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REFERENCE NO.

: D53 - SEAM 4

1. COURSE NAME: Stability and Trim

2. COURSE DESCRIPTIONS: The course includes the Stability, Trim,


Bouyancies, Movement of the Center of Gravity, Causes of List,
Fresh Water Allowance, Initial Stability, Statical Stability, Angle of
Loll, Effect of Slack Tank, Action to be Taken in the Event of Partial
Loss of Intact Stability, Maintain Seaworthiness of the Ship

3. NUMBER OF UNITS FOR LECTURE AND LABORATORY:


3 LECTURE, 1 LABORATORY = 4 UNITS

4. NUMBER OF CONTACT HOURS:


3 LECTURE, 3 LABORATORY = 6 HOURS

5. PREREQUISITES: Cargo Handling & Stowage 2 - Carriage of Dangerous


Goods

6. COURSE OBJECTIVE: The student shall be able to use table on diagrams of


stability and trim data to calculate ships’ initial stability, draught and
trim for any given disposition of cargo and other weights. The
student will also be able to determine whether stresses on the ships
are within tolerance by the use of stress data and take actions in
the event of partial loss of intact buoyancy.

FUNCTION: F2 – Cargo Handling and Storage at the Operational Level


F3 - Controlling the Operation of the Ship and Care for Persons
on Board at the Operational Level (STCW Code A-II/1) 2 and 3

7. COURSE OUTLINE:
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
The student shall be able to . . . . . .

7.1 Stability

7.1.1 illustrate a graph on scale that show the relationship between the
displacement and mean draught of a ship ;
7.1.2 calculate the deadweight and displacement of ship at various
draughts in seawater using deadweight scale;
7.1.3 using deadweight scale and obtain TPC at a given draught;
7.1.4 using TPC scale, calculate the following:
7.1.4.1 change of mean draught as a given weight are loaded or
discharged;

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7.1.4.2 weight of cargo to be loaded or discharged in various
hatches/tanks to produce a required change of draught.
7.1.5 explain the purpose of stability, trim and stress tables; and
7.1.6 explain why tons per centimeter (TPC) immersion varies with
different drafts.

7.2 Trim

7.2.1 define trim;


7.2.2 define center of floatation;
7.2.3 describe how trim may change by moving weight or masses
forward or aft or by adding a weight at a position forward or abaft the center of
floatation;
7.2.4 explain the uses of hydrostatic data to find the center of floatation
on various draught;
7.2.5 explain the trimming moment and moment to change trim;
7.2.6 find the new draft, given the value of initial draught and the
position of the center of floatation;
7.2.7 explain how to use the trimming curves or trimming table to
determine the change of draught, resulting from loading, discharging or moving
weights;
7.2.8 state in which cases, calculation to change trim, by taking moment
about the center of floatation or by means of trimming tables should not be used;
7.2.9 calculate final draught and trim for a planned loading.

7.3 Buoyancies

7.3.1 explain the meaning of buoyancy; and the displacement of a


floating object;
7.3.2 explain the meaning of reserve buoyancy and its relation to
freeboard.

7.4 Movement of the Center of Gravity

7.4.1 explain the meaning of center of gravity;


7.4.2 describe how the center of gravity (G) of a ship can move only
when weights are moved within the ship;
7.4.3 illustrate the following:
7.4.3.1 G moves directly towards the center of gravity of added
weight;
7.4.3.2 G moves directly away from the center of gravity of
removed weight;
7.4.3.3 G moves vertically from the initial center of gravity.
7.4.4 calculate the movement of G (GG1) from:

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GG1 = Mass added or removed x distance of mass from G
New displacement of the ship

GG1 = Mass moved x distance of weight is moved


Displacement of the ship

7.4.5 state where the weight is transferred to the point of suspension if a


load is lifted by using ship gears;
7.4.6 calculate the change in KG during passage resulting from:
7.4.6.1 consumption of fuel and stores;
7.4.6.2 absorption of water by a deck cargo;
7.4.6.3 accumulation of ice on deck and superstructures.

7.5 Causes of List

7.5.1 illustrate by diagram the forces that causes a ship to list;


7.5.2 state the listing moment;
7.5.3 illustrate on a diagram how the angle of list (Ø) can be calculated
during the transverse shift of G from the centerline.

7.6 Fresh Water Allowance

7.6.1 explain why and how the draught of a ship changes when it
passes from fresh water to seawater and vice-versa;
7.6.2 calculate with the weight that can be loaded after reaching the
summer load line when loading in fresh water before sailing to sea
water given the value of FWA and TPC;
7.6.3 find the density of dock water by using hydrometer;
7.6.4 calculate the TPC of dock water given the value of the density of
dock water and FWA;
7.6.5 calculate given the value of dock water density and FWA, the
amount which appropriate load may submerge;
7.6.6 calculate the amount of load to bring the ship to an appropriate load
line in seawater given the present draught amidships and the
density of dock water;

7.7 Initial Stability

7.7.1 describe the stability of a ship by its reaction to (a heeling on)


small angle of heel;
7.7.2 explain the transverse metacenter (M) and its limitation for practical
usage;
7.7.3 illustrate the diagram of the ship heeled to small angle and indicate
G, B, Z and M;
7.7.4 show that small angle of heel (Ø) = GZ = GM x Sin Ø;
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7.7.5 describe the effect on a ship’s behavior towards the
following:
7.7.5.1 a large GM (stiff ship)
7.7.5.2 a small GM (tender ship).
7.7.6 state KM is only dependent on the draught of a given ship;
7.7.7 find the metacentric height (GM) obtained from hydrostatic curve
given the value of KG and KM.

7.8 Statical Stability

7.8.1 state that for any draught the length of GZ at various angle of heel
can be drawn and graphed;
7.8.2 state that the graph described is called curve of statical
stability;
7.8.3 state that different curves are obtained for different draught with
same initial GM;
7.8.4 identify cross curves (KN curves);
7.8.5 explain the formula Gz = KN – Kg Sin Ø;
7.8.6 explain how lowering the position of G increases all values of the
righting arms lever and vice versa;
7.8.7 state that angle of heel beyond approximately 400 is not normally of
practical because of the probability of water entering the ship.

7.9 Angle of Loll

7.9.1 explain that if G is raised to M, the couple formed by the weight


and buoyancy will turn the ship further from upright;
7.9.2 state that in this condition, GM is said to be negative and ∆ x Gz is
called the upsetting moment or capsizing moment;
7.9.3 explain B may move sufficiently to reduce the capsizing moment to
zero;
7.9.4 state that the angle at which the ship becomes stable is known as
the angle of loll;
7.9.5 state that the ship will roll about the angle of loll instead of the
upright;
7.9.6 state that an unstable ship may loll to either side.

7.10 Effect of Slack Tank

7.10.1 state the effect of tank, full of liquid to the position of the ship
center of gravity;
7.10.2 show by means of a diagram how the center of gravity of liquid in a
partially filled tank moves during rolling;
7.10.3 state the result of GM when the surface of liquid is free to move with
virtual increase of Kg;
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7.10.4 explain why the tank is often constructed with longitudinal
subdivision;

7.11 Action to be Taken in the Event of Partial Loss of Intact Stability

7.11.1 describe the action to take in order to prevent flooding of the


adjacent compartment;
7.11.2 state the cross-flooding arrangement must be put into operation;
state that any action relevant to the operation that could reduce
the inflow of water should be taken into account.

7.12 Maintain seaworthiness of the Ship

7.12.1 working knowledge and application of stability, trim and stress


tables, diagrams and stress calculating equipment.

8. EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS, CHEMICALS, TEACHING AIDS:

8.1 Copy of actual Ship Capacity Plan/Dead Weight Plan


8.2 Trim and Stability Table
8.3 International Loadline (Seasonal) Chart
8.4 Computer based software on Trim and Stability

9. REFERENCES:

Derret, D. R. Ship Stability for Masters and Mates, 4th Edition. ISBN 0-
9.1
7506-0380-1.
9.2 George, William E. Stability and Trim for the Ship’s Officer. ISBN 0-
87033-297-X.
9.3 Pursey, H.J. Merchant Ship Stability. ISBN 0-85174-442-7.
9.4 IMO Model Course 7.03, 1999 Edition. ISBN 92-801-6105-9.
9.5 Dela Calzada, Limic, Hilario, Andres, Quenkiol, Rafael and Templo,
Aaron. Stability and trim.

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