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Computer operating systems and harware

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Contents
Articles
User:Rajah2770 Computer Linux Microsoft Windows Novell Macintosh MS-DOS ATI Technologies Nvidia Intel Corporation Advanced Micro Devices Sony Computer Entertainment IBM Samsung Electronics HCL Enterprise Wipro Technologies Infosys Zenith Computers Micro-Star International MSI protocol University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute Centre for Development of Advanced Computing 1 6 25 39 49 60 78 87 94 106 125 137 145 160 175 177 181 187 189 190 192 194

References
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 198 207

Article Licenses
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User:Rajah2770

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User:Rajah2770
Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika
Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika
[[File:File:Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika & his two kids.jpg||alt=]] Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika with Laquit(son) and Danisha(daughter) Born Residence Nationality Ethnicity Citizenship Education Alma mater Azad Bin Rajib HazarikaJuly 2, 1970Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India Nagaon, Assam, India Indian AssameseMuslim India PhD, PDF, FRAS University of Jodhpur Jai Narayan Vyas University [1] Institute of Advanced Study in Science & Technology [2] Kendriya Vidyalaya [3] Poona College of Arts, Science &Commerce Assistant Professor(Lecturer), Diphu Govt. College , Diphu,Assam,India 2004- onwards Diphu Government College Government of Assam,Assam Education Service Lecturer ,Assistant Professor,Mathematician,Academician,Fusion,Astronomy Nagaon, Assam, India Rs 40000 per month 6 feet and 2 inches 100 kg Doctorate, Dr., FRAS (London), Assam Education Service, AES Member of Scientific and Technical committee & Editorial review board of Natuaral and Applied sciences World Academy of [4] Science ,Engineering & Technology Sunni Islam, Helmin Begum Hazarika Laquit Ali Hazarika(son), Danisha Begum Hazarika(daughter) Rosmat Ali Hazarika@Rostam Ali Hazarika@Roufat Ali Hazarika and Anjena Begum Hazarika Drabrh or Raja Website [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]

Occupation Years active Employer

Known for Home town Salary Height Weight Title Board member of Religion Spouse Children Parents Call-sign

User:Rajah2770

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Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika with Laquit (son) and Danisha(daughter)

Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika (born July 02, 1970, in Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India) is Assistant Professor(Lecturer) Diphu Government College ,Diphu in Karbi Anglong district , Government of Assam [10] , [11] , Karbi Anglong,Assam's largest conglomerate by Government of Assam . He is also the Fellow of Royal Astronomical Society[12] ,London ,Member of International Association of Mathematical Physics, World Academy of Science ,Engineering & Technology, Focus Fusion Society, Dense Plasma Focus, Plasma Science Society of India, Assam Science Society, Assam academy of mathematics,International Atomic Energy Agency,Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society,Society of Industrial and Applied Mathematics,German Academy of Mathematics and Mechanics,Fusion Science & Technology Society,Indian National Science Academy,Indian Science Congress Association,Advisory Committee of Mathematical Education,Royal Society,International Biographical Centre.

Early life
Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika was born into the famous Hazarika family, a prominent family belonging to Dhing's wealthy Muslim Assamese community of Nagaon district. He was born to Anjena Begum Hazarika and Rusmat Ali Hazarika. He is eldest of two childrens of his parents younger one is a Shamim Ara Rahman(nee Hazarika)daughter .

Early career
Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika completed his PhD degree in Mathematics from J N Vyas University of Jodhpur in 1995 with specialization in Plasma instability, the thesis was awarded “best thesis” by Association of Indian Universities in 1998 and the Post-Doctoral Fellow Program from Institute of Advanced Study in Science & Technology [13] in Guwahati Assam in 1998 as Research Associate in Plasma Physics Division in theory group studying the Sheath phenomenon. As a Part-time Lecturer in Nowgong college, Assam before joining the present position in Diphu Government College ,Diphu in Karbi Anglong district[14] ,[15] He is a member of the wikipedia[16] , [17] . He is Fellow of Royal Astronomical Society[18] ,member of International Association Mathematical Physics[19] , member of World Academy of Science,Engineering & Technology [20] ,[21] , member of Plasma science Society of India [22] , [23] ,member of Focus Fusion Society forum [24] ,member of Dense Plasma Focus [25] , Member of Assam Science Society [26] , Member of Assam Academy of Mathematics [27]

User:Rajah2770 He joined the Diphu Government College in July2004 as Lecturer in Mathematics (Gazetted officer), through Assam Public Service commission [28] in Assam Education Service [29] , AES-I. [30] now redesignated as Assistant Professor.

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Career
In May 1993, Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika was awarded Junior Research Fellowship,University Grants Commission, National Eligibility Test and eligibility for Lecturership ,Govt. of India and worked as JRF(UGC,NET) in Department of Mathematics and Statistics of J N Vyas University in Jodhpur. Later on in May 1995 got Senior Research Fellowship(UGC,NET) and continued research for completion of PhD on 27th Dec 1995 .From 1993 onwards taught in Kamala Nehru College for women, Jodhpur and in Faculty of Science in J N Vyas University in Jodhpur up to the completion of PhD .In 1998 May joined Plasma Physics Division of Institute of Advanced Study in Science & Technology in Guwahati as Research Associate for PDF in theory group to study the sheath phenomena of National Fusion Programme [31] of Govt. of India . Then joined Nowgong College as a part-time Lecturer after which in 2004, July joined the present position of Lecturer in Diphu Government College which is redesignated as Assistant Professor.

Research
During PhD [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] The research was based on Astronomy,Astrophysics, Geophysics , for plasma instability with the title of thesis as “Some Problems of instabilities in partially ionized and fully ionized plasmas” which later on in 1998 was assessed as best thesis of the year by Association of Indian Universities in New Delhi. He is known for Bhatia-Hazarika limitResearch at Diphu Govt. College [37] , [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] Applied for patent in US patent and trademarks office [45] [46] Research guidance is given to students in Mathematics for MPhil. He has written six books entitled Inventions of Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika on future devices and Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika's Pattern recognition on fusion ,Application of Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika's conceptual devices , Green tecnology for next genration , Invention of Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika's devices ,VASIMR DANISHA:A Hall Thruster Space Odyssey ,[47] , [48] , [49] He has derived a formula Hazarika's constant for VASIMR DANISHA as Hazarika constant Ch=1+4sin3φ sin θ-2sin φ-2sin θ the value is 2.646

Personal life
Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika has a metallic Scarlet red Tata Indigo CS of Tata motors make and loves to drive himself.He is married to Helmin Begum Hazarika and have two chidrens Laquit(son) and Danisha(daughter).

Quotes
• • • • • • "Fakir(saint) and lakir(line) stops at nothing but at destination" "Expert criticizes the wrong but demonstrates the right thing" “Intellectuals are measured by their brain not by their age and experience” “Two type of persons are happy in life one who knows everything another who doesn’t know anything” “Implosion in device to prove every notion wrong for fusion” “Meditation gives fakir(saint) long life and fusion devices the long lasting confinement”

User:Rajah2770

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Awards and recognition
Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika got Junior Research Fellowship,Government of India Senior Research Fellowship,Government of India Research AssociateshipDSTGovernment of India Fellowof Royal Astronomical Society [50] Member of Advisory committee of Mathematical Education Royal Society London Member of Scientific and Technical committee & editorial review board on Natural and applied sciences of World Academy of Science ,Engineering &Technology [51] Leading professional of the world-2010 as noted and eminent professional from International Biographical Centre Cambridge

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www. iasst. in http:/ / www. kvafsdigaru. org http:/ / www. akipoonacollege. com http:/ / www. waset. org/ NaturalandAppliedSciences. php?page=45 http:/ / www. facebook. com/ Drabrajib http:/ / in. linkedin. com/ pub/ dr-a-b-rajib-hazarika/ 25/ 506/ 549

[7] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Special:Contributions/ Drabrh [8] http:/ / www. diphugovtcollege. org [9] http:/ / www. karbianglong. nic. in/ diphugovtcollege. org/ teaching. html [10] http:/ / www. karbianglong. nic. in/ diphugovtcollege/ teaching. html [11] http:/ / www. diphugovtcollege. org/ DGC%20prospectus%2008-09. pdf [12] http:/ / www. ras. org. uk/ member?recid==5531 [13] http:/ / www. iasst. in [14] {{cite web|url=http:/ / www. diphugovtcollege. org/ DGC%20prospectus%2008-09. pdf [15] http:/ / karbianglong. nic. in/ diphugovtcollege/ teaching. html [16] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ User:Drabrh [17] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Special:Contributions/ Drabrh [18] http:/ / www. ras. org. uk/ member?recid=5531, [19] http:/ / www. iamp. org/ bulletins/ old-bulletins/ 201001. pdf [20] http:/ / www. waset. org/ NaturalandAppliedSciences. php?page=45 [21] http:/ / www. waset. org/ Search. php?page=68& search= [22] http:/ / www. plasma. ernet. in/ ~pssi/ member/ pssi_new04. doc [23] http:/ / www. ipr. res. in/ ~pssi/ member/ pssidir_new-04. doc [24] http:/ / www. focusfusion. org/ index. php/ forums/ member/ 4165 [25] http:/ / www. denseplasmafocus. org/ index. php/ forum/ member/ 4165 [26] http:/ / www. assamsciencesociety. org/ member [27] http:/ / www. aam. org. in/ member/ 982004 [28] http:/ / apsc. nic. in [29] http:/ / aasc. nic. in/ . . . / Education%20Department/ The%20Assam%20Education%20Service%20Rules%201982. pdf [30] (http:/ / www. diphugovtcollege. org/ DGC prospests 08-09. pdf) [31] http:/ / nfp. pssi. in [32] http:/ / www. iopscience. iop. org/ 1402-4896/ 51/ 6/ 012/ pdf/ physcr_51_6_012. pdf [33] http:/ / www. iopsciences. iop. org/ 1402-4896/ 53/ 1/ 011/ pdf/ 1402-4896_53_1_011. pdf, [34] http:/ / www. niscair. res. in/ sciencecommunication/ abstractingjournals/ isa_1jul08. asp [35] http:/ / en. wiktionary. org/ wiki/ Wikitionary%3ASandbox [36] http:/ / adsabs. harvard. edu/ abs/ 1996PhyS. . 53. . . 578 [37] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Special:Contributions/ Drabrh/ File:Drabrhdouble_trios_saiph_star01. pdf [38] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ File:Drabrh_bayer_rti. pdf [39] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ File:Columb_drabrh. pdf [40] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ File:Drabrh_double_trios. pdf [41] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ File:Drabrhiterparabolic2007. pdf [42] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ File:Drabrh_mctc_feedbackloop. pdf [43] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ File:Drabrh_tasso_07. pdf

User:Rajah2770
[44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ File:Abstracts. pdf?page=2 http:/ / upload. wikimedia. org/ wikipedia/ en/ 5/ 50/ EfilingAck5530228. pdf http:/ / upload. wikimedia. org/ wikipedia/ en/ c/ c4/ EfilingAck3442787. pdf http:/ / www. pothi. com http:/ / i-proclaimbookstore. com http:/ / ipppserver. homelinux. org:8080/ view/ creators/ Hazarika=3ADr=2EA=2EB=2ERajib=3A=3A. html http:/ / www. ras. org. uk/ members?recid=5531 http:/ / www. waset. org/ NaturalandAppliedSciences. php?page=46

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External links
• (http://www.diphugovtcollege.org/) • Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika's profile on the Linkedin Website (http://in.linkedin.com/pub/dr-a-b-rajib-hazarika/25/ 506/549=) • (http://www.facebook.com/Drabrajib) Rajah2770 (talk) 18:12, 7 February 2011 (UTC)

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Computer
Computer

A computer is a programmable machine designed to sequentially and automatically carry out a sequence of arithmetic or logical operations. The particular sequence of operations can be changed readily, allowing the computer to solve more than one kind of problem. Conventionally a computer consists of some form of memory for data storage, at least one element that carries out arithmetic and logic operations, and a sequencing and control element that can change the order of operations based on the information that is stored. Peripheral devices allow information to be entered from external source, and allow the results of operations to be sent out. A computer's processing unit executes series of instructions that make it read, manipulate and then store data. Conditional instructions change the sequence of instructions as a function of the current state of the machine or its environment. The first electronic computers were developed in the mid-20th century (1940–1945). Originally, they were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs).[1] Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the early machines, and occupy a fraction of the space.[2] Simple computers are small enough to fit into mobile devices, and can be powered by a small battery. Personal computers in their various forms are icons of the Information Age and are what most people think of as "computers". However, the embedded computers found in many devices from MP3 players to fighter aircraft and from toys to industrial robots are the most numerous.

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History of computing
The first use of the word "computer" was recorded in 1613, referring to a person who carried out calculations, or computations, and the word continued with the same meaning until the middle of the 20th century. From the end of the 19th century onwards, the word began to take on its more familiar meaning, describing a machine that carries out computations.[3]

Limited-function early computers
The history of the modern computer begins with two separate technologies—automated calculation and programmability—but no single device can be identified as the earliest computer, partly because of the inconsistent application of that term. Examples of early mechanical calculating devices include the abacus, the slide rule and arguably the astrolabe and the Antikythera mechanism, an ancient astronomical computer built by the Greeks around 80 BC.[4] The Greek mathematician Hero of Alexandria (c. 10–70 AD) built a mechanical theater which performed a play lasting 10 minutes and was operated by a complex system of ropes and drums that might be considered to be a means of deciding which parts of the mechanism performed which actions and when.[5] This is the essence of programmability. The "castle clock", an astronomical clock invented by Al-Jazari in 1206, is considered to be the earliest programmable analog computer.[6] It displayed the zodiac, the solar and lunar orbits, a The Jacquard loom, on display at the Museum of crescent moon-shaped pointer travelling across a gateway causing Science and Industry in Manchester, England, automatic doors to open every hour,[7] [8] and five robotic musicians was one of the first programmable devices. who played music when struck by levers operated by a camshaft attached to a water wheel. The length of day and night could be re-programmed to compensate for the changing lengths of day and night throughout the year.[6] The Renaissance saw the invention of the mechanical calculator, a device that could perform all four arithmetic operations without relying on human intelligence, in 1642. The mechanical calculator was at the root of the development of computers in two separate ways ; initially, it is in trying to develop more powerful and more flexible calculators that the computer was first theorized (Charles Babbage, Alan Turing) and then developed (ABC, Z3, ENIAC...) leading to the development of mainframe computers, but also the microprocessor, which started the personal computer revolution, and which is now at the heart of all computers regardless of size or purpose, was invented serendipitously by Intel during the development of an electronic calculator, a direct descendant to the mechanical calculator.

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First general-purpose computers
In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard made an improvement to the textile loom by introducing a series of punched paper cards as a template which allowed his loom to weave intricate patterns automatically. The resulting Jacquard loom was an important step in the development of computers because the use of punched cards to define woven patterns can be viewed as an early, albeit limited, form of programmability. It was the fusion of automatic calculation with programmability that produced the first recognizable computers. In 1837, Charles Babbage was the first to conceptualize and design a fully programmable mechanical computer, his analytical engine.[11] Limited finances and Babbage's inability to resist tinkering with the design meant that the device was never completed ; nevertheless his son, Henry Babbage, completed a simplified version of the analytical engine's computing unit (the mill) in 1888. He gave a successful demonstration of its use in computing tables in 1906. This machine was given to the Science museum in South Kensington in 1910. In the late 1880s, Herman Hollerith invented the recording of data on a machine readable medium. Prior uses of machine readable media, above, had been for control, not data. "After some initial trials with paper tape, he settled on punched cards ..."[12] To process these punched cards he invented the tabulator, and the keypunch machines. These three inventions were the foundation of the modern information processing industry. Large-scale automated data processing of punched cards was performed for the 1890 United States Census by Hollerith's company, which later became the core of IBM. By the end of the 19th century a number of technologies that would later prove useful in the realization of practical computers had begun to appear: the punched card, Boolean algebra, the vacuum tube (thermionic valve) and the teleprinter. During the first half of the 20th century, many scientific computing needs were met by increasingly sophisticated analog computers, which used a direct mechanical or electrical model of the problem as a basis for computation. However, these were not programmable and generally lacked the versatility and accuracy of modern digital computers.

The Most Famous Image in the Early History of Computing From cave paintings to the internet HistoryofScience.comThis portrait of Jacquard was woven in silk on a Jacquard loom and required 24,000 punched cards to create (1839). It was only produced to order. Charles Babbage owned one of these portraits ; it inspired him in using perforated cards in his analytical engineSee: Anthony Hyman, ed., Science and Reform: Selected Works of Charles Babbage (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1989), page 298. It is in the collection of the Science Museum in London, England. (Delve (2007), page 99.)

Alan Turing is widely regarded to be the father of modern computer science. In 1936 Turing provided an influential formalisation of the concept of the algorithm and computation with the Turing machine, providing a blueprint for the electronic digital computer.[13] Of his role in the creation of the modern computer, Time magazine in naming Turing one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century, states: "The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard, opening a spreadsheet or a word-processing program, is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine".[13]

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The Atanasoff–Berry Computer (ABC) was among the first electronic digital binary computing devices. Conceived in 1937 by Iowa State College physics professor John Atanasoff, and built with the assistance of graduate student Clifford Berry,[14] the machine was not programmable, being designed only to solve systems of linear equations. The computer did employ parallel computation. A 1973 court ruling in a patent dispute found that the patent for the 1946 ENIAC computer derived from the Atanasoff–Berry Computer. The inventor of the program-controlled computer was Konrad Zuse, who built the first working computer in 1941 and later in 1955 the first computer based on magnetic storage.[15] George Stibitz is internationally recognized as a father of the modern digital computer. While working at Bell Labs in November 1937, Stibitz invented and built a relay-based calculator he dubbed the "Model K" (for "kitchen table", on which he had assembled it), which was the first to use binary circuits to perform an arithmetic operation. Later models added greater sophistication including complex arithmetic and programmability.[16] A succession of steadily more powerful and flexible computing devices were constructed in the 1930s and 1940s, gradually adding the key features that are seen in modern computers. The use of digital electronics (largely invented by Claude Shannon in 1937) and more flexible programmability were vitally important steps, but defining one point along this road as "the first digital electronic computer" is difficult.Shannon 1940 Notable achievements include. • Konrad Zuse's electromechanical "Z machines". The Z3 (1941) was the first working machine featuring binary arithmetic, including floating point arithmetic and a measure of programmability. In 1998 the Z3 was proved to be Turing complete, therefore being the world's first operational computer.[17] • The non-programmable Atanasoff–Berry Computer (commenced in 1937, completed in 1941) which used vacuum tube based computation, binary numbers, and regenerative capacitor memory. The use of regenerative memory allowed it to be much more compact than its peers (being approximately the size of a large desk or workbench), since intermediate results could be stored and then fed back into the same set of computation elements. • The secret British Colossus computers (1943),[18] which had limited programmability but demonstrated that a device using thousands of tubes could be reasonably reliable and electronically reprogrammable. It was used for breaking German wartime codes.
EDSAC was one of the first computers to implement the stored program (von Neumann) architecture. The Zuse Z3, 1941, considered the world's first working programmable, fully automatic computing machine.

The ENIAC, which became operational in 1946, is considered to be the first general-purpose electronic computer.

• The Harvard Mark I (1944), a large-scale electromechanical computer with limited programmability.[19]

Computer • The U.S. Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory ENIAC (1946), which used decimal arithmetic and is sometimes called the first general purpose electronic computer (since Konrad Zuse's Z3 of 1941 used electromagnets instead of electronics). Initially, however, ENIAC had an inflexible architecture which essentially required rewiring to change its programming.

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Stored-program architecture
Die of an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor (actual Several developers of ENIAC, recognizing its flaws, came up with a size: 12×6.75 mm) in its packaging. far more flexible and elegant design, which came to be known as the "stored program architecture" or von Neumann architecture. This design was first formally described by John von Neumann in the paper First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC, distributed in 1945. A number of projects to develop computers based on the stored-program architecture commenced around this time, the first of these being completed in Great Britain. The first working prototype to be demonstrated was the Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM or "Baby") in 1948. The Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC), completed a year after the SSEM at Cambridge University, was the first practical, non-experimental implementation of the stored program design and was put to use immediately for research work at the university. Shortly thereafter, the machine originally described by von Neumann's paper—EDVAC—was completed but did not see full-time use for an additional two years.

Nearly all modern computers implement some form of the stored-program architecture, making it the single trait by which the word "computer" is now defined. While the technologies used in computers have changed dramatically since the first electronic, general-purpose computers of the 1940s, most still use the von Neumann architecture. Beginning in the 1950s, Soviet scientists Sergei Sobolev and Nikolay Brusentsov conducted research on ternary computers, devices that operated on a base three numbering system of −1, 0, and 1 rather than the conventional binary numbering system upon which most computers are based. They designed the Setun, a functional ternary computer, at Moscow State University. The device was put into limited production in the Soviet Union, but supplanted by the more common binary architecture.

Semiconductors and microprocessors
Computers using vacuum tubes as their electronic elements were in use throughout the 1950s, but by the 1960s had been largely replaced by transistor-based machines, which were smaller, faster, cheaper to produce, required less power, and were more reliable. The first transistorised computer was demonstrated at the University of Manchester in 1953.[20] In the 1970s, integrated circuit technology and the subsequent creation of microprocessors, such as the Intel 4004, further decreased size and cost and further increased speed and reliability of computers. By the late 1970s, many products such as video recorders contained dedicated computers called microcontrollers, and they started to appear as a replacement to mechanical controls in domestic appliances such as washing machines. The 1980s witnessed home computers and the now ubiquitous personal computer. With the evolution of the Internet, personal computers are becoming as common as the television and the telephone in the household. Modern smartphones are fully programmable computers in their own right, and as of 2009 may well be the most common form of such computers in existence.

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Programs
The defining feature of modern computers which distinguishes them from all other machines is that they can be programmed. That is to say that some type of instructions (the program) can be given to the computer, and it will carry process them. While some computers may have strange concepts "instructions" and "output" (see quantum computing), modern computers based on the von Neumann architecture are often have machine code in the form of an imperative programming language. In practical terms, a computer program may be just a few instructions or extend to many millions of instructions, as do the programs for word processors and web browsers for example. A typical modern computer can execute billions of instructions per second (gigaflops) and rarely makes a mistake over many years of operation. Large computer programs consisting of several million instructions may take teams of programmers years to write, and due to the complexity of the task almost certainly contain errors.

Stored program architecture
This section applies to most common RAM machine-based computers. In most cases, computer instructions are simple: add one number to another, move some data from one location to another, send a message to some external device, etc. These instructions are read from the computer's memory and are generally carried out (executed) in the order they were A 1970s punched card containing one line from a FORTRAN program. The card given. However, there are usually reads: "Z(1) = Y + W(1)" and is labelled "PROJ039" for identification purposes. specialized instructions to tell the computer to jump ahead or backwards to some other place in the program and to carry on executing from there. These are called "jump" instructions (or branches). Furthermore, jump instructions may be made to happen conditionally so that different sequences of instructions may be used depending on the result of some previous calculation or some external event. Many computers directly support subroutines by providing a type of jump that "remembers" the location it jumped from and another instruction to return to the instruction following that jump instruction. Program execution might be likened to reading a book. While a person will normally read each word and line in sequence, they may at times jump back to an earlier place in the text or skip sections that are not of interest. Similarly, a computer may sometimes go back and repeat the instructions in some section of the program over and over again until some internal condition is met. This is called the flow of control within the program and it is what allows the computer to perform tasks repeatedly without human intervention. Comparatively, a person using a pocket calculator can perform a basic arithmetic operation such as adding two numbers with just a few button presses. But to add together all of the numbers from 1 to 1,000 would take thousands of button presses and a lot of time—with a near certainty of making a mistake. On the other hand, a computer may be programmed to do this with just a few simple instructions. For example: mov mov loop: add add cmp ble #0, sum #1, num num, sum #1, num num, #1000 loop ; ; ; ; ; ; set sum to 0 set num to 1 add num to sum add 1 to num compare num to 1000 if num <= 1000, go back to 'loop'

Computer halt ; end of program. stop running

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Once told to run this program, the computer will perform the repetitive addition task without further human intervention. It will almost never make a mistake and a modern PC can complete the task in about a millionth of a second.[21]

Bugs
Errors in computer programs are called "bugs". Bugs may be benign and not affect the usefulness of the program, or have only subtle effects. But in some cases they may cause the program to "hang"—become unresponsive to input such as mouse clicks or keystrokes, or to completely fail or "crash". Otherwise benign bugs may sometimes be harnessed for malicious intent by an unscrupulous user writing an "exploit"—code designed to take advantage of a bug and disrupt a computer's proper execution. Bugs are usually not the fault of the computer. Since computers merely execute the instructions they are given, bugs are nearly always the result of programmer error or an oversight made in the program's design.[22]

The actual first computer bug, a moth found trapped on a relay of the Harvard Mark II computer

Rear Admiral Grace Hopper is credited for having first used the term 'bugs' in computing after a dead moth was found shorting a relay of the Harvard Mark II computer in September 1947.[23]

Machine code
In most computers, individual instructions are stored as machine code with each instruction being given a unique number (its operation code or opcode for short). The command to add two numbers together would have one opcode, the command to multiply them would have a different opcode and so on. The simplest computers are able to perform any of a handful of different instructions; the more complex computers have several hundred to choose from—each with a unique numerical code. Since the computer's memory is able to store numbers, it can also store the instruction codes. This leads to the important fact that entire programs (which are just lists of these instructions) can be represented as lists of numbers and can themselves be manipulated inside the computer in the same way as numeric data. The fundamental concept of storing programs in the computer's memory alongside the data they operate on is the crux of the von Neumann, or stored program, architecture. In some cases, a computer might store some or all of its program in memory that is kept separate from the data it operates on. This is called the Harvard architecture after the Harvard Mark I computer. Modern von Neumann computers display some traits of the Harvard architecture in their designs, such as in CPU caches. While it is possible to write computer programs as long lists of numbers (machine language) and while this technique was used with many early computers,[24] it is extremely tedious and potentially error-prone to do so in practice, especially for complicated programs. Instead, each basic instruction can be given a short name that is indicative of its function and easy to remember—a mnemonic such as ADD, SUB, MULT or JUMP. These mnemonics are collectively known as a computer's assembly language. Converting programs written in assembly language into something the computer can actually understand (machine language) is usually done by a computer program called an assembler. Machine languages and the assembly languages that represent them (collectively termed low-level programming languages) tend to be unique to a particular type of computer. For instance, an ARM architecture computer (such as may be found in a PDA or a hand-held videogame) cannot understand the machine language of an Intel Pentium or the AMD Athlon 64 computer that might be in a PC.[25]

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Higher-level languages and program design
Though considerably easier than in machine language, writing long programs in assembly language is often difficult and is also error prone. Therefore, most practical programs are written in more abstract high-level programming languages that are able to express the needs of the programmer more conveniently (and thereby help reduce programmer error). High level languages are usually "compiled" into machine language (or sometimes into assembly language and then into machine language) using another computer program called a compiler.[26] High level languages are less related to the workings of the target computer than assembly language, and more related to the language and structure of the problem(s) to be solved by the final program. It is therefore often possible to use different compilers to translate the same high level language program into the machine language of many different types of computer. This is part of the means by which software like video games may be made available for different computer architectures such as personal computers and various video game consoles. The task of developing large software systems presents a significant intellectual challenge. Producing software with an acceptably high reliability within a predictable schedule and budget has historically been difficult; the academic and professional discipline of software engineering concentrates specifically on this challenge.

Function
A general purpose computer has four main components: the arithmetic logic unit (ALU), the control unit, the memory, and the input and output devices (collectively termed I/O). These parts are interconnected by busses, often made of groups of wires. Inside each of these parts are thousands to trillions of small electrical circuits which can be turned off or on by means of an electronic switch. Each circuit represents a bit (binary digit) of information so that when the circuit is on it represents a "1", and when off it represents a "0" (in positive logic representation). The circuits are arranged in logic gates so that one or more of the circuits may control the state of one or more of the other circuits. The control unit, ALU, registers, and basic I/O (and often other hardware closely linked with these) are collectively known as a central processing unit (CPU). Early CPUs were composed of many separate components but since the mid-1970s CPUs have typically been constructed on a single integrated circuit called a microprocessor.

Control unit
The control unit (often called a control system or central controller) manages the computer's various components; it reads and interprets (decodes) the program instructions, transforming them into a series of control signals which activate other parts of the computer.[27] Control systems in advanced computers may change the order of some instructions so as to improve performance.

Diagram showing how a particular MIPS architecture instruction would be decoded by the control system.

A key component common to all CPUs is the program counter, a special memory cell (a register) that keeps track of which location in memory the next instruction is to be read from.[28] The control system's function is as follows—note that this is a simplified description, and some of these steps may be performed concurrently or in a different order depending on the type of CPU: 1. Read the code for the next instruction from the cell indicated by the program counter. 2. Decode the numerical code for the instruction into a set of commands or signals for each of the other systems. 3. Increment the program counter so it points to the next instruction.

Computer 4. Read whatever data the instruction requires from cells in memory (or perhaps from an input device). The location of this required data is typically stored within the instruction code. 5. Provide the necessary data to an ALU or register. 6. If the instruction requires an ALU or specialized hardware to complete, instruct the hardware to perform the requested operation. 7. Write the result from the ALU back to a memory location or to a register or perhaps an output device. 8. Jump back to step (1). Since the program counter is (conceptually) just another set of memory cells, it can be changed by calculations done in the ALU. Adding 100 to the program counter would cause the next instruction to be read from a place 100 locations further down the program. Instructions that modify the program counter are often known as "jumps" and allow for loops (instructions that are repeated by the computer) and often conditional instruction execution (both examples of control flow). It is noticeable that the sequence of operations that the control unit goes through to process an instruction is in itself like a short computer program—and indeed, in some more complex CPU designs, there is another yet smaller computer called a microsequencer that runs a microcode program that causes all of these events to happen.

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Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU)
The ALU is capable of performing two classes of operations: arithmetic and logic.[29] The set of arithmetic operations that a particular ALU supports may be limited to adding and subtracting or might include multiplying or dividing, trigonometry functions (sine, cosine, etc.) and square roots. Some can only operate on whole numbers (integers) whilst others use floating point to represent real numbers—albeit with limited precision. However, any computer that is capable of performing just the simplest operations can be programmed to break down the more complex operations into simple steps that it can perform. Therefore, any computer can be programmed to perform any arithmetic operation—although it will take more time to do so if its ALU does not directly support the operation. An ALU may also compare numbers and return boolean truth values (true or false) depending on whether one is equal to, greater than or less than the other ("is 64 greater than 65?"). Logic operations involve Boolean logic: AND, OR, XOR and NOT. These can be useful both for creating complicated conditional statements and processing boolean logic. Superscalar computers may contain multiple ALUs so that they can process several instructions at the same time.[30] Graphics processors and computers with SIMD and MIMD features often provide ALUs that can perform arithmetic on vectors and matrices.

Memory
A computer's memory can be viewed as a list of cells into which numbers can be placed or read. Each cell has a numbered "address" and can store a single number. The computer can be instructed to "put the number 123 into the cell numbered 1357" or to "add the number that is in cell 1357 to the number that is in cell 2468 and put the answer into cell 1595". The information stored in memory may represent practically anything. Letters, numbers, even computer instructions can be placed into memory with equal ease. Since the CPU does not differentiate between different types of information, it is the software's responsibility to give significance to what the memory sees as nothing but a series of numbers.

Magnetic core memory was the computer memory of choice throughout the 1960s, until it was replaced by semiconductor memory.

Computer In almost all modern computers, each memory cell is set up to store binary numbers in groups of eight bits (called a byte). Each byte is able to represent 256 different numbers (2^8 = 256); either from 0 to 255 or −128 to +127. To store larger numbers, several consecutive bytes may be used (typically, two, four or eight). When negative numbers are required, they are usually stored in two's complement notation. Other arrangements are possible, but are usually not seen outside of specialized applications or historical contexts. A computer can store any kind of information in memory if it can be represented numerically. Modern computers have billions or even trillions of bytes of memory. The CPU contains a special set of memory cells called registers that can be read and written to much more rapidly than the main memory area. There are typically between two and one hundred registers depending on the type of CPU. Registers are used for the most frequently needed data items to avoid having to access main memory every time data is needed. As data is constantly being worked on, reducing the need to access main memory (which is often slow compared to the ALU and control units) greatly increases the computer's speed. Computer main memory comes in two principal varieties: random-access memory or RAM and read-only memory or ROM. RAM can be read and written to anytime the CPU commands it, but ROM is pre-loaded with data and software that never changes, so the CPU can only read from it. ROM is typically used to store the computer's initial start-up instructions. In general, the contents of RAM are erased when the power to the computer is turned off, but ROM retains its data indefinitely. In a PC, the ROM contains a specialized program called the BIOS that orchestrates loading the computer's operating system from the hard disk drive into RAM whenever the computer is turned on or reset. In embedded computers, which frequently do not have disk drives, all of the required software may be stored in ROM. Software stored in ROM is often called firmware, because it is notionally more like hardware than software. Flash memory blurs the distinction between ROM and RAM, as it retains its data when turned off but is also rewritable. It is typically much slower than conventional ROM and RAM however, so its use is restricted to applications where high speed is unnecessary.[31] In more sophisticated computers there may be one or more RAM cache memories which are slower than registers but faster than main memory. Generally computers with this sort of cache are designed to move frequently needed data into the cache automatically, often without the need for any intervention on the programmer's part.

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Input/output (I/O)
I/O is the means by which a computer exchanges information with the outside world.[32] Devices that provide input or output to the computer are called peripherals.[33] On a typical personal computer, peripherals include input devices like the keyboard and mouse, and output devices such as the display and printer. Hard disk drives, floppy disk drives and optical disc drives serve as both input and output devices. Computer networking is another form of I/O. Often, I/O devices are complex computers in their own right with their Hard disk drives are common storage devices own CPU and memory. A graphics processing unit might contain fifty used with computers. or more tiny computers that perform the calculations necessary to display 3D graphics. Modern desktop computers contain many smaller computers that assist the main CPU in performing I/O.

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Multitasking
While a computer may be viewed as running one gigantic program stored in its main memory, in some systems it is necessary to give the appearance of running several programs simultaneously. This is achieved by multitasking i.e. having the computer switch rapidly between running each program in turn.[34] One means by which this is done is with a special signal called an interrupt which can periodically cause the computer to stop executing instructions where it was and do something else instead. By remembering where it was executing prior to the interrupt, the computer can return to that task later. If several programs are running "at the same time", then the interrupt generator might be causing several hundred interrupts per second, causing a program switch each time. Since modern computers typically execute instructions several orders of magnitude faster than human perception, it may appear that many programs are running at the same time even though only one is ever executing in any given instant. This method of multitasking is sometimes termed "time-sharing" since each program is allocated a "slice" of time in turn.[35] Before the era of cheap computers, the principal use for multitasking was to allow many people to share the same computer. Seemingly, multitasking would cause a computer that is switching between several programs to run more slowly — in direct proportion to the number of programs it is running. However, most programs spend much of their time waiting for slow input/output devices to complete their tasks. If a program is waiting for the user to click on the mouse or press a key on the keyboard, then it will not take a "time slice" until the event it is waiting for has occurred. This frees up time for other programs to execute so that many programs may be run at the same time without unacceptable speed loss.

Multiprocessing
Some computers are designed to distribute their work across several CPUs in a multiprocessing configuration, a technique once employed only in large and powerful machines such as supercomputers, mainframe computers and servers. Multiprocessor and multi-core (multiple CPUs on a single integrated circuit) personal and laptop computers are now widely available, and are being increasingly used in lower-end markets as a result. Supercomputers in particular often have highly unique architectures that differ significantly from the basic stored-program architecture and Cray designed many supercomputers that used from general purpose computers.[36] They often feature thousands of multiprocessing heavily. CPUs, customized high-speed interconnects, and specialized computing hardware. Such designs tend to be useful only for specialized tasks due to the large scale of program organization required to successfully utilize most of the available resources at once. Supercomputers usually see usage in large-scale simulation, graphics rendering, and cryptography applications, as well as with other so-called "embarrassingly parallel" tasks.

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Networking and the Internet
Computers have been used to coordinate information between multiple locations since the 1950s. The U.S. military's SAGE system was the first large-scale example of such a system, which led to a number of special-purpose commercial systems like Sabre.[37] In the 1970s, computer engineers at research institutions throughout the United States began to link their computers together using telecommunications technology. This effort was funded by ARPA (now DARPA), and the computer network that it produced was called the ARPANET.[38] The technologies that made the Arpanet possible spread and evolved. In time, the network spread beyond academic and military institutions and became known as the Internet. The emergence of networking involved a redefinition of the nature and boundaries of the computer. Computer operating systems and applications were modified to include the ability to define and access the resources of other computers on the network, such as peripheral devices, stored information, and the like, as extensions of the resources of an individual computer. Initially these facilities were available primarily to people working in high-tech environments, but in the 1990s the spread of applications like e-mail and the World Wide Web, combined with the development of cheap, fast networking technologies like Ethernet and ADSL saw computer networking become almost ubiquitous. In fact, the number of computers that are networked is growing phenomenally. A very large proportion of personal computers regularly connect to the Internet to communicate and receive information. "Wireless" networking, often utilizing mobile phone networks, has meant networking is becoming increasingly ubiquitous even in mobile computing environments.
Visualization of a portion of the routes on the Internet.

Misconceptions
A computer does not need to be electric, nor even have a processor, nor RAM, nor even hard disk. The minimal definition of a computer is anything that transforms information in a purposeful way. However the traditional definition of a computer is a device having memory, mass storage, processor (CPU), and Input & Output devices. [39] Anything less would be a simple processor.

Required technology
Computational systems as flexible as a personal computer can be built out of almost anything. For example, a computer can be made out of billiard balls (billiard ball computer); this is an unintuitive and pedagogical example that a computer can be made out of almost anything. More realistically, modern computers are made out of transistors made of photolithographed semiconductors. Historically, computers evolved from mechanical computers and eventually from vacuum tubes to transistors. There is active research to make computers out of many promising new types of technology, such as optical computing, DNA computers, neural computers, and quantum computers. Some of these can easily tackle problems that modern computers cannot (such as how quantum computers can break some modern encryption algorithms by quantum factoring).

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Computer architecture paradigms
Some different paradigms of how to build a computer from the ground-up: RAM machines These are the types of computers with a CPU, computer memory, etc., which understand basic instructions in a machine language. The concept evolved from the Turing machine. Brains Brains are massively parallel processors made of neurons, wired in intricate patterns, that communicate via electricity and neurotransmitter chemicals. Programming languages Such as the lambda calculus, or modern programming languages, are virtual computers built on top of other computers. Cellular automata For example, the game of Life can create "gliders" and "loops" and other constructs that transmit information; this paradigm can be applied to DNA computing, chemical computing, etc. Groups and committees The linking of multiple computers (brains) is itself a computer Logic gates are a common abstraction which can apply to most of the above digital or analog paradigms. The ability to store and execute lists of instructions called programs makes computers extremely versatile, distinguishing them from calculators. The Church–Turing thesis is a mathematical statement of this versatility: any computer with a minimum capability (being Turing-complete) is, in principle, capable of performing the same tasks that any other computer can perform. Therefore any type of computer (netbook, supercomputer, cellular automaton, etc.) is able to perform the same computational tasks, given enough time and storage capacity.

Limited-function computers
Conversely, a computer which is limited in function (one that is not "Turing-complete") cannot simulate arbitrary things. For example, simple four-function calculators cannot simulate a real computer without human intervention. As a more complicated example, without the ability to program a gaming console, it can never accomplish what a programmable calculator from the 1990s could (given enough time); the system as a whole is not Turing-complete, even though it contains a Turing-complete component (the microprocessor). Living organisms (the body, not the brain) are also limited-function computers designed to make copies of themselves; they cannot be reprogrammed without genetic engineering.

Virtual computers
A "computer" is commonly considered to be a physical device. However, one can create a computer program which describes how to run a different computer, i.e. "simulating a computer in a computer". Not only is this a constructive proof of the Church-Turing thesis, but is also extremely common in all modern computers. For example, some programming languages use something called an interpreter, which is a simulated computer built on top of the basic computer; this allows programmers to write code (computer input) in a different language than the one understood by the base computer (the alternative is to use a compiler). Additionally, virtual machines are simulated computers which virtually replicate a physical computer in software, and are very commonly used by IT. Virtual machines are also a common technique used to create emulators, such game console emulators.

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Further topics
• Glossary of computers

Artificial intelligence
A computer will solve problems in exactly the way they are programmed to, without regard to efficiency nor alternative solutions nor possible shortcuts nor possible errors in the code. Computer programs which learn and adapt are part of the emerging field of artificial intelligence and machine learning.

Hardware
The term hardware covers all of those parts of a computer that are tangible objects. Circuits, displays, power supplies, cables, keyboards, printers and mice are all hardware.

History of computing hardware
First Generation (Mechanical/Electromechanical) Calculators Antikythera mechanism, Difference engine, Norden bombsight Jacquard loom, Analytical engine, Harvard Mark I, Z3 Atanasoff–Berry Computer, IBM 604, UNIVAC 60, UNIVAC 120 Colossus, ENIAC, Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine, EDSAC, Manchester Mark 1, Ferranti Pegasus, Ferranti Mercury, CSIRAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC I, IBM 701, IBM 702, IBM 650, Z22 IBM 7090, IBM 7080, IBM System/360, BUNCH PDP-8, PDP-11, IBM System/32, IBM System/36 VAX, IBM System i Intel 4004, Intel 4040 Intel 8008, Intel 8080, Motorola 6800, Motorola 6809, MOS Technology 6502, Zilog Z80 Intel 8088, Zilog Z8000, WDC 65816/65802 Intel 80386, Pentium, Motorola 68000, ARM architecture [40] Alpha, MIPS, PA-RISC, PowerPC, SPARC, x86-64 Intel 8048, Intel 8051 Desktop computer, Home computer, Laptop computer, Personal digital assistant (PDA), Portable computer, Tablet PC, Wearable computer

Programmable Devices Second Generation (Vacuum Tubes) Calculators

Programmable Devices

Third Generation (Discrete transistors and SSI, MSI, LSI Integrated circuits) Fourth Generation (VLSI integrated circuits)

Mainframes Minicomputer Minicomputer 4-bit microcomputer 8-bit microcomputer

16-bit microcomputer 32-bit microcomputer 64-bit microcomputer Embedded computer Personal computer

Theoretical/experimental

Quantum computer, Chemical computer, DNA computing, Optical computer, Spintronics based computer

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Other Hardware Topics
Peripheral device (Input/output) Input Mouse, Keyboard, Joystick, Image scanner, Webcam, Graphics tablet, Microphone Monitor, Printer, Loudspeaker Floppy disk drive, Hard disk drive, Optical disc drive, Teleprinter RS-232, SCSI, PCI, USB Ethernet, ATM, FDDI

Output Both Computer busses Short range Long range (Computer networking)

Software
Software refers to parts of the computer which do not have a material form, such as programs, data, protocols, etc. When software is stored in hardware that cannot easily be modified (such as BIOS ROM in an IBM PC compatible), it is sometimes called "firmware" to indicate that it falls into an uncertain area somewhere between hardware and software.

Computer software
Operating system Unix and BSD GNU/Linux Microsoft Windows DOS Mac OS Embedded and real-time Experimental Library Multimedia Programming library Data Protocol File format User interface UNIX System V, IBM AIX, HP-UX, Solaris (SunOS), IRIX, List of BSD operating systems List of Linux distributions, Comparison of Linux distributions Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7 86-DOS (QDOS), PC-DOS, MS-DOS, DR-DOS, FreeDOS Mac OS classic, Mac OS X List of embedded operating systems

Amoeba, Oberon/Bluebottle, Plan 9 from Bell Labs DirectX, OpenGL, OpenAL C standard library, Standard Template Library TCP/IP, Kermit, FTP, HTTP, SMTP HTML, XML, JPEG, MPEG, PNG

Graphical user interface Microsoft Windows, GNOME, KDE, QNX Photon, CDE, GEM, Aqua (WIMP) Text-based user interface Command-line interface, Text user interface

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Office suite Word processing, Desktop publishing, Presentation program, Database management system, Scheduling & Time management, Spreadsheet, Accounting software Browser, E-mail client, Web server, Mail transfer agent, Instant messaging Computer-aided design, Computer-aided manufacturing, Plant management, Robotic manufacturing, Supply chain management Raster graphics editor, Vector graphics editor, 3D modeler, Animation editor, 3D computer graphics, Video editing, Image processing Digital audio editor, Audio playback, Mixing, Audio synthesis, Computer music Compiler, Assembler, Interpreter, Debugger, Text editor, Integrated development environment, Software performance analysis, Revision control, Software configuration management Edutainment, Educational game, Serious game, Flight simulator Strategy, Arcade, Puzzle, Simulation, First-person shooter, Platform, Massively multiplayer, Interactive fiction Artificial intelligence, Antivirus software, Malware scanner, Installer/Package management systems, File manager

Application

Internet Access Design and manufacturing Graphics

Audio Software engineering

Educational Games

Misc

Programming languages
Programming languages provide various ways of specifying programs for computers to run. Unlike natural languages, programming languages are designed to permit no ambiguity and to be concise. They are purely written languages and are often difficult to read aloud. They are generally either translated into machine code by a compiler or an assembler before being run, or translated directly at run time by an interpreter. Sometimes programs are executed by a hybrid method of the two techniques. There are thousands of different programming languages—some intended to be general purpose, others useful only for highly specialized applications.

Programming languages
Lists of programming languages Timeline of programming languages, List of programming languages by category, Generational list of programming languages, List of programming languages, Non-English-based programming languages ARM, MIPS, x86

Commonly used Assembly languages Commonly used high-level programming languages Commonly used Scripting languages

Ada, BASIC, C, C++, C#, COBOL, Fortran, Java, Lisp, Pascal, Object Pascal

Bourne script, JavaScript, Python, Ruby, PHP, Perl

Professions and organizations
As the use of computers has spread throughout society, there are an increasing number of careers involving computers.

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Computer-related professions
Hardware-related Electrical engineering, Electronic engineering, Computer engineering, Telecommunications engineering, Optical engineering, Nanoengineering Software-related Computer science, Desktop publishing, Human–computer interaction, Information technology, Information systems, Computational science, Software engineering, Video game industry, Web design

The need for computers to work well together and to be able to exchange information has spawned the need for many standards organizations, clubs and societies of both a formal and informal nature.

Organizations
Standards groups Professional Societies ANSI, IEC, IEEE, IETF, ISO, W3C ACM, AIS, IET, IFIP, BCS

Free/Open source software groups Free Software Foundation, Mozilla Foundation, Apache Software Foundation

Notes
[1] In 1946, ENIAC required an estimated 174 kW. By comparison, a modern laptop computer may use around 30 W; nearly six thousand times less. "Approximate Desktop & Notebook Power Usage" (http:/ / www. upenn. edu/ computing/ provider/ docs/ hardware/ powerusage. html). University of Pennsylvania. . Retrieved 2009-06-20. [2] Early computers such as Colossus and ENIAC were able to process between 5 and 100 operations per second. A modern "commodity" microprocessor (as of 2007) can process billions of operations per second, and many of these operations are more complicated and useful than early computer operations. "Intel Core2 Duo Mobile Processor: Features" (http:/ / www. intel. com/ cd/ channel/ reseller/ asmo-na/ eng/ products/ mobile/ processors/ core2duo_m/ feature/ index. htm). Intel Corporation. . Retrieved 2009-06-20. [3] computer, n. (http:/ / dictionary. oed. com/ ). Oxford English Dictionary (2 ed.). Oxford University Press. 1989. . Retrieved 2009-04-10 [4] "Discovering How Greeks Computed in 100 B.C." (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 07/ 31/ science/ 31computer. html?hp). The New York Times. 31 July 2008. . Retrieved 27 March 2010. [5] "Heron of Alexandria" (http:/ / www. mlahanas. de/ Greeks/ HeronAlexandria2. htm). . Retrieved 2008-01-15. [6] [[Ancient Discoveries (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=rxjbaQl0ad8)], Episode 11: Ancient Robots]. History Channel. . Retrieved 2008-09-06 [7] Howard R. Turner (1997), Science in Medieval Islam: An Illustrated Introduction, p. 184, University of Texas Press, ISBN 0-292-78149-0 [8] Donald Routledge Hill, "Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East", Scientific American, May 1991, pp. 64–9 (cf. Donald Routledge Hill, Mechanical Engineering (http:/ / home. swipnet. se/ islam/ articles/ HistoryofSciences. htm)) [9] From cave paintings to the internet (http:/ / www. historyofscience. com/ G2I/ timeline/ index. php?category=Computers+ & + the+ Human+ Brain) HistoryofScience.com [10] See: Anthony Hyman, ed., Science and Reform: Selected Works of Charles Babbage (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1989), page 298. It is in the collection of the Science Museum in London, England. (Delve (2007), page 99.) [11] The analytical engine should not be confused with Babbage's difference engine which was a non-programmable mechanical calculator. [12] "Columbia University Computing History: Herman Hollerith" (http:/ / www. columbia. edu/ acis/ history/ hollerith. html). Columbia.edu. . Retrieved 2010-12-11. [13] "Alan Turing – Time 100 People of the Century" (http:/ / 205. 188. 238. 181/ time/ time100/ scientist/ profile/ turing. html). Time Magazine. . Retrieved 2009-06-13. "The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard, opening a spreadsheet or a word-processing program, is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine" [14] "Atanasoff-Berry Computer" (http:/ / energysciencenews. com/ phpBB3/ viewtopic. php?f=1& t=98& p=264#p264). . Retrieved 2010-11-20. [15] "Spiegel: The inventor of the computer's biography was published" (http:/ / www. spiegel. de/ netzwelt/ gadgets/ 0,1518,651776,00. html). Spiegel.de. 2009-09-28. . Retrieved 2010-12-11. [16] "Inventor Profile: George R. Stibitz" (http:/ / www. invent. org/ hall_of_fame/ 140. html). National Inventors Hall of Fame Foundation, Inc.. . [17] Rojas, R. (1998). "How to make Zuse's Z3 a universal computer". IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 20 (3): 51–54. doi:10.1109/85.707574. [18] B. Jack Copeland, ed., Colossus: The Secrets of Bletchley Park's Codebreaking Computers, Oxford University Press, 2006 [19] ""Robot Mathematician Knows All The Answers", October 1944, Popular Science" (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=PyEDAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA86& dq=motor+ gun+ boat& hl=en& ei=LxTqTMfGI4-bnwfEyNiWDQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=6& ved=0CEIQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage& q=motor gun boat& f=true). Books.google.com. . Retrieved 2010-12-11.

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[20] Lavington 1998, p. 37 [21] This program was written similarly to those for the PDP-11 minicomputer and shows some typical things a computer can do. All the text after the semicolons are comments for the benefit of human readers. These have no significance to the computer and are ignored. (Digital Equipment Corporation 1972) [22] It is not universally true that bugs are solely due to programmer oversight. Computer hardware may fail or may itself have a fundamental problem that produces unexpected results in certain situations. For instance, the Pentium FDIV bug caused some Intel microprocessors in the early 1990s to produce inaccurate results for certain floating point division operations. This was caused by a flaw in the microprocessor design and resulted in a partial recall of the affected devices. [23] Taylor, Alexander L., III (1984-04-16). "The Wizard Inside the Machine" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ printout/ 0,8816,954266,00. html). TIME. . Retrieved 2007-02-17. [24] Even some later computers were commonly programmed directly in machine code. Some minicomputers like the DEC PDP-8 could be programmed directly from a panel of switches. However, this method was usually used only as part of the booting process. Most modern computers boot entirely automatically by reading a boot program from some non-volatile memory. [25] However, there is sometimes some form of machine language compatibility between different computers. An x86-64 compatible microprocessor like the AMD Athlon 64 is able to run most of the same programs that an Intel Core 2 microprocessor can, as well as programs designed for earlier microprocessors like the Intel Pentiums and Intel 80486. This contrasts with very early commercial computers, which were often one-of-a-kind and totally incompatible with other computers. [26] High level languages are also often interpreted rather than compiled. Interpreted languages are translated into machine code on the fly, while running, by another program called an interpreter. [27] The control unit's role in interpreting instructions has varied somewhat in the past. Although the control unit is solely responsible for instruction interpretation in most modern computers, this is not always the case. Many computers include some instructions that may only be partially interpreted by the control system and partially interpreted by another device. This is especially the case with specialized computing hardware that may be partially self-contained. For example, EDVAC, one of the earliest stored-program computers, used a central control unit that only interpreted four instructions. All of the arithmetic-related instructions were passed on to its arithmetic unit and further decoded there. [28] Instructions often occupy more than one memory address, so the program counters usually increases by the number of memory locations required to store one instruction. [29] David J. Eck (2000). The Most Complex Machine: A Survey of Computers and Computing. A K Peters, Ltd.. p. 54. ISBN 9781568811284. [30] Erricos John Kontoghiorghes (2006). Handbook of Parallel Computing and Statistics. CRC Press. p. 45. ISBN 9780824740672. [31] Flash memory also may only be rewritten a limited number of times before wearing out, making it less useful for heavy random access usage. (Verma & Mielke 1988) [32] Donald Eadie (1968). Introduction to the Basic Computer. Prentice-Hall. p. 12. [33] Arpad Barna; Dan I. Porat (1976). Introduction to Microcomputers and the Microprocessors. Wiley. p. 85. ISBN 9780471050513. [34] Jerry Peek; Grace Todino, John Strang (2002). Learning the UNIX Operating System: A Concise Guide for the New User. O'Reilly. p. 130. ISBN 9780596002619. [35] Gillian M. Davis (2002). Noise Reduction in Speech Applications. CRC Press. p. 111. ISBN 9780849309496. [36] However, it is also very common to construct supercomputers out of many pieces of cheap commodity hardware; usually individual computers connected by networks. These so-called computer clusters can often provide supercomputer performance at a much lower cost than customized designs. While custom architectures are still used for most of the most powerful supercomputers, there has been a proliferation of cluster computers in recent years. (TOP500 2006) [37] Agatha C. Hughes (2000). Systems, Experts, and Computers. MIT Press. p. 161. ISBN 9780262082853. "The experience of SAGE helped make possible the first truly large-scale commercial real-time network: the SABRE computerized airline reservations system..." [38] "A Brief History of the Internet" (http:/ / www. isoc. org/ internet/ history/ brief. shtml). Internet Society. . Retrieved 2008-09-20. [39] "What is a computer?" (http:/ / www. webopedia. com/ TERM/ C/ computer. html). Webopedia. . Retrieved 25 February 2011. [40] Most major 64-bit instruction set architectures are extensions of earlier designs. All of the architectures listed in this table, except for Alpha, existed in 32-bit forms before their 64-bit incarnations were introduced.

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References
•   Kempf, Karl (1961). Historical Monograph: Electronic Computers Within the Ordnance Corps (http:// ed-thelen.org/comp-hist/U-S-Ord-61.html). Aberdeen Proving Ground (United States Army). • a  Phillips, Tony (2000). "The Antikythera Mechanism I" (http://www.math.sunysb.edu/~tony/whatsnew/ column/antikytheraI-0400/kyth1.html). American Mathematical Society. Retrieved 2006-04-05. • a  Shannon, Claude Elwood (1940). A symbolic analysis of relay and switching circuits (http://hdl.handle.net/ 1721.1/11173). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. • Digital Equipment Corporation (1972) (PDF). PDP-11/40 Processor Handbook (http://bitsavers.vt100.net/dec/ www.computer.museum.uq.edu.au_mirror/D-09-30_PDP11-40_Processor_Handbook.pdf). Maynard, MA: Digital Equipment Corporation.
a

Computer • Verma, G.; Mielke, N. (1988). Reliability performance of ETOX based flash memories. IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium. • Meuer, Hans; Strohmaier, Erich; Simon, Horst; Dongarra, Jack (2006-11-13). "Architectures Share Over Time" (http://www.top500.org/lists/2006/11/overtime/Architectures). TOP500. Retrieved 2006-11-27. • Lavington, Simon (1998). A History of Manchester Computers (2 ed.). Swindon: The British Computer Society. ISBN 0902505018 • Stokes, Jon (2007). Inside the Machine: An Illustrated Introduction to Microprocessors and Computer Architecture. San Francisco: No Starch Press. ISBN 978-1-59327-104-6.

24

External links
• A Brief History of Computing (http://www.life.com/image/first/in-gallery/48681/ click-a-brief-history-of-computing#index/0) - slideshow by Life magazine

Linux

25

Linux
Linux

Tux the penguin, mascot of Linux Company / developer Programmed in OS family Working state Source model Latest stable release Latest unstable release Marketing target Available language(s) Available programming languages(s) Supported platforms GNU Project, Linus Torvalds and many others Assembly language, C Unix-like Current Free and open source software (March 7, 2011) (March 8, 2011) [2]
[ +/−

[1]

[3]
]

[4]
[ +/−

[5]
]

Desktops, servers, embedded devices Multi-lingual Many

DEC Alpha, ARM, AVR32, Blackfin, ETRAX CRIS, FR-V, H8/300, Itanium, M32R, m68k, Microblaze, MIPS, MN103, PA-RISC, PowerPC, s390, S+core, SuperH, SPARC, TILE64, x86, Xtensa Monolithic GNU and others Graphical (X Window System) and command-line interface Various including GNU General Public License, BSD License, Apache License, MIT License, and others kernel.org [7] [6]

Kernel type Userland Default user interface License Official website

Linux (commonly pronounced /ˈlɪnəks/ LIN-əks in English,[8] [9] also pronounced /ˈlɪnʊks/ LIN-ooks[10] in Europe) refers to the family of Unix-like computer operating systems using the Linux kernel. Linux can be installed on a wide variety of computer hardware, ranging from mobile phones, tablet computers and video game consoles, to mainframes and supercomputers.[11] [12] [13] [14] Linux is a leading server operating system, and runs the 10 fastest supercomputers in the world.[15] The development of Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free and open source software collaboration; typically all the underlying source code can be used, freely modified, and redistributed, both commercially and non-commercially, by anyone under licenses such as the GNU General Public License. Typically Linux is packaged in a format known as a Linux distribution for desktop and server use. Some popular mainstream Linux distributions include Debian (and its derivatives such as Ubuntu), Fedora and openSUSE. Linux distributions include the Linux

Linux kernel and supporting utilities and libraries to fulfill the distribution's intended use. A distribution oriented toward desktop use may include the X Window System, the GNOME and KDE Plasma desktop environments. Other distributions may include a less resource intensive desktop such as LXDE or Xfce for use on older or less-powerful computers. A distribution intended to run as a server may omit any graphical environment from the standard install and instead include other software such as the Apache HTTP Server and a SSH server like OpenSSH. Because Linux is freely redistributable, it is possible for anyone to create a distribution for any intended use. Commonly used applications with desktop Linux systems include the Mozilla Firefox web-browser, the OpenOffice.org office application suite and the GIMP image editor. The name "Linux" comes from the Linux kernel, originally written in 1991 by Linus Torvalds. The main supporting user space system tools and libraries from the GNU Project (announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman) are the basis for the Free Software Foundation's preferred name GNU/Linux.[16] [17]

26

History
Unix
The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969 at AT&T's Bell Laboratories in the United States by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, and Joe Ossanna. It was first released in 1971 and was initially entirely written in assembly language, a common practice at the time. Later, in a key pioneering approach in 1973, Unix was re-written in the programming language C by Dennis Ritchie (with exceptions to the kernel and I/O). The availability of an operating system written in a high-level language allowed easier portability to different computer platforms. With a legal glitch forcing AT&T to license the operating system's source code, Unix quickly grew and became widely adopted by academic institutions and businesses.

GNU
The GNU Project, started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, had the goal of creating a "complete Unix-compatible software system" composed entirely of free software. Work began in 1984.[18] Later, in 1985, Stallman started the Free Software Foundation and wrote the GNU General Public License (GNU GPL) in 1989. By the early 1990s, many of the programs required in an operating system (such as libraries, compilers, text editors, a Unix shell, and a windowing system) were completed, although low-level elements such as device drivers, daemons, and the kernel were stalled and incomplete.[19] Linus Torvalds has said that if the GNU kernel had been available at the time (1991), he would not have decided to write his own.[20]

Richard Stallman, founder of the GNU project

BSD
Although not released until 1992 due to legal complications, development of 386BSD, from which NetBSD and FreeBSD descended, predated that of Linux. Linus Torvalds has said that if 386BSD had been available at the time, he probably would not have created Linux.[21]

Linux

27

MINIX

Andrew S. Tanenbaum (left), author of the MINIX operating system and Linus Torvalds (right), principal author of the Linux kernel

MINIX is an inexpensive minimal Unix-like operating system, designed for education in computer science, written by Andrew S. Tanenbaum. Starting with version 3, MINIX was free and redesigned for “serious” use. In 1991 while attending the University of Helsinki, Torvalds, curious about the operating systems [22] and frustrated by the licensing of MINIX limiting it to educational use only (which prevented any commercial use), began to work on his own operating system which eventually became the Linux kernel. Torvalds began the development of the Linux kernel on MINIX, and applications written for MINIX were also used on Linux. Later Linux matured and it became possible for Linux to be developed under itself.[23] Also GNU applications replaced all MINIX ones, because with code from the GNU system freely available, it was advantageous if this could be used with the fledgling operating system. Code licensed under the GNU GPL can be used in other projects, so long as they also are released under the same or a compatible license. In order to make the Linux available for commercial use, Torvalds initiated a switch from his original license (which prohibited commercial redistribution) to the GNU GPL.[24] Developers worked to integrate GNU components with Linux to make a fully functional and free operating system.[19]

Commercial and popular uptake
Today, Linux distributions are used in every domain, from embedded systems to supercomputers,[25] [26] and have secured a place in server installations often using the popular LAMP application stack.[27] Use of Linux distributions in home and enterprise desktops has been growing.[28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] They have also gained popularity with various local and national governments. The federal government of Brazil is well known for its support for Linux.[35] [36] News of the Russian military creating their own Linux distribution has also surfaced, and has come to fruition as the G.H.ost Project.[37] The Indian state of Kerala has gone to the extent of mandating that all state high schools run Linux on their computers.[38] [39] China uses Linux exclusively as the operating system for its Loongson processor family to achieve technology independence.[40] In Spain some regions have developed their own Linux distributions, which are widely used in education and official institutions, like gnuLinEx in Extremadura and Guadalinex in Andalusia. Portugal is also using its own Linux distribution Caixa Mágica, used in the Magalhães netbook[41] and the e-escola government program.[42] France and Germany have also taken steps towards the adoption of Linux.[43] Linux distributions have also become popular in the netbook market, with many devices such as the ASUS Eee PC and Acer Aspire One shipping with customized Linux distributions installed.[44]

Linux

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Current development
Torvalds continues to direct the development of the kernel. Stallman heads the Free Software Foundation, which in turn supports the GNU components. Finally, individuals and corporations develop third-party non-GNU components. These third-party components comprise a vast body of work and may include both kernel modules and user applications and libraries. Linux vendors and communities combine and distribute the kernel, GNU components, and non-GNU components, with additional package management software in the form of Linux distributions.

Design
A Linux-based system is a modular Unix-like operating system. It derives much of its basic design from principles established in Unix during the 1970s and 1980s. Such a system uses a monolithic kernel, the Linux kernel, which handles process control, networking, and peripheral and file system access. Device drivers are either integrated directly with the kernel or added as modules loaded while the system is running. Separate projects that interface with the kernel provide much of the system's higher-level functionality. The GNU userland is an important part of most Linux-based systems, providing the most common implementation of the C library, a popular shell, and many of the common Unix tools which carry out many basic operating system tasks. The graphical user interface (or GUI) used by most Linux systems is built on top of an implementation of the X Window System.

User interface
Users operate a Linux-based system through a command line interface (CLI), a graphical user interface (GUI), or through controls attached to the associated hardware, which is common for embedded systems. For desktop systems, the default mode is usually a graphical user interface, by which the CLI is available through terminal emulator windows or on a separate virtual console. Most low-level Linux components, including the GNU userland, use the CLI exclusively. The CLI is particularly suited for automation of repetitive or delayed tasks, and provides very simple inter-process communication. A graphical terminal emulator program is often used to access the CLI from a Linux desktop. A Linux system typically implements a CLI by a shell, which is also the traditional way of interacting with a Unix system. A Linux distribution specialized for servers may use the CLI as its only interface. On desktop systems, the most popular user interfaces are the extensive desktop environments KDE Plasma Desktop, GNOME, and Xfce,[45] though a variety of additional user interfaces exist. Most popular user interfaces are based on the X Window System, often simply called "X". It provides network transparency and permits a graphical application running on one system to be displayed on another where a user may interact with the application.[46] Other GUIs may be classified as simple X window managers, such as FVWM, Enlightenment, and Window Maker, which provide a minimalist functionality with respect to the desktop environments. A window manager provides a means to control the placement and appearance of individual application windows, and interacts with the X Window System. The desktop environments include window managers as part of their standard installations (Metacity for GNOME, Kwin for KDE, Xfwm for Xfce as of 2010) although users may choose to use a different window manager if preferred.

Linux

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Development
The primary difference between Linux and many other popular contemporary operating systems is that the Linux kernel and other components are free and open source software. Linux is not the only such operating system, although it is by far the most widely used.[47] Some free and open source software licenses are based on the principle of copyleft, a kind of reciprocity: any work derived from a copyleft piece of software must also be copyleft itself. The most common free software license, the GNU GPL, is a form of copyleft, and is used for the Linux kernel and many of the components from the GNU project. Linux based distributions are intended by developers for interoperability with other operating systems and established computing standards. Linux systems adhere to POSIX,[48] SUS,[49] ISO, and ANSI standards where possible, although to date only one Linux distribution has been POSIX.1 certified, Linux-FT.[50]
A summarized history of Unix-like operating systems showing Linux's origins. Of note, Linux shares similar architectural designs and concepts (as part of the POSIX standard) but does not share non-free source code with the original Unix or MINIX.

Free software projects, although developed in a collaborative fashion, are often produced independently of each other. The fact that the software licenses explicitly permit redistribution, however, provides a basis for larger scale projects that collect the software produced by stand-alone projects and make it available all at once in the form of a Linux distribution. A Linux distribution, commonly called a "distro", is a project that manages a remote collection of system software and application software packages available for download and installation through a network connection. This allows the user to adapt the operating system to his/her specific needs. Distributions are maintained by individuals, loose-knit teams, volunteer organizations, and commercial entities. A distribution is responsible for the default configuration of the installed Linux kernel, general system security, and more generally integration of the different software packages into a coherent whole. Distributions typically use a package manager such as dpkg, Synaptic, YAST, or Portage to install, remove and update all of a system's software from one central location.

Community
A distribution is largely driven by its developer and user communities. Some vendors develop and fund their distributions on a volunteer basis, Debian being a well-known example. Others maintain a community version of their commercial distributions, as Red Hat does with Fedora. In many cities and regions, local associations known as Linux User Groups (LUGs) seek to promote their preferred distribution and by extension free software. They hold meetings and provide free demonstrations, training, technical support, and operating system installation to new users. Many Internet communities also provide support to Linux users and developers. Most distributions and free software / open source projects have IRC chatrooms or newsgroups. Online forums are another means for support, with notable examples being LinuxQuestions.org and the Gentoo forums. Linux distributions host mailing lists; commonly there will be a specific topic such as usage or development for a given list. There are several technology websites with a Linux focus. Print magazines on Linux often include cover disks including software or even complete Linux distributions.[51] [52] Although Linux distributions are generally available without charge, several large corporations sell, support, and contribute to the development of the components of the system and of free software. An analysis of the Linux kernel showed 75 percent of the code from December 2008 to January 2010 was developed by programmers working for corporations, leaving about 18 percent to the traditional, open source community.[53] Some of the major corporations that contribute include Dell, IBM, HP, Oracle, Sun Microsystems (now part of Oracle), Novell, and Nokia. A

Linux number of corporations, notably Red Hat, have built their entire business around Linux distributions. The free software licenses, on which the various software packages of a distribution built on the Linux kernel are based, explicitly accommodate and encourage commercialization; the relationship between a Linux distribution as a whole and individual vendors may be seen as symbiotic. One common business model of commercial suppliers is charging for support, especially for business users. A number of companies also offer a specialized business version of their distribution, which adds proprietary support packages and tools to administer higher numbers of installations or to simplify administrative tasks. Another business model is to give away the software in order to sell hardware. This used to be the norm in the computer industry, with operating systems such as CP/M, Apple DOS and versions of Mac OS prior to 7.5 freely copyable (but not modifiable). As computer hardware standardized throughout the 1980s, it became more difficult for hardware manufacturers to employ this tactic, as their OS would run on any computer that shared the same architecture.

30

Programming on Linux
Linux distributions support dozens of programming languages. The most common collection of utilities for building both Linux applications and operating system programs is found within the GNU toolchain, which includes the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) and the GNU build system. Amongst others, GCC provides compilers for Ada, C, C++, Java, and Fortran. Proprietary compilers for Linux include the Intel C++ Compiler, Sun Studio, and IBM XL C/C++ Compiler. BASIC is supported in such forms as Gambas, FreeBASIC, and XBasic. Most distributions also include support for PHP, Perl, Ruby, Python and other dynamic languages. While not as common, Linux also supports C# (via Mono), Vala, and Scheme. A number of Java Virtual Machines and development kits run on Linux, including the original Sun Microsystems JVM (HotSpot), and IBM's J2SE RE, as well as many open-source projects like Kaffe. The two main frameworks for developing graphical applications are those of GNOME and KDE. These projects are based on the GTK+ and Qt widget toolkits, respectively, which can also be used independently of the larger framework. Both support a wide variety of languages. There are a number of Integrated development environments available including Anjuta, Code::Blocks, Eclipse, Geany, ActiveState Komodo, KDevelop, Lazarus, MonoDevelop, NetBeans, Qt Creator and Omnis Studio, while the long-established editors Vim and Emacs remain popular.[54]

Uses
As well as those designed for general purpose use on desktops and servers, distributions may be specialized for different purposes including: computer architecture support, embedded systems, stability, security, localization to a specific region or language, targeting of specific user groups, support for real-time applications, or commitment to a given desktop environment. Furthermore, some distributions deliberately include only free software. Currently, over three hundred distributions are actively developed, with about a dozen distributions being most popular for general-purpose use.[55] Linux is a widely ported operating system kernel. The Linux kernel runs on a highly diverse range of computer architectures: in the hand-held ARM-based iPAQ and the mainframe IBM System z9, System z10; in devices ranging from mobile phones to supercomputers.[56] Specialized distributions exist for less mainstream architectures. The ELKS kernel fork can run on Intel 8086 or Intel 80286 16-bit microprocessors, while the µClinux kernel fork may run on systems without a memory management unit. The kernel also runs on architectures that were only ever intended to use a manufacturer-created operating system, such as Macintosh computers (with both PowerPC and Intel processors), PDAs, video game consoles, portable music players, and mobile phones. There are several industry associations and hardware conferences devoted to maintaining and improving support for diverse hardware under Linux, such as FreedomHEC.

Linux

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Desktop
The popularity of Linux on standard desktop computers (and laptops) has been increasing over the years.[57] Currently most distributions include a graphical user environment. The two most popular such environments are GNOME and KDE Plasma Desktop, both of which are mature and support a wide variety of languages. The performance of Linux on the desktop has been a controversial topic; for example in 2007 Con Kolivas accused the Linux community of favoring performance on servers. He quit Linux kernel development because he was frustrated with this lack of focus on the desktop, and then gave a "tell all" interview on the topic.[58] Since then a significant amount of development has been undertaken in an effort to improve the desktop experience. Projects such as upstart aim for a faster boot time.[59] There are several companies that have ported their own or other companies' games to Linux. Many types of applications available for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X are also available for Linux. Commonly, either a free software application will exist which does the functions of an application found on another operating system, or that application will have a version that works on Linux (such as Skype). Furthermore, the Wine project provides a Windows compatibility layer to run unmodified Windows applications on Linux. CrossOver is a proprietary solution based on the open source Wine project that supports running Windows versions of Microsoft Office, Intuit applications such as Quicken and QuickBooks, Adobe Photoshop versions through CS2, and many popular games such as World of Warcraft and Team Fortress 2. In other cases, where there is no Linux port of some software in areas such as desktop publishing[60] and professional audio,[61] [62] [63] there is equivalent software available on Linux. Many popular applications are available for a wide variety of operating systems. For example Mozilla Firefox, and OpenOffice.org have downloadable versions for all major operating systems. Furthermore, some applications were initially developed for Linux (such as Pidgin, and GIMP) and, due to their popularity, were ported to other operating systems (including Windows and Mac OS X). A growing number of proprietary desktop applications are also supported on Linux;[64] see List of proprietary software for Linux. In the field of animation and visual effects, most high end software, such as AutoDesk Maya, Softimage XSI and Apple Shake, is available for Linux, Windows and/or Mac OS X. The collaborative nature of free software development allows distributed teams to perform language localization of some Linux distributions for use in locales where localizing proprietary systems would not be cost-effective. For example the Sinhalese language version of the Knoppix distribution was available significantly before Microsoft Windows XP was translated to Sinhalese. In this case the Lanka Linux User Group played a major part in developing the localized system by combining the knowledge of university professors, linguists, and local developers. Installing, updating and removing software in Linux is typically done through the use of package managers such as Synaptic Package Manager, PackageKit, and Yum Extender. While major Linux distributions have extensive repositories (tens of thousands of packages), not all the software that can run on Linux is available from the official repositories. Alternatively, users can install packages from unofficial repositories, download pre-compiled packages directly from websites, or compile the source code by themselves. All these methods come with different degrees of difficulty, compiling the source code is in general considered a challenging process for new Linux users, but it's hardly needed in modern distributions.

GNOME

KDE Plasma Desktop

Xfce

LXDE

Linux

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Servers, mainframes and supercomputers

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Jaguar supercomputer, until recently the world's fastest supercomputer. It uses the Cray Linux Environment [65] [66] as its operating system.

Servers designed for Linux

Linux distributions have long been used as server operating systems, and have risen to prominence in that area; Netcraft reported in September 2006 that eight of the ten most reliable internet hosting companies ran Linux distributions on their web servers.[67] (since June 2008, Linux distributions represented five of the top ten, FreeBSD three of ten, and Microsoft two of ten;[68] since February 2010, Linux distributions represented six of the top ten, FreeBSD two of ten, and Microsoft one of ten.[69] ) Linux distributions are the cornerstone of the LAMP server-software combination (Linux, Apache, MySQL, Perl/PHP/Python) which has achieved popularity among developers, and which is one of the more common platforms for website hosting.[70] Linux distributions have become increasingly popular on mainframes in the last decade due to pricing, compared to other mainframe operating systems. In December 2009, computer giant IBM reported that it would predominantly market and sell mainframe-based Enterprise Linux Server.[71] Linux distributions are also commonly used as operating systems for supercomputers: since November 2010, out of the top 500 systems, 459 (91.8%) run a Linux distribution.[72] Linux was also selected as the operating system for the world's most powerful supercomputer, IBM's Sequoia which will become operational in 2011.[73]

Embedded devices
Due to its low cost and ease of modification, an embedded Linux is often used in embedded systems. Android, which is based on a modified version of the Linux kernel, has become a major competitor of Symbian OS which is used in the majority of smartphones — 25.5% of smartphones sold worldwide during Q3 2010 were using Android (Linux variations accounted for 27.6% in total)[74] Cell phones or PDAs running on Linux and built on open source platform became a trend from 2007, like Nokia N810, Openmoko's Neo1973, Motorola RAZR2 v8, Motorola ROKR E8, Motorola MING series, Motorola

A Samsung Galaxy S running Android

Linux ZINE and Google Android with a modified Linux Kernel. Adding to the trend, Palm, (Later acquired by HP), produced its revamped new Operating System, called webOS, and introduced the Palm Pre, Palm Pre Plus, Palm Pixi, Palm Pixi Plus, all using a modified Linux Kernel. The popular TiVo digital video recorder uses a customized version of Linux.[75] Several network firewall and router standalone products, including several from Cisco/Linksys, use Linux internally, using its advanced firewall and routing capabilities. The Korg OASYS and the Yamaha Motif XS music workstations,[76] Yamaha S90XS/S70XS synthesizers, Yamaha Motif-Rack XS tone generator module, and Roland RD-700GX digital piano also run Linux. Furthermore, Linux is used in the leading stage lighting control system, FlyingPig/HighEnd WholeHogIII Console.[77]

33

Market share and uptake
Many quantitative studies of free / open source software focus on topics including market share and reliability, with numerous studies specifically examining Linux.[78] The Linux market is growing rapidly, and the revenue of servers, desktops, and packaged software running Linux was expected to exceed $35.7 billion by 2008.[79] IDC's Q1 2007 report indicated that Linux held 12.7% of the overall server market at that time.[80] This estimate was based on the number of Linux servers sold by various companies, and did not include server hardware purchased separately which had Linux installed on it later. In September 2008 Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer admitted that 60% of web-servers run Linux versus 40% that run Windows Server.[81] Primarily based on web server statistics, various companies estimated that the desktop market share of Linux range from less than 1% to 4.8%.[82] In comparison, Microsoft operating systems hold more than 85%.[28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [83] [84] Analysts and proponents attribute the relative success of Linux to its security, reliability, low cost, and freedom from vendor lock-in.[85] [86] The Wine compatibility layer allow users to run many programs designed for Windows under Linux.[87] About half of Wine's code has been contributed by volunteers and half sponsored by commercial interests including CodeWeavers, which produces a commercial version of the software. Since 2009, Google has also provided funding to the Wine project.[88] [89] The XO laptop project of One Laptop Per Child is creating a new and potentially much larger Linux community which is planned to reach millions of schoolchildren and their families in the developing world.[90] Major supporters of the project include Google, Red Hat, and eBay.[91] Although the XO will have a Windows option, it will be primarily deployed with Fedora Linux while using Sugar as the desktop environment. For years Linux has been the platform of choice in the film industry. The first major film produced on Linux servers was 1997's Titanic. Since then major studios including Dreamworks Animation, Pixar, Weta Digital, and Industrial Light & Magic have migrated to Linux.[92] [93] [94] According to the Linux Movies Group, more than 95% of the servers and desktops at large animation and visual effects companies use Linux.[95]
Usage share of web client operating systems. (Source: Median values from Usage share of operating systems for February 2011.)   Windows XP (41.15%)  Windows 7 (26.35%)  Windows Vista (14.57%)  Mac OS X (7.07%)  iOS (Apple)iOS (iPhone) (2.20%)  Linux (1.65%)

Linux

34

Copyright and naming
Linux and most GNU software are licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL). The GPL requires that anyone who distributes Linux must make the source code (and any modifications) available to the recipient under the same terms. Other key components of a software system may use other licenses; many libraries use the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), a more permissive variant of the GPL, and the X.org implementation of the X Window System uses the MIT License. Torvalds states that the Linux kernel will not move from version 2 of the GPL to version 3. He specifically dislikes some provisions in the new license which prohibit the use of the software in digital rights management,[96] [97] and it would also be impractical to obtain permission from all the copyright holders, who number in the thousands.[98] A 2001 study of Red Hat Linux 7.1 found that this distribution contained 30 million source lines of code.[99] Using the Constructive Cost Model, the study estimated that this distribution required about eight thousand man-years of development time. According to the study, if all this software had been developed by conventional proprietary means, it would have cost about $1.38 billion (2011 US dollars) to develop in the United States.[99] Most of the code (71%) was written in the C programming language, but many other languages were used, including C++, assembly language, Perl, Python, Fortran, and various shell scripting languages. Slightly over half of all lines of code were licensed under the GPL. The Linux kernel itself was 2.4 million lines of code, or 8% of the total.[99] In a later study, the same analysis was performed for Debian GNU/Linux version 4.0 (etch, which was released in 2007).[100] This distribution contained close to 283 million source lines of code, and the study estimated that it would have cost US$7.6 billion (in 2011 dollars) to develop by conventional means. In the United States, the name Linux is a trademark registered to Linus Torvalds.[101] Initially, nobody registered it, but on 15 August 1994, William R. Della Croce, Jr. filed for the trademark Linux, and then demanded royalties from Linux distributors. In 1996, Torvalds and some affected organizations sued him to have the trademark assigned to Torvalds, and in 1997 the case was settled.[102] The licensing of the trademark has since been handled by the Linux Mark Institute. Torvalds has stated that he trademarked the name only to prevent someone else from using it. LMI originally charged a nominal sublicensing fee for use of the Linux name as part of trademarks,[103] but later changed this in favor of offering a free, perpetual worldwide sublicense.[104]

GNU/Linux
The Free Software Foundation views Linux distributions that use GNU software as GNU variants and they ask that such operating systems be referred to as GNU/Linux or a Linux-based GNU system.[105] The media and common usage, however, refers to this family of operating systems simply as Linux, as do many large Linux distributions (e.g. SuSE Linux or Mandriva Linux). Some distributions, notably those based on Debian, use GNU/Linux. The naming issue remains controversial.

References
[1] Linux Online (2008). "Linux Logos and Mascots" (http:/ / www. linux. org/ info/ logos. html). . Retrieved 2009-08-11. [2] Greg Kroah-Hartman (07 March 2011). "2.6.37.3" (http:/ / www. kernel. org/ pub/ linux/ kernel/ v2. 6/ ChangeLog-2. 6. 37. 3). . Retrieved 07 March 2011. [3] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Template%3Alatest_stable_software_release%2Flinux?action=edit& preload=Template:LSR/ syntax [4] Linus Torvalds (8 March 2011). "Linux 2.6.38-rc8" (http:/ / www. kernel. org/ pub/ linux/ kernel/ v2. 6/ testing/ ChangeLog-2. 6. 38-rc8). . Retrieved 8 March 2011. [5] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Template%3Alatest_preview_software_release%2Flinux?action=edit& preload=Template:LSR/ syntax [6] "Debian GNU/Linux Licenses – Ohloh" (https:/ / www. ohloh. net/ p/ debian/ analyses/ latest). ohloh.net. . Retrieved 2009-03-27. [7] http:/ / www. kernel. org/ [8] Safalra (2007-04-14). "Pronunciation of ‘Linux’" (http:/ / safalra. com/ science/ linguistics/ linux-pronunciation/ ). Safalra’s Website. . Retrieved 2009-09-15. [9] Free On-Line Dictionary of Computing (June 2006). "Linux" (http:/ / foldoc. org/ linux). . Retrieved 2009-09-15.

Linux
[10] Torvalds used /ˈlɪnʊks/ in English. (23 April 1992). "pr23.123216.22024@klaava.Helsinki.FI Re: How to pronounce "Linux"? (news:1992A)". (Google Groups) (http:/ / groups. google. com/ groups?selm=1992Apr23. 123216. 22024@klaava. Helsinki. FI). Retrieved on 2007-01-09. Torvalds recorded himself pronouncing the name during the 1990s. (/ˈlɪnʊks/: "How to pronounce Linux?" (http:/ / www. paul. sladen. org/ pronunciation/ ). . Retrieved 2006-12-17.) and in Swedish (/ˈlɪːnɤks/: "Linus pronouncing Linux in English and Swedish" (http:/ / www. kernel. org/ pub/ linux/ kernel/ SillySounds/ ). . Retrieved 2007-01-20. [11] IBM (October 2001). "Linux Watch" (http:/ / www. trl. ibm. com/ projects/ ngm/ wp10_e. htm). . Retrieved 2009-09-29. [12] Linux Devices (January 2010). "Trolltech rolls "complete" Linux smartphone stack" (http:/ / www. linuxfordevices. com/ c/ a/ News/ Trolltech-rolls-complete-Linux-smartphone-stack/ ). . Retrieved 2009-09-29. [13] Computerworld, Patrick Thibodeau. "IBM's newest mainframe is all Linux" (http:/ / www. computerworld. com/ s/ article/ 9142007/ IBM_s_newest_mainframe_is_all_Linux_). . Retrieved 2009-02-22. [14] Lyons, Daniel. "Linux rules supercomputers" (http:/ / www. forbes. com/ home/ enterprisetech/ 2005/ 03/ 15/ cz_dl_0315linux. html). . Retrieved 2007-02-22. [15] Henry Burkhardt, KSR. "June 2010 | TOP500 Supercomputing Sites" (http:/ / www. top500. org/ lists/ 2010/ 06). Top500.org. . Retrieved 2010-10-30. [16] Weeks, Alex (2004). "1.1" (http:/ / www. tldp. org/ LDP/ sag/ html/ sag. html#GNU-OR-NOT). Linux System Administrator's Guide (version 0.9 ed.). . Retrieved 2007-01-18. [17] "The GNU Operating System" (http:/ / www. gnu. org/ ). Gnu.org. . Retrieved 2009-04-17. [18] "About the GNU Project – Initial Announcement" (http:/ / www. gnu. org/ gnu/ initial-announcement. html). Gnu.org. 2008-06-23. . Retrieved 2009-03-09. [19] "Overview of the GNU System" (http:/ / www. gnu. org/ gnu/ gnu-history. html). Gnu.org. . 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"The Linux copyright will change: I've had a couple of requests to make it compatible with the GNU copyleft, removing the “you may not distribute it for money” condition. I agree. I propose that the copyright be changed so that it confirms to GNU ─ pending approval of the persons who have helped write code. I assume this is going to be no problem for anybody: If you have grievances ("I wrote that code assuming the copyright would stay the same") mail me. Otherwise The GNU copyleft takes effect since the first of February. If you do not know the gist of the GNU copyright ─ read it." [25] Santhanam, Anand; Vishal Kulkarni (1 March 2002). "Linux system development on an embedded device" (http:/ / www-128. ibm. com/ developerworks/ library/ l-embdev. html). DeveloperWorks. IBM. . Retrieved 2007-07-26. [26] Lyons, Daniel. "Linux rules supercomputers" (http:/ / www. forbes. com/ home/ enterprisetech/ 2005/ 03/ 15/ cz_dl_0315linux. html). . Retrieved 2007-02-22. [27] Schrecker, Michael. "Turn on Web Interactivity with LAMP" (http:/ / www. techsoup. org/ learningcenter/ webbuilding/ page5067. cfm). . Retrieved 2007-02-22. [28] Galli, Peter (2007-08-08). "Vista Aiding Linux Desktop, Strategist Says" (http:/ / www. eweek. com/ c/ a/ Linux-and-Open-Source/ Vista-Aiding-Linux-Desktop-Strategist-Says/ ). eWEEK (Ziff Davis Enterprise Inc.). . Retrieved 2007-11-19. [29] Paul, Ryan (2007-09-03). "Linux market share set to surpass Win 98, OS X still ahead of Vista" (http:/ / arstechnica. com/ news. ars/ post/ 20070903-linux-marketshare-set-to-surpass-windows-98. html). Ars Technica (Ars Technica, LLC). . Retrieved 2007-11-19. [30] Beer, Stan (2007-01-23). "Vista to play second fiddle to XP until 2009: Gartner" (http:/ / www. itwire. com. au/ content/ view/ 8842/ 53/ ). iTWire (iTWire). . Retrieved 2007-11-19. [31] "Operating System Marketshare for Year 2007" (http:/ / marketshare. hitslink. com/ report. aspx?qprid=2& qpmr=15& qpdt=1& qpct=3& qptimeframe=Y). Market Share. Net Applications. 2007-11-19. . Retrieved 2007-11-19. [32] "Vista slowly continues its growth; Linux more aggressive than Mac OS during the summer" (http:/ / www. xitimonitor. com/ en-us/ internet-users-equipment/ operating-systems-august-2007/ index-1-2-7-107. html). XiTiMonitor (AT Internet/XiTi.com). 2007-09-24. . Retrieved 2007-11-19. [33] "Global Web Stats" (http:/ / www. w3counter. com/ globalstats. php). W3Counter. Awio Web Services LLC. 2007-11-10. . Retrieved 2007-11-19. [34] "June 2004 Zeitgeist" (http:/ / www. google. com/ press/ zeitgeist/ zeitgeist-jun04. html). Google Press Center. Google Inc.. 2004-08-12. . Retrieved 2007-11-19. [35] "Brazil's love of Linux" (http:/ / news. cnet. com/ Brazils-love-of-Linux/ 2009-1042_3-6245409. html). . Retrieved 2009-02-21. [36] Ashurst, Mark (2004-02-01). "Brazil falls in love with Linux" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ business/ 3445805. stm). BBC News. . Retrieved 2009-02-21.

35

Linux
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Debian FAQ. the Debian project. . [50] "Certifying Linux" (http:/ / www. linuxjournal. com/ article/ 0131). . [51] Linux Format. "Linux Format DVD contents" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070807222402/ http:/ / www. linuxformat. co. uk/ dvd/ ). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. linuxformat. co. uk/ dvd/ ) on August 7, 2007. . Retrieved 2008-01-17. [52] linux-magazine.com. "Current Issue" (http:/ / www. linux-magazine. com/ resources/ current_issue). . Retrieved 2008-01-17. [53] "75% of Linux code now written by paid developers" (http:/ / apcmag. com/ linux-now-75-corporate. htm). APC. . Retrieved 2010-01-22. [54] Brockmeier, Joe. "A survey of Linux Web development tools" (http:/ / programming. linux. com/ programming/ 05/ 10/ 03/ 1828224. shtml?tid=63& tid=47). . Retrieved 2006-12-16. [55] "The LWN.net Linux Distribution List" (http:/ / lwn. net/ Distributions/ ). . Retrieved 2006-05-19. [56] Advani, Prakash (8 February 2004). "If I could re-write Linux" (http:/ / www. freeos. com/ articles/ 4737/ ). freeos.com. . Retrieved 2007-01-23. [57] What is Linux (http:/ / www. linux. org/ info/ index. html) [58] "Linux: why I quit" (http:/ / apcmag. com/ node/ 6735/ ). APC Magazine. ACP Magazines. 2007-07-24. . Retrieved 2008-01-18. [59] "Performance of Java on Ubuntu vs Windows" (http:/ / www. phoronix. com/ scan. php?page=article& item=java_vm_performance& num=1). . [60] Advani, Prakash (2000-10-27). "Microsoft Office for Linux?" (http:/ / www. freeos. com/ articles/ 2540/ ). FreeOS. FreeOS Technologies (I) Pvt. Ltd.. . Retrieved 2008-02-03. [61] Smith-Heisters, Ian (2005-10-11). "Editing audio in Linux" (http:/ / arstechnica. com/ guides/ tweaks/ linux-audio. ars). Ars Technica. Ars Technica, LLC. . Retrieved 2008-02-03. [62] Lumma, Carl (April 2007). "Linux: It's Not Just For Computer Geeks Anymore" (http:/ / www. keyboardmag. com/ article/ linux-its-not/ apr-07/ 27458). Keyboard Magazine. New Bay Media, LLC.. . Retrieved 2008-02-03. [63] James, Daniel (February 2004). "Using Linux For Recording & Mastering" (http:/ / www. soundonsound. com/ sos/ feb04/ articles/ mirrorimage. htm). Sound On Sound. SOS Publications Group. . Retrieved 2008-02-03. [64] "The Global Desktop Project, Building Technology and Communities" (http:/ / www. iist. unu. edu/ globaldesktop/ ). . Retrieved 2006-05-07. [65] TOP500.Org (2009). "Jaguar" (http:/ / www. top500. org/ system/ 10184). . Retrieved 2009-11-18. [66] National Center for Computational Sciences (October 2009). "Jaguar" (http:/ / www. nccs. gov/ computing-resources/ jaguar/ ). . Retrieved 2009-11-18. [67] "Rackspace Most Reliable Hoster in September" (http:/ / news. netcraft. com/ archives/ 2006/ 10/ 07/ rackspace_most_reliable_hoster_in_september. html). Netcraft. 7 October 2006. . Retrieved 2006-11-01. [68] "Aplus.Net is the Most Reliable Hosting Company Site in June 2008" (http:/ / news. netcraft. com/ archives/ 2008/ 07/ 07/ aplusnet_is_the_most_reliable_hosting_company_site_in_june_2008. html). Netcraft. 7 July 2008. . Retrieved 2008-07-28. [69] "Most Reliable Hosting Company Sites in February 2010" (http:/ / news. netcraft. com/ archives/ 2010/ 03/ 01/ most_reliable_hosting_company_sites_in_february_2010. html). Netcraft. 1 March 2010. . Retrieved 2010-03-23. [70] SecuritySpace (2010-06-01). "Web Server Survey" (http:/ / www. securityspace. com/ s_survey/ data/ 201005/ index. html). SecuritySpace. . Retrieved 2010-06-27. [71] Timothy Prickett Morgan. "IBM punts Linux-only mainframes Big MIPS, deep discounts" (http:/ / www. theregister. co. uk/ 2009/ 12/ 11/ ibm_linux_only_mainframe/ ). The Register. . Retrieved 2009-07-02.

36

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[72] TOP500.org. "Operating system Family share for 11/2010 | TOP500 Supercomputing Sites" (http:/ / www. top500. org/ stats/ list/ 36/ osfam). Top500.org. . Retrieved 2011-01-16. [73] "20 Petaflop Sequoia Supercomputer" (http:/ / www-03. ibm. com/ press/ us/ en/ pressrelease/ 26599. wss). . [74] "Gartner Says Worldwide Mobile Phone Sales Grew 35 Percent in Third Quarter 2010; Smartphone Sales Increased 96 Percent" (http:/ / www. gartner. com/ it/ page. jsp?id=1466313). . [75] "TiVo ─ GNU/Linux Source Code" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070519150730/ http:/ / www. tivo. com/ linux/ linux. asp). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. tivo. com/ linux/ linux. asp) on 2007-05-19. . Retrieved 2006-12-12. [76] "Case Study: How MontaVista Linux helped Yamaha developers make a great product greater" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070925210353/ http:/ / www. mvista. com/ downloads/ Case_study_MontaVista_Linux_and_Yamaha. pdf). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. mvista. com/ downloads/ Case_study_MontaVista_Linux_and_Yamaha. pdf) on September 25, 2007. . Retrieved 2007-08-26. [77] "Embedded Linux: FlyingPigs the WholeHogIII runs on Linux" (http:/ / www. highend. com/ products/ controllers/ Wholehog3Console. asp). . [78] Wheeler, David A. "Why Open Source Software/Free Software (OSS/FS)? Look at the Numbers!" (http:/ / www. dwheeler. com/ oss_fs_why. html). . Retrieved 2006-04-01. [79] "Linux To Ring Up $35 Billion By 2008" (http:/ / www. techweb. com/ wire/ showArticle. jhtml?articleID=55800522). . Retrieved 2006-04-01. [80] "─ IDC Q1 2007 report" (http:/ / www. linux-watch. com/ news/ NS5369154346. html). Linux-watch.com. 2007-05-29. . Retrieved 2009-03-09. [81] Niccolai, James (September 2008). "Ballmer Still Searching for an Answer to Google" (http:/ / www. pcworld. com/ businesscenter/ article/ 151568/ ballmer_still_searching_for_an_answer_to_google. html). . Retrieved 2009-06-04. [82] W3Schools. "OS Platform Statistics" (http:/ / www. w3schools. com/ browsers/ browsers_os. asp). . Retrieved 2010-07-14. [83] Byfield, Bruce (May 2009). "Linux Desktop Market Share: Greater Than One Percent?" (http:/ / itmanagement. earthweb. com/ osrc/ article. php/ 12068_3818696_2/ Linux-Desktop-Market-Share-Greater-Than-One-Percent. htm). . Retrieved 2009-05-06. [84] Awio Web Services (August 2009). "W3Counter – Global Webstats" (http:/ / www. w3counter. com/ globalstats. php). . Retrieved 2009-08-22. [85] "The rise and rise of Linux" (http:/ / www. ca. com/ za/ news/ 2005/ 20051010_linux. htm). . [86] "Why customers are flocking to Linux" (http:/ / www-306. ibm. com/ software/ info/ features/ feb152005/ ). . [87] "WineHQ - About Wine" (http:/ / www. winehq. org/ about/ ). WineHQ. . Retrieved 2010-10-10. [88] Kegel, Dan (2008-02-14). "Google's support for Wine in 2007" (http:/ / article. gmane. org/ gmane. comp. emulators. wine. devel/ 56872). wine-devel mailing list. . Retrieved 2009-01-03. [89] "Open Source Patches: Wine" (http:/ / code. google. com/ opensource/ wine. html). Google. . Retrieved 2008-09-07. [90] "mission" (http:/ / www. laptop. org/ en/ vision/ mission/ index. shtml). laptop.org. . Retrieved 2008-08-14. [91] One Laptop per Child (OLPC), a low-cost, connected laptop for the world's children's education (http:/ / www-static. laptop. org/ vision/ progress/ ) [92] "Industry of Change: Linux Storms Hollywood" (http:/ / www. linuxjournal. com/ article/ 5472). . Retrieved 2009-03-11. [93] "Tux with Shades, Linux in Hollywood" (http:/ / video. fosdem. org/ 2008/ maintracks/ FOSDEM2008-tuxwithshades. ogg). . Retrieved 2009-03-11. [94] "Weta Digital – Jobs" (http:/ / www. wetafx. co. nz/ jobs/ ). . Retrieved 2010-11-17. [95] "LinuxMovies.org – Advancing Linux Motion Picture Technology" (http:/ / www. linuxmovies. org/ ). . Retrieved 2009-03-11. [96] Torvalds, Linus (2006-01-26). "Re: GPL V3 and Linux ─ Dead Copyright Holders" (http:/ / lkml. org/ lkml/ 2006/ 1/ 25/ 273). Linux Kernel Mailing List. . [97] Torvalds, Linus (2006-09-25). "Re: GPLv3 Position Statement" (http:/ / lkml. org/ lkml/ 2006/ 9/ 25/ 161). Linux Kernel Mailing List. . [98] "– Keeping an Eye on the Penguin" (http:/ / www. linux-watch. com/ news/ NS3301105877. html). Linux-watch.com. 2006-02-07. . Retrieved 2010-11-09. [99] Wheeler, David A (2002-07-29). "More Than a Gigabuck: Estimating GNU/Linux's Size" (http:/ / www. dwheeler. com/ sloc/ redhat71-v1/ redhat71sloc. html). . Retrieved 2006-05-11. [100] Amor, Juan José; et al. (17 June 2007). "Measuring Etch: the size of Debian 4.0" (https:/ / penta. debconf. org/ ~joerg/ attachments/ 33-measuring_etch_slides. pdf). . Retrieved 2007-09-16. [101] "U.S. Reg No: 1916230" (http:/ / assignments. uspto. gov/ assignments/ q?db=tm& rno=1916230). United States Patent and Trademark Office. . Retrieved 2006-04-01. [102] "Linux Timeline" (http:/ / www. linuxjournal. com/ article/ 9065). Linux Journal. 31 May 2006. . [103] Neil McAllister (2005-09-05). "Linus gets tough on Linux trademark" (http:/ / www. infoworld. com/ article/ 05/ 09/ 05/ 36OPopenent_1. html). InfoWorld. . Retrieved 2008-02-24. [104] "Linux Mark Institute" (http:/ / www. linuxmark. org). . Retrieved 2008-02-24. "LMI has restructured its sublicensing program. Our new sublicense agreement is: Free — approved sublicense holders pay no fees; Perpetual — sublicense terminates only in breach of the agreement or when your organization ceases to use its mark; Worldwide — one sublicense covers your use of the mark anywhere in the world" [105] Stallman, Richard (2007-03-03). "Linux and the GNU Project" (http:/ / www. gnu. org/ gnu/ linux-and-gnu. html). Free Software Foundation. . Retrieved 2007-03-12.

37

Linux

38

External links
• Linux (http://www.dmoz.org/Computers/Software/Operating_Systems/Linux/) at the Open Directory Project • Graphical map of GNU/Linux OS Internals (http://www.makelinux.net/system/new) • Linux kernel website and archives (http://www.kernel.org/) • Linux.org (http://www.linux.org/)

Microsoft Windows

39

Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows

The latest Windows release, Windows 7, showing the desktop and Start menu Company / developer Programmed in OS family Working state Source model Initial release Latest stable release Microsoft C, C++ and Assembly language [1]

Windows 9x, Windows CE and Windows NT Publicly released Closed source / Shared source November 20, 1985 (as Windows 1.0) ], Windows Server 2008 R2 [2] NT 6.1 Build 7601 (6.1.7601.17514.101119-1850)]  (February 22, 2011) [ +/− ]

[3] Latest unstable release None [ +/− ] Marketing target Available language(s) Update method Supported platforms Kernel type Default user interface License Official website Personal computing Multilingual (listing of available Windows 7 language packs Windows Update IA-32, x86-64 and Itanium Hybrid Graphical (Windows Explorer) Proprietary commercial software /windows/default.aspx [5] [4] )

Microsoft Windows is a series of software operating systems and graphical user interfaces produced by Microsoft. Microsoft first introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs).[6] Microsoft Windows came to

Microsoft Windows dominate the world's personal computer market, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984. As of October 2009, Windows had approximately 91% of the market share of the client operating systems for usage on the Internet.[7] [8] [9] The most recent client version of Windows is Windows 7; the most recent server version is Windows Server 2008 R2; the most recent mobile OS version is Windows Phone 7.

40

Versions
The term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are generally categorized as follows:

Early versions
The history of Windows dates back to September 1981, when Chase Bishop, a computer scientist, designed the first model of an electronic device and project "Interface Manager" was started. It was announced in November 1983 (after the Apple Lisa, but before the Macintosh) under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.[10] The shell of Windows 1.0 was a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Other supplied programs were Calculator, Windows 1.0, the first version, released in 1985 Calendar, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Clock, Control Panel, Notepad, Paint, Reversi, Terminal, and Write. Windows 1.0 did not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows were tiled. Only dialog boxes could appear over other windows. Windows 2.0 was released in October 1987 and featured several improvements to the user interface and memory management.[10] Windows 2.0 allowed application windows to overlap each other and also introduced more sophisticated keyboard-shortcuts. It could also make use of expanded memory. Windows 2.1 was released in two different versions: Windows/386 employed the 386 virtual 8086 mode to multitask several DOS programs, and the paged memory model to emulate expanded memory using available extended memory. Windows/286 (which, despite its name, would run on the 8086) still ran in real mode, but could make use of the high memory area. The early versions of Windows were often thought of as simply graphical user interfaces, mostly because they ran on top of MS-DOS and used it for file system services.[11] However, even the earliest 16-bit Windows versions already assumed many typical operating system functions; notably, having their own executable file format and providing their own device drivers (timer, graphics, printer, mouse, keyboard and sound) for applications. Unlike MS-DOS, Windows allowed users to execute multiple graphical applications at the same time, through cooperative multitasking. Windows implemented an elaborate, segment-based, software virtual memory scheme, which allowed it to run applications larger than available memory: code segments and resources were swapped in and thrown away when memory became scarce, and data segments moved in memory when a given application had relinquished processor control.

Microsoft Windows

41

Windows 3.0 and 3.1
Windows 3.0 (1990) and Windows 3.1 (1992) improved the design, mostly because of virtual memory and loadable virtual device drivers (VxDs) that allowed them to share arbitrary devices between multitasked DOS windows. Also, Windows applications could now run in protected mode (when Windows was running in Standard or 386 Enhanced Mode), which gave them access to several megabytes of memory and removed the obligation to participate in the software virtual memory scheme. They still ran inside the same address space, where the segmented memory provided a degree of protection, and multi-tasked cooperatively. For Windows 3.0, Microsoft also rewrote critical operations from C into assembly.

Windows 3.0, released in 1990

Windows 95, 98, and Me
Windows 95 was released in August 1995, featuring a new user interface, support for long file names of up to 255 characters, and the ability to automatically detect and configure installed hardware (plug and play). It could natively run 32-bit applications, and featured several technological improvements that increased its stability over Windows 3.1. There were several OEM Service Releases (OSR) of Windows 95, each of which was roughly equivalent to a service pack. Microsoft's next release was Windows 98 in June 1998. Microsoft released a second version of Windows 98 in May 1999, named Windows 98 Second Edition (often shortened to Windows 98 SE).

Windows 95, released in 1995

In February 2000, Windows 2000 was released, followed by Windows Me in September 2000 (Me standing for Millennium Edition). Windows Me updated the core from Windows 98, but adopted some aspects of Windows 2000 and removed the "boot in DOS mode" option. It also added a new feature called System Restore, allowing the user to set the computer's settings back to an earlier date.

Windows NT family
The NT family of Windows systems was fashioned and marketed for higher reliability business use. The first release was NT 3.1 (1993), numbered "3.1" to match the consumer Windows version, which was followed by NT 3.5 (1994), NT 3.51 (1995), NT 4.0 (1996), and Windows 2000, which is the last NT-based Windows release that does not include Microsoft Product Activation. Windows NT 4.0 was the first in this line to implement the "Windows 95" user interface (and the first to include Windows 95’s built-in 32-bit runtimes). Microsoft then moved to combine their consumer and business operating systems with Windows XP that was released in August 2001. It came both in home and professional versions (and later niche market versions for tablet PCs and media centers); they also diverged release schedules for server operating systems. Windows Server 2003, released a year and a half after Windows XP, brought Windows Server up to date with Windows XP. After a lengthy development process, Windows Vista was released toward the end of 2006, and its server counterpart, Windows Server 2008 was released in early 2008. On July 22, 2009, Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 were released as RTM (release to manufacturing). Windows 7 was released on October 22, 2009.

Microsoft Windows 64-bit operating systems Windows NT included support for several different platforms before the x86-based personal computer became dominant in the professional world. Versions of NT from 3.1 to 4.0 variously supported PowerPC, DEC Alpha and MIPS R4000, some of which were 64-bit processors, although the operating system treated them as 32-bit processors. With the introduction of the Intel Itanium architecture (also known as IA-64), Microsoft released new versions of Windows to support it. Itanium versions of Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 were released at the same time as their mainstream x86 (32-bit) counterparts. On April 25, 2005, Microsoft released Windows XP Professional x64 Edition and Windows Server 2003 x64 Editions to support the x86-64 (or x64 in Microsoft terminology) architecture. Microsoft dropped support for the Itanium version of Windows XP in 2005. Windows Vista is the first end-user version of Windows that Microsoft has released simultaneously in x86 and x64 editions. Windows Vista does not support the Itanium architecture. The modern 64-bit Windows family comprises AMD64/Intel64 versions of Windows 7, and Windows Server 2008, in both Itanium and x64 editions. Windows Server 2008 R2 drops the 32-bit version, although Windows 7 does not.

42

Windows CE
Windows CE (officially known as Windows Embedded Compact), is an edition of Windows that runs on minimalistic computers, like satellite navigation systems and some mobile phones. Windows Embedded Compact is based on its own dedicated kernel, dubbed Windows CE kernel. Microsoft licenses Windows CE to OEMs and device makers. The OEMs and device makers can modify and create their own user interfaces and experiences, while Windows CE provides the technical foundation to do so. Windows CE was used in the Dreamcast along with Sega's own proprietary OS for the console. Windows CE is the core from which Windows Mobile is derived. Microsoft's latest mobile OS, Windows Phone 7, is based on components from both Windows CE 6.0 R3 and the upcoming Windows CE 7.0. Windows Embedded Compact is not to be confused with Windows XP Embedded or Windows NT 4.0 Embedded, modular editions of Windows based on Windows NT kernel.
The latest upcoming version of Windows CE, Windows Embedded Compact 7, displaying a possible UI for what the media player can look like.

Future of Windows
Windows 8, the successor to Windows 7, is currently in development. Microsoft Windows CE 5.0 Microsoft has posted a blog entry in Dutch on October 22, 2010 hinting that Windows 8 will be released after 2 years.[12] Also, during the pre-Consumer Electronics Show keynote, Microsoft's CEO announced that Windows 8 will also run on ARM CPUs. Since ARM CPUs are usually in the form of SOCs found in mobile devices, this new announcement implies that Windows 8 will be more compatible with mobile devices such as netbooks, tablet personal computers, and smartphones.[13]

Microsoft Windows

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History
Microsoft has taken two parallel routes in its operating systems. One route has been for the home user and the other has been for the professional IT user. The dual routes have generally led to home versions having greater multimedia support and less functionality in networking and security, and professional versions having inferior multimedia support and better networking and security. The first version of Microsoft Windows, version 1.0, released in November 1985, lacked a degree of functionality and achieved little popularity, and was to compete with Apple’s own operating system. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system; rather, it extends MS-DOS. Microsoft Windows version 2.0 was released in November 1987 and was slightly more popular than its predecessor. Windows 2.03 (release date January 1988) had changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights.[14] [15]
The Windows family tree.

Microsoft Windows version 3.0, released in 1990, was the first Microsoft Windows version to achieve broad commercial success, selling 2 million copies in the first six months.[16] [17] It featured improvements to the user interface and to multitasking capabilities. It received a facelift in Windows 3.1, made generally available on March 1, 1992. Windows 3.1 support ended on December 31, 2001.[18] In July 1993, Microsoft released Windows NT based on a new kernel. Windows NT 3.1 was the first release of Windows NT. NT was considered to be the professional OS and was the first Windows version to utilize preemptive multitasking. Windows NT would later be retooled to also function as a home operating system, with Windows XP. On August 24, 1995, Microsoft released Windows 95, a new, and major, consumer version that made further changes to the user interface, and also used preemptive multitasking. Windows 95 was designed to replace not only Windows 3.1, but also Windows for Workgroups, and MS-DOS. It was also the first Windows operating system to use Plug and Play capabilities. The changes Windows 95 brought to the desktop were revolutionary, as opposed to evolutionary, such as those in Windows 98 and Windows Me. Mainstream support for Windows 95 ended on December 31, 2000 and extended support for Windows 95 ended on December 31, 2001.[19] The next in the consumer line was Microsoft Windows 98 released on June 25, 1998. It was followed with the release of Windows 98 Second Edition (Windows 98 SE) in 1999. Mainstream support for Windows 98 ended on June 30, 2002 and extended support for Windows 98 ended on July 11, 2006.[20] As part of its "professional" line, Microsoft released Windows 2000 in February 2000. During 2004 part of the Source Code for Windows 2000 was leaked onto the Internet. This was bad for Microsoft as the same kernel used in Windows 2000 was used in Windows XP. The consumer version following Windows 98 was Windows Me (Windows Millennium Edition). Released in September 2000, Windows Me implemented a number of new technologies for Microsoft: most notably publicized was "Universal Plug and Play". Windows Me was heavily criticized due to slowness, freezes and hardware problems. In October 2001, Microsoft released Windows XP, a version built on the Windows NT kernel that also retained the consumer-oriented usability of Windows 95 and its successors. This new version was widely praised in computer magazines.[21] It shipped in two distinct editions, "Home" and "Professional", the former lacking many of the superior security and networking features of the Professional edition. Additionally, the first "Media Center" edition was released in 2002,[22] with an emphasis on support for DVD and TV functionality including program recording

Microsoft Windows and a remote control. Mainstream support for Windows XP ended on April 14, 2009. Extended support will continue until April 8, 2014.[23] In April 2003, Windows Server 2003 was introduced, replacing the Windows 2000 line of server products with a number of new features and a strong focus on security; this was followed in December 2005 by Windows Server 2003 R2. On January 30, 2007, Microsoft released Windows Vista. It contains a number of new features, from a redesigned shell and user interface to significant technical changes, with a particular focus on security features. It is available in a number of different editions, and has been subject to some criticism. On October 22, 2009, Microsoft released Windows 7. Unlike its predecessor, Windows Vista, which introduced a large number of new features, Windows 7 was intended to be a more focused, incremental upgrade to the Windows line, with the goal of being compatible with applications and hardware which Windows Vista was not at the time.[24] Windows 7 has multi-touch support, a redesigned Windows shell with a new taskbar, referred to as the Superbar, a home networking system called HomeGroup,[25] and performance improvements.

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Timeline of releases Usage share
Source Date All versions Windows XP Windows 7 Windows Vista Windows Server 2003 Windows 2000 Windows 98 Net Market Share January 2011 89.53% 55.26% 22.31% 11.66% — 0.27% 0.03% [27] W3Counter [28] Global Stats [29] StatOwl [30] W3Schools [31]

February 2011 83.63% 41.47% 28.27% 13.52% 0.19% 0.18% —

February 2011 91.53% 48% 29.12% 14.41% — — —

February 2011 86.93% 40.89% 26.73% 17.91% 1.17% 0.23% —

January 2011 86.2% 45.3% 31.1% 8.6% 1% 0.2% —

Security
Consumer versions of Windows were originally designed for ease-of-use on a single-user PC without a network connection, and did not have security features built in from the outset.[32] However, Windows NT and its successors are designed for security (including on a network) and multi-user PCs, but were not initially designed with Internet security in mind as much, since, when it was first developed in the early 1990s, Internet use was less prevalent.[33] These design issues combined with programming errors (e.g. buffer overflows) and the popularity of Windows means that it is a frequent target of computer worm and virus writers. In June 2005, Bruce Schneier’s Counterpane Internet Security reported that it had seen over 1,000 new viruses and worms in the previous six months.[34] In 2005, Kaspersky Lab found around 11,000 malicious programs—viruses, Trojans, back-doors, and exploits written for Windows.[35] Microsoft releases security patches through its Windows Update service approximately once a month (usually the second Tuesday of the month), although critical updates are made available at shorter intervals when necessary.[36] In versions of Windows after and including Windows 2000 SP3 and Windows XP, updates can be automatically downloaded and installed if the user selects to do so. As a result, Service Pack 2 for Windows XP, as well as Service Pack 1 for Windows Server 2003, were installed by users more quickly than it otherwise might have been.[37]

Microsoft Windows While the Windows 9x series offered the option of having profiles for multiple users, they had no concept of access privileges, and did not allow concurrent access; and so were not true multi-user operating systems. In addition, they implemented only partial memory protection. They were accordingly widely criticised for lack of security. The Windows NT series of operating systems, by contrast, are true multi-user, and implement absolute memory protection. However, a lot of the advantages of being a true multi-user operating system were nullified by the fact that, prior to Windows Vista, the first user account created during the setup process was an administrator account, which was also the default for new accounts. Though Windows XP did have limited accounts, the majority of home users did not change to an account type with fewer rights – partially due to the number of programs which unnecessarily required administrator rights – and so most home users ran as administrator all the time. Windows Vista changes this[38] by introducing a privilege elevation system called User Account Control. When logging in as a standard user, a logon session is created and a token containing only the most basic privileges is assigned. In this way, the new logon session is incapable of making changes that would affect the entire system. When logging in as a user in the Administrators group, two separate tokens are assigned. The first token contains all privileges typically awarded to an administrator, and the second is a restricted token similar to what a standard user would receive. User applications, including the Windows Shell, are then started with the restricted token, resulting in a reduced privilege environment even under an Administrator account. When an application requests higher privileges or "Run as administrator" is clicked, UAC will prompt for confirmation and, if consent is given (including administrator credentials if the account requesting the elevation is not a member of the administrators group), start the process using the unrestricted token.[39]

45

File permissions
All Windows versions from Windows NT 3 have been based on a file system permission system referred to as AGLP (Accounts, Global, Local, Permissions) AGDLP which in essence where file permissions are applied to the file/folder in the form of a 'local group' which then has other 'global groups' as members. These global groups then hold other groups or users depending on different Windows versions used. This system varies from other vendor products such as Linux and NetWare due to the 'static' allocation of permission being applied directory to the file or folder. However using this process of AGLP/AGDLP/AGUDLP allows a small number of static permissions to be applied and allows for easy changes to the account groups without reapplying the file permissions on the files and folders.

Windows Defender
On January 6, 2005, Microsoft released a Beta version of Microsoft AntiSpyware, based upon the previously released Giant AntiSpyware. On February 14, 2006, Microsoft AntiSpyware became Windows Defender with the release of Beta 2. Windows Defender is a freeware program designed to protect against spyware and other unwanted software. Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 users who have genuine copies of Microsoft Windows can freely download the program from Microsoft's web site, and Windows Defender ships as part of Windows Vista and 7.[40]

Third-party analysis
In an article based on a report by Symantec,[41] internetnews.com has described Microsoft Windows as having the "fewest number of patches and the shortest average patch development time of the five operating systems it monitored in the last six months of 2006."[42] A study conducted by Kevin Mitnick and marketing communications firm Avantgarde in 2004 found that an unprotected and unpatched Windows XP system with Service Pack 1 lasted only 4 minutes on the Internet before it was compromised, and an unprotected and also unpatched Windows Server 2003 system was compromised after being connected to the internet for 8 hours.[43] However, it is important to note that this study does not apply to Windows XP systems running the Service Pack 2 update (released in late 2004), which vastly improved the security

Microsoft Windows of Windows XP. The computer that was running Windows XP Service Pack 2 was not compromised. The AOL National Cyber Security Alliance Online Safety Study of October 2004 determined that 80% of Windows users were infected by at least one spyware/adware product. Much documentation is available describing how to increase the security of Microsoft Windows products. Typical suggestions include deploying Microsoft Windows behind a hardware or software firewall, running anti-virus and anti-spyware software, and installing patches as they become available through Windows Update.[44]

46

Emulation software
Emulation allows the use of some Windows applications without using Microsoft Windows. These include: • Wine — a free and open source software implementation of the Windows API, allowing one to run many Windows applications on x86-based platforms, including Linux and Mac OS X. Wine developers refer to it as a "compatibility layer";[45] and make use of Windows-style APIs to emulate the Windows environment. • CrossOver — A Wine package with licensed fonts. Its developers are regular contributors to Wine, and focus on Wine running officially supported applications. • Cedega — TransGaming Technologies' proprietary fork of Wine, designed specifically for running games written for Microsoft Windows under Linux. A version of Cedega known as Cider is used by some video game publishers to allow Windows games to run on Mac OS X. Since wine was licensed under the LGPL Cedega has been unable to port the improvements made to wine to their proprietary codebase. • Darwine — A bundling of Wine to the PowerPC Macs running OS X by running wine on top of QEMU. Intel Macs use the same Wine as other *NIX x86 systems. • ReactOS — An open-source OS that is intended to run the same software as Windows, originally designed to simulate Windows NT 4.0, now aiming at Windows XP and Vista/7 compatibility. It has been in the development stage since 1996.

References
[1] "NT Server Training: Architectural Overview. Lesson 2 - Windows NT System Overview." (http:/ / www. microsoft. com/ technet/ archive/ winntas/ training/ ntarchitectoview/ ntarc_2. mspx). Microsoft TechNet. Microsoft. . Retrieved December 9, 2010. [2] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Template%3Alatest_stable_software_release%2Fmicrosoft_windows?action=edit& preload=Template:LSR/ syntax [3] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Template%3Alatest_preview_software_release%2Fmicrosoft_windows?action=edit& preload=Template:LSR/ syntax [4] http:/ / msdn. microsoft. com/ goglobal/ ee461121#AvailableLanguagePacks [5] http:/ / www. microsoft. com/ windows/ default. aspx [6] "The Unusual History of Microsoft Windows" (http:/ / inventors. about. com/ od/ mstartinventions/ a/ Windows. htm?rd=1). . Retrieved April 22, 2007. [7] "Global Web Stats" (http:/ / www. w3counter. com/ globalstats. php). W3Counter, Awio Web Services. September 2009. . Retrieved October 24, 2009. [8] "Operating System Market Share" (http:/ / marketshare. hitslink. com/ operating-system-market-share. aspx?qprid=8). Net Applications. October 2009. . Retrieved November 5, 2009. [9] "Top 5 Operating Systems on Oct 09" (http:/ / gs. statcounter. com/ #os-ww-monthly-200910-200910-bar). StatCounter. October 2009. . Retrieved November 5, 2009. [10] Petzold [11] "Windows Evolution" (http:/ / news. soft32. com/ windows-evolution_1629. html). Soft32.com News. . [12] "Microsoft says Windows 8 roughly two years away" (http:/ / news. cnet. com/ 8301-13860_3-20020544-56. html?tag=mncol;title). CNET News (CNET). October 24, 2010. . Retrieved December 9, 2010. [13] MaximumPC (Future US, Inc.). January 6, 2011. http:/ / www. maximumpc. com/ article/ home/ next_windows_run_arm_too. Retrieved February 5, 2011. [14] "The Apple vs. Microsoft GUI Lawsuit" (http:/ / lowendmac. com/ orchard/ 06/ apple-vs-microsoft. html). 2006. . Retrieved March 12, 2008. [15] "Apple Computer, Inc. v. MicroSoft Corp., 35 F.3d 1435 (9th Cir. 1994)" (http:/ / home. earthlink. net/ ~mjohnsen/ Technology/ Lawsuits/ appvsms. html). . Retrieved March 12, 2008.

Microsoft Windows
[16] "Chronology of Personal Computer Software" (http:/ / www. islandnet. com/ ~kpolsson/ compsoft/ soft1991. htm). . [17] "Microsoft Company" (http:/ / www. thocp. net/ companies/ microsoft/ microsoft_company. htm). . [18] "Windows 3.1 Standard Edition Support Lifecycle" (http:/ / support. microsoft. com/ lifecycle/ ?LN=en-us& p1=3078& x=10& y=11). . Retrieved January 3, 2011. [19] "Windows 95 Support Lifecycle" (http:/ / support. microsoft. com/ lifecycle/ ?p1=7864). Microsoft. . Retrieved January 3, 2011. [20] "Windows 98 Standard Edition Support Lifecycle" (http:/ / support. microsoft. com/ lifecycle/ ?p1=6513). Microsoft. . Retrieved January 3, 2011. [21] David Coursey (August 31, 2001). "Your top Windows XP questions answered! (Part One)" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071219121319/ http:/ / review. zdnet. com/ 4520-6033_16-4206367. html). ZDNet. CNET. Archived from the original (http:/ / review. zdnet. com/ 4520-6033_16-4206367. html) on December 19, 2007. . Retrieved January 3, 2011. [22] "A Look at Freestyle and Mira" (http:/ / www. winsupersite. com/ article/ showcase/ a-look-at-freestyle-and-mira. aspx). Paul Thurrott's SuperSite for Windows. Penton. September 3, 2002. . Retrieved January 3, 2011. [23] "Windows XP Professional Lifecycle Support" (http:/ / support. microsoft. com/ lifecycle/ ?p1=3223). . Retrieved January 3, 2011. [24] Mike Nash (October 28, 2008). "Windows 7 Unveiled Today at PDC 2008" (http:/ / windowsteamblog. com/ blogs/ windows7/ archive/ 2008/ 10/ 28/ windows-7-unveiled-today-at-pdc-2008. aspx). Windows Team Blog. Microsoft. . Retrieved November 11, 2008. [25] Brandon LeBlanc (October 28, 2008). "How Libraries & HomeGroup Work Together in Windows 7" (http:/ / windowsteamblog. com/ blogs/ windowsexperience/ archive/ 2008/ 10/ 28/ how-libraries-amp-homegroup-work-together-in-windows-7. aspx). Windows Team Blog. Microsoft. . Retrieved November 11, 2008. [26] "Windows 98 Second Edition Support Lifecycle" (http:/ / support. microsoft. com/ lifecycle/ ?p1=6898). Microsoft. . Retrieved January 3, 2011. [27] "Operating System Market Share" (http:/ / marketshare. hitslink. com/ operating-system-market-share. aspx?qprid=10& qpcal=1& qpcal=1& qptimeframe=M& qpsp=144). Net Market Share. Net Applications. January 2011. . Retrieved February 5, 2011. [28] "Global Web Stats" (http:/ / www. w3counter. com/ globalstats. php?year=2011& month=2). W3Counter. Awio Web Services. February 2011. . Retrieved March 13, 2011. [29] "StatCounter Global Stats" (http:/ / gs. statcounter. com/ #os-ww-monthly-201102-201102-bar). Global Stats. StatCounter. February 2011. . Retrieved March 13, 2011. [30] "Operating System Version Usage" (http:/ / statowl. com/ operating_system_market_share_by_os_version. php?1=1& timeframe=last_6& interval=month& chart_id=4& fltr_br=& fltr_os=& fltr_se=& fltr_cn=& limit[]=windows& limit[]=mac& limit[]=linux& timeframe=last_month). StatOwl. StatOwl.com. February 2011. . Retrieved March 13, 2011. [31] "OS Platform Statistics" (http:/ / www. w3schools. com/ browsers/ browsers_os. asp). W3Schools. Refsnes Data. January 2011. . Retrieved February 5, 2011. [32] Multi-user memory protection was not introduced until Windows NT and XP, and a computer's default user was an administrator until Windows Vista. Source: UACBlog (http:/ / blogs. msdn. com/ uac/ ). [33] "Telephones and Internet Users by Country, 1990 and 2005" (http:/ / www. infoplease. com/ ipa/ A0883396. html). Information Please Database. . Retrieved June 9, 2009. [34] Bruce Schneier (June 15, 2005). "Crypto-Gram Newsletter" (http:/ / www. schneier. com/ crypto-gram-0506. html). Counterpane Internet Security, Inc.. . Retrieved April 22, 2007. [35] Andy Patrizio (April 27, 2006). "Linux Malware On The Rise" (http:/ / www. internetnews. com/ dev-news/ article. php/ 3601946). InternetNews. QuinStreet. . Retrieved January 3, 2011. [36] Ryan Naraine (June 8, 2005). "Microsoft's Security Response Center: How Little Patches Are Made" (http:/ / www. eweek. com/ c/ a/ Windows/ Microsofts-Security-Response-Center-How-Little-Patches-Are-Made/ ). eWeek. Ziff Davis Enterprise. . Retrieved January 3, 2011. [37] John Foley (October 20, 2004). "Windows XP SP2 Distribution Surpasses 100 Million" (http:/ / www. informationweek. com/ news/ security/ vulnerabilities/ showArticle. jhtml?articleID=50900297). InformationWeek. UBM TechWeb. . Retrieved January 3, 2011. [38] Microsoft describes in detail the steps taken to combat this in a TechNet bulletin. Source: Windows Vista Security and Data Protection Improvements (http:/ / technet. microsoft. com/ en-us/ windowsvista/ aa905073. aspx). [39] Kenny Kerr (September 29, 2006). "Windows Vista for Developers – Part 4 – User Account Control" (http:/ / weblogs. asp. net/ kennykerr/ archive/ 2006/ 09/ 29/ Windows-Vista-for-Developers-_1320_-Part-4-_1320_-User-Account-Control. aspx). . Retrieved March 15, 2007. [40] "Windows Vista: Features" (http:/ / www. Microsoft. com/ Windowsvista/ features/ foreveryone/ security. mspx). Microsoft. . Retrieved July 20, 2006. [41] "Symantec Internet Security Threat Report Trends for July – December 2006" (http:/ / eval. symantec. com/ mktginfo/ enterprise/ white_papers/ ent-whitepaper_internet_security_threat_report_xi_03_2007. en-us. pdf) (PDF). Internet Security Threat Report Volume XI. Symantec. March 2007. . Retrieved January 3, 2011. [42] Andy Patrizio (March 21, 2007). "Report Says Windows Gets The Fastest Repairs" (http:/ / www. internetnews. com/ security/ article. php/ 3667201). InternetNews. QuinStreet. . Retrieved January 3, 2011. [43] "Automated "Bots" Overtake PCs Without Firewalls Within 4 Minutes" (http:/ / www. avantgarde. com/ ttln113004. html). Avantgarde. Avantgarde. November 30, 2004. . Retrieved January 3, 2011. [44] Richard Rogers (September 21, 2009). "5 Steps To Securing Your Windows XP Home Computer" (http:/ / www. computer-security-news. com/ 0969/ 5-steps-to-securing-your-windows-xp-home-computer). Computer Security News. Computer Security News. . Retrieved January 3, 2011.

47

Microsoft Windows
[45] Wine (http:/ / www. winehq. org/ )

48

External links
• Official website (http://http://www.microsoft.com/windows/default.aspx) • Microsoft Developer Network (http://www.msdn.com/) • Windows Client Developer Resources (http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-au/windows/default.aspx?WT. mc_id=soc-c-au-loc--2010oct) • Microsoft Windows History Timeline (http://www.microsoft.com/Windows/WinHistoryIntro.mspx) • Pearson Education, InformIT (http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=1358665&rll=1) – History of Microsoft Windows • Microsoft Windows 7 for Government (http://www.microsoft.com/industry/government/products/windows7/ default.aspx)

Novell

49

Novell
Novell, Inc.

Type Industry Founded Headquarters Key people

Public (NASDAQ: NOVL Computer software 1979 Waltham, Massachusetts Ron Hovsepian, chief executive officer

[1]

)

Products

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop Novell eDirectory Novell Open Enterprise Server Novell NetWare Novell GroupWise Novell ZENworks Novell Identity Manager Novell Access Manager PlateSpin $862.18 million (2009) $211.96 million (2009) $212.74 million (2009) $1.902 billion (2009) $0.934 billion (2009) 3,600 (December 2009) novell.com [2]

Revenue Operating income Net income Total assets Total equity Employees Website

Novell, Inc. (pronounced /noʊˈvɛl/; NASDAQ: NOVL [1] ) is a multinational software and services corporation headquartered in Waltham, Massachusetts. The company specializes in enterprise operating systems, such as SUSE Linux Enterprise and Novell NetWare; identity, security, and systems management solutions; and collaboration solutions, such as Novell Groupwise and Novell Pulse. Novell was instrumental in making the Utah Valley a focus for technology and software development. Novell technology contributed to the emergence of local area networks, which displaced the dominant mainframe

Novell's current headquarters in Waltham

Novell

50

computing model and changed computing worldwide. Today, a primary focus of the company is on developing open source software for enterprise clients.

History
Novell owes its beginnings to the Eyring Research Institute (ERI) in Provo, Utah. Dennis Fairclough, Drew Major, Dale Neibaur and Kyle Powell left ERI and took with them the experience and technology to found Novell. Fairclough was the member of the original team that started Novell Data Systems. Major, Neibaur and Powell went on to form SuperSet Novell's former headquarters in Provo Software. Fairclough was the original founder of Novell, when Ray Noorda came to Novell, who was dismissed in a route to build upon a new future for Novell. Major, Neibaur and Powell continued to support Novell through their SuperSet Software Group. At ERI, Fairclough, Major, Neibaur and Powell worked on government contracts for the Intelligent Systems Technology Project, and gained an important insight into the ARPANET and related technologies, ideas which would become crucial to the foundation of Novell. ERI spawned many high-tech spin-offs, including WordPerfect, Novell, and Dynix in computers and some in the military and communication areas that have all benefited the world. The Life of Frank Carlyle Harmon, written by Cleo Harmon, wife of the Founder and the Secretary of the President at Eyring Research Institute, published 1999. The company began in 1979 in Provo, Utah as Novell Data Systems Inc., a hardware manufacturer producing CP/M-based systems. It was co-founded by George Canova, Darin Field, and Jack Davis. Victor V. Vurpillat brought the deal to Pete Musser, chairman of the board of Safeguard Scientifics, Inc., who provided the seed funding. The company initially did not do well, and both Davis and Canova left the firm. The Safeguard board then ordered Musser to shut Novell down. Musser contacted two Safeguard investors and investment bankers, Barry Rubenstein and Fred Dolin, who guaranteed to raise the necessary funds to continue the business as a software company. They, along with Jack Messman, interviewed and hired Raymond Noorda. The required funding was obtained through a rights offering to Safeguard shareholders, managed by the Cleveland brokerage house, Prescott, Ball and Turben, and guaranteed by Rubenstein and Dolin. In January 1983, the company’s name was shortened to Novell Inc., and Raymond Noorda became the head of the firm. Later that same year, the company introduced its most significant product, the multi-platform network operating system (NOS), Novell NetWare.

NetWare
The first Novell product was a proprietary hardware server based on Motorola 6800 CPU supporting 6 MUX ports per board for a maximum of 4 boards per server using a star topology with twisted pair cabling. A network interface card (NIC) was developed for the IBM PC industry standard architecture (ISA) bus. The server was using the first network operating system (NOS) called ShareNet. Later, ShareNet was ported to run on the Intel platform and renamed NetWare. The first commercial release of NetWare was version 1.5. Novell based its network protocol on Xerox Network Systems (XNS), and created its own standards from IDP and SPP, which it named internetwork packet exchange (IPX) and sequenced packet exchange (SPX). File and print services ran on the NetWare core protocol (NCP) over IPX, as did routing information protocol (RIP) and service

Novell advertising protocol (SAP). NetWare uses Novell DOS (formerly DR-DOS) as a boot loader. Novell DOS is similar to MS-DOS and IBM PC-DOS, but no extra license for DOS is required; this came from the acquisition of Digital Research in 1991. Novell had already acquired Kanwal Rekhi’s company Excelan, which manufactured smart ethernet cards and commercialized the internet protocol TCP/IP, solidifying Novell’s presence in these niche areas. It was around this time also that Ed Tittel of HTML For Dummies notoriety became involved with Novell. Tittel took up various positions within the newly acquired Excelan, becoming national marketing manager for Novell, before being named as Novell’s director of technical marketing. Novell did extremely well throughout the 1980s. It aggressively expanded its market share by selling the expensive ethernet cards at cost. By 1990, Novell had an almost monopolistic position in NOS for any business requiring a network. With this market leadership, Novell began to acquire and build services on top of its NetWare operating platform. These services extended NetWare’s capabilities with such products as NetWare for SAA, Novell multi-protocol router, GroupWise and BorderManager.

51

Beyond NetWare
However, Novell was also diversifying, moving away from its smaller users to target large corporations, although the company later attempted to refocus with NetWare for Small Business. It reduced investment in research and was slow to improve the product administration tools, although it was helped by the fact its products typically needed little “tweaking” – they just ran. In June 1993, the company bought Unix System Laboratories from AT&T,[3] acquiring rights to the Unix operating system, apparently in an attempt to challenge Microsoft. In 1994, Novell bought WordPerfect, as well as the Quattro Pro from Borland. These acquisitions did not last. Novell in 1995 assigned portions of its Unix business to the Santa Cruz Operation. WordPerfect and Quattro Pro were sold to Corel in 1996. DR-DOS was also sold to Caldera Systems in 1996. As Novell faced new competition, Noorda was replaced by Robert Frankenberg in 1994,[4] and was followed by several CEOs who served short terms. One of Novell’s major innovations at the time was Novell Directory Services (NDS), now known as eDirectory. Introduced with NetWare v4.0. eDirectory replaced the old Bindery server and user management technology employed by NetWare 3.x and earlier. In 1996, the company began a move into internet-enabled products, replacing reliance on the proprietary IPX protocol in favor of a native TCP/IP stack. The move was accelerated when Eric Schmidt became CEO in 1997 and then Christopher Stone was brought in. The result was NetWare v5.0, released in October 1998, which leveraged and built upon eDirectory and introduced new functions, such as Novell Cluster Services (NCS, a replacement for SFT-III) and Novell Storage Services (NSS), a replacement for the Traditional/FAT filesystem used by earlier versions of NetWare. While NetWare v5.0 introduced native TCP/IP support into the NOS, IPX was still supported, allowing for smooth transitions between environments and avoiding the “forklift upgrades” frequently required by competing environments. Similarly, the Traditional/FAT file system remained a supported option. However, by 1999, Novell had lost its dominant market position, and was continually being out-marketed by Microsoft, which gained access to corporate data centers by bypassing technical staff and selling directly to corporate executives. Microsoft worked to make NetWare look second place with Windows 2000 features such as Group Policy. Microsoft’s GUI was also more popular and looked more modern than the character-based Novell interfaces. With falling revenue, the company focused on net services and platform interoperability. Products such as eDirectory and GroupWise were made multi-platform. In October 2000, Novell released a new product, dubbed DirXML, which was designed to synchronize data, often user information, between disparate directory and database systems. This product leveraged the speed and

Novell functionality of eDirectory to store information, and would later become the Novell Identity Manager and form the foundation of a core product set within Novell. In July 2001, Novell acquired the consulting company, Cambridge Technology Partners, founded in Cambridge, MA by John J. Donovan, to expand offerings into services. Novell felt that the ability to offer solutions (a combination of software and services) was key to satisfying customer demand. The merger was apparently against the firm’s software development culture, and the finance personnel at the firm also recommended against it. The CEO of CTP, Jack Messman, engineered the merger using his position as a board member of Novell since its inception and soon became CEO of Novell as well. He then hired back Chris Stone as vice chairman and CEO to set the course for Novell's strategy into open source and enterprise Linux. With the acquisition of CTP, Novell moved its headquarters to Massachusetts.[5] In July 2002, Novell acquired SilverStream Software, a leader in web services-oriented application, but a laggard in the marketplace. The business area called Novell exteNd contains XML and Web Service tools based on Java EE.

52

Linux for Business
In August 2003, Novell acquired Ximian, a developer of open source Linux applications (Evolution, Red Carpet and Mono). This acquisition signaled Novell’s plans to move its collective product set onto a Linux kernel. In November 2003, Novell acquired SuSE, a developer of a leading Linux distribution, which led to a major shift of power in Linux distributions. IBM also invested $50 million to show support of the SuSE acquisition. Within the openSUSE project, Novell continues to contribute to SUSE Linux. openSUSE can be downloaded freely and available as boxed retail product [6] with formal support [7]. In the summer of 2003, Novell released “Novell eNterprise Linux Services” (NNLS), which ported some of the services traditionally associated with NetWare to SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server (SLES) version 8. In November 2004, Novell released the Linux-based enterprise desktop Novell Linux Desktop v9. This product was based on Ximian Desktop and SUSE Linux Professional 9.1. This was Novell’s first attempt to get into the enterprise desktop market. The successor product to NetWare, Open Enterprise Server, was released in March 2005. OES offers all the services previously hosted by NetWare v6.5, and added the choice of delivering those services using either a NetWare v6.5 or SUSE Linux Enterprise Server v9 kernel. The release was aimed to persuade NetWare customers to move to Linux.

Stagnancy
From 2003 through 2005 Novell released many products across its portfolio, with the intention of arresting falling market share and to move away from dependencies on other Novell products, but the launches were not as successful as Novell had hoped. In late 2004, Chris Stone left the company after an apparent control issue with then Chairman Jack Messman.[8] In an effort to cut costs, Novell announced a round of layoffs in late 2005. While revenue from its Linux business continued to grow, the growth was not fast enough to stop the decrease in revenue of NetWare. While the company’s revenue was not falling as rapidly, it wasn't growing, either. Lack of clear direction or effective management meant that Novell took longer than expected to complete its restructuring. In June 2006, chief executive Jack Messman and chief finance officer Joseph Tibbetts were fired, with Ronald Hovsepian, Novell’s president and chief operating officer, appointed chief executive, and Dana Russell, vice-president of finance and corporate controller, appointed interim CFO.

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'Your Linux is Ready'
In August 2006, Novell released the SUSE Linux Enterprise 10 (SLE 10) series. SUSE Linux Enterprise Server was the first enterprise class Linux server to offer virtualization based on the Xen hypervisor. SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop (popularly known as SLED) featured a new user-friendly GUI and XGL-based 3D display capabilities. The release of SLE 10 was marketed with the phrase 'Your Linux is Ready', meant to convey that Novell’s Linux offerings were ready for the enterprise. In late September 2006 Novell announced a real time version of SLES called SUSE Linux Enterprise Real Time (SLERT) based on technology from Concurrent Computer Corporation.

Agreement with Microsoft
On November 2, 2006, Novell and Microsoft announced a joint patent agreement to cover their respective products.[9] [10] They also promised to work more closely, to improve compatibility of software, setting up a joint research facility. Executives of both companies hope such cooperation will lead to better compatibility between Microsoft Office and OpenOffice.org and better virtualization techniques. Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer said of the deal, “This set of agreements will really help bridge the divide between open-source and proprietary source software.”[11] The deal involves upfront payment of $348 million from Microsoft to Novell for patent cooperation and SLES subscription. Additionally, Microsoft will spend around $46 million yearly, over the next 5 years, for marketing and selling a combined SLES/Windows Server offering and related virtualization solutions, while Novell will pay at least $40 million yearly to Microsoft, in the same period.[12] One of the first results of this partnership was that Novell adapted the OpenXML/ODF Translator OpenOffice.org.[14] Reaction of FOSS community Initial reaction from members of the FOSS community over the patent protection was mostly critical, with expressions of concern that Novell had “sold out” and of doubt that the GPL would allow distribution of code, including the Linux kernel, under this exclusive agreement.[15] [16] [17] In a letter to the FOSS development community on November 9, Bradley M. Kuhn, CTO of the Software Freedom Law Center described the agreement as “worse than useless.”[18] In a separate development the chairman of the SFLC, Eben Moglen, reported that Novell had offered cooperation with the SFLC to permit a confidential audit to determine the compliance of the agreement with the GPL (version 2).[19] Richard Stallman, founder of the Free Software Foundation, said in November that changes coming with the version 3 of the GPL will preclude such deals.[20] When the final revision of the third version of the GPL license was decided, the deal between Microsoft and Novell was grandfathered in. A new clause will let companies like Novell distribute GPLv3 software even if they have made such patent partnerships in the past, as long as the partnership deal was made before March 28, 2007 (GPLv3 Section 11 paragraph 7 [21] ). On November 12, the Samba team expressed strong disapproval of Novell’s announcement on November 2 and asked Novell to reconsider.[22] The Samba team includes an employee of Novell, Jeremy Allison, who confirmed in a comment on Slashdot that the statement was agreed on by all members of the team,[23] and later quit his job at Novell in protest.[24] In early February 2007, Reuters reported that the Free Software Foundation had announced that it was reviewing Novell’s right to sell Linux versions, and may even ban Novell from selling Linux, because of an agreement.[25] However Eben Moglen later said that he was quoted out of context.[26] He was explaining that GPL version 3 will be designed to block similar deals in the future. Currently, Novell is not violating the GPL version 2[27] but the GPLv3 prevents such deals being made in the future.[28] Microsoft has released two public covenants not to sue for the infringement of its patents when using Moonlight. The two covenants require the implementation to not to be
[13]

for use in

Novell released in GPLv3 .[29] [30]

54

Intelligent Workload Management
In December 2009, Novell announced its intention to lead the market it identified as intelligent workload management (IWM).[31] The company's products will enable customers to manage diverse workloads in a heterogeneous data center.

Acquisition by Attachmate
Novell had long been rumored to be a target for acquisition by a variety of other companies. On March 2, 2010, Elliott Associates, L.P., an institutional investor with approximately 8.5% stock ownership of Novell, offered to acquire the company for $5.75 per share in cash, or $1 billion.[32] On March 20, 2010, The company declined the offer and stated that the proposal was inadequate and that it undervalued the Company's franchise and growth prospects.[33] Novell announced in November 2010 that it had agreed to be acquired by Attachmate for $2.2 billion. Attachmate plans to operate Novell as two units, one being SUSE. As part of the deal, 882 patents owned by Novell are planned to be sold to CPTN Holdings LLC, a consortium of companies led by Microsoft[34] [35] and including Apple, EMC, and Oracle.[36] According to Novell's SEC filing,[37] the patents "relate primarily to enterprise-level computer systems management software, enterprise-level file management and collaboration software in addition to patents relevant to our identity and security management business, although it is possible that certain of such issued patents and patent applications read on a range of different software products".[38] Additionally, the future owner anticipates no change to the relationship between the SUSE business and the openSUSE project as a result of this transaction.[39]

Organization
Novell is organized into product development, sales, and services divisions. In December 2009, Novell reorganized its product development business units into two Business Units: Security, Management, and Operating Platforms; and Collaboration Solutions.[40] The Collaboration Solutions Business Unit is based around providing applications for office productivity products: • • • • • • • • • GroupWise Novell Conferencing Novell Data Synchronizer Novell File Management Suite Novell File Reporter Novell Storage Manager Novell Vibe Cloud Novell Vibe OnPrem Open Enterprise Server

The Security, Management, and Operating Platforms Business Unit is based around the remainder of Novell's products (formerly separated into Systems and Resource Management, Identity and Security Management, and Open Platform Solutions business units): • Novell eDirectory • Novell Identity Manager (IDM) - manage access across a heterogeneous group of networks, systems, and information. • Novell Access Manager – successor of Border Manager and iChain. Provides identity-based access to internal resources from inside or outside a given network, including web applications, SSLVPN applications, and so forth. Also includes federation based on Liberty and SAML.

Novell • Novell BorderManager – Manages access to external websites from inside the corporate network based on identities and policies. • Novell Sentinel – A Security Event Manager that provides event collection, automated correlation, analysis, and reporting and is now fully integrated with Identity Manager and other IDM solutions to provide visibility into user activities. • Novell Secure Login – A Single Sign-On product. It is listed in the leader's quadrant in Gartner Magic Quadrant 2009 & 2010. • Novell Service Desk - An ITIL Certified Service Management Product OEM'd from LiveTime Software, Inc. • ZENworks toolset, which provides application and patch management for servers, desktops, and handheld devices and asset management for Windows and Linux. • The PlateSpin portfolio, which provides virtualization and workload management tools, allowing data center operators to plan and implement virtualization projects, and provide ongoing workload protection using both software and the Forge disaster recovery appliance • Novell Operations Center - Business Service Management solution to communicate service performance in alignment with business objectives while controlling the infrastructure in the data center across physical, virtual and cloud environments. • SUSE Linux Enterprise • SUSE Studio • OpenOffice • Mono Novell are founding members of the Open Invention Network, a group of companies that acquires patents, with the aim to protect free and open source software against the threat of patent infringement cases.

55

Support Ecosystem
Novell has a wide array of web-based and phone-based support options for its customers. The Novell support website[41] was named one of the “Ten Best Web Support Sites” in [2003] by the Association of Support Professionals (ASP). In [2003], Novell received an Outstanding Website Award in the WebAward Competition for their Cool Solutions [42] website with a searchable database of advice, tools and problem fixes submitted by users from all over the world.[43] Novell also hosts support forums[44] covering all of their products including SUSE Linux Enterprise, GroupWise, ZENworks and NetWare. Novell offers users both HTTP and NNTP access to the support forums and a search option.[45] Whilst Novell encourages the use of these forums, it does not officially monitor these forums. The forums are maintained by SysOps[46] that have a demonstrated competency with the various products and volunteer their time to try and help the wider community. Novell maintains a number of wikis[47] with up-to-date information on a number of its products. For instance, as new NetWare service packs are released the NetWare wiki[48] is updated with tips and known issues with the service packs. In some cases, the service packs themselves will have their own wiki with information added from feedback provided in the support forums.

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Acquisitions
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Santa Clara Systems, Inc. - 1986 Cache Data Products - 1986 Softcraft - 1987 CXI - 1988 Excelan - 1989 Digital Research – 1991 International Business Software Ltd. - 1992 Serius - 1993 Unix System Laboratories – 1993 WordPerfect & Quattro Pro (Borland) – 1994 Netoria - 1999 Novetrix - 1999 JustOn – 1999 PGSoft - 2000 Novetrix - 2001 Cambridge Technology Partners – 2001 Callisto Software, Inc. - 2001 SilverStream Software – 2002 Ximian – 2003 SuSE – 2003 Salmon – 2004 Tally Systems – 2005 Immunix – 2005 e-Security, Inc – 2006 RedMojo – 2007 Senforce [49] – 2007 Platespin - 2008 SiteScape - 2008 Command Control and Compliance Auditor, (Fortefi) - 2008 Managed Objects, Inc. - 2008

Certification
Novell is one of the first computer companies to provide certification to its products. They include: • • • • Certified Novell Administrator (CNA) Certified Novell Engineer (CNE) Certified Linux Professional 10 (CLP 10) Certified Linux Engineer 10 (CLE 10)

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Products
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Novell iFolder Mono Novell Access Manager (formerly iChain) Novell Client Novell Cloud Manager Novell Cloud Security Service Novell Conferencing Novell Data Synchronizer Novell eDirectory Novell Evolution Novell File Management Suite Novell File Reporter Novell GroupWise Novell Identity Manager Novell NetWare Novell Open Enterprise Server Novell Open Workgroup Suite Novell Open Workgroup Suite Small Business Edition Novell Operations Center Novell Secure Login Novell Sentinel Novell Sentinel Log Manager Novell Service Desk Novell Storage Manager Novell Teaming + Conferencing Novell Vibe Cloud (formerly Novell Pulse) Novell Vibe OnPrem (formerly Novell Teaming) PlateSpin Forge PlateSpin Migrate PlateSpin Orchestrate PlateSpin Protect PlateSpin Recon Subscription Management Tool SUSE Linux Enterprise Server SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop SUSE Linux Enterprise Real Time SUSE Linux Enterprise Thin Client SUSE Linux Retail Solution SUSE Studio ZENworks Application Virtualization ZENworks Asset Management ZENworks Configuration Management ZENworks Endpoint Security Management

• ZENworks Handheld Management • ZENworks Linux Management • ZENworks Network Access Control

Novell • ZENworks Patch Management • ZENworks Server Management

58

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / quotes. nasdaq. com/ asp/ SummaryQuote. asp?symbol=NOVL& selected=NOVL http:/ / www. novell. com/ "Grokline Project:Novell" (http:/ / www. grokline. net/ detail_vendor. php?id=20). Grokline. . Retrieved 2008-06-19. Fisher, Lawrence M. (April 6, 1994). Longtime Hewlett Executive Named Novell Chief. New York Times Sweeney, Phil (2002-04-29). "Cambridge-bound Novell pins recovery on CTP buy - Boston Business Journal:" (http:/ / www. bizjournals. com/ boston/ stories/ 2002/ 04/ 29/ story5. html). Bizjournals.com. . Retrieved 2008-11-04. [6] http:/ / www. open-slx. com/ doku. php [7] http:/ / www. open-slx. com/ doku. php?id=support [8] "Cold Realities For Novell" (http:/ / www. businessweek. com/ magazine/ content/ 05_44/ b3957125. htm). Businessweek.com. . Retrieved 2008-11-04. [9] "Microsoft and Novell Announce Broad Collaboration on Windows and Linux Interoperability and Support" (http:/ / www. microsoft. com/ presspass/ press/ 2006/ nov06/ 11-02MSNovellPR. mspx). Microsoft.com. . Retrieved 2008-11-04. [10] "Steve Ballmer: Microsoft and Novell Collaboration Announcement" (http:/ / www. microsoft. com/ presspass/ exec/ steve/ 2006/ 11-02NovellInterop. mspx). Microsoft.com. . Retrieved 2008-11-04. [11] "Microsoft makes Linux pact with Novell - CNET News.com" (http:/ / news. com. com/ Microsoft+ makes+ Linux+ pact+ with+ Novell/ 2100-1016_3-6132119. html?tag=nefd. lede). News.com.com. . Retrieved 2008-11-04. [12] "Novell gets $348 million from Microsoft" (http:/ / www. linux-watch. com/ news/ NS7235986827. html). Linux-watch.com. . Retrieved 2008-11-04. [13] http:/ / sourceforge. net/ projects/ odf-converter [14] http:/ / download. novell. com/ SummaryFree. jsp?buildid=ESrjfdE4U58%7E [15] "Groklaw - Novell Sells Out" (http:/ / www. groklaw. net/ article. php?story=20061102175508403). Groklaw.net. . Retrieved 2008-11-04. [16] "Groklaw - The Morning After - Reactions to Novell-MS - Updated 2xs" (http:/ / www. groklaw. net/ article. php?story=20061103073628401). Groklaw.net. . Retrieved 2008-11-04. [17] corbet (November 3, 2006). "Various responses to Microsoft/Novell [LWN.net]" (http:/ / lwn. net/ Articles/ 207559/ ). Lwn.net. . Retrieved 2008-11-04. [18] "Bradley M. Kuhn's Letter to the FOSS Development Community Regarding Microsoft's Patent Promise - Software Freedom Law Center" (http:/ / www. softwarefreedom. org/ news/ 20061109a. html). Softwarefreedom.org. November 9, 2006. . Retrieved 2008-11-04. [19] Written by Tom Sanders in California. "Novell opens legal books to GPL pundits - vnunet.com" (http:/ / www. vnunet. com/ vnunet/ news/ 2168151/ novells-opens-microsoft). Vnunet.com. . Retrieved 2008-11-04. [20] "GPLv3 - Transcript of Richard Stallman from the fifth international GPLv3 conference, Tokyo, Japan; 2006-11-21" (http:/ / www. fsfeurope. org/ projects/ gplv3/ tokyo-rms-transcript. en. html#novell-ms). Fsfeurope.org. . Retrieved 2008-11-04. [21] "GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 3" (http:/ / www. gnu. org/ licenses/ gpl-3. 0-standalone. html). fsf.org. . Retrieved 2009-06-03. [22] "Samba Team Asks Novell to Reconsider" (http:/ / news. samba. org/ announcements/ team_to_novell/ ). News.samba.org. . Retrieved 2008-11-04. [23] "Samba Team Urges Novell To Reconsider" (http:/ / slashdot. org/ comments. pl?sid=206202& cid=16817478). Slashdot.org. . Retrieved 2008-11-04. [24] "Groklaw - Jeremy Allison Has Resigned from Novell to Protest MS Patent Deal" (http:/ / www. groklaw. net/ article. php?story=20061221081000710). Groklaw.net. 2007-06-29. . Retrieved 2008-11-04. [25] (http:/ / today. reuters. com/ misc/ PrinterFriendlyPopup. aspx?type=technologyNews& storyID=2007-02-02T230933Z_01_N02280856_RTRUKOC_0_US-NOVELL-LINUX. xml) see quote from Eben Moglen, the Foundation’s general counsel : “The community of people wants to do anything they can to interfere with this deal and all deals like it. They have every reason to be deeply concerned that this is the beginning of a significant patent aggression by Microsoft”. [26] Linux-Watch (http:/ / www. linux-watch. com/ news/ NS6837365670. html) [27] "Is Novell losing Linux? No, it's just bad reporting" (http:/ / www. linux. com/ feature/ 60030). Linux.com. . Retrieved 2008-11-04. [28] http:/ / gplv3. fsf. org/ dd3-faq [29] http:/ / www. microsoft. com/ interop/ msnovellcollab/ newmoonlight. mspx [30] http:/ / www. microsoft. com/ interop/ msnovellcollab/ moonlight. mspx [31] "Novell Delivers Workload Automation Strategy, Tools" (http:/ / itmanagement. earthweb. com/ features/ article. php/ 3851851/ Novell-Delivers-Workload-Automation-Strategy-Tools). Datamation. 2009-12-08. . Retrieved 2010-01-12. [32] "Elliott Offers to Acquire Novell" (http:/ / www. prnewswire. com/ news-releases/ elliott-offers-to-acquire-novell-86009382. html). PR Newswire. 2010-03-02. . [33] "Novell rejects "inadequate" $2B takeover bid" (http:/ / www. networkworld. com/ news/ 2010/ 032010-novell-rejects-takeover. html). Networkworld. 2010-03-20. .

Novell
[34] "FORM 8-K - Novell Inc." (http:/ / www. sec. gov/ Archives/ edgar/ data/ 758004/ 000119312510265964/ d8k. htm). U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. 2010-11-21. . Retrieved 2010-11-27. "Also on November 21, 2010, Novell entered into a Patent Purchase Agreement (the “Patent Purchase Agreement”) with CPTN Holdings LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and consortium of technology companies organized by Microsoft Corporation (“CPTN”). The Patent Purchase Agreement provides that, upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Patent Purchase Agreement, Novell will sell to CPTN all of Novell’s right, title and interest in 882 patents (the “Assigned Patents”) for $450 million in cash (the “Patent Sale”). " [35] Novell Agrees to be Acquired by Attachmate Corporation (http:/ / www. novell. com/ news/ press/ novell-agrees-to-be-acquired-by-attachmate-corporation/ ). Novell. 2010-11-22. . Retrieved 2010-11-22 [36] "CPTN Holdings LLC (acquirer of 882 Novell patents): Microsoft, Apple, EMC and Oracle are the partners according to German antitrust notification" (http:/ / fosspatents. blogspot. com/ 2010/ 12/ cptn-holdings-llc-acquirer-of-882. html). 2010-12-16. . Retrieved 2011-01-03. [37] "SCHEDULE 14-A - Novell Inc." (http:/ / www. sec. gov/ Archives/ edgar/ data/ 758004/ 000119312511008402/ ddefm14a. htm). U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. 2011-01-14. . Retrieved 2011-01-18. [38] Details Emerge of Patents Novell Is Selling to Microsoft (http:/ / www. pcworld. com/ article/ 216931/ details_emerge_of_patents_novell_is_selling_to_microsoft. html). PCWorld. 2011-01-18. . Retrieved 2011-01-18 [39] Attachmate Corporation Statement on openSUSE project (http:/ / www. attachmate. com/ Press/ PressReleases/ nov-22-2010-SUSE. htm). Attachmate Corporation. November 22, 2010. . Retrieved 2010-11-23 [40] "Novell Aligns Organization and Executive Team to Focus on Growing Market for Intelligent Workload Management Solutions" (http:/ / www. novell. com/ news/ press/ novell-aligns-organization-and-executive-team-to-focus-on-growing-market-for-intelligent-workload-management-solutions). novell.com. 2009-12-14. . [41] "NOVELL: Support" (http:/ / support. novell. com). Support.novell.com. . Retrieved 2008-11-04. [42] http:/ / www. novell. com/ coolsolutions [43] "Awards" (http:/ / www. novell. com/ company/ awards/ ). Novell.com. . Retrieved 2008-11-04. [44] http:/ / support. novell. com/ forums/ index. html [45] (http:/ / forums. novell. com/ category/ support. tpt) [46] "NOVELL: Support Forums Volunteers" (http:/ / support. novell. com/ community/ knowledge_partners. html). Support.novell.com. . Retrieved 2010-09-23. [47] "Cool Solutions Wiki Main Page - CoolSolutionsWiki" (http:/ / wiki. novell. com/ index. php/ Cool_Solutions_Wiki_Main_Page). Wiki.novell.com. . Retrieved 2008-11-04. [48] "NetWare - CoolSolutionsWiki" (http:/ / wiki. novell. com/ index. php/ NetWare). Wiki.novell.com. . Retrieved 2008-11-04. [49] http:/ / www. senforce. com/

59

External links
• Novell (http://www.novell.com/) • Novell Blogs (http://www.novell.com/coolblogs/) • Open Horizons - A co-operative EMEA body of international Novell User Groups (http://www.open-horizons. net/) • Open Horizons UK - An active Novell User Group for UK customers (http://www.open-horizons.co.uk/)

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60

Macintosh
The Macintosh (pronounced /ˈmækɨntɒʃ/ MAK-in-tosh),[1] or Mac, is a series of several lines of personal computers designed, developed, and marketed by Apple Inc. The first Macintosh was introduced on January 24, 1984; it was the first commercially successful personal computer to feature a mouse and a graphical user interface rather than a command-line interface.[2] The company continued to have success through the second half of the 1980s, only to see it dissipate in the 1990s as the personal computer market shifted toward the "Wintel" platform: IBM PC compatible machines running MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows.[3] Years later, Apple consolidated its multiple consumer-level desktop models into the 1998 iMac all-in-one. This proved to be a sales success and saw the Macintosh brand revitalized, albeit not to the market share level it once had. Current Mac systems are mainly targeted at the home, education, and creative professional markets. They are: the descendants of the original iMac and the entry-level Mac mini desktop models, the Mac Pro tower graphics workstation, the MacBook, MacBook Air and MacBook Pro laptops. The Xserve server was discontinued January 31, 2011.[4]

The original Macintosh, the first commercially successful personal computer to use a graphical user interface, rather than a command line.

Production of the Mac is based on a vertical integration model in that Apple facilitates all aspects of its hardware and creates its own operating system that is pre-installed on all Mac computers. This is in contrast to most IBM PC compatibles, where multiple sellers create and integrate hardware intended to run another company's operating software. Apple exclusively produces Mac hardware, choosing internal systems, designs, and prices. Apple does use third party components, An iMac computer from August 2009, a modern all-in-one Macintosh. however, such as graphics subsystems from nVidia and ATi. Current Mac CPUs use Intel's x86 architecture; the earliest models (1984–1994) used Motorola's 68k and models from 1994–2006 used the AIM alliance's PowerPC. Apple also develops the operating system for the Mac, currently Mac OS X version 10.6 "Snow Leopard". The modern Mac, like other personal computers, is capable of running alternative operating systems such as Linux, FreeBSD, and, in the case of Intel-based Macs, Microsoft Windows. However, Apple does not license Mac OS X for use on non-Apple computers.

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History
1979 to 1984: Development
The Macintosh project started in the late 1970s with Jef Raskin, an Apple employee, who envisioned an easy-to-use, low-cost computer for the average consumer. He wanted to name the computer after his favorite type of apple, the McIntosh,[5] but the name had to be changed for legal reasons as it was too close, phonetically, to that of the McIntosh audio equipment manufacturer. Steve Jobs requested a release of the name so that Apple could use it, but was denied, forcing Apple to eventually buy the rights to use the name.[6] Raskin was authorized to start hiring for the project in September 1979,[7] and he began to look for Part of the original Macintosh design team, as seen on the cover of Revolution in the Valley. an engineer who could put together a prototype. Bill Left to right: George Crow, Joanna Hoffman, Burrell Smith, Andy Atkinson, a member of Apple's Lisa team (which was Hertzfeld, a Macintosh, Bill Atkinson, Jerry Manock. developing a similar but higher-end computer), introduced him to Burrell Smith, a service technician who had been hired earlier that year. Over the years, Raskin assembled a large development team that designed and built the original Macintosh hardware and software; besides Raskin, Atkinson and Smith, the team included George Crow,[8] Chris Espinosa, Joanna Hoffman, Bruce Horn, Susan Kare, Andy Hertzfeld, Guy Kawasaki, Daniel Kottke,[9] and Jerry Manock.[10] [11] Smith's first Macintosh board was built to Raskin's design specifications: it had 64 kilobytes (KB) of RAM, used the Motorola 6809E microprocessor, and was capable of supporting a 256×256 pixel black-and-white bitmap display. Bud Tribble, a Macintosh programmer, was interested in running the Lisa's graphical programs on the Macintosh, and asked Smith whether he could incorporate the Lisa's Motorola 68000 microprocessor into the Mac while still keeping the production cost down. By December 1980, Smith had succeeded in designing a board that not only used the 68000, but increased its speed from 5 MHz to 8 MHz; this board also had the capacity to support a 384×256 pixel display. Smith's design used fewer RAM chips than the Lisa, which made production of the board significantly more cost-efficient. The final Mac design was self-contained and had the complete QuickDraw picture language and interpreter in 64 KB of ROM – far more than most other computers; it had 128 KB of RAM, in the form of sixteen 64 kilobit (Kb) RAM chips soldered to the logicboard. Though there were no memory slots, its RAM was expandable to 512 KB by means of soldering sixteen IC sockets to accept 256 Kb RAM chips in place of the factory-installed chips. The final product's screen was a 9-inch, 512x342 pixel monochrome display, exceeding the prototypes.[12]

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The design caught the attention of Steve Jobs, co-founder of Apple. Realizing that the Macintosh was more marketable than the Lisa, he began to focus his attention on the project. Raskin finally left the Macintosh project in 1981 over a personality conflict with Jobs, and team member Andy Hertzfeld said that the final Macintosh design is closer to Jobs' ideas than Raskin's.[7] After hearing of the pioneering GUI technology being developed at Xerox PARC, Jobs had negotiated a visit to see the Xerox Alto computer and Smalltalk development tools The original 1984 Mac OS desktop featured a in exchange for Apple stock options. The Lisa and Macintosh user radically new graphical user interface. Users interfaces were partially influenced by technology seen at Xerox communicated with the computer not through PARC and were combined with the Macintosh group's own ideas.[13] abstract textual commands but rather using a metaphorical desktop that included icons of real Jobs also commissioned industrial designer Hartmut Esslinger to work life items with which the user was already on the Macintosh line, resulting in the "Snow White" design language; familiar. although it came too late for the earliest Macs, it was implemented in most other mid- to late-1980s Apple computers.[14] However, Jobs' leadership at the Macintosh project did not last; after an internal power struggle with new CEO John Sculley, Jobs resigned from Apple in 1985,[15] went on to found NeXT, another computer company,[16] and did not return until 1997 when Apple acquired NeXT.[17]

1984: Introduction
The Macintosh 128K was announced to the press in October 1983, followed by an 18-page brochure included with various magazines in December.[18] The Macintosh was introduced by the now famous US$1.5 million Ridley Scott television commercial, "1984".[19] The commercial most notably aired during the third quarter of Super Bowl XVIII on 22 January 1984 and is now considered a "watershed event"[20] and a "masterpiece."[21] "1984" used an unnamed heroine to represent the coming of the Macintosh (indicated by a Picasso-style picture of Apple's Macintosh computer on her white tank top) as a means of saving humanity from the "conformity" of IBM's attempts to dominate the computer industry. The ad alludes to George Orwell's novel, Nineteen Eighty-Four, which described a dystopian future ruled by a televised "Big Brother."[22] [23]

This television commercial, first aired during Super Bowl XVIII, launched the original Macintosh.

Two days after the 1984 ad aired, the Macintosh went on sale. It came bundled with two applications designed to show off its interface: MacWrite and MacPaint. It was first demonstrated by Steve Jobs in the first of his famous Mac Keynote speeches, and though the Mac garnered an immediate, enthusiastic following, some labeled it a mere "toy."[24] Because the operating system was designed largely around the GUI, existing text-mode and command-driven applications had to be redesigned and the programming code rewritten. This was a time-consuming task that many software developers chose not to undertake, and could be regarded as a reason for an initial lack of software for the new system. In April 1984 Microsoft's MultiPlan migrated over from MS-DOS, with Microsoft Word following in January 1985.[25] In 1985, Lotus Software introduced Lotus Jazz for the Macintosh platform after the success of Lotus 1-2-3 for the IBM PC, although it was largely a flop.[26] Apple introduced Macintosh Office the same year with the lemmings ad. Infamous for insulting its own potential customers, the ad was not successful.[27]

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For a special post-election edition of Newsweek in November 1984, Apple spent more than US$2.5 million to buy all 39 of the advertising pages in the issue.[28] Apple also ran a "Test Drive a Macintosh" promotion, in which potential buyers with a credit card could take home a Macintosh for 24 hours and return it to a dealer afterwards. While 200,000 people participated, dealers disliked the promotion, the supply of computers was insufficient for demand, and many were returned in such a bad shape that they could no longer be sold. This marketing campaign caused CEO John Sculley to raise the price from US$1,995 to US$2,495 (adjusting for inflation, about $5,200 in 2010).[27] [29]

1985 to 1989: Desktop publishing era
In 1985, the combination of the Mac, Apple's LaserWriter printer, and The Apple Macintosh Plus at the Design Museum Mac-specific software like Boston Software's MacPublisher and Aldus in Gothenburg, Sweden. PageMaker enabled users to design, preview, and print page layouts complete with text and graphics—an activity to become known as desktop publishing. Initially, desktop publishing was unique to the Macintosh, but eventually became available for other platforms as well.[30] Later, applications such as Macromedia FreeHand, QuarkXPress, Adobe Photoshop, and Adobe Illustrator strengthened the Mac's position as a graphics computer and helped to expand the emerging desktop publishing market. The limitations of the first Mac soon became clear: it had very little memory, even compared with other personal computers in 1984, and could not be expanded easily; and it lacked a hard disk drive or the means to attach one easily. Many small companies sprang up to address the memory issue, by upgrading the 128K Mac to 512 KB, by removing the computer's 16 memory chips and replacing them with larger-capacity chips, a tedious operation that was not always successful. In October 1985, Apple increased the Mac's memory to 512 KB,[31] and offered an upgrade for 128K Macs that involved replacing the logic board. In an attempt to improve connectivity, Apple released the Macintosh Plus on January 10, 1986 for US$2,600. It offered one megabyte of RAM, easily expandable to four by the use of socketed RAM boards, and a SCSI parallel interface, allowing up to seven peripherals—such as hard drives and scanners—to be attached to the machine. Its floppy drive was increased to an 800 KB capacity. The Mac Plus was an immediate success and remained in production, unchanged, until October 15, 1990; on sale for just over four years and ten months, it was the longest-lived Macintosh in Apple's history.[32] Updated Motorola CPUs made a faster machine possible, and in 1987 Apple took advantage of the new Motorola technology and introduced the Macintosh II, which used a 16 MHz Motorola 68020 processor.[33] The primary improvement in the Macintosh II was Color QuickDraw in ROM, a color version of the graphics language which was the heart of the machine. Among the many innovations in Color QuickDraw were an ability to handle any display size, any color depth, and multiple monitors. The Macintosh II marked the start of a new direction for the Macintosh, as now for the first time it had an open architecture with several NuBus expansion slots, support for color graphics and external monitors, and a modular design similar to that of the IBM PC. It had an
The Macintosh II, one of the first expandable Macintosh models.

internal hard drive and a power supply with a fan, which was initially fairly loud.[34] One third-party developer sold a device to regulate fan speed based on a heat sensor, but it voided the warranty.[35] Later Macintosh computers had

Macintosh quieter power supplies and hard drives. In September 1986, Apple introduced the Macintosh Programmer's Workshop, or MPW that allowed software developers to create software for Macintosh on Macintosh, rather than cross compiling from a Lisa. In August 1987, Apple unveiled HyperCard, and introduced MultiFinder, which added cooperative multitasking to the Macintosh. Apple began bundling both with every Macintosh. The Macintosh SE was released at the same time as the Macintosh II, as the first compact Mac with a 20 MB internal hard drive and one expansion slot.[36] The SE's expansion slot was located inside the case along with the CRT, potentially exposing an upgrader to high voltage. For this reason Apple recommended users bring their SE to an authorized Apple dealer to have upgrades performed.[37] The SE also updated Jerry Manock and Terry Oyama's original design and shared the Macintosh II's Snow White design language, as well as the new Apple Desktop Bus (ADB) mouse and keyboard that had first appeared on the Apple IIGS some months earlier. In 1987, Apple spun off its software business as Claris. It was given the code and rights to several applications that had been written within Apple, notably MacWrite, MacPaint, and MacProject. In the late 1980s, Claris released a number of revamped software titles; the result was the "Pro" series, including MacPaint Pro, MacDraw Pro, MacWrite Pro, and FileMaker Pro. To provide a complete office suite, Claris purchased the rights to the Informix Wingz spreadsheet on the Mac, renaming it Claris Resolve, and added the new presentation software Claris Impact. By the early 1990s, Claris applications were shipping with the majority of consumer-level Macintoshes and were extremely popular. In 1991, Claris released ClarisWorks, which soon became their second best-selling application. When Claris was reincorporated back into Apple in 1998, ClarisWorks was renamed AppleWorks beginning with version 5.0.[38] In 1988, Apple sued Microsoft and Hewlett-Packard on the grounds that they infringed Apple's copyrighted GUI, citing (among other things) the use of rectangular, overlapping, and resizable windows. After four years, the case was decided against Apple, as were later appeals. Apple's actions were criticized by some in the software community, including the Free Software Foundation (FSF), who felt Apple was trying to monopolize on GUIs in general, and boycotted GNU software for the Macintosh platform for seven years.[39] [40] With the new Motorola 68030 processor came the Macintosh IIx in 1988, which had benefited from internal improvements, including an The Macintosh Portable was Apple's first battery-powered Macintosh. It was available from on-board MMU.[41] It was followed in 1989 by a more compact 1989 to 1991 and could run System 6 and System version with fewer slots (the Macintosh IIcx)[42] and a version of the 7. [43] Mac SE powered by the 16 MHz 68030, the Macintosh SE/30. Later that year, the Macintosh IIci, running at 25 MHz, was the first Mac to be "32-bit clean," allowing it to natively support more than 8 MB of RAM,[44] unlike its predecessors, which had "32-bit dirty" ROMs (8 of the 32 bits available for addressing were used for OS-level flags). System 7 was the first Macintosh operating system to support 32-bit addressing.[45] Apple also introduced the Macintosh Portable, a 16 MHz 68000 machine with an active matrix flat panel display that was backlit on some models.[46] The following year the Macintosh IIfx, starting at US$9,900, was unveiled. Apart from its fast 40 MHz 68030 processor, it had significant internal architectural improvements, including faster memory and two Apple II CPUs dedicated to I/O processing.[47]

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Macintosh

65

1990 to 1998: Growth and decline
Microsoft Windows 3.0, which began to approach the Macintosh operating system in both performance and feature set, was released in May 1990 and was a less expensive alternative to the Macintosh platform. Apple's response was to introduce a range of relatively inexpensive Macs in October 1990. The Macintosh Classic, essentially a less expensive version of the Macintosh Plus, was the least expensive Mac until early 2001.[48] The 68020-powered Macintosh LC, in its distinctive "pizza box" case, offered color graphics and was accompanied by a new, low-cost 512 × 384 pixel monitor.[49] The Macintosh IIsi was essentially a 20 MHz IIci with only one expansion slot.[50] All three machines sold well,[51] although Apple's profit margin was considerably lower than on earlier machines.[48]

The Macintosh Classic, Apple's early 1990s budget model.

The PowerBook 100 (shown here), 140 and 170 introduced a line of professional laptop Macs. They pioneered notebook ergonomics by placing the keyboard behind a palm rest.

System 7 was the first major upgrade of the Macintosh operating system.

Apple improved Macintosh computers by introducing models equipped with newly available processors from the 68k lineup. The Macintosh Classic II[52] and Macintosh LC II, which used a 16 MHz 68030 CPU,[53] were joined in 1991 by the Macintosh Quadra 700[54] and 900,[55] the first Macs to employ the faster Motorola 68040 processor. In 1994, Apple abandoned Motorola CPUs for the RISC PowerPC architecture developed by the AIM alliance of Apple Computer, IBM, and Motorola.[56] The Power Macintosh line, the first to use the new chips, proved to be highly successful, with over a million PowerPC units sold in nine months.[57]

Apple replaced the Macintosh Portable in 1991 with the first of the PowerBook line: the PowerBook 100, a miniaturized Portable; the 16 MHz 68030 PowerBook 140; and the 25 MHz 68030 PowerBook 170.[58] They were the first portable computers with the keyboard behind a palm rest, and with a built-in pointing device (a trackball) in

Macintosh front of the keyboard.[59] The 1993 PowerBook 165c was Apple's first portable computer to feature a color screen, displaying 256 colors with 640 x 400 pixel resolution.[60] The second-generation of PowerBooks, the 68040-equipped 500 series, introduced the trackpad, integrated stereo speakers and built-in Ethernet to the laptop form factor in 1994.[61] As for Mac OS, System 7 was a 32-bit rewrite from Pascal to C++ that introduced virtual memory, and improved the handling of color graphics, memory addressing, networking, and co-operative OS 8 was the second major upgrade of the Mac multitasking. Also during this time, the Macintosh began to shed the OS. OS 8.6 shown. "Snow White" design language, along with the expensive consulting fees they were paying to Frogdesign, in favor of bringing the work in-house by establishing the Apple Industrial Design Group. They became responsible for to crafting a new look to go with the new operating system and all other Apple products.[62] Despite these technical and commercial successes, Microsoft and Intel began to rapidly lower Apple's market share with the Windows 95 operating system and Pentium processors respectively. These significantly enhanced the multimedia capability and performance of IBM PC compatible computers, and brought Windows still closer to the Mac GUI. Furthermore, Apple had created too many similar models that confused potential buyers. At one point Apple's product lineup was subdivided into Classic, LC, II, Quadra, Performa, and Centris models, with essentially the same computer being sold under a number of different names.[63] These models competed against the Macintosh clones, hardware manufactured by third-parties that ran Apple's System 7. This succeeded in increasing the Macintosh's market share somewhat and provided cheaper hardware for consumers, but hurt Apple financially as existing Apple customers began to buy cheaper clones. When Steve Jobs returned to Apple in 1997, he ordered that the OS that had been previewed as version 7.7 be branded Mac OS 8 (in place of the never-to-appear Copland OS). Since Apple had licensed only System 7 to third-parties, this move effectively ended the clone line. The decision caused significant financial losses for companies like Motorola, who produced the StarMax, Umax, who produced the SuperMac,[64] and Power Computing Corporation, who offered several lines Mac clones, including PowerWave, PowerTower, and PowerTower Pro.[65] These companies had invested substantial resources in creating their own Mac-compatible hardware.[66] Apple bought out Power Computing's license, but allowed Umax to continue selling Mac clones until their license expired, as they had a sizeable presence in the lower-end segment that Apple did not.

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Macintosh

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1998 to 2005: New beginnings
In 1998, a year after Steve Jobs had returned to the company, Apple introduced an all-in-one Macintosh called the iMac. Its translucent plastic case, originally Bondi blue and later many other colors, is considered an industrial design landmark of the late 1990s. The iMac did away with most of Apple's standard (and usually proprietary) connections, such as SCSI and ADB, in favor of two USB ports. It also had no internal floppy disk drive and instead included a CD-ROM drive for installing software,[3] [68] but was incapable of writing to CDs or other media without external third-party hardware. The iMac proved to be phenomenally successful, with 800,000 units sold in 139 days,[69] making the company an annual profit of US$309 million—Apple's first profitable year since Michael Spindler took over as CEO in 1995.[70] The iMacs's "blue and white" aesthetic was applied to the Power The original "Bondi Blue" iMac G3. Introduced Macintosh, and then to a new product, the iBook. Introduced in July in 1998, it led Apple's return to profitability. However, the associated mouse proved to be one 1999, the iBook was Apple's first consumer-level laptop computer, [67] of consumers' least favorite Apple products. filling in the "missing square" of Apple's four-tiered consumer/professional laptop/desktop product strategy previously announced by Jobs.[71] More than 140,000 pre-orders were placed before it started shipping in September,[72] and by October it was as much a sales hit as the iMac.[73] In early 2001, Apple began shipping computers with CDRW drives for the first time.[74] Apple had been emphasizing the Mac's ability to play DVDs by including DVD-ROM and DVD-RAM drives as standard. Steve Jobs admitted that Apple had been "late to the party" on writable CD technology but felt that Macs could become a "digital hub" that linked and enabled an "emerging digital lifestyle".[75] Apple would later introduce an update to its iTunes music player software that could burn CDs, along with a controversial "Rip, Mix, Burn" advertising campaign that some felt encouraged media piracy.[76] This accompanied the release of the iPod, Apple's first successful handheld device. Apple continued to add new products to their lineup, such as the Power Mac G4 Cube,[77] the eMac for the education market and PowerBook G4 laptop for professionals. The original iMac used a G3 processor, but the G4 and then G5 chips were accompanied by successive new designs, dropping the array of colors in favor of white plastic. Current iMacs use aluminum enclosures. On January 11, 2005, Apple announced the release of the Mac Mini priced at US$499,[78] the least expensive Mac to date.[79] Mac OS continued to evolve up to version 9.2.2, including retrofits such as the addition of a nanokernel and support for Multiprocessing Services 2.0 in Mac OS 8.6.[80] Ultimately its dated architecture made replacement necessary. Initially developed in the Pascal programming language, it was substantially rewritten in C++ for System 7. From its beginnings on a 128k 8 MHz machine, it had grown to support Apple's latest 1 GHz G4-equipped Macs. But since its architecture was laid down, OS features like preemptive multitasking and protected memory had become feasible on the kind of hardware Apple manufactured - features that were already common on Apple's competition. As such, Apple introduced Mac OS X, a fully overhauled Unix-based successor to Mac OS 9, using Darwin, XNU, and Mach as foundations, and based on NEXTSTEP. Mac OS X was not released to the public until September 2000, as the Mac OS X Public Beta, with a revamped user interface Apple called "Aqua". At US$29.99, it allowed adventurous Mac users to sample Apple's new operating system and provide feedback for the actual release.[81] The initial release of Mac OS X, 10.0 (nicknamed Cheetah), was released on March 24, 2001. Older Mac OS applications could still run under early Mac OS X versions, using an environment called Classic. Subsequent releases of Mac OS X were 10.1 "Puma" (September 25, 2001), 10.2 "Jaguar" (August 24, 2002), 10.3 "Panther" (October 24, 2003), 10.4

Macintosh "Tiger" (April 29, 2005), 10.5 "Leopard" (October 26, 2007), 10.6 "Snow Leopard" (August 28, 2009), and 10.7 "Lion" scheduled for 2011.[82] Leopard and Snow Leopard each received certification as a Unix implementation by The Open Group.[83] [84]

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2006 onward: Intel era
Apple discontinued the use of PowerPC microprocessors in 2006. At WWDC 2005, Steve Jobs revealed this transition and also noted that Mac OS X was in development to run both on Intel and PowerPC architecture from the very beginning.[86] All new Macs now use x86 processors made by Intel, and some Macs were given new names to signify the switch.[87] Intel-based Macs can run pre-existing software developed for PowerPC using an emulator called Rosetta,[88] although at noticeably slower speeds than native programs, and the Classic environment is unavailable. Intel chips introduced the potential to run the Microsoft Windows operating system natively on Apple hardware, The MacBook Pro is the first Mac notebook to without emulation software such as Virtual PC. In March 2006, a use an Intel processor. It was released at group of hackers announced that they were able to run Windows XP on [85] Macworld 2006. an Intel-based Mac. The group released their software as open source and has posted it for download on their website.[89] On April 5, 2006, Apple announced the public beta availability of their own Boot Camp software that allows owners of Intel-based Macs to install Windows XP on their machines; later versions added support for Windows Vista. Boot Camp became a standard feature in Mac OS X 10.5, while support for Classic was dropped from PowerPC Macs.[90] [91] Apple's recent industrial design has shifted to favor aluminum and glass that is billed as environmentally friendly.[92] The iMac, MacBook Pro and MacBook Air lines use aluminum enclosures, and are now made of a single unibody.[93] [94] Chief designer Jonathan Ive continues to guide products towards a minimalist and simple feel,[95] [96] including the elimination of replaceable batteries in notebooks.[97] Multi-touch gestures from the iPhone's interface have been applied to the Mac line in the form of touch pads on notebooks and the Magic Mouse and Magic Trackpad for desktops. In recent years, Apple has seen a significant boost in sales of Macs. Many claim that this is due, in part, to the success of the iPod and the iPhone, a halo effect whereby satisfied iPod or iPhone owners purchase more Apple equipment. The inclusion of the Intel chips is also a factor. From 2001 to 2008, Mac sales increased continuously on an annual basis. Apple reported sales of 3.36 million Macs during the 2009 holiday season.[98] On February 24, 2011, Apple was the first company to bring to market a computer that utilized Intel's new Thunderbolt (codename Light Peak) I/O interface. Using the same physical interface as a minidisplay port, and backwards compatible with that standard, Thunderbolt boasts two-way transfer speeds of 10 Gbps.[99]

Product line

Macintosh

69

Compact Desktop Mac mini

Consumer iMac

Professional Mac Pro

Entry-level; ships without keyboard, mouse, or monitor; uses Intel Core 2 Duo processors All-in-one; available in 21.5" and 27" screen sizes; uses Intel Core 2 Duo, Intel Core i5, or Intel Core i7 processors

Workstation desktop; highly customizable; uses up to two Intel Xeon 5500 "Gainestown" or Xeon 3500 "Bloomfield" quad-core processors MacBook Pro

Portable (MacBook)

MacBook Air

MacBook

11.6" or 13.3" ultraportable with aluminum casing; uses Intel Core 2 Duo processors Server Mac mini Server

13.3" laptop with white polycarbonate casing; uses Intel Core 2 Duo processors Mac Pro Server

13.3", 15.4" or 17" models with aluminum casing; uses Intel Core 2 Duo, Intel Core i5, or Intel Core i7 processors

Xserve (discontinued January 2011)

An additional Mac mini configuration without an internal optical An additional Mac Pro drive. Ships with Mac OS X Server installed and two internal 500 GB hard drives for a total server configuration. Ships with Mac OS X Server installed. 4×2=8 GiB memory, of 1 TB of capacity. and 2×1=2 TB hard-disk drive space.

Hardware and software
Hardware
Apple directly sub-contracts hardware production to Asian original equipment manufacturers such as Asus, maintaining a high degree of control over the end product. By contrast, most other companies (including Microsoft) create software that can be run on hardware produced by a variety of third-parties, like Dell, HP/Compaq, and Lenovo. Consequently, the Macintosh buyer has comparably fewer options. The current Mac product family uses Intel x86-64 processors. Apple introduced an emulator during the transition from PowerPC chips (called Rosetta), much as it did during the transition from Motorola 68000 architecture a decade earlier. The Macintosh is the only

The internals of the original 20-inch iMac G5.

mainstream computer platform to have successfully transitioned to a new CPU architecture,[100] and has done so twice. All current Mac models ship with at least 2 GB RAM as standard. Current Mac computers use ATI Radeon or

Macintosh nVidia GeForce graphics cards. All current Macs (except for the MacBook Air) ship with an optical media drive that includes a dual-function DVD/CD burner, called the SuperDrive. Macs include two standard data transfer ports: USB and FireWire (except for the MacBook Air and MacBook that do not include FireWire). MacBook Pro computers now also feature the "Thunderbolt" port, which Apple claims can transfer data at speeds up to 10 gigabytes per second. USB was introduced in the 1998 iMac G3 and is ubiquitous today,[3] while FireWire is mainly reserved for high-performance devices such as hard drives or video cameras. Starting with a new iMac G5 released in October 2005, Apple started to include built-in iSight cameras to appropriate models, and a media center interface called Front Row that can be operated by an Apple Remote or keyboard for accessing media stored on the computer.[101] Apple's Disk Operating System allows for more storage over competing products through the use of 16-sector technology. This allows for nearly 20% more storage over the 13-sector technology used in PCs. Apple was initially reluctant to embrace mice with multiple buttons and scroll wheels. Macs did not natively support multiple buttons, even from third parties, until Mac OS X arrived in 2001.[102] Apple continued to offer only single button mice, with wired and Bluetooth wireless versions, until August 2005, when it introduced the Mighty Mouse. While it looked like a traditional one-button mouse, it actually had four buttons and a scroll ball, capable of independent x- and y-axis movement.[103] A Bluetooth version followed in July 2006.[104] In October 2009, Apple introduced the Magic Mouse which uses multi-touch gesture recognition similar to the iPhone instead of a physical scroll wheel or ball.[105] It is available only in Bluetooth, and the Mighty Mouse (re-branded as "Apple Mouse") is available with a cord. Apple also features the "Magic Trackpad" as a means to control Macintosh desktop computers such as the iMac or Mac Pro. This was introduced in 2010.

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Software
The original Macintosh was the first successful personal computer to use a graphical user interface devoid of a command line. It used a desktop metaphor, depicting real-world objects like documents and a trashcan as icons onscreen. The System software introduced in 1984 with the first Macintosh and renamed Mac OS in 1997, continued to evolve until version 9.2.2. In 2001, Apple introduced Mac OS X, based on Darwin and NEXTSTEP; its new features included the Dock and the Aqua user interface. During the transition, Apple included an emulator known as Classic allowing users to run Mac OS 9 applications under Mac OS X, version 10.4 and earlier on PowerPC machines. The most recent version is Mac OS X v10.6 "Snow Leopard." In addition to Snow Leopard, all new Macs are bundled with assorted Apple-produced applications, including iLife, the Safari web browser and the iTunes media player. Apple released Mac OSX 10.7 in 2010, which will be available in the summer of 2011. This operating system features many new features such as: Mission Control, the Mac App Store (available now by software update), and launchpad which is an iPad like way of viewing apps currently installed on Mac. Apple is also releasing a feature known as "resume" which is similar to the hibernate function, found on Microsoft Windows. Mac OS X enjoys a near-absence of the types of malware and spyware that affect Microsoft Windows users.[106] [107] [108] Mac OS X has a smaller usage share compared to Microsoft Windows (roughly 5% and 92%, respectively),[109] but it also has secure UNIX roots. Worms as well as potential vulnerabilities were noted in February 2006, that led some industry analysts and anti-virus companies to issue warnings that Apple's Mac OS X is not immune to malware.[110] Apple routinely issues security updates for its software.[111] Originally, the hardware architecture was so closely tied to the Mac OS operating system that it was impossible to boot an alternative operating system. The most common workaround, used even by Apple for A/UX, was to boot into Mac OS and then to hand over control to a program that took over the system and acted as a boot loader. This technique was no longer necessary with the introduction of Open Firmware-based PCI Macs, though it was formerly used for convenience on many Old World ROM systems due to bugs in the firmware implementation. Now, Mac hardware boots directly from Open Firmware (most PowerPC-based Macs) or EFI (all Intel-based Macs), and Macs are no longer limited to running just Mac OS X.

Macintosh Following the release of the Intel-based Mac, third-party platform virtualization software such as Parallels Desktop, VMware Fusion, and VirtualBox began to emerge. These programs allow users to run Microsoft Windows or previously Windows-only software on Macs at near native speed. Apple also released Boot Camp and Mac-specific Windows drivers that help users to install Windows XP or Vista and natively dual boot between Mac OS X and Windows. Though not condoned by Apple, it is possible to run the Linux operating system using Boot camp or other virtualization workarounds.[112] [113] Because Mac OS X is a UNIX system, borrowing heavily from FreeBSD, many applications written for Linux or BSD run on Mac OS X, often using X11. Apple's smaller market share than Microsoft's means that a smaller range of shareware is available, but many popular commercial software applications from large developers such as Microsoft Office and Adobe Photoshop are ported to both Mac OS and Windows. And much of open source software like the Firefox web browser and the OpenOffice.org office suite are cross-platform and run natively.

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Advertising
Macintosh advertisements have usually attacked the established market leader, directly or indirectly. They tend to portray the Mac as an alternative to overly complex or unreliable PCs. Apple hyped the introduction of the original Mac with their 1984 commercial that aired during the Super Bowl.[114] It was supplemented by a number of printed pamphlets and other TV ads demonstrating the new interface and emphasizing the mouse. Many more brochures for new models like the Macintosh Plus and the Performa followed. In the 1990s, Apple started the "What's on your PowerBook?" campaign, with print ads and television commercials featuring celebrities describing how the PowerBook helps them in their businesses and everyday lives. In 1995, Apple responded to the introduction of Windows 95 with several print ads and a television commercial demonstrating its disadvantages and lack of innovation. In 1997 the Think Different campaign introduced Apple's new slogan, and in 2002 the Switch campaign followed. The most recent advertising strategy by Apple is the Get a Mac campaign, with North American, UK and Japanese variants.[115] [116] Today, Apple introduces new products at "special events" at the Apple Town Hall auditorium, and keynotes at the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference, and (formerly) trade shows like the Apple Expo and the MacWorld Expo. The events typically draw a large gathering of media representatives and spectators, and are preceded by speculation about possible new products. In the past, special events have been used to unveil its desktop and notebook computers such as the iMac and MacBook, and other consumer electronic devices like the iPod, Apple TV, and iPhone, as well as provide updates on sales and market share statistics. Apple has begun to focus its advertising on its retail stores instead of these trade shows; the last MacWorld keynote was in 2009.[117]

Market share and user demographics
Since the introduction of the Macintosh, Apple has struggled to gain a significant share of the personal computer market. At first, the Macintosh 128K suffered from a dearth of available software compared to IBM's PC, resulting in disappointing sales in 1984 and 1985. It took 74 days for 50,000 units to sell.[118] Market share is measured by browser hits, sales and installed base. If using the browser metric, Mac market share has increased substantially in 2007.[119] If measuring market share by installed base, there were more than 20 million Mac users by 1997, compared to an installed base of around 340 million Windows PCs.[120] [121] Statistics from late 2003 indicate that Apple had 2.06 percent of the desktop share in the United States that had increased to 2.88 percent by Q4 2004.[122] As of October 2006, research firms IDC and Gartner reported that Apple's market share in the U.S. had increased to about 6 percent.[123] Figures from December 2006, showing a market share around 6 percent (IDC) and 6.1 percent (Gartner) are based on a more than 30 percent increase in unit sale from 2005 to 2006. The installed base of Mac computers is hard to determine, with numbers ranging from 5% (estimated in 2009)[124] to 16% (estimated in 2005).[125] Mac OS X's share of the OS market increased from 7.31% in December 2007 to 9.63% in December 2008, which is a 32% increase in market share during 2008, compared with a 22% increase during 2007.

Macintosh As of March 2010, OS X share has increased to 10.9%.[126] Whether the size of the Mac's market share and installed base is relevant, and to whom, is a hotly debated issue. Industry pundits have often called attention to the Mac's relatively small market share to predict Apple's impending doom, particularly in the early and mid 1990s when the company's future seemed bleakest. Others argue that market share is the wrong way to judge the Mac's success. Apple has positioned the Mac as a higher-end personal computer, and so it may be misleading to compare it to a budget PC.[127] Because the overall market for personal computers has grown rapidly, the Mac's increasing sales numbers are effectively swamped by the industry's expanding sales volume as a whole. Apple's small market share, then, gives the impression that fewer people are using Macs than did ten years ago, when exactly the opposite is true.[128] Soaring sales of the iPhone and iPad mean that the portion of Apple's profits represented by the Macintosh has declined in 2010, dropping to 24% from 46% two years earlier.[129] Others try to de-emphasize market share, citing that it is rarely brought up in other industries.[130] Regardless of the Mac's market share, Apple has remained profitable since Steve Jobs' return and the company's subsequent reorganization.[131] Notably, a report published in the first quarter of 2008 found that Apple had a 14% market share in the personal computer market in the US, including 66% of all computers over $1,000.[132] Market research indicates that Apple draws its customer base from a higher-income demographic than the mainstream personal computer market.[133]

72

Notes
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[110] Roberts, Paul (2006-02-21). "New Safari Flaw, Worms Turn Spotlight on Apple Security" (http:/ / www. eweek. com/ article2/ 0,1895,1929342,00. asp). eWeek. . Retrieved 2007-11-23. [111] "Apple security updates" (http:/ / support. apple. com/ kb/ HT1222). Apple. 2009-01-21. . Retrieved 2009-01-29. [112] Lucas, Paul (2005-06-04). "Paul J. Lucas's Mac Mini running Linux" (http:/ / homepage. mac. com/ pauljlucas/ personal/ macmini/ index. html). . Retrieved 2009-12-23. [113] Hoover, Lisa (2008-04-11). "Virtualization Makes Running Linux a Snap" (http:/ / ostatic. com/ blog/ virtualization-makes-running-linux-a-snap). . Retrieved 2009-12-23. [114] Pogue, David; Joseph Schorr (1993). Macworld Macintosh SECRETS. San Mateo: IDG Books Worldwide, Inc.. p. 251. ISBN 1-56884-025-X. [115] "Get a Mac advertisements" (http:/ / www. apple. com/ uk/ getamac/ ). Apple. . Retrieved 2007-01-29. [116] "Get a Mac" (http:/ / www. apple. com/ jp/ getamac/ ). Apple. . Retrieved 2007-02-03. [117] "Apple Announces Its Last Year at Macworld" (http:/ / www. apple. com/ pr/ library/ 2008/ 12/ 16macworld. html). Apple. 2008-12-16. . Retrieved 2009-03-30. [118] Polsson, Ken (2009-07-29). "Chronology of Apple Computer Personal Computers" (http:/ / www. islandnet. com/ ~kpolsson/ applehis/ appl1984. htm). . Retrieved 2009-08-27. See April 7, 1984. [119] "Trends in Mac market share" (http:/ / arstechnica. com/ journals/ apple. ars/ 2007/ 04/ 05/ trends-in-mac-market-share). Ars Technica. 2009-04-05. . Retrieved 2009-08-27. [120] "Apple Developer News, No. 87" (http:/ / developer. apple. com/ adcnews/ pastissues/ devnews121997. html#stats). Apple Computer. 1997-12-19. . Retrieved 2006-04-24. [121] "Nearly 600 Million Computers-in-Use in Year 2000" (http:/ / www. c-i-a. com/ pr1198. htm). Computer Industry Almanac Inc. 1998-11-03. . Retrieved 2006-06-01. [122] Dalrymple, Jim (2005-04-20). "Apple desktop market share on the rise; will the Mac mini, iPod help?" (http:/ / www. macworld. com/ news/ 2005/ 03/ 20/ marketshare/ index. php). Macworld. . Retrieved 2006-04-24. [123] Dalrymple, Jim (2006-10-19). "Apple's Mac market share tops 5% with over 30% growth" (http:/ / www. macworld. com/ news/ 2006/ 10/ 19/ marketshare/ index. php). Macworld. . Retrieved 2006-12-22. [124] "Operating System Market Share" (http:/ / marketshare. hitslink. com/ operating-system-market-share. aspx?qprid=8). Hitslink. July 2009. . Retrieved 2009-08-27. [125] MacDailyNews (2005-06-15). "16% of computer users are unaffected by viruses, malware because they use Apple Macs" (http:/ / macdailynews. com/ index. php/ weblog/ comments/ 5933/ ). . Retrieved 2006-04-24. [126] Mac OS X North American installed base almost 11% (http:/ / arstechnica. com/ apple/ news/ 2010/ 03/ mac-os-x-north-american-installed-base-almost-11. ars) [127] Gruber, John (2003-07-23). "Market Share" (http:/ / daringfireball. net/ 2003/ 07/ market_share). Daring Fireball. . Retrieved 2006-04-24. [128] Brockmeier, Joe (2003-05-13). "What Will It Take To Put Apple Back on Top?" (http:/ / www. newsfactor. com/ perl/ story/ 21499. html). NewsFactor Magazine online. . Retrieved 2006-04-24. [129] "Despite growing sales, Mac's share of Apple profits wanes" (http:/ / www. thenewstribune. com/ 2010/ 10/ 21/ 1390638/ despite-growing-sales-macs-share. html). . [130] Toporek, Chuck (2001-08-22). "Apple, Market Share, and Who Cares?" (http:/ / www. oreillynet. com/ mac/ blog/ 2001/ 08/ apple_market_share_and_who_car. html). O'Reilly macdevcenter.com. . Retrieved 2006-04-24. [131] Spero, Ricky (2004-07-14). "Apple Posts Profit of $61 million; Revenue Jumps 30%" (http:/ / www. macobserver. com/ stockwatch/ 2004/ 07/ 14. 1. shtml). The Mac Observer. . Retrieved 2006-04-24. [132] Wilcox, Joe. "Macs Defy Windows' Gravity" (http:/ / blogs. eweek. com/ applewatch/ content/ channel/ macs_defy_windows-gravity. html). Apple Watch. . Retrieved 2008-05-19. [133] Fried, Ian (July 12, 2002). "Are Mac users smarter?" (http:/ / news. com. com/ 2100-1040-943519. html). news.com. . Retrieved 2006-04-24.

76

References
• Apple & Raskin, Jef (1992). Macintosh Human Interface Guidelines. Addison-Wesley Professional. ISBN 0-201-62216-5. • Apple. "Press release Library" (http://www.apple.com/pr/library/). Retrieved 2007-11-18. • Deutschman, Alan (2001). The Second Coming of Steve Jobs. Broadway. ISBN 0-7679-0433-8. • Hertzfeld, Andy. "folklore.org: Macintosh stories" (http://folklore.org/index.py). Retrieved 2006-04-24. • Hertzfeld, Andy (2004). Revolution in the Valley. O'Reilly Books. ISBN 0-596-00719-1. • Kahney, Leander (2004). The Cult of Mac. No Starch Press. ISBN 1-886411-83-2. • Kawasaki, Guy (1989). The Macintosh Way. Scott Foresman Trade. ISBN 0-673-46175-0. • Kelby, Scott (2002). Macintosh... The Naked Truth. New Riders Press. ISBN 0-7357-1284-0.

Macintosh • Knight, Dan (2005). "Macintosh History: 1984" (http://lowendmac.com/history/1984dk.shtml). Retrieved 2006-04-24. • Levy, Steven (2000). Insanely Great: The Life and Times of Macintosh, the Computer That Changed Everything. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-029177-6. • Linzmayer, Owen (2004). Apple Confidential 2.0. No Starch Press. ISBN 1-59327-010-0. • Page, Ian (2007). "MacTracker Macintosh model database 4.3.1" (http://www.mactracker.ca/). Retrieved 2007-11-31. • Sanford, Glen (2006). "Apple History" (http://www.apple-history.com/). Retrieved 2006-04-24. • Singh, Amit (2005). "A History of Apple's Operating Systems" (http://www.kernelthread.com/mac/oshistory/ ). Retrieved 2006-04-24.

77

External links
• Official website (http://http://www.apple.com/mac/) • Making the Macintosh: Technology and Culture in Silicon Valley (http://library.stanford.edu/mac/index. html) • Welcome to MacIntosh (Full Film) (http://www.snagfilms.com/films/title/Welcome_to_Macintosh) • MacHEADs (Full Film) (http://www.snagfilms.com/films/title/MacHEADS)

MS-DOS

78

MS-DOS
MS-DOS

An example of MS-DOS's command-line interface, this one showing that the current directory is the root of drive C. Company / developer OS family Working state Source model Initial release Latest stable release Available language(s) Available programming languages(s) Supported platforms Kernel type Default user interface License Microsoft Corporation DOS Discontinued/Historic Closed source 1981 8.0 / September 14, 2000 Multilanguage C, Pascal, QBasic, Batch, etc. x86 Monolithic kernel Command-line interface, Text user interface Proprietary

MS-DOS (pronounced /ˌɛmɛsˈdɒs/, em-es-dos; short for Micro Soft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers. It was the most commonly used member of the DOS family of operating systems, and was the main operating system for IBM PC compatible personal computers during the 1980s to the mid 1990s, until it was gradually superseded by operating systems offering a graphical user interface (GUI), in particular by various generations of the Microsoft Windows operating system. MS-DOS grew from a 1981 request by IBM for an operating system for its IBM PC range of personal computers. Microsoft quickly bought the rights to QDOS (Quick and Dirty Operating System), also known as 86-DOS,[1] from Seattle Computer Products, and began work on modifying it to meet IBM's specification. The first edition, MS-DOS 1.0, was launched in 1982.[2] The version shipped with IBM's PCs was called PC DOS. Although MS-DOS and PC-DOS were initially developed in parallel by Microsoft and IBM, the two products eventually went their separate ways. During its life, several competing products were released for the x86 platform,[3] and MS-DOS itself would go through eight versions, until development ceased in 2000. Ultimately it was the key product in Microsoft's growth from a programming languages company to a diverse software development firm, providing the company with essential revenue and marketing resources. It was also the underlying basic operating system on which early versions

MS-DOS of Windows ran as a GUI.

79

History
MS-DOS was a renamed form of 86-DOS — informally known as the Quick-and-Dirty Operating System or Q-DOS [2] — owned by Seattle Computer Products, written by Tim Paterson[2] . Microsoft needed an operating system for the then-new Intel 8086 but it had none available, so it licensed 86-DOS and released a version of it as MS-DOS 1.0[2] . Development started in 1981, and MS-DOS 1.0 was released with the IBM PC in 1982[2] . (86-DOS, in turn, was written as an interim replacement for the delayed CP/M-86, when Seattle Computer Products' needed an operating system to sell with their 8086 processor card for the S-100 bus.) Tim Paterson is considered the original author of DOS and he is called "The Father of DOS"[2] [4] Originally MS-DOS was designed to be an operating system that could run on any 8086-family computer. Each computer would have its own distinct hardware and its own version of MS-DOS, similar to the situation that existed for CP/M, and with MS-DOS emulating the same solution as CP/M to adapt for different hardware platforms. To this end, MS-DOS was designed with a modular structure with internal device drivers, minimally for primary disk drives and the console, integrated with the kernel and loaded by the boot loader, and installable device drivers for other devices loaded and integrated at boot time. The OEM would use a development kit provided by Microsoft to build a version of MS-DOS with their basic I/O drivers and a standard Microsoft kernel, which they would typically supply on disk to end users along with the hardware. Thus, there were many different versions of "MS-DOS" for different hardware, and there is a major distinction between an IBM-compatible (or ISA) machine and an MS-DOS [compatible] machine. Some machines, like the Tandy 2000, were MS-DOS compatible but not IBM-compatible, so they could only run software written exclusively for MS-DOS without dependence on the peripheral hardware of the IBM PC architecture. This design would have worked well for compatibility, if application programs had only used MS-DOS services to perform device I/O, and indeed the same design philosophy is embodied in Windows NT (see Hardware Abstraction Layer). However, in MS-DOS's early days, the greater speed attainable by programs through direct control of hardware was of particular importance, especially for games, which often pushed the limits of their contemporary hardware. Very soon an IBM-compatible architecture became the goal, and before long all 8086-family computers closely emulated IBM's hardware, and only a single version of MS-DOS for a fixed hardware platform was needed for the market. This version is the version of MS-DOS that is discussed here, as the dozens of other OEM versions of "MS-DOS" were only relevant to the systems they were designed for, and in any case were very similar in function and capability to the same-numbered standard version for the IBM PC, with a few notable exceptions. While MS-DOS appeared on PC clones, true IBM computers used PC DOS, a rebranded form of MS-DOS. Ironically, the dependence on IBM-compatible hardware caused major problems for the computer industry when the original design had to be changed. For example, the original design could support no more than 640 kilobytes of memory (the 640 kB barrier), because IBM's hardware design reserved the address space above this limit for peripheral devices and ROM. Manufacturers had to develop complicated schemes (EMS and XMS, and other minor proprietary ones) to access additional memory. This limitation would not have been a problem if the original idea of interfacing with hardware through MS-DOS had endured. (However, MS-DOS was also a real-mode operating system, and the Intel x86 architecture only supports up to 1 MB of memory address space in Real Mode, even on Pentium 4 and later x86 CPUs, so for simple access to megabytes of memory, MS-DOS would have had to be rewritten to run in 80286 or 80386 Protected Mode.) Also, Microsoft originally described MS-DOS as "an operating system for Intel 8086-based microcomputers", and the 8086 CPU (and its cousin the 8088) itself has only 1 MiB of total memory address space.

MS-DOS

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Versions
Microsoft licensed or released versions of MS-DOS under different names like SB-DOS or Z-DOS[3] . Competitors released DOS systems such as DR-DOS and PTS-DOS that could also run DOS applications. The following versions of MS-DOS were released to the public:[5] [6] • MS-DOS 1.x • Version 1.12 (OEM) - Compaq release of PC-DOS 1.10 • Version 1.25 (OEM) - Microsoft repackaging of PC-DOS 1.10 • MS-DOS 2.x - Support for 10 MB Hard Disk Drives and tree-structure filing system • Version 2.0 (OEM) • Version 2.1 (OEM) • Version 2.11 (OEM) • Version 2.2 (OEM) • Version 2.21 (OEM) • MS-DOS 3.x • Version 3.0 (OEM) - Support for larger Hard Disk Drives • Version 3.1 (OEM) - Support for Microsoft Networks • Version 3.2 (OEM) • Version 3.21 (OEM) • Version 3.25 (OEM) • Version 3.3 (OEM) • Version 3.3a (OEM) • Version 3.3r (OEM) • Version 3.31 (OEM) - Compaq 3.31 supports FAT16 and larger drives. • Version 3.35 (OEM) • MS-DOS 4.x - includes a graphical/mouse interface. • Version 4.01 (OEM) - IBM patched Version 4.00 before Microsoft released it. • MS-DOS 5.x • Version 5.0 (Retail) - includes a full-screen editor. A number of bugs required reissue. • Version 5.0a (Retail) - With this release, IBM and Microsoft versions diverge. • Version 5.0.500 (WinNT) - All Windows NT 32-bit versions ship with files from DOS 5.0 • MS-DOS 6.x • Version 6.0 (Retail) - Online help through QBASIC. Disk compression and antivirus included. • Version 6.2 (Retail) - Microsoft and IBM alternate versions, IBM has 6.1, 6.3 • Version 6.21 (Retail) - Stacker-infringing DBLSPACE removed. • Version 6.22 (Retail) - New DRVSPACE compression. • MS-DOS 7.x • Version 7.0 (Win95,95A) - Support for long file names. New editor. • Version 7.1 (Win95B-Win98SE) - Support for FAT32 file system • MS-DOS 8.0 • Version 8.0 (WinME) - Integrated drivers for faster Windows loading. • Version 8.0 (WinXP) - DOS boot disks created by XP and later contain files from WinME. The internal DOS is still 5.0 Microsoft DOS was released through the OEM channel, until DRI released DR-DOS 5.0 as a retail upgrade. With PC-DOS 5.00.1, the IBM-Microsoft agreement started to end, and IBM entered the retail DOS market with IBMDOS 5.00.1, 5.02, 6.00 and PC-DOS 6.10, 6.30, 7.00 and 2000.

MS-DOS A number of beta versions have surfaced on the Internet, such as 5.0 (a ten-diskette version in the same vein as 4.0), 7.00 beta 1 (based on 6.00), 7.00 beta 2 (based on 6.22). An OEM source package for 6.00, and a late release of 6.2(b) have also been seen. These are not retail versions.

81

Competition
On microcomputers based on the Intel 8086 and 8088 processors, including the IBM PC and clones, the initial competition to the PC DOS/MS-DOS line came from Digital Research, whose CP/M operating system had inspired MS-DOS. In fact, there remains controversy as to whether Q-DOS was more or less plagiarised from early versions of CP/M code. Digital Research released CP/M-86 a few months after MS-DOS, and it was offered as an alternative to MS-DOS and Microsoft's licensing requirements, but at a higher price. Executable programs for CP/M-86 and MS-DOS were not interchangeable with each other; much applications software was sold in both MS-DOS and CP/M-86 versions until MS-DOS became preponderant (later Digital Research operating systems could run both MS-DOS and CP/M-86 software). MS-DOS supported the simple .COM and the more advanced relocatable .EXE executable file formats; CP/M-86 a relocatable format using the file extension .CMD. Most of the machines in the early days of MS-DOS had differing system architectures and there was a certain degree of incompatibility, and subsequently vendor lock-in. Users who began using MS-DOS with their machines were compelled to continue using the version customized for their hardware, or face trying to get all of their proprietary hardware and software to work with the new system.
The original MS-DOS advertisement in 1981.

In the business world the 808x-based machines that MS-DOS was tied to faced competition from the Unix operating system which ran on many different hardware architectures. Microsoft itself sold a version of Unix for the PC called Xenix. In the emerging world of home users, a variety of other computers based on various other processors were in serious competition with the IBM PC: the Apple II, early Apple Macintosh, the Commodore 64 and others did not use the 808x processor; many 808x machines of different architectures used custom versions of MS-DOS. At first all these machines were in competition. In time the IBM PC hardware configuration became dominant in the 808x market as software written to communicate directly with the PC hardware without using standard operating system calls ran much faster, but on true PC-compatibles only. Non-PC-compatible 808x machines were too small a market to have fast software written for them alone, and the market remained open only for IBM PCs and machines that closely imitated their architecture, all running either a single version of MS-DOS compatible only with PCs, or the equivalent IBM PC DOS. Most clones cost much less than IBM-branded machines of similar performance, and became widely used by home users, while IBM PCs had a large share of the business computer market. Microsoft and IBM together began what was intended as the follow-on to MS/PC DOS, called OS/2. When OS/2 was released in 1987, Microsoft began an advertising campaign announcing that "DOS is Dead" and stating that version 4 was the last full release. OS/2 was designed for efficient multi-tasking — an IBM speciality derived from

MS-DOS deep experience with mainframe operating systems — and offered a number of advanced features that had been designed together with similar look and feel; it was seen as the legitimate heir to the "kludgy" DOS platform. MS-DOS had grown in spurts, with many significant features being taken or duplicated from Microsoft's other products and operating systems. MS-DOS also grew by incorporating, by direct licensing or feature duplicating, the functionality of tools and utilities developed by independent companies, such as Norton Utilities, PC Tools (Microsoft Anti-Virus), QEMM expanded memory manager, Stacker disk compression, and others. During the period when Digital Research was competing in the operating system market some computers, like Amstrad PC-1512, were sold with floppy disks for two operating systems (only one of which could be used at a time), MS-DOS and CP/M-86 or a derivative of it. Digital Research produced DOS Plus, which was compatible with MS-DOS 2.11, supported CP/M-86 programs, had additional features including multi-tasking, and could read and write disks in CP/M and MS-DOS format. While OS/2 was under protracted development, Digital Research released the MS-DOS compatible DR-DOS 5, which included features only available as third-party add-ons for MS-DOS (and still maintained considerable internal CP/M-86 compatibility). Unwilling to lose any portion of the market, Microsoft responded by announcing the "pending" release of MS-DOS 5.0 in May 1990. This effectively killed most DR-DOS sales until the actual release of MS-DOS 5.0 in June 1991. Digital Research brought out DR-DOS 6, which sold well until the "pre-announcement" of MS-DOS 6.0 again stifled the sales of DR-DOS. Microsoft had been accused of carefully orchestrating leaks about future versions of MS-DOS in an attempt to create what in the industry is called FUD (fear, uncertainty, and doubt) regarding DR-DOS. For example, in October 1990, shortly after the release of DR-DOS 5.0, and long before the eventual June 1991 release of MS-DOS 5.0, stories on feature enhancements in MS-DOS started to appear in InfoWorld and PC Week. Brad Silverberg, Vice President of Systems Software at Microsoft and General Manager of its Windows and MS-DOS Business Unit, wrote a forceful letter to PC Week (November 5, 1990), denying that Microsoft was engaged in FUD tactics ("to serve our customers better, we decided to be more forthcoming about version 5.0") and denying that Microsoft copied features from DR-DOS: "The feature enhancements of MS-DOS version 5.0 were decided and development was begun long before we heard about DR-DOS 5.0. There will be some similar features. With 50 million MS-DOS users, it shouldn't be surprising that DRI has heard some of the same requests from customers that we have." – (Schulman et al. 1994). [7] The pact between Microsoft and IBM to promote OS/2 began to fall apart in 1990 when Windows 3.0 became a marketplace success. Much of Microsoft's further contributions to OS/2 also went in to creating a third GUI replacement for DOS, Windows NT. IBM, which had already been developing the next version of OS/2, carried on development of the platform without Microsoft and sold it as the alternative to DOS and Windows.

82

Legal issues
As a response to Digital Research's DR-DOS 6.0, which bundled SuperStor disk compression, Microsoft opened negotiations with Stac Electronics, vendor of the most popular DOS disk compression tool, Stacker. In the due diligence process, Stac engineers had shown Microsoft part of the Stacker source code. Stac was unwilling to meet Microsoft's terms for licensing Stacker and withdrew from the negotiations. Microsoft chose to license Vertisoft's DoubleDisk, using it as the core for its DoubleSpace disk compression[8] . MS-DOS 6.0 and 6.20 were released in 1993, both including the Microsoft DoubleSpace disk compression utility program. Stac successfully sued Microsoft for patent infringement regarding the compression algorithm used in DoubleSpace. This resulted in the 1994 release of MS-DOS 6.21, which had disk-compression removed. Shortly afterwards came version 6.22, with a new version of the disk compression system, DriveSpace, which had a different

MS-DOS compression algorithm to avoid the infringing code. Prior to 1995, Microsoft licensed MS-DOS (and Windows) to computer manufacturers under three types of agreement: per-processor (a fee for each system the company sold), per-system (a fee for each system of a particular model), or per-copy (a fee for each copy of MS-DOS installed). The largest manufacturers used the per-processor arrangement, which had the lowest fee. This arrangement made it expensive for the large manufacturers to migrate to any other operating system, such as DR-DOS. In 1991, the U.S. government Federal Trade Commission began investigating Microsoft's licensing procedures, resulting in a 1994 settlement agreement limiting Microsoft to per-copy licensing. Digital Research did not gain by this settlement, and years later its successor in interest, Caldera, sued Microsoft for damages. It was believed that the settlement ran in the order of $150m, but was revealed in November 2009 with the release of the Settlement Agreement to be $280m.

83

Use of undocumented APIs
Microsoft also used a variety of tactics in MS-DOS and several of their applications and development tools that, while operating perfectly when running on genuine MS-DOS (and PC DOS), would break when run on another vendor's implementation of DOS. Notable examples of this practice included: • Microsoft's QuickPascal released in early 1989 was the first MS product that checked for MS-DOS by modifying the program's Program Segment Prefix using undocumented DOS functions, and then checked whether or not the associated value changed in a fixed position within the DOS data segment (also undocumented). This check also made it into later MS products, including Microsoft QuickC v2.5, Programmer's Workbench and Microsoft C v6.0[7] . • The (once infamous) AARD code, a block of code in the Windows 3.1 beta installer. It was XOR encrypted, self-modifying, and deliberately obfuscated, using various undocumented DOS structures and functions to determine whether or not Windows really was running on MS-DOS[7] . • Note that the Windows 3.0 beta code only gave a warning that Windows would not operate properly on a "foreign" OS. It did in fact run just fine on DR-DOS 6.0. • Interrupt routines called by Windows to inform MS-DOS that Windows is starting/exiting, information that MS-DOS retained in an IN_WINDOWS flag, in spite of the fact that MS-DOS and Windows were supposed to be two separate products[7] .

End of MS-DOS
Today, MS-DOS is rarely used for desktop computing. Since the release of Windows 95, it was integrated as a full product used for bootstrapping and troubleshooting, and no longer released as a standalone product. Windows XP contains a copy of the Windows Me boot disk, stripped down to bootstrap only. This is accessible only by formatting a floppy as an "MS-DOS startup disk". Files like the driver for the CD-ROM support were deleted from the Windows ME bootdisk and the startup In 2011, MS-DOS is still used in some files (AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS) no longer had a content. enterprises to run legacy applications, such as this This modified disk was the base for creating the MS-DOS image for US Navy food service management system. Windows XP. Some of the deleted files can be recovered with an undelete tool[9] . With Windows Vista the files on the startup disk are dated 18 April 2005 but are otherwise unchanged, including the string "MS-DOS Version 8 © Copyright 1981-1999 Microsoft Corp" inside COMMAND.COM.

MS-DOS However the only versions of DOS currently recognized as stand-alone OSs, and supported as such by the Microsoft Corporation are DOS 6.0 and 6.22, both of which remain available for download via their MSDN, volume license, and OEM license partner websites, for customers with valid login credentials. MS-DOS is still used in embedded x86 systems due to its simple architecture, and minimal memory and processor requirements. The command line interpreter of NT-based versions of Windows, cmd.exe, maintains most of the same commands and some compatibility with DOS batch files.

84

The Windows command-line interface
All versions of Microsoft Windows have had an MS-DOS like command-line interface (CLI). This could run many DOS and variously Win32, OS/2 1.x and Posix command line utilities in the same command-line session, allowing piping between commands. The user interface, and the icon up to Windows 2000, followed the native MS-DOS interface. Consumer Windows (up to 3.11, Win9x, WinME) ran as a Graphical User Interface (GUI) running on top of MS-DOS. With Windows 95, 98, and ME the MS-DOS part was integrated to give the illusion of a new operating system. The command line accessed the DOS command line (usually command.com), through a Windows module (winoldap.mod). A new line of Windows, (Windows NT), boot through a kernel whose sole purpose is to load Windows: there is no character-mode boot similar to Consumer Windows, OS/2 or UNIX). The console runs as a Win32 session, with the default processor cmd.exe being a feature-reduced version of OS/2's version. The command session permits running of various supported command line utilities from Win32, MS-DOS, OS/2 1.x and POSIX. The 32-bit Windows can run MS-DOS programs through the use of the NTVDM (NT Virtual DOS Machine). This launches a hacked version of MS-DOS 5.0. Launching the DOS command processor command.com creates a DOS environment that allows DOS programs to communicate with each other. It is not usually run by Windows, and the internal commands of command.com are processed by the underlying Win32 processor (usually cmd.exe, but could be 4nt). The 32-bit CLI is usually referred to as the MS-DOS prompt. Although the binary interface is no longer that found in PC-DOS etc., it is an 'interface', and not an API. The commands typed here, the batches etc., all resemble those of MS/PC-DOS in much the same way that the Linux/UNIX commands resemble each other without underlying binary compatibility. All versions of Windows for x86-64 and Itanium architectures no longer include the NTVDM and can therefore no longer natively run MS-DOS or 16-bit Windows applications. There are alternatives in the form of Virtual machine emulators such as Microsoft's own Virtual PC, as well as VMware, DOSBox, and others.

MS-DOS

85

Legacy compatibility
From 1983 onwards, various companies worked on graphical user interfaces (GUIs) capable of running on PC hardware. With DOS being the dominant operating system several companies released alternate shells, e.g. Microsoft Word for DOS, XTree, and the Norton Shell. However, this required duplication of effort and did not provide much consistency in interface design (even between products from the same company). Later, in 1985, Microsoft Windows was released as Microsoft's first attempt at providing a consistent user interface (for applications). The early versions of Windows ran on top of MS-DOS and its clones. At first Windows met with little success, but this was also true for most other companies' efforts as well, for example GEM. After version 3.0 (1990), Windows gained market acceptance. Later versions (Windows 95, Windows 98 and Windows Me) used the DOS boot process to launch itself into protected mode. Basic features related to the file system, such as long file names, were only available to DOS when running as a subsystem of Windows. Windows NT ran independently of DOS but included a DOS subsystem so applications could run in a virtual machine under the new OS. With the latest Windows releases, even dual-booting MS-DOS is problematic as DOS may not be able to read the basic file system.

The option to create a MS-DOS boot disk is still present in Windows 7.

Related systems
Single-user
Several similar products were produced by other companies. In the case of PC DOS and DR-DOS, it is common but incorrect to call these "clones". Given that Microsoft manufactured PC DOS for IBM, PC DOS and MS-DOS were (to continue the genetic analogy) "identical twins" that diverged only in adulthood and eventually became quite different products. Although DR-DOS is regarded as a clone of MS-DOS, the DR-DOS versions appeared months and years before Microsoft's products. (For example, MS-DOS 4, released in July 1988, was followed by DR-DOS 5 in May 1990. MS-DOS 5 came in April 1991, with DR-DOS 6 being released the following June. MS-DOS 6 did not arrive until April 1993, with Novell DOS 7, DR-DOS' successor, following the next month.[10] ) What made the difference in the end was Microsoft's control of the Windows platform and their programming practices which intentionally made Windows appear as if it ran poorly on competing versions of DOS[7] . Both IBM (DOS 5.02) and DRI (DOS 6 update) had to release interim releases to circumvent Windows limitations inserted artificially[7] , designed specifically to provide Microsoft with an unfair competitive advantage[7] . • • • • PC DOS, DR-DOS / Novell DOS / OpenDOS, GNU/DOS / FreeDOS / FreeDOS 32, PTS-DOS, and

• PowerShell.

MS-DOS These products are collectively referred to as DOS. However, MS-DOS can be a generic reference to DOS on IBM-PC compatible computers.

86

Quotations
"IBM wanted CP/M prompts. It made me throw up." -- Tim Paterson [11]

Remarks
[1] "A Short History of MS-DOS" (http:/ / www. patersontech. com/ Dos/ Byte/ History. html). . Retrieved December 5, 2009. [2] Conner, Doug. "Father of DOS Still Having Fun at Microsoft" (http:/ / www. patersontech. com/ Dos/ Micronews/ paterson04_10_98. htm). Micronews. . Retrieved December 5, 2009. [3] Allan, Roy A. (2001). "Microsoft in the 1980's, part III 1980's — The IBM/Macintosh era" (http:/ / www. retrocomputing. net/ info/ allan/ ). A history of the personal computer: the people and the technology. London, Ontario: Allan Pub.. p.  14 (http:/ / www. retrocomputing. net/ info/ allan/ eBook12. pdf). ISBN 0-9689108-0-7. . Retrieved December 5, 2009. [4] Notice that he is called the author of Dos and not the author of MS-DOS [5] http:/ / www. emsps. com/ oldtools/ msdosv. htm [6] http:/ / pcmuseum. tripod. com/ dos. htm [7] Schulman, Andrew (1994). Undocumented DOS: A Programmer's Guide to Reserved MS-DOS Functions and Data Structures (2nd ed.). Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-63287-X. [8] BYTE Magazine, How Safe is Disk Compression? (http:/ / www. byte. com/ art/ 9402/ sec6/ art1. htm), February, 1994. [9] http:/ / mirror. href. com/ thestarman/ winxp/ winxpsd. htm [10] Timeline 1980-1993 (http:/ / www. oldfiles. org. uk/ powerload/ timeline. htm) [11] Hunter, David (1983). "The Roots of DOS" (http:/ / www. patersontech. com/ Dos/ Softalk/ Softalk. html). Softalk for the IBM Personal Computer. . Retrieved 2007-06-14.

Notes References
Microsoft. MS-DOS 6 Technical Reference (http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc743186.aspx)

External links
• MS-DOS Resources (http://www.josephn.net/ms-dos) - Information on various aspects of MS-DOS including downloads • Current License Agreement Policies for MS-DOS and Windows (http://support.microsoft.com/kb/79747) • Tim Paterson on DOS (http://www.patersontech.com/Dos/Articles.aspx) - Paterson wrote the QDOS OS • MS-DOS: A Brief Introduction (http://www.linfo.org/ms-dos.html) • Richard Bonner's DOS website (http://www.chebucto.ns.ca/~ak621/DOS/DOS-Head.html) • Batfiles (http://purl.oclc.org/net/Batfiles/) - the DOS batch file programming handbook and tutorial • Arachne graphical browser for DOS (http://browser.arachne.cz/) • MS-DOS Reference (http://www.nukesoft.co.uk/msdos/) • DOS version timeline (http://members.fortunecity.com/pcmuseum/dos.htm#) • Linux/dosemu (http://www.dosemu.org/) • Ralf Brown's Interrupt List (http://www-2.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs/user/ralf/pub/WWW/files.html) • DOS command overview (http://www.computerhope.com/msdos.htm) • DOSBox, a multiplatform DOS emulator (http://dosbox.sourceforge.net/news.php?show_news=1) • Garbo - An MS-DOS program distribution library (http://garbo.uwasa.fi/) at the University of Vaasa, Finland • MS-DOS 6 Technical Reference at Microsoft TechNet (http://www.microsoft.com/technet/archive/msdos/ 01_intro.mspx?mfr=true) • Promotional video for MS-DOS 5 (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dmEvPZUdAVI)

MS-DOS • List of all released Microsoft Operating Systems and betas (http://69.117.216.225:81/OSArchive/microsoft. htm)

87

ATI Technologies
ATI Technologies

Type Industry Founded

Subsidiary of AMD Semiconductors 1985 (as Array Technologies Incorporated) 2006 (renamed to AMD Graphics Product Group)

Headquarters Markham, Ontario, Canada Key people Adrian Hartog (President) Rick Bergman (Vice President) (General Manager) Graphics processing units Chipsets Video capture cards AMD ati.amd.com [1]

Products

Parent Website

ATI Technologies Inc, is a major designer and supplier of graphics processing units and motherboard chipsets based in Canada. In 2006, the company was acquired by Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) and was renamed to the AMD Graphics Products group. Despite the acquisition, the ATI brand was retained for graphics cards until August 30, 2010. AMD have announced that it will retire the "ATI" name and instead brand its graphics chipsets as "AMD" beginning in late 2010.[2] ATi Technologies is a fabless semiconductor company conducting in-house research and development and outsourcing the manufacturing and assembly of its products. Its main competitor is NVIDIA in the graphics and handheld market. The flagship product, the Radeon series of graphics cards, directly competes with NVIDIA's GeForce. These two companies' dominance of the market forced other manufacturers into niche roles.

History
Lee Ka Lau[3] , Benny Lau and Kwok Yuen Ho[4] founded ATI in 1985 as "Array Technologies Incorporated". Working primarily in the OEM field, ATI produced integrated graphics cards for PC manufacturers such as IBM and Commodore. By 1987, ATI had grown into an independent graphics-card retailer, introducing EGA Wonder and VGA Wonder graphics card product lines under its brand that year[5] . In May 1991, the company released the Mach8, ATI's first product able to process graphics without the CPU. Debuting in 1992, the Mach32 offered improved memory bandwidth and GUI acceleration performance. ATI Technologies Inc. went public in 1993 with stock listed at NASDAQ and Toronto Stock Exchange.

ATI Technologies

88

In 1994, the Mach64 accelerator debuted, powering the Graphics Xpression and Graphics Pro Turbo, offering hardware support for YUV-to-RGB color space conversion in addition to hardware zoom; early techniques of hardware-based video acceleration. ATI introduced its first combination of 2D and 3D accelerator under the name 3D Rage. This chip was based on the Mach 64, but it featured elemental 3D acceleration. The ATI Rage line powered almost the entire range of ATI graphics products. In particular, the Rage Pro was one of the first viable 2D-plus-3D alternatives to 3Dfx's 3D-only Voodoo chipset. 3D acceleration in the Rage line advanced from the basic functionality within the initial 3D Rage to a more advanced DirectX 6.0 accelerator in the 1999 Rage 128. The All-in-Wonder product line introduced in 1996 was the first combination of integrated graphics chip with TV tuner card and the first chip that enabled to display computer graphics on a TV set[6] . The cards featured 3D acceleration powered by ATI's second generation 3D Rage II, 64-bit 2D performance, TV-quality video acceleration, analog video capture, TV tuner functionality, flicker-free TV-out and stereo TV audio reception. ATI made an entrance into the mobile computing sector by introducing 3D-graphics acceleration to laptops in 1996. The Mobility product line had to meet requirements different from desktop PC, such as minimized power usage, reduced heat output, TMDS output capabilities for laptop screens, and maximized integration. In 1997, ATI acquired Tseng Labs's graphics assets, which included 40 engineers.
ATI's former Silicon Valley office.

AMD Markham at the former ATI headquarters.

The Radeon line of graphics products was unveiled in 2000. The initial Radeon graphics processing unit was ATI VGA Wonder with 256 kB RAM. an all-new design with DirectX 7.0 3D acceleration, video acceleration, and 2D acceleration. Technology developed for a specific Radeon generation could be built in varying levels of features and performance in order to provide products suited for the entire market range, from high-end to budget to mobile versions. In 2000, ATI acquired ArtX, which engineered the Flipper graphics chip used in the Nintendo GameCube game console. They have also created a modified version of the chip (codenamed Hollywood) for the successor of the GameCube, the Wii. ATI was contracted by Microsoft to create the graphics core (codenamed Xenos) for the Xbox 360. Later in 2005, ATI acquired Terayon's cable modem silicon intellectual property strengthening their lead in the consumer digital television market[7] . K. Y. Ho remained as Chairman of the Board until he retired in November 2005. Dave Orton replaced him as the President and CEO of the organization.

ATI Technologies On July 24, 2006, Advanced Micro Devices and ATI announced a plan to merge together in a deal valued at $5.4 billion. The merger closed on October 25, 2006[8] . The acquisition consideration included over $2 billion financed from a loan and 56 million shares of AMD stock[9] . ATI retained its name, logos and trademarks. ATI's then CEO Dave Orton was made the Executive Vice President of Visual and Media Businesses[10] . It was reported that in December 2006 AMD/ATI, along with its main rival NVIDIA, received subpoenas from the United States Department of Justice regarding possible antitrust violations in the graphics card industry[11] . In July 2007, AMD announced the resignation of Dave Orton. ATI, a subsidiary of AMD, is called the Graphics Product Group (GPG) inside the company[12] . The top-level management of the Graphics Product Group consists of Rick Bergman, Senior Vice President and General Manager and Adrian Hartog, Senior Vice President and General Manager of Consumer Electronics Group. Both report to Dirk Meyer, CEO of AMD[13] . On 30 August 2010, John Trikola announced that AMD will retire the "ATI" brand for its graphics chipsets, and will brand future products as "AMD".[14]

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Products
In addition to developing high-end GPUs (originally called a VPU, visual processing unit, by ATI) for PCs And Apple Macs, ATI also designs embedded versions for laptops (Mobility Radeon), PDAs and mobile phones (Imageon), integrated motherboards (Radeon IGP), and others. ATI promotes some of its products with the fictional "Ruby" female character, described as a "mercenary for hire."[15] Computer-animated videos produced by RhinoFX about Ruby on a mission (being a sniper, saboteur, hacker and so on) are displayed at large technology shows such as CeBIT and CES.

ATI's Ruby fictional female character.

Computer graphics chipsets
This list is incomplete. • Graphics Solution / "Small Wonder" - Series of 8-bit ISA cards with MDA, Hercules, CGA and Plantronics Color+ compatibility. Later versions added EGA support. • EGA / VGA Wonder - IBM "EGA/VGA-compatible" display adapters (1987) • Mach Series - Introduced ATI's first 2D GUI "Windows Accelerator". As the series evolved, GUI acceleration improved dramatically and early video acceleration appeared. • Rage Series - ATI's first 2D and 3D accelerator chips. The series evolved from rudimentary 3D with 2D GUI acceleration and MPEG-1 capability, to a highly competitive Direct3D 6 accelerator with then "best-in-class" DVD (MPEG2) acceleration. The various chips were very popular with OEMs of the time. The Rage II was used in the first ATI All-In-Wonder multi-function video card, and more advanced All-In-Wonders based on Rage series GPUs followed. (1995–2004) • Rage Mobility - Designed for use in low-power environments, such as notebooks. These chips were functionally similar to their desktop counterparts, but had additions such as advanced power management,

ATI Technologies LCD interfaces, and dual monitor functionality. • Radeon Series - Launched in 2000, the Radeon line is ATI's brand for their consumer 3D accelerator add-in cards. The original Radeon DDR was ATI's first DirectX 7 3D accelerator, introducing their first hardware T&L engine. ATI often produced 'Pro' versions with higher clock speeds, and sometimes an extreme 'XT' version, and even more recently 'XT Platinum Edition (PE)' and 'XTX' versions. The Radeon series was the basis for many ATI All-In-Wonder boards. • Mobility Radeon - A series of power-optimized versions of Radeon graphics chips for use in laptops. They introduced innovations such as modularized RAM chips, DVD (MPEG2) acceleration, notebook GPU card sockets, and "PowerPlay" power management technology. AMD recently announced DirectX 11-compatible versions of its mobile processors[16] . • ATI CrossFire - This technology was ATI's response to NVIDIA's SLI platform. It allowed, by using a secondary video card and a dual PCI-E motherboard based on an ATI Crossfire-compatible chipset, the ability to combine the power of the two, three or four video cards to increase performance through a variety of different rendering options. There is an option for additional PCI-E video card plugging into the third PCI-E slot for gaming physics, or another option to do physics on the second video card[17] . • FireGL - Launched in 2001, following ATI's acquisition of FireGL Graphics from Diamond Multimedia. Workstation CAD/CAM video card, based on the Radeon series. • FireMV - For workstations, featuring multi-view, a technology for the need of multiple displays for workstations with 2D acceleration only, usually based on the low-end products of the Radeon series. • FirePro - The follow-on to the FireGL cards, for workstations. • EyeFinity - Allows up to 6 monitors to be connected to one card to allow surround-screen panoramic view. • EyeSpeed - Allows you to experience games with true-to-life actions-and reactions. Things like physics effects, Artificial Intelligence (AI), and more.

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Personal computer platforms and chipsets
• IGP 3x0, Mobility Radeon 7000 IGP - ATI's first chipsets. Included a DirectX 7-level 3D graphics processor. • 9100 IGP - 2nd generation system chipset. IXP250 southbridge. It was notable for being ATI's first complete motherboard chipset, including an ATI-built southbridge. It included an updated DirectX 8.1 class graphics processor[18] . • Xpress 200/200P - PCI Express-based Athlon 64 and Pentium 4 chipset. Supports SATA as well as integrated graphics with DirectX 9.0 support, the first integrated graphics chipset to do so[19] . • Xpress 3200 - similar to Xpress 200, but designed for optimal CrossFire performance. • AMD 580X CrossFire chipset - AMD edition of Xpress 3200 renamed, due to AMD acquisition of ATI. • 690G, Xpress 1250 - for AMD and Intel platforms. Includes DirectX 9 graphics processor improved over Xpress 200.[20] and industry first native HDMI implementation on motherboards. • AMD 700 chipset series - exclusively for AMD processors, this is a chipset family supporting Phenom processors and Quad FX enthusiast platform (790FX), enthusiast chipset (790X), IGP (790GX, 785G, 780G, 740G) and single graphics card variants (770, 740) aimed at mainstream and value computing systems available. • AMD 800 chipset series - exclusively for AMD processors, It includes support for up to six SATA 6.0 Gbit/s ports, the C6 power state, which is featured in Fusion processors and AHCI 1.2 with SATA FIS–based switching support. This is a chipset family supporting Phenom processors and Quad FX enthusiast platform (890FX), IGP(890GX). In addition to the above chipset ATI has announced that a deal has been struck with CPU and Motherboard manufacturers as of 2005, particularly Asus and Intel, to create onboard 3D Graphics solutions for Intel's new range of motherboards that will be released with their range of Intel Pentium M-based desktop processors, the Intel Core and Intel Core 2 processors, the D101GGC and D101GGC2 chipset (codenamed "Grand County"[21] ) based on the

ATI Technologies Radeon Xpress 200 chipset. However, high-end boards with integrated graphics processor (IGP) will still use Intel GMA integrated graphics processors. The deal with Intel was deemed to be officially ended with the purchase of ATI Technologies from AMD in July 2006, with Intel announcing SiS IGP chipset (D201GLY chipset, codenamed "Little Valley") for entry-level desktop platform, replacing the "Grand County" series chipsets.

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Multimedia and Digital TV products
• All-In-Wonder series - A series of multimedia graphics cards which incorporating TV tuner and Radeon family graphics cards onto one add-in card, which, after being seemingly discontinued was relaunched as All-In-Wonder HD on June 26, 2008. • TV tuners • TV Wonder and HDTV Wonder - a chipset family providing TV reception of various analog TV and digital TV signals (PAL, NTSC, ATSC, DVB-T and so on) with first generation AVIVO technology, also supporting CableCARD, and Clear QAM technologies. • Theater - a family of QAM and VSB demodulators for the Digital Cable ready and ATSC environments. • Remote Wonder, wireless remote control series for ATI multimedia products. Operates using radio frequency, away from mainstream implementations using infrared.

Console graphics products
• Flipper - The Nintendo GameCube (codenamed "dolphin" during production) contains a 3D accelerator developed by ArtX, Inc, a company acquired by ATI during the development of the GPU. Flipper is similar in capability to a Direct3D 7 accelerator chip. It consists of four rendering pipelines, with hardware T&L, and some limited pixel shader support. Innovatively the chip has 3 MiB of embedded 1T-SRAM for use as ultra-fast low-latency (6.2 ns) texture and framebuffer/Z-buffer storage allowing 10.4 GB/second bandwidth (extremely fast for the time). Flipper was designed by members of the Nintendo 64 Reality Coprocessor team who moved from SGI. The Flipper team went on to have a major hand in the development of the Radeon 9700. • Xenos - Microsoft's Xbox 360 video game console contains a custom graphics chip produced by ATI, known as "R500", "C1", or more often as Xenos. Some of these features include the embedded DRAM (eDRAM). The Xenos also features the “True Unified Shader Architecture” which dynamically loads and balances pixel and vertex processing amongst a bank of identically capable processing units. This differs greatly from past-generations PC graphics chips that have separate banks of processors designed for their individual task (vertex/fragment). Another feature presented in Xenos is the hardware surface tessellation to divide a surface into smaller triangles, similar to TruForm in terms of functionality, which is an advanced feature as it is not presented even in the most up-to-date DirectX 10 specification. The recent generation Radeon R600 GPU core inherited most of the features presented in Xenos, except eDRAM. • Hollywood - Successor to Flipper. Part of Nintendo's latest gaming console, Wii.

Handheld chipsets
• Imageon - System-on-a-chip (SoC) design introduced in 2002 to bring integrated 2D and 3D graphics to handhelds devices, cellphones and Tablet PCs. Current top-of-line product is the Imageon 2298 which includes DVD quality recording and playback, TV output, and supports up to a 12-megapixel camera, with another line of Imageon products, the 2300 series supporting OpenGL ES 1.1+ extensions. The Imageon line was rebranded under AMD, after AMD acquired ATI in Q3 2006, as AMD Imageon. • Imageon TV - Announced in February 2006, allowing handhelds devices to receive digital broadcast TV (DVB-H) signals and enables watching TV programs on these devices, the chipset includes tuner, demodulator, decoder, and a full software stack, operates alongside the Imageon chip.

ATI Technologies Besides full products, ATI has also supplied 3D and 2D graphics components to other vendors, specifically the Qualcomm[22] MSM7000 series SoC chips of handheld and upcoming Freescale i. MX processors[23] . ATI claimed in May 2006, that it had sold over 100 million[24] 'cell phone media co-processors', significantly more than ATI's rival NVIDIA, and announced in February 2007 that the firm had shipped a total of 200 million of Imageon products since 2003[25] . In late 2008, the entire handheld division was sold off to Qualcomm, so there will be no new Imageon products.

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High Performance Computing
• AMD FireStream, originally ATI Firestream, and previously rebranded as AMD Stream Processor for a short period of time, utilizing the stream processing concept, together with Close to Metal (CTM) hardware interface.

ATI graphics drivers
Proprietary
ATI currently provides proprietary graphics drivers, and also assists development of open source drivers. The proprietary drivers are called ATI Catalyst, and are available for most platforms: Windows XP, Windows Vista, Microsoft Windows 7, Mac OS X, and Linux. Linux users can also opt to use open source drivers.

Open source
Hardware component companies which only provide proprietary drivers have always been urged by the Linux community to open source their drivers, or at least provide the necessary documentation for the community to write their own drivers. In a 2002 interview with AMD official Hal Speed, it was suggested that AMD were strongly considering making the functional part of the ATI drivers open source[26] . However, until the merger with AMD, ATI had no plans to release their graphics drivers as open source code: Proprietary, patented optimizations are part of the value we provide to our customers and we have no plans to release these drivers to open source. In addition, multimedia elements such as content protection must not, by their very nature, be allowed to go open source. —ATI statement, August 2006 [27] Since 2007 ATI has cooperated with the development of open source graphics drivers. Although ATI has not made their Catalyst drivers open source, the programming specifications for a number of chipsets and features were published in several rounds. This greatly changed their support of the development of open source graphics drivers, as until that moment only unsupported open source drivers existed. Besides releasing the specifications, ATI also funded the development of new open source drivers, by Novell, for the newest generation of video cards.

References
[1] http:/ / ati. amd. com/ [2] "ATI to be re-branded as AMD - branding, ATI Radeon, ati, amd - ARN" (http:/ / www. arnnet. com. au/ article/ 358774/ ati_re-branded_amd/ ). Arnnet.com.au. 2010-08-30. . Retrieved 2011-02-19. [3] University of Toronto Division of University Advancement page (http:/ / www. giving. utoronto. ca/ chairs/ showchairs. asp?ID=19). Retrieved February 28, 2008. [4] "K.Y. Ho biography on ATI website" (http:/ / www. ati. com/ designpartners/ media/ bios/ kyho. html). Ati.com. 2011-02-07. . Retrieved 2011-02-19. [5] History of AMD at AMD.com (http:/ / www. amd. com/ us-en/ Weblets/ 0,,7832_10554,00. html?redir=AAMD04#1980) [6] History of AMD - 1996 at AMD.com (http:/ / www. amd. com/ us-en/ Weblets/ 0,,7832_10554,00. html?redir=AAMD04#1990) [7] press release (http:/ / apps. ati. com/ ir/ PressReleaseText. asp?compid=105421& releaseID=671557) [8] "Press Release" (http:/ / ir. ati. com/ phoenix. zhtml?c=105421& p=irol-newsArticle& ID=921365& highlight=). Ir.ati.com. . Retrieved 2011-02-19.

ATI Technologies
[9] "AMD page" (http:/ / www. amd. com/ us-en/ Corporate/ VirtualPressRoom/ 0,,51_104_543~113656,00. html). Amd.com. 2011-02-10. . Retrieved 2011-02-19. [10] "AMD 2006 December Analyst Day page" (http:/ / www. amd. com/ us-en/ Corporate/ InvestorRelations/ 0,,51_306_14668,00. html). Amd.com. . Retrieved 2011-02-19. [11] "Justice Dept. subpoenas AMD, NVIDIA" (http:/ / news. zdnet. com/ 2100-9584_22-6140041. html). New York Times. 1 December 2006. . [12] "AMD 2007 Analyst Day page" (http:/ / www. amd. com/ us-en/ Corporate/ InvestorRelations/ 0,,51_306_15086,00. html). Amd.com. . Retrieved 2011-02-19. [13] "Corporate Information - Executive Biographies at" (http:/ / www. amd. com/ us-en/ Corporate/ AboutAMD/ 0,,51_52_570,00. html). Amd.com. 2011-02-14. . Retrieved 2011-02-19. [14] "AMD Decides to Drop the ATI Brand - Softpedia" (http:/ / news. softpedia. com/ news/ AMD-Really-Dropping-the-ATI-Brand-154168. shtml). News.softpedia.com. . Retrieved 2011-02-19. [15] "Ruby's Headquarters at" (http:/ / ati. de/ ruby/ index. html). Ati.de. 2011-01-15. . Retrieved 2011-02-19. [16] "AMD launches DirectX 11 graphics chips for laptops" (http:/ / news. techworld. com/ mobile-wireless/ 3209713/ amd-launches-directx-11-graphics-chips-for-laptops/ ). techworld.com. 2010-01-08. . Retrieved 2010-01-08. [17] "DailyTech report" (http:/ / dailytech. com/ article. aspx?newsid=5634). Dailytech.com. . Retrieved 2011-02-19. [18] Gavrichenkov, Ilya. ATI RADEON 9100 IGP Integrated Chipset Review (http:/ / www. xbitlabs. com/ articles/ chipsets/ display/ ati-igp9100. html), X-bit Labs, December 1, 2003. [19] Wasson, Scott. ATI's Radeon Xpress 200 chipset (http:/ / techreport. com/ reviews/ 2004q4/ radeon-xpress200/ index. x?pg=1), Tech Report, November 8, 2004. [20] "ATI product page of Xpress 1250" (http:/ / ati. amd. com/ products/ radeonxpress1250dsk/ index. html). Ati.amd.com. 2011-02-15. . Retrieved 2011-02-19. [21] Intel Boxed Desktop Board Quick Guide (December 2006) (http:/ / cache-www. intel. com/ cd/ 00/ 00/ 32/ 94/ 329441_329441. pdf) [22] page 10 and 15 (http:/ / brew. qualcomm. com/ bnry_brew/ pdf/ brew_2007/ Tech-303_Ligon. pdf) [23] DailyTech report (http:/ / www. dailytech. com/ Freescale+ Licenses+ AMD+ Technologies/ article8909. htm). Retrieved September 17, 2007. [24] "The Inquirer report" (http:/ / www. theinquirer. net/ ?article=31938). Theinquirer.net. . Retrieved 2011-02-19. [25] AMD press release (http:/ / www. amd. com/ us-en/ Corporate/ VirtualPressRoom/ 0,,51_104_543~115795,00. html). Retrieved July 27, 2007. [26] Yager, Tom (2006-08-02). "'AMD talks about ATI' at" (http:/ / www. infoworld. com/ article/ 06/ 08/ 02/ 32OPcurve_1. html). Infoworld.com. . Retrieved 2011-02-19. [27] http:/ / news. com. com/ 2061-10791_3-6104655. html

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External links
• AMD's Graphics Division (http://ati.amd.com/products/) • AMD GAME! - AMD's gaming website (http://game.amd.com/) • ATI Corporate Milestones document (http://www.ati.com/companyinfo/milestones/CorporateMilestones. pdf) • FiringSquad's History of ATI (http://firingsquad.com/features/atihistory/) • Official AMD ATI Merger Site on AMD Website (http://www.amd.com/us-en/0,,3715_14197_14198,00. html?redir=goBG01)

Nvidia

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Nvidia
Nvidia Corporation

Type Industry Founded Founder(s)

Public (NASDAQ: NVDA

[1]

)

Semiconductors — Specialized 1993 Jen-Hsun Huang Chris Malachowsky Curtis Priem Santa Clara, California, U.S. Worldwide Jen-Hsun Huang (President & CEO) Chris Malachowsky (Nvidia Fellow; Senior Vice President, Engineering & Operations) Jonah M. Alben (VP, GPU Engineering) Debora Shoquist (SVP, Operations) Dr. Ranga Jayaraman (CIO) Graphics processing units Chipsets $3.326 billion (2010) $98.945 million (2010) $67.987 million (2010) $3.586 billion (2010) $2.665 billion (2010) 6000 http:/ / www. nvidia. com

Headquarters Area served Key people

Products

Revenue Operating income Net income Total assets Total equity Employees Website

Nvidia (NASDAQ: NVDA [1] pronounced /ɪnˈvɪdi.ə/[2] in-VID-ee-ə) is a multinational corporation which specializes in the development of graphics processing units and chipset technologies for workstations, personal computers, and mobile devices. Based in Santa Clara, California, the company has become a major supplier of integrated circuits (ICs), designing graphics processing units (GPUs) and chipsets used in graphics cards, in personal-computer motherboards, and in video game consoles. Notable Nvidia product lines include: • • • • the GeForce series for gaming the Tesla series for supercomputing the Quadro series for computer-aided design and for digital content creation (DCC) on workstations the nForce series of integrated motherboard chipsets

Nvidia • the Tegra for mobile devices

95

Company history
Three people co-founded Nvidia in 1993:[3] • Jen-Hsun Huang (As of 2008 CEO), previously Director of CoreWare at LSI Logic and a microprocessor designer at Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) • Chris Malachowsky, an electrical engineer who worked at Sun Microsystems • Curtis Priem, previously a senior staff engineer and graphics chip designer at Sun Microsystems The founders gained venture capital funding from Sequoia Capital.[4] In 2000, Nvidia acquired the intellectual assets of its one-time rival 3dfx, one of the biggest graphics companies of the mid- to late-1990s.[5] In July 2002, Nvidia acquired Exluna for an undisclosed sum. Exluna made software rendering tools and the personnel were merged into the Cg project. [6] In August 2003, Nvidia acquired MediaQ for aprox 70 Million.[7] On April 22, 2004, Nvidia acquired iReady, a provider of high performance TCP/IP and iSCSI offload solutions.[8] On December 14, 2005, Nvidia acquired ULI Electronics, which at the time supplied third-party southbridge parts for chipsets to ATI, Nvidia's competitor.[9] In March 2006, Nvidia acquired Hybrid Graphics[10] In December 2006, Nvidia, along with its main rival in the graphics industry AMD (which had acquired ATI), received subpoenas from the U.S. Department of Justice regarding possible antitrust violations in the graphics card industry.[11] Forbes magazine named Nvidia its Company of the Year for 2007, citing the accomplishments it made during the said period as well as during the previous 5 years.[12] On January 5, 2007, Nvidia announced that it had completed the acquisition of PortalPlayer, Inc.[13] In February 2008, Nvidia acquired Ageia Technologies for an undisclosed sum. "The purchase reflects both companies' shared goal of creating the most amazing and captivating game experiences," said Jen-Hsun Huang, president and CEO of Nvidia. "By combining the teams that created the world's most pervasive GPU and physics engine brands, we can now bring GeForce-accelerated PhysX to twelve million gamers around the world."[14] (The press-release made no mention of the acquisition-cost nor of future plans for specific products.) On January 10, 2011, NVIDIA signed a six-year cross-licensing agreement with Intel which marks the end of all outstanding legal disputes between these two companies. According to the agreement Intel will pay NVIDIA $1.5 billion in licensing fees payable in five annual installments.[15]

Branding
The company's name combines an initial n (a letter usable as a pronumeral in mathematical statements) and the root of video (from Latin videre, "to see"), thus implying "the best visual experience" or perhaps "immeasurable display." The sound of the name Nvidia suggests "envy" (Spanish: eNVIDIA; Latin, Italian, or Romanian: iNVIDIA); and NVIDIA's GeForce 8 series product (manufactured 2006-2008) used the slogan "Green with envy." The company name is officially entirely in upper-case ("NVIDIA"), and appears as such in the company's technical documentation, website and press releases.[16] The mixed-case form ("nVIDIA," with a full-height, lower-case "n") appears only in the corporate logo; though this form is apparent in other NVIDIA trademarks ("nDemand", "nView", "nZone").

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Products
Nvidia's product portfolio includes graphics processors, wireless communications processors, PC platform (motherboard core logic) chipsets, and digital media player software. The community of computer users arguably has come to know Nvidia best for its "GeForce" product line, which consists of both a complete line of discrete graphics chips found in AIB (add-in board) video cards and core graphics technology used in nForce motherboards, the Microsoft Xbox game console, and Sony's PlayStation 3 game console. In many respects Nvidia resembles its competitor ATI. Both companies began with a focus on the PC market and later expanded their activities into chips for non-PC applications. As part of their operations, both ATI and Nvidia create reference designs (circuit board schematics) and provide manufacturing samples to their board partners. However, unlike ATI, Nvidia does not sell graphics boards into the retail market, instead focusing on the development of GPU chips. As a fabless semiconductor company, Nvidia contracts out the manufacture of their chips to Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Ltd. (TSMC). Manufacturers of Nvidia video cards include EVGA, Foxconn, and PNY. The manufacturers ASUS, ECS, Gigabyte Technology, MSI, Palit, and XFX produce both ATI and NVIDIA cards.
Nvidia headquarters in Santa Clara

December 2004 saw the announcement that Nvidia would assist Sony with the design of the graphics processor (RSX) in the PlayStation 3 Xbox's GPU game console. In March 2006 it emerged that Nvidia would deliver RSX to Sony as an IP core, and that Sony alone would organize the manufacture of the RSX. Under the agreement, Nvidia will provide ongoing support to port the RSX to Sony's fabs of choice (Sony and Toshiba), as well as die shrinks to 65 nm. This practice contrasts with Nvidia's business arrangement with Microsoft, in which Nvidia managed production and delivery of the Xbox GPU through NVIDIA's usual third-party foundry contracts. Meanwhile, Microsoft chose to license a design by ATI and to make its own manufacturing arrangements for the Xbox 360 graphics hardware, as has Nintendo for the Wii console (which succeeds the ATI-based Nintendo GameCube). On February 4, 2008, Nvidia announced plans to acquire physics-software producer Ageia, whose PhysX physics engine program formed part of hundreds of games shipping or in development for PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, Wii, and gaming PCs.[17] This transaction completed on February 13, 2008[18] and efforts to integrate PhysX into the GeForce 8800's CUDA system began.[19] [20] On June 2, 2008 NVIDIA officially announced its new Tegra product line.[21] The Tegra, a system-on-a-chip (SoC), integrates an ARM CPU, GPU, northbridge and southbridge onto a single chip. Commentators opine that NVIDIA will target this product at the smartphone and mobile Internet device markets. On January 5, 2011 NVIDIA announced at CES 2011 a "full custom processor" ARM core called Project Denver Which is targeted at the high performance computing market.[22] On February 15, 2011, Nvidia announced and demonstrated the first quad-core processor for mobile devices at the at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona. This chip is expected to ship with many tablets to be released in the second half of 2011. [23]

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Graphics chipsets
• • • • • • • • NV1: Nvidia's first product, based on quadratic surfaces RIVA 128 and RIVA 128ZX: DirectX 5 support, OpenGL 1 support, NVIDIA's first DirectX-compliant hardware RIVA TNT, RIVA TNT2: DirectX 6 support, OpenGL 1 support, Nvidia's first market-leading product NVIDIA GeForce: graphics processors for personal computers NVIDIA Quadro: graphics processors for professional workstations NVIDIA Tesla: dedicated GPGPU processors for high-performance computing systems NVIDIA GoForce: media processors featuring nPower technology for PDAs and mobile phones NVIDIA Tegra: system-on-a-chip with an ARM processor for mobile devices such as smartphones, PDAS, and MIDs • GPUs for game consoles: • Xbox: GeForce3-class GPU (on an Intel Pentium III/Celeron platform) • PlayStation 3: RSX 'Reality Synthesizer'

Desktop motherboard chipsets
• nForce series • nForce: AMD Athlon/Athlon XP/Duron K7 CPUs (System Platform Processor (SPP) and Media and Communications Processor (MCP) or GeForce2 MX-class Integrated Graphics Processor (IGP) and MCP, SoundStorm available)[24] • nForce2: AMD Athlon/Athlon XP/Duron/Sempron K7 CPUs (SPP + MCP or GeForce4 MX-class IGP + MCP, SoundStorm available) • nForce3: AMD Athlon 64/Athlon 64 X2/Athlon 64 FX/Opteron/Sempron K8 CPUs (unified MCP only) • nForce4 • AMD: Athlon 64/Athlon 64 X2/Athlon 64 FX/Opteron/Sempron K8 CPUs (unified MCP, SPP + MCP, or MCP paired with GeForce 6100 series/Quadro NVS 210S IGP) • Intel: Pentium 4/Pentium 4 Extreme Edition/Pentium D/Pentium Extreme Edition/Celeron/Celeron D NetBurst CPUs (SPP + MCP only) • nForce 500 • AMD: Athlon 64/Athlon 64 X2/Athlon 64 FX/Opteron/Sempron K8 CPUs (unified MCP or SPP + MCP) • Intel Pentium 4/Pentium 4 Extreme Edition/Pentium D/Pentium Extreme Edition/Pentium Dual-Core/Core 2 Duo/Core 2 Extreme/Celeron/Celeron D NetBurst and Core 2 CPUs (SPP + MCP only) • nForce 600 • AMD: Athlon 64/Athlon 64 X2/Athlon 64 FX/Opteron/Sempron K8 CPUs, Quad FX-capable (unified MCP or MCP paired with GeForce 7000 series/GeForce 7100 series IGP) • Intel: Pentium 4/Pentium 4 Extreme Edition/Pentium D/Pentium Extreme Edition/Pentium Dual-Core/Core 2 Duo/Core 2 Extreme/Core 2 Quad/Celeron/Celeron D NetBurst and Core 2 CPUs (SPP + MCP or MCP paired with GeForce 7000 series/GeForce 7100 series IGP) • nForce 700 • AMD: Athlon 64/Athlon 64 X2/Athlon 64 FX/Athlon X2/Opteron/Phenom X3/Phenom X4/Sempron K8 and K10 CPUs • Intel: Pentium 4/Pentium 4 Extreme Edition/Pentium D/Pentium Extreme Edition/Pentium Dual-Core/Core 2 Duo/Core 2 Extreme/Core 2 Quad/Celeron/Celeron D NetBurst and Core 2 CPUs • nForce 900: AMD Athlon 64/Athlon 64 X2/Athlon 64 FX/Athlon X2/Athlon II X2/Athlon II X3/Athlon II X4/Opteron/Phenom X3/Phenom X4/Phenom II X2/Phenom II X3/Phenom II X4/Sempron K8 and K10 CPUs[25]

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Documentation and drivers
Nvidia does not publish the documentation for its hardware, meaning that programmers cannot write appropriate and effective open-source drivers for Nvidia's products (compare Graphics hardware and FOSS). Instead, Nvidia provides its own binary GeForce graphics drivers for X.Org and a thin open-source library that interfaces with the Linux, FreeBSD or Solaris kernels and the proprietary graphics software. Nvidia also supports an obfuscated open-source driver that only supports two-dimensional hardware acceleration and ships with the X.Org distribution. NVIDIA's Linux support has promoted mutual adoption in the entertainment, scientific visualization, defense and simulation/training industries, traditionally dominated by SGI, Evans & Sutherland, and other relatively costly vendors. The proprietary nature of Nvidia's drivers has generated dissatisfaction within free-software communities. Some Linux and BSD users insist on using only open-source drivers, and regard Nvidia's insistence on providing nothing more than a binary-only driver as wholly inadequate, given that competing manufacturers (like Intel) offer support and documentation for open-source developers, and that others (like ATI) release partial documentation.[26] Because of the closed nature of the drivers, Nvidia video cards do not deliver adequate features on some platforms and architectures (However this is credited to be due to lack of the proper kernel API needed for implementation). Support for three-dimensional graphics acceleration in Linux on the PowerPC does not exist; nor does support for Linux on the hypervisor-restricted PlayStation 3 console. While some users accept the NVIDIA-supported drivers, many users of open-source software would prefer better out-of-the-box performance if given the choice.[27] However, the performance and functionality of the binary Nvidia video card drivers surpass those of open-source alternatives following VESA standards. X.Org Foundation and Freedesktop.org have started the Nouveau project, which aims to develop free-software drivers for NVIDIA graphics cards by reverse engineering Nvidia's current proprietary drivers for Linux.

Market share
According to a survey conducted by market watch firm Jon Peddie Research,[28] Nvidia shipped an estimated 33.00 million graphics chips in the first quarter of 2010, for a market share of 31.5%. ATI and Intel shipped an estimated 25.15 million units (24.0% market share) and an estimated 45.49 million units (43.5% market share) respectively. NVIDIA's year-to-year growth was 41.9%. According to the monthly Steam hardware survey conducted by the game developer Valve,[29] NVIDIA had 59.11% of the PC video-card gaming market share as of January 2011, and ATI had 32.98% of the PC video-card gaming market share.

Market history
Before DirectX
Nvidia released its first graphics card, the NV1, in 1995. Its design used quadratic surfaces, with an integrated playback-only sound card and ports for Sega Saturn gamepads. Because the Saturn also used forward-rendered quadratics, programmers ported several Saturn games to play on a PC with NV1, such as Panzer Dragoon and Virtua Fighter Remix. However, the NV1 struggled in a marketplace full of several competing proprietary standards.
NVIDIA NV1

Nvidia Market interest in the product ended when Microsoft announced the DirectX specifications, based on polygons. Subsequently NV1 development continued internally as the NV2 project, funded by several millions of dollars of investment from Sega. Sega hoped that an integrated chip with both graphics and sound capabilities would cut the manufacturing cost of the next Sega console. However, Sega eventually realized the flaws in implementing quadratic surfaces, and the NV2 project never resulted in a finished product.

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Transition to DirectX
Nvidia's CEO Jen-Hsun Huang realized at this point that after two failed products, something had to change for the company to survive. He hired David Kirk as Chief Scientist from software developer Crystal Dynamics. Kirk would combine NVIDIA's experience in 3D hardware with an intimate understanding of practical implementations of rendering. As part of the corporate transformation, Nvidia sought to provide full support for DirectX, and dropped multimedia functionality in order to reduce manufacturing costs. Nvidia also adopted the goal of an internal six-month product cycle, based on the expectation that it could mitigate a failure of any one product by having a replacement moving through the development pipeline. However, since the Sega NV2 contract remained secret, and since Nvidia had recently laid off employees, it appeared to many industry observers that Nvidia had ceased active research and development. So when Nvidia first announced the RIVA 128 in 1997, the market found the specifications hard to believe: performance superior to market-leader 3dfx Voodoo Graphics, and a fully hardware-based triangle setup engine. The RIVA 128 shipped in volume, and the combination of its low cost and high performance made it a popular choice for OEMs.

Ascendancy: RIVA TNT
Having finally developed and shipped in volume a market-leading integrated graphics chipset, Nvidia set itself the goal of doubling the number of pixel pipelines in its chip, in order to realize a substantial performance gain. The TwiN Texel (RIVA TNT) engine which Nvidia subsequently developed could either apply two textures to a single pixel, or process two pixels per clock cycle. The former case allowed for improved visual quality, the latter for doubling the maximum fillrate. New features included a 24-bit Z-buffer with 8-bit stencil support, anisotropic filtering, and per-pixel MIP mapping. In certain respects (such as transistor count) the TNT had begun to rival Intel's Pentium processors for complexity. However, while the TNT offered an astonishing range of quality-integrated features, it failed to displace the market leader, 3dfx's Voodoo2, because the actual clock rate ended up at only 90 MHz, about 35% lower than expected. Nvidia followed with a refresh part: a die shrink for the TNT architecture from 350 nm to 250 nm. A stock TNT2 now ran at 125 MHz, a TNT2 Ultra at 150 MHz. Though the Voodoo3 beat Nvidia to the market, 3dfx's offering proved disappointing; it did not run 1.7% faster and lacked features that were becoming standard, such as 32-bit color and textures of resolution greater than 256 x 256 pixels. The RIVA TNT2 marked a major turning point for Nvidia. They had finally delivered a product competitive with the fastest on the market, with a superior feature set, strong 2D functionality, all integrated onto a single die with strong yields, and that ramped to impressive clock rates. Nvidia's six-month cycle refresh took the competition by surprise, giving it the initiative in rolling out new products.

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Market leadership: GeForce
The autumn of 1999 saw the release of the GeForce 256 (NV10), most notably introducing on-board transformation and lighting (T&L) to consumer-level 3D hardware. Running at 120 MHz and featuring four pixel pipelines, it implemented advanced video acceleration, motion compensation, and hardware sub-picture alpha blending. The GeForce outperformed existing products - including the ATI Rage 128, 3dfx Voodoo3, Matrox G400 MAX, and RIVA TNT2 - by a wide margin. Due to the success of its products, Nvidia won the contract to develop the graphics hardware for Microsoft's Xbox game console, which earned Nvidia a $200 million advance. However, the project drew the time of many of Nvidia's best engineers away from other projects. In the short term this did not matter, and the GeForce2 GTS shipped in the summer of 2000.

GPU NV10 (GeForce 256)

The GTS benefited from the fact that Nvidia had by this time acquired extensive manufacturing experience with its highly integrated cores, and as a result it succeeded in optimizing the core for higher clock-rates. The volume of chips produced by Nvidia also allowed the segregation of parts: Nvidia could pick out the highest-quality cores from the same batch as regular parts for its premium range. As a result, the GTS shipped at 200 MHz. The pixel fillrate of the GeForce256 nearly doubled, and texel fillrate nearly quadrupled because multi-texturing was added to each pixel pipeline. New features included S3TC compression, FSAA, and improved MPEG-2 motion compensation. In 2000 Nvidia shipped the GeForce2 MX, intended for the budget and OEM market. It had two fewer pixel pipelines and ran at 165 MHz (later at 250 MHz). Offering strong performance at a mid-range price, the GeForce2 MX became one of the most successful graphics chipsets. NVIDIA also shipped a mobile derivative called the GeForce2 Go at the end of 2000. Nvidia's success proved too much for 3dfx to recover its past market share. The long-delayed Voodoo 5, the successor to the Voodoo3, did not compare favorably with the GeForce2 in either price or performance, and failed to generate the sales needed to keep the company afloat. With 3dfx on the verge of bankruptcy near the end of 2000, Nvidia purchased most of 3dfx's intellectual property (in dispute at the time). NVIDIA acquired anti-aliasing expertise and about 100 engineers, but not the company itself, which filed for bankruptcy in 2002. Nvidia developed the GeForce3, which pioneered DirectX 8 vertex and pixel shaders, and eventually refined it with the GeForce4 Ti line. Nvidia announced the GeForce4 Ti, MX, and Go in January 2002, one of the largest releases in Nvidia's history. The chips in the Ti and Go series differed only in chip and memory clock rates. The MX series lacked the pixel and vertex shader functionalities; it derived from GeForce2 level hardware and assumed the GeForce2 MX's position in the value segment.

Stumbles with the FX series
At this point Nvidia dominated the GPU market. However, ATI Technologies remained competitive due to its new Radeon product, which had performance comparable to the GeForce2 GTS. Though ATI's answer to the GeForce3, the Radeon 8500, came later to market and initially suffered from issues with drivers, the 8500 proved a superior competitor due to its lower price. NVIDIA countered ATI's offering with the GeForce4 Ti line. ATI concentrated efforts on its next-generation Radeon 9700 rather than on directly challenging the GeForce4 Ti. During the development of the next-generation GeForce FX chips, many Nvidia engineers focused on the Xbox contract. Nvidia also had a contractual obligation to develop newer and more hack-resistant NV2A chips, and this requirement left even fewer engineers to work on the FX project. Since the Xbox contract did not anticipate or encompass falling manufacturing costs, Microsoft sought to re-negotiate the terms of the contract, and relations

Nvidia between NVIDIA and Microsoft deteriorated as a result. The two companies later settled the dispute through arbitration without releasing the terms of the settlement to the public. Following their dispute, Microsoft did not consult Nvidia during the development of the DirectX 9 specification, allowing ATI to establish much of the specification themselves. During this time, ATI limited rendering color support to 24-bit floating point, and emphasized shader performance. Microsoft also built the shader compiler using the Radeon 9700 as the base card. In contrast, Nvidia's cards offered 16- and 32-bit floating-point modes, offering either lower visual quality (as compared to the competition), or slower performance. The 32-bit support made them much more expensive to manufacture, requiring a higher transistor count. Shader performance often remained at half or less of the speed provided by ATI's competing products. Having made its reputation by designing easy-to-manufacture DirectX-compatible parts, Nvidia had misjudged Microsoft's next standard and paid a heavy price: as more and more games started to rely on DirectX 9 features, the poor shader-performance of the GeForce FX series became more obvious. With the exception of the FX 5700 series (a late revision), the FX series did not compete well against ATI cards. Nvidia released an "FX only" demo called "Dawn", but a hacked wrapper enabled it to run on a Radeon 9700, where it ran faster despite translation overhead. Nvidia began to use application detection to optimize its drivers. Hardware review sites published articles showing that Nvidia's driver auto-detected benchmarks and that it produced artificially inflated scores that did not relate to real-world performance. Often tips from ATI's driver development team lay behind these articles. While NVIDIA did partially close the performance gap with new instruction-reordering capabilities introduced in later drivers, shader performance remained weak and over-sensitive to hardware-specific code compilation. Nvidia worked with Microsoft to release an updated DirectX compiler that generated code optimized for the GeForce FX. Furthermore, GeForce FX devices also ran hot, because they drew as much as double the amount of power as equivalent parts from ATI. The GeForce FX 5800 Ultra became notorious for its fan noise, and acquired the nicknames "dustbuster" and "leafblower." Nvidia jokingly acknowledged these accusations with a video in which the marketing team compares the cards to a Harley-Davidson motorcycle.[30] Although the quieter 5900 replaced the 5800 without fanfare, the FX chips still needed large and expensive fans, placing Nvidia's partners at a manufacturing cost disadvantage compared to ATI. Seemingly as a culmination of these events at the corporate level and the subsequent weaknesses of the FX series, Nvidia ceded its market leadership position to ATI.

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GeForce 6 series
With the GeForce 6 series Nvidia moved beyond the DX9 performance problems that had plagued the previous generation. The GeForce 6 series not only performed competitively against other Direct 3D shaders, but also supported DirectX Shader Model 3.0, while ATI's competing X800 series chips only supported the previous 2.0 specification. This proved an insignificant advantage, mainly because games of that period did not employ extensions for Shader Model 3.0. However, it demonstrated Nvidia's desire and ability to design and A former Nvidia logo, in use until 2006 follow through with the newest features and deliver them in a specific timeframe. What became more apparent during this time was that the products of the two firms, ATI and Nvidia, offered equivalent performance. The two firms traded the performance lead in specific titles and specific criteria (resolution, image quality, anisotropic filtering/anti-aliasing), but the differences were becoming more abstract. As a result, price/performance ratio became the reigning concern in

Nvidia comparisons of the two. The mid-range offerings of the two firms demonstrated consumer appetite for affordable, high-performance graphics cards. This price segment came to determine much of each firm's profitability. The GeForce 6 series emerged at a very interesting period: The game Doom 3 had just been released, and ATI's Radeon 9700 was found to struggle with OpenGL performance in the game. In 2004, the GeForce 6800 performed excellently, while the GeForce 6600GT remained as important to Nvidia as the GeForce2 MX a few years previously. The GeForce 6600GT enabled users of the card to play Doom 3 at very high resolutions and graphical settings, which had been thought to be highly unlikely considering its selling price. The GeForce 6 series also introduced SLI, which resembles technology that 3dfx had employed with the Voodoo2. A combination of SLI and other hardware performance gains returned Nvidia to market leadership. The GeForce 6 series represents the first generation of Nvidia PCI-E cards. The GeForce 7 series represented a heavily beefed-up extension of the reliable 6 series. The introduction of the PCI Express bus standard allowed NVIDIA to release SLI (Scalable Link Interface), a solution that employs two similar cards to share the workload in rendering. While these solutions do not equate to double the performance, and require more electricity (two cards vis-à-vis one), they can make a huge difference as higher resolutions and settings are enabled and, more importantly, offer more upgrade flexibility. ATI responded with the X1000 series, and with a dual-rendering solution called "ATI CrossFire". Sony selected Nvidia to develop the "RSX" chip (a modified version of the 7800 GPU) used in the PlayStation 3.

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NVIDIA GeForce 6800 Ultra & GeForce 7950 GX2

Unified Architecture with the 8-series and later
Nvidia released a GeForce 8 series chip towards the end of 2006, making the 8 series the first to support Microsoft's next-generation DirectX 10 specification. The 8 series GPUs also featured the revolutionary Unified Shader Architecture, and Nvidia leveraged this to provide better support for General Purpose Computing on GPU (GPGPU). A new product line of "compute only" devices called Nvidia Tesla emerged from the G80 architecture, and subsequently Nvidia also became the market leader of this new field by introducing the world's first C programming language API for GPGPU, CUDA. In June 2008, Nvidia released its new flagship GPUs: the GTX 280 and GTX 260. The cards used the same basic Unified Architecture deployed in the previous 8 and 9 series cards, but with an upgrade in power. Both of the cards use the GT200 GPU as a basis for their design. This GPU contains 1.4 billion transistors on a 65 nm fabrication process. The GTX 280 has 240 shaders (stream processors) and the GTX 260 has 192 shaders (stream processors). The GTX 280 has 1 GB of GDDR3 VRAM and uses a 512-bit memory bus. The GTX 260 has 896 MB of GDDR3 VRAM on a 448-bit memory bus (revised in September 2008 to include 216 shaders). The GTX 280 allegedly provides approximately 933 GFLOPS of floating point power. Nvidia launched the Geforce 400 series on March 26, 2010, presenting the GTX 470 and GTX 480 to the public at PAX East 2010.[31] These flagship products were power hungry and ran hot. They provided comparable performance to price ratio to competing ATI products, but the overall efficiency was poor. Since then, Nvidia has released the GTX 465, the GTX 460, and the GTS 450. The GTX 465 contained the GF100, the same GPU as in the flagship models, with some functional units disabled. This allowed the card to be priced slightly lower. The first real improvements came with the GTX 460 and GTS 450. They contained a GF104 chip, the more efficient and cost-effective derivative of the GF100. Presently, Nvidia has saturated all market price-points with current hardware. On November 9, 2010 Nvidia launched the GeForce 500 Series with a new flagship, the GTX 580. This card not only runs cooler than GTX 480, it consumes less power and delivers a performance improvement of approximately

Nvidia 20% . This new card has largely replaced the GTX 480, it runs on a GF110 chip, which is also used in the GTX 570 released on December 7, 2010. This card removes the gap between the GTX 580 and GTX 470. It has a lower power consumption than the GTX 480 and runs just as well or slightly better. It uses the same GF110 core with one SM disabled. On January 25, 2010 the GTX 560Ti based on a GF114 chip was released, this card replaces the GTX 470 in Nvidia's lineup.

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GPU controversies for Laptops/Notebooks
In July 2008, Nvidia noted increased rates of failure in certain mobile video adapters.[32] In response to this issue, Dell and HP released BIOS updates for all affected notebook computers which turn on the cooling fan at lower temperatures than previously configured in an effort to keep the defective video adapter from reaching higher temperatures. Leigh Stark of APC Magazine has suggested that this may lead to the premature failure of the cooling fan.[33] This resolution/workaround generally only delays component failure past warranty expiration. But at the end of August 2008, Nvidia reportedly issued a product change notification announcing plans to update the bump material of GeForce 8 and 9 series chips "to increase supply and enhance package robustness."[34] In response to the possibility of defects in some mobile video adapters from NVIDIA, some manufacturers of notebooks have allegedly turned to ATI to provide graphics options on their new Montevina notebook computers.[35] On August 18, 2008, according to the direct2dell.com blog, Dell began to offer a 12-month limited warranty "enhancement" specific to this issue on affected notebook computers worldwide.[36] On September 8, 2008, Nvidia made a deal with large OEMs, including Dell and HP, that Nvidia would pay $200 per affected notebook to manufacturers as compensation for the defects.[37] On October 9, 2008, Apple Inc. announced on a support page that some MacBook Pro notebook computers had exhibited faulty Nvidia GeForce 8600M GT graphics adapters.[38] The manufacture of affected computers took place between approximately May 2007 and September 2008. Apple also stated that it would repair affected MacBook Pros within three years of the original purchase date free of charge and also offered refunds to customers who had paid for repairs related to this issue. Performance and reliability issues with certain GPU lines incorporated into laptops sold by a large number of different manufacturers[39] eventually produced multiple instances of legal action against both nVidia and some manufacturers. Although the true cause of these problems was never fully explained or revealed by Nvidia, it was reported by others that the "failures are caused by a solder bump that connects the I/O termination of the silicon chip to the pad on the substrate" (which in affected GPU chips "is created using high-lead" solder), and the potential number of affected laptop models was potentially far greater than acknowledged.[40] The principal insurer for nVidia's operations was even reported to have filed litigation against nVidia for withholding information from them regarding the nature and extent of the manufacturing problem.[41] Most user-initiated actions were filed in the U.S. District Court, Northern California where the corporate headquarters is located, and were eventually consolidated into a single class-action lawsuit with one lead counsel (Milberg LLP).[42] A proposed settlement was announced in September 2010 that represented a significant number of laptop models produced by three manufacturers (Apple, HP, and Dell),[43] but excluded other manufacturers whose laptops also incorporated the same 8400M and 8600M components from the suspect GPU lines. This settlement provides some degree of relief and/or compensation for specific laptop models with the affected GPUs, and a final hearing was held by the court on December 20, 2010 during which the proposed settlement was approved.[44] Owners of the affected models covered by the settlement will be able to file a claim for relief according to the terms of the settlement in January 2011.

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References
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[14] "NVIDIA to Acquire AGEIA Technologies" (http:/ / www. NVIDIA. com/ object/ io_1202161567170. html). Nvidia.com. . Retrieved 2010-11-09. [15] "Intel to Pay NVIDIA Technology Licensing Fees of $1.5 Billion" (http:/ / pressroom. nvidia. com/ easyir/ customrel. do?easyirid=A0D622CE9F579F09& version=live& releasejsp=release_157& xhtml=true& prid=706607). . Retrieved 2011-01-10. [16] "Press Release" (http:/ / www. NVIDIA. com/ object/ IO_30696. html). Nvidia.com. . Retrieved 2010-11-09. [17] "NVIDIA to Acquire AGEIA" (http:/ / www. dailytech. com/ Update+ NVIDIA+ to+ Acquire+ AGEIA/ article10573. htm). DailyTech.com. 2008-02-04. . [18] "NVIDIA Completes Acquisition of AGEIA Technologies: Financial News - Yahoo! Finance" (http:/ / www. nvidia. com/ object/ io_1202895129984. html). Nvidia.com. . Retrieved 2010-11-09. [19] "[Phoronix] PhysX For CUDA, Linux Support A Given?" (http:/ / www. phoronix. com/ scan. php?page=news_item& px=NjMzNA). Phoronix.com. 2008-02-14. . Retrieved 2010-11-09. [20] "GeForce 8 graphics processors to gain PhysX support" (http:/ / techreport. com/ discussions. x/ 14147). The Tech Report. 2008-02-14. . Retrieved 2010-11-09. [21] "Nvidia Rolls out "Tegra" Processors" (http:/ / www. techtree. com/ India/ News/ NVIDIA_Rolls_out_Tegra_Processors/ 551-89833-581. html). Techtree.com. . Retrieved 2010-11-09. [22] http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2011/ 01/ 05/ nvidia-announces-project-denver-arm-cpu-for-the-desktop/ NVIDIA announces Project Denver ARM CPU for the desktop [23] "Nvidia Quad Core Mobile Processors Coming in August" (http:/ / www. pcworld. com/ article/ 219768/ nvidia_quad_core_mobile_processors_coming_in_august. html). PCWorld. . Retrieved 2011-02-15. [24] "NVIDIA nForce Platform Processors" (http:/ / www. NVIDIA. com/ object/ nppa. html). Nvidia.com. . Retrieved 2010-11-09. [25] "NVIDIA nForce 980a SLI" (http:/ / www. NVIDIA. com/ object/ product_nforce_980a_sli_us. html). Nvidia.com. . Retrieved 2010-11-09. [26] "X.org, distributors, and proprietary modules" (http:/ / lwn. net/ Articles/ 195351/ ). Linux Weekly News. Eklektix. 2006-08-14. . Retrieved 2008-11-03. [27] "''LinuxQuestions.org'' 20 September 2007" (http:/ / www. linuxquestions. org/ questions/ linux-software-2/ poll-do-you-install-foss-over-proprietary-585895/ ). Linuxquestions.org. . Retrieved 2010-11-09. [28] "Jon Peddie Research Announces First Quarter Shipments of PC Graphics" (http:/ / www. businesswire. com/ portal/ site/ google/ permalink/ ?ndmViewId=news_view& newsId=20100426006529& newsLang=en). Business Wire. 2010-04-26. . Retrieved 2010-04-28. [29] "Valve - Survey Summary Data" (http:/ / store. steampowered. com/ hwsurvey/ ). Store.steampowered.com. . Retrieved 2010-11-09. [30] “” (2006-11-05). "YouTube — NVIDIA Hair Dryer" (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=PFZ39nQ_k90). Youtube.com. . Retrieved 2010-11-09. [31] Aharon Etengoff (2010-03-26). "NVIDIA's GTX 480 takes center stage at Pax East 2010" (http:/ / www. tgdaily. com/ games-and-entertainment-features/ 49112-nvidias-gtx-480-takes-center-stage-at-pax-east-2010). TG Daily. . Retrieved 2010-04-28. [32] NVIDIA Corporation (2008-07-02). "Nvidia Provides Second Quarter Fiscal 2009 Business Update" (http:/ / www. NVIDIA. com/ object/ io_1215037160521. html). . Retrieved 2008-10-05. "Certain notebook configurations with GPUs and MCPs manufactured with a certain die/packaging material set are failing in the field at higher than normal rates. To date, abnormal failure rates with systems other than certain notebook systems have not been seen."

Nvidia
[33] Stark, Leigh (2008-08-18). "NVIDIA DISASTER: thousands of GPUs faulty" (http:/ / apcmag. com/ Content. aspx?id=2750). APC. ninemsn Pty Ltd. . Retrieved 2008-08-18. "... updates that force your computer to cool itself down not only kill your battery life further but also leave you running the risk that now with the extra needed fan cycles, that cooling system built into your laptop might die sooner than expected." [34] Shilov, Anton (2008-08-29). "NVIDIA Updates Bump Material of GeForce 8800, 9800 Chips." (http:/ / xbitlabs. com/ news/ video/ display/ 20080829133428_NVIDIA_Updates_Bump_Material_of_GeForce_8800_9800_Chips. html). X-Bit Labs. . Retrieved 2008-09-29. "Nvidia Corp. has reportedly issued yet another product change notification (PCN) document, informing its customers that it plans to change bump material on its code-named G92 chips, which power a great amount of GeForce graphics cards. Potentially, this may mean that those graphics processing units are also subject to failures similar to [sic] already confirmed by Nvidia." [35] O'Brien, Kevin (2008-08-12). "More Defective Nvidia Graphics Chipsets" (http:/ / www. notebookreview. com/ default. asp?newsID=4554). NotebookReview.com. TechTarget. . Retrieved 2008-08-18. "Expect to see more BIOS updates released to increase cooling fan cycles, and more ATI graphics options from notebook manufacturers.

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We are already seeing a spike in high-end ATI options on almost all new Montevina notebooks, with fewer Nvidia options day by day."
[36] Menchaca, Lionel (2008-08-18). "Nvidia GPU Update: Dell to Offer Limited Warranty Enhancement to All Affected Customers Worldwide" (http:/ / direct2dell. com/ one2one/ archive/ 2008/ 08/ 18/ NVIDIA-gpu-update-dell-to-offer-warranty-enhancement-to-all-affected-customers-worldwide. aspx). Direct2Dell Blog. . Retrieved 2008-08-18. "..." [37] Abazovic, Fuad (2008-09-08). "NVIDIA gives OEMs $200 per bad mobile GPU" (http:/ / fudzilla. com/ graphics/ item/ 10143-nvidia-gives-oems-$200-per-bad-mobile-gpu). Fudzilla. Fudzilla. . Retrieved 2008-11-03. "Nvidia made a deal with big OEMs, such as Dell and HP, that they will get $200 per affected notebook and we are hearing that OEMs are quite happy about it. It turns out that this is more than generous and that this covers the cost of a new chip, the repair cost and all the other cost related to this issue." [38] "MacBook Pro: Distorted video or no video issues" (http:/ / support. apple. com/ kb/ TS2377). Apple Inc. 2008-10-10. . Retrieved 2008-11-03. "Apple has determined that some MacBook Pro computers with the NVIDIA GeForce 8600M GT graphics processor may be affected." [39] http:/ / apcmag. com/ nvidia_disaster_thousands_of_gpus_faulty. htm [40] http:/ / www. tgdaily. com/ hardware-features/ 39045-nvidia-gpu-failures-caused-by-material-problem-sources-claim. [41] http:/ / www. tgdaily. com/ business-and-law-features/ 42472-nvidias-insurance-company-falls-out-over-faulty-chips-payments [42] http:/ / cases. milberg. com/ nvidia-gpu-defects/ [43] http:/ / news. cnet. com/ 8301-13924_3-20018186-64. html [44] http:/ / www. nvidiasettlement. com/

External links
• • • • Official website (http://http://www.nvidia.com) Nvidia.com drivers download page (http://www.nvidia.com/Download/Find.aspx?lang=en-us) nTersect, official corporate blog (http://blogs.nvidia.com/ntersect/) GeForce.com, official gaming community site (http://www.geforce.com)

Intel Corporation

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Intel Corporation
Intel Corporation

Type

Public [1] NASDAQ: INTC [2] SEHK: 4335 [3] Euronext: INCO Dow Jones Industrial Average Component Semiconductors 1968 [4]

Industry Founded Founder(s)

Gordon E. Moore Robert Noyce Santa Clara, California, United States Worldwide Jane E. Shaw (Chairman) Paul S. Otellini (President and CEO) Microprocessors Flash memory Motherboard Chipsets Network Interface Card Bluetooth Chipsets US$43.623 billion (2010) US$16.045 billion (2010) US$11.464 billion (2010) [6] [6] [6] [6] [6] [5]

Headquarters Area served Key people

Products

Revenue Operating income Net income Total assets Total equity Employees Website

US$ 63.186 billion (2010) US$ 49.430 billion (2010) 82,500 (2010) Intel.com [7] [6]

Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC [1]; SEHK: 4335 [2]; Euronext: INCO [3]) is an American global technology company and the world's largest semiconductor chip maker, based on revenue.[8] It is the inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors, the processors found in most personal computers. Intel was founded on July 18, 1968, as Integrated Electronics Corporation (though a common misconception is that "Intel" is from the word intelligence) and is based in Santa Clara, California, USA. Intel also makes motherboard chipsets, network interface controllers and integrated circuits, flash memory, graphic chips, embedded processors and other devices related to communications and computing. Founded by semiconductor pioneers Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore and widely

Intel Corporation associated with the executive leadership and vision of Andrew Grove, Intel combines advanced chip design capability with a leading-edge manufacturing capability. Originally known primarily to engineers and technologists, Intel's "Intel Inside" advertising campaign of the 1990s made it and its Pentium processor household names. Intel was an early developer of SRAM and DRAM memory chips, and this represented the majority of its business until 1981. While Intel created the first commercial microprocessor chip in 1971, it was not until the success of the personal computer (PC) that this became their primary business. During the 1990s, Intel invested heavily in new microprocessor designs fostering the rapid growth of the computer industry. During this period Intel became the dominant supplier of microprocessors for PCs, and was known for aggressive and sometimes controversial tactics in defense of its market position, particularly against AMD, as well as a struggle with Microsoft for control over the direction of the PC industry.[9] [10] The 2010 rankings of the world's 100 most powerful brands published by Millward Brown Optimor showed the company's brand value at number 48.[11] Intel has also begun research in electrical transmission and generation.[12] [13]

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Corporate history
Origins
Intel was founded in 1968 by Gordon E. Moore (of "Moore's Law" fame, a chemist and physicist) and Robert Noyce (a physicist and co-inventor of the integrated circuit) when they left Fairchild Semiconductor. A number of other Fairchild employees also went on to participate in other Silicon Valley companies. Intel's third employee was Andy Grove,[14] a chemical engineer, who ran the company through much of the 1980s and the high-growth 1990s. Moore and Noyce initially wanted to name the company "Moore Noyce".[15] The name, however, was a homophone for "more Intel headquarters in Santa Clara, CA, USA noise" — an ill-suited name for an electronics company, since noise in electronics is usually very undesirable and typically associated with bad interference. They used the name NM Electronics for almost a year, before deciding to call their company Integrated Electronics or "Intel" for short.[16] Since "Intel" was already trademarked by a hotel chain, they had to buy the rights for the name.[17]

Early history
At its founding, Intel was distinguished by its ability to make semiconductors, and its primary products were static random access memory (SRAM) chips. Intel's business grew during the 1970s as it expanded and improved its manufacturing processes and produced a wider range of products, still dominated by various memory devices. While Intel created the first commercially available microprocessor (Intel 4004) in 1971 and one of the first microcomputers in 1972,[18] [19] by the early 1980s its business was dominated by dynamic random access memory chips. However, increased competition from Japanese semiconductor manufacturers had, by 1983, dramatically reduced the profitability of this market, and the sudden success of the IBM personal computer convinced then-CEO Grove to shift the company's focus to microprocessors, and to change fundamental aspects of that business model. By the end of the 1980s this decision had proven successful. Buoyed by its fortuitous position as microprocessor supplier to IBM and its competitors within the rapidly growing personal computer market, Intel embarked on a 10-year period of unprecedented growth as the primary (and most profitable) hardware supplier to the PC industry. By the end of the 1990s, its line of Pentium processors had become a household name.

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Slowing demand and challenges to dominance
After 2000, growth in demand for high-end microprocessors slowed. Competitors, notably AMD (Intel's largest competitor in its primary x86 architecture market), garnered significant market share, initially in low-end and mid-range processors but ultimately across the product range, and Intel's dominant position in its core market was greatly reduced.[20] In the early 2000s then-CEO Craig Barrett attempted to diversify the company's business beyond semiconductors, but few of these activities were ultimately successful. Intel had also for a number of years been embroiled in litigation. US law did not initially recognize intellectual property rights related to microprocessor topology (circuit layouts), until the Semiconductor Chip Protection Act of 1984, a law sought by Intel and the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA).[21] During the late 1980s and 1990s (after this law was passed) Intel also sued companies that tried to develop competitor chips to the 80386 CPU.[22] The lawsuits were noted to significantly burden the competition with legal bills, even if Intel lost the suits.[22] Antitrust allegations that had been simmering since the early 1990s and already been the cause of one lawsuit against Intel in 1991, broke out again as AMD brought further claims against Intel related to unfair competition in 2004, and again in 2005. In 2005, CEO Paul Otellini reorganized the company to refocus its core processor and chipset business on platforms (enterprise, digital home, digital health, and mobility) which led to the hiring of over 20,000 new employees. In September 2006 due to falling profits, the company announced a restructuring that resulted in layoffs of 10,500 employees or about 10 percent of its workforce by July 2006.

Regaining of momentum
Faced with the need to regain lost marketplace momentum,[20] [23] Intel unveiled its new product development model to regain its prior technological lead. Known as its "tick-tock model", the program was based upon annual alternation of microarchitecture innovation and process innovation. In 2006, Intel produced P6 and NetBurst products with reduced die size (65 nm). A year later it unveiled its Core microarchitecture to widespread critical acclaim;[24] the product range was perceived as an exceptional leap in processor performance that at a stroke regained much of its leadership of the field.[25] [26] In 2008, we saw another "tick", Intel introduced the Penryn microarchitecture, undergoing a shrink from 65 nm to 45 nm, and the year after saw the release of its positively reviewed successor processor, Nehalem, followed by another silicon shrink to the 32nm process. Intel was not the first microprocessor corporation to do this. For example, around 1996 graphics chip designers nVidia had addressed its own business and marketplace difficulties by adopting a demanding 6-month internal product cycle whose products repeatedly outperformed market expectation.

Sale of XScale processor business
On June 27, 2006, the sale of Intel's XScale assets was announced. Intel agreed to sell the XScale processor business to Marvell Technology Group for an estimated $600 million (They bought them for $1.6billion) in cash and the assumption of unspecified liabilities. The move was intended to permit Intel to focus its resources on its core x86 and server businesses, and the acquisition completed on November 9, 2006.[27]

2010 acquisitions
In August 2010, Intel announced two major acquisitions. On 19 August, Intel announced that it planned to purchase McAfee, a manufacturer of computer security technology. The purchase price was $7.68 billion, and the companies said that if the deal were approved, new products would be released early in 2011.[28] Less than two weeks later, the company announced the acquisition of Infineon Technologies’ Wireless Solutions business.[29] With the Infineon transaction, Intel plans to use the company’s technology in laptops, smart phones,

Intel Corporation netbooks, tablets and embedded computers in consumer products, eventually integrating its wireless modem into Intel’s silicon chips.[30] Intel won the European Union regulatory approval for its acquisition of McAfee on 26 January 2011. Intel agreed to ensure that rival security firms have access to all necessary information that would allow their products to use Intel's chips and personal computers.[31] Following the closure of the McAfee deal, Intel's workforce totals approximately 90,000, including (roughly) 12,000 software engineers.[32]

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Expansions
February 2011: The company will build a new microprocessor factory at Chandler, Arizona with is expected to be completed in 2013 at a cost of $5 billion. It will accommodate 4,000 employees. The company produces three quarters of their products in the United States, although three quarters of the revenue come from overseas.[33] [34]

Product and market history
SRAMS and the microprocessor
The company's first products were shift register memory and random-access memory integrated circuits, and Intel grew to be a leader in the fiercely competitive DRAM, SRAM, and ROM markets throughout the 1970s. Concurrently, Intel engineers Marcian Hoff, Federico Faggin, Stanley Mazor and Masatoshi Shima invented Intel's first microprocessor. Originally developed for the Japanese company Busicom to replace a number of ASICs in a calculator already produced by Busicom, the Intel 4004 was introduced to the mass market on November 15, 1971, though the microprocessor did not become the core of Intel's business until the mid-1980s. (Note: Intel is usually given credit with Texas Instruments for the almost-simultaneous invention of the microprocessor.)

From DRAM to microprocessors
In 1983, at the dawn of the personal computer era, Intel's profits came under increased pressure from Japanese memory-chip manufacturers, and then-President Andy Grove drove the company into a focus on microprocessors. Grove described this transition in the book Only the Paranoid Survive. A key element of his plan was the notion, then considered radical, of becoming the single source for successors to the popular 8086 microprocessor. Until then, manufacture of complex integrated circuits was not reliable enough for customers to depend on a single supplier, but Grove began producing processors in three geographically distinct factories, and ceased licensing the chip designs to competitors such as Zilog and AMD. When the PC industry boomed in the late 1980s and 1990s, Intel was one of the primary beneficiaries.

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Intel, x86 processors, and the IBM PC
Despite the ultimate importance of the microprocessor, the 4004 and its successors the 8008 and the 8080 were never major revenue contributors at Intel. As the next processor, the 8086 (and its variant the 8088) was completed in 1978, Intel embarked on a major marketing and sales campaign for that chip nicknamed "Operation Crush", and intended to win as many customers for the processor as possible. One design win was the newly created IBM PC division, though the importance of this was not fully realized at the time. IBM introduced its personal computer in 1981, and it was rapidly successful. In 1982, Intel created the 80286 The die from an Intel 8742, an 8-bit microcontroller that microprocessor, which, two years later, was used in the includes a CPU running at 12 MHz, 128 bytes of RAM, 2048 IBM PC/AT. Compaq, the first IBM PC "clone" bytes of EPROM, and I/O in the same chip. manufacturer, produced a desktop system based on the faster 80286 processor in 1985 and in 1986 quickly followed with the first 80386-based system, beating IBM and establishing a competitive market for PC-compatible systems and setting up Intel as a key component supplier. In 1975 the company had started a project to develop a highly advanced 32-bit microprocessor, finally released in 1981 as the Intel iAPX 432. The project was too ambitious and the processor was never able to meet its performance objectives, and it failed in the marketplace. Intel extended the x86 architecture to 32 bits instead.[35] [36] 386 microprocessor During this period Andrew Grove dramatically redirected the company, closing much of its DRAM business and directing resources to the microprocessor business. Of perhaps greater importance was his decision to "single-source" the 386 microprocessor. Prior to this, microprocessor manufacturing was in its infancy, and manufacturing problems frequently reduced or stopped production, interrupting supplies to customers. To mitigate this risk, these customers typically insisted that multiple manufacturers produce chips they could use to ensure a consistent supply. The 8080 and 8086-series microprocessors were produced by several companies, notably AMD. Grove made the decision not to license the 386 design to other manufacturers, instead producing it in three geographically distinct factories in Santa Clara, California; Hillsboro, Oregon; and the Phoenix, Arizona suburb of Chandler; and convincing customers that this would ensure consistent delivery. As the success of Compaq's Deskpro 386 established the 386 as the dominant CPU choice, Intel achieved a position of near-exclusive dominance as its supplier. Profits from this funded rapid development of both higher-performance chip designs and higher-performance manufacturing capabilities, propelling Intel to a position of unquestioned leadership by the early 1990s. 486, Pentium, and Itanium Intel introduced the 486 microprocessor in 1989, and in 1990 formally established a second design team, designing the processors code-named "P5" and "P6" in parallel and committing to a major new processor every two years, versus the four or more years such designs had previously taken. The P5 was earlier known as "Operation Bicycle" referring to the cycles of the processor. The P5 was introduced in 1993 as the Intel Pentium, substituting a registered trademark name for the former part number (numbers, such as 486, are hard to register as a trademark). The P6 followed in 1995 as the Pentium Pro and improved into the Pentium II in 1997. New architectures were developed alternately in Santa Clara, California and Hillsboro, Oregon.

Intel Corporation The Santa Clara design team embarked in 1993 on a successor to the x86 architecture, codenamed "P7". The first attempt was dropped a year later, but quickly revived in a cooperative program with Hewlett-Packard engineers, though Intel soon took over primary design responsibility. The resulting implementation of the IA-64 64-bit architecture was the Itanium, finally introduced in June 2001. The Itanium's performance running legacy x86 code did not achieve expectations, and it failed to compete effectively with 64-bit extensions to the original x86 architecture, introduced by AMD, named x86-64 (although Intel uses the name Intel 64, previously EM64T). As of 2009, Intel continues to develop and deploy the Itanium. The Hillsboro team designed the Willamette processors (code-named P67 and P68) which were marketed as the Pentium 4. Pentium flaw In June 1994, Intel engineers discovered a flaw in the floating-point math subsection of the P5 Pentium microprocessor. Under certain data dependent conditions, low order bits of the result of floating-point division operations would be incorrect, an error that can quickly compound in floating-point operations to much larger errors in subsequent calculations. Intel corrected the error in a future chip revision, but nonetheless declined to disclose it. In October 1994, Dr. Thomas Nicely, Professor of Mathematics at Lynchburg College independently discovered the bug, and upon receiving no response from his inquiry to Intel, on October 30 posted a message on the Internet.[37] Word of the bug spread quickly on the Internet and then to the industry press. Because the bug was easy to replicate by an average user (there was a sequence of numbers one could enter into the OS calculator to show the error), Intel's statements that it was minor and "not even an erratum" were not accepted by many computer users. During Thanksgiving 1994, The New York Times ran a piece by journalist John Markoff spotlighting the error. Intel changed its position and offered to replace every chip, quickly putting in place a large end-user support organization. This resulted in a $500 million charge against Intel's 1994 revenue. Ironically, the "Pentium flaw" incident, Intel's response to it, and the surrounding media coverage propelled Intel from being a technology supplier generally unknown to most computer users to a household name. Dovetailing with an uptick in the "Intel Inside" campaign, the episode is considered to have been a positive event for Intel, changing some of its business practices to be more end-user focused and generating substantial public awareness, while avoiding a lasting negative impression.[38] "Intel Inside" and other 1990s programs During this period, Intel undertook two major supporting programs. The first is widely known: the 1991 "Intel Inside" marketing and branding campaign. The idea of ingredient branding was new at the time with only Nutrasweet and a few others making attempts at that.[39] This campaign established Intel, which had been a component supplier little-known outside the PC industry, as a household name. The second program is little-known: Intel's Systems Group began, in the early 1990s, manufacturing PC "motherboards", the main board component of a personal computer, and the one into which the processor (CPU) and memory (RAM) chips are plugged.[40] Shortly after, Intel began manufacturing fully configured "white box" systems for the dozens of PC clone companies that rapidly sprang up. At its peak in the mid-1990s, Intel manufactured over 15% of all PCs, making it the third-largest supplier at the time. During the 1990s, Intel's Architecture Lab (IAL) was responsible for many of the hardware innovations of the personal computer, including the PCI Bus, the PCI Express (PCIe) bus, the Universal Serial Bus (USB), Bluetooth wireless interconnect, and the now-dominant architecture for multiprocessor servers. IAL's software efforts met with a more mixed fate; its video and graphics software was important in the development of software digital video, but later its efforts were largely overshadowed by competition from Microsoft. The competition between Intel and Microsoft was revealed in testimony by IAL Vice-President Steven McGeady at the Microsoft antitrust trial.

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Intel Corporation Solid State Drive (SSD) In March 2011, Intel has announced new SSD 510 120GB and 250GB which read speeds more than 500MBps. At the moment it is the fastest SSD right now. One obstacle is the SSD 510 requires a SATA 6 GBps port in conjunction with the second generation of Intel Core Series processor. Furthermore it still sells in packs of 1000s which are difficult to acquire for the average consumer.[41]

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Supercomputers
The Intel Scientific Computers division was founded in 1984 by Justin Rattner, in order to design and produce parallel computers based on Intel microprocessors connected in hypercube topologies.[42] In 1992 the name was changed to the Intel Supercomputing Systems Division, and development of the iWarp architecture was also subsumed.[43] The division designed several supercomputer systems, including the Intel iPSC/1, iPSC/2, iPSC/860, Paragon and ASCI Red.

Competition, antitrust and espionage
Two factors combined to end this dominance: the slowing of PC demand growth beginning in 2000 and the rise of the low cost PC. By the end of the 1990s, microprocessor performance had outstripped software demand for that CPU power. Aside from high-end server systems and software, demand for which dropped with the end of the "dot-com bubble", consumer systems ran effectively on increasingly low-cost systems after 2000. Intel's strategy of producing ever-more-powerful processors and obsoleting their predecessors stumbled, leaving an opportunity for rapid gains by competitors, notably AMD. This in turn lowered the profitability of the processor line and ended an era of unprecedented dominance of the PC hardware by Intel. Intel's dominance in the x86 microprocessor market led to numerous charges of antitrust violations over the years, including FTC investigations in both the late 1980s and in 1999, and civil actions such as the 1997 suit by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) and a patent suit by Intergraph. Intel's market dominance (at one time it controlled over 85% of the market for 32-bit x86 microprocessors) combined with Intel's own hardball legal tactics (such as its infamous 338 patent suit versus PC manufacturers)[44] made it an attractive target for litigation, but few of the lawsuits ever amounted to anything. A case of industrial espionage arose in 1995 that involved both Intel and AMD. Bill Gaede, an Argentine formerly employed both at AMD and at Intel's Arizona plant, was arrested for attempting in 1993 to sell the i486 and P5 Pentium designs to AMD and to certain foreign powers.[45] Gaede videotaped data from his computer screen at Intel and mailed it to AMD, which immediately alerted Intel and authorities, resulting in Gaede's arrest. Gaede was convicted and sentenced to 33 months in prison in June 1996.[46] [47]

Partnership with Apple
On June 6, 2005, Apple CEO Steve Jobs announced that Apple would be transitioning from its long favored PowerPC architecture to the Intel x86 architecture, because the future PowerPC road map was unable to satisfy Apple's needs. The first Macintosh computers containing Intel CPUs were announced on January 10, 2006, and Apple had its entire line of consumer Macs running on Intel processors by early August 2006. The Apple Xserve server was updated to Intel Xeon processors from November 2006, and was offered in a configuration similar to Apple's Mac Pro.[48]

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Core 2 Duo advertisement controversy
In 2007, the company released a print advertisement for its Core 2 Duo processor featuring six African American runners appearing to bow down to a Caucasian male inside of an office setting (due to the posture taken by runners on starting blocks). According to Nancy Bhagat, Vice President of Intel Corporate Marketing, the general public found the ad to be "insensitive and insulting."[49] The campaign was quickly pulled and several Intel executives made public apologies on the corporate website.[50]

Classmate PC
Intel's Classmate PC is the company's first low-cost netbook computer.

Corporate affairs
In September 2006, Intel had nearly 100,000 employees and 200 facilities world wide. Its 2005 revenues were $38.8 billion and its Fortune 500 ranking was 49th. Its stock symbol is INTC, listed on the NASDAQ. As of February 2009 the biggest customers of Intel are Hewlett-Packard and Dell.[51]

Leadership and corporate structure
Robert Noyce was Intel's CEO at its founding in 1968, followed by co-founder Gordon Moore in 1975. Andy Grove became the company's President in 1979 and added the CEO title in 1987 when Moore became Chairman. In 1998 Grove succeeded Moore as Chairman, and Craig Barrett, already company president, took over. On May 18, 2005, Barrett handed the reins of the company over to Paul Otellini, who previously was the company president and was responsible for Intel's design win in the original IBM PC. The board of directors elected Otellini CEO, and Barrett replaced Grove as Chairman of the Board. Grove stepped down as Chairman, but is retained as a special adviser. In May 2009, Barrett stepped down as chairman and Jane Shaw was elected as the new Chairman of the Board. Current members of the board of directors of Intel are Craig Barrett, Charlene Barshefsky, Susan Decker, James Guzy, Reed Hundt, Paul Otellini, James Plummer, David Pottruck, Jane Shaw, John Thornton, and David Yoffie.[52]

Employment
The firm promotes very heavily from within, most notably in its executive suite. The company has resisted the trend toward outsider CEOs. Paul Otellini was a 30-year veteran of the company when he assumed the role of CEO. All of his top lieutenants have risen through the ranks after many years with the firm. In many cases, Intel's top executives have spent their entire working careers with Intel, a very rare occurrence in volatile Silicon Valley. Intel has a mandatory retirement policy for its CEOs when they reach age 65, Andy Grove retired at 62, while both Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore retired at 58. Grove retired as Chairman and as a member of the board of directors in 2005 at age 68.
Intel microprocessor facility in Costa Rica was responsible in 2006 for 20% of Costa Rican [53] exports and 4.9% of the country's GDP.

No one has an office; everyone, even Otellini, sits in a cubicle. This is designed to promote egalitarianism among employees, but some new hires have difficulty adjusting to this change. Intel is not alone in this policy. Dell Computers, Hewlett-Packard and NVIDIA have similar no-office policy. The company is headquartered in California's Silicon Valley and has operations around the world. Outside of California, the company has facilities in China, Costa Rica, Malaysia, Israel, Ireland, India, Russia and Vietnam, 63 countries and regions internationally. In the U.S. Intel employs significant numbers of people in California,

Intel Corporation Colorado, Massachusetts, Arizona, New Mexico, Oregon, Texas, Washington, and Utah. In Oregon, Intel is the state's largest private employer with over 15,000 employees, primarily in Hillsboro.[54] The company is the largest industrial employer in New Mexico while in Arizona the company has over 10,000 employees. Diversity Intel has a Diversity Initiative, including employee diversity groups as well as supplier diversity programs.[55] Like many companies with employee diversity groups, they include groups based on race and nationality as well as sexual identity and religion. In 1994, Intel sanctioned one of the earliest corporate Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender employee groups,[56] and supports a Muslim employees group,[57] a Jewish employees group,[58] and a Bible-based Christian group.[59] [60] Intel received a 100% rating on the first Corporate Equality Index released by the Human Rights Campaign in 2002. It has maintained this rating in 2003 and 2004. In addition, the company was named one of the 100 Best Companies for Working Mothers in 2005 by Working Mother magazine.

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Funding of a school
In Rio Rancho, New Mexico, Intel is the leading employer.[61] In 1997, a community partnership between Sandoval County and Intel Corporation funded and built Rio Rancho High School.[62] [63]

Finances
Intel's market capitalization is $122.41 billion (Feb. 22, 2011). It publicly trades on NASDAQ with the symbol INTC. A widely held stock, the following indices include Intel shares: Dow Jones Industrial Average, S&P 500, NASDAQ-100, Russell 1000 Index, Russell 1000 Growth Index, SOX (PHLX Semiconductor Sector), and GSTI Software Index.

Intel stock price, Nov 1986 – Nov 2006

On July 15, 2008, Intel announced that it had achieved the highest earnings in the history of the company during Q2 2008.[64]

Advertising and brand management
Intel has become one of the world's most recognizable computer brands following its long-running Intel Inside campaign. The campaign, which started in 1991,[65] was created by Intel marketing manager Dennis Carter.[66] The five-note jingle was introduced the following year and by its tenth anniversary was being heard in 130 countries around the world. The initial branding agency for the 'Intel Inside' campaign was DahlinSmithWhite Advertising of Salt Lake City. The Intel swirl logo was the work of DahlinSmithWhite art director Steve Grigg under the direction of Intel president and CEO Andy Grove. The Intel Inside advertising campaign sought public brand loyalty and awareness of Intel processors in consumer computers.[67] Intel paid some of the advertiser's costs for an ad that used the Intel Inside logo and jingle.[68]

Intel Corporation Logos

115

Intel brand logo
Main Logo Date 1968–2005 Subset logo Date 1991–2003 The original "Intel Inside" logo. Remarks

2003–2005

Still as Intel Inside logo, but changed to resemble the original Intel logo with lowering of the Intel "e" and changing the typeface.

2005–present

2006–2009

Intel phased out the intel inside logo in favor of a new logo intel and the slogan, Leap ahead. The new logo is clearly inspired by the Intel Inside logo by splitting out the inside. The typeface Neo Sans Intel is used. 2009–present The current intel logo with inside trademark. i3, i5, i7, Atom, and Xeon use this logo

In 2006, Intel expanded its promotion of open specification platforms beyond Centrino, to include the Viiv media centre PC and the business desktop Intel vPro. In mid January 2006, Intel announced that they were dropping the long running Pentium name from their processors. The Pentium name was first used to refer to the P5 core Intel processors (Pent refers to the 5 in P5,) and was done to circumvent court rulings that prevent the trademarking of a string of numbers, so competitors could not just call their processor the same name, as had been done with the prior 386 and 486 processors. (Both of which had copies manufactured by both IBM and AMD). They phased out the Pentium names from mobile processors first, when the new Yonah chips, branded Core Solo and Core Duo, were released. The desktop processors changed when the Core 2 line of processors were released. According to an Intel spokesman as of 2009 one may think in terms of good-better-best with Celeron being good, Pentium better, and the Intel Core family representing the best the company has to offer.[69] In 2008, Intel planned to shift the emphasis of its Intel Inside campaign from traditional media such as television and print to newer media such as the Internet.[70] Intel required that a minimum of 35% of the money it provided to the companies in its co-op program be used for online marketing.[70] Some artists have incorporated Intel brand culture into their works. For example, evil inside stickers,[71] Intel inside, idiot outside [72] and a tombstone with R.I.P Intel Inside.[73] The sticker on the supercomputer Hex of Terry Pratchett's Discworld books reads "Anthill inside".

Intel Corporation Sonic logo The famous D♭  D♭  G♭  D♭  A♭ jingle, sonic logo, tag, audio mnemonic ( MP3 file of sonic logo [74]) was produced by Musikvergnuegen and written by Walter Werzowa from the Austrian 1980s sampling band Edelweiss.[75] The Sonic logo has undergone heavy changes in tone since the introduction of the Pentium III, Pentium 4, and Core processors, yet keeps the same jingle. Naming strategy According to spokesman Bill Calder since 2009 Intel has maintained only the Celeron brand, the Atom brand for netbooks and the vPro lineup for businesses.[76] Upcoming processors will carry the Intel Core brand, but will be known as the Intel Core i7, or Core i3 depending on their segment of the market.[76] vPro products will carry the Intel Core i7 vPro processor or the Intel Core i5 vPro processor name.[76] Beginning in 2010 "Centrino" will only be applied to Intel's WiMAX and Wi-Fi technologies; it won't be a PC brand anymore.[76] This will be an evolutionary process taking place over time, Intel acknowledges that multiple brands will be in the market including older ones throughout the transition.[76] IT Manager 3: Unseen Forces IT Manager III: Unseen Forces is a web-based IT simulation game from Intel. In it you manage a company's IT department. The goal is to apply technology and skill to enable the company to grow from a small business into a global enterprise.

116

Open source support
Intel has a significant participation in the open source communities. For example, in 2006 Intel released MIT-licensed X.org drivers for their integrated graphic cards of the i965 family of chipsets. Intel released FreeBSD drivers for some networking cards,[77] available under a BSD-compatible license, which were also ported to OpenBSD. Intel ran the Moblin project until April 23, 2009, when they handed the project over to the Linux Foundation. Intel also runs the LessWatts.org campaigns.[78] However, after the release of the wireless products called Intel Pro/Wireless 2100, 2200BG/2225BG/2915ABG and 3945ABG in 2005, Intel was criticized for not granting free redistribution rights for the firmware that must be included in the operating system for the wireless devices to operate.[79] As a result of this, Intel became a target of campaigns to allow free operating systems to include binary firmware on terms acceptable to the open source community. Linspire-Linux creator Michael Robertson outlined the difficult position that Intel was in releasing to open source, as Intel did not want to upset their large customer Microsoft.[80] Theo de Raadt of OpenBSD also claimed that Intel is being "an Open Source fraud" after an Intel employee presented a distorted view of the situation on an open-source conference.[81] In spite of the significant negative attention Intel received as a result of the wireless dealings, the binary firmware still has not gained a license compatible with free software principles.

Environmental record
In 2003, there were 1.4 tons of carbon tetrachloride measured from one of Intel's many acid scrubbers. However, Intel reported no release of carbon tetrachloride for all of 2003.[82] Intel's facility in Rio Rancho, New Mexico overlooks a nearby village, and the hilly contours of its location create a setting for chemical gases heavier than air to move along arroyos and irrigation ditches in that village. Release of chemicals in such an environment reportedly caused adverse effects in both animals and humans. Deceased dogs in the area were found to have high levels of toluene, hexane, ethylbenzene, and xylene isomers in lungs.[83] More than 1580 pounds of VOC were released in June and July 2006, the company stated.[84] Intel’s environmental performance is published annually in their corporate responsibility report.[85]

Intel Corporation

117

Religious controversy
Orthodox Jews have protested Intel operating in Israel on Saturday, Shabbat. Intel ringed its office with barbed wire before the protest, but there was no violence.[86] As of December 2009, the situation has been stable for Intel Israel while some employees reported working overtime on Shabbat.

Age discrimination
Intel has faced complaints of age discrimination in firing and layoffs. Intel was sued by nine former employees, over allegations that they were laid off because they were over the age of 40.[87] A group called FACE Intel (Former and Current Employees of Intel) claims that Intel weeds out older employees. FACE Intel claims that more than 90 percent of people who have been terminated by Intel are over the age of 40. Upside magazine requested data from Intel breaking out its hiring and terminations by age, but the company declined to provide any.[88] Intel has denied that age plays any role in Intel's employment practices.[89] FACE Intel was founded by Ken Hamidi, who was terminated by Intel in 1995 at the age of 47.[88] Hamidi was blocked in a 1999 court decision from using Intel's email system to distribute criticism of the company to employees.[90]

Competition
In the 1980s, Intel was among the top ten sellers of semiconductors (10th in 1987) in the world. In 1991, Intel became the biggest chip maker by revenue and has held the position ever since. Other top semiconductor companies include AMD, Samsung, Texas Instruments, Toshiba and STMicroelectronics. Competitors in PC chip sets include AMD, VIA Technologies, SiS, and Nvidia. Intel's competitors in networking include Freescale, Infineon, Broadcom, Marvell Technology Group and AMCC, and competitors in flash memory include Spansion, Samsung, Qimonda, Toshiba, STMicroelectronics, and Hynix. The only major competitor in the x86 processor market is Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), with which Intel has had full cross-licensing agreements since 1976: each partner can use the other's patented technological innovations without charge after a certain time.[91] However, the cross-licensing agreement is canceled in the event of an AMD bankruptcy or takeover.[92] Some smaller competitors such as VIA and Transmeta produce low-power x86 processors for small factor computers and portable equipment.

Lawsuits
Intel has often been accused by competitors of using legal claims to thwart competition. Intel claims that it is defending its intellectual property. Intel has been plaintiff and defendant in numerous legal actions. In September 2005, Intel filed a response to an AMD lawsuit,[93] disputing AMD's claims, and claiming that Intel's business practices are fair and lawful. In a rebuttal, Intel deconstructed AMD's offensive strategy and argued that AMD struggled largely as a result of its own bad business decisions, including underinvestment in essential manufacturing capacity and excessive reliance on contracting out chip foundries.[94] Legal analysts predicted the lawsuit would drag on for a number of years, since Intel's initial response indicated its unwillingness to settle with AMD.[95] [96] In 2008 a court date was finally set,[97] but in 2009 Intel settled with a $1.25 billion payout to AMD (see below).[98] In October 2006, a Transmeta lawsuit was filed against Intel for patent infringement on computer architecture and power efficiency technologies.[99] The lawsuit was settled in October 2007, with Intel agreeing to pay US$150 million initially and US$20 million per year for the next five years. Both companies agreed to drop lawsuits against each other, while Intel was granted a perpetual non-exclusive license to use current and future patented Transmeta technologies in its chips for 10 years.[100] On November 4, 2009, New York's attorney general filed an antitrust lawsuit against Intel Corp, claiming the company used "illegal threats and collusion" to dominate the market for computer microprocessors.

Intel Corporation On November 12, 2009, AMD agreed to drop the antitrust lawsuit against Intel in exchange for $1.25 billion.[98] A joint press release published by the two chip makers stated "While the relationship between the two companies has been difficult in the past, this agreement ends the legal disputes and enables the companies to focus all of our efforts on product innovation and development." [101] [102]

118

Anti-competitive allegations
Japan In 2005, the local Fair Trade Commission found that Intel violated the Japanese Antimonopoly Act. The commission ordered Intel to eliminate discounts that had discriminated against AMD. To avoid a trial, Intel agreed to comply with the order.[103] [104] [105] [106] European Union In July 2007, the European Commission accused Intel of anti-competitive practices, mostly against AMD.[107] The allegations, going back to 2003, include giving preferential prices to computer makers buying most or all of their chips from Intel, paying computer makers to delay or cancel the launch of products using AMD chips, and providing chips at below standard cost to governments and educational institutions.[108] Intel responded that the allegations were unfounded and instead qualified its market behavior as consumer-friendly.[109] General counsel Bruce Sewell responded that the Commission had misunderstood some factual assumptions as to pricing and manufacturing costs.[110] In February 2008, Intel stated that its office in Munich had been raided by European Union regulators. Intel reported that it was cooperating with investigators.[111] Intel faced a fine of up to 10% of its annual revenue, if found guilty of stifling competition.[109] AMD subsequently launched a website promoting these allegations.[112] [113] In June 2008, the EU filed new charges against Intel.[114] In May 2009, the EU found that Intel had engaged in anti-competitive practices and subsequently fined Intel €1.06 billion ($1.44 billion), a record amount. Intel was found to have paid companies, including Acer, Dell, HP, Lenovo and NEC,[115] to exclusively use Intel chips in their products, and therefore harmed other companies including AMD.[115] [116] [117] The European Commission said that Intel had deliberately acted to keep competitors out of the computer chip market and in doing so had made a "serious and sustained violation of the EU's antitrust rules".[115] In addition to the fine, Intel was ordered by the Commission to immediately cease all illegal practices.[115] Intel has stated that they will appeal against the Commission's verdict.[115] South Korea In September 2007, South Korean regulators accused Intel of breaking antitrust law. The investigation began in February 2006, when officials raided Intel's South Korean offices. The company risked a penalty of up to 3% of its annual sales, if found guilty.[118] In June 2008, the Fair Trade Commission ordered Intel to pay a fine of $25.5 million for taking advantage of its dominant position to offer incentives to major Korean PC manufacturers on the condition of not buying products from AMD.[119]

Intel Corporation United States New York started an investigation of Intel in January 2008 on whether the company violated antitrust laws in pricing and sales of its microprocessors.[120] In June 2008, the Federal Trade Commission also began an antitrust investigation of the case.[121] In December 2009 the FTC announced it would initiate an administrative proceeding against Intel in September 2010.[122] [123] [124] [125] In November 2009, following a two year investigation, New York Attorney General Andrew Cuomo sued Intel, accusing them of bribery and coercion, claiming that Intel bribed computer makers to buy more of their chips than those of their rivals, and threatened to withdraw these payments if the computer makers were perceived as working too closely with its competitors. Intel has denied these claims.[126] On July 22, 2010, Dell agreed to a settlement with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to pay $100M in penalties resulting from charges that Dell did not accurately disclose accounting information to investors. In particular, the SEC charged that from 2002 to 2006, Dell had an agreement with Intel to receive rebates in exchange for not using chips manufactured by Advanced Micro Devices. These substantial rebates were not disclosed to investors, but were used to help meet investor expectations regarding the company's financial performance; the SEC said that in the first quarter of 2007 they amounted to 70% of Dell's operating income. Dell eventually did adopt AMD as a secondary supplier in 2006, and Intel subsequently stopped their rebates, causing Dell's financial performance to fall.[127] [128] [129]

119

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External links
• Intel official website (http://www.intel.com/) • Intel Corporation (http://www.dmoz.org/Computers/Companies/Product_Support/Intel/) at the Open Directory Project • Intel Software Network (http://software.intel.com/en-us/) Video clips • channelintel (http://www.youtube.com/user/channelintel) channel on YouTube Business data • • • • • • INTEL CORP. (http://finance.google.com/finance?q=INTC) at Google Finance INTEL CORP. (http://finance.yahoo.com/q?s=INTC) at Yahoo! Finance INTEL CORP. (http://www.hoovers.com//--ID__13787--/free-co-factsheet.xhtml) at Hoover's INTEL CORP. (http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/overview?symbol=INTC) at Reuters INTEL CORP. (http://google.brand.edgar-online.com/?sym=INTC) SEC filings at EDGAR Online INTEL CORP. (http://www.sec.gov/cgi-bin/browse-edgar?action=getcompany&CIK=50863) SEC filings at the Securities and Exchange Commission

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Advanced Micro Devices
Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.

Type

Public (NYSE: AMD S&P 500 Component Semiconductors 1969

[1]

)

Industry Founded Founder(s)

W. Jerry Sanders III Edwin J. Turney Additional co-founders One AMD Place, Worldwide Bruce Claflin (Executive Chairman) Thomas Seifert interim (CEO) Microprocessors Motherboard chipsets Graphics processors DTV decoder chips Handheld media chipsets US$5.4 billion (FY 2009) US$664 million (FY 2009) US$293 million (FY 2009) US$9.08 billion (FY 2009) US$648 million (FY 2009) 10,400 – Jan 2010 AMD.com [4] [3] [2] Sunnyvale, California, U.S.

Headquarters Area served Key people

Products

Revenue Operating income Net income Total assets Total equity Employees Website

Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD; NYSE: AMD [1]) is an American multinational semiconductor company based in Sunnyvale, California, that develops computer processors and related technologies for commercial and consumer markets. Its main products include microprocessors, motherboard chipsets, embedded processors and graphics processors for servers, workstations and personal computers, and processor technologies for handheld devices, digital television, automobiles, game consoles, and other embedded systems applications. AMD is the second-largest global supplier of microprocessors based on the x86 architecture and also one of the largest supplier of graphics processing units. It also owns 8.6% of Spansion, a supplier of non-volatile flash memory.[3] In 2009, AMD ranked eighth among semiconductor manufacturers in terms of revenue.[5]

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Corporate history
Advanced Micro Devices was founded on May 1, 1969, by a group of former executives from Fairchild Semiconductor, including Jerry Sanders III, Ed Turney, John Carey, Sven Simonsen, Jack Gifford and three members from Gifford's team, Frank Botte, Jim Giles, and Larry Stenger. The company began as a producer of logic chips, then entered the RAM chip business in 1975. That same year, it introduced a reverse-engineered clone of the Intel 8080 microprocessor. During this period, AMD also designed and produced a series of bit-slice processor elements (Am2900, Am29116, Am293xx) which were used in various minicomputer designs. During this time, AMD attempted to embrace the perceived shift towards RISC with their own AMD 29K processor, and they attempted to diversify into graphics and audio devices as well as EPROM memory. It had some success in the mid-1980s with the AMD7910 and AMD7911 "World Chip" FSK modem, one of the first multistandard devices that covered both Bell and CCITT tones at up to 1200 baud half duplex or 300/300 full duplex. The AMD 29K survived as an embedded processor and AMD spinoff Spansion continues to make industry leading flash memory. AMD decided to switch gears and concentrate solely on Intel-compatible microprocessors and flash memory, placing them in direct competition with Intel for x86 compatible processors and their flash memory secondary markets. AMD announced a merger with ATI Technologies on July 24, 2006. AMD paid $4.3 billion in cash and 58 million shares of its stock for a total of US$5.4 billion. The merger completed on October 25, 2006[6] and ATI is now part of AMD. It was reported in December 2006 that AMD, along with its main rival in the graphics industry Nvidia, received subpoenas from the Justice Department regarding possible antitrust violations in the graphics card industry, including the act of fixing prices.[7]

AMD headquarters in Sunnyvale, California

AMD Markham in Canada, formerly ATI headquarters

AMD's LEED-certified Lone Star campus in Austin, Texas

In October 2008, AMD announced plans to spin off manufacturing operations in the form of a multibillion-dollar joint venture with Advanced Technology Investment Co., an investment company formed by the government of Abu Dhabi. The new venture is called GlobalFoundries Inc.. This will allow AMD to focus solely on chip design.[8]

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Processor market history
IBM PC and the x86 architecture
In February 1982, AMD signed a contract with Intel, becoming a licensed second-source manufacturer of 8086 and 8088 processors. IBM wanted to use the Intel 8088 in its IBM PC, but IBM's policy at the time was to require at least two sources for its chips. AMD later produced the Am286 under the same arrangement, but Intel canceled the agreement in 1986 and refused to convey technical details of the i386 part. AMD challenged Intel's decision to cancel the agreement and won in arbitration, but Intel disputed this decision. A long legal dispute followed, ending in 1994 when the Supreme Court of California sided with AMD. Subsequent legal disputes centered on whether AMD had legal rights to use derivatives of Intel's microcode. In the face of uncertainty, AMD was forced to develop clean room designed versions of Intel code.

Early AMD 8080 Processor (AMD AM9080ADC / C8080A), 1977

In 1991, AMD released the Am386, its clone of the Intel 386 AMD D8086. processor. It took less than a year for the company to sell a million units. Later, the Am486 was used by a number of large original equipment manufacturers, including Compaq, and proved popular. Another Am486-based product, the Am5x86, continued AMD's success as a low-price alternative. However, as product cycles shortened in the PC industry, the process of reverse engineering Intel's products became an ever less viable strategy for AMD.

K5, K6, Athlon, Duron, and Sempron
AMD's first in-house x86 processor was the K5 which was launched in 1996.[9] The "K" was a reference to Kryptonite, which from comic book lore, was the only substance (radioactive pieces of his home planet) which could harm Superman, a clear reference to Intel, which dominated in the market at the time, as "Superman".[10] The numeral "5" refers to the fifth processor generation, which Intel introduced as Pentium because the US Trademark and Patent Office ruled that mere numbers could not be trademarked. In 1996, AMD purchased NexGen specifically for the rights to their Nx series of x86-compatible processors. AMD gave the NexGen design team their own building, left them alone, and gave them time and money to rework the Nx686. The result was the K6 processor, introduced in 1997. Although the K6 was based on Socket 7, variants such as K6-2/450 were faster than Intel's Pentium II (sixth generation processor). The K7 was AMD's seventh generation x86 processor, making its debut on June 23, 1999, under the brand name Athlon. Unlike previous AMD processors, it could not be used on the same motherboards as Intels' due to licensing issues surrounding Intel's Slot 1 connector, and instead used a Slot A connector, referenced to the Alpha processor bus. The Duron was a lower cost and limited version of the Athlon (64KB instead of 256KB L2 cache) in a 462-pin socketed PGA(socket A) or soldered directly on to the motherboard. Sempron was released as a lower cost Athlon XP replacing Duron in the socket A PGA era and since migrated upward to all new sockets up to AM3. On October 9, 2001 the Athlon XP was released, followed by the Athlon XP with 512KB L2 Cache on February 10, 2003.[11]

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Athlon 64, Opteron and Phenom
The K8 was a major revision of the K7 architecture, with the most notable features being the addition of a 64-bit extension to the x86 instruction set (officially called AMD64), the incorporation of an on-chip memory controller, and the implementation of an extremely high performance point-to-point interconnect called HyperTransport, as part of the Direct Connect Architecture. The technology was initially launched as the Opteron server-oriented processor.[12] Shortly thereafter it was incorporated into a product for desktop PCs, branded Athlon 64.[13] AMD released the first dual core Opteron, an x86-based server CPU, on April 21, 2005.[14] The first desktop-based dual core processor family—the Athlon 64 X2—came a month later.[15] In early May 2007, AMD had abandoned the string "64" in its dual-core desktop product branding, becoming Athlon X2, downplaying the significance of 64-bit computing in its processors while upcoming updates involved some of the improvements to the microarchitecture, and a shift of target market from mainstream desktop systems to value dual-core desktop systems. AMD has also started to release dual-core Sempron processors in early 2008 exclusively in China, branded as Sempron 2000 series, with lower HyperTransport speed and smaller L2 cache, thus the firm completes its dual-core product portfolio for each market segment. The latest AMD microprocessor architecture, known as K10, became the successor to the K8 microarchitecture. The first processors released on this architecture were introduced on September 10, 2007 consisting of nine quad-core Third Generation Opteron processors. This was followed by the Phenom processor for desktop. K10 processors came in dual-core, triple-core,[16] and quad-core versions with all cores on a single die. A new platform codename "Spider" was released utilising the new Phenom processor as well as an R770 GPU and a 790 GX/FX chipset from the AMD 700 chipset series. This was built at 65nm, and hence uncompetitive with Intel who already progressed to the smaller and more power efficient 45nm node. In January 2009 AMD released a new processor line dubbed Phenom II, a refresh of the original Phenom built using the 45 nm process. Along with this came a new platform codename "Dragon" which utilised a new Phenom II processor, an ATI R770 GPU from the R700 GPU family, as well as a 790 GX/FX chipset from the AMD 700 chipset series. This came in a dual-core, triple-core and quad-core variants, all using the same die with cores disabled for the triple-core and dual-core versions. This resolved issues that the original Phenom had including low clock speed, a small L3 cache and a Cool'n'Quiet bug that decreased performance. This was price and performance competitive with Intel's mid to high range Core 2 Quads. The processor also enhanced the Phenom's memory controller, allowing it to use DDR3 in a new native socket AM3, while maintaining backwards compatibility with AM2+, the socket used for the Phenom, and allowing the use of the DDR2 memory that was used with the platform. In 2010 a new Phenom II hexa-core processor codenamed "Thuban" was released. This is a totally new die based on the hexa-core "Istanbul" Opteron processor. This will be part of AMD's new Enthusiast platform codenamed ”Leo" utilising a new Phenom II processor, a new chipset from the AMD 800 chipset series and an ATI "Cypress" GPU from the Evergreen (GPU family) GPU series. The Magny Cours and Lisbon server parts will be released in 2010. The Magny Cours part will come in 8 to 12 cores and the Lisbon part will come in 4 and 6 core parts. Magny Cours is focused on performance while the Lisbon part is focused on high performance per watt. Magny Cours is an MCM (Multi-Chip Module) with two hexa-core "Istanbul" Opteron parts. This will use a new G34 socket for dual and quad socket processors and thus will be marketed as Opteron 61xx series processors. Lisbon uses C32 socket certified for dual socket use or single socket use only and thus will be marketed as Opteron 41xx processors. Both will be built on a 45 nm SOI process.

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Fusion
After the merger between AMD and ATI, an initiative codenamed Fusion was announced that will merge a CPU and GPU on some of their entry level chips, including a minimum 16 lane PCI Express link to accommodate external PCI Express peripherals, thereby eliminating the requirement of a northbridge chip completely from the motherboard. The initiative will see some of the processing originally done on the CPU (e.g. Floating Point Unit operations) moved to the GPU, which is better optimized for calculations such as Floating Point Unit calculations. This is referred to by AMD as an Accelerated Processing Unit (APU).[17] AMD will move to a modular design methodology named "M-SPACE", where two new processor cores, codenamed "Bulldozer" and "Bobcat" will be released; Bulldozer is slated for the 2011 timeframe, whereas Bobcat is expected in Q4 2010.[18] While very little preliminary information exists even in AMD's Technology Analyst Day 2007, both cores are to be built from the ground up. The Bulldozer core focused on 10 watt to 100 watt products, with optimizations for performance-per-watt ratios and HPC applications and includes newly announced XOP, FMA4 and CVT16 instructions,[19] while the Bobcat core will focus on 1 watt to 10 watt products, given that the core is a simplified x86 core to reduce power draw. Both of the cores will be able to incorporate full DirectX compatible GPU core(s) under the Fusion label, or as standalone products as a general purpose CPU. Llano is to be the second APU released,[18] targeted at the mainstream market.[17] This will incorporate a CPU and GPU on the same die, as well as the Northbridge functions, and labeled on AMD's new timeline as using socket "AM3r2" with DDR3 memory. This will, however, not be based on the new bulldozer core and will in fact be similar to the current Phenom II "Deneb" processor serving as AMD's high-end processor until the release of the new 32 nm parts. Bulldozer is revealed to be two integer cores capable of processing integers and one floating point unit (FPU). This will be seen by the OS as two cores and all of AMD's new 2011, 32 nm high-end desktop and server parts will be built on it, including Zambezi and Orochi for the desktop and Interlagos and Valencia for the server market.

Other platforms and technologies
AMD chipsets
Before the launch of Athlon 64 processors in 2003, AMD designed chipsets for their processors spanning the K6 and K7 processor generations. The chipsets include the AMD-640, AMD-751 and the AMD-761 chipsets. The situation changed in 2003 with the release of Athlon 64 processors, and AMD chose not to further design its own chipsets for its desktop processors while opening the desktop platform to allow other firms to design chipsets. This is the "Open Platform ATI, VIA and SiS developing their own chipset for Athlon 64 processors and later Athlon 64 X2 and Athlon 64 FX processors, including the Quad FX platform chipset from Nvidia. The initiative went further with the release of Opteron server processors as AMD stopped the design of server chipsets in 2004 after releasing the AMD-8111 chipset, and again opened the server platform for firms to develop chipsets for Opteron processors. As of today, Nvidia and Broadcom are the sole designing firms of server chipsets for Opteron processors. As the company completed the acquisition of ATI Technologies in 2006, the firm gained the ATI design team for chipsets which previously designed the Radeon Xpress 200 and the Radeon Xpress 3200 chipsets. AMD then renamed the chipsets for AMD processors under AMD branding (for instance, the CrossFire Xpress 3200 chipset was renamed as AMD 580X CrossFire chipset). In February 2007, AMD announced the first AMD-branded chipset since 2004 with the release of the AMD 690G chipset (previously under the development codename RS690), targeted at mainstream IGP computing. It was the industry's first to implement a HDMI 1.2 port on motherboards, shipping for more than a million units. While ATI had aimed at releasing an Intel IGP chipset, the plan was scrapped and the inventories of Radeon Xpress 1250 (codenamed RS600, sold under ATI brand) was sold to two OEMs, Abit and ASRock. Although AMD states the firm will still produce Intel chipsets, Intel had not granted the license of 1333

Advanced Micro Devices MHz FSB to ATI. On November 15, 2007, AMD announced a new chipset series portfolio, the AMD 7-Series chipsets, covering from enthusiast multi-graphics segment to value IGP segment, to replace the AMD 480/570/580 chipsets and AMD 690 series chipsets, marking AMD's first enthusiast multi-graphics chipset. Discrete graphics chipsets were launched on November 15, 2007 as part of the codenamed Spider desktop platform, and IGP chipsets were launched at a later time in Spring 2008 as part of the codenamed Cartwheel platform. AMD will also return to the server chipsets market with the next-generation AMD 800S series server chipsets, scheduled to be released in 2009 timeframe.

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AMD Live!
AMD LIVE! is a platform marketing initiative focusing the consumer electronics segment, with a recently announced Active TV initiative for streaming Internet videos from web video services such as YouTube, into AMD Live! PC as well as connected digital TVs, together with a scheme for an ecosystem of certified peripherals for the ease of customers to identify peripherals for AMD Live! systems for digital home experience, called "AMD Live! Ready".[20]

AMD Quad FX platform
The AMD Quad FX platform, being an extreme enthusiast platform, allows two processors to connect through HyperTransport, which is a similar setup to dual-processor (2P) servers, excluding the use of buffered memory/registered memory DIMM modules, and a server motherboard, the current setup includes two Athlon 64 FX-70 series processors and a special motherboard. AMD pushed the platform for the surging demands for what AMD calls "megatasking" for true enthusiasts,[21] the ability to do more tasks on a single system. The platform refreshes with the introduction of Phenom FX processors and the next-generation RD790 chipset, codenamed "FASN8".

Commercial platform
The first AMD server/workstation platform after ATI acquisition is scheduled to be released on 2009 timeframe. Codenamed Fiorano, AMD's first multi-processor server platform after ATI acquisition consists of AMD SR5690 + SP5100 server chipsets, supporting 45 nm, codenamed Shanghai Socket F+ processors and registered DDR2 memory. Future update include the Maranello platform supporting 45 nm, codenamed Istanbul, Socket G34 processors with DDR3 memory. On single-processor platform, the codenamed Catalunya platform consists of codenamed Suzuka 45 nm quad-core processor with AMD SR5580 + SP5100 chipset and DDR3 support.[22] AMD's x86 virtualization extension to the 64-bit x86 architecture is named AMD Virtualization, also known by the abbreviation AMD-V, and is sometimes referred to by the code name "Pacifica". AMD processors using Socket AM2, Socket S1, and Socket F include AMD Virtualization support. AMD Virtualization is also supported by release two (8200, 2200 and 1200 series) of the Opteron processors. The third generation (8300 and 2300 series) of Opteron processors will see an update in virtualization technology, specifically the Rapid Virtualization Indexing (also known by the development name Nested Page Tables), alongside the Tagged TLB and Device Exclusion Vector (DEV). AMD also promotes the "AMD I/O Virtualization Technology" (also known as IOMMU) for I/O virtualization.[23] The AMD IOMMU specification has been updated to version 1.2.[24] The specification describes the use of a HyperTransport architecture. AMD's commercial initiatives include the following: • AMD Trinity, provides support for virtualization, security and management. Key features include AMD-V technology, codenamed Presidio trusted computing platform technology, I/O Virtualization and Open

Advanced Micro Devices Management Partition.[25] • AMD Raiden, future clients similar to the Jack PC[26] to be connected through network to a blade server for central management, to reduce client form factor sizes with AMD Trinity features. • Torrenza, coprocessors support through interconnects such as HyperTransport, and PCI Express (though more focus was at HyperTransport enabled coprocessors), also opening processor socket architecture to other manufacturers, Sun and IBM are among the supporting consortium, with rumoured POWER7 processors would be socket-compatible to future Opteron processors. The move made rival Intel responded with the open of Front Side Bus (FSB) architecture as well as Geneseo,[27] a collaboration project with IBM for coprocessors connected through PCI Express. • Various certified systems programs and platforms: AMD Commercial Stable Image Platform (CSIP), together with AMD Validated Server program, AMD True Server Solutions, AMD Thermally Tested Barebones Platforms and AMD Validated Server Program, providing certified systems for business from AMD.

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Desktop platforms
Starting in 2007, AMD, following Intel, began using codenames for its desktop platforms such as Spider or Dragon. The platforms, unlike Intel's approach, will refresh every year, putting focus on platform specialization. The platform includes components as AMD processors, chipsets, ATI graphics and other features, but continued to the open platform approach, and welcome components from other vendors such as VIA, SiS, and Nvidia, as well as wireless product vendors. Updates to the platform includes the implementation of IOMMU I/O Virtualization with 45 nm generation of processors, and the AMD 800 chipset series in 2009.[28]

Embedded systems
In February 2002, AMD acquired Alchemy Semiconductor for its Alchemy line of MIPS processors for the hand-held and portable media player markets. On June 13, 2006, AMD officially announced that the line was to be transferred to Raza Microelectronics, Inc., a designer of MIPS processors for embedded applications.[29] In August 2003, AMD also purchased the Geode business which was originally the Cyrix MediaGX from National Semiconductor to augment its existing line of embedded x86 processor products. During the second quarter of 2004, it launched new low-power Geode NX processors based on the K7 Thoroughbred architecture with speeds of fanless processors 667 MHz and 1 GHz, and 1.4 GHz processor with fan, of TDP 25 W. This technology is used in a variety of embedded systems (Casino slot machines and customer kiosks for instance), several UMPC designs in Asia markets, as well as the OLPC XO-1 computer, an inexpensive laptop computer intended to be distributed to children in developing countries around the world. For the past couple of years AMD has been introducing 64-bit processors into its embedded product line starting with the AMD Opteron processor. Leveraging the high throughput enabled through HyperTransport and the Direct Connect Architecture these server class processors have been targeted at high end telecom and storage applications. In 2006 AMD added the AMD Athlon, AMD Turion and Mobile AMD Sempron processors to its embedded product line. Leveraging the same 64-bit instruction set and Direct Connect Architecture as the AMD Opteron but at lower power levels, these processors were well suited to a variety of traditional embedded applications. Throughout 2007 and into 2008 AMD has continued to add both single-core Mobile AMD Sempron and AMD Athlon processors and dual-core AMD Athlon X2 and AMD Turion processors to its embedded product line and now offers embedded 64-bit solutions starting with 8W TDP Mobile AMD Sempron and AMD Athlon processors for fan-less designs up to multi-processor systems leveraging multi-core AMD Opteron processors all supporting longer than standard availability.[30] In April 2007, AMD announced the release of the M690T integrated graphics chipset for embedded designs. This enabled AMD to offer complete processor and chipset solutions targeted at embedded applications requiring high

Advanced Micro Devices performance 3D and video such as emerging digital signage, kiosk and Point of Sale applications. The M690T was followed by the M690E specifically for embedded applications which removed the TV output, which required Macrovision licensing for OEMs, and enabled native support for dual TMDS outputs, enabling dual independent DVI interfaces.

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Flash technology
While less visible to the general public than its CPU business, AMD is also a global leader in flash memory. In 1993, AMD established a 50-50 partnership with Fujitsu called FASL, and merged into a new company called FASL LLC in 2003. The joint venture firm went public under ticker symbol SPSN in December 2005, with AMD shares drop to 37%. AMD no longer directly participates in the Flash memory devices market now as AMD entered into a non-competition agreement, as of December 21, 2005, with Fujitsu and Spansion, pursuant to which it agreed not to directly or indirectly engage in a business that manufactures or supplies standalone semiconductor devices (including single chip, multiple chip or system devices) containing only Flash memory.[31]

Mobile platforms
AMD started a platform in 2003 aimed at mobile computing, but, with fewer advertisements and promotional schemes, very little was known about the platform. The platform used mobile Athlon 64 or mobile Sempron processors. As part of the "Better by design" initiative, the open mobile platform, announced February 2007 with announcement of general availability in May 2007, comes together with 65 nm fabrication process Turion 64 X2, and consists of three major components: an AMD processor, graphics from either Nvidia or ATI Technologies which also includes integrated graphics (IGP), and wireless connectivity solutions from Atheros, Broadcom, Marvell, Qualcomm or Realtek. The Puma platform and Turion Ultra processor was released on June 4, 2008. In the future, AMD plans quad-core processors with 3D graphics capabilities (Fusion) to be launched in 2011 as the Sabine/Fusion platform.

Other initiatives
• 50x15, digital inclusion, with targeted 50% of world population to be connected through Internet via affordable computers by the year of 2015. • The Green Grid,[32] founded by AMD together with other founders, such as IBM, Sun and Microsoft, to seek lower power consumption for grids. Intel was notably absent from the consortium when it was founded, and finally joined in early 2007.[33] • Codenamed SIMFIRE interoperability testing tool for the Desktop and mobile Architecture for System Hardware (DASH) open architecture.

Software
• Extensions for software parallelism (xSP), aimed at speeding up programs to enable multi-threaded and multi-core processing, announced in Technology Analyst Day 2007. One of the initiatives being discussed since August 2007 is the Light Weight Profiling (LWP), providing internal hardware monitor with runtimes, to observe information about executing process and help the re-design of software to be optimized with multi-core and even multi-threaded programs. Another one is the extension of Streaming SIMD Extension (SSE) instruction set, the SSE5.

Advanced Micro Devices • AMD contributes to open source projects, including working with Sun Microsystems to enhance OpenSolaris and Sun xVM on the AMD platform.[34] AMD also maintains its own Open64 compiler distribution and contributes its changes back to the community.[35] • In 2008, AMD released the low-level programming specifications for its GPUs, and works with the X.Org Foundation to develop drivers for AMD graphics cards.[36] [37] • AMD has also taken an active part in developing coreboot, and open source projects aimed at replacing the proprietary BIOS firmware. • Other AMD open source projects include the AMD Performance Library and the AMD Core Math Library.

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Technologies from ATI
After the takeover of ATI, AMD restructured some of the product lineups from both companies. Some products were being rebranded under the AMD brand, including the Imageon for mobile phones and handheld devices, the Xilleon for consumer electronics (digital TV sets), ATI Xpress chipsets (to AMD chipsets) for AMD processors platform and GPGPU computing line-up FireStream, previously known as AMD Stream Processor. Some others retained the use of ATI branding, including the Radeon line of graphics, and chipsets for Intel processors.

Production and fabrication
Ever since the spinoff of AMD's fabrication plants in early 2009, GlobalFoundries has been responsible for producing AMD's processors. GlobalFoundries' main microprocessor manufacturing facilities are located in Dresden, Germany. Additionally, highly integrated microprocessors are manufactured in Taiwan made by third-party manufacturers under strict license from AMD. Between 2003 and 2005, they constructed a second manufacturing plant (300 mm 90 nm process SOI) in the same complex in order to increase the number of chips they can produce, thus becoming more competitive with Intel. The new plant has been named "Fab 36", in recognition of AMD's 36 years of operation, and reached full production in mid-2007. Fab 36 has been renamed to Fab 1 during the spinoff of AMD's manufacturing business during the creation of GlobalFoundries. In July 2007, AMD announced that they completed the conversion of Fab 1 Module 1 from 90 nm to 65 nm. They then shifted their focus to the 45 nm conversion.[38]

Corporate affairs
Partnerships
AMD utilizes strategic industry partnerships to further its business interests as well as to tackle Intel's dominance and resources. A partnership between AMD and Alpha Processor Inc. developed HyperTransport, a point-to-point interconnect standard which was turned over to an industry standards body for finalization. It is now used in modern AMD processor compatible motherboards. AMD also formed a strategic partnership with IBM, under which AMD gained silicon on insulator (SOI) manufacturing technology, and detailed advice on 90 nm implementation, the partnership was announced by AMD to be extended to 2011 for 32 nm and 22 nm fabrication related technologies.[39] Further, AMD is loosely partnered with end-user companies such as HP, Compaq, ASUS, Alienware, Acer, Evesham Technology, Dell and several others to facilitate processor distribution and sales. On May 18, 2006, Dell announced that it would roll out new servers based on AMD's Opteron chips by years end, thus ending an exclusive relationship with Intel. Dell also began offering AMD Athlon X2 chips in their desktop line-up in September 2006.

Advanced Micro Devices AMD is also a sponsor of the Scuderia Ferrari Marlboro F1 Team since 2002 and the Discovery Channel Pro Cycling Team since 2004, in 2009 AMD also became the jersey sponsor of the USL expansion team Austin Aztex FC.

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Litigation with Intel
AMD has a long history of litigation with former partner and x86 creator Intel.[40] [41] [42] • In 1986 Intel broke an agreement it had with AMD to allow them to produce Intel's micro-chips for IBM; AMD filed for arbitration in 1987 and the arbitrator decided in AMD's favor in 1992. Intel disputed this, and the case ended up in the Supreme Court of California. In 1994, that court upheld the arbitrator's decision and awarded damages for breach of contract. • In 1990, Intel brought a copyright infringement action alleging illegal use of its 287 microcode. The case ended in 1994 with a jury finding for AMD and its right to use Intel's microcode in its microprocessors through the 486 generation. • In 1997, Intel filed suit against AMD and Cyrix Corp. for misuse of the term MMX. AMD and Intel settled, with AMD acknowledging MMX as a trademark owned by Intel, and with Intel granting AMD rights to market the AMD K6 MMX processor. • In 2005, following an investigation, the Japan Federal Trade Commission found Intel guilty on a number of violations. On June 27, 2005, AMD won an antitrust suit against Intel in Japan, and on the same day, AMD filed a broad antitrust complaint against Intel in the U.S. Federal District Court in Delaware. The complaint alleges systematic use of secret rebates, special discounts, threats, and other means used by Intel to lock AMD processors out of the global market. Since the start of this action, The Court has issued subpoenas to major computer manufacturers including Acer, Dell, Lenovo, HP and Toshiba. • In November 2009, Intel agreed to pay AMD $1.25bn and renew a five-year patent cross-licensing agreement as part of a deal to settle all outstanding legal disputes between them.[43]

Events and publications
Although AMD frequently refuses to provide information about upcoming products and plans, it does hold annual Analyst Days to reveal and explain key future technologies, and to present official technology roadmaps. The event held in mid-year is referred to as "Technology Analyst Day", with its main focus on upcoming technologies and trends. The end-of-year event is referred to as "Financial Analyst Day" and focuses on the financial performance of the company through the previous year.[44] In addition to these events, AMD also publishes printed media. Publications include the AMD Accelerate and the discontinued AMDEdge. The AMD Accelerate magazine, originally published through Ziff Davis Media, focuses on SME and business applications, while AMD Edge focused on overall technologies from AMD. Since Ziff Davis Media filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, the AMD Accelerate magazine has been published through IDG. AMD also has electronic newsletters to promote its server-oriented Opteron processors and related business solutions.

Advanced Micro Devices

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References
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" AMD's Athlon 64 processor (http:/ / www. techreport. com/ reviews/ 2003q3/ athlon64/ index. x?pg=1)", techreport.com, The Tech Report, LLC., September 23, 2003. Retrieved on July 29, 2007. [14] Scott Wasson. " AMD's dual-core Opteron processors (http:/ / www. techreport. com/ reviews/ 2005q2/ opteron-x75/ index. x?pg=1)", techreport.com, The Tech Report, LLC., April 21, 2005. Retrieved on July 29, 2007. [15] Scott Wasson. " AMD's Athlon 64 X2 processors (http:/ / www. techreport. com/ reviews/ 2005q2/ athlon64-x2/ index. x?pg=1)", techreport.com, The Tech Report, LLC., May 9, 2005. Retrieved on July 29, 2007. [16] AMD announcement (http:/ / www. amd. com/ us-en/ Corporate/ VirtualPressRoom/ 0,,51_104_543~120741,00. html). Retrieved September 17, 2007. [17] Stokes, Jon (February 8, 2010). "AMD reveals Fusion CPU+GPU, to challege Intel in laptops" (http:/ / arstechnica. com/ business/ news/ 2010/ 02/ amd-reveals-fusion-cpugpu-to-challege-intel-in-laptops. ars). Ars Technica. . 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Advanced Micro Devices
[36] AMD (September 7, 2007). "AMD Details Strategic Open Source Graphics Driver Development Initiative" (http:/ / www. amd. com/ us-en/ Corporate/ VirtualPressRoom/ 0,,51_104_543~119372,00. html). Press release. . [37] "Index of /docs/AMD" (http:/ / www. x. org/ docs/ AMD/ ). x.org. . [38] Rick C. Hodgin. While AMD was in the progression to 45 nm, its rival Intel Corp was one year ahead in manufacturing technology and releasing its 32 nm technology (Intel "tick-tock" advancement roadmap)" Wrap-up: AMD outlines a bright future at Technology Analyst Day (http:/ / www. tgdaily. com/ content/ view/ 33105/ 135/ 1/ 3/ )", tgdaily.com, Tigervision Media, 2007-07-26, pp.4. Retrieved on July 29, 2007. [39] AMD Analyst Day June 2006 Presentation (http:/ / www. amd. com/ us-en/ assets/ content_type/ DownloadableAssets/ DarylOstranderAMDAnalystDay. pdf), slide 10 [40] "AMD-INTEL LITIGATION HISTORY" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070108093846/ http:/ / www. amd. com/ us-en/ assets/ content_type/ DownloadableAssets/ AMD_-_Intel_Litigation_History. pdf) (PDF). AMD. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. amd. com/ us-en/ assets/ content_type/ DownloadableAssets/ AMD_-_Intel_Litigation_History. pdf) on January 8, 2007. . Retrieved January 12, 2007. [41] "Summary U.S. antitrust complaint against Intel" (http:/ / www. amd. com/ us-en/ assets/ content_type/ DownloadableAssets/ Complaint_summary. pdf) (PDF). . [42] "Full text of U.S. antitrust complaint against Intel" (http:/ / www. amd. com/ us-en/ assets/ content_type/ DownloadableAssets/ AMD-Intel_Full_Complaint. pdf) (PDF). . [43] Intel, AMD Settle Legal Disputes. " (http:/ / www. foxbusiness. com/ story/ markets/ industries/ technology/ amd-intel-settle-legal-disputes/ )" [44] AMD Financial Analyst Day 2007 page (http:/ / www. amd. com/ us-en/ Corporate/ InvestorRelations/ 0,,51_306_15401,00. html?redir=IRAD01). Retrieved December 14, 2007.

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• AMD ShangHai Processor (http://amdopteron2007.blogspot.com/2008/11/ amd-shanghai-processors-are-in-full.html) • AMD: 30 Years of Pursuing the Leader (http://www.digital-daily.com/editorial/amd-history/index.htm) • Cpu-collection.de AMD processor images and descriptions (http://www.cpu-collection.de/?l0=co&l1=AMD) • AMD goes dual-core (http://www.dvhardware.net/article4650.html) • Why AMD-MHz don't equal Intel-MHz (http://www.geek.com/why-amd-mhz-dont-equal-intel-mhz/) • AMD's most recent conference call transcripts (http://seekingalpha.com/transcripts/for/amd) • A look at AMD's manufacturing process technologies (http://www.theinquirer.net/default.aspx?article=34781) • AMD/Intel Settlement (http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/13/opinion/13fri1.html/)

External links
• • • • AMD Corporate Website (http://www.amd.com/) AMD Live! (http://www.amdlive.com/) AMD Developer Central (http://developer.amd.com/) How AMD Processors Work (http://www.howstuffworks.com/1133-how-amd-processors-work-video.htm) at HowStuffWorks

Sony Computer Entertainment

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Sony Computer Entertainment
Sony Computer Entertainment

Logo design since 1994 Type Industry Subsidiary of Sony Interactive entertainment Computer and video games November 16, 1993

Founded

Headquarters Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo, Japan Foster City, California, USA Toronto, Canada London, United Kingdom Melbourne, Australia Seocho-gu, Seoul, South Korea Key people Kazuo Hirai: President & Group CEO, SCEI Jack Tretton: President & CEO, SCEA Andrew House: President & CEO, SCEE Shuhei Yoshida: President, SCE Worldwide Studios Ken Kutaragi: Honorary Chairman, SCEI PlayStation 3 PlayStation Portable PlayStation 2 PSX PlayStation PocketStation Sony Corporation Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. [1]

Products

Parent Website

Sony Computer Entertainment, Inc. (株式会社ソニー・コンピュータエンタテインメント Kabushikigaisha sonīkonpyūtaentateinmento) (SCEI) is a video game company specializing in a variety of areas in the video game industry, and is a wholly-owned subsidiary and part of the Networked Products & Services segment of Sony. The company was established on November 16, 1993, in Tokyo, prior to the launch of the original PlayStation video game system. The logo has been used since 1994. SCE handles the research & development, production, and sales of both hardware and software for the PlayStation line of handheld and home console video game systems. SCE is also a developer and publisher of video game titles and is composed of several subsidiaries covering the company's biggest markets: North America, Europe, Brazil, Oceania and Asia.

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History
Origins
Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. was established on November 16, 1993 as a joint venture company of Sony Corporation and Sony Music Entertainment.[2] This was after Ken Kutaragi's PlayStation project - although supported by Sony Corp. president Norio Ohga - met opposition from within Sony where upper management considered "toys" beneath them and feared damage to the Sony brand.[3] [4] Ken Kutaragi worked closely with Sony Music CEO Shigeo Maruyama and Akira Sato in the formation of SCEI. After its formation Sony Computer Entertainment maintained close ties with Sony Music which helped it attract creative talent and imparted its knowledge with regards to the use of CD-ROMs. The company was originally formed with Terry Tokunaka the President of SCEI from Sony's headquarters as President though, Ken Kutaragi was the original head of the PlayStation project. Ken Kutaragi would later go on to become President of Sony Computer Entertainment as well as being known as the "Father of PlayStation".[4] The North American operations, Sony Computer Entertainment of America, were established in May 1994 as a division of Sony Electronic Publishing.[5] They were located in Foster City and headed by Steve Race. In the months prior to the release of PlayStation in Western markets, the operations were restructured: All videogame marketing from Sony Imagesoft was folded into SCEA in July 1995, with most affected employees transferred from Santa Monica to Foster City.[6] On August 7, 1995, Steve Race unexpectedly resigned and was named CEO of Spectrum HoloByte three days later.[6] He was replaced by Sony Electronics veteran Martin Homlish.[6] As part of a worldwide restructuring at the beginning of 1997, Sony Computer Entertainment America Inc. (currently Sony Computer Entertainment America LLC), headquartered in Foster City was reestablished as a wholly owned subsidiary of SCEI.[7]

Recent (2000-2009)
On July 1, 2002 Chairman of SCE, Shigeo Maruyama, was replaced by Tamotsu Iba as Chairman. Jack Tretton and Phil Harrison were also promoted to Senior Vice President of SCE.[8] On September 14, 2005, SCE formed Sony Computer Entertainment Worldwide Studios (SCE WWS)[9] , a single internal entity overseeing all wholly owned development studios within SCE. It is responsible for the creative and strategic direction of development and production of all computer entertainment software by all SCE-owned studios, all of which is produced exclusively for the PlayStation family of consoles. Shuhei Yoshida was named as President of SCE WWS on May 16, 2008[10] , replacing Kazuo Hirai, who was serving interim after inaugural SCE WWS President Phil Harrison left the company in early 2008.[11] On November 30, 2006 President of SCE Ken Kutaragi was appointed as Chairman of SCE while Kazuo Hirai, President of SCEA was promoted to President of SCE.[12] On April 26, 2007 Ken Kutaragi resigned from his position as Chairman of SCE and Group CEO passing on his duties to President of SCE, Kazuo Hirai.[13] On April 15, 2009 David Reeves President and CEO of SCE Europe announced that he would be resigning from his post. He had joined the company in 1995 and was appointed as Chairman of SCEE in 2003 and President in 2005.[14] His role of President and CEO of SCEE would be taken over by Andrew House who joined Sony Corporation in 1990.[15] On December 8, 2005, video game developer Guerrilla Games, developers of the Killzone series, was acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS.[16] On January 24, 2006 video game developer Zipper Interactive, developers of the SOCOM series, was acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS.[17] On September 20, 2007 video game developers Evolution Studios and Bigbig Studios, developers of the MotorStorm series, were acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS.[18]

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Present (2010-2011)
On April 1, 2010 Sony Computer Entertainment was restructured to bring together Sony's mobile electronics and personal computers divisions. The main Japanese division of SCE was temporarily renamed to "SNE Platform Inc." (SNEP) on April 1, 2010 and split into two division focusing on different aspects namely "Sony Computer Entertainment Inc." consisting of a 1,300 employees which focus on the console business, and the network service business consisting of 60 to 70 employees. The network service business of SCE was absorbed into Sony Corp's Network Products & Service Group (NPSG) which has already been headed by Kaz Hirai since April 2009. The original Sony Computer Entertainment was then dissolved after the restructure.[19] [20] [21] The North American and European branches of Sony Computer Entertainment was affected by the restructure and will remain as SCEA and SCEE. Sony Computer Entertainment CEO and Sony Corporation EVP, Kaz Hirai, is leading both departments.[22] On March 2, 2010 video game developer Media Molecule, developers of the PlayStation 3 game LittleBigPlanet, was acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS.[23] As of August 23, 2010, the headquarters of the company moved from Minami-Aoyama to the Sony City (Sony Corporation's headquarters) in Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo.[24]

Hardware
Sony Computer Entertainment produces the PlayStation family of video game hardware consisting of consoles and handhelds. Sony's first wide home console release, the PlayStation (codenamed PSX during development, currently PSOne), was initially designed to be a CD-ROM drive add-on for Nintendo's Super Nintendo Entertainment System (a.k.a. Super Famicom in Japan) video game console, in response to Sega's Sega CD. When the prospect of releasing the system as an add-on dissolved, Sony redesigned PlayStation brand logo the machine into a stand alone unit. The PlayStation was released in Japan on December 3, 1994 and later in North America on September 9, 1995. Currently the highest selling home console of all time, SCE's second home console, the PlayStation 2 (PS2 or PSX2) was released in Japan on March 4, 2000, and later in North America and Europe in October and November 2000, respectively. The PS2 is powered by a proprietary central processing unit, the Emotion Engine, and was the first video game console to have DVD playback functionality included out of the box. Initially, the system was criticized for its complex development environment, due mainly to the proprietary hardware included, however despite these complaints the PlayStation 2 received widespread support from third party developers throughout its lifespan on the market. Today it has sold up to 150 million units world wide.

Current generation products
The newest home console in the PlayStation family, as well as Sony's entry in the seventh-generation of consoles, the PlayStation 3 (PS3) was launched in November 2006. It utilizes a unique processing architecture, the Cell microprocessor, a proprietary technology developed by Sony in conjunction with Toshiba and IBM. The graphics processing unit, the RSX 'Reality Synthesizer', was co-developed by Nvidia and Sony. Several variations of the PS3 have been released, each with slight hardware and software differences, each denoted by the varying size of the included hard disk drive. The PlayStation Portable (PSP) is SCE's first foray into the small handheld console market, which was and to this date still is dominated by Nintendo. Its development was first announced during SCE's E3 conference in 2003, and it was officially unveiled during their E3 conference on May 11, 2004. The system was released in Japan on December 12, 2004, in North America on March 24, 2005 and in Europe and Australia on September 1, 2005. The console has since seen two major redesigns, with new features including a smaller size, more internal memory, a better quality LCD screen and a lighter weight. A new design, the PSP Go, was released on October 1, 2009 for North America and Europe and on November 1, 2009 for Japan. It has a 3.8" LCD which slides up to reveal the main controls. The PSP Go is 45% lighter and 56% smaller than the original PSP and does not

Sony Computer Entertainment support UMD. The device does support Bluetooth and will be completely digital meaning all media must be downloaded or transferred to the device which has 16 GB of internal flash memory.

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Software development studios
Sony Computer Entertainment Worldwide Studios (SCE WWS) is a subsidiary of Sony Computer Entertainment, it is a group of video game developers which are fully owned by Sony Computer Entertainment.
Sony Computer Entertainment Worldwide Studios (SCE WWS) Internally Owned Studios Japan • • SCE Japan Studio (Team Ico) – Ape Escape, Siren, LocoRoco, Patapon, Ico, Shadow of the Colossus, The Last Guardian Polyphony Digital – Gran Turismo series, Motor Toon Grand Prix 2, Tourist Trophy, Omega Boost

United States • • • • • • Naughty Dog – Crash Bandicoot series, Jak and Daxter series, Uncharted series SCE Santa Monica Studio – Kinetica, God of War series, Warhawk with Incognito Entertainment SCE San Diego Studio – NBA: The Inside, MLB: The Show, ModNation Racers SCE Bend Studio – Syphon Filter, Resistance: Retribution SCE Foster City Studio Zipper Interactive – SOCOM: U.S. Navy SEALs series, MAG

Europe • • • • • • • SCE London Studio – SingStar, EyeToy, PlayStation Home with SCE Studio Cambridge SCE Cambridge Studio – MediEvil, PlayTV, PlayStation Home with SCE London Studio SCE Studio Liverpool – Wipeout, F1 Evolution Studios – MotorStorm series, World Rally Championship Bigbig Studios – Pursuit Force, MotorStorm: Arctic Edge Guerrilla Games – Killzone series Media Molecule – LittleBigPlanet series

Defunct • Incognito Entertainment – Warhawk with SCE Studios Santa Monica, Twisted Metal series, Downhill Domination, Calling All Cars!

Since its inception in 1993, SCE has also built up a large stable of third party developers that it often collaborates with in a variety of manners, from publishing to funding to co-development. These companies are however not owned or under contract by SCE, and some, unlike the studios within SCE WWS, also release and develop products in cooperation with competing video game developers and publishers, and for competing handheld and/or home consoles as well.
Sony Computer Entertainment Worldwide Studios (SCE WWS) Second Party Studio Partners

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Japan • • • • Level-5 – White Knight Chronicles, Dark Cloud [25] Clap Hanz – Everybody's Golf, Everybody's Tennis Q-Games – PixelJunk series Media.Vision – Wild Arms

North America • • • • • • • • • • Insomniac Games – Spyro series, Resistance series (excluding Resistance: Retribution), Ratchet & Clank series Sucker Punch Productions – inFamous, inFamous 2, Sly Cooper series ThatGameCompany – Flow, Flower, Journey Ready at Dawn Studios – God of War: Chains of Olympus, Daxter High Impact Games – Ratchet & Clank: Size Matters, Secret Agent Clank, Jak and Daxter: The Lost Frontier Eat Sleep Play – Twisted Metal: Head-On, Twisted Metal PS3 Slant Six Games – SOCOM: U.S. Navy SEALs Confrontation, SOCOM: U.S. Navy SEALs Fireteam Bravo 3 LightBox Interactive Titan Studios – Fat Princess, Fat Princess: Fistful of Cake United Front Games – ModNation Racers

Europe • • • • • Quantic Dream – Heavy Rain Relentless Software – Buzz! EPOS Game Studios – Crash Commando Novarama – Invizimals Tarsier Studios – Rag Doll Kung Fu: Fists of Plastic

Owned franchises and properties
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Agent Afrika Alundra Ape Escape Arc the Lad Buzz! Colony Wars Cool Boarders Dark Cloud Demon's Souls Destruction Derby Dog's Life Downhill Domination Extermination EyePet EyeToy FantaVision Folklore Fat Princess Gangs of London Genji Getaway, The • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ghosthunter God of War Gran Turismo Hardware Heavenly Sword Heavy Rain Hot Shots Golf Ico inFamous Intelligent Qube Invizimals Jak and Daxter Jeanne d'Arc Jet Moto Jumping Flash! Killzone Kinetica Lair Last Guardian, The Legend of Legaia Lemmings LittleBigPlanet • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • LocoRoco MAG Mark of Kri, The MediEvil ModNation Racers Motor Toon Grand Prix MotorStorm Okage: Shadow King Omega Boost PaRappa the Rapper Patapon PixelJunk PoPoLoCrois Primal Pursuit Force Rally Cross Ratchet & Clank Rise of the Kasai Resistance Rogue Galaxy Shadow of the Colossus SingStar • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Siren Sly Cooper Sports Champions SOCOM: U.S. Navy SEALs Sorcery Start the Party Syphon Filter The Fight: Lights Out The Shoot Tourist Trophy TV Superstars Twisted Metal Uncharted War of the Monsters Warhawk Wild Arms Wipeout White Knight Chronicles 3D Dot Game Heroes Eight Days DC Universe Online Kung Fu Rider

PlayStation Move Heroes •

Dropship: United Peace Force •

Legend of Dragoon, The •

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Corporate affairs
The Chairman and Group CEO of SCE is currently Kazuo Hirai, who on November 30, 2006 replaced longtime CEO Ken Kutaragi, also known as "The Father of the PlayStation".[26] Kuturagi officially retired from his executive position at SCE on June 19, 2007, and now holds the title of Honorary Chairman at the company.[27] Jack Tretton and Andrew House currently serve as President and CEO of Sony Computer Entertainment America and Sony Computer Entertainment Europe, respectively.
SCEA headquarters in Foster City, California.

Headquarters
SCE currently has three main headquarters around the world: Minami-Aoyama, Minato, Tokyo, Japan (Sony Computer Entertainment Japan & Sony Computer Entertainment Asia) which control operations in Asia; Foster City, California, USA (Sony Computer Entertainment America) which controls operations in North America; and London, United Kingdom (Sony Computer Entertainment Europe) which controls operations in Europe and Oceania. SCE also has smaller offices and distribution centres in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California, USA; Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Melbourne, Australia; and Seocho-gu, Seoul, South Korea.

President
• 1994-2006 - Ken Kutaragi • 2006-Present - Kaz Hirai

Chairman
• 1994-2002 - Shigeo Maruyama • 2002-2006 - Tamotsu Iba • 2006-2007 - Ken Kutaragi

Vice-Chairman
• 2005-Present - Akira Sato

Group CEO
• 1993-2007 - Ken Kutaragi • 2007-Present - Kaz Hirai

Group COO
• 2002-Present - Kaz Hirai

Group CFO
• 2002-Present - Masaru Kato

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Deputy President
• • • • • • • • 2002-Present - Jack Tretton 1994-Present - Masaru Kato 1994-Present - Kazuo Hirai 2002-Present - Shigeru Nishimura 2002-Present - Jim Ryan 1994-2005 - Akira Sato 2002-2008 - Phil Harrison 2002-2008 - David Reeves

Honorary Chairman
• 2007-Present - Ken Kutaragi

Board of Directors
As of November 1, 2006: • Ken Kutaragi • • • • • • • • Akira Sato Kazuo Hirai Masaru Kato David Reeves Howard Stringer Ryoji Chubachi Kenshi Manabe Shigeo Maruyama[26]

SCE Worldwide Studios President
• 2005-2008 - Phil Harrison • 2008 - Kazuo Hirai • 2008-Present - Shuhei Yoshida

Sony Computer Entertainment America
• • • • • • • • • • • Jack Tretton - President and CEO Kazuo Hirai - Chairman Jim Bass - Senior VP and CFO Timothy Bender - Senior VP of Sales Sally Buchanan - VP of Human resources Peter Dille - Senior VP of Marketing and PlayStation Network Robert Dyer - Senior VP of Publisher Relations Glenn Nash - VP of Operations Philip Rosenberg - Senior VP of Business Development Riley R. Russell - Chief Legal Officer and Senior VP of Corporate Development Shuhei Yoshida - Senior VP of Product Development[28]

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Sony Computer Entertainment Europe
• Andrew House - President and CEO • David Reeves - Former President/CEO replaced by House in 2009.

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] http:/ / www. scei. co. jp/ index_e. html "Corporate History" (http:/ / scei. co. jp/ corporate/ history_e. html). Sony Computer Entertainment. . Retrieved 2010-11-12. "Kutaragi, Ken" (http:/ / www. ce. org/ Events/ Awards/ 5730. htm). Consumer Electronics Association. . Retrieved 2010-11-12. Staff (April 24, 2009). "The Making Of: PlayStation" (http:/ / www. edge-online. com/ magazine/ the-making-of-playstation). Edge. . Retrieved 2010-08-26. "Sony latest to toss hat in vid game arena". The Hollywood Reporter (Hollywood Reporter Inc.). May 19, 1994. "Sony in Disarray on Eve of PlayStation Debut". Television Digest with Consumer Electronics: 9. August 14, 1995. ISSN 0497-1515. "Business Development/North America" (http:/ / www. scei. co. jp/ corporate/ data/ bizdatausa_e. html). Sony Computer Entertainment. . Retrieved 2010-11-12. Sony Computer Entertainment (July 1, 2002). "Sony Computer Entertainment Announces Changes in Corporate Officers" (http:/ / www. scei. co. jp/ corporate/ release/ pdf/ 020701be. pdf). Press release. . Retrieved 2010-03-23. Sony Computer Entertainment (September 14, 2005). "SCE Establishes SCE Worldwide Studios" (http:/ / www. scei. co. jp/ corporate/ release/ pdf/ 050914ae. pdf) (PDF). Press release. . Retrieved 2005-09-14.

[10] Sony Computer Entertainment (May 16, 2008). "SCEI Announces New President of SCE Worldwide Studios" (http:/ / www. scei. co. jp/ corporate/ release/ 080516e. html). Press release. . Retrieved 2010-03-23. [11] Sony Computer Entertainment (February 25, 2008). "SCE Worldwide Studios Phil Harrison Resigns" (http:/ / www. scei. co. jp/ corporate/ release/ 080225e. html). Press release. . Retrieved 2010-03-23. [12] Sony Computer Entertainment (November 30, 2006). "SCE Announces New Management Team" (http:/ / www. scei. co. jp/ corporate/ release/ pdf/ 061130e. pdf). Press release. . Retrieved 2010-03-23. [13] Sony Computer Entertainment (April 26, 2007). "SCEI and Sony announce Executive Management Transition at Sony Computer Entertainment Inc." (http:/ / www. scei. co. jp/ corporate/ release/ 070426e. html). Press release. . Retrieved 2010-03-23. [14] Sony Computer Entertainment (April 15, 2009). "David Reeves to Retire From Sony Computer Entertainment Europe" (http:/ / www. scei. co. jp/ corporate/ release/ 090415ae. html). Press release. . Retrieved 2010-03-23. [15] Sony Computer Entertainment (April 15, 2009). "Andrew House named as President and CEO of Sony Computer Entertainment Europe" (http:/ / www. scei. co. jp/ corporate/ release/ 090415be. html). Press release. . Retrieved 2010-03-23. [16] Sony Computer Entertainment (December 8, 2005). "Sony Computer Entertainment Acquires Guerrilla Games" (http:/ / www. scei. co. jp/ corporate/ release/ pdf/ 051208e. pdf). Press release. . Retrieved 2010-03-23. [17] Sony Computer Entertainment (January 24, 2006). "Sony Computer Entertainment Acquires Zipper Interactive" (http:/ / www. scei. co. jp/ corporate/ release/ pdf/ 060125be. pdf). Press release. . Retrieved 2010-03-23. [18] Sony Computer Entertainment (September 20, 2007). "Sony Computer Entertainment Acquires Evolution Studios and Bigbig Studios" (http:/ / www. scei. co. jp/ corporate/ release/ 070920de. html). Press release. . Retrieved 2010-03-23. [19] "ソニー、ネットワーク強化に向けSCEのネット部門を吸収" (http:/ / av. watch. impress. co. jp/ docs/ news/ 20100224_351014. html) (in Japanese). Impress Watch Corporation. 2010-02-24. . Retrieved 2010-05-15. [20] Ivan, Tom (February 24, 2010). "Sony To Restructure Networked Services Business" (http:/ / www. edge-online. com/ news/ sony-to-restructure-networked-services-business). Edge. . Retrieved 2010-05-15. [21] "Sony Computer Entertainment to focus on games, temporarily renamed ‘SNEP’" (http:/ / www. el33tonline. com/ past/ 2010/ 2/ 25/ sony_computer_entertainment_to_focus/ ). El33t Media. February 25, 2010. . Retrieved 2010-05-15. [22] Ashcroft, Brian (February 24, 2010). "Sony Computer Entertainment To Become SNEP (Temporarily)" (http:/ / kotaku. com/ 5478924/ sony-computer-entertainment-to-become-snep-temporarily). Kotaku. . Retrieved 2010-05-15. [23] Sony Computer Entertainment (March 2, 2010). "Sony Computer Entertainment Acquires Media Molecule" (http:/ / www. scei. co. jp/ corporate/ release/ 100303e. html). Press release. . Retrieved 2010-03-23. [24] Sony Computer Entertainment (August 9, 2010). "Notification of Office Relocation" (http:/ / www. scei. co. jp/ corporate/ info/ 100809e. html). Press release. . Retrieved 2010-09-05. [25] "SCE Worldwide Studios - External Development" (http:/ / www. worldwidestudios. net/ jpndev). Sony Computer Entertainment. . Retrieved 2009-10-24. [26] Sony Computer Entertainment (November 30, 2006). "SCE Announces New Management Team" (http:/ / www. scei. co. jp/ corporate/ release/ pdf/ 061130e. pdf) (PDF). Press release. . Retrieved 2006-11-30. [27] Sony Corporation (April 26, 2007). "SCEI and Sony announce Executive Management Transition at Sony Computer Entertainment Inc" (http:/ / www. sony. net/ SonyInfo/ News/ Press/ 200704/ 07-0426E/ index. html). Press release. . Retrieved 2007-04-27. [28] "Sony Computer Entertainment America Management" (http:/ / us. playstation. com/ corporate/ about/ management/ index. htm). Sony Computer Entertainment America. . Retrieved 2010-05-10.

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External links
• Sony Computer Entertainment (http://www.scei.co.jp/) • Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. (http://www.scei.co.jp/index_e.html) • Sony Computer Entertainment Europe (http://www.scee.net/) • SCE Worldwide Studios (http://www.worldwidestudios.net/) • PlayStation Global (http://www.playstation.com/country-selector/) • Japan (http://www.jp.playstation.com/) • North America (http://www.us.playstation.com/) • Europe (http://eu.playstation.com/) • Asia (http://asia.playstation.com/) • Korea (http://www.playstation.co.kr/) • Canada (http://www.playstation.ca/) • Sony Computer Entertainment America (http://www.linkedin.com/in/sony-computer-entertainment-america) at LinkedIn

IBM
International Business Machines Corporation

Type

• •

[1] Public (NYSE: IBM ) Dow Jones Industrial Average Component

Industry

Computer systems Computer hardware and software Information technology consulting IT service management Endicott, New York June 16, 1911 Armonk, New York, United States Worldwide Samuel J. Palmisano (Chairman, President and CEO) See products listing US$99.870 billion (2010) US$19.273 billion (2010) US$14.833 billion (2010) [2] [2] [2] [2]

Founded

Headquarters Area served Key people

Products Revenue Operating income Net income Total assets Total equity

US$113.452 billion (2010) US$23.172 billion (2010)

[2]

IBM
[2]

146
Employees Subsidiaries

426,751 (2010)

ADSTAR FileNet ILOG Informix Iris Associates Lotus Rational Sequent Computer Systems Telelogic Tivoli Software IBM.com [3]

Website

International Business Machines (IBM) (NYSE: IBM [1]) is an American multinational technology and consulting firm headquartered in Armonk, New York. IBM manufactures and sells computer hardware and software, and it offers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology.[4] The company was founded in 1911 as the Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, following a merger of the Computer Scale Company of America and the International Time Recording Company with the Tabulating Machine Company. CTR adopted the name International Business Machines in 1924, using a name previously designated to CTR's subsidiary in Canada and later South America. Its distinctive culture and product branding has given it the nickname Big Blue. In 2010, IBM was ranked the 20th largest firm in the U.S. by Fortune and the 33rd largest globally by Forbes.[5] [6] Other rankings that year include #1 company for leaders (Fortune), #2 best global brand (Interbrand), #3 green company (Newsweek), #15 most admired company (Fortune), and #18 most innovative company (Fast Company).[7] IBM employs almost 400,000 employees (sometimes referred to as "IBMers") in over 200 countries, with occupations including scientists, engineers, consultants, and sales professionals.[8] IBM holds more patents than any other U.S.-based technology company and has nine research laboratories worldwide.[9] Its employees have garnered five Nobel Prizes, four Turing Awards, nine National Medals of Technology, and five National Medals of Science.[10] The company has undergone several organizational changes since its inception, acquiring companies like SPSS (2009) and PwC consulting (2002) and spinning off companies like Lexmark (1991).

History
1880-1929

IBM

147 Starting in the 1880s, various technologies came into existence that would form part of IBM's predecessor company. Julius E. Pitrap patented the computing scale in 1885,[11] Alexander Dey invented the dial recorder in 1888,[12] and a year later Herman Hollerith patented the Electric Tabulating Machine,[13] and Willard Bundy invented a time clock to record a worker's arrival and departure time on a paper tape.[14] On June 16, 1911, these technologies and their respective companies were merged by Charles Ranlett Flint to form the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (C-T-R).[15] The New York City-based company had 1,300 employees and offices and plants in Endicott and Thomas J. Watson led IBM from Binghamton, New York; Dayton, Ohio; Detroit, Michigan; Washington, D.C.; 1914-1956. and Toronto, Ontario. It manufactured and sold machinery ranging from commercial scales and industrial time recorders to meat and cheese slicers, along with tabulators and punched cards. Flint recruited Thomas J. Watson, Sr., from the National Cash Register Company to help lead the company in 1914.[15] Watson implemented "generous sales incentives, a focus on customer service, an insistence on well-groomed, dark-suited salesmen and an evangelical fervor for instilling company pride and loyalty in every worker".[16] His favorite slogan, "THINK," became a mantra for C-T-R's employees, and within 11 months of joining C-T-R, Watson became its president.[16] The company focused on providing large-scale, custom-built tabulating solutions for businesses, leaving the market for small office products to others. During Watson's first four years, revenues more than doubled to $9 million and the company's operations expanded to Europe, South America, Asia, and Australia.[16] On February 14, 1924, C-T-R was renamed the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM),[7] citing the need to align its name with the "growth and extension of [its] activities".[17]

1930-1979
In 1937, the U.S. Government deployed IBM tabulating equipment to maintain the employment records for 26 million people pursuant to the Social Security Act.[18] In 1938, the IBM World Headquarters Building, located at 590 Madison Avenue in New York, New York, was dedicated. In 1952, Thomas J. Watson, Jr., became president of the company, ending almost 40 years of leadership by his father. In 1956, Arthur L. Samuel of IBM's Poughkeepsie, New York, laboratory programs an IBM 704 to play checkers using a method in which the machine can "learn" from its own experience. It is believed to be the first "self-learning" program, a NACA researchers using a IBM type 704 electronic data processing machine in 1957 demonstration of the concept of artificial intelligence. In 1957, IBM developed the FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation) scientific programming language. In 1961, Thomas J. Watson, Jr., was elected chairman of the board and Albert L. Williams became president of the company. IBM develops the SABRE (Semi-Automatic Business-Related Environment) reservation system for American Airlines. In 1963, IBM employees and computers helped NASA track the orbital flight of the Mercury astronauts, and a year later, the company moved its corporate headquarters from New York City to Armonk, New York. The later half of that decade saw IBM continue its support of space exploration, with IBM participating in the 1965 Gemini flights, the 1966 Saturn flights, and the 1969 mission to land a man on the moon.

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148

1980-present
IBM has engaged in several M&A activities as well as several divestitures in the past few decades. In 1991, IBM sold Lexmark, and in 2002, it acquired PwC consulting. In 2003, IBM initiated a project to rewrite its company values. Using its Jam technology, the company hosted Internet-based online discussions on key business issues with 50,000 employees over 3 days. The discussions were analyzed by sophisticated text analysis software (eClassifier) to mine online One of IBM's Blue Gene supercomputers, which were awarded the comments for themes. As a result of the 2003 Jam, the National Medal of Technology and Innovation by U.S. President company values were updated to reflect three modern Barack Obama on September 18, 2009 business, marketplace and employee views: "Dedication to every client's success", "Innovation that matters - for our company and for the world", "Trust and personal responsibility in all relationships".[19] In 2004, another Jam was conducted during which 52,000 employees exchanged best practices for 72 hours. They focused on finding actionable ideas to support implementation of the values previously identified.[20] In 2005 the company sold its personal computer business to Lenovo, and in 2009, it acquired SPSS. Later in 2009, IBM's Blue Gene supercomputing program was awarded the National Medal of Technology and Innovation by U.S. President Barack Obama. In 2011, IBM gained worldwide attention for its artificial intelligence program Watson, which was exhibitioned on Jeopardy! against game show champions Ken Jennings and Brad Rutter.

Corporate affairs
IBM's headquarter complex is located in Armonk, Town of North Castle, New York, United States.[21] [22] [23] The 283,000 square foot IBM building has three levels of custom curtainwall. The building is located on a 25 acre site.[24] IBM has been headquartered in Armonk since 1964. The company has nine research labs worldwide—Almaden, Austin, Brazil, China, Haifa, India , Tokyo, Watson (New York), and Zurich—with Watson (dedicated in 1961) serving as headquarters for the research division and the site of its annual meeting. Other campus installations include towers in Montreal, Paris, and Atlanta; software labs in Raleigh-Durham, Rome and Toronto; buildings in Chicago, Johannesburg, and Seattle; and facilities in Hakozaki and Yamato. The company also operates the IBM Scientific Center, the Hursley House, the Canada Head Office Building, IBM Rochester, and the Somers Office Complex IBM's Board of Directors, with 14 members, is responsible for the overall management of the company. With Cathie Black's resignation from the board in November 2010, the remaining 13 members (along with their affiliation and year of joining the board) are as follows: Alain J. P. Belda '08 (Alcoa), William R. Brody '07 (Salk Institute / Johns Hopkins University), Kenneth Chenault '98 (American Express), Michael L. Eskew '05 (UPS), Shirley Ann Jackson '05 (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute), Andrew N. Liveris '10 (Dow Chemical), W. James McNerney, Jr. '09 (Boeing), James W. Owens '06 (Caterpillar), Samuel J. Palmisano '00 (IBM), Joan Spero '04 (Doris Duke Charitable Foundation), Sidney Taurel '01 (Eli Lilly), and Lorenzo Zambrano '03 (Cemex).[25]

IBM

149

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IBM Rochester (Minnesota), nicknamed the "Big Blue Zoo"

IBM Avenida de América Building in Madrid, Spain

Somers (New York) Office Complex, designed by I.M. Pei

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150

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Corporate recognition and brand
In 2010, IBM was ranked the 20th largest firm in the U.S. by Fortune and the 33rd largest globally by Forbes.[5] [6] Other rankings for 2010 include the following:[7] • • • • • #1 company for leaders (Fortune) #2 best global brand (Interbrand) #3 green company (Newsweek)[26] #15 most admired company (Fortune) #18 most innovative company (Fast Company)

For 2010, IBM's brand was valued at $64.7 billion.[27]

Working at IBM
In 2010, IBM employed 105,000 workers in the U.S., a drop of 30,000 since 2003, and 75,000 people in India, up from 9,000 seven years previous.[28] IBM's employee management practices can be traced back to its roots. In 1914, CEO Thomas J. Watson boosted company spirit by created employee sports teams, hosting family outings, and furnishing a company band. In 1924, the Quarter Century Club, which recognizes employees with 25 years of service, was organized and the first issue of Business Machines, IBM's internal publication, was published. In 1925, the first meeting of the Hundred Percent Club, composed of IBM salesmen who meet their quotas, convened in Atlantic City, New Jersey. IBM was among the first corporations to provide group life insurance (1934), survivor benefits (1935) and paid vacations (1937). In 1932 IBM created an Education Department to oversee training for employees, which oversaw the completion of the IBM Schoolhouse at Endicott in 1933. In 1935, the employee magazine Think was created. Also that year, IBM held its first training class for women systems service professionals. In 1942, IBM launched a program to train and employ disabled people in Topeka, Kansas. The next year classes begin in New York City, and soon the company is asked to join the President's Committee for Employment of the Handicapped. In 1946, the company hired its first black salesman, 18 years before the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In 1947, IBM announces a Total and Permanent Disability Income Plan for employees. A vested rights pension is added to the IBM retirement plan. In 1952, Thomas J. Watson, Jr., published the company's first written equal opportunity policy letter, one year before the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown vs. Board of Education and 11 years before the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In 1961, IBM's nondiscrimination policy is expanded to include sex, national origin, and age. The following year, IBM hosted its first Invention Award Dinner honoring 34 outstanding IBM inventors; and in 1963, the company named the first eight IBM Fellows in a new Fellowship Program that recognizes senior IBM scientists, engineers and other professionals for outstanding technical achievements. On September 21, 1953, Thomas Watson, Jr., the company's president at the time, sent out a controversial letter to all IBM employees stating that IBM needed to hire the best people, regardless of their race, ethnic origin, or gender. He also publicized the policy so that in his negotiations to build new manufacturing plants with the governors of two states in the U.S. South, he could be clear that IBM would not build "separate-but-equal" workplaces.[29] In 1984, IBM added sexual orientation to its nondiscrimination policy. The company stated that this would give IBM a competitive advantage because IBM would then be able to hire talented people its competitors would turn down.[30] IBM was the only technology company ranked in Working Mother magazine's Top 10 for 2004, and one of two technology companies in 2005.[31] [32] On October 10, 2005, IBM became the first major company in the world to commit formally to not using genetic information in employment decisions. The announcement was made shortly after IBM began working with the National Geographic Society on its Genographic Project. IBM provides same-sex partners of its employees with health benefits and provides an anti-discrimination clause. The Human Rights Campaign has consistently rated IBM 100% on its index of gay-friendliness since 2003 (in 2002,

IBM the year it began compiling its report on major companies, IBM scored 86%).[33] In 2007 and again in 2010, IBM UK was ranked first in Stonewall's annual Workplace Equality Index for UK employers.[34] The company has traditionally resisted labor union organizing,[35] although unions represent some IBM workers outside the United States. In 2009, the Unite union stated that several hundred employees joined following the announcement in the UK of pension cuts that left many employees facing a shortfall in projected pensions.[36] A dark (or gray) suit, white shirt, and a "sincere" tie[37] was the public uniform for IBM employees for most of the 20th century. During IBM's management transformation in the 1990s, CEO Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. relaxed these codes, normalizing the dress and behavior of IBM employees to resemble their counterparts in other large technology companies. Since then IBM's dress code is business casual although employees often wear formal clothes during client meetings.

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Research
In 1945, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory was founded at Columbia University in New York, New York. The renovated fraternity house on Manhattan's West Side was used as IBM's first laboratory devoted to pure science. The lab was the forerunner of IBM's Research Division, which today operates research facilities around the world. In 1966, IBM researcher Robert H. Dennard invented Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) cells, one-transistor memory cells that store each single bit of information as an electrical charge in an electronic circuit. The technology permits major increases in memory density, and is widely adopted throughout the industry where it remains in widespread use today.

An anechoic chamber inside IBM's Yamato research facility

IBM has been a leading proponent of the Open Source Initiative, and began supporting Linux in 1998.[38] The company invests billions of dollars in services and software based on Linux through the IBM Linux Technology Center, which includes over 300 Linux kernel developers.[39] IBM has also released code under different open source licenses, such as the platform-independent software framework Eclipse (worth approximately US$40 million at the time of the donation),[40] the three-sentence International Components for Unicode [41] (ICU) license, and the Java-based relational database management system (RDBMS) Apache Derby. IBM's open source involvement has not been trouble-free, however (see SCO v. IBM).

Selected current projects
developerWorks is a website run by IBM for software developers and IT professionals. It contains how-to articles and tutorials, as well as software downloads and code samples, discussion forums, podcasts, blogs, wikis, and other resources for developers and technical professionals. Subjects range from open, industry-standard technologies like Java, Linux, SOA and web services, web development, Ajax, PHP, and XML to IBM's products (WebSphere, Rational, Lotus, Tivoli and Information Management). In 2007, developerWorks was inducted into the Jolt Hall of Fame.[42] alphaWorks is IBM's source for emerging software technologies. These technologies include: • Flexible Internet Evaluation Report Architecture – A highly flexible architecture for the design, display, and reporting of Internet surveys. • IBM History Flow Visualization Application – A tool for visualizing dynamic, evolving documents and the interactions of multiple collaborating authors.

IBM • IBM Linux on POWER Performance Simulator – A tool that provides users of Linux on Power a set of performance models for IBM's POWER processors. • Database File Archive And Restoration Management – An application for archiving and restoring hard disk drive files using file references stored in a database. • Policy Management for Autonomic Computing – A policy-based autonomic management infrastructure that simplifies the automation of IT and business processes. • FairUCE – A spam filter that verifies sender identity instead of filtering content. • Unstructured Information Management Architecture (UIMA) SDK – A Java SDK that supports the implementation, composition, and deployment of applications working with unstructured data. • Accessibility Browser – A web-browser specifically designed to assist people with visual impairments, to be released as open source software. Also known as the "A-Browser," the technology will aim to eliminate the need for a mouse, relying instead completely on voice-controls, buttons and predefined shortcut keys. Virtually all console gaming systems of the latest generation use microprocessors developed by IBM. The Xbox 360 contains a PowerPC tri-core processor, which was designed and produced by IBM in less than 24 months.[43] Sony's PlayStation 3 features the Cell BE microprocessor designed jointly by IBM, Toshiba, and Sony. Nintendo's seventh-generation console, Wii, features an IBM chip codenamed Broadway. The older Nintendo GameCube utilizes the Gekko processor, also designed by IBM. In May 2002, IBM and Butterfly.net, Inc. announced the Butterfly Grid, a commercial grid for the online video gaming market.[44] In March 2006, IBM announced separate agreements with Hoplon Infotainment, Online Game Services Incorporated (OGSI), and RenderRocket to provide on-demand content management and blade server computing resources.[45] IBM announced it will launch its new software, called "Open Client Offering" which is to run on Linux, Microsoft Windows and Apple's Mac OS X. The company states that its new product allows businesses to offer employees a choice of using the same software on Windows and its alternatives. This means that "Open Client Offering" is to cut costs of managing whether to use Linux or Apple relative to Windows. There will be no necessity for companies to pay Microsoft for its licenses for operating systems since the operating systems will no longer rely on software which is Windows-based. One alternative to Microsoft's office document formats is the Open Document Format software, whose development IBM supports. It is going to be used for several tasks like: word processing, presentations, along with collaboration with Lotus Notes, instant messaging and blog tools as well as an Internet Explorer competitor – the Mozilla Firefox web browser. IBM plans to install Open Client on 5% of its desktop PCs. The Linux offering has been made available as the IBM Client for Smart Work product on the Ubuntu and Red Hat Enterprise Linux platforms.[46] UC2 (Unified Communications and Collaboration) is an IBM and Cisco Systems joint project based on Eclipse and OSGi. It will offer the numerous Eclipse application developers a unified platform for an easier work environment. The software based on UC2 platform will provide major enterprises with easy-to-use communication solutions, such as the Lotus based Sametime. In the future the Sametime users will benefit from such additional functions as click-to-call and voice mailing.[47] Redbooks [48] are publicly available online books about best practices with IBM products. They describe the products features, field experience and dos and don'ts, while leaving aside marketing buzz. Available formats are Redbooks, Redpapers and Redpieces.

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Internal programs
Extreme Blue is a company initiative that uses experienced IBM engineers, talented interns, and business managers to develop high-value technology. The project is designed to analyze emerging business needs and the technologies that can solve them. These projects mostly involve rapid-prototyping of high-profile software and hardware projects.[49] In May 2007, IBM unveiled Project Big Green increase energy efficiency.
[50]

, a re-direction of $1 billion per year across its businesses to

On November 2008, IBM’s CEO, Sam Palmisano, during a speech at the Council on Foreign Relations, outlined a new agenda for building a Smarter Planet.[51] In addition, an official company blog [52] exists. Smarter Planet @ IBM [53]

Environmental record
IBM has a long history in dealing with environmental problems. It established a corporate policy on environmental protection in 1971, with the support of a comprehensive global environmental management system. According to IBM, its total hazardous waste decreased by 44% over the past five years, and has decreased by 94.6% since 1987. IBM's total hazardous waste calculation consists of waste from both non-manufacturing and manufacturing operations. Waste from manufacturing operations includes waste recycled in closed-loop systems where process chemicals are recovered for subsequent reuse, rather than just disposing of them and using new chemical materials. Over the years, IBM has redesigned processes to eliminate almost all closed loop recycling and now uses more environmental-friendly materials in their place. IBM has also now built a modelling solution to help protect the environment and reduce its own Carbon Footprint using Lean and Six Sigma principles Green Sigma.[54] IBM was recognized as one of the "Top 20 Best Workplaces for Commuters" by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2005. The award was to recognize Fortune 500 companies which provided employees with excellent commuter benefits to help reduce traffic and air pollution.[55] The birthplace of IBM, Endicott, suffered pollution for decades, however. IBM used liquid cleaning agents in circuit board assembly operation for more than two decades, and six spills and leaks were recorded, including one leak in 1979 of 4,100 gallons from an underground tank. These left behind volatile organic compounds in the town's soil and aquifer. Trace elements of volatile organic compounds have been identified in Endicott’s drinking water, but the levels are within regulatory limits. Also, from 1980, IBM has pumped out 78,000 gallons of chemicals, including trichloroethane, freon, benzene and perchloroethene to the air and allegedly caused several cancer cases among the townspeople. IBM Endicott has been identified by the Department of Environmental Conservation as the major source of pollution, though traces of contaminants from a local dry cleaner and other polluters were also found. Despite the amount of pollutant, state health officials could not verify whether air or water pollution in Endicott has actually caused any health problems. According to city officials, tests show that the water is safe to drink.[56]

Solar power
Tokyo Ohka Kogyo Co., Ltd. (TOK) and IBM are collaborating to establish new, low-cost methods for bringing the next generation of solar energy products, called CIGS (Copper-Indium-Gallium-Selenide) solar cell modules, to market. Use of thin film technology, such as CIGS, has great promise in reducing the overall cost of solar cells and further enabling their widespread adoption.[57] [58] IBM is exploring four main areas of photovoltaic research: using current technologies to develop cheaper and more efficient silicon solar cells, developing new solution processed thin film photovoltaic devices, concentrator photovoltaics, and future generation photovoltaic architectures based upon nanostructures such as semiconductor quantum dots and nanowires.[59]

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Green Sigma
Green Sigma is an Active Management Six Sigma system which is currently being developed and enhanced through the Innovation Centre in Dublin. Its goal is to manage and reduce IBM's carbon footprint and achieve associated economic and environmental benefits. The system focuses on carbon, water, atmospheric emissions, liquid waste, solid waste, ground emissions, and the reporting on these elements. IBM Green SigmaTM consultants continually work with the client team to establish optimization of core processes and KPMGs. • • • • • Phase I: Define Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) Phase II: Establish Metering Phase III: Deploy Carbon Console Phase IV: Optimise Processes Phase V: Control Performance

IBM’s goal with the Green Sigma offering is to business partner with clients, both for economic benefits for the business and a reduction of the company's impact on the environment.[60]

Company logo and nickname
IBM logo history Logo Years 1924–1946

1947–1956 1956–1972 1972–present

IBM's current "8-bar" logo was designed in 1972 by graphic designer Paul Rand.[61] Logos designed in the 1970s tended to be sensitive to the technical limitations of photocopiers, which were then being widely deployed. A logo with large solid areas tended to be poorly copied by copiers in the 1970s, so companies preferred logos that avoided large solid areas. The 1972 IBM logos are an example of this tendency. With the advent of digital copiers in the mid-1980s this technical restriction had largely disappeared; at roughly the same time, the 13-bar logo was abandoned for almost the opposite reason – it was difficult to render accurately on the low-resolution digital printers (240 dots per inch) of the time. Big Blue is a nickname for IBM. There are several theories explaining the origin of the name. One theory, substantiated by people who worked for IBM at the time, is that IBM field representatives coined the term in the 1960s, referring to the color of the mainframes IBM installed in the 1960s and early 1970s. "True Blue" was a term used to describe a loyal IBM customer, and business writers later picked up the term.[62] [63] Another theory suggests that Big Blue simply refers to the Company's logo. A third theory suggests that Big Blue refers to a former company dress code that required many IBM employees to wear only white shirts and many wore blue suits.[62] [64] In any event, IBM keyboards, typewriters, and some other manufactured devices have played on the "Big Blue" concept, using the color for enter keys and carriage returns. IBM has also used blue logos since 1947, making blue the defining color of the company's corporate design, which might be another, more plausible reason for the term.

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References
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Further reading
Edwin Black 2008 IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance Between Nazi Germany and America's Most Powerful Corporation ISBN 0-914153-10-2 ISBN 1-872386-75-5 New York Times

Ulrich Steinhilper 2006 Don't Talk – Do It! From Flying To Word Processing

Samme Chittum

2004 In an I.B.M. Village, Pollution Fears Taint Relations With Neighbors (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=9C00E4DF1631F936A25750C0A9629C8B63& fta=y) 2002 Who Says Elephants can't Dance? HarperCollins.

Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. Doug Garr Robert Slater Emerson W. Pugh Robert Heller Paul Carroll Roy A Bauer et al. Thomas Watson, Jr. David Mercer

ISBN 0-00-715448-8 Harper Business McGraw Hill MIT Press

1999 "IBM Redux: Lou Gerstner & The Business Turnaround of the Decade" 1999 Saving Big Blue: IBM's Lou Gerstner 1996 Building IBM: Shaping an Industry

1994 The Fate of IBM 1993 Big Blues: The Unmaking of IBM 1992 The Silverlake Project: Transformation at IBM (AS/400)

Little Brown Crown Publishers Oxford University Press ISBN 0-553-29023-1 Kogan Page

1990 Father, Son & Co: My Life at IBM and Beyond

1987 "IBM: How the World's Most Successful Corporation is Managed" (http:/ / futureobservatory. dyndns. org/ 2013. htm). Futureobservatory.dyndns.org. 1986 Big Blue: IBM's Use and Abuse of Power

Richard Thomas DeLamarter Buck Rodgers Robert Sobel

ISBN 0-396-08515-6 Harper & Row ISBN 0-812-83071-7 ISBN 0-8129-1000-1 ISBN 1-893122-82-4 ISBN 0812812263

1986 The IBM Way 1986 IBM vs. Japan: The Struggle for the Future

Robert Sobel

1981 IBM: Colossus in Transition

Robert Sobel

1981 Thomas Watson, Sr.: IBM and the Computer Revolution (biography of Thomas J. Watson)

William Rodgers

1969 Think: A Biography of the Watsons and IBM

External links
• IBM official website (http://www.ibm.com/) • IBM official mobile website (http://m.ibm.com) • IBM Archives Site (http://www.ibm.com/ibm/history/) Business data • • • • • IBM Corp. (http://finance.google.com/finance?q=IBM) at Google Finance IBM Corp. (http://finance.yahoo.com/q?s=IBM) at Yahoo! Finance IBM Corp. (http://www.hoovers.com//--ID__10796--/free-co-factsheet.xhtml) at Hoover's IBM Corp. (http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/overview?symbol=IBM) at Reuters IBM Corp. (http://google.brand.edgar-online.com/?sym=IBM) SEC filings at EDGAR Online

IBM • IBM Corp. (http://www.sec.gov/cgi-bin/browse-edgar?action=getcompany&CIK=51143) SEC filings at the Securities and Exchange Commission

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Samsung Electronics
Samsung Electronics 삼성전자

Type

Public Korean: 삼성전자 [1] KRX: 005930 [2] KRX: 005935 [3] LSE: SMSN [4] LSE: SMSD Consumer electronics Telecommunication Semiconductor 1969 Samsung Town, Seoul, South Korea Worldwide CEO: Choi Gee-Sung Chairman: Lee Kun-hee US$ 117.4 billion (2009) US$ 8.33 billion (2009) [7] [5] [6]

Industry

Founded Headquarters Area served Key people

Revenue Net income Owner(s)

[8]

Lee Kun-hee & Affiliates 17.57%, Treasury Stocks of Samsung Electronics 13.07%, National Pension Service 5.90% (as of [9] September 31, 2009) Over 157,700 (2009) Samsung Group [www.samsung.com www.samsung.com]

Employees Parent Website

Samsung Electronics (SEC, Korean: 삼성전자, KRX: 005930 [1], KRX: 005935 [2], LSE: SMSN [3], LSE: SMSD [4] ) is the world's largest electronics company with a 2009 revenue of $117.4 billion,[7] [10] [11] [12] [13] headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul, South Korea.[5] [6] It is the flagship subsidiary of the Samsung Group. With assembly plants and sales networks in 65 countries across the world, Samsung has as many as 157,000 employees. [14] In 2009, the company took the position of the world’s biggest IT maker by surpassing the erstwhile leader Hewlett-Packard.[15] Its sales revenue in the areas of LCD and LED displays and computer chips is the world’s No. 1.[16] Some of the most popular items produced by Samsung include LED-backlit LCD TVs and Galaxy S mobile phones. Even though consumers may not realize, many non-Samsung-brand devices such as TVs and phones have Samsung-manufactured memory components inside.

Samsung Electronics In the TV segment, Samsung’s market position is dominant. For the four years since 2006, the company has been in the top spot in terms of the number of TVs sold, which is expected to continue in 2010 and beyond. In the global LCD panel market, the company has kept the leading position for eight years in a row.[17] With the Galaxy S model, Samsung’s smartphone lineup has retained the second-best slot in the world market for some time.[18] In competition to Apple's iPad tablet, Samsung released the Android powered Samsung Galaxy Tablet.[19]

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History
Samsung Electronics was founded in 1969 in Daegu, South Korea as Samsung Electric Industries, originally manufacturing electronic appliances such as TVs, calculators, refrigerators, air conditioners and washers. By 1981, the company had manufactured over 10 million black and white TVs. In 1988, it merged with Samsung Semiconductor & Communications. It is noteworthy that Samsung Electronics has grown in leaps and bounds in a business notorious for cyclical fluctuations. Founded in Samsung Group headquarters at Samsung Town, 1938 as a food processing and textile purveyor, the parent group Seoul. entered the electronic business as late as in 1969 when it created under its wings an electronic component subsidiary. It was a decision made after considering the fast-growing domestic demand for electronic goods. Just one year after its founding, the Samsung Group established in 1970 another subsidiary Samsung-NEC jointly with Japan’s NEC Corp. to manufacture electric home appliances and audio-visual devices. In 1974, it expanded into the semiconductor business by acquiring Korea Semiconductor, one of the first chip-making facilities in the country at the time. It was soon followed by the 1980 acquisition of Korea Telecommunications, an electronic switching system producer. In February 1983, Samsung’s founder Lee Byung-chull made an epoch-making announcement, dubbed the “Tokyo declaration,” that his company would enter the DRAM (dynamic random access memory) business. And only one year after the declaration did Samsung became the third company in the world that developed the 64k DRAM after the United States and Japanese predecessors. The march from then onward as the pioneer in the memory chip-making industry has continued to this day for almost three decades. Although Samsung Electronics was already one of the biggest companies in Korea as early as the 1990s, it now is by far the most important company with unrivaled influence on the economy through a large network of supplier and partner companies as well as through its own revenue-generating power. Since the onset of the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the company has become more powerful: While most other high-tech companies were hit by cash-flow problems after the crisis, Samsung could avoid financial difficulties by broad-based structural reforms. After the crisis subsided, Samsung emerged as a global corporation. For four consecutive years from 2000 to 2003, it posted more than 5-percent net earnings when 16 large conglomerates out of 30 top companies of the nation went out of business in the wake of the unprecedented crisis.[20] [21] On 2009 and 2010, the US and EU fined Samsung Electronics with 8 other memory chip makers for its part in a price fixing scheme From 1999 to 2002. Other companies fined included Infineon Technologies, Elpida Memory (Hitachi and NEC) and Micron Technology.[22] [23] [24] [25] [26] In December 2010, The EU granted immunity to Samsung Electronics for its part in informing on other members of a price fixing scheme.[27]

Samsung Electronics

162

Growth
Only ten years ago, Samsung’s only goal was to catch up with Japanese rivals. But now it is outperforming major Japanese electronics makers in many categories: in terms of global market share, Samsung is No. 1 in flat-panel TVs and memory chips; it is No. 2 in mobile handsets; it is one of the top suppliers in other home appliances.[28] In 2005, Samsung surpassed Japanese rival Sony for the first time to become the world's largest and most popular consumer electronics brand as measured by Interbrand.[29] In 2006, Business Week rated Samsung as 20th on its list of global brands, 2nd in the electronics industry.[30] Business Week also ranked Samsung as 20th in innovation.[31] In January 2007, BrandFinance ranked the company as the number 1 global brand in electronics.[32] In 2007, Samsung Electronics' handset division overtook American rival Motorola, making it the world's second-largest mobile phone maker.[33] In 2009, Samsung overtook Siemens of Germany and Hewlett-Packard of the USA with a revenue of $117.4 billion to take the No.1 spot as the world's largest technology company.[7] The semiconductor division of Samsung Electronics is the world's largest memory chip and second largest semiconductor manufacturer worldwide.[34] This has been the case for DRAM and SRAM for over a decade. To become the top brand in the electronics business, Samsung has spent enormous sums on marketing and branding. As part of fulfilling this strategy, the company devised in 1996 a plan to sponsor major sporting events. It succeeded in becoming an official sponsor for the 1998 Nagano Winter Olympics. Samsung today is the name that almost always appears in many big games.[35] Despite being a giant in the global technology business with enviable growth, Samsung—and its chairman Lee Kun-hee—is famous for fretting over its future and coming crisis. Since returning from a mini retirement in March 2010, Mr. Lee said, “Samsung Electronics’ future is not guaranteed because most of our flagship products will be

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Samsung CES 2009

obsolete in 10 years from now.” [36] Global consumers’ brand recognition of Samsung Electronics has increased steadily: According to the top-100 brand list compiled by Millward Brown, the British brand consultancy, Samsung, ranked at 68th on its list, was one of the world’s most valuable brands whose growth has been most pronounced during the 2009-2010 period. Its brand value, estimated at as much as US$1.1 billion, grew by 80 percent. (For more on this, refer to the April 28, 2010 FT news article “Big names prove worth in crisis”) [37] In the “World’s Most Reputable Companies 2010” ranking published by Reputation Institute of the United States, Samsung was placed at 22nd, a large advancement from the previous year’s 74th. This ranking, compiled by the U.S. consulting company since 2006, reflects survey results collected from consumers in 24 different countries for global 600 large corporations in terms of annual revenue and its GDP share in respective countries. The respondents answer questions in seven categories including products and services, innovativeness, work conditions, corporate governance, social responsibility, leadership, and financial performance. (For details, read “World’s Most Reputable Companies,” Forbes, May 24, 2010) [38] Samsung was also ranked 11th in the “50 Most Innovative Companies 2010” list put out by Business Week, a five-notch increase from the previous year’s 16th. The ranking, collated jointly by the U.S. weekly magazine and Boston Consulting Group since 2005, is based on answers to innovation-related survey questions asked to executives of global corporations. While survey answers take an 80-percent weight to the compilation of the ranking, the

Samsung Electronics remaining 20 percent is accounted for by annual share appreciation (10%) and three-year average sales revenue and profit margin (5% each), respectively. Samsung had emphasized innovation in its management strategy since the early 2000s and it again highlighted innovation as part of core strategies when it announced the Vision 2020 in which the company set an ambitious goal of reaching the $400-billion sales revenue within 10 years. In order to cement its leadership in the areas of memory chip and TV production, Samsung has invested aggressively in research and development. The company currently has 24 R&D centers around the world. In the 2010 Business Week innovation ranking, Apple Computer and Google retained the leading positions as in the 2009 list, followed by Microsoft, which gained one notch from 2009’s fourth place. (Read “The 50 Most Innovative Companies 2010” Business Week, April 15, 2010) [39] Table [40] Meanwhile, Samsung took the 33rd place in the “World’s Most Valuable Brands 2010” list made public by the Forbes magazine. Forbes said that Samsung’s brand value was as much as $12.8 billion with an average sale revenue growth rate of 17 percent for the past three years. (“The World's Most Valuable Brands 2010,” Forbes, July 28, 2010) [41] Table [42]

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Business areas
Samsung Electronics focuses on four areas: Digital Media, Semiconductor, Telecommunication Network, and LCD Digital Appliance.[43] The Digital Media business area covers computer devices such as laptop computers and laser printers; digital displays such as televisions and computer monitors; and consumer entertainment devices such as DVD players, MP3 players and digital camcorders; and home appliances as refrigerators, air conditioners, air purifiers, washers, microwave ovens, and vacuum cleaners. The Semiconductor business area includes semiconductor chips such as SDRAM, SRAM, NAND flash memory; smart cards; Mobile Application Processors; Mobile TV receivers; RF transceivers; CMOS Image sensors, Smart Card IC, MP3 IC, DVD/BD/HD-DVD Player SOC and multi-chip package (MCP); and storage devices such as optical disc drives and hard disk drives. The Telecommunication Network business area includes multi-service DSLAMs and fax machines; cellular devices such as mobile phones, PDA phones, and hybrid devices called Mobile Intelligent Terminals (MITs); and satellite receivers. The LCD business area focuses on producing TFT-LCD and organic light-emitting diode (OLED)panels for laptops, desktop monitors, and televisions. Samsung Print was established in 2009 as a separate entity to focus on B2B sales and has released a broad range of multifunctional devices and printers.

Products
Samsung Electronics manufactures products in a number of categories: • Semiconductor: DRAM, SDRAM, flash memory

Semiconductors
For more than 20 years since 1993, Samsung has kept the title of the world’s largest memory chip maker. In 2009, it began a strategy of “Green Memory” by which it increased the global DRAM market share to 33 percent. It also started mass-producing 30 nm-class NAND flash memories in the same year whose world share rose as high as 42 percent.[44] It succeeded in 2010 in mass-producing 30 nm-class DRAMs and 20 nm-class NAND flashes, both of which were the first time in the world.[45] According to market research firm Gartner, during the second quarter of 2010 Samsung Electronics took the top position in the DRAM segment due to brisk sales of the item on the world

Samsung Electronics market. Gartner analysts said in their report, “Samsung cemented its leading position by taking a 35-percent market share. All the other suppliers had minimal change in their shares.” Samsung took the top slot in the ranking, followed by Hynix, Elpida, and Micron, said Gartner.[46] Another market researcher IC Insights predicted that Samsung would become the world’s biggest semiconductor chip supplier by 2014 when it surpasses Intel. For the ten-year period from 1999 to 2009, Samsung’s compound annual growth rate (or CAGR) has been 13.5 percent, compared with that for Intel paltry 3.4 percent. Extrapolating this trend to the future, Samsung will be able to catch up with Intel by the year 2014, estimated IC Insights.[47] IC Insights also said that Intel’s 2009 sales revenue had been 52 percent higher than that for Samsung, but that differential narrowed to only 21 percent during the second quarter of 2010 [48] Another hitherto not-well-publicized area where Samsung had significant business in for years is the foundry segment. Samsung had begun investment in the foundry business since 2006 and now positioned it as one of the strategic pillars for semiconductor growth.[49] • Hard drives • Digital display: LCD displays, LED displays, plasma displays, OLED displays

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Slimmer panels
Samsung Electronics’ TVs and display products have undergone a race toward ever-slimmer panels. In 2009, the company succeeded in developing the super-slim panel for 40-inch LED TVs, with the thickness of 3.9 millimeters (0.15 inch). Dubbed the “Needle Slim,” the panel is as thick (or thin) as two coins put together. This is about a twelfth of the conventional LCD panel whose thickness is approximately 50 millimeters (1.97 inches). While reducing the thickness substantially, Samsung could maintain the performance as before, including full HD resolution, 120 Hz refresh rate, and 5000:1 contrast ratio.[50] In October 2007, Samsung broke the 10-millimeter barrier by introducing the 10-mm thick 40-inch LCD TV panel, followed in October 2008 by Galaxy Tab the world’s first 7.9-mm panel.[51] Samsung is leading the industry by developing panels for 24-inch LCD monitors (3.5 mm) and 12.1-inch laptops (1.64 mm).[52] According to Samsung officials, the biggest factor in reducing the panel thickness was the LED backlight. They are optimistic that their company could cut TV width by 40 percent within two years from now.[53] • Home electronics: TVs, DVD players, Blu-ray players, home cinema systems, set-top boxes, projectors

Televisions
For years in a row, Samsung has taken the top spot in the world TV market, with the launch of best-selling items. In 2009, it sold as many as 31 million flat-panel TVs, maintaining the top position for four consecutive years in terms of world market share.[54] In early 2010, the company had set the year’s sales goal at 39 million units (including 10-million LED TVs).[55] According to DisplaySearch, the U.S. market research and consulting firm, Samsung is forecast to take a 27-percent share for the global TV market in the second quarter of 2010 while LG Electronics accounts for 26.2 percent of the market. The market researcher predicted that Samsung’s leadership would continue in 2011 [56] Samsung Electronics is creating a new market by introducing the “Finger-Slim” LED TV. Launched in March 2009, the super-slim LED TV has thus far been sold as many as 2.6 million units. In 2009 alone, it was sold more than 2 million units, which brightens the future prospect.[57] Samsung has led the flat-panel TV market for the past five years with the 2006 introduction of its “Bordeaux” line, followed by the 2007 Bordeaux model, the 2008 “Crystal Rose” line, and the “Finger-Slim” in 2009.[58] The company retained the leading position by successfully selling more than 1 million 3D TVs as of August 2010.[59]

Samsung Electronics As rivals are jumping on the bandwagon, Samsung outstrips them by consistently introducing new, better models. Today the company offers the full line of TVs, at many price point. This company is developing new LED TV models too. After expanding its TV lineups, Samsung became the industry-first 10-million-seller challenge. One of the new products to watch is the full HD 3D LED TV that was launched the first time in March 2010.[60] Combining LED features with 3D functionality, the new 3D TV is expected to lead the market for years to come. Samsung showcased the new TV in the International Consumer Electronics Show (CES 2010) held in Las Vegas early this year.[61] In 2009, Samsung TVs were selected in major U.K. publications and retailers as the best TV of the year. For example, Samsung’s LED TV 7000 series was the winner of the “Gadget Awards 2009” by T3, U.K.’s most prestigious electronics magazine.[62] The T3 magazine in its news article on “ten reasons why you should buy Samsung LED TV” listed as the reasons superior picture quality, slim design, energy efficiency and connectivity.[63]

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3D experience
Samsung sold more than 1 million 3D TVs within six months of its launch. This is the figure close to what many market researchers forecast for the year’s worldwide 3D TV sales (1.23 million units).[64] It also debuted the 3D Home Theater (HT-C6950W) that allows the user to enjoy 3D image and surround sound at the same time. With the launch of 3D Home Theater, Samsung became the first company in the industry to have the full line of 3D offerings, including 3D TV, 3D Blu-ray play, 3D content, and 3D goggles.[65] The company is trying offer the 3D content streaming service on its 3D TVs. Just like iTunes store, the Samsung 3D TV aims to allow the user to connect to its own online store, Samsung Apps, and download applications on the user’s hard disk drive.

Smart TVs and apps
Samsung has introduced the Internet TV in 2007 that enabled the audience to receive information from the Internet while at the same time watching conventional TV programming. Samsung is also developing a new “Smart LED TV” from which consumers can download applications as well as view Internet content. In 2008, the company launched the Power Infolink service, followed in 2009 by a whole new Internet@TV. In 2010, Samsung started marketing the 3D TV while unveiling the upgraded Internet@TV 2010, which offers free (or for-fee) download of applications from its Samsung Apps store, in addition to existing services such as news, weather, stock market, YouTube videos, and movies.[66] Samsung Apps will provide for-fee premium services starting the latter half of 2010, beginning in Korea and the United States, followed early next year by the same services in Europe. The services will be custom-tailored for each region’s culture. Samsung plans to offer family-oriented applications such as health care programs and digital picture frames as well as games. SamyGO community created at 2009 for hacking Samsung B series TV firmwares, and later supported A and C series TV's also, under GPLv2 license and deployed new applications like a tool increasing subtitle size and changing its color, enabling PVR functionality of TV, enabling internal video player on low end models, supporting DTS codec on B Series TVs, work around for DLNA problems by playing movies from SAMBA and NFS shares support etc. Also placed web browser right into TV with mouse and keyboard support and many more applications... Samsung started to release restricted firmware updates starting from Feb 2010 for fixing security issues those used by SamyGO community and disabled firmware downgrade option from TV menus, which believed to disable the SamyGO project. But hackers find workarounds for those new restricted firmwares.[67] [68] Samsung expects that Samsung Apps would ultimately become a multi-device application store attracting users of all kinds of electronic device such as mobile phones, computers, and cameras. The company also reckons that its Smart

Samsung Electronics TV will be the future home entertainment hub.[69] • Mobile devices: mobile phones, MP3 players, digital cameras, camcorders

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Mobile phones
Samsung Electronics has sold 235 million mobile handsets in the year 2009.[70] At the end of Q3 2010 Samsung had surpassed the 70 million unit mark in shipped phones, giving it a global marketshare of 22% trailing Nokia by just just 12%.[71] Overall, Samsung sold 280 million mobile phones in 2010, corresponding to a market share of 20.2%.[72] Following the success of its “Anycall” brand mobile phones in Korea, the company has introduced numerous mobile handset models including premium phones, full-touch screen phones, and environmentally friendly phones. Samsung’s flagship mobile handset Galaxy S line is the Galaxy S, which many consider a direct competitor of Apple's popular iPhone.[73] It was initially launched in Singapore, Malaysia and South Korea in June 2010 [74] [75] [76] followed by US variants called Vibrant and Captivate in July and Epic and Fascinate in August and September. It sold more than 1 million units within the first 45 days of in the US alone [77] Samsung’s I9000 Galaxy S and S8500 Wave smartphones were the winners of the 2010 European EISA Awards in the smartphone and social media phone categories. The I9000 Galaxy S was recognized for its superior-quality screen and excellent connectivity while the S8500 Wave for its Bada operating system with unparalleled social networking and location-based services.[78] Samsung’s 2010 smartphone shares worldwide are rising rapidly. The share in the United States has doubled in the second quarter of the year from the previous quarter. In the second quarter the company shipped as many as 3 million smartphones, a 173-percent increase from the same period last year.[79] In order to stay at the top of the business, Samsung employs quite a unique strategy: while many other handset makers tend to focus on supporting one (or at most two) operating system, Samsung has kept supporting a wide range of operating systems in the market. Although the Galaxy S adopts Google Android as the primary operating system, it also works on other competing operating systems such as Symbian, Microsoft Windows Phone, Linux-based LiMo, and Samsung’s proprietary Bada.[80] Samsung’s mobile handsets have received rave reviews that they are superior to Apple handset lines while winning prestigious design awards in Europe and the United States. Amidst all these, the company set the sales goal of the 2010 yearend at 20 million units.[81] But the company is not resting on its laurels: in fact, it is faced with challenges on all fronts. An alliance of Chinese low wage and Taiwanese technology is catching up closely. Smartphone makers such as Apple, RIM, and HTC are busy coming up with new models, all of which makes Samsung hard at work maintaining its top position. • Computing products: monitors, laptops, UMPCs, CD and DVD Drives, laser printers, fax machines • Home appliances: refrigerators, washing machines, microwaves, ovens, vacuum cleaners, air conditioners

Home appliances
In 2009, the year of worldwide recession due to the 2008 global credit crisis, Samsung’s sales revenue rose 27 percent from the previous year, the biggest increase in the industry. In the home market, Samsung held the leading position thanks to strong sales of its flagship items, Zipel-brand side-by-side and kimchi refrigerators. In the North American, European, and Russian markets, it solidified its image as a premier home appliance maker by selling so many refrigerators, washing machines, air-conditioners, as well as new steam microwave ovens and “robot” vacuum cleaners.

Samsung Electronics In a market clearly split into two extremes of upmarket and budget categories, Samsung employs a two-pronged strategy to emphasize its premium image for affluent consumers while marketing lower-end items with fewer bells and whistles for emerging economies consumers. In 2009, Samsung introduced a host of new products including a premium mini-laptop computer N310 and slim-sized laptop X420. The N310 and the X420 are the third-generation laptops with all the advanced features as well as portability and connectivity. Thanks to these new market entrants, Samsung could sell as many as 6 million laptops for the year. In the printer business division, one of the next-generation strategic areas, Samsung launched mono-laser printer, multifunction printer, and enterprise-use high-speed digital multifunction printer models. Samsung was ranked second in the world in the area of letter-size (A4) laser printers. In other segments such as mono-laser printers, multifunction printers, and color laser printers, Samsung was first or second place in the world. In the laser multifunction printer segment, it became No. 1 the first time in its history, all of which indicates that Samsung is growing fast in the printer business despite under the condition of severe economic recession. In 2010, Samsung introduced many new products boasting energy efficiency and eco-friendliness, including the premium laptop R580, netbook N210, the world’s smallest mono-laser printer ML-1660, and color laser multifunction printer CLX-3185. In the area of wireless networking, the mobile telecom protocols such as Mobile WiMax and WiBro, the protocols developed by Samsung and adopted in 2007 as international standards, are in wide commercial use in many overseas markets. Since mobile telecom service providers in the United States, Japan, and Russia began deploying the standards, more and more providers (as many as 139 providers in 75 countries) are readying to take it up. Digital cameras and camcorders are the areas Samsung cannot overlook. The company has introduced several models in these areas such as the WB550 (the premium camera), the ST550 (the dual-LCD-mounted camera), and the HMX-H106 (64GB SSD-mounted full HD camcorder). Samsung in 2009 took the third place in the compact camera segment. Since then, the company has focused more on high-priced items. In 2010, the company launched the NX10, the next-generation interchangeable lens camera, thereby commencing the race toward the new category of camera market. In the area of storage media, Samsung in 2009 succeeded in grabbing more than 10 percent of the world market share by introducing a new hard disk drive capable of storing 250Gb per 2.5-inch disk.[82] In 2010, the company started marketing the 320Gb-per-disk HDD, the largest in the industry. In addition, it is focusing more on selling external hard disk drives. In the MP3 player segment, Samsung is doing quite well. It is launching a host of new products including the M1, the premium MP3 player model, and the world’s smallest DivX MP3 player R1.[83]

167

Market share

Samsung Electronics

168

Product

Samsung's global M/S 40.4% 40.4% 26.0%

Competitors

M/S

Year

Source

DRAM NAND Flash Large-size LCD Panel (revenue) Active-Matrix OLED Lithium-ion battery LCD Monitor Hard disk drive

Hynix Toshiba LG Display

19.8% Q3 2010 [84] 33.1% Q2 2010 [85] 25.9% Q3 2010 [86]

97% 18.7% 18.0% 9%

LG Display, AUO 1~3% 2010 Sanyo Dell Seagate Technology LG Electronics

[87]

19.4% Q1 2010 [88] 12.8% 2009 31% [89]

Q4 2009 [90]

Television sets 17.2% (LDC, PDP, CRT, LED) Mobile phone Digital camera 21.0% 11.8%

14.8% Q3 2009 [91] 32.4% Q3 2010 [92] 17.4% 2010 [93]

Nokia Sony

Design
Behind Samsung’s rapid rise there lies design power. In the early 1990s, the firm began emphasizing the importance of design in its products. In its high-rise headquarters in Kangnam, south of Seoul, it locates the corporate design center in which more than 900 full-time designers are housed. In the beginning, there were only two designers in the whole company, whose number rose to 510 in 2005. Samsung overhauls its design in every two years. For the first year, it scrutinizes all the design trends of the world, followed by product strategies. It then maps out new design plans during the second year. Samsung’s effort to improve design paid off: since 2006, it has won as many as 210 awards from internationally prestigious design institutions. For example, it received the iF (International Forum) and IDEA design awards. Samsung was the winner in eight categories in the 2009 IDEA awards, the company that received the most awards. There is compelling reason for Samsung’s rise as a design powerhouse. Korea had for so long been considered a backwater for design excellence, especially compared to the Japanese counterparts famous for churning out eye-catching gadgets. Samsung established as many as seven design centers in the world’s major cities including Milan and London, as well as in Seoul. The professional designers working in these centers constantly monitor latest design trends in their cities while scanning cultural and lifestyle changes. In the 2010 iF Material Awards, Samsung won the Gold Award for five of its products including the external hard disk drive. The iF Material Awards are given by the International Forum Design GmbH of Hannover, one of the world’s most prestigious design awards for design materials and process technologies. In 2010, the German company selected a total of 42 products in the areas of home appliance, furniture, and industrial design. Samsung won the awards in five categories including external hard disk, full-touch screen phone, “side-by-side” refrigerator, compact digital camera, and laser printer toner.[94]

Samsung Electronics

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Environmental record
All Samsung mobile phones and MP3 players introduced on the market after April 2010 are free from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs).[95] The company is listed in Greenpeace's Guide to Greener Electronics, where in October 2010 it was ranked 5th out of 18 leading electronics makers.[96] Compared to the previous ranking Samsung improved its position (it skipped from the 13th place, which it occupied in May 2010) mainly as a result of one of the penalty points being lifted and thanks to the improvements in its score on chemicals.[96] In June 2004, Samsung was the first major electronics company to publicly commit to eliminate PVC and BFRs from new models of all its products. The company however failed to meet its deadlines to be PVC- and BFRs-free, and has published new phase out dates.[97] Greenpeace activists protested at the company's Benelux headquarters in March 2010 for what Greenpeace calls Samsung's broken promises.[98] Samsung Electronics has been taking the lead in industry efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the company has been awarded as one of global top 10 companies in the Carbon Disclosure Leadership Index (CDLI). Samsung Electronics was the only Asian company among top 10 companies. As well, Samsung is listed in Dow Jones Sustainability Index (DJSI). [99] Samsung’s achievement ratio of products approaching the Global Ecolabel level (“Good Eco-Products” within the company) is 11 percentage points above the 2010 goal (80%). As of the first half of 2010, Samsung earned the Global Ecolabel for its 2,134 models, thereby becoming the world’s No. 1 company in terms of the number of products meeting Global Ecolabel standards.[99] The company is also accelerating its effort to recover and recycle electronic wastes. The amount of wastes salvaged throughout 60 countries during 2009 was as much as 240,000 tons. The “Samsung Recycling Direct” program, the company’s voluntary recycling program under way in the United States, was expanded to Canada. [100] For its recycling effort, Samsung was in 2008 praised by the U.S. advocacy group Electronics Take Back Coalition as the “best eco-friendly recycling program.” [101]

Corporate name and logo
Samsung Electronics’ corporate name “Samsung” comes from the word “three stars” that shine brightly. The Chinese character “Sam” has the double meaning of three and strong while “Sung” connotes “star” and “bright” (or “shining”). The corporate name has auspicious meaning in it, meaning that it foretells success. Samsung’s logo design emphasizes flexibility and simplicity while conveying a dynamic and innovative image through the ellipse, the symbol of the universe and the world stage. The openings on both ends of the ellipse where the letters “S” and “G” are located are intended to illustrate the company’s open-mindedness and the desire to communicate with the world. The English rendering is a visual expression of its core corporate vision, excellence in customer service through technology. The basic color in the logo is blue, the color that Samsung has had used in its logos for years. The blue color symbolizes stability and reliability, which are precisely what the company wishes to accomplish with its customers. It also stands for social responsibility as a corporate citizen, a company official explained.[102]

Management and board of directors
In December 2010, Samsung switched its management system from the single CEO system of last year under Choi Gee-Sung, to a two person management team with Choi Gee-Sung, CEO and Vice President, and Lee Jae-Yong, Chief Operating Operator and President. The team was credited as being younger both in age and in outlook, and in keeping with the new focus on youthfulness in spirit, some executives have even dyed their hair black.[103] Samsung also reorganized its overseas marketing bases in line with changes in the market, including a combined

Samsung Electronics Britain/Continental Europe regional subsidiary, and a combined China/Taiwan regional subsidiary. Samsung added a new digital imaging business division in 2010, and now consists of eight divisions, including the existing display, IT solutions, consumer electronics, wireless, networking, semiconductor, and LCD divisions. Samsung also reorganized its business organization to strengthen business synergies, by merging its Digital Air Solutions Team and Samsung Electronics Gwangju (consumer electronics and air conditioners, merged in 2010) under the consumer electronics business division. The Set Top Boxes business was merged with the Visual Display Business Division. Samsung's December 2010 reorganization was as follows: Among the eight divisions, the network division and the digital imaging division experienced new appointments, while the remaining divisions were maintained in accordance with their strong results. • Chief Executive Officer, Vice Chairman: Choi Gee-Sung • Chief Financial Officer: President Yoon Ju-hwa • Chief Operating Officer, President: Lee Jae-Yong

170

Division heads
• Semiconductor Division: President Kwon Oh-hyun • LCD Division: President Jang Won-ki • • • • • • Visual Display Division: President Yoon Boo-keun Mobile Communications Business: President Shin Jong-kyun Telecommunication System Business: Executive vice President Kim Young-ki(newly appointed) IT Solutions Business: Executive vice President Nam Seong-woo Digital Appliances Business: Executive vice president Hong Chang-wan Digital Imaging Business: Executive vice President Chung Hyun-ho(newly appointed)

Regional directors
• • • • • • • • • • North America: Executive vice President Kim Yang-Gyu (appointed) Central and South America: Executive vice President Yoo Doo-yeong Europe: Executive Director Kim Seok (newly appointed) (former Middle East supervisor, Director Kim Jin-an) CIS: Executive Director Seo Chi-won Middle East: Executive Director Bae Gyeong-Tae Africa: Executive Director Park Gwang-gi Southeast Asia: Executive vice President Lee Jong-Seok Southwest Asia: Executive Director Shin Jeong-soo China: Executive Director Kim Yeong-Ha (newly appointed) Korea: Executive Director Park Jae-Soon

The following are the names of board of directors members:[104]

Samsung Electronics

171

Gee-Sung Choi Ju-Hwa Yoon Dong-Min Yoon

Vice Chairman, President & CEO Chief Financial Officer Independent Director (Attorney at Law, Kim & Chang)

Chae-Woong Lee Independent Director (Professor of Economics, Sungkyunkwan Univ.) In-Ho Lee Oh-Soo Park Independent Director (Advisor, Shinhan Bank) Independent Director (Professor of Business Administration, Seoul National Univ.)

Sports Clubs
• • • • • • Suwon Samsung Bluewings (Football) Seoul Samsung Thunders (Basketball) Samsung Lions (Baseball) Samsung KHAN (E-Sports) Samsung Electronics Athletic Club Samsung Electronics Equestrian Club

References
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External links
• Official website (http://www.samsung.com) • Samsung Electronics Company Homepage(Korean) (http://www.sec.co.kr) • Samsung History Timeline on the corporate webpage of references (http://www.samsung.com/us/ aboutsamsung/corporateprofile/history.html)

HCL Enterprise

175

HCL Enterprise
HCL Enterprise

Type

Public [1] BSE: 500179 [2] BSE: 532281 August 11, 1976 Delhi metropolitan city Noida, India Shiv Nadar, Founder-Chairman and Chief Strategy Officer, HCL Technologies [3] Roshni Nadar, CEO HCL Corp. Ajai Chowdhry - Founder-Chairman , HCL Infosystems ,Harsh Chitale-CEO, HCL Infosystems Vineet Nayar - CEO, HCL Technologies industry = IT Services US$5.7 billion (2009) 77,000+ (December 28, 2010) HCL.in [4]

Founded Headquarters

Key people

Revenue Employees Website

Hindustan Computers Ltd. (HCL) is an Electronics, Computing and IT company based in Noida, India. The company comprises two publicly listed companies, HCL Technologies and HCL Infosystems. HCL was focused on addressing the IT hardware market in India for the first two decades of its existence with some sporadic activity in the global market. On termination of the joint venture with HP in 1996, HCL became an enterprise which comprises HCL Technologies (to address the global IT services market) and HCL Infosystems (to address the Indian and APAC IT hardware market). HCL has since then operated as a holding company.

History Of HCL
In 1976, Shiv Nadar, Arjun Malhotra, Subhash Arora, Badam Kishore Kumar, T.V Bharadwaj,& Arun Kumar H started Microcomp Limited. The focus of the company was design and manufacturing of scientific calculators. The venture provided its founders money to start a company that focused on manufacturing computers. The company name "HCL" used to stand for "Hindustan Computers Limited" but now HCL is the only one name that the company goes by. HCL received support from the Uttar Pradesh government to setup manufacturing in Noida. In 1981, NIIT was started to cater to the increasing demand in computer education. By early 2000s, Nadar divested his stake in this venture.[5] [6]

HCL Enterprise

176

HCL Technologies
Focuses on the global market. Services provided- Product Engineering & R&D, Enterprise & Custom Applications,Enterprise Transformation Services Infrastructure Management, and BPO Services. It has operations spanning 31 countries with delivery facilities in USA, UK, Finland, Poland, Puerto Rico,Brazil, China, Malaysia, Singapore, Australia, Czech Republic, and India.

HCL Infosystems Ltd
HCL Infosystems Ltd.,[7] a listed subsidiary of HCL, is an India-based hardware and systems integrator. It has a presence in 170 locations and 300 service centres throughout India. Its manufacturing facilities are based in Chennai, Pondicherry and Uttarakhand. It is headquartered at Noida. HCL Peripherals (a unit of HCL Infosystems Ltd.), founded in the year 1983, is a manufacturer of computer peripherals in India of Display Products, Thin Client solutions, Information and Interactive Kiosks and a range of Networking products & Solutions. HCL Peripherals has two Manufacturing facilities, one in Pondicherry (Electronics) and the other in Chennai (Mechanical). The company has been given ISO:27001 certifications. HCL ERC [8](Enterprise Response Center) was started to give outstanding support to its customers, at Puducherry, in 2007, . It has grown and team of domain experts working in it.

Environmental record
According to environmental organisation Greenpeace 29% of HCL products are currently free of toxic vinyl plastic (PVC) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs). In March 2010, HCL launched its first notebook entirely free of PVC and BFRs. [9]

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] http:/ / www. bseindia. com/ bseplus/ StockReach/ AdvanceStockReach. aspx?scripcode=500179 http:/ / www. bseindia. com/ bseplus/ StockReach/ AdvanceStockReach. aspx?scripcode=532281 Shiv Nadar's daughter takes charge at HCL Corp (http:/ / economictimes. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 4726703. cms) http:/ / www. hcl. in/ "Shiv Nadar completes 25 years of success" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ money/ 2001/ aug/ 09nadar. htm). Rediff. 2001=08=09. . Retrieved 2007-07-22. "The amazing story of the birth of HCL" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ money/ 2007/ jun/ 09bspec1. htm). Rediff. 2001=06=09. . Retrieved 2007-07-22. www.hclinfosystems.in http:/ / ftp. hclinsys. com "Which companies are phasing out PVC and BFRs" (http:/ / www. greenpeace. org/ international/ en/ campaigns/ toxics/ electronics/ Guide-to-Greener-Electronics/ which-companies-really-sell-gr/ ). Greenpeace International. . Retrieved 2010-08-17.

External links
• • • • • • • HCL Enterprise (http://www.hcl.in/) HCL Technologies (http://www.hcltech.com/) HCL Infosystems (http://www.hclinfosystems.in/) HCL BPO (http://www.hclbpo.com/) HCL Peripherals (http://www.hclperipherals.in/) HCL Infinet (http://www.hclinfinet.com/) HCL Axon (http://www.hcl-axon.com/)

• HCL Security (http://www.hclsecurity.in/) • HCL ISD (http://www.hclisd.com/) - Infrastructure Service Division • Enterprise Response Center (http://ftp.hclinsys.com)

Wipro Technologies

177

Wipro Technologies
Wipro Limited

Type

Public [1] [2] (BSE: 507685 , NYSE: WIT ) IT services IT consulting 1945 M. H. Premji Bangalore, Karnataka, India Azim Premji (Chairman) T K Kurien (CEO) Application Development and Maintenance BPO Product Engineering Solutions Technology Infrastructure Services Consulting $6.03 billion (2010) [3] [3]

Industry

Founded Founder(s) Headquarters Key people

Services

Revenue Operating income Profit Total assets Total equity Employees Website

$1.144 billion (2010) $1.02 billion (2010)

[3] [3] [3] [4]

$7.498 billion (2010) $4.373 billion (2010)

119,491 (December 2010) Wipro.com [5]

Wipro Ltd (BSE: 507685 [1], NYSE: WIT [2]) is a giant information technology services corporation headquartered in Bangalore, India. According to the 2008–09 revenue, Wipro is one of the largest IT services company in India and employs more than 119,491 people worldwide as of September 2010.[6] It has interests varying from information technology, consumer care, lighting, engineering and healthcare businesses. It is 9th most valuable brand in India according to an annual survey conducted by Brand Finance and The Economic Times in 2010. [7] Azim Premji is the Chairman of the board.

Wipro Technologies

178

Major Divisions
• IT Services: Wipro provides complete range of IT Services to the organization. The range of services extends from Enterprise Application Services (CRM, ERP, e-Procurement and SCM) to e-Business solutions. Wipro's enterprise solutions serve a host of industries such as Energy and Utilities, Finance, Telecom, and Media and Entertainment. • Product Engineering Solutions: Wipro is the largest independent provider of R&D services in the world. Using "Extended Engineering" model for leveraging R&D investment and accessing new knowledge and experience across the globe, people and technical infrastructure, Wipro enables firms to introduce new products rapidly..

Cyber Towers the software landmark of Hyderabad. Located at Madhapur surrounded by many software majors like Wipro, IBM and Accenture.

• Technology Infrastructure called as TIS provides remote infrastructure management solutions and services. Wipro Technologies achieves this through a Global Command Centre (GCC) which consolidates services and resources in one place and centrally manage them. It is a true enabler for the company for providing services in infrastructure management.

Wipro BPO
Wipro BPO employs over 22,000, of whom 3,150 are at its Hyderabad campus. The planned new recruitments will be from among science and commerce graduates and under-graduates. The majority of Wipro BPO’s business comes from the US, followed by Europe. The rest of the world contributes only marginally to its top line. The company posted a turnover of $290 million in FY08. Founded in 2002, Wipro BPO has operations in Delhi, Pune, Kolkata, Chennai, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Navi-Mumbai (Belapur) Greater Noida and Kochi in India. It also has offices in Shanghai and Cebu in Asia and Curittiba in Brazil and Wroclaw in Poland. It has 44 clients in segments such as banking & capital markets, insurance, travel & hospitality, hi-tech manufacturing, telecom and healthcare.

Offices and Development Centers
(This list is incomplete and is still being updated) • India • Bengaluru (Headquartered) • Chennai • Kolkata • Pune(Hinjawadi) • Hyderabad • Okhla • Jasolla New Delhi

Wipro Floating learning Centre, Electronic City, Bangalore, India.

• Greater Noida (Wipro Technology Services Ltd has started operating at GNDC from late 2010) • Mumbai (Wipro Technology Services Ltd. Erstwhile Citigroup Information Technology and Operation Services) • Gurgaon

Wipro Technologies • Kochi • Bhubaneswar • Coimbatore (Partially in operation) • United States • • • • • • • • • • • • • Mountain View, CA Washington, DC Atlanta, GA Oakbrook Terrace, IL Boston, MA Okemos, MI Troy, MI Bloomington, MN East Brunswick, NJ New York, NY Columbus, OH Addison, TX Houston, TX

179

• Bellevue, WA • Kings Mountain, North Carolina, Data Center[8] • Canada • Mississauga, ON • Mexico • Monterrey Pathankot Wap technologies • Portugal • Oporto • Braga • Latin America • Buenos Aires • Curitiba • São Paulo • China (P.R.C.) • Shanghai • Chengdu

References
• "Wipro Applying Thought in Schools" [9].
[1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. bseindia. com/ bseplus/ StockReach/ AdvanceStockReach. aspx?scripcode=507685 http:/ / www. nyse. com/ about/ listed/ quickquote. html?ticker=wit "Wipro" (http:/ / www. wipro. com/ corporate/ investors/ pdf-files/ ifrs_pressrelease-Q4-FY09-10. pdf). Wipro.com. . Retrieved 2010-09-07. Qrtr_Results, Dec2010. "WIPRO_Qtr_result_dec_2010" (http:/ / www. wipro. com/ corporate/ investors/ q3_1011_pdf/ IFRS_GAAP_press_release_q3_FY10-11. pdf). www.wipro.com. . Retrieved 21 January 2011. [5] http:/ / www. wipro. com/ index. htm [6] "WIPRO quarter results-Sep 2009" (http:/ / www. wipro. com/ corporate/ investors/ pdf-files/ ifrs_pressrelease-Q2-FY09_10. pdf). . Retrieved 2009-10-29.

Wipro Technologies
[7] "India's top 10 brands" (http:/ / business. rediff. com/ slide-show/ 2010/ oct/ 26/ slide-show-1-tata-motors-is-indias-top-brand. htm). business.rediff.com. . Retrieved 26 Oct 2010. [8] County welcomes Wipro (http:/ / www. shelbystar. com/ news/ sent-51486-governor-town. html), The Star, retrieved 16 Nov 2010. [9] http:/ / www. wipro. org

180

Information provided by Hakim Mouazam Ali

External links
• Official website (http://http://www.wipro.com/index.htm) • Wipro at Wikinvest

Infosys

181

Infosys
Infosys Technologies Limited

Industry

IT services IT consulting 2 July 1981 N R Narayana Murthy Nandan Nilekani N. S. Raghavan Kris Gopalakrishnan S. D. Shibulal K Dinesh Ashok Arora Bengaluru, Karnataka, India N R Narayana Murthy (Chairman) Kris Gopalakrishnan (CEO & MD) S. D. Shibulal (COO & Director) Finacle Information technology consulting services, solutions and outsourcing. 21140 crore (US$4.69 billion) (31st March, 2010) 7472 crore (US$1.66 billion) (2010) 5803 crore (US$1.29 billion) (2010) $6.150 billion (2010) $5.361 billion (2010) 122,468 (2010) [3] [4] [2] [2] [1] [1] [1]

Founded Founder(s)

Headquarters Key people

Products Services Revenue Operating income Profit Total assets Total equity Employees Divisions

Infosys BPO Infosys Consulting Infosys Public Services Infosys Australia Infosys Brazil Infosys China Infosys Mexico Infosys Sweden Infosys.com [5]

Website [6]

Infosys (BSE: 500209

, NASDAQ: INFY

[7]

Kannada: ಇನ್ಫೊಸಿಸ್) is an information technology services

company headquartered in Bengaluru, India. Infosys is one of the largest IT companies in India with 122,468 employees (including subsidiaries) as of 2010.[4] It has offices in 33 countries and development centres in India,

Infosys China, Australia, UK, Canada and Japan.[8]

182

History
Infosys was founded on 2 July 1981 by seven entrepreneurs, Nagavara Ramarao Narayana Murthy, Nandan Nilekani, Kris Gopalakrishnan, S. D. Shibulal, K Dinesh and with N. S. Raghavan officially being the first employee of the company. The founders started the company with an initial investment of INR 10,000.[9] The company was incorporated as "Infosys Consultants Pvt Ltd." in Model Colony, Pune as the registered office.[10] Infosys went public in 1993. Interestingly, Infosys IPO was under subscribed but it was bailed out by US investment banker Morgan Stanley which picked up 13% of equity at the offer price of Rs. 95 per share.[11] The share price surged to Rs. 8,100 by 1999. By the year 2000 Infosys's shares touched Rs. 310 before the catastrophic incident of September 11th, changed all that.[12] According to Forbes magazine, since listing on the Bombay Stock Exchange till the year 2000, Infosys' sales and earnings compounded at Infosys headquarters in Bengaluru, India more than 70% a year.[13] In the year 2000, President of the United States Bill Clinton complimented India on its achievements in high technology areas citing the example of Infosys.[14] Infosys will invest $100 million (Rs 440 crore) on establishing a 20,000-seater campus in Shanghai.[15] In 2001, it was rated Best Employer in India by Business Today.[16] Infosys was rated best employer to work for in 2000, 2001, and 2002 by Hewitt Associates. In 2007, Infosys received over 1.3 million applications and hired fewer than 3% of applicants.[17] Infosys was the only Indian company to win the Global MAKE (Most Admired Knowledge Enterprises) award for the years 2003, 2004 and 2005, and is inducted into the Global Hall of Fame for the same.[18] [19]

Current share holding
Promoters and their families hold 16%.Govt. of India enterprise with 3.84% can be termed as the single largest share holder. Govt. of UAE and Govt. of. Singapore also holds significant shares.Rest of the shares are owned by Financial institutions,Individual investors.[20]

Initiatives

Infosys

183

In 1996, Infosys created the Infosys Foundation in the state of Karnataka, operating in the areas of health care, social rehabilitation and rural uplift, education, arts and culture. Since then, this foundation has spread to the Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Kerala, Orissa and Punjab. The Infosys Foundation is headed by Mrs. Sudha Murthy, wife of Founder Cum Chief Mentor Narayan Murthy Since 2004, Infosys has embarked on a series of initiatives to consolidate and formalize its academic relationships worldwide under the umbrella of a program called AcE - Academic Entente.[22] Infosys' Infosys has the largest corporate university in the world, located on [21] Global Internship Program, known as InStep, is one of its Mysore campus. the key components of the Academic Entente initiative. It offers live projects to interns from the universities around the world. InStep recruits undergraduate, graduate and PhD students from business, technology, and liberal arts universities to take part in an 8 to 24 week internship at one of Infosys' global offices. InStep interns are also provided career opportunities with Infosys. In 1997, Infosys started the "Catch them Young Program", to expose the urban youth to the world of Information Technology by conducting a summer vacation program. The program is aimed at developing an interest and understanding of computer science and information technology. This program is targeted at students in Grade IX level.[23] In 2002, the Wharton Business School of the University of Pennsylvania and Infosys started the Wharton Infosys Business Transformation Award. This technology award recognizes enterprises and individuals who have transformed their businesses and the society leveraging information technology. Past winners include Samsung, Amazon.com, Capital One, RBS and ING Direct. Infosys has the largest corporate education center in the world in Mysore. It can accommodate 14000 candidates at one time.[24] In 2009, Infosys created Infosys Prize for excellence in Physical Sciences, Mathematical Sciences, Engineering and Computer Science, Life Sciences and Social Sciences.[25]

Research
Infosys developed a corporate R&D wing called Software Engineering and Technology Labs (SETLabs). SETLabs was founded in 2000 to carry out applied research for the development of processes, frameworks and methodologies to effectively capture customer requirements and to iron out common critical issues during a project life cycle.[26] Various broad groups are Software Engg Lab, Convergence Lab, Innovation Lab, Center for KDIS, Security and Privacy Lab and Distributed Computing Lab.

Infosys

184

Charity
In 2005, Infosys donated 10m rupees (about $226,000) to help with the effects of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake in Pakistan.[27] Infosys does not currently have an office in Pakistan.

Global offices
Asia Pacific
India - Bengaluru, Bhubaneswar, Chandigarh, Chennai , Coimbatore , Hyderabad, Jaipur, Mangalore, Mysore, Pune, Thiruvananthapuram Kolkata(2012),[28] Australia - Melbourne, Sydney and China - Beijing, Shanghai Hong Kong - Hong Kong, Japan - Tokyo, Mauritius - Mauritius, New Zealand - Wellington, UAE - Sharjah, Philippines Taguig City, Fiji Island - Suva and Thailand - Bangkok

North America
Canada - Toronto, USA - Atlanta (GA), Bellevue (WA), Bridgewater (NJ), Charlotte (NC), Southfield (MI), Fremont (CA), Houston (TX), Glastonbury (CT), Lake Forest (CA), Lisle (IL), New York, Phoenix (AZ), Plano (TX), Quincy (MA), Reston (VA) and Mexico - Monterrey

Europe
Czech Republic - Brno, Belgium - Brussels, Denmark - Copenhagen, Finland - Helsinki, France - Paris, Germany - Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Italy - Milano, Norway - Oslo, Poland - Łódź, The Netherlands - Amsterdam, Spain - Madrid, Burgos, Sweden - Stockholm, Switzerland - Zürich, Geneva and UK - Canary Wharf, London

South America
Brazil - Belo Horizonte

Infosys, Pune campus

Movie Theatre, Mysore campus

Swimming pool & spa, Bangalore campus

Mangalore campus

A building in Thiruvananthapuram campus

Bangalore campus

Infosys Mysore campus

Dancing fountains, Bangalore campus

Infosys

185

Pune campus

Swimming pool, Mysore campus

Infosys Chennai main block at Mahindra World City, New Chennai

The intergerated Eco-Friendly Block at Chennai,one of the biggest in the world

The largest TV screen in Asia, Bangalore campus

BPO Building, Bangalore campus

Canteen, Bangalore campus

Notes
[1] "BSE 2010 Data" (http:/ / www. bseindia. com/ qresann/ detailedresult. asp?scrip_cd=500209& compname=INFOSYS TECHNOLOGIES LTD. & qtr=65. 50). http:/ / www. bseindia. com. . Retrieved 2010-09-07. [2] Rakesh R.S. Garia (2010-04-13). "Results for the Fourth Quarter and Year ended 31 March 2010" (http:/ / www. infosys. com/ investors/ reports-filings/ quarterly-results/ 2009-2010/ Q4/ Documents/ fact-sheet. pdf). infosys.com. Infosys. . Retrieved 2010-04-13. [3] "Top 20 IT-BPO employers in India : Rediff.com Business" (http:/ / business. rediff. com/ slide-show/ 2010/ jul/ 29/ slide-show-1-tech-top-20-it-bpo-employers-in-india. htm#contentTop). Business.rediff.com. . Retrieved 2010-07-29. [4] Infosys Technologies Limited (2010-06-30). "What We Do | About Us" (http:/ / www. infosys. com/ about/ what-we-do/ Pages/ index. aspx). Infosys. . Retrieved 2010-07-27. [5] http:/ / www. infosys. com/ [6] http:/ / www. bseindia. com/ bseplus/ StockReach/ AdvanceStockReach. aspx?scripcode=500209 [7] http:/ / quotes. nasdaq. com/ asp/ SummaryQuote. asp?symbol=INFY& selected=INFY [8] Infosys Technologies Limited. "Fact File | Who We Are | About Us" (http:/ / www. infosys. com/ about/ who-we-are/ Pages/ fact-file. aspx). Infosys. . Retrieved 2010-07-27. [9] Narayana Murthy. "Learn entrepreneurship the Infosys way! - CNBC-TV18/TiE-Leaders and Learners" (http:/ / www. moneycontrol. com/ news/ management/ learn-entrepreneurshipinfosys-way_341544. html). Moneycontrol.com. . Retrieved 2010-07-27. [10] "Rediff On The Net, Infotech: Infosys begins work on Rs 1.35-billion Pune centre" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ computer/ 1999/ jan/ 11infosy. htm). Rediff.com. 1999-01-11. . Retrieved 2010-07-27. [11] "Business: Infosys: Money Machine" (http:/ / www. india-today. com/ itoday/ 19991108/ business. html). India-today.com. 1999-11-08. . Retrieved 2010-07-27. [12] "Money Machine" (http:/ / www. india-today. com/ itoday/ 19991108/ business. html). India Today. 8 November 1999. . Retrieved 209-04-12. [13] "Passage to India" (http:/ / www. forbes. com/ forbes/ 2000/ 1030/ 6612080a. html). Forbes. 30 October 2000. . Retrieved 2009-04-12. [14] "Clinton calls for closer ties to boost IT business" (http:/ / www. expressindia. com/ news/ fe/ daily/ 20000325/ fco25053. html). Indian Express. 25 March 2000. . Retrieved 2009-04-12. [15] "Infy plans Rs 440-cr China campus" (http:/ / business. rediff. com/ report/ 2010/ oct/ 22/ tech-infy-plans-rs-440-cr-china-campus. htm). business.rediff.com. . Retrieved 25 Oct 2010. [16] R. Sukumar. "India's Best Employers: The Top 5" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060701051112/ http:/ / www. india-today. com/ btoday/ 20010121/ cover2. html). A BT-Hewitt study. Business Today. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. india-today. com/ btoday/ 20010121/ cover2. html) on 2006-07-01. . Retrieved 2006-10-10. [17] "INFY 2007 20-F, Item 6" (http:/ / www. sec. gov/ Archives/ edgar/ data/ 1067491/ 000106749107000015/ form20f. htm#item6). Sec.gov. . Retrieved 2010-09-07. [18] "Infosys recognized as a Globally Most Admired Knowledge Enterprise for 2004" (http:/ / www. infosys. com/ newsroom/ press-releases/ Documents/ 2004/ MAKEGLOBAL-PressRelease-25Nov04. pdf) (PDF). A Teleos study. Infosys Media. . Retrieved 2004-12-01. [19] "Infosys in the Global Hall of Fame" (http:/ / www. infosys. com/ media/ press_releases/ global-make-award-hall-of-fame. asp). . [20] http:/ / www. infosys. com/ investors/ reports-filings/ quarterly-results/ Documents/ Share-Holding/ clause35-june30-2010. pdf

Infosys
[21] Infosys Technologies Limited. "Sustainability" (http:/ / www. infosys. com/ beyond-business/ pages/ index. aspx). Infosys. . Retrieved 2010-07-27. [22] Infosys Technologies Limited. "InStep | About Internship | Global Academic Program" (http:/ / www. infosys. com/ InStepWeb/ about-internship/ global-academic-program. asp). Infosys. . Retrieved 2010-07-27. [23] "Summer fun" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ yw/ 2004/ 08/ 14/ stories/ 2004081400640200. htm). The Hindu. 2004-06-14. . Retrieved 2006-10-12. [24] Infosys Technologies Limited. "Sonia Gandhi Inaugurates Global Education Center in Mysore | Press Releases | Newsroom" (http:/ / www. infosys. com/ newsroom/ press-releases/ Pages/ global-education-center-II. aspx). Infosys. . Retrieved 2010-07-27. [25] "Infosys Prize – About" (http:/ / www. infosys-science-foundation. com/ about_prize. html). Infosys-science-foundation.com. . Retrieved 2010-07-27. [26] "Tracking a Shopper's Habits" (http:/ / www. technologyreview. com/ Infotech/ 21161/ ?a=f). Technology Review. . Retrieved 2010-07-27. [27] "South Asia | Indian quake aid reaches Pakistan" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ south_asia/ 4334530. stm). BBC News. 2005-10-12. . Retrieved 2010-07-27. [28] Infosys Technologies Limited. "Contact | APAC" (http:/ / www. infosys. com/ contact/ pages/ index. aspx). Infosys. . Retrieved 2010-09-07.

186

References
• "Infosys Overview" (http://www.infosys.com/about/what-we-do/pages/index.aspx). Retrieved 2006-08-23. • Infosys Technologies Australia Pty Ltd. (2003-12-18). "Infosys releases agreement to acquire Expert Information Services Pty Limited, Australia (PDF)" (http://www.infosys.com/australia/news/Documents/ infosys-acquires-expert.pdf). Press release. Retrieved 2006-10-11. • Bharat kumar (2002-08-07). "A twist to the tale" (http://www.blonnet.com/ew/2002/08/07/stories/ 2002080700070200.htm). Business Line. • Infosys News (2007-12-12). "Latest Happenings at Infosys" (http://www.topnews.in/business-news/infosys). Top News. • M.Bala Murugan (2010-04-16). "Latest News" (http://www.topnews.in/business-news/infosys). Daily Dhanthi.

External links
• • • • • • Official website (http://http://www.infosys.com/) Infosys Consulting Division (http://www.infosysconsulting.com/) Infosys Blogs Website (http://www.infosysblogs.com/) Infosys Foundation website (http://www.infosys.com/infosys_foundation/index.htm) Infosys Science Foundation website (http://www.infosys-science-foundation.com/) Infosys Campus Connect Program website (https://campusconnect.infosys.com/login.aspx)

Zenith Computers

187

Zenith Computers
Zenith Computers Limited

Type Industry Founded Founder(s)

Public BSE: 517164 Computer 1980 Mr.Raj Saraf

[1]

Headquarters Mumbai, India Key people Products Revenue Net income Website Mr.Raj Saraf Computer 310.998 crore (US$69.04 million) (2009) INR Rs. 15.324 Crores (2009) zenithpc.com [3] [2]

Zenith Computers Limited [4] BSE: 517164 [1] is the second largest Personal Computer manufacturer in India. Zenith produces desktop and laptop computers. Its head office is located in Mumbai, with 15 branches all across India. All the fabrication happens in Zenith's ISO 14001 certified - 60000-square-foot (5600 m2) factory in Goa. Currently, Zenith has 500 Zenith PC World stores and 1000 dealers nationwide. On the worldwide front, Zenith PCs and Laptops are now available in South America, Europe, Middle East and Africa, SAARC and Asia.

Products
Currently Zenith sells its products all across India. These include: Zenith Corporate PC H55G - Model 2 *[5] Zenith Corporate PC 740A*[6] Zenith Corporate PC 785*[7] Zenith Corporate PC G41A*[8] Smart Style Performance PC 785 *[9] Zenith PC Atom *[10] Zenith Smart Style Performance PC G31 *[11] Zenith Smart Style GREEN PC *[12] Zenith Smart Style THIN PC *[13] Zenith Corporate PC G31A *[14] Zenith Corporate PC H55G *[15] Zenith Admirale *[16] Zenith Director Plus Ultra *[17]

Zenith Computers Zenith ZBOOK Dock *[18] Zenith Smart Style Thin Client - Diskless PC *[19] Zenith Thin Client - Diskless PC *[20] • Desktops [21] powered by Intel Processors and AMD Processors

188

History
Established in 1980 by Mr. Raj Saraf; Zenith has strived to bring the latest technology products to the Indian market. Thereby, creating a market in India for computing in offices, banks, households, education and every sector that has benefited from technological advancement. Yet, refusing to take much credit for the fact that Zenith launched laptops in India for the first time, and introduced networking in India for the first time, and many others such as Unix, CPM, touch screens and other innovations. When Zenith began, it was ranked the 59th PC Company, with many major business houses having entered this new and exciting space, and has become the 2nd largest PC Company in India.

Innovation
Innovation as Legacy - Zenith constantly focuses on releasing the latest technology, creating products specific to the Indian Market by keeping its products affordable and accessible. Innovation in Research & Development - using the concept Management by TechnologyTM Zenith is able to improve business efficiencies and integrate technology in areas that are currently offline. The Zenith NPD (New Product Development) Centre in Mumbai researches, ideates, develops and manufactures PCs and Laptops for Computing, Communication and Entertainment. Innovation in Reach - The first Indian PC company to reach the Indian hinterland with its retail expansion plan in 2001.

Reference
[1] http:/ / www. bseindia. com/ bseplus/ StockReach/ AdvanceStockReach. aspx?scripcode=517164 [2] http:/ / www. bseindia. com/ qresann/ results. asp?scripcd=517164& scripname=ZENITH%20COMPUTERS%20LTD. & type=61. 5& quarter=MC2008-2009& ResType=& checkcons= [3] http:/ / www. zenithpc. com/ [4] http:/ / www. zenithpc. com [5] http:/ / www. zenith-india. com/ zenithcorporate-pch55g-model2. aspx [6] http:/ / www. zenith-india. com/ zenithcorporate-pc740a. aspx [7] http:/ / www. zenith-india. com/ zenithcorporate-pc785. aspx [8] http:/ / www. zenith-india. com/ zenithcorporate-pcg41a. aspx [9] http:/ / www. zenith-india. com/ smartstyleperformance-pc785. aspx [10] http:/ / www. zenith-india. com/ zenithpc-atom. aspx [11] http:/ / www. zenith-india. com/ zenithsmartstyleperformance-pcg31. aspx [12] http:/ / www. zenith-india. com/ zenithsmartstyle-greenpc. aspx [13] http:/ / www. zenith-india. com/ zenithsmartstyle-thinpc. aspx [14] http:/ / www. zenith-india. com/ zenithcorporate-pcg31a. aspx [15] http:/ / www. zenith-india. com/ zenithcorporate-pch55g. aspx [16] http:/ / www. zenith-india. com/ zenith-admirale. aspx [17] http:/ / www. zenith-india. com/ zenith-directorplusultra. aspx [18] http:/ / www. zenith-india. com/ zenith-zbookdock. aspx [19] http:/ / www. zenith-india. com/ zenithsmartstylethinclient--disklesspc. aspx [20] http:/ / www. zenith-india. com/ zeniththinclient--disklesspc. aspx [21] http:/ / www. zenith-india. com/ home-desktops. aspx

Micro-Star International

189

Micro-Star International
MSI Micro-Star International Co., Ltd

Type Industry

Public TWSE: 2377 Computer hardware Electronics 1986

[1]

Founded

Headquarters Zhonghe District, New Taipei City, Taiwan[2] Products Notebooks, Motherboards, Video Cards, Barebone, Consumer Electronics, Servers, Industrial Computing, All-in-One PC, Medical [3] Devices TW$74.24 billion (2005) 18,000 [5] [4]

Revenue Employees Website

http:/ / www. msi. com

Micro-Star International Co., Ltd (MSI) (Chinese: 微星科技; pinyin: Weixīng Keji) is a Taiwan-based electronics company and one of the world's largest motherboard and video card manufacturers.

Overview
MSI is one of the top three motherboard and video card manufacturers worldwide.[4] [5] [6] In addition, MSI also manufactures a wide range of products including expansion cards, servers, barebone computers, notebooks, car infotainment products, and All-in-One PCs.[7]

History
MSI was established in August 1986 in Jhonghe, Taipei by 5 founders – Joseph Hsu, Jeans Huang, Frank Lin, Kenny Yu, and Henry Lu.[2] [5] [7] MSI concentrated on developing and manufacturing computer mainboards and graphics cards in the beginning. In 1987, the company produced the world's first overclocking motherboard.[5] MSI has also expanded into mainland China, opening its Baoan Plant in Shenzhen in 2000 and establishing research and development facilities Kunshan in 2001.[7] Its annual motherboard and video card production reached 20.8 million units and 11.8 million units, respectively.[7] In 2005, it has worldwide sales of US$2.4 billion.[4]

Micro-Star International

190

Business Operations
In 1995, MSI kicked off its diversified business operation strategy, starting from the motherboard and video card industries and extending into consumer electronics. Currently its portfolio includes notebooks, communication devices, barebone systems, servers/workstations, multimedia, industrial computing, and others.

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / finance. yahoo. com/ q?m=TW& s=2377. TW "MSI Company Background" (http:/ / wimaxtaipei. tw/ suppliers_profile. php?id=182). WiMAX Taipei. . Retrieved 2010-07-18. "About MSI: Product Lines" (http:/ / us. msi. com/ index. php?func=html& name=about_product). MSI. . Retrieved 2010-07-18. "An Overview of MSI" (http:/ / www. msimobile. com/ aboutmsi. aspx). MSI Mobile. . Retrieved 2010-07-18. "MSI Company Profile" (http:/ / tw. msi. com/ index. php?func=html& name=about_intro). MSI. . Retrieved 2010-07-18. "A List of the Top Computer Motherboard Brands" (http:/ / www. brighthub. com/ computing/ hardware/ articles/ 66374. aspx). Bright Hub. 2010-03-15. . Retrieved 2010-07-18. [7] "Company Profile" (http:/ / us. msi. com/ index. php?func=html& name=about_intro). MSI. . Retrieved 2010-07-18.

External links
• Official website (http://www.msi.com) • MSI-Corporate Social Responsibility (http://www.msi.com/html/popup/csr/) • List of MSI Radeon based graphics cards (http://radeonspecs.com/msi.php) • Digitimes article about Dual Core-cell technology (http://www.digitimes.com/news/a20061107A7039.html)

MSI protocol
The MSI protocol is a basic cache coherence protocol that is used in multiprocessor systems. As with other cache coherency protocols, the letters of the protocol name identify the possible states in which a cache line can be. So, for MSI, each block contained inside a cache can have one of three possible states: • Modified: The block has been modified in the cache. The data in the cache is then inconsistent with the backing store (e.g. memory). A cache with a block in the "M" state has the responsibility to write the block to the backing store when it is evicted. • Shared: This block is unmodified and exists in at least one cache. The cache can evict the data without writing it to the backing store. • Invalid: This block is invalid, and must be fetched from memory or another cache if the block is to be stored in this cache. These coherency states are maintained through communication between the caches and the backing store. The caches have different responsibilities when blocks are read or written, or when they learn of other caches issuing reads or writes for a block. When a read request arrives at a cache for a block in the "M" or "S" states, the cache supplies the data. If the block is not in the cache (in the "I" state), it must verify that the line is not in the "M" state in any other cache. Different caching architectures handle this differently. For example, bus architectures often perform snooping, where the read request is broadcast to all of the caches. Other architectures include cache directories which have agents (directories) that know which caches last had copies of a particular cache block. If another cache has the block in the "M" state, it must write back the data to the backing store and go to the "S" or "I" states. Once any "M" line is written back, the cache obtains the block from either the backing store, or another cache with the data in the "S" state. The cache can then supply the data to the requestor. After supplying the data, the cache block is in the "S" state.

MSI protocol When a write request arrives at a cache for a block in the "M" state, the cache modifies the data locally. If the block is in the "S" state, the cache must notify any other caches that might contain the block in the "S" state that they must evict the block. This notification may be via bus snooping or a directory, as described above. Then the data may be locally modified. If the block is in the "I" state, the cache must notify any other caches that might contain the block in the "S" or "M" states that they must evict the block. If the block is in another cache in the "M" state, that cache must either write the data to the backing store or supply it to the requesting cache. If at this point the cache does not yet have the block locally, the block is read from the backing store before being modified in the cache. After the data is modified, the cache block is in the "M" state. For any given pair of caches, the permitted states of a given cache line are as follows:
 M   M   S   I   S   I 

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Usages
This protocol was used in the SGI 4D machine.

Variants
Most modern systems use variants of the MSI protocol to reduce the amount of traffic in the coherency interconnect. The MESI protocol adds an "Exclusive" state to reduce the traffic caused by writes of blocks that only exist in one cache. The MOSI protocol adds an "Owned" state to reduce the traffic caused by write-backs of blocks that are read by other caches. The MOESI protocol does both of these things.

University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute

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University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute
The University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute (MSI) in Minneapolis, Minnesota is an interdisciplinary research program providing supercomputing resources and user support to faculty and researchers. MSI is located on the University of Minnesota’s Twin Cities campus in Walter Library. MSI provides hardware, software, and technical support resources to researchers at the University of Minnesota and other higher educational institutions in Minnesota.

History
In 1981, the University of Minnesota was the first U.S. University to acquire a supercomputer (a Cray-1). The Supercomputing Institute was created in 1984 to provide high-performance computing resources to the University of Minnesota's research community. In August 2010, Jorge Viñals, former director of CLUMEQ, a Canadian Supercomputing Center led by McGill University in Montreal and Quebec City, became the new director of MSI. He is also a professor of physics at the University of Minnesota.

Mission
The mission of the institute is supercomputing research , broadly defined as involving the use of high-performance computing environments to address problems in the physical, biological, medical, mathematical, and computing sciences and engineering and other fields. The goal is to promote solutions to problems that could not otherwise be resolved.

Supercomputing capabilities
Core resources • Itasca: HP Linux cluster with 1,091 HP ProLiant BL280c G6 blade servers, each with two-socket, quad-core 2.8 GHz Intel Xeon X5560 "Nehalem EP" processors sharing 24 GB of system memory, with a 40-gigabit QDR InfiniBand (IB) interconnect. • Calhoun: SGI Altix Altix XE 1300 cluster • Elmo: Sun Fire X4600 Linux cluster • Koronis: SGI UV 1000 cluster with associated workstations and storage Laboratories • • • • • • • Basic Sciences Computing (BSCL) Computational Genetics (CGL) Biomedical Modeling, Simulation, and Design (BMSDL) LCSE-MSI Visualization Laboratory (LMVL) Scientific Data Management (SDML) Scientific Development and Visualization (SDVL) MSI-UMR BICB Computational Laboratory (UMBCL)

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Undergraduate internship program
MSI offers a summer internship program for undergraduates. Interns work with faculty members and their research groups on projects addressing problems in science and engineering. This includes high-performance computing and scientific modeling and simulation, graphics, visualization, informatics, and high-performance network communications.

References
• Moore, Rick. "Blade Runner : UMNews." University of Minnesota. Web. 29 July 2010. <http://www1.umn.edu/news/features/2009/UR_CONTENT_148391.html>. • Vance, Ashlee. "Minnesota’s Enormous Apples Computer - Bits Blog - NYTimes.com." Technology - Bits Blog NYTimes.com. Web. 29 July 2010. <http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/12/10/minnesotas-enormous-apples-computer/?scp=2&sq=university of Minnesota supercomputing&st=cse>

External links
• Minnesota Supercomputing Institute [1] • University of Minnesota [2]

References
[1] https:/ / www. msi. umn. edu [2] http:/ / www. umn. edu

Centre for Development of Advanced Computing

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Centre for Development of Advanced Computing
Centre For Development of Advanced Computing
Motto Established Type Location Campus Website The Supercomputing People 1984 Research and Development Pune, India Urban www.cdac.in [1]

Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) is the premier R&D organization of the Department of Information Technology (DIT), Ministry of Communications & Information Technology (MCIT) for carrying out R&D in IT, Electronics and associated areas. Different areas of C-DAC, had originated at different times, many of which came out as a result of identification of opportunities. The setting up of C-DAC in 1988 itself was to built Supercomputers in context of denial of import of Supercomputers by USA. Since then C-DAC has been undertaking building of multiple generations of Supercomputer starting from PARAM with 1 GF in 1988. Almost at the same time, C-DAC started building Indian Language Computing Solutions with setting up of GIST group (Graphics and Intelligence based Script Technology); National Centre for Software Technology (NCST) set up in 1985 had also initiated work in Indian Language Computing around the same period. Electronic Research and Development Centre of India (ER&DCI) with various constituents starting as adjunct entities of various State Electronic Corporations, had been brought under the hold of Department of Electronics and Telecommunications (now DIT) in around 1988. They were focusing on various aspects of applied electronics, technology and applications. With the passage of time as a result of creative echo system that got set up in C-DAC, more areas such as Health Informatics, etc., got created; while right from the beginning the focus of NCST was on Software Technologies; similarly C-DAC started its education & training activities in 1994 as a spin-off with the passage of time, it grew to a large efforts to meet the growing needs of Indian Industry for finishing schools. C-DAC has today emerged as a premier third party R&D organization in IT&E (Information Technologies and Electronics) in the country working on strengthening national technological capabilities in the context of global developments in the field and responding to change in the market need in selected foundation areas. In that process, C-DAC represents a unique facet working in close junction with DIT to realize nation's policy and pragmatic interventions and initiatives in Information Technology. As an institution for high-end Research and Development (R&D), C-DAC has been at the forefront of the Information Technology (IT) revolution, constantly building capacities in emerging/enabling technologies and innovating and leveraging its expertise, caliber, skill sets to develop and deploy IT products and solutions for different sectors of the economy, as per the mandate of its parent, the Department of Information Technology, Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, Government of India and other stakeholders including funding agencies, collaborators, users and the market-place.

Centre for Development of Advanced Computing Starting from its initial mission on building indigenous supercomputers, Centre For Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) has progressively grown to build an eco-system and institutional framework for innovation, technology development, skills, delivery plans, collaboration, partnership and market orientation in a number of niche areas of national importance and market relevance in ICT and Electronics. Through in-house research, technology and product development efforts and in collaboration with Academia, Research Labs and Industry in India or abroad, it endeavours to identity promising ideas nurtured building of ideas and competencies convert many of them into practical tools, technologies, products and services to meet the needs of : SMEs and other industrial players in the country; intermediate players; and end-users in Science and Engineering, manufacturing & service sectors, government, health, development and strategic sectors. Of special relevance to C-DAC are innovation and development of solutions impacting large public, in Indian context or those where technology and innovative approaches can make a big difference in cost or performance, offer new functionalities or contribute to better quality of life. C-DAC’s focus has been on emerging as a leader in chosen enabling technology areas and work towards integration of these in end-to-end solutions in various verticals/domains including infrastructure. The latter is undertaken oftentimes by C-DAC itself but equally or more often in conjunction/collaboration with other public and private agencies through a consortium and partnership mode. Institutional innovation to support scaling up process of such efforts is also one of the priority objectives. The focal areas in terms of enabling technologies as outlined above would be: § High Performance Computing & Grid Computing § Language Computing § Software Technologies with special reference to Free/Open Source Software § Professional Electronics including VLSI and Embedded Systems § Cyber Security § Health Informatics § Education & Training with special reference to Finishing School and areas of specialized skills C-DAC has its head office in Pune & other offices at Mumbai (Juhu, Nariman Point), Navi Mumbai (Kharghar), Mohali (Punjab), Bangalore (Electronics City and Visvesvaraya Centre), Noida, Hyderabad (JNTU Campus, Ameerpet), Chennai, Kolkata, Delhi and Trivandrum.

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Research
The technologies dealt with within the house of C-DAC are Natural language processing (NLP), Artificial Intelligence (AI), e-Learning, Multilingual computing, Multimedia computing, Geomatics, Cyber Security, Real Time Systems, Software & Industrial automation, High Performance Computing, Data Warehousing/Data Mining, Digital/Broadband Wireless networks, Modeling and Visualization etc. The sectors addressed are Finance, Healthcare, Power, Steel, Defence, Telecom, Agriculture, Industrial Control, Broadcasting, Education and e-Governance. Some of the major research areas are: • Graphics and Intelligence based scripting Technology: GIST is one of the Dynamic Groups working in Multilingual Technologies. • System Area Network: HTDG is currently working on products based on the VI Architecture specification. These include high-performance SAN interface cards and high-speed, scalable switches for these SANs. • Reconfigurable Computing System: Reconfigurable Computing System Cards [2] at C-DAC • Parallel Programming Environments • High Performance Communication Subsystems • High Performance Storage Systems • Computational Atmospheric Sciences • Computational Structural Mechanics • Computational Fluid Dynamics

Centre for Development of Advanced Computing • • • • • Seismic Data Processing Bioinformatics TETRA Basic Sciences Evolutionary Computing

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Achievements
• • • • • Established the first international Internet gateway into India Vartalaap, a Unicode IRC Server enabled rendering of Devanagari and other Indian scripts at the OS level in Microsoft Windows 2000/XP. N@G : Network at guard, An intrusion detection system Awards [3]

Indic computing related products
• InScript - The standard keyboard for Indian languages. • GIST • Shrutlekhan-Rajbhasha - Hindi speech to text software. • MANTRA-Rajbhasha - A machine assisted translation system which translates from English to Hindi. • Vachantar-Rajbhasha - A speech to text software that takes English sound as input and translates it to Hindi text.

Notable ex-CDACians
• Dr. Vijay P. Bhatkar , Founding Executive Director, • Dr. Srinivasan Ramani, founder NCST; Director, HP Labs India; Advisor to UN on Information and Communication Technologies • Prof. Sudhir P. Mudur, co-founder NCST; Professor, Computer Science Dept., Concordia University • P. Sadanandan, co-founder NCST • Vijayraman, director Persistent Systems • KSR Anjenayulu

External links
• • • • • • • • C-DAC Pune (Headquarters) [1] C-DAC Mumbai [4] C-DAC Noida [5] C-DAC Chennai [6] C-DAC Perambalur [7] C-DAC Hyderabad [8] CDAC-Bengaluru [9] C-DAC Kolkata [10]

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References
[1] http:/ / www. cdac. in/ [2] http:/ / www. cdac. in/ html/ htdg/ products/ recocard. asp [3] http:/ / www. cdac. in/ html/ about/ awards. asp [4] http:/ / www. cdacmumbai. in/ [5] http:/ / www. cdacnoida. in/ [6] http:/ / www. cdacchennai. in [7] http:/ / www. cdacpblr. in [8] http:/ / www. cdachyd. in/ [9] http:/ / www. cdacbangalore. in/ [10] http:/ / www. kolkatacdac. in/

Article Sources and Contributors

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Article Sources and Contributors
User:Rajah2770  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=416910398  Contributors: ArcAngel, JohnCD, MatthewVanitas, Rajah2770 Computer  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=418412877  Contributors: 1297, 144.92.164.xxx, 193.203.83.xxx, 24fan24, 7265, 876wer, A D Monroe III, A Softer Answer, A d777, A2raya07, ABShipper, AThing, Aaron Schulz, AaronTownsend, Abc753159, Abelson, Abiyoyo, Abner Doon, Academic Challenger, Acasson, Accurizer, Aceofskies05, Acroterion, AdAdAdAd, Adam1213, AdamM, Adashiel, Adnandeura, Adolphus79, Adrian Robson, Adrian.benko, Afghangangster, Ahoerstemeier, Aim Here, Akamad, Akrancis, AlMac, Alan Liefting, Alatius, Aldie, Ale jrb, AlefZet, Alegoo92, Alexmyboy, AlistairMcMillan, Allen Jesus, Alphax, Alwolff55, Amazon10x, AmyzzXX, Anacon, Ancheta Wis, Andoni, Andonic, Andre Engels, Andrew73, Andrewbadr, Andrewpmk, Android79, Andy Janata, Andy24, Andycjp, AngelOfSadness, Angela, Anger22, Angus Lepper, Anmol9999, Anonymous editor, Anshuman.jrt, Antandrus, Antony the genius, Apol0gies, AquaRichy, Arbero, Archer3, ArglebargleIV, Arjun01, Arpingstone, ArsenalTechKB, Arthur Rubin, Arwel Parry, Atomaton, Atomice, AtticusX, Aude, Auric, Awien, AxelBoldt, AzaToth, B. van der Wee, B4hand, BDerrly, BW, Babij, Banes, Barefootguru, BaronLarf, Baseball007, BazookaJoe, Bcasterline, Bcnfal@hotmail.com, Ben Standeven, Ben-Zin, Ben414, Benched3, Benhoyt, Benny476, Beweird123456, Bhebhe19, BigCow, BigFatBuddha, Bill37212, Birdhombre, Bissinger, Bjarki S, Bjmurph, Bkell, Bkkbrad, Bkonrad, Blackmail, Blacksmith, Blainster, Blaxthos, Blazzer44, Blitz1941, Blueforce4116, Bluemoose, BobShair, Bobblewik, Bobo192, Bogdangiusca, Bonadea, Bongwarrior, Bookandcoffee, Bookinvestor, Bookofjude, BorgQueen, Branddobbe, Brandenads, Branrile09, Breno, Brian0918, BriandaBrain1447, Brianjd, BrokenSegue, Brokenfrog, BrotherFlounder, Brunnock, Brusegadi, Bryan Derksen, Bubba73, Bucketsofg, Buidinhthiem, Butros, C.Fred, C1932, C777, CBDroege, CLW, COMPATT, COMPFUNK2, CSI Laredo, CSWarren, CTanguy, CTho, Cactus.man, Caknuck, Cal T, Camarcus, Cameron168, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Canderson7, Cangate, CanisRufus, CapitalR, CaptainVindaloo, Casper2k3, Catdude, CatherineMunro, Causa sui, Cause of death, Cbrodersen, Cbrown1023, Cburnett, Cdc, Cedars, Cellmaker, Cenarium, Cfailde, Cfilorvy, Chameleon, Chappie2006, CharlesGillingham, Cheesewheel, Cheezyp18, Chinneeb, Chowbok, Chris 73, Chris j wood, Chriscm, Chrisjj, Chrislk02, Christian List, Christian Storm, Christopheee, Christopher Parham, Christy747, Chshoaib, Chu Jetcheng, Chun-hian, Cicicicico, Cimbalom, Claygate, Cleared as filed, Clockwork Soul, ClockworkSoul, Cma, Cmputer, CoMaDaReInCaRnAtE, Codegrinder, Colin99, Collard, Color probe, Compaqevo, Computerjoe, Conversion script, Cool200, Coolbho3000, Coolcaesar, Coolman435, Crazycomputers, Cremepuff222, Crispichikin, Crusadeonilliteracy, Csarvey, Ctjf83, Curious DGM, Curps, Cursit, Curtis.Everingham, Cutter20, Cverlo, Cy0x, Cyan, Cybercobra, Cybiko123, Cyfal, CyrilB, DJ Clayworth, DRTllbrg, DV8 2XL, DVD R W, DaiTengu, Damicatz, Dan D. 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Scriberius, Sergay, Sewing, ShadowHntr, Shawnc, Shinsuk, Shoeofdeath, Shortride, Show6260, Siqbal, Sir Edgar, Skandalicious, Slackr, Slo-mo, Slumya, Softjuice, Sonhye, Stephanjo, Stevenmitchell, SuperSean2003, Supergloom, TFOWR, Taliath, Tankiona, Tnaniua, Tonman777, Tracer9999, Tsung, Vacekha, Vegaswikian, Versus22, Vespristiano, Vhoo, Viakenny, Viridae, Webdinger, Whible, Whoismoses, Wikidude12345, Wikimachine, Wondergirls, Woohookitty, Wooseock, Wsngk2, Xuss, YUL89YYZ, Yarnalgo, YaronSh, Yonayoda, Youngjoon Shin, Zanimum, Ziggymaster, Zr2d2, Zzuuzz, 577 anonymous edits HCL Enterprise  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=416504754  Contributors: 12fighter, AK Auto, Abhishek b4u, Allstarecho, Arpit1992, BD2412, Belkin.belkin, Bellenion, Birubookmite, Bongomatic, CambridgeBayWeather, Cartque, Chirags, Derild4921, Duncharris, Ennidhi, Gay Cdn, Generalboss3, Guptasaahil 4 u2, Hu12, I dream of horses, Ikajim, Illlaaa, InvaderJim42, Iridescent, IronGargoyle, JLaTondre, Jamcib, JamesBWatson, Jovianeye, Kbh3rd, KuwarOnline, LilHelpa, Logicat tj, Lokantha, M3lm4tt, Malcolma, Manishki, Mellisa Anthony Jones, Michinobu zoned, Mimihitam, Moocha, Natarajan.pn, OlEnglish, Paul Koning, Pnm, Pxma, Rajashekarpula, Ranjit001, RaseaC, Rjwilmsi, SAPrasanna, Santoshpavan, Shyamsunder, Siddharthmukund, Tintenfischlein, UnitedStatesian, Utcursch, Vasanthvignesh1, Vimalkalyan, Webgeek, Wingsofglory, YPavan, Ylem, 133 anonymous edits Wipro Technologies  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=417065831  Contributors: Anantdw, Ark25, Avinrh 1989, Avoid simple2, BG SpaceAce, Basawala, Belasd, Bijoalex, Bobrayner, Bodhi.dg, Bvittal, CJLL Wright, Capricorn42, Carlossuarez46, Certes, Chmanoj08, Chris the speller, Cybersunnyhawk, Debasish Dey, Drahgo, Edward321, Electronz, Empty Buffer, Ernestvoice, Fcjohn, For Loop, Gamesmasterg9, Gilliam, Gupta.sukrit, Heard tried won, Hoopla-pdx, Hullaballoo Wolfowitz, Ilavarasan, Ilya, Ipsitalona, Jagan83, Jeremy Reeder, Jessie Paul, John of Reading, Jovianeye, Jtneill, Kadavulai, Kamath.nakul, Kkm010, KuwarOnline, L Kensington, Lennon, MC10, Maakripa, Maropag, Matt5091, Meenuarora, Mild Bill Hiccup, Mouazamali, Nairsiddharth, Netlogical, Oniongas, Orangemike, PamD, Pcushing, Piano non troppo, Pravsr, RL0919, Raise lkblr, Rajanpras, Rameshng, Rameshpathak75, Ravyamaniac, Rencyphilip, Rishiwiki, Rjwilmsi, Roshan baladhanvi, Rsrikanth05, Sasikiran 10, Sathyamarie, Shreksy001, Siddartha.kaja, Sixthfore, Softy, Soumya lahiri, Ssmurthy, Sujithnairv, TaerkastUA, Teles, Terribliz, Tgkprog, Toritaiyo, Trakesht, Tri400, Valfontis, Vamsisv, Whpq, Wikipelli, Wk1989, Woohookitty, Wrathoftheafe, 238 anonymous edits Infosys  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=418606145  Contributors: 16@r, A.arvind.arasu, A3RO, Aakkshay, Aarem, Ageo020, Ahoerstemeier, Ajh16, Ajith Kumar KV, Akshar, Akshatsprakash, Alex Bakharev, Amalve, Amitgg, AndreniW, Anishdosslin, Ankush.mahajan, Anshuk, Arahopo, AreJay, ArielGold, Arjunkach, Arjunsugumar, Armybrat, Arsenikk, Arunkumar2004, Arvindbeelagi, Ashwinkun, B1ertj3, BD2412, Bangalore47, Belasd, Betacommand, Bharatveer, Bibikbalachandran, Bijoalex, Binoyjsdk, Blanchardb, Blueboy96, Boatman, Bobblewik, Bobo192, Bongomatic, Buffalo123, C21K, CNBCeurope, CS2020, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Cander0000, Catapult, Catchsandy, Chaitanya.lala, Chinju, Chirags, Cmanish, CommonsDelinker, Crackjack, Crazy20 4u, Crocodile Punter, Crysb, Curps, D6, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, Da monster under your bed, Damon1347, DanielPenfield, Davidoraj, Dawnseeker2000, DeadKurt, Decibert, Diljeeth, Dins smart88, Dippy, Dloewenherz, Dmohammed, Dmuzza, Dyjack, Earl Andrew, Ehn, El C, Electronz, Enthusiast10, Euphrosyne, Evolve75, Excirial, Ferkelparade, Fingerz, Finlay McWalter, For Loop, Fourfiver, Frecklefoot, Furyanranger, Gaia Octavia Agrippa, Geetri, Gilliam, GirtyzGreuv, Glenfarclas, Globalvillagepublication, Gnanapiti, Gopinadh2004, Gr1st, Greenshed, Gregfitzy, GregorB, Grutness, 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http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=415996124  Contributors: Austin512, Bumm13, CoolingGibbon, Hebrides, KuwarOnline, Lightmouse, Malcolmxl5, Nicholasmakhija, Shyamsunder, 7 anonymous edits Micro-Star International  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=414616068  Contributors: 00L1nk00, A13012002, A5b, Alchemist Jack, Alphax, Ant3202, Bearingbreaker92, Bender235, Blankfaze, Borko.radojkovic, Btarunr, Candyman75, Deineka, Diberri, Discospinster, DoomBringer, EagleOne, Eivind, Fatsamsgrandslam, Frap, Fueledbymusic23, Geniac, Gholdinggroups, Grunt, Iltseng, JasonDragon, Jeff G., Jhdezjr, JiVE, Jimbishop, Jkj115, JohnMcClane, JustinRossi, KUsam, Kaare, Lhsinmei, Lukassvoboda, Lunarbunny, MMuzammils, Mababa, ManiacK, Mardus, Mean as custard, Mecanismo, Mikeblas, Milan Keršláger, Mulad, Multivariable, MuncherOfSpleens, Neliz, Nelly 1975, Ninja5624, Niteowlneils, Nlu, Nux, Pegship, RadioActive, Rchamberlain, Revelations, SamJohnston, Scoo, SidP, SimonP, Slavon37, Slo-mo, Smeggysmeg, Spearhead, Spettro9, T2X, TheParanoidOne, Vic Fontaine, Whitebox, WikiFan04, Zidane2k1, 111 anonymous edits MSI protocol  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=316055147  Contributors: Boiler96, Cdills, Cmdrjameson, Dereckson, GangofOne, HJ Mitchell, J.delanoy, Jogloran, Jts888, Rettetast, Skamille, 6 anonymous edits

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Article Sources and Contributors
University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=406147086  Contributors: Autoerrant, BartlebytheScrivener, Elektrik Shoos, Hemmi37, Mamyles, Michael Hardy, R'n'B, 10 anonymous edits Centre for Development of Advanced Computing  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=418312422  Contributors: 7, Amitauti, Anandcv, Ashupa, BD2412, Belasd, Byomkesh Bakshi, CambridgeBayWeather, Casablanca2000in, Chowbok, Cnilep, D6, Edward, Ekabhishek, Gowriganesh, Himanshuwiki, IndianGeneralist, Indu Singh, Jiban, Krishnachandranvn, Laalpari, LilHelpa, Magioladitis, Open2universe, P99am, Parimal.khade, Pinkadelica, Platypus222, Qxz, Rahulogy, Ramki cse, Rhinocerosunicornis, Shrish, Shyamsunder, Sp wikiuser, Tapassaini, Topbanana, Tothwolf, Trakesht, Utcursch, Viralmvora, Woohookitty, Yogesh.desai, Zigger, Δ, चंद्रकांत धुतडमल, 93 anonymous edits

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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

207

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image:Dr.A.B.Rajib Hazarika & his kids.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Dr.A.B.Rajib_Hazarika_&_his_kids.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Rajah2770 Image:Columbia Supercomputer - NASA Advanced Supercomputing Facility.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Columbia_Supercomputer_-_NASA_Advanced_Supercomputing_Facility.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Trower, NASA File:Dell_PowerEdge_Servers.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Dell_PowerEdge_Servers.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Dsv File:2010-01-26-technikkrempel-by-RalfR-05.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:2010-01-26-technikkrempel-by-RalfR-05.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Ralf Roletschek File:Delta-C_personal_computer.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Delta-C_personal_computer.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Vitaly File:Acer Aspire 8920 Gemstone by Georgy.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Acer_Aspire_8920_Gemstone_by_Georgy.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Georgy90 File:Centcom20040818.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Centcom20040818.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Grunt at en.wikipedia File:Jacquard.loom.full.view.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Jacquard.loom.full.view.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User Ghw on en.wikipedia Image:Jacquard Joseph Marie woven silk.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Jacquard_Joseph_Marie_woven_silk.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Michel-Marie Carquillat Image:Z3 Deutsches Museum.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Z3_Deutsches_Museum.JPG  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Original uploader was Venusianer at de.wikipedia (Original text : Venusianer 14:13, 3. Jan. 2007 (CET)) File:Classic shot of the ENIAC.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Classic_shot_of_the_ENIAC.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Unidentified U.S. Army photographer File:EDSAC (10).jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:EDSAC_(10).jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Copyright Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge. Reproduced by permission. File:80486dx2-large.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:80486dx2-large.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: A23cd-s, Adambro, Admrboltz, Artnnerisa, CarolSpears, Denniss, Greudin, Kozuch, Martin Kozák, Mattbuck, Rjd0060, Rocket000, 11 anonymous edits File:FortranCardPROJ039.agr.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:FortranCardPROJ039.agr.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Arnold Reinhold File:H96566k.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:H96566k.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Courtesy of the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, VA., 1988. File:Mips32 addi.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mips32_addi.svg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: German, Nachcommonsverschieber File:Magnetic core.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Magnetic_core.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5  Contributors: Fayenatic london, Gribozavr, Uberpenguin File:HDDspin.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:HDDspin.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Alpha six from Germany File:Cray 2 Arts et Metiers dsc03940.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cray_2_Arts_et_Metiers_dsc03940.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: User:David.Monniaux File:Internet map 1024.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Internet_map_1024.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5  Contributors: Matt Britt File:Tux.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tux.svg  License: Attribution  Contributors: Larry Ewing, Simon Budig, Anja Gerwinski Image:Richard Matthew Stallman cropped.jpeg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Richard_Matthew_Stallman_cropped.jpeg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Thumperward, user:Sj Image:AndrewTanenbaum2.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:AndrewTanenbaum2.png  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5  Contributors: User:GerardM, User:Okoura Image:Linus Torvalds cropped.jpeg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Linus_Torvalds_cropped.jpeg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Thumperward File:Unix history.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Unix_history.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Hotmocha, User:Wereon File:Gnome-2.28.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gnome-2.28.png  License: GNU Lesser General Public License  Contributors: Original uploader was Juancnuno at en.wikipedia File:KDE 4.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:KDE_4.png  License: GNU General Public License  Contributors: KDE File:Xfce-4.4.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Xfce-4.4.png  License: unknown  Contributors: AVRS, Brianjd, Chealer, Imz, LinuxPickle, Tene File:LXDE desktop full.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:LXDE_desktop_full.png  License: GNU General Public License  Contributors: User:Hidro Image:JaguarXT5.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:JaguarXT5.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Media Dept. Image:Server Linux.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Server_Linux.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Beao, MainFrame, Topory, Yarnalgo, YolanC, 1 anonymous edits File:Samsung-i9000-galaxy-s.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Samsung-i9000-galaxy-s.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Melesse, Midgetman433, We hope Image:Operating system usage share.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Operating_system_usage_share.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Jdm64 at en.wikipedia File:Windows logo.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Windows_logo.svg  License: unknown  Contributors: Blubberboy92, Cflm001, FleetCommand, Koman90, Tyw7, Zzyzx11, 4 anonymous edits File:Windows 7.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Windows_7.png  License: unknown  Contributors: Addihockey10, Althepal, AnOddName, Anakin101, Andyso, AussieLegend, Bkell, Crazlunatic, Drilnoth, Feinoha, FleetCommand, GSK, Grayshi, James Michael 1, Jan Hofmann, Jjupiter100, Josh the Nerd, Koman90, LOL, LobStoR, Mephiles602, Ngyikp, OriginalGamer, PhilKnight, RegularBreaker, Roscelese, S0aasdf2sf, SF007, SchuminWeb, Sdrtirs, Seaphoto, Sonicdude558, Sotcr, SpaceFlight89, The 888th Avatar, Warren, Wtshymanski, 32 anonymous edits File:Windows1.0.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Windows1.0.png  License: unknown  Contributors: Aiyizo, Diego Moya, FleetCommand, Frogger3140, Gan Luo, Ghettoblaster, Happy Dude, James Michael 1, Kubek15, Michaelkourlas, Neurolysis, Remember the dot, Warren, 4 anonymous edits File:Windows 3.0 workspace.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Windows_3.0_workspace.png  License: unknown  Contributors: Chugun, Dancraggs, FleetCommand, James Michael 1, Shlomital, Tyomitch, Warren, Yamla, 5 anonymous edits File:Am windows95 desktop.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Am_windows95_desktop.png  License: unknown  Contributors: AlistairMcMillan, Damian Yerrick, Dan6hell66, Diego Moya, FleetCommand, Ghettoblaster, James Michael 1, Koman90, Lordalpha1, McLoaf, Shlomital, ViperSnake151, Warren, 5 anonymous edits File:WindowsCE7.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:WindowsCE7.png  License: unknown  Contributors: Koman90 File:Wince50.PNG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wince50.PNG  License: unknown  Contributors: Koman90, Thompson.matthew File:Windows Family Tree.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Windows_Family_Tree.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5  Contributors: J.int, Linfocito B, NOKIA 3120 classic, 1 anonymous edits Image:Novell.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Novell.svg  License: unknown  Contributors: Banaticus, Beamerized, Duncan, Ellomate, Fluteflute, J, Koman90, MBisanz File:Decrease2.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Decrease2.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Sarang File:Novellheadquarters.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Novellheadquarters.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Coolcaesar

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
File:Novellformerprovoheadquarters.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Novellformerprovoheadquarters.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Coolcaesar File:Macintosh 128k transparency.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Macintosh_128k_transparency.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: w:User:Grm wnr File:Imac 16-9.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Imac_16-9.png  License: unknown  Contributors: + Background : , under CC-by 3.0 Image:Mac Design Team.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mac_Design_Team.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Grm wnr, RedSpruce, Taejo, 1 anonymous edits Image:Apple Macintosh Desktop.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Apple_Macintosh_Desktop.png  License: unknown  Contributors: A104375, AlistairMcMillan, BorgQueen, Chmod007, Ctachme, EdC, Ferrenrock, Grm wnr, HereToHelp, N. Harmonik, Ricardo Cancho Niemietz, 3 anonymous edits File:Ad apple 1984.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ad_apple_1984.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Classicfilms, Edderso, Geniac, Grm wnr, HereToHelp, Ilse@, Jamoche, Lars T., Melesse, Mendaliv, Psantora, Rimshot, Zanimum, 5 anonymous edits Image:Apple-Macintosh.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Apple-Macintosh.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Tmarki Image:MacII.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MacII.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Grm wnr, Joonasl Image:Macintosh portable.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Macintosh_portable.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Beavis, Grm wnr, J o, Kozuch, Kyro, Ranveig, Wutsje, 1 anonymous edits Image:Macintosh classic.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Macintosh_classic.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Grm wnr, Kilom691, Tipiac Image:Powerbook 100 pose.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Powerbook_100_pose.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: User:Danamania Image:Macintosh System 7.5.3 screenshot.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Macintosh_System_7.5.3_screenshot.png  License: unknown  Contributors: Diego Moya, McLoaf, N. Harmonik, Remember the dot, 1 anonymous edits File:MacOS8.6.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MacOS8.6.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Calmer Waters, Fetchcomms, Fourthords, HereToHelp, Mono, N. Harmonik, Ozguy89 Image:IMac Bondi Blue.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:IMac_Bondi_Blue.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Apalsola, Dodo, Grm wnr, HereToHelp, Ilse@, Thuresson Image:MacBook Pro situated on a wooden table.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MacBook_Pro_situated_on_a_wooden_table.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Jeff Geerling File:Mac Mini 2010.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mac_Mini_2010.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: quatzacoalt File:Macpro BW.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Macpro_BW.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bayo, Bukk, Kyro, Max Naylor File:MacBook Air.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MacBook_Air.png  License: Attribution  Contributors: File:MacBook white.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MacBook_white.png  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Jared C. Benedict Original uploader was Aido2002 at en.wikipedia Image:MacBook Pros.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MacBook_Pros.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Benjamin Nagel File:Mac mini server.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mac_mini_server.png  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: User:Kyro Image:IMacG5guts.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:IMacG5guts.png  License: unknown  Contributors: Grm wnr Image:MS-DOS icon.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MS-DOS_icon.png  License: unknown  Contributors: Bkell, Coastergeekperson04, CyberSkull, KingpinE7, Koman90, Master Thief Garrett, Mysid, OsamaK, Scarecroe, The wub, 5 anonymous edits Image:StartingMsdos.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:StartingMsdos.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Closedmouth, Nios, 2 anonymous edits Image:Msdosad.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Msdosad.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Bkell, Melesse, SchmuckyTheCat, Skier Dude, Swtpc6800, Tyomitch, 1 anonymous edits

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File:US Navy 110129-N-7676W-152 Culinary Specialist 3rd Class John Smith uses the existing DOS-based food service management system aboard the aircraft .jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:US_Navy_110129-N-7676W-152_Culinary_Specialist_3rd_Class_John_Smith_uses_the_existing_DOS-based_food_service_management_system_aboard_the_aircraft_.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Sandstein Image:Vistados.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Vistados.png  License: unknown  Contributors: Koman90, N. Harmonik Image:ATI Logo.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ATI_Logo.svg  License: unknown  Contributors: Kalel2007, Mechamind90, TorontoStorm, 1 anonymous edits File:AMDmarkham4.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:AMDmarkham4.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Raysonho File:Atitechnologiessiliconvalley.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Atitechnologiessiliconvalley.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Coolcaesar File:ATI Wonder.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ATI_Wonder.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Appaloosa Image:Ruby's Revenge 1024.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ruby's_Revenge_1024.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Swaaye, User:Yamla Image:nvidia logo.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Nvidia_logo.svg  License: unknown  Contributors: -Majestic-, Cyrus XIII, MuncherOfSpleens, Rjd0060, 1 anonymous edits File:Increase2.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Increase2.svg  License: unknown  Contributors: Sarang Image:nvidiaheadquarters.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Nvidiaheadquarters.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Coolcaesar Image:Ic-photo-nVIDIA--XGPU--(X-BOX-GPU).png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ic-photo-nVIDIA--XGPU--(X-BOX-GPU).png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:ZyMOS Image:Dedge3d.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Dedge3d.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Original uploader was Swaaye at en.wikipedia Image:KL NVIDIA Geforce 256.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:KL_NVIDIA_Geforce_256.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Konstantin Lanzet Image:nvidia old logo.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Nvidia_old_logo.svg  License: unknown  Contributors: Cyrus XIII Image:NVIDIA GeForce 6800 Ultra + GeForce 7950 GX2.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:NVIDIA_GeForce_6800_Ultra_+_GeForce_7950_GX2.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Hyins Image:Intel-logo.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Intel-logo.svg  License: unknown  Contributors: Adrianwo, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Digg, Ed g2s, Gump Stump, IntoCom, Jeff G., LachrymoseQQ, Locke Cole, MBisanz, MartinHagberg, Melesse, Presidentman, Satori Son, SeventyThree, This user has left wikipedia, VD64992, Wwagner, 3 anonymous edits File:Intelheadquarters.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Intelheadquarters.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User Coolcaesar on en.wikipedia Image:153056995 5ef8b01016 o.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:153056995_5ef8b01016_o.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Ioan Sameli Image:Intel Costa 12 2007 SJO 105b.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Intel_Costa_12_2007_SJO_105b.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: User:Mariordo Image:Intc-hist-price-1986-2006.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Intc-hist-price-1986-2006.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: 7265, Anon user, Az29, MithrandirMage, Strangerer, Ysangkok, Yutsi File:Intel Logo.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Intel_Logo.svg  License: unknown  Contributors: Original uploader was KUsam at en.wikipedia. Later version(s) were uploaded by Sushiflinger at en.wikipedia. File:Intel Inside Logo.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Intel_Inside_Logo.svg  License: unknown  Contributors: KUsam, MBisanz, Sushiflinger, 2 anonymous edits File:Intelinsidemodified.PNG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Intelinsidemodified.PNG  License: unknown  Contributors: MBisanz, PhilipB

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
File:Intel-logo.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Intel-logo.svg  License: unknown  Contributors: Adrianwo, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Digg, Ed g2s, Gump Stump, IntoCom, Jeff G., LachrymoseQQ, Locke Cole, MBisanz, MartinHagberg, Melesse, Presidentman, Satori Son, SeventyThree, This user has left wikipedia, VD64992, Wwagner, 3 anonymous edits File:Intel Core Duo.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Intel_Core_Duo.png  License: unknown  Contributors: Keyser Söze, LinkTiger, Minna Sora no Shita, Skier Dude, 2 anonymous edits File:Intel Leap ahead.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Intel_Leap_ahead.png  License: unknown  Contributors: Beao, Hugahoody File:Intel Inside 2009.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Intel_Inside_2009.png  License: unknown  Contributors: Fernvale Image:AMD Logo.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:AMD_Logo.svg  License: unknown  Contributors: Advanced Micro Design Image:Amdheadquarters.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Amdheadquarters.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Hnc197, JePe, Yonatanh Image:AMDmarkham5.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:AMDmarkham5.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Raysonho Image:AMD Austin campus.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:AMD_Austin_campus.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Matthewrutledge Image:KL Advanced Micro Devices AM9080.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:KL_Advanced_Micro_Devices_AM9080.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Konstantin Lanzet Image:KL AMD D8086.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:KL_AMD_D8086.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Konstantin Lanzet Image:Better by Design Sticker -1.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Better_by_Design_Sticker_-1.png  License: unknown  Contributors: Idle.man5216, Melesse, 1 anonymous edits Image:Sony Computer Entertainment logo.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sony_Computer_Entertainment_logo.svg  License: unknown  Contributors: Alansohn, Mendaliv, N. Harmonik, Ssolbergj, 2 anonymous edits File:Playstation logo colour.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Playstation_logo_colour.svg  License: unknown  Contributors: DCEvoCE, Eastmain, Rjd0060, Ssolbergj, StevenMario Image:Sonycomputerentertainmentamerica.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sonycomputerentertainmentamerica.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Coolcaesar Image:IBM logo.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:IBM_logo.svg  License: Trademarked  Contributors: Althepal, Artem Karimov, Bryan, Chaldor, Hautala, Imalipusram, O, OsamaK, Yarl, 1 anonymous edits File:Thomas J Watson Sr.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Original uploader was Paul C. Lasewicz at en.wikipedia File:IBM Electronic Data Processing Machine - GPN-2000-001881.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:IBM_Electronic_Data_Processing_Machine_-_GPN-2000-001881.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: NASA File:IBM Blue Gene P supercomputer.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:IBM_Blue_Gene_P_supercomputer.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Argonne National Laboratory's Flickr page Image:IBM Rochester X.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:IBM_Rochester_X.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Eustress Image:IBM building in Madrid (1989) 01.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:IBM_building_in_Madrid_(1989)_01.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Zaqarbal Image:IBM Somers 3.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:IBM_Somers_3.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: J o h n Image:IBM Japan Makuhari Building.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:IBM_Japan_Makuhari_Building.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Wiiii Image:IBM-Denia.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:IBM-Denia.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Ooh Image:IBM Kolkata.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:IBM_Kolkata.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Sidghosh File:IBM Anechoic chamber.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:IBM_Anechoic_chamber.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Manish from ??, ?? Image:Original IBM Logo.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Original_IBM_Logo.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:OgilvyOne Image:Older IBM Logo 2.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Older_IBM_Logo_2.png  License: unknown  Contributors: Original uploader was Christsp at en.wikipedia Image:Old IBM Logo.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Old_IBM_Logo.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:OgilvyOne Image:Samsung Logo.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Samsung_Logo.svg  License: Trademarked  Contributors: Common Good, JuTa, Kanabekobaton, KlnBHall907, Kwj2772, Moddlyg, Nardog, Olli, Pjahr, Tryphon, 2 anonymous edits File:Flag of South Korea.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_South_Korea.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Various Image:Samsung headquarters.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Samsung_headquarters.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Oskar Alexanderson Image:Harcourt House MassMutual Tower.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Harcourt_House_MassMutual_Tower.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: User:Baycrest Image:Samsung CES 2009.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Samsung_CES_2009.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Ben Franske Image:Galaxy Tab wp jeh.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Galaxy_Tab_wp_jeh.jpg  License: Creative Commons Zero  Contributors: User:Jim.henderson Image:Samsung-i9000-galaxy-s.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Samsung-i9000-galaxy-s.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Melesse, Midgetman433, We hope Image:HCL Technologies logo.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:HCL_Technologies_logo.svg  License: Trademarked  Contributors: HCL Technologies Image:Wipro Logo.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wipro_Logo.svg  License: unknown  Contributors: Beao, Jovianeye, Sfan00 IMG File:Cyber Towers Madhapur Hyderabad.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cyber_Towers_Madhapur_Hyderabad.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Veera.sj File:Wipro.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wipro.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Sugata Banerji Image:Infosys logo.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Infosys_logo.svg  License: Trademarked  Contributors: Infosys Image:Indian Rupee symbol.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Indian_Rupee_symbol.svg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Orionist File:Bangalore Infy.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bangalore_Infy.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Jungpionier, Pamri, Roland zh, Tysto, WhisperToMe File:Mysore India Infosys .JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mysore_India_Infosys_.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Indianhilbilly Image:Whartan.Infosys.Business.Transformation.Award.Logo.gif  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Whartan.Infosys.Business.Transformation.Award.Logo.gif  License: unknown  Contributors: Crocodile Punter, Inishant File:India Technology.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:India_Technology.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Original uploader was Nikkul at en.wikipedia File:Mysore Infy bldg.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mysore_Infy_bldg.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Mahendra M from Bangalore, India File:Bangalore Infosys.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bangalore_Infosys.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Indianhilbilly Image:Mangalore infosys.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mangalore_infosys.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Amrith Anandan File:Thiruvananthapuram Infosys Building.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Thiruvananthapuram_Infosys_Building.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: User:Binoyjsdk File:Infosys India .JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Infosys_India_.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Indianhilbilly

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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image:Infy.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Infy.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5  Contributors: Ahoerstemeier, Fram, Hailey C. Shannon, Indianofficebuildings, Yashaswini, 3 anonymous edits File:Bangalore .JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bangalore_.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Indianhilbilly Image:Pune infy.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pune_infy.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Fram, Indianofficebuildings, Mah exp, Nehawadhwa File:Mysore Infosys.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mysore_Infosys.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Indianhilbilly File:Infosys Mcity,Building number 5.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Infosys_Mcity,Building_number_5.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Simply CVR File:Mcity,Chennai.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mcity,Chennai.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Simply CVR File:Infosys .JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Infosys_.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Indianhilbilly File:Bangalore Infosys .JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bangalore_Infosys_.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Indianhilbilly File:Infosys Cantene .JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Infosys_Cantene_.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Indianhilbilly image:Zenith Logo.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Zenith_Logo.png  License: unknown  Contributors: KuwarOnline File:MicroStarInternational.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MicroStarInternational.svg  License: unknown  Contributors: Ninja5624 File:Red x.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Red_x.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:David Levy, User:Gmaxwell File:Green check.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Green_check.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:gmaxwell File:C-DAC LogoTransp.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:C-DAC_LogoTransp.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Tapassaini

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Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/