neuter that are one syllable. Feminine follows rule -Plural adds -n or -en to all forms Student (s) Sing. des Studenten der Studenten Woman/Women Sing. Dat. Gen. der Student die Studenten Acc. des Autos der Autos Nouns belonging to this group: Foreign origin words. and Genitive. das Restaurant.) Sing. den Studenten die Studenten Dat.Irregular -Add -ns or -ens to Genitive Singular -Add -en to Dative Singular.

des Herzens Plural die Herzen die Herzen den Herzen der Herzen Sing. das Herz Acc.Mixed -Add -s or -es for Genitive Singular -Add -n or -en for all plural Bed(s) (neu. dem Bett den Betten Gen. Nom. dem Herzen Gen. das Bett die Betten Dat.) Sing. Plural Nom.Sing. des Bettes der Betten . der Name den Namen dem Namen des Namens Plural die Namen die Namen den Namen der Namen Group 7 . das Herz Dat. das Bett die Betten Acc.

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