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Three Years in Tibet--Ekai Kawaguchi

Three Years in Tibet--Ekai Kawaguchi

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Account of Kawaguchi s now legendary solo trip, beginning 1899, through a Tibet long hostile to all outside visitors.
Account of Kawaguchi s now legendary solo trip, beginning 1899, through a Tibet long hostile to all outside visitors.

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Published by: dharmawisdom on Mar 14, 2011
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  • Journey to Nepal
  • The Sublime Himalaya
  • Fame and Temptation
  • In helpless Plight
  • A Foretaste of distressing Experiences
  • The Lighter Side of the Experiences
  • The largest River of Tibet
  • Dangers begin in Earnest
  • I survive a Sleep in the Snow
  • The Power of Buddhism
  • Sacred Manasarovara and its Legends
  • On the Road to Nature's Grand Mandala
  • A Cheerless Prospect
  • At Death's Door
  • The Saint of the White Cave revisited
  • Some easier days
  • War Against Suspicion
  • Across the Steppes
  • Holy Texts in a Slaughter-liouse
  • The Third Metropolis of Tibet
  • The Sakya Monastery
  • Shigatze
  • Manners and Customs
  • On to Lhasa
  • The Warrior=Priests of Sera
  • Tibet and North China
  • Admission into Sera College
  • Meeting- with the Incarnate Bodhisattva
  • Life in the Sera Monastery
  • My Tibetan Friends and Benefactors
  • Japan in Lhasa
  • Scholastic Aspirants
  • Tibetan Weddings and Wedded Life
  • Wedding Ceremonies
  • Tibetan Punishments
  • Seclusion
  • Lamaism
  • The Tibetan Hierarchy
  • Education and Castes
  • Tibetan Trade and Industry
  • The Festival of Lights


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3 1924 023 224 292

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the United States on the use of the




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with the original Japanese illustrations


Recto)' of

Gohyakurakan Monastery, Japan.




(Registered Copyright.)



I was Icitely reading the Holy Text of the Sa(/f//iaj-m((Pundartka (the Aphorisms of the White Lotus of the Wonderful or True Law) in a Samskrt manuscript under a Bodhi-tree neav Mrga-Dava (Saranath), Benares. Here our Blessed Lord Buddha Shakya-Muni taught His Holy Jpharma just after the accomplishment of His Buddhahood at Buddhagaya. Whilst doing so, I was reminded of the time, eighteen years ago, when I had read the same text in Chinese at a great Monastery named Ohbakusang at Kyoto in Japan, a reading which determined me to

undertake a

visit to Tibet.

was in March, 1891, that I gave up the Rectorship of the Monastery of Grohyakurakan in Tokyo, and left for Kyoto, where I remained living as a hermit for about three
years, totally absorbed in the study of a large collection of

Buddhist books in the Chinese language. My object in doing so was to fulfil a long-felt desire to translate the texts into Japanese in an easy style from the difficult and
unintelligible Chinese.

to rely


afterwards found that it was not a wise thing upon the Chinese texts alone, without comparing

them with Tibetan translations as well as with the original Samskrt texts which are contained in Mahayana Buddhism. The Buddlhist Samskrt texts were to be found in Tibet and Nepal. Of course, many of them had been discovei'ed by European Orientalists in Nepal and a few in other But those texts had not yet parts of India and Japan. been found which ijicluded the most important manuscripts of ^hich Buejdhist scholars were in great want. Then' again, the Tibetan texts were famous for being

Mr. I left Japan for Tibet in June. I collected all these articles and gave them for publication in two volumes to Hakubunkwan. Then and Nepal. a famous publisher in Tokyo. After this. 1897. for their general meaning. hoping. in search more manuscripts. possible. the Anyhow. influential and widely read paper in Japan. and reports regarding were soon afterwards published. my mind to go to Tibet. more accurate they are superior. my countiymen received me with great enthusiasm. the most well-known. publishevery day during 156 issues. Afterwards some well-known gentlemen in Japan. I made up. again to penetrate into Tibet. a daily newspaper in Tokyo. After making my preparations for some time. 1904. but. With these objects in view. I again left Japan for of studying Samskrt. Now than the Chinese. Sntejiro Fukuzawa. proposed to me to get them translated into English. called the Maimirhi. it Chinese are far better than the Tibetan. Sensuke Hayakawa and Mr. with the object if in October. if any were there available.vi PEEi'ACB. as the first explorer of Tibet from Japan. •When my tion to Tibet translation- was finished. Mr. 1903. the British expediit had been successful. though the country was closed not only by the Local Grovernment but also by the surrounding lofty mountains. They to also helped me substantially in this and I take this opportunity of expressing my grateful thanks them for the favor thus conferred upon me. l^therefore stopped the . study the Tibetan language and was my idea that I should Tibetan Buddhism. translation. and returned to my country in India of May. On my return to Japan. translations that the Tibetan translations are superior I do not say As literal translations^ I think that to the Chinese. and should try to discover Samskrt manuscripts in Tibet. and famous paper articles ed my in Osaka. Eiji Asabuki. also a The Jiji.

and the dangers I had had to pass through during my travels. for they. my must equally thank those people who helped me in travels in a substantial manner. publication of Vll my 'English translation. whilst my book would prove interesting to the reader from the point of view of an Asiatic. and the inner She also pointed out to me that the of the people.. for I thought that to the my book would not be of any use English-reading public. my esteemed friend Mrs. asked me to show her the translation. sincere thanks Unwalla. those wlio threw obstacles in my way. Here to also I must not fail to express my my intimate friend Professor Jamshedji N. Benares . book would prove attractive to the general reader for its stirring incidents and adventures. But she was of opinion that such books would treat of the country from a western point of view. Besant for her continued kindness to me in looking over the translation. of the book from my free English prose and looked over all the proof-sheets carefully with I me with heartiest kindness. Recently. I lay this book before the English-knowing life public. and for rendering me help "Were it not for her. naj^. the customs. Thus then . m. intimately acquainted with the manners. this book would in the publication. On reading it she advised me to publish it quickly. I take this opportunity of expressing my grateful thanks to Mrs. Annie Besant. for he composed the verses translation. the President of the Tlieosophical Society. I then told her that it would be useless for me to publish such a book. not have sein the light of day. as there were already Government reports of the Tibetan expedition. even all. and as Dr. as well as those who rendered me useful assistance in my studies . Sven Hedin of Sweden would soon publish an excellent book of his travels in Tibet.PEEP ACE.a. of the Central all Hindu College. after .

after all. 1909. Benares City. I cannot but feel extremely sorry in my heart when I am reminded of those people who suffered a great their deal for my sake. accuracy and enthusiasm. the difficulties I had to go through during my With reference to this publication. according to the Sacred Canon. . unconsciously rewarded me with the gift of the power to accomplish the objects I had in view. its Law. sunk . EKAI KAWAGUCHI. have indu^bitably the power to purify Humanity. Staff Quarters. some being even imprisoned for Aphorisms this connexion with other hand. that have enabled me to read and carefully study with greater knowledge. at the same time I believe that that power to purify rests with the Glorious Lotus of the Awe-inspiring with its brilliant effulgence. ever and unsullied. suffusing all and with sweet*odor. sake to know be their sufferings for my will amply compensated acquired by for the good karma they have certainly themselves through their acts of charity and benevolence. to it me when is I was in Tibet. the most sacred texis of our Holy Religion. well as them. But on the as really that.in the illusions of this world. Central Hindu College. itself. I assert this with implicit faith in the fact that good deeds. than was possible for me before my travels in Tibet. by surmounting all travels.Yiii PREFACE. gratifying to me. remaining for amidst stainless muddy surroundings. whilst reading the of the White Lotus of the Wonderful Law day. often compared in our Holy Scriptures to a muddy and dirty pond.

XV XVI. 167 An Ominous Outlook. XXVII. 25 35 The Sublime Himalaya.650 Feet above Sea-level. 86 90 PJxperiences. CHAPTUB I.CONTENTS. VII. 162 Wonders of Nature's Mandala. XXX. XXIV. A holy Cave-Dweller. XII. 150 On the Road to Nature's Grand Mandala. The World Snow. 51 X. |. I survive a Sleep in the ' XX. Buddhism. 96 99 104 108 XIX. The Power 135 Legends. VI. A foretaste of Tibetan Laying a false scent. XXII. III. In helpless Plight. A Foretaste of distressing A Beautiful Eescuer. Himalayan Romance. XIII. " 139 144 XXIX. VIII. Dangei's ahead. 15 21 IV.\(iK Novel farewell Presents. A Year in Darjeeling.tiful 40 44 )irty Tsarang and Temptation. XXI. of 1 Tsarangese. XXVI. XIV. XXIII. The largest River of Tibet. V. 112 116 123 127 131 Snow. Beau. A kind old Dame. 22. Overtaken by a Sand-Storm. Dangers begin in Earnest. XXXI. Journey to Nepal. of its XXV. 178 A . XVII.. 1 II. Fame and 60 69 77 Hi Tibet at Last. Bon' and ' Kyang'. XXVIII. Sacred Manasarovara and Bartering in Tibet. II barbarism. The Lighter Side of the Experiences. XVIII. I befriend Beggars. XI. IX.

XLIII.CONTENTS. The Sakya Monastery. A Metropolis of Filth. XXXVIII. XLV. Holy Texts in a Slaughter-house. LXI. 329 LII. XLII. The Tibetan Hierarchy. Foreign Explorers and the Policy of Seclusion. On to Lhasa. XL. of Sera. CHAPTER PAGE XXXII. ^ XLIV. 291 297 XLIX. Life in the Sera Monastery. War Against Suspicion. XLVIII. A grim Funeral and grimmer Medicine. 410 417 428 435 447 461 467 ^ . LXII. XXXVI. Japan in Lhasa. The Saint of the White XXXV. 362 LVI. LXVI. Tibetan Weddings and Wedded Life. Arn'val in Lhasa. The Government. . 374 LVII. 304 Meeting with the Incarnate Bodhisattva. A Supposed Miracle. 388 LVIII. Cave revisited. 323 LI. Shigatze. LXIV. LXIII. Admission into Sera College. XL VII. Across the Steppes. Currency and Printing-blocks. The Warrior-Priests Tibet and North China. The Third Metropolis of Tibet. XLI. Wedding Ceremonies. LXV. XL VI. XXXIII. 351 LV.. 345 LIV. 187 191 XXXIV. The Festival of Lights. A Cheerless Prospect. 335 LIII. 204 211 218 227 233 236 241 249 257 264 280 285 XXXIX. Education and Castes. Scholastic Aspirants. Tibetan Punishments. Tibetan Trade and Industiy. XXXVII. Manners and Customs. 407 -^ LX.397 -^ LIX. 311 L. My Tibetan Eriends and Benefactors. At Death's Door. Lamaism. Some easier Days.


PAGE Third Audience. Good Kings. CHAPTEU CI. Farewell to Nepal and its 709 CII.CONTJSNTS. 714 718 .. cm. All's well tliat ends well.

girls. Reading the Texts. On the banks of the Bichagori in difficulties. night thirst. Inner room of the Dalai Lama's 306 316 320 335 in the . Outline.th the Dalai Lama. '2. 100 114 117 121 10. 6 The Lama's execution. Autlior's departure from Japan. Meditating in the face of death. '' 341 . 29. 13. 28. The cold moon Fallen into a reflected on the 202 210 229 249 266 274 287 muddy swamp. Meeting a furious wild yak. 19. 14. 16. coUi}. 26. 25. 31. Quarrel between brothei's. 12. 30. Nearly dying of A sand-storm. 20. Tsarangese village tent of in 57 75 79 92 Entering Tibet from Nepal. 11. Attacked by dogs and saved by a lady. 24. 140 161 Near Mount Kailasa. race. 23. audience wj. 21. 9. Struggle in the river. 32 49 4. 17. PAGE 1. 8.of the monastery of Tashi Lhunpo. Lake Manasarovara. 169 181 192 iee.-fighting' with hail.try house. Love. rivei'. 125 132 A ludicrous Religion v. 22. A open and a snbw-leopard. Outline of the residence of the Dalai Lama.Illustrations in the Text. 7. A horse To a 5. A vehement philosophical An Room discussion. 27. 15. 18 3. mieetirtg Unexpected with friends. Attacked by robbers. 6. Priqst. nomad the Tibetans.finance secretai'y's house. 18.

616 Beautiful scenery in the Tibetan Himalttyag. Je Tsong-kha-pa. Monlam. Prime Minister. soothsayer under mediumistic influence 411 37. 42. 391 35. 654 Accidental meeting with a friend and compatriot. 379 34. 51. 414 426 443 459 465 A falling senseless. 45. 41. 39. 56. 48. 480 491 502 534 538 541 A picnic party A coi'rupt The final in summei'.xiv ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT. Naming ceremony of a baby. At the bridegroom's sword at the bride. 367 378. 40. : 36. Lobon Padma Chungne. an Ex-Minister punished in cutting up the dead 390. 46. Funeral ceremonies body. 47. A scene ceremony of the Monlam. 49. 596 . 43. Chief Justice of the monks. New year's reading of the Texts for the Japanese Emperor's welfare. 649 '0n the way to thesnowy Jela-peak. 50. 568 meeting with Tsa Rong-ba and his 580 585 Critical wife. The wife public. Revealing the secret to the Ex-Minister. 634 The fortressi of Nyatong. Procession of the Panchen or Tashi fi'om the Lama in Lhasa. Crossing a mountain at midnight. 57. A mysterious voice in the garden of Sera. PAGli 32. 605 606 610 Night scene on the Chomo-Lhari and Lham Tso. 59. 58. naarry. Lhasa. Priest-traders loading their yaks. of Throwing an imitation 366. 55. A distant view of 53. Gii-1 weeping at being suddenly commanded to """ gate. 52. 44. Farewell to Lhasa from the top of G-enpala. 33. festival. 38. Flogging as a means of education. 54. 679 .

se soldier. Nagarjuna's cave of meditation in Nepal. The author and his friend Budldha Vajra enjoy- 63.IIiLUSTEA. 704 716 Photogravures. ing the brilliant snow at Katmandu. XV PAGE 60. 690 Meeting again with an old friend. Lama Buddha 695 62.TIONS IN THE TEXT. Vajra. TO PACE . Struggle with a Nepale. 61.




on Mr. but in the the latter I uniformly declined accept. Endless were the kind and farewell heartfelt words poured on me. Three fail to mention them here for. a manufacturer of asphalt. In also Osaka. especially skilled in the use of the " shot^net. Takabe Tona. In the montli of May. While still well-known been a born fisher. which promised nought but danger and I uncertainty. whither went after leaving Tokyo. Many of these are remaining true to the word then given me. I was ready to embark my journey. and many were the presents offered me to wish me to . I At I all events. save form of sincerely given pledges. went about taking leave in of my friends and relatives Tokyo. and should not . I cannot help fancying that they had transformed themselves into unseen powers that saved me from the otherwise certain death." and to catch fish had been the joy and pleasure of his life. Mr.CHAPTER Novel farewell on I. " and from immoderate smokers I asked the immediate discontinuance of the habit that would end in nicotine poisoning. From those noted for excessive use of intoxicants. Takabe had in Tokyo I called On the occasion of the leave-taking . About forty persons willingly granted my appeal for this somewhat novel still kind of farewell presents. pre^fents. I exacted a promise of absolute abstinence from " the maddening water . 1897. succeeded in securing a large number of them. as I think of them now. I valued these " presents" most exceedingly. of them I particularly prized. and others have apparently forgotten them since.

and the loss had left his wife the most distracted woman himself could not. I the fishes of the it used then. He was very obdurate at first . but thereupon asked a daughter of the host's to build a fire me in the yard and." answered he. even fishing having in the world. This gentleman had also been an excellent sportsman. He volunteered to' tell me that he had just lost a three-year old child of his. when it was ready. Among the visitors was Mr. besides. I said to my flock intimate " : friend of who had always been a very mine and a member of my former host. He excused himself from my presence for awhile. witji . were ^11 the members of the family and some visitors. he stood up with a look of determination. it Do you ? really find so hard to bear th3 death of your child What would you kill think of a person " who The dared to bind up and a beloved child of yours. I consigned the nets to flames in the presence of all— there for . and that I might do with them as I liked. to : deep". no man could. which I paid him. which was also his. " You are a fiend then. Ogawa Katsutaro. while he become devoid of its former charms for him.: recover the peace of his mind. ? and roast and eat its flesh " Oh ! devilish ! devil only I quickly rejoined could do that . a relative^ of the family. to witness the scene. Strong wei'e the words I was in the fulness of my heart that I spoke them. saying that those were the weapons of murder with which he had caused the death of innumerable denizens of the brine. and Mr. for he had no longer any use for them. and then returned with some fishing-nets. but when I pointed out to him that it was at the risk of my life that I was going to Tibet. at least. I found him in a very despondent mood. and that for the sake of my religion. which he forthwith handed over to me. Takabe finally yielded and promised me to fish no more.2 visit THREE YEAES IN TIBET.

beseeching him to give up his brutal business. I though still to do so immediately was impracticgratified was more when I be a ' year had proved the genuineness of his promise about and a half after my departure. He is. while taking leave of Mr. especially as he had been a zealous believer of our religion. to my great gratification. He had seen the dramatic scene him and heard me pray for my host. and I repeat- ed the appeal on the occasion of my last visit to him before my departure for Tibet. ' ' counted told net-fishing all among his favorite sports. that. not in the sense of one fowls. now dealing chiefly in stocks and trade with Korea. a very wealthy man.. Mr. as speedily as possible. to : " Let . His former business was that of a poultry-man. NOVEL FAREWELL PEESENTS. As the went up in smoke. also. too.. Several times previously I had written him. but I knew such that he could well afford to forego such a sinful business as one which involved the lives of hundreds of fowls every day. wonderfully . my conduct in exacting these pledges might . by my Tokyo friends. Ordinarily considered. an old and lifelong friend of mine. Then in Sakai. but of one who raises who keeps an establishment where His business throve circumstances were that his people go to have a poulti-y dinner. Watanabe Ichibei at Osaka. able." I had never before felt so honored and gratified as I felt when I heard this declaration. he would change learned that his business. both nets 6 before gun and nets. etc. when he promised. Ito Ichiro. did me the favor of following the example Then I called on Mr. who. I him about the burning of Mr. Ogawa rose and said : impressively by making me too wish that you fare well in Tibet. you the gift of a pledge I pledge myself that I will never more take the lives of other creatures for amusement should I prove false to these words let Fudo Myo-oh visit me with death. as he has always been. Takabe's nets and set he.

and Kitamura of Osaka. as the result of these contributed largely toward my miraculous Farewell visits over. For instance. It is curious how little until you actually begin to people believe your words. Harukawa. Watanabe. when they see that you are not to be dissuaded. carry them out. Noda. escapes. to beg me to change my mind and give up my Tibetan trip. and others. Hige. often predicting failure behind your back. which often brought the great love of me . and the two classes of people must always be treated differently in spiritual ministration as in corporeal pathology. but for some money. And I had the pleasure of going through these curious experiences for many . and Yamanaka of Sakai. on the very departure. I cannot help thinking of these gifts of effective promises. I had had a small sum of one hundred yen of my own savings. especially when your attempt is a venturesome one. somewhat presumptuous . by the generosity of Messrs. and I could see that they were ve of my all in earnest. and even ridicule you. to death's door. know that the merciful yet. I was ready to start. I spent about one hundred in fitting myself out for a peculiarly problematical journey. but it ought to be remembered that the sick always need a medicine too strong for a person in normal health. as often as I recall my adventures in the Himalayas and I in Tibet. indeed were those who came to me almost at the last moment to advise. and how they protest. and feathered creatures. but this amount was swelled to 530 yen. to ask. while spending my last night at . Be that as it may.4 appear THEKE YKAES IN TIBKT. and the very modest sum of half a thousand was all I had with me on my departure. Ito. . Of this total. has always protected of finny me in my dangers Buddha who knows but that the saving of the lives of hundreds and thousands promises. expostulate.

Past Wada promontory. a certain judge of the Local Court of Wakayama came on purpose to tell me that I was bound to end my venture in making myself a laughingstock of the world . seen off by my friends and wellwishers already mentioned. home and engaging would do far better by staying at in my ecclesiastical work.NOVEL FAREWELL PKESENTS. 1897. That was on the night of June 24th. the peaks of Kongo. Early on the following morning I left Osaka.id. sea. well and good. Maki's in Osaka. Then the judge gave me up incorrigible and went away. because the Buddhist circle of Japan was in great need of earnest and capable men. as the good ship Idzumi westward. the judge said the attempt ? you will not be able to accomplish anything. who told me that he was very glad as well as very sorry for this departure of mine. and that his words could not give adequate expression to the feelings uppermost in his heart. it will be like the soldier's death in a battle-field. and I I : and that should be gratified to think that I fell in the cause of for my religion. after wishing me farewell in a substantial manner. Noda Giichiro. 5 Mr. and so on." "But it is just as uncertain whether I die. Hats steaiped until they and handkerchiefs grew smaller and fainter went out of sight. . out of the Strait of Genkai. disappeared in the rounding In due titoe Moji was reached and then. If I die. to do the latter was especially advisable for me. I had full well qualified myself to undertake . Shigi and Ikoma. Seeing that I was not to be moved in my determi" Suppose you lose your life in nation." I answered.by meeting death out of fool-hardiness. a work which. I thought these touching words expressed the feelings shared by my other friends also. or I survive my venture. my old acquaintances. and on the next day I embarked on the Idzumi-maru at Kobe. Among them was Mr. in turn. he sa.


and he said to me I do not know how you have got your venture mapped : out. but also to all on board. Mr. On the 15th. He said he had lived eighteen years . and to go as a beggar. Thompson. in Japan. boarded our ship. of trans-Siberian fame) Darjeeling. and saw Mr. at . for the other. and his advent proved to be a welcome change in the monotony of the voyage. as I was. Fukushima (now Lieutenant-General. made a halt and had retrace his steps thence. Mr. in I found and enthusiastic Christian and. I called at the Japanese Consulate in the port. and I cannot see how you can fare better. Another interesting experience which I went through during the voyage was when I preached and I preached quite a number of times before the officers and men of the ship. became a source of much pleasure and information. who proved the most willing and interested audience I had ever come across. But if you must. in a most friendly way. an Englishman. it may be needless to add. as they were carried on. " I hear you are going to Tibet. for one. Fujita had heard of me from the Idzumi's captain. as came to spend much of our time in religious controversies. our then Consul there. the first . Fujita to the effect that being a Buddhist priest. but I know it is a very difficult thing to reach and enter that country. he and I — — On the 12th of July. to force your way by the sheer force of arms at the head of an expedition. 7 At Hongkong. earnest him an ma}' be imagined. Fujita Toshiro.NOVEL FAEBWELL PBESKNTS. Even to Col. I think there are only two ways of accomplishing your purpose: namely. acknowledging practically the impossibility of a Tibetan exploration. the Idzumi entered the port of Singapore. which. our ship headed direct for Hongkong. and he spoke Japanese exceedingly well. May I ask you about your programme?" I answered Mr. and I put up at the Fusokwan Hotel there. not only to ourselves.

which is always so welcome to a Japanese. somehow or other. I to take my bath. that I I left the as the course of events might lead me. of the methods for he question to me. The lady was. I ascertained that the sound and quaking were caused by the collapse and fall of the bath-room from the second floor. accident. very dangerously hurt. as she was. A few moments later. when the bath was ready. I was treated with special regard while there. The invitation was repeated a second time. I was the first to be asked to have the warm water ablution. who. as I make it now. I I made it. as I had been neglectful in accepting the invitation. As a priest. under debris of falling stones. follow the was was far from time Consul in a very meditative mood. stayed a week in Pusokwan. I told him. and all the other contents. bricks and timber. and could not comply with it at once. but I was just at that moment engaged in reading the Text. where it had been situated. and my rigid adherence to this practice greatly pleased the proprietor of that Singapore establishment. I was not ready Meanwhile. was asked to have her bath first. On the 18th. and remained in my room. although I my having anything like a definite programme of intended to wander on journey. as I afterward learned. and every day. with a thud that shook the whole building. buried. where she . had mentioned and that my idea was out at of the the second course . In consequence of this. my practice to do preaching whenever and wherever an opportunity presented itself.THEBE YEAKS IN TIBET. and she was taken to a local hospital. to the ground below. the usual invitation was extended to me. but. even mortal. further. among which the most important and unfortunate was a Japanese lady. and it was on the narrowly last day but one before leaving it that I escaped a serious. with its bath basin. heard a great noise.

The following morning. indeed. Heading north still. that is. the train pulled up at Siligree Station. which. and its there passengers. and make myself a pupil of Rai Bahadur Sarat Chandra Das. a Secretary of the Society. the train now passed through cocoatold. I often shudder think of what would have become of me and of my Tibetan adventure^ had I been more prompt. I left Calcutta on August 2nd. the train in almost no time brought its passengers to the river Ganga. I felt exceedingly sorry for the lady. giant fire-flies. and then boarded another train on the other side. as I was had some time before ^pent several months in Tibet. in the course of which I learned from Mr. brought me to Calcutta on the Placing myself under the care of the of Calcutta. on the 19th of July. The day after the accident. after calling at 25th of the month. Chandra Bose. on the 3rd August. lay with very to little '9 hope of recovery. who met the awful accident practically in my stead withal I look back to the incident as one that augured well for my Tibetan undertaking. moon had disappeared. I took passage on an English steamer. of the kind. flew about in The of sight was especially interesting after the immense swarms. which. Penang. I spent several days in that Mahabodhi Society city. as I had always been till then. . Heading north. with it and also with kind parting wishes of my countrymen in the city and others. ended in success. the Lightning. over which. in responding to all invitations. the like of which in size are not to be found in Japan. and was then compiling a Tibetan-English dictionary at his country house in Darjeeling. nut groves and green paddy-fields. by rail. that I could not do better for my purpose than to go to Darjeeling. as night came on. Chandra Bose was good enough to write a letter of introduction to the scholar at Darjeeling in my favor. Mr. We crossed the mighty stream in a steamer.NOVEL FAREWELL PRESENTS. including myself. were transferred to 2 . and. who.

borne in I soon after- ward arrived at Rai Sarat's retreat. while the grind of the car wheels. as I fancied. a train of small mountaineering oars. its war path. with its sound echoed and re-echoed. or rather.10 THEEE YEARS IN TIBET. forthwith began its tortuous ascent of the Himalayas. which. of the outer skirt of the mighty range. . and. as the train labored onward and upward through the famous " dalai-jungle. seemed quaking terror over peaks and dales. which place is 380 miles distant from Calcutta.. the had made a climb of fifty miles and then landed us at Darjeeling. With its bends and turns and climbings. of mountaineering palanquin. Lhasa Villa. faring ever northward. By 3 train spread m." it looked like some amphibian monster on to p. which I found to be a magnificent mansion. which is a sort it. At the station I hired a danlee.



my time was precious. Rai Sarat took me the very next day a temple called Ghoompahl. about a month after this. Rai Sarat had me in his room and spoke to me " Well. who lived there introduced to and was renowned for his scholarly attainments and also The priest was then as a teacher of the Tibetan language. to intentions clear to make my after my kind host. earthquake was just after the great m AssatUj India. however. greatly pleased my Tibetan tutor. An evening's talk was sufficient. at our first arrival. I became a regular walking three miles from One day. as I could see from a large number this of entirely collapsed and partly destroyed its houses. and. I was received there with a whole-hearted welfcome. For all that. . it had to be carried on. that I arrived in Darjeeling. sufEered As for the Sarat Villa. the first day of my tutelage ended in my making the acquaintance of the Tibetan alphabet. for though Rai Sarat kindly acted the part of an interpreter for us. where I was an aged Mongolian priest. Kawaguchi. in Darjeeljng. seventy-eight years of age. it too had more or less. and from that time onward. latter place also had had share of the seismic disturbances. and repair was already in progress.CHAPTER A year It II. Mr. daily to the and back : Sarat mansion. but the conversation proved to be a rather awkward affair. and his name. I would advise you to give thus attendant at the temple. which was Serab Gryaratso (Ocean of Knowledge). as the old priest was thenceforth to be. As it was. to my meeting. Our talk naturally devolved upon Buddhism. happened by a curious coincidence to mean in the Tibetan tongue the same thing as my own name Bkai meant. on my part. as out. and. This discovery. in very rudimentary English.

Kawaguchi. and be respected as purpose was not only to learn the Tibetan language. up your intention of going to Tibet. into that country. but there is no means. " That may be. I utilised the occasion in telling him that further tutelage under Lama Serab was not to my mind. the only thing you can count upon is that you will be killed !" I retorted "Have you not been there yourself ? I do not see why I cannot do the same " Ah That is just thing." Rai Sarat's rejoinder was where j'ou are mistaken you must know that the times The closed door' policy are diiferent. nor even hope. and I know that with you. Under the circumstances I should think it is to your own interest to go home from here. I asked Rai Sarat to kindly devise for me some way. where you will a Tibetan scholar. I which I was fortunate had with me to secure through certain means. and is being carried out with the most jealous strictness in Tibet to-day. is in full operation. any longer of procuring such a pass. Instead. You can acquire all the knowledge of the Tibetan language you want." said my host. after you have completed an excellent pass. by which I might acquire . here. the study of the Tibetan language. but that it was to complete my studies in Buddhism. which it would be worth risking if there were any chance of accomplishing it. when I made my trip." .12 THREE YEARS IN TIBET. It is a very risky undertaking. " and a very important thing it no doubt is you can go back to Japan. ' I will never be able again to undertake another trip Besides. Mr. because the aged priest was more anxious to teach me the Tibetan Buddhism than the Tibetan language. I knew that my good host meant all that he said but I could not allow myself to be prevailed upon." I told my host that my what is the use of attempting a thing when there is no hope of accomplishing it ? If you go into Tibet. but : : ! . but chances are almost entirely against you.

The residence belonged to a Lama called Shabdung. I gratefully allowed myself to be prevailed upon to accept his generosity. Had I had to pay my own board. as it was. I would have had to cut down my stay there to half the length of time. that amount supported me for the seventeen months of my stay there. the Head Teacher of the language department of Tibetans in that School. I had only three hundred yen with me when I arrived at Darjeeling. who just then happened business I jama not to live there. the same paid out of expenses. Rai Sarat sent for this to and asked him teach the " Japan Lama" the Tibetan language. and I was forthwith installed a member of his household. the vernacular Tibetan language. I at the same time in matriculated Government School and was there given systematic lessons language by Prof. It was in this way. . but. that I might have ample opportunity of learning the popular Tibetan language. and arranged for me that I should have a new private teacher. with his unswerving kindness. as my own it pocket all the tuition fees and school I should. 13 my Finding me resolute in Rai Sarat. of two small but pretty buildings. while I of Darjeeling. I should not forget to mention here that. Indeed. Tumi Onden. Just below Rai Sarat's mansion was a residence which consisted purpose.A YEAE IN DARJEELING. that good as that to do a kindness in favor of such a " pure and noble-hearted you are" —as he said —was man own to increase his Not too well slocked with the wherewithal as I was. but in a house in the quarters of Darjeeling. On the into other the hand. only too Lama Shabdung was pleased to do as was requested. happiness. besides a regular schooling. cheerfully agreed to my request. the just Lama returning to his residence mentioned with his entire household. I was quite proper that was made a beneficiary of my friend Rai Sarat so far as in an insisting my board little was concerned.

At least such are the con- clusions I arrived at from the experiences of my ' school- ing days after ' in Darjeeling. I made myself a most willing and zealous pupil all through the tutelage . True. led on by their instinctive curiosity and kindness. but a discovery as it was to me that I made while at Shabdung'a was that the best teachers of everyday language are children. withal. and you find that. had . I lived as At Lama Sliabdung's though back in my boy- hood. the best language teachers. . Evening after evening I sat. As a foreigner you ask family in the afternoon. not unminglud with a sense of pride.become carry on ordinary conversation in the Tibetan tongue. as they will brook no mis-pronunciation or mis-accent. with more ease than in my English of two years' hard learning. they are always the most anxious and untiring teachers. women are. an absorbed listener to Lama Shabdung's flowing and inexhaustible store of narratives about Tibet. For all in six or seven months I my instalment in the able to Shabdung household. I think. and also that in their innocence they the most exacting and intolerant teachers. the more eager student I became in things Tibetan. I consider the that short space of time as quite progress was the gift of my female progress I made in remarkable. and that and juvenile teachers in The more progress I made in my linguistic acquirement. even are the slightest errors. charming conversationalist. and doing my lessons at home in the company of the children of the It is a well known thing that the way to learn a foreign language is to live among the people who speak it. himself fond of talking. and I regard Tibetan as a more difficult language than English.14 THREE YEAES IN TIBET. and I found in my host a truly the Shabdung family. attending the school in the morning. best — — them to teach you their language. Next to children.



had the most tragical consequences. even sublimely beautiful. after his return to India. so to say. the Tibetan Government discovered to its own mortification that Rai Sarat was an emissary of the British Government. called Sengchen Dorjechan (Great-Lion : Diamond-Treasury). who had been the tutor of the Secondary or Deputy Pope. of Tibet. for the truth of which I depend not on the narrative of Lama Shabdung alone. and to that degree was the most lovable and adorable of men. another in whose house he had lodged and boarded. which show that he was indeed a person very firm and enlightened in the Buddhist faith. It was this holy man himself who taught my friend and benefactor Rai Sarat. Many are the reminiscences of this holy Lama. but largely also upon what I was able to learn from persons of unquestionable reliability. more particularly the man who had secretly furnished him with a pass. Though Eai O' ly Sarat's pupilage under the high it Lama lasted for a short time. when he was in Tibet.CHAPTER A III. were all thrown into prison. the last named having afterward had to pay with his life for his innocent crime. foretaste of Tibetan barbarism. and the high Lama. For. To give one of Lama Sliabdung's favourite recitals about Tibet my host. are the episodes immediately preceding and surrounding his death. But more especially affecting. No man in Tibet was held in higher esteem and deeper reverence than this holy man. and the parties who had become in any way connected with his visit. during my disguised stay in the capital of . while there^ studied Buddhism under a high Lama of great virtues and the most profound learning.

For. : To mention a few of these when an unpleasant had just begun to be circulated. Unfortunately. when it was hinted at by his friends that. my teacher. he had caused several persons to go out there as missionaries. or rather the to Tibet with the object of " stealing play the part of a spy. — — its almost entire disappearance. not among his own countrymen rumor . It is nothing uncommon in Japan to meet with Buddhist interested in . and was sincerely anxious to revive it there.16 Tibet. besides sending various Buddhistic images and ritualistic utensils to India. the high Lama Sengchen knew at once that death was at his door. soon after Rai Sarat's departure from Tibet. who. he replied that he had always considered it his heaven-ordained work to try to propagate and to perpetuate Buddhism. away Buddhism. of Buddhism in the land of origin.. but among or not Sarat human race that whether Chandra Das was a man who had entered the whole . in the Ghoompahl Temple of Darjeeling. as I was told. That this holy Lama was an advocate of active propagandism may be gathered from the fact that. about his secret mission. and that Lama Sengchen was such a one indicates the greatness of his character.he would become involved in a serious predicament. owing to his acquaintance with Rai Sarat. the Manchurian Lama Serab Gyamtso. only. THREE YEARS IN TIBET. the work or idea of foreign propabut a person so minded is an extreme rarity in that hermit-country Tibet." or was not his concern the question had in any case never occurred to him and that if he were to suffer death for having done what he had regarded it as his duty to do. he could not help it. and priests gandism that he was a man above sectarian differences and inter- . this undertaking did not prove a success. had deeply lamented the decadence. being one of these. but none the less it shows the lofty aspirations which actuated the high Lama. but was not afraid.

was clothed He hour of his execution approached. who were in constant to watch for an opportunity bring about his downfall. the final upshot of which was sentence of death upon the high Lama Sengchen Dorjechan. and took the form of sinking him till he became drowned in the river Konbo. The holy man's execution was carried out on a certain day of June. and divulged national secrets to. of all those who had had anything to do with Rai Sarat. Rai Sarat had smuggled himself into and out of Tibet. my finger three times thus. solely 17 given to the noble idea. in truth. as I heard it described.A FORETASTE OP TIBETAN BARBARISM. and ascertained that. he was. on the ground that the latter had harbored in his temple. Then followed the incarceration. I will shake this have finished reading the holy Text. would often tell me what he witnessed Surrounded by an immense crowd of sympathising and sobbing people. he had done so at the request of the British Government of India. the noble Lama was found seated. To rumor about Prof. and reading the sacred Text. I see before my eyes the teardrenched face of my friend Lama Shabdung. and that. in river. universal brotherhood under Buddhism. and looked a coarse serenely calm and perfectly composed. As I recall the scene of that occasion. as he gave an order to his executioners in these words: "When. a foreign emissary. who. 1887. on a large piece of rock overhanging a side of the on that day. In all haste they despatched men to Darjeelirig. and that 3 . white fabric. the account. he had the Being the man many enemies among the high officials of hierarchical Government. struggling with emotion. national prejudices. as the in a I little while. of. Sarat was a welcome one. already mentioned. which is a local name given to the great Brahmaputra. his enemies. as the fact was. which they lost no time in turning to these.








for you to sink me in the river." was in response to a question, if .the high Lama wanted to say or have done anything ere his execution, asked by one of the executioners, who was already tying around the holy man's body one end of a thick rope, with which he was to be lowered under the water. In the meantime, the suspense grew intense and the great multitude that had gathered around had become blind to everything but the mighty,

be the











and the holy priest, and deaf to all but their own sobbings and wailings. They saw before them a man
of their hearts, of national esteem,


in learning of









highest order, should wear three layers of red and yellow

but who was wrapped in an unclean prison-suit of

and was now to die a victim to his enemies' They knew all was not right, but they knew not how to undo the wrong, and they appealed to their own tears. As it happened, the day had been cloudy, and rain had even begun to come down in drops as




raised one of his hands, the purpose

of which act was became loud and






and lamentation and three




prisoner had shaken his finger,








they were in tears themselves. Then the high Lama " My time is come said what are ye doing ? Speed
: :

me under


Thereupon, with heavy hands and

hearts the executioners, after having weighted








lowered the whole burden into the rushing waters of the Brahmaputra. After a while they pulled up what


they expected to have become the remains of the saintly but finding that life had not yet departed, they



again went through the drowning process. "When for a second time they raised the body, they found life

lingering in


The multitude, which saw how

things went, became clamorous in their demand that while the executioners the holy man be now saved

themselves seemed unnerved and unable to go to their As the moments of indecision cruel duty a third time. sped by, the high Lama, most wonderful to tell,
recovered sufficient strength to speak, and say









phase of activity having

come to an end, I now depart with gratification, and that means that my evil past ceases, so that my good future

may begin



not ye that kill me.

All that I wish





greater and

ever-growing ye haste,
urged, the

prosperity for


in Tibet.

Now make





executioners, sorrow-ridden, obeyed the order,

and they

saw that


in sooth,

had departed

at the third raising



Then, as the custom




limbs from the high Lama's remains, and threw the different parts separately into the stream the



grim business of execution.




admitted by




Buddhists, that

there was something loftily admirable in the personality of a man who had done and given his all for his faith and religion, and yet uttered not a word of complaint







or man, but, in serene, noble most unmerited and most agonising me, besides finding it most affecting,




story of






was told

for the first

from the moment when time. For, was I not on

my way



Should I succeed in my purpose? but that there might be a repetition

of that sad

and cruel scene





Laying a false scent. early on the New Year's day




spent the greater part of the

morning, as was usual

with me, in reading the sacred Text in honor of the day, and also in praying for the health and long life of their Majesties the Emperor and the Empress, and
his Highness, the



of Japan.




and for the prosperity which I composed on

the occasion wa;s as follows
In glory yonder,



Year's Sun,

His coruscating grateful beams forthslioots,
Diffusing lucid roses on the snows


flash in dazzling spangles bright

and clear


That Sua, the symbol on the Japan-flag My fancy lights with patriotic thrills.









devoting myself to the study, and in efforts at the practical
mastery, of the Tibetan tongue, with the result that,








had become



my own



use of the'



and vernacular forms



made up my mind




with the coming of the year 1899.


became a

momentous question



decide upon the route

to take in entering Tibet.





i. e.,

highways which one may choose in reaching Tibet from Darjeeling. These north-east are first, the main road, which turns Darjeeling and runs through directly after leaving Nyatong ; second, that which traverses the western

Peach Valley

pass, there are three

1 The

word uta

in Japanese

means a short epigrammatic poem,


pressed tersely, and inspired .by some special occasion.




slope of Kanchenjunga, the second highest snow-capped peaks in the Range and brings the traveller to Warong, a
village on the frontier of Tibet;

and the


which takes

one direct from Sikkim through Khainpa- Jong to Lhasa. As, however, each of these roads is jealously guarded either with a fortified gate or some. sentinels, at its Tibetan
it is

a matter of practical impossibility for a

foreigner to gain

admittance into the hermit-country by

going along any of them. Rai Sarat was of opinion that, were to present myself at the Nyatong gate, tell if I
the guards there that I was a Japanese priest
to visit their country

who wished

for the sole purpose of

Buddhism, I might possibly be allowed to pass in, provided that I was courteously persistent in my solicitations but I had reasons for thinking little of this suggestion. At all events, what I had learned from my Tibetan tutors did not sustain my friend's view ; instead, however, my own information led me to a belief that a road to suit my purpose could be found by proceeding through either It appeared to the Kingdom of Bhiitan or of Nepal. me, further, that the route most advantageous to me would be by way of Nepal for Bhiitan had never been visited by the Buddha, and there was there little to learn for me in that connexion, though that country had at one time or another been travelled over by Tibetan priests of great renown; but the latter fact had nothing of importance for me. I had been told, however, that Nepal abounded in the Buddha's footsteps, and that there was in existence there complete sets of the Buddhist Texts in Samskrt. These were inducements which I could turn to account, in the case of






ever been in Nepal before me, though

by some Europeans and Americans.

no Japanese had it had been visited So I decided on a





decision made,
if it


would have been




were possible for me

journey to Nepal




was on the way grand
enjoy, besides

and picturesque scenery incidentally to But places sacred to Buddhist pilgrims.

do so was

not possible for me, or at least implied serious dangers.








there were quite a


them there

—and —knew that

was learning


language with the intention of
country; and

some day



that the


that town



face towards Tibet, they, or some of them at the


would come after me as far as some point where they might make short work of me, or follow me into Tibet and there betray me to the authorities, for they would be richly rewarded for so doing. To meet the necessity of the case, I gave it out that, owing to an unexpected occurrence, I was obliged to go home at once, and I left Darjeeling for Calcutta, which place I
reached on the 5th of January, 1899. I, of course, let Rai Sarat into my secret, and he alone knew that
the day I left Darjeeling I started on my Tibetan journey in real earnest, though back to Calcutta I took fare in


leaving Darjeeling,


good host Rai Sarat

Chandra earnestly wished me complete success in my travels to Tibet, and gave vent to his hearty and sincere pleasure in finding in me one, who, as bold and adventurous
as himself,


starting on

expedition to that hitherto


a perilous but interesting country. Previous


departure from Darjeeling, I received there 630

which had been collected and forwarded to me through the kind and never-failing efforts of my friends at

home, Messrs. Hige,


Watanabe and





Now over trackless snowy range I wend My lonely way to Bhota,' elsewhere named


Tibet, where Dharma's glorious Sun pours forth His Light and melts the cheerless snows of Doubt And Pain and Sorrow, vexing mortal men.





name by which




In Samskri.



!c*sjaf^?j-EL.^ _^,




Journey to Nepal.
second and short stay in Calcutta I had
the good luck of being introduced to a Nepalese named Jibbahadur, who was then a Secretary of the Nepal Govern-

ment, but
in Nepal.




the Minister Resident



in Tibet.

letters introducing

He was kind enough to write two me to a certain gentleman of influence

On the 20th of January, 1899, I came to the famous Buddhagaya, sacred to Holy Shakyamuni Buddha, and there met Mr. Dharmapala of Ceylon, who happened to be there on a visit. I had a very interesting conversation with him. On learning that I was on my way to Tibet, he asked ine to do him the favor of taking some presents for him to the Dalai Lama. The presents consisted of a small relic of the Buddha, enclosed in a silver casket whidh was in the form of a miniature pagoda, and a, volume of the sacred Text written on palm leaves.

of course, willingly complied with the request of the

Sinhalese gentleman,
trip thither, unless

who expressed

hiriiself as

being very

anxious to visit Tibet, but thought

useless to attempt

The night of that day I spent meditating on the Diamond Seat' under the Bodhi-tree the very tree under which, and the very gtoiie on which, about two thousand five hundred years ago,' the holy Buddha sat and reached Buddhahood. The feeling.
he were invited to do


then experienced is indescribable


all I

can say is that

I sat

the night out in the most serene and peaceful extasy. I saw the tell-tale moon lodged, as it were, among the brianche's
of the Bodhi-tree,



pale light on the






Seat/ and the scene was superbly picturesque, and also hallowing, when I thought of the days and nights the

Buddha spent

in holy meditation, at that very spot.

Whilst seated on the Diamond Seat, absorbed In thoughtful meditation full and deep The lunar orb, suspended o'er the tree


The Sacred Bodhi tree shines in the sky. wait with longing for the morning star To rise, the witness of that moment high
His Illumination gained the Lord The Perfect Buddha, Perfect Teacher Great.


After a few days; stay in Buddhagaya, I took the railwaytrain for Nepal, and a ride of a day and a night brought


on the morning of January 23. Sagauli is a station at a distance of two days' journey from the Nepfilese border. Here one boundary of the linguistic territo Sagauli,


of English




was reached, and beyond neither that Tibetan tongue was of any use



Hindustani or Nepalese to







became a





stop a

while at

Sagauli, and make myself master





up to then, my time had been taken up in learning Tibetan, and I had had no
to spare

was But

like forging the

chain after catching



By good fortune, be a long one. I found the postmaster of Sagauli, a Bengali, to be proficient both in English and Nepalese. As the thing had to be done in the most expeditious way possible, I started my work by noting down every Nepalese word the postmaster would teach me. The next day after my arrival at Sagauli, while I was out on a walk near the




stay there

was not





note-book in hand, I noticed,
a train, a



who got



three men,


whom was

a gentleman,

apparently of forty





years of age and dressed in a Tibetan costume, another

a priest about

years old, and the third unmistakably Thereupon a thought flashed on me that it would be a good thing for me if I could travel with these Tibetans, as I took them to bo, and I immediately made bold to go up to them and ask whither they were going. I was told that their that they had not just then come destination was Nepal from Tibet, but that one of them was a Tibetan. It tken became their turn to question me, their opening enquiry being as to what country I belonged. I



replied that I

was a Chinese. " Which direction did you come from then ? did you travel by land or by sea ? was the rejoinder sharply put to me next. That was a question I had to answer with caution. For the rule then in force in Tibet was to admit into that country no Chinaman coming by the sea. So I answered " By land." As we conversed, so we walked, and presently we came in front of where I was lodging. In that part of the world there is no such smart thing as a hotel or an inn all the accommodation one can get in










primitive type,

with bambo.o posts and a straw roof.

of these siinple structures there, standing

and intended only for travellers, nothing to pay for lodging in them they only pay the price of eatables and fuel, should they procure any. It was in one of these shanties that I was stopping, and when I excused myself from the company of my newly

There are a number on the roadside who have, however,

made acquaintances, the

betook themselves into another on the opposite side of the street. After a while the gentleman and the priest came out of their shanty and called on me, evidently bent on finding out who, or For the first question with which they rather what, I was. challenged me was, to what part of China I belonged.

" To
to go

Three years



Fooshee," I replied, realising full well that I was


through the ordeal of an inquisition. "You speak My of course 1" then asked the gentleman.

reply in the affirmative caused


at once to talk to


which put me in no little Compelled by necessity, I consternation in secret. ventured calmly "You must be talkinginthe official Peking dialect, while I can talk only in the common Fooshee tongue, and I do not understand you at all." He was not to let me off yet. Says he next " You can write in Chinese, T suppose." Yes, I could, and I wrote. Some of my characters were intelligible enough to my guests, and some not, and after all it was agreed that it was best




As our conversation came to the crucial part " You say you have come of the inquisition and asked from the landward side well, from what part of Tibet have



to Tibetan.



principal guest


you come



" In sooth, from Lhasa, sir



have been on

a pilgrimage through Darjeeling to Buddhagaya, and from thence here," I replied. I was requested to say, then,
in what part of the city of Lhasa I lived. Being informed that I was in the grand Sera monastery, he wanted to know if I was acquainted with an old priest who was the Tatsang Kenpo (grand teacher) of that institution. I was bold enough to say that I was not a

and made a had learned from Lama Shabdung at Darjeeling. So far I managed to keep up my disguise, but each moment that passed only added to my fear of being trapped, and compelled to give myself away. To avoid this danger, I felt it important to head off my inquisitorial visitors by dispelling their suspicion, if

perfect stranger to the priest in question,

good use





successful in this, the information obtained

was remarkably from Lama Shabdung again doing me excellent service. For, when





I told


my guestSj in

a most knowing way,





about Shabbe which was

designed to increase his own power, and the secret of which affair was not then generally kriown, the recital seemed to make a great impression on them, and to have had the effect of convincing them tha.t I was the person I pretended to be. So my ordeal was at an "end; but there was yet in store for me the most unexpected discovery I was to make about these men. No longer curious as to my antecedents, my gentleman guest now asked me " You say you are going to Nepal: may I ask you who is the person you are directed to, and if you have ever been in that country ?" I had never been there before, but I had a letter of introduction with me. From whom, to whom, could that be ? The letters, I said for I had had two given me -were written in favor of me by Mr. Jibbahadur, an official of the Nepalese Government, then residing in Calcutta, and addressed to



of the

Great Tower of Mahabodha in Nepal,
I just

whose name, though

happened to forget


was on

This piece of information seemed greatly to interest the gentleman, who could not help saying " Why^

Mr. Jibbahadur is a friend of mine^ I wonder who can be the person to whom the letters are addressed; will you permit me to look at them ? " And the climax came when I, in all willingness, took out the letters



and showed them to my guest, for he ejaculated " Well, whoever would have thought it ? These are for me "
: !



here observe that in Nepal, as I found out

afterwards, the



conveys, a

much deeper

meaning, probably, than in any- other country. To be a friend there means practically the same thing as being a brother, and the natives have a curious custom of observing a special ceremony when any two of them tie the knot of friendship between them. The ceremony

resembles very



much that of marriage, and made an occasion for a great



which the relatives and connexions of the parties concerned take part. To be brief, the ceremony generally takes the form of exchanging glasses of the native drink between the mutually chosen two, and they each have to extend their liberalities even to their servants in honor It is only after the observance of these of the occasion.


which signify a great deal to the natives any two Nepalese may each call themselves the

friend of the other.

happened that my erstwhile inquisitor proved to official owner and Lama-Superior of the Great Tower above mentioned, who stood in the relationship of a friend to Mr. Jibbahadur. It was most unexpected, but the discovery was none the less welcome to me, and I besought him to take me, henceforth, under his care and protection. Thus I came to be no longer a stranger and a
It so

be the


solitary pilgrim, but a guest, a companion, to a high personage of Nepal. My newly acquired friend, as I should call the Lama in our language, proposed that we should start for Nepal the next morning. This proposal was

was another that we should go on horse-back, so that we might the better enjoy each other's company, and perchance, also, the grand scenery on the way. I say that all this was agreeable to me, because, in addition to the obvious benefit

me, as


was sure to derive from being in the company of these men, I entertained a secret hope that I might learn a great deal, which would help me in executing the main

part of

my adventures,

yet to come.

While our talk was progressing in this fashion, two servants of the Lama's came in, running and all pale, with the unwelcome piece of news that a thief had
broken into their shed.
This caused


callers to take

as it happened. whose name was Mayar. whose silence was broken only by a rushing stream. as for a Chinaman following side of living in Tibet. . and thence. I and some books and clothes. precipitate 31 learned that leave of me. We passed the night of the day in a village situated a little way this the famous Dalai Jungle. I felt exceedingly sorry for them. almost shook in her pale splendor jungle. for the owner of my shed told me subsequently that the thief. while writing up my diary. which may be regarded as an entrance to the great Himalayas. About ten o'clock that night. tremendous in its volume and depth. where stood the first guarded gate of the Nepalese frontier. was a Doctor of Divinity of the Debon monastery in Lhasa. In the meantime I learned that the gentleman Lama's name was Buddha Vajra (Enlightened Diamond). as I felt. who caused such a loss to the Lamas. stolen between them. a village at the outer edge of the great jungle. Early on the 25th of January we started on our journey. and proceeded due north across the plain in which Sagauli stands. I happened to look out of the window of my shanty. had been on the look-out for a chance to loot my lodging. On the 28th we proceeded past Simla. was in luck on that occasion. he finally made my newly made friends suffer for me . which has a width of full eight miles.JOUENEY TO NEPAL. I afterwards the Lamas had had three hundred and fifty rupees in cash. where we took up our lodgings for the night. which. The moon was shining brightly over the great and there was something indescribably weird in the scene. Suddenly I then heard a detonation. straight across the jungle itself. and that the old priest. and. until we came to a village on the bank of a mountain stream called Bichagori. The next day we arrived at a place called Beelganji. and who was full of jokes. There I was given a pass.


until we reached a stage station called Binbit. then across a deep forest. or Moon Peak. I was told innkeeper that sound came from a tiger. beheld with wonder the sublime sight of the mighty of Himalayas. where we took lodging for the night. we came to a guarded gate named Here was a custom-house and a fortress. evidently had just finished a fine repast on and. from the top of which I. whose sides are covered imagination. What ho ! —so loud a roar the stillness breaks. that 5 . and we had to go through an examination.JOURNEY TO NEPAL. its by our which victim. or in a mountain-palanquin. we climbed up the peak Chandra Giri. Down Tisgari we came to Marku station. Early on the 1st of February. the ground. So far the road was up a slow. Vibrating —ah ! It is a tiger fierce ! In ripples rough his roar terrific throws The surface even of the mountain stream. the moon shines bright. for the first time. gradual incline. Tispance. 33 In reply to the my query. having come to have a draught of river-water. garrisoned by quite a number of soldiers. and over a mountain. Thence we climbed a peak called Tisgari. So an me : The night sleeps still and calm. could not help giving vent to uta came to its sense of enjoyment. The grandeur the the scene was so utterly beyond memory of what I had seen at Darjeeling and Tiger Hill came back to me only as a faint vision. We went on the foot. commencing our climb as early as four o'clock in morning. For two days more the road lay now through a dale on the bank of a river. After an ascent of something more than three and a half miles. and horse-carriages and bullock-carts could be driven over itj but now the ascent became so steep that it could be made only on foot. shining majestically with their snow of ages.

The distance from Sagauli railway station to this spot is roughly one hundred and twenty-five miles. with the flowers of the rhododendron^ the chief characteristic of the Himalayan Range. range of little Thence I saw again the snow-covered Just a majestic capital of Himalaya. I saw also in that panorama two gilded towers rising conspicuously against the sky. and I was given one of the horses. and the other that of Sikhi Buddha.34 THEEE YEAES IN TIBET. we were met bj' four or five men with two horses. spread before me a picture. We were met by about thirty more men on entering a village. On coining down the steep slope of the hill. Katmandu the Nepal and the country around. and Lama Buddha Yajra told me that one of them was the tomb of Kasyapa Buddha. not faf from the foot of the hill. 'J'hey were men sent thither in advance to wait for the return of Buddha Vajra. while my host took the other. ever grand and way down from the top of the p6ak. . like I saw.

they themselves would have to dedicate a temple as great as a mountain. the high of the the govei-nment said and if the. a certain old woman. befriend Beggars. as the result of great sacrifices on the part of the woman and her four sons. After Kasyapa Buddha's demise. was the Headman well as the Superior of that mausoleum tower. Kasyapa tower the The is village that surrounds the great generally I known by name of Boddha. By the time that. Ja Rung Kashol Cliorten Chenpo. the latter having been built by the woman herself. with It is said in this history that her four sons. Before starting on the .disallow the further progress . however. and obtained permission to " proceed with" building a tower. on. interred this great sage's remains at the spot over which the great mound now stands. and Chorten Chenpo means great tower. which may be translated into: " Have finished giving order to proceed with. and so they dame decided to ask the King to . that lived a long time before Kasyapa was a Buddha Shakyamuni Buddha.. the groundwork of the structure had been finished. men old country. which explains this strange name.work of construction. The real name of the tower in full is. she petitioned the King of the time. which rich it \yas undertaken. which in Tibetan is called Yambu Qhorten Chenpo. found. those who saw it were astonished at the greatness of the scale . of Lama Buddha that village as Vajr'a. officials Especially of was this the case with .CHAPTEE 1 VI." The tower has an name by which Katmandu interesting history of its own. is Yamhu is the general known in Tibet. who all that such a poor were to be allowed to complete building such a stupendous tower.

and I cannot undo my orders now. For. The reason why they choose the most apparently unfavorable season for their travel thither liable to catch malarial fever if is because they are they come through the Himalayan passes during the summer months. the work. Kings mast not eat their words. Lama Buddha Yajra I was a well-qualified Chinaman. passing their winter in the neighborhood of the tower and going back to Tibet in summer. which are more reliable than the Tibetan. however. crowds of visitors from Tibet. for the above description from Tibetan books is different from the records in Samskrt. to choose a route for my purpose. that the tower must have been built after the days of Shakyamuni Buddha. who eke out their existence by a sort of nomadic life." I rather think. the greatest By far of number of the visitors are Tibetans. " Ja Rung Kashol Chorten Chenpo. In Nepal I had now arrived. who was to go back to Lhasa by openly taking one of the pubhc roads. My purpose was such that I could take nobody there into my confidence. When the King was approached on : the "I have finished giving the matter his Majesty replied order to the woman to proceed with the work. Mongolia. and grandees. I knew that the Lama was a Tibetan interpreter to His Highness . Every year." So the tower was allowed to be finished. for there are many highways and pathways running between that country and Tibet. and go on thence to China. Besides. only a few majority being impecunious pilgrims presence there was. however. the and beggars. between the middle of September and the middle of the following February of the lunar calendar. and hence its unique name. and the reason of my are nobles whom. of course.36 of THREE YEARS IN TIBET. to not even my kind and obliging host. China and Nepal come to this place to pay their respects to the great temple.

The one may . — — permission to pass through these gates. and privilege of was thus that and show special favors. they became quite communicative afterwards. By taking this clandestine route avoid the Kirong gate. unless he would bribe the guards heavily. there remained for me the necessity of discovering a secret path to Tibet. that there was nothing to dread. It occurred to me that the begging Tibetans. himself to my venture. when they had found out.. It Lama Buddha Yajra came to take a fancy. they spoke but none Nyallam bye-path. father belonged to the old school. it was plain. would not only not lend of Nepal. consider for me. but one is in danger of being challenged at a gate further in the interior. I may note here that Gya lady. Demurring at first. but would at once put an end to the further progress of my journey. as I presume. no unprivileged person even the natives could obtain enjoyed the marriage. who go on pilgrimage in and out of their country. which I For instance. of whom there was then a large that these homeless wanderers could not do number hanging about the Kasyapa Buddha tower. either way. could not be in possession of the pass that gave them open passage through I remembered also that the numerous frontier ga. Lama. I was in luck again.I BEFRIEND BEGGARS. which means " Chinese Lama. Be that as it may. plain Encouraged by these considerations. and that were I to divulge to him he was in duty bound to tell it to his royal who. and my liberality to them soon made me very popular among them. I learned could of the of many safe secret passages. in me.tes. 37 the King my secret." for he was the Nepalese a son born to a Chinese priest after host's My who married a Nepalese having become the Superior of the tower. fondly call Lama Buddha Vajra. master. and it was this. considering me as a countryman of his. to me. I took to befriending the Tibetan mendicants.

brought me. take a north-east course after leaving the Nepalese capital. and finally around the lake Manasarovara. Anavatapta Lake that often occurs in the Buddhist Texts. identity granted. by the . and it appeared to the Tenri gate. popularly accepted. thence across Jangtang. a border province of Nepal. So to far so good. there was every danger of my be different with me : pleading with the guards. in order to make a direct journey to Lhasa but the one I have just referred to lay in the opposite direction of northwest. however. on the other hand. through Lo. So one day I said to my side of the lake. and they generally It would succeed at the interior gates. it is The asa. Sharkongpo path. withThe pass out having to pass through some challenge gate. the native beggars and pilgrims have one more resource left to them. But it say that I chose this would be courting suspicion particularly circuitous and it. one should the perils of these challenge gates. I was told. it could be argued that Mount Kail- to the was nature's Mandala. with prayer and supplication. the north plain (but really the west plain) of Tibet. their reward. brings the traveller So on with other paths. and that was enough for my purpose. an impossibility to discover a route which would enable a person to reach the capital of Tibet from that of Nepal. I ascertained that by taking a somewhat roundabout way 1 might reach Lhasa without encountering Ordinarily. when they come upon a challenge post. sacr-ed menlory of the Buddha. dangerous route with no obvious reason for a' Fortunately good pretext was at hand to think of the identity of For I happened the lake Manasarovara with the for me. and bribery being beyond them. which formed an important station for Buddhist pilgrims..'38 THEEE YEAES IN TIBET. This bye-route I made up my mind to take. and that is imploring a passage. However' divided the scholastic views are about this identity. disguise being detected while persistent efforts My finally .

in short. Gya Lama. thou art destined to die. in spite of her sixty years of age. in fact. my host complimented me on the firmness of my resolution. death might overtake me at any time. strongly advise trip me against my rash decision . consisting of two men and an old woman. with only one or two servants. he hired for me a pilgrim party. because. of Mount Kailasa want Kang Rinpo Che) rising high on the shore of lake Manasaro vara to visit that sacred Maphamyumtsho) . but I was assured of the perfect honesty and good intentions of the particular three I was to engage. the north-west plain was pathless and full of marauding robbers it had been his long-entertained desire to visit the sacred mountain hiniself. should always regret a rare a stork's journey from here opportunity to were (Tib. Then. to let ^ trustworthy a place called Tukje.I BEFRIEND BEGGARS. but the difficulties mentioned had. These people were from Kham." I was not afraid of death . even while living comfortably under the Lama's care. Buddha's teachings that "born into life. was My retort was that. so that I should consider myself well repaid place. The Chinese Text speaks (Tib. I 39 Host : " Having come thus lost. though sympathetic. prevented him from carrying it out. So I should be very much obliged to you if you would kindly get men to carry iny luggage for me. and took it upon himself to secure for me reliable carriers. as he said. a country noted for its robbers. and he would . . after careful enquiries. bade me give up my purpose. I mountain on my way home. was strong enough to brave the hardships of an exceptionally difficult road. if I met death while on a pilgrimage to a holy Finding dissuasion useless with me." The answer I got in reply was not encouraging. to see that my two pilgrim servants served me faithfully. I to make Lhasa. it being one of like seeking death. and thence to China. the latter of whom. As a mark of his Gya Lama promised riian under him accompany me as far as special kindness. far. to venture a through that region. so far.

but I was obliged to start from Katmandu. a hill famous for a cave where Nagarjuna. I believe no bold European or American had trodden this precipitous path before me hence I would like to mention a rock. and they might find out my nationality. for it was very dangerous for me to stay there any longer. We directed our course towards the British north-west. through beautiful the Residency. as I was quite a stranger to the Nepalese. or under Here I must not omit some interesting things about my travels among the Himalayan mountains from Katmandu to the lake Manasarovara through Nepal. a great Bodhi-Sattva. So I took the assistance of the horse. was in the beginning of the month of March. followed by a to men and one old dame. and through Nagar-yon. 1899. retinue of three that. We arrived at a village called Jittle-Pedee in the evening. seated on me by my fatherly friend. and carried me up steep ascents and down abrupt descents pony. used to meditate. in perfect safety. I bade farewell the Kasyapa was not in good health that day. where the people belonging to that religion do not allow a foreigner of is it is The present Ruler Nepal caste system as rigidly as to enter their rooms. a Hindu. or to eat with them. . The country being extra-territorial. . on account of fever and weakness. and keeps the kept in India. and stop me from proceeding further. The Sublime Himalaya. Therefore we were obliged to pass the night outside a house.CHAPTER It VII. the most and clean quarter in Katmandu. and passed the night under the eaves of a shop-keeper's house. given my kind host and. and the good animal proved to be a splendid mountaineer. or in the forests. left I a snow-white Buddha tower.

days' journey after this we made about forty miles. in a lonely spot. everything connected therewith. We miles. only five days' journey from the place to Kirong in Tibet but there the officers of the frontier guard the passes against all. hill pastures. and. Just north is the town. I saw more than fifty people from Tibet and from Nishang a northern frontier province of Nepal. I have not met with any maps which mention this name. The town is situated on the west bank of the river which the natives called Buri-Ganga (Buria G-andak). On the third day of our departure from Katmandu.— THE SUBLIME HIMALAYA. Daramhaje. streams. Pokhra looked like a town of villas at home. we arrived at a famous town. this river is crossed bj^ an iron hanging bridge. much space on the inner Himalayas of Nepal. Algata. the site being chosen 6 . on the bank of that river there a pretty forest in which we slept well through the night. forests full of rhododendrons. situated on the west (Tirsuli bank of of the Kirong river G-andak). I shall only mention briefly what will be consi- dered interesting by my readers in general. The town itself is important on account of its trade with Tibet. we travelled for more than forty miles. Wo also the villages passed several villages —Nimareshi. lulled by the rolling sounds of the mountain-rivers' grand music. and deep forests of firj oak and pine. and arrived at a small trading town called Chunge. crossing the river Agu. Early on the following morning we started on the north-western path leading to Pokhra. although there is a short way. rocky mountains. In three . During the nine days after leaving Algata we passed many valleys. Manicheka and Satmuni. with the peaks of the snowy range in view. passed Bareng-Bareng and Sareng. strangers. made a distance of something less than one hundred and then reached a town called Pokhra. but as I cannot spend 41 object is my Tibet. Rutel.

which had caught me neck and caused the disaster. to reach the bottom a mangled carcass Realising the danger I was in. probably on account of their carrying in them particles of mountain clay. we turned due north. rich Bambooin covered flower-roofed heights. In all my travels in the Himalayas I saw no scenery so enchanting Another thing as that which enraptured me at Pokhra. and its waters are milky white. I hastily tried to pick myself up. send the animal by a round-about After leaving Pokhra way through the valleys. such set in the midst of high mountains stream. four nho of rice there. and large enough for cooking inside also. horseback on precipice. that the most. and twenty-five rupees bought for me one made to order. itself The stream features of Pokhra. notable about that place was that it was the cheapest spot in Xepal for all kinds of commodities. places. . I found myself all of a sudden thrown down to the ground. and as I never let go my hold of horse's by the the bridle. before I had had time to free myself from a branch of a tree. while. Twenty-five sens picturesque because of a rushing — bought. and the ascent became very steep. for instance. Very fortunately my horse came to a halt just then. as I had to have a tent made before I proceeded further. but in vain for evidently I had ! . deeply engrossed as I was in thought On one occasion was proceeding about the near future. I narrowly escaped from rolling a thousand fathoms down a craggy precipice. of its natural scenery. green and winding foliage. the beauty ravines. assisted by the movement onward.42 for THEEE YEARS IN TIBET. in other amount would buy only two sho and a half at At Pokhra I made a rather long stay of six days. on a narrow path that ran along a very high when. were the characteristic (fish-tail) I speak of has its source in the Machipusa peak. and I myself go afoot for half-a-day. so steep at places that I had to get off my horse.

That makes the awful silence more profound. for the path lay through a valley where nature. On resuming our journey. which now and then broke and an uta then came to me thus : the oppressive silence. thus making an ascent of about a mile to the top of the mountains we were crossing over. gradually relieved me of my suifering. In tortuous paths my lonely way now lies ' rough mountain tracks and scenes all wild The rooks and giant trees in silence stand. reigned supreme. hip very hard in my fall^ and could not raise myConsequently I had to requisition the backs of my two servants in turn. Among . to the injured parts.. My sense of loneliness was heightened by the note of the cuckoo. With naught to break the silent depths around Except the solitary cuckoo's notes. now down the mountain. I found the pain too great to permit the continuance of my journeyj and I camped there for two daySj during which time my diligent application of some camphor tincture. in her wildest seclusion. I could not help being profoundly impressed with the power of impenetrable solitude. On reaching the top. which I had with me. THE SUBLIME HIMALAYA. struck 43 my self up.

the old woman came to think a great deal of me. the two. of which he was not a little proud. seemed occasionally to hurt the feelings of the impatient one. apparently because of this treatment. and . but was afraid to do so in the presence of her two companions. and riding on a horse as I was. so one morning I caused her to go a considerable way ahead of us. In short she told me that the impatient fellow was a robber and murderer. was not of a very reassuring kind for according to her I was doomed to be killed. she was a and that was all there was about her. it Then she made a revelation to me. I told her that they must be at least five behind. full when I thought fit. So the days passed and "vvitli these days I came to know more or less of the different characteristics of my two servants I found one to be a rather impatient fellow. and overtake the old miles behind. and the other a quiet man with some The latter education. As for good honest soul. Dangers Ahead. except that she seemed to know all about the two men. I took pains to be strictly impartial in all my dealings though her age entitled the old dame to special consideration on my part. it was only natural that I should soon leave them lagging far woman. and more than once collisions had already occurred between . . Burdened with my luggage as the men were.CHAPTER VIII. The good soul turned furtively back. the old woman pilgrim. but prompt of decision. and I started with my servants afterwards. and asked if the two men were a long distance behind. and she had it in with the three. I had noticed in her manner something indicating that she wished to speak to me. It came to pass that.

introduc- tion I enjoyed the privilege of being received as a guest by Two days after my arrival there the special man whom Gya Lama through his thoughtful kindness. named Harkaman Suppa. the road in my route which lay through the State of my two But they were that I would never .DANGEES AHEAD. far from being all right. it certain that they." She my money : my life ! . and that. as already told. if "Konjogsum (Holy lie ! Trinity) ! send to me to death. Through Gya Lama's this Governor. it was that three months before the Tibetan Government had detailed five soldiers to guard. and I felt be able to accomplish my journey unless I got rid of them. my informant's warning as a mere string So another trouble ahead was added to my burdened mind. though the quiet one was not so bad a man. I tell a " These are words of adjuration I could which Tibetans attach great importance. After travelling twelve days more and only making a distance of about one hundred miles. against all foreigners and any strange person. and not persuade myself to regard of falsehoods. where then lived the local Governor. retui-ned. as well as Thereupon I said " That could not be for they are both men of great honesty and uprightness. The old dame thought one. and rob me of and effects. 45 having committed many crimes while at home in Kham. took leave of me. apparently well satisfied that servants were and would be all right. least the impatient would pounce upon me as soon as we reached of all the north-west plains of Tibet. At all events neither would think twice before taking a man's or at life. I came across information about the route that lay before me that proved to me another source of discouragement. we reached a Himalayan village called Tukje. had sent to accompany me so far. While I was worrying myself with these thoughts. In effect. he had yet killed a fellow-creature in a quarrel.

In brief. and soon found him be a man possessed of profound knowledge of not only Buddhism but also of literary subjects. besides giving lessons in religious Texts to the local priests. I also gave some money with some little present in kind to woman. even though narrow enough for just one person to pass. however secluded and narrow. It happened that. was a Mongolian scholar named Serab Gyaltsan. THREE YEAES IN TIBET. having regaled themselves with the local drinks began a. my servants. he and I after a while to . after having paid them oif rather liberally. with the upshot that they both came to me. while the route I Katmandu being out of had chosen for myself had become unavailable. But there remained the greater problem of what to do next. enjoying the Governor's hospitality like myself. Whatever were the reasons on my part. and bade her go with the men. each with a that he would like to be discharged if demand the other were to continue in my service.quarrelling. and I there and then dismissed both of them. But there . And I had reason to believe that this information was well founded so that it became inevitable that I should give up my idea of entering Tibet by smuggling myself into its north-western plain.46 . the old I to retrace my steps back to the question. while even to boisterousness. is ebb and flow even in troubles. who was acting as a doctor of medicine. still staying at the G-overnor's. which largely each accused of consisted of exposing each other. I could not have had a better opportunity. I had not been long at Governor Harkaman's before I became acquainted with this person. And thus got rid of an imminent danger to my life. One evening. Lo the same precaution had been taken on all the other bye-ways and pathways leading into Tibet. the other of short a somewhat cheerless intention of making work me when opportunity should arrive.

I noticed. which was about one by two feet numberless springs its prolonged flame looked. where the Mongolian scholar had his home. that flows at the foot of the mountain which we had just descended. Chumik Gyatsa means a hundred fountains. ample evidences of old volcanic eruptions. however. with my weight on his back and treacherous mud-beds under his feet. at. we visited the famous Chumik Gyatsa. as ' I made a blunder in attempting to wade across the stream on my horse. The place apparently obtained the name the it bears from abounding thereabout. I. On seeing the spot I found this mystery to be nothing more than the fancy of the ignorant natives. which means burning in earth. after leaving the hundred fountains ' behind us. and so on. at the first were crawling over the water. In the first place in size. so that if it glance. On our way thither. found himself in perilous condition as soon as he had a walked a few steps into the stream. that formed a lid. that the mountains round about bore. got .DANGEES AHEAD. Chula Mebar. burning in rock. and a spot of particular fame there was called Sala Mebar. over and close to the surface of a beautiful crystal-like fountain. being all present. We passed a night encamped on the bank of the river Kaliganga. at one time or another. burning in water. lava-rocks. an extinct crater now changed to a pond. of course. Dola Mebar. who saw a burning jet of natural gas escaping from a crevice in a slab of rock. so to say. The following morning we had a disastrous time for three hours in trying to cross a stream. which. and is the ]\Iukutinath of Samskrt. This under- standing arrived we took leave of Tukje and set out Tsarang in the province of Lo. which Hindus as well as Buddhists regard as a place of great sanctity. 47 came and for to an agreement for the exchange of knowledgSj he instructing me in Tibetan Buddhism and literature I teaching him Chinese Buddhism.

Stones flying and muddy water him scared my horse. and. he opposite bank. a passable footway for myself as well as for the Mongolian scholar and his animal. and broken branches of trees that I found lying about. that is to say. and the Then I had . we had made a distance of about fifteen miles before we reached a hamlet named Kirung. the obtusa species of pine taking their place. rocks. toward the north of Dhavalagiri. and I saw fluttering on every house-top a white flag with certain religious texts printed on it. till snow. . with a wild struggled out and landed himself on the effort. the ground being otherwise covered with shrubby growths. which was still on the mountain. where I found willow trees growing luxuriantly. as I afterwards found. and proceeded due north along a path that lay midway between the top and splashing around bottom of its slope. These flags are to be seen everywhere in the interior of Tibet. we rode on northwards. stones. climbed half-way up a mountain. and even these attaining a height of not more than twenty feet at the most. The inhabitants hereabout were all Tibetans. but now these became very rare.48 off THREE YEAHS IN TIBET. through an obtusa-pine the night fell moon an uta rose. That day we stopped in a On the next we again village called Samar (red clay). In the mountains below Tukje I found common pines and cedars growing in fair abundance. when I again heard a cuckoo. but my friend's pony remained immovable till we had managed to build a way across for ourselves and pulled him after us. Riding on the snow. over forest. Leaving the village. at once and climbed upon the bank behind then set about throwing into the river. near where the horse was. in order to improvise there him I me. and that even where the people are living in tents.


Skirting the town of Tsarang runs a stream.50 THREE YEARS IN TIBET. Lo was an independent State. that nestles in the snowcovered mountains. the cuckoo's notes. devoid of large trees extreme. it is a stone building painted which forms a dormitory for the priests of the temple. While marching onwards now the night o'ertakes The pilgrim bold. and I was told that the farmers had just finished soiling wheat.canopy will be. The temple is a square structure of Tibetan style. in which lives the King of the Lo State. built of stone and painted red. which. . Before the Gurkha tribe bad subjugated Nepal. and on an elevated part of the town stands a castled palace. It was in the middle of May that I arrived in Tsarang. and adjoining white. That night we put up in an inn in a hamlet called Kimiyi (fountain of fortune). Ten miles on the following day brought us within sight of Tsarang. practically of the and desolate in the At a little distance. From Tsarang trip. on reaching. the plain has to its west a snow-capped mountain. whence incline towards the east. His lullaby. to the north-west plain of Tibet is a day's and the physical features these regions are same character. to the royal castle. opposite size. is a temple of considerable belonging to the Kargyu-pa sect of the old school of Tibetan Buddhism. On a piece of level land to the west of the palace and the temple a group of about sixty large and small houses constitutes the town of Tsarang. . I found to be a little town built on a plain which was about eleven miles from east to west. until it extends in a very slow off breaks of into a valley. enclosed by walls it of snow-covered More accurately. which has its rise in the mountain that forms the western wall of the plain. to south. the snowy floor his bed The moon-lit sky his. and three miles or more from north mountains.

As in Tibet so in Tsarang.. all well-to-do anticipated our arrival. So i^ was that. who. Beautiful Tsarang and Dirty Tsarangese. which I found to be a typical one of its kind. out of respect. fourteen or fifteen men. as I was told. . etc. for any military purpose was used for housing Buddhas and other and a half deities that would keep guard against the invasion of the locality by evil genii. we came upon a stone-turreted gate about twenty-four feet in height. and altogether much superior in its general finish and furnishings to the family dwelling. a special depository for religious Texts. with its imagecrowned altar. At the foot of the mountain out of which we had emerged. About a mile to the rear of the gate stood the town of Tsarang.. but it is apparently beyond their ken that volumes of Texts are but so many sheets of waste paper. if their possessors do not understand and live by them. I may remai-k that these folk generally keep a good store of the Texts. the gate was not intended. at the entrance of which we were met by ed. which was of conthe house of siderable size. the form showing their deep reverence for their religion. I was given that privilege in the Chief's chapel. as it appear- Serab Gyaltsan led me to the Chief of the town. Standing by but it itself and entirely unprotected. and is a person entitled to such distinction in these localities generally a Lama. people generally have a separate chapel in their residence. When they have a visitor of rank and social position. and where the plain began. put him up in their chapel. as a Chinese Lama. but more as a matter of form. they. not because they make use of them themselves. CHAPTER IX.

so to say. respect. or the biographies of the more famous monarchs of Buddhist States. who be- tween them managed the household and the family business. filthy habits. in a sense. the washing being confined even then to the face and neck. I could not for the creditable manner but admire the two young women in which they attended to their business. complexion would have appeared quite fair sional scrubbing if were administered it is to the skin it is but what to can they do when a custom. as among them. but I very think the natives of Tsarang go still higher in this In Tibet people wash themselves occasionally. whose only an occa. quiet and amiable. employing under them a number of servants. I often noticed women. the native's skin all over the body has on a peculiarly repulsive shine of polished dirt. Such being the it case. to the great delight a Lama of his audience. In the course of the twelve months that 1 lived there. and living with two grown-up daughters. By the side of the chapel in which I was installed there was another small building. laugh at persons who wash their faces nice and clean. but they almost never do so in Tsarang.farm-hands and cattlemen. who would narrate the stories of ancient priests of great renown. except when they went to a sort of semi-religious meeting presided over by I also Mapi. Tibetans stand high among the inhabitants of the earth. the days art of living amidst filth and In point of uncleanliness. My host was a widower.52 THREE YEAES IN TIBET. the natives . and to deride them as being very dirty in their habits ? Not only in their appearance. but in all that they do. The days of I spent in my tutelage in the Tsarang were. in which lived Serab Gyaltsan. observed that the chief amusement of all the villagers consisted in spending evenings in dances and comic songs. about twentythree and eighteen years of age respectively. I only twice saw a person wash himself.

His teaching is a sort of parody on Buddhism proper. for he lived with eight women whom he heart's content. and an attempt to sanctify the sexual relations of humankind. in that thoroughly prepared me what had to endure in Tibet. even unto sickening. which required much preparation. of a very easy nature. Padma's own life was simply his teach- ing^ translated into actual practice. which are altogether beyond imaginfor those who have not seen them done. making a cup of tea for is to give only a very mild instance of their I and have no courage to dwell here on their many ation other doings. To say you with which they have just blown of cleanliness. Indeed. and it was on this account that hot disputes not unfrequently arose between my instructor . priest whose name may be translated into " born of the lotus flower " Tibetari. my life among these slovenly people did one good it thing for me. called his wives. filthiness . Now in the Tibetan rhetoric in which I took lessons under Serab Gyaltsan I found this lewd and detestable teaching largely incorporated. and gave me occasion teacher. and exercises in Tibetan rhetoric and penmanship for another three hours I : in the afternoon. to engage in discussions with my There is in existence to this day in Tibet a sect of Buddhists which believes in a teaching originated by. and are too loathsome. which was. My work with Serab Gyaltsan consisted in this a lecture on Buddhism for three solid hours in the morning. drank intoxicants to his and fed freely on animal food. (Padma Sambhava) or Padma Chungne in and whom they regard as their savior and as Buddha incarnate. 53 seem to have absolutely no idea that they think nothing of with the same fingei's their nose. however. it As for was. explaining and interprfeting all the important passages and tenets in the sacred Text from a sensual standpoint. to recall to mind.a BEAUTIFUL TSAEANG AND DIETY TSAEANGESE.

but who. from what I was able to those on whom (as the result of maintainmg well the while his I felt sorry. fire glared in if withdrew as followed. because I found him to be a profound and widely-read scholar.64 THREE YEARS IN TIBET. like also. flying into a terrible rage. with the other picking up a bar belonging to a table that stood between us. so that he was compelled to pass his life in great monastery Sera. Therehe caught hold of my clothes near my throat with one hand. Another thing I noticed about him to my pain was that he very easily became angry. I spending seven to nine hours a day in preparation. I felt sorry for him all the more. because of obscure seclusion. as I feel sorry title of undefiled priesthood) was conferred the of Doctor by the having afterwards yielded to feminine temptation. now. he one of twenty years' study. said I I had disputes with my Serab. but he did saw him grind his teeth. and his eyes. The situation was very humorous. besides the six hours of . was about to visit me with a blow. not let go his grasp. because. but. for At times is my Serab. laughter. It was on one of these occasions that I differed from him with regard to the real merits of a certain Buddhist saint. gather. and myself. saying the next moment that I had always thought a little better of him than to suppose that he was capable of such an exhibition as he was thus making of himself. like them he was very quick in becoming reconciled. But reconciliation This took I So time passed on. all the Mongols I came across. him aback. and I broke out into loud upon. he then removed his grasp and too wroth to be near me. in defiance of the teachings of the sain^ he revered so much. who could have risen in life but for his carnal weakness. lost his qualification to go back to Mongolia as a respectable Lama. while out of shame it became impossible for him to continue to live in Lhasa. and.

Indifferent as they are to their appearance. Such was the life especially with regard to my lungs. they engage in agricultural work to some extent. I was in excellent health then. thirteen to fifteen were thus taken up for purposes of study every day. carrying on occupied during the summer months. The natives hereabouts are merely. drinking and minds being otherwise filled with thoughts pertaining to sensual love. the regular daily lessons. They a occasionally spend their evening in listening to Lama Mani preaching or lecturing. my meal a day with some tea. 55 Out of the twenty-four hours. but only occasionally. casting off the old for the new if any of them is brave enough to wear the same suit for two years.. that person is made an their praise. True. and I shortly became quite a famous man in the locality. other occupation Sundays. as also in making their sleep comfortable. They change their cloth- but ing but once a year. creatures of animal instincts. It was in this way. toiling on in a rare atmosphere through trackless wildernesses at great heights while burdened with heavy luggage on my back. it may be said. and of making the ascents with all possible speed. . I led for awhile. they are very painstaking in preparing food. Sundays I invariably spent in mountaineering of a somewhat unusual character. I made a point of my back a heavy load of stones when making my Sunday climb. but at the other seasons they sleeping. their think of nothing but eating. I had an idea that I should never be able to compass the arduous journey before me. which keeps them purpose. unless I had a thorough training beforehand for the with the exception of being to take one Guided by these thoughts. and to go out for a walk. always shining with grease and dirt. it is And as they never wash object of high wearing apparel. BEAUTIFUL TSAKANG AND DIETY TSARANGESE. and I felt that the mountaineering made it still better.

Tsarang has but two seasons. which were often loud enough to be heard outside. I knew not of these things myself at first. For before my presence in Tsarang became it was not long known among the inhabitants. The most ridiculous of all was their interpretation of the quarrels between Serab and myself they made out that these disputes . who frequently called to favor me with tea and sweets. To them a Lama is omnipotent. I higher order. furnished them with no end of material for gossip. In summer. So it came an Lama — I myself —became and reverence among them.56 THREE YEAKS IN TIBET. their But But ruling passion is that of carnal love. they among the natives. to to me as presents. Especially my altercations with Serab Gyaltsan. While treating of may dwell a little on the natural beauties of that place. interspersed with patches of white and pink buck-wheat. while the fact that the medicines I gave away at their pressing request occasionally proved of good effect contributed greatly to my fame. from the as young to the very old. and the majestic . or to my giving some cash beggars! ears of a Idle tales as these were. seemed to find ready who looked on me as a being Tsarang. and my doings in the mountain on Sundays began to attract their attention. instead of giving them to him. but heard of them from my host's daughters. when they would inform me of what people were saying of me. things sent to to my giving away. illness. human beings they are subject to like all uncivilised people they are intensely superstitious. and many are the natives that do not know even the names of the other seasons. simple as is the contrast between the verdant fields of luxuriant wheat. originated in Serab's objecting the poor. namely. for they believe that he all can cure diseases and divine to pass that the Chinese object of great esteem future events. and and that applies to all ages. summer and winter.


its But more sublimely spectacular the view on to descend winter's eve. while the fields below are resonant with the rustic melodies of joyous damsels. as the last rays of the sinking sun strike them. The moment the sun begins rise behind the snow-covered mountains that miles to the west of the town. which is now and then softened by the clear notes of a cuckoo. while the snow in such abundance that it drifts itself into . and the toid ensemble beporaes at once as enchanting as it is archaic. of course. The wind is often so strong that it blows away the it time changes comes down huge mountains here and there on the plain.white. the combination makes a striking picture. as it were. and the moon in her glory rises slowly from behind them. But the scene on a moonlight night after a blizzard is worth seeing. The sky is filled with clouda of tilled surface of a farm. keeping time. to spread again an indescribable lustre of cold if coldness has a color of its own over the mountain tops. -shining out majestically against the cloudless clear blue sky. but that only for a moment. The cold is. and in into a barren field of sand. picture a buoyant Throw into the army of butterflies. burj-ing the peaks in faint uncertainty. and this is the ^picture of Tsarang in summer. The ruby huge color gradually changes into it a golden-yellow. to the stirring melody of sky-lai'ks. The scene once more changes as the dusk deepens. when the day is is bright and warm. that flutter up and down. and fades away to reveal pillars of silver. about ten the equally snow-robed peaks that tower above the eastern range become luminous masses of coral-red. peaks that keep guard over the plain and look ever grand in their pure white robes of perennial snow. But Tsarang has its horrors as well as its charms.58 THREE YEAES IN TIBET. which now look like a vision — — of celestial seas hung in mid-air. as when a snow storm rages. intense on such occasions and nobody dares to go out.

IJEAUTIPUL TSAKAiTG AND DifeTi' TSAEAljGESE. the lustre of the grey steely moon. . moving ever onward like phantom armies. No scene so weirdly harrowing can be seen anywhere else. ^9 dusty particles of snow. through which one sees sti'uggling. now thickening into ominous darkness and then thinning into vapory transparency.

CHAPTBE X. In order to give vent to my feelings of gratitude. or rather who brought all his . 1899. nearly eight months had sped by. Fame and Temptation. then thousands of miles away from home. and praying for the health and prosperity of my Sovereign and his family. and was it not the second New Year's Day which I had spent on the heights of the Himalayas ? Yet I was hale and hearty. whose advent I observed with my usual ceremony of reading the Sacred Text. making me much sought after by them and now. the end of which the future alone could reveal. having previously provided for them a full and liberal store of such viands and delicacies as were considered to be most rare and sumptuous. of which I still had a fairly large stock with me. and my matter of medicines. I ended the day by entertaining the villagers of Tsarang. I have already described how I had been gaining fame and popularity among the villagers. my ascetic conduct in the midst of unbridled to respect me. both in mind and body. through my New Year's treat. not unmixed with hope and fear. set for time onward I gradually perceived that traps were being me. I seemed to have reached a pinnacle of glory. and 1 found myself on the threshold of a New Year. Since I had arrived in Tsarang early in May. The arch-spirit in this conspiracy Serab. For from that licentiousness causing them generosity in the . and ready to resume my journey. all deeply impressive. who insisted that I should was my own instructor marry the youngest of my host's daughters. and the glory of Japan. so that I might be tied down to Tsarang for life. The first day of the year 1900 For was I not filled me with more than usual emotion.

to the north of the Dhavalagiri peak.FAME AND TEMPTATION. do trade with the inhabitants of the north-west plain of Tibet. and to take thither a stock of coral ornaments. The Tibetan Government had began to levy customs duties even on personal valuables. But. snow . but which was dangerously treacherous at others or. things having come to the pass which I have described. be absolutely safe from guards and sentinels trackless Surely the plains might be reached. and thence to Thorpo ? Having once got the villagers into the right humor. it was not necessarily a very haprdous job to keep on tapping them for information. and whatever discovery I might make for my own purposes. and that would have been all. there was a river which might be forded at such and such a point. After having onge more racked my brains. how could one avoid being unjustly set upon and robbed of the best part of one's would-be profit. ingenuity to bear upon assisting her to 61 make a captive of my heart and person. me to remain true Had I yielded then. and enabled to the teachings of the Blessed One. Tsarang would have had to-day one more dirt-covered and grease-shining priest among its apathetic inhabitants. I finally hit upon the plan of working upon the weaknesses of the local people. one did not mind three days of hard trudging over the Himalayan Range. On the other side of that mountain yonder. they would volunteer to tell me. that of the . or some useful knick-knacks imported from Europe. Fortunately my faith proved stronger than temptations. on first setting foot upon ways and bye-ways by Tibetan soil ? Ah ! there must be which if to accomplish this. it became urgent that I should make haste in discovering some secret passage into Tibet. in some such way. I had to make it in some indirect and roundabout way. But it was as dangerous for me in Tsarang as it had been in Kiitmandu to disclose my real intentions. supposing one wanted to It was a most outrageous act . ! and to.

the peaks and deiiles on my way being free passable only during the months of June. be secure as a rule from being frozen to death. for it would have only been to court suspicion and to run unnecessary risks for me to strike off into pathless wilds in full view of the Tsarang villagers. entirely from snow even during those three months. That was in To go back a little in October. a village in the immediate neighborhood of Tukje. there came to Tsarang one Adam Naring. but also from curiosity to know whither I was bound after my lengthened stay amongst them. not very cautious. The mountains were not. while crossing over this or that mountain. as he put up at my host's. carefully scraps finally convinced . home from which he had brought and he was very anxious that I should . me that the route I should choose was the one via Thorpo and so I decided. as I was told. these bits of others.62 if THREE YEARS IN TIBET. my story. whither I had to retrace my footsteps. not only out of respect for my person. The route decided upon. This meant that I had to retrace ray steps almost as far back as Tukje. He had in his chapel. July and August. and a synthetic study of these ' leopard. and. and hosts were noted down. of course. and he was' openly privileged to have free access thereto over the "King's highway". I was introduced to him. Naring owned a yak ranch on the northwest plains of Tibet. 1899. Nor Was this retreat without some advantages in itself. the Chief of the village of Malba. as he told me then. one might die a victim to the snowAll of information. a set of Buddhist Texts Tibet. or more accurately to Malba. And therefore I bided my time. because the season was then against me. It was on his way back from one of his periodic visits thither that he stopped at Tsarang. who were sure to come out in hordes to see me oif on my departure. but for those thirteen weeks or so the traverser would. I could not however yet start on my journey.

The books I have just referred to were given to me by one Nyendak. and if my acceptance of Naring's invitation had no definite motive at the time. Sakya Pandit. 1900. hundred persons waiting and to each of these . which had proved such a faithful animal on my journey from Nepal. these people favored flour. in exchange for my white horse. The books were chiefly in manuscript. go with him to his 63 benefit of himself house and read them over for the and his family. My stay in Tsarang was not entirely devoid of results for while there I succeeded in persuading about fifteen persons to give up the use of intoxicants. and some thirty others to abandon the habit of chewing tobacco. penned by a. on my departure. bye to Tsarang and its simple inhabitants. however. as I have just said. fried peaches — all in various quantities—while some gave me kata and silver I At three in the afternoon of that 10th of March my residence on horse-back. and it was not till March. Lama-Superior of the principal Buddhist temple of Tsarang. I found about for me. and to which the priest had taken a great fancy. butter. maru. and whom I persuad- ed to give pledges of abstinence as the price they were to pay for my medicine. it stood me in good stead afterwards. FAME AND TEMPTATION. On reaching oiie the outskirts of the village.. in Nearly a year's stay all Tsarang had made me acquainted practically with its entire population. The invitation was as unexpected as it was opportune. left bread. Naring had gone to India on bttsiness. and altogether were Worth at least 600 rupees. me with farewell pi-esents of buckwheat coins. 1899. and I accepted it. In the meantime. with my volumes of Buddhist Texts and other baggage loaded on two packponies. That was in October. that I had tidings of his On the 10th of that month I bade goodreturn to Malba. and. These another were all persons who had at one time or received medical treatment from me.

to be away from his home just then. I may note here that the altitude of Malba being much lower than that of Tsarang. and I left my well-wishers in tears behind me. But the village Chief's father. The next day's journey brought me back to Tsuk. The parting was was now five o'clock. Before the darkness set in I arrived at Kimiyi. and I was given the freedom of the family chapel.64 I THEEE YEARS IN TIBET. and there put up for the night. however. was there to welcome me. the soil in the former place yields two difEerent crops in the year. and to have an opportunity of thanking him for what I owed him as a pupil of nearly a year's standing before I bade him a most heartgave the 'double-handed blessing'. Serab Gyaltsan. day after leaving Tsarang brought Malba and to the residence of Adam Naring. who happened. At my departure the following morning about twenty people came forward and asked me to give them the handblessing.' which they obtained with perfect willingness on my part. by which I had come in some eleven months before. I turned round to take a last look at Tsarang. who probably had heard of me from his son. ' felt farewell. It not easy. Reaching the village gate. but I had the good fortune to come upon him at Tsuk. and prayed in silence for the safety of the villagers and their ever-inCreasing faith in Buddhism. the innermost of which contained a fine set of Buddha images. a village on the Kallganga. where I spent the evening in preaching at the request of the inhabitants. while the and other volumes of ecclesiastiwindows of the front room com- manded a charming view of a peach orchard. Sonam Norbu by name. as well as the Tibetan edition of the Sacred Text cal writings. and time sped on. My instructor. which consisted of two close of the third The me to the mountain-village of neatly furnished apartments. wheat coming first and then . had left Tsarang a little time previous to my departure.

Serab About a fortnight Tukje. which contained an account of an unsuccessful attempt by a Buddhist of my nationality to enter Tibet. and making extracts from the Sacred Texts. and a wellmeant note of his in pencil to the effect that I must not So lose my life by exposing myself to too much danger. gliding serenely along with a fresh green wall of small pine-trees to set off its these crops. The Tukje ipan. after my arrival in Malba I received a letter from Rai Sarat Chandra Das. reading bait I for him whole of Sacred an to Texts for could as only encourage with only ambiguous wait reply. In the meantime my days in reading. with Tsarang. under the rigid instruction of Gryaltsan at Tsarang. and in so doing I could not help often recalling. Adam Naving owned Towering behind and above the emerald grove stood a range of snow-capped peaks. my whiloin messenger. and to on the occasion of his going down to Calcutta on business. of he might have the benefit my . the tout en. me a Mahabodhi 9 . biit next happened. with a deep sense of gratitude. the six hours a day which for nearly one year I had devotee? to my study of Tibetan.semble making a view delightful for its primitive joys and natural waters. My the old friend expressed his desire so that that I should make my the stay indefinitely long. through a trader of whom I had become acquainted while in whom I had entrusted a letter to my friend at Darjeeling. beauty. the time I had come to when the snow-covered him Malba mountains should I spent become passable. for 65 a fine tract of land Five or six hundred yards beyond his residence was the Kaliganga river. had Along with his number of the letter Sarat Chandra Das sent Society's journal. buckwheat. as well as others to my folks at home. something which was not so good far so good .FAME AND TEMPTATION.

' I knew Adam Naring was a man of conscience. that you will not divulge for three full years to come what I may tell you. and the public opinion of Malba had almost come to the conclusion that it was undesirable to permit such a suspicious stranger in the village. was of course to the effect that if there were any truth in the rumor. I will let you into my secret but if you do not care to do so. So went the rumor. with a salary of 600 rupees a personality. looking him squarely in the face. with indescribable fear written Poor honest soul What he said to me.'. Chinese Lama (myself) secret must be a British agent in with some mission to execute. was with this person that I corresponded. he and his folks would be visited with what punishment heaven only knew. we can only let the rumor take care of itself. : : other translations of the Japanese text. and I placed before him a copy of the sacred Scripture and obtained from him the needed promise. who understood out the spelling of enough English to follow some words in that language. I showed it to my host. ergo. as it such. month. who could be trusted with a secret he signified his willingness to take an oath. said " If you promise me. Producing next my passport. I turned round and. and disguise. in secret. when Adam Naring. a very rare personage among Bengalis. and just . under oath. the and. and wait for the l^epal Government to take any steps it may deem fit to take. ! when by ourselves. Chandra Das was an official of the English Government. who by that time had come home. sought to speak to me on his face. I and had made up Naring approached me to act as soon as on the subject. given me by the Foreign Office in Japan. formed an opinion of his own about my and set the quiet village of Malba astir with rumors about myself. 66 apparently THEEE YEAES IN TIBET. which had on it an English as well as had expected my mind how this for some time past..

My my bed. into the temple of the village.' in the valley of part of the load was to consist Dhavalagiri. 1900.. who was to convey my packages as far as incident I moved I nevertheless. all travelling requisites. By North-west Steppe of Tibet may be reached from Malba in ten days. I did not think it right for me to tax his hospitality by prolonging my stay at his residence. where. secret. Thus equipped. only of I left or the 'land of Genii. I said to him that now that he possessed my . in that he provided for me. I set aside twenty-three days for the journey. Khambuthang. while there. and it was arranged at the same time that I should restart on my journey in June or July. and that in me my enterprise . but as I was to take in my way places sacred to Buddhist pilgrims. the earth j The grass my downy . and truth triumphed . it behoved him well to assist by keeping silence. In all this. and immediately after the above devoted Buddhist. besides making other observations. for by so acting he would be promoting the cause of his own religion. from wearing apparel to provisions. while my my collection of religious works. use he liked he was welcome to make of it what but that I believed him to be a true and . I told my host nothing but truth. route. which altogether made luggage weighing about seventyfive pounds. remained the object of his unswerving friendship. which I began by traversing departure I roof will be the trackless wilds for three days. At my request he also secured for me a guide and carrier. I did more. li'AME AND TEMPTATION. Then we talked over the route I was to take. This taking of my host into my confidence seemed to have greatly appeased his mind withal. : At my made an uta sky . taking the direct Malba on June tlie 12th. for he believed every word I said and approved of my adventure.pillow soft at night . 67 explained to him the real object of my journey into Tibet.

Thus like the hovering clouds and wandering streams. . for there was for days nothing but snow for my bed and rock for my pillow. Once on the road.68 THREE YEAES IN TIBET. I found. These lonely wilds alone I must traverse. however. that the sentiment of this effusion applied more to what I had come through than to what followed.

after which we emerged on a somewhat of about five miles made a climb wide foot-path. Starting at about seven o'clock on the following morning. we could proceed no more than six miles or so before fatigue overcame us. On the 15th we faced due north. up a gradual ascent along the banks of the river Kaliganga. At 11 A. where it made my head swim to look down into the canon a thousand feet below^—now trusting my dear life to my staff. the bed of which consisted of pointed stones and rocks of various degrees of sharpness. I pulled them up by the root. only two and a half miles on the day of our departure. we up a narrow path. It was all ascent in the afternoon. on chewing them. On resuming our ascent the incline became very steep and. the atmosphere growing rarer and rarer. the rain preventing our further progress. We walked. m. and. After leaving Malba my route lay north-west. and at three in the afternoon we put up in a village called Dankar. where I was obliged to stay and recuperate myself during the whole of the next day. — . and then refreshed ourselves with a light repast. found that the root tasted quite sour. we stopped for a rest. Last. and a very tortuous task it was now picking our foot-hold from rock to rock up a craggy precipice Mukhala Climb. but espying some herbs growing from under a light layer of snow in a crevice of a rock. Not a drop of water was obtainable thereabouts. and continued a climb of still steeper incline for about four miles. With the help of this herb-root we made a little lunch of buckwheat biscuits. however.CHAPTER Tibet at XI. and five miles of a sharp ascent brought us to a glacier valley which we crossed. when caught .

or while I involuntarily acted the role of a ball-dancer on a loosened boulder. because. and skipped. I came to a halt in spite of myself. he was innocent of the knowledge of atmospheric rarity. began to assert itself. Many a time I had almost fallen into a faint. the man went down and fetched me some water. even that effort failed me . and. which gave way under one's foot. in spite of his seventy-five pounds' burden. said that water was Finding me really help- less. I could go no further. who obtainable a little distance below. rheumatism. being utterly insufficient to quench it. sand avalanche. I sleep for a long rest. with each step grew rarer and my breath shorter. which I took with a restorative drug. his staff playing for him the part of the places where the thaw a boat-hook in a most skilful hand. air To add to the misery. of while burning thirst was fast overcoming me —a morsel now and then taken. In a little while I . as he said. I knew full well the weight of this warning. and leaped. if I may be allowed that expression for had caused the snow and rock to slide down. and balanced. I snow and to do so. and also of the guide. he hopped. By the time we had finished wading across the sharp slope of the treacherous sand. wanted to lie down on the But as often as I wished had a warning from my guide that a rest then would be sure death for me. and then my chronic tormentor. a scorching sensation in feel the brain. and landed upon a rock-paved flat. and I would soon succumb to its effect . upward the making me snow.70 in a THREE YEARS IN TIBET. that he was ever and anon at my side to help me out of dangerous plights into which I would fall. leaving bare a loose sandy surface. and I struggled on with what was to me at that time a superhuman effort. frequently with my staff stuck fast between two rocks. As for my guide-carrier. he was so much at home on the difficult ascent. with the agility and sureness of a monkey. the air thereabouts was charged with a poisonous gas.

Sanda is a literally snow-bound little yillage. My exhaustion had been so great. I was profoundly permanent abode astonished to find any people making of such a lonely secluded place. as 1 was told. the least . in one of which we lodged for the night. open to communication from the rest of the world only during the three summer months. and that through the precarious mountain path I had come over. the serene quietude. felt better. at the bottom of which we came upon Sanda. picking our way and the reflexion from the snow. which had more or less suffered from the rigorous had had in the use of fell the mountaineering In the meantime night uncertain star-light and. on which day we had again to wade over a treacherous slope. and after passing by a grand ancient forest of fir-trees. a hamlet of about ten cottages. We headed north-west. which is a cereal somewhat akin to buckwheat. the ever present snow-clad peaks. but much inferior Nevertheless I must not omit to in its dietetic qualities. 71 and during the rest thus obtained I liberally applied camphor-tincture oyer the smarting parts of exercise they staff.TIBET AT LAST. the gigantic heaps upon heaps of rugged rocks. where the' vegetation is so poor that the inhabitants liaveno staple food but tahu. the home of ferocious wild animals. which yearly claimed. we reached Tashithang a. pay a tribute to the grandeur of the natural scenery. (dale of brilliant illumi- nation) at about 11 in the In the afternoon we proceeded same direction along a path which overlooked now valley a dangerously abrupt precipice of great depth. a pilgrim or two as victims to its sand avalanche'. we made a sharp descent of some four miles. ' stream. my hands. m. that I was not able to resume the journey until the 18th. and then descending along the bnnk of a shooting mountain b)' the p. then a beautiful overgrown with flowering plants and stately trees. all inspiring the mind with awe and soul-lifting thoughts.

in addition to his own. We passed that night under an overhanging piece of rock. my guide tpld me. was able to proceed slowly. I was thoroughly fatigued. On the 20th of June we began our journey with a climb up another steep mountain. and in the valleys below I saw a species of deer. Scattered here and there on our way I frequently noticed whitened bones of animals. and once more spent the night under a sheltering rock. of the great snow-clad when—not only affected by the cold atmosphere. him to help me on by taking hold of one of we thence made a descent of about ten miles. but as the result of general exhaustion I became so weak that only by transferring my share of the luggage to the shoulders of I — my guide-carrier. while on the far-off mountain sides I occasionally discerned animals which. Throughout the 19th we kept on facing north-west. ruminating in herds of two or three hundred. reverie by the warning of I was only aroused from my guide that any further delay my would kill me —because of the atmospheric conditions and. locally called nah.— 72 THREE YEAES IN TIBET. lost in extatic admiration. or changku (mountain dogs). including man. were snow-leopards. proceeding through many similar scenes of nature. The curious thing . pugnacious of which are the musk-deer. Further up the mountain I came upon a number of wild yaks at short distances. however. allowing my hands. most likely victims of these brutes. At some places the thawing snow revealed the bleached remains of human beings. and fancying that I saw in the variously shaped elevations the forms of giant deities of the Buddhist mythology. both ferocious beasts that feed on their fellowcreatures. but the sublime beauty of the scenery was so inspiring that I could not help standing still. probably frozen to death. which grew. more fascinating in their picturesque grandeur as to the great we came nearer peak of Dhavalagiri. We had just reached the mountain called head of a slope Tashila. sitting in solemn mid-air conclave.

the ancient religion of Thence we travelled on until July 1st. which nobody. making an occasional stop of one or two days for recuperating purposes. It was explained to me that the Tibetans manufactured certain utensils. 73 was that the skull and the leg-bones were missing from every one of the skeletons I came across. owing teethe absence of what we had consumed on our way. he said. Mount My back a to Malba. from these portions of human bones. for he had all along been under the impression that he was to accompany me to the outer We had now come Dhavalagiri. there had been only one or two persons who had ever come out of the 10 . On the way we passed thr(5Tigh much the same sort of scenery. used for ritualistic purposes. would dare to undertake. name the village is Tsaka. mixed with one. abounding in picturesque views as well as in various interesting plants and animals. but a living Buddha. He stoutly opposed my venturing on such perilous expedition. or Bodhisattva. and that it was their practice to appropriate them whenever they came upon the remains of luckless wanderers The sight and the information could not but fill me with an extremely uncomfortable feeling. and its inhabitants are believers in Bon. and told him that he could now go back. situated on the other side of the mountain we had crossed. of profound sympathy. Nothing could have given him more astonishment than this intimation. I turned to my guide. as I intended to make a lonely pilgrimage to Khambuthang— the Sacred Peach Valley-^by myself. Another Tibet. and many a time I prayed in silence ! for the repose of the souls of the poor neglected brethren. and I now felt equal to taking over the burdens on to my own back. he continued.TIBET AT LAST. we of arrived at a village called Thorpo. as We went 'along In due course our way. Prom the most ancient time. edge of the skirts of luggage had become considerably lessened in weight.

on that high point. made doubly trying by innumerable hardships and privations.t the dominion of Nepal ends and As the I stood The Frontier op Tibet Begins. far. the snow-capped heads of the Dhavalagiri and on the north the undulating stretch of the North-east Steppes of Tibet. I felt as if being had turned into a fountain of welling emotions. and the man went back.watching the form of my faithful guide on his return journey until he had disappeared behind a projecting rock. owing to the entire absence of rugged On that after rocks. of the Dhavalagiri. and loaded with a dead weight of about sixty-five pounds. which appeared to flow out of my whole and then disappear into the clouds. in one of the untrodden depths of the Himalayas. One night I slept on the snow under the sky. THREE YEARS IN TIBET. 1900. Still. To my joy I found the pathway not so difiicult as I had expected. my progress thenceforward was a succession of incidents and accidents of the most dangerous nature. the sky-reaching Dhavalagiri. and another I passed in the hollow of a clifE three days' jogging. as I had to push my way over the trackless field of deep snow. It is here tha. Toward the south. with hot tears of farewell. brought me across to the other side of the northern peak . I far away. after parting with my carrier. thinking no doubt that he had seen the last of me. A solitary traveller. with a solitary compass and a mountain peak as my only guides. beyond imagined that I saw . I then turned round and proceeded due north. early in the morning. which commanded on south family. first day of July. and it was absolutely certain that I should be torn to pieces and devoured by the dreadful monsters that guarded its entrance and exit.74 valley alive. interspersed here and there with shining streams of water. there was always enough to weigh me down with anxiety. But I was not to be moved.


and I fancied that the Gods in Paradise could not feast on dishe§ more exquisitely palatable. 1900. taking out my store of provisions.76 'J'HKEE YEAXiS IN TIBET. especially as the wheat pro^ticed in colji after morsel. thaii^''r'that qjf jwai'mer countries. where had vowed my vow. I may also state thatthe boM'I^tof which I speajc here was of a fairly large size. far away. '' had dined grandly. I jlatitudes seems to be richer in . to the rule of one full meal a day. The ocean of snow around me and below me. and two of^them constituteji ia full good repast. the mixture. gratitude and hope ? But I was tired and hungry. and then. I made away with two bowlfuls of the preparation with the greatest relish that ended my meal for the day.^s I !adhere now. I had then said that in three years I would be That was on the 26th of June. went down my throat with unearthly ^sweetness.' made some dough out jpepper of baked flour. I j 'stretched . after brushing off the snow. jable to enter Tibet. when bidding adieu to my folks and friends at home. But in which direction was I to proceed in resuming mj journey-? Well. besides itaking some dried fruits or something of th'at kind fqr jbreakfast. Buddhagaya. How could I prevent myself from being transported with mingled feelings of joy. That reminded me of the parting words I left ibehind me. -jnatrltion . snow and butter. Morsel with a sprinkle of powdered and salt. sacred to our beloved Lord Buddha. . and prayed for protection and imercy. I should observe here that I have always adheredj. I took my luggage from my back and gently set it on a piece of rock. I was sti|l in an extatic mood and all was interestinar. 1897. 'and here I was stepping on the soil of Tibet on the 4th of I July.

after snow. of Snow. at first. the unguessable thickness of which furnished me with a constant source of anxiety. at the most. covered over with an abundance of the crystal layers. trudging lasted for nearly three miles down a gradual descent. So far my route had lain principally on the sunny side of the mountains and the snow. more fatiguing than again rendered difficult I had imagined . In some places my feet sank fourteen or fifteen inches in the snow. This wading in the snow was descent. and the point 1 had now to decide was how might make the shortest cut to that body of fresh water. with the luggage on my back. that at places my feet came into direct contact with the hard . so far By that time my Tibetan boots had become worn out. else. According to the stock of information I had gathered. snow to a great The best I could do was guess-work. had not been more than five or six inches deep but from now onward I had to proceed along the reverse side. There was nothing to guide me but my compass and a I survey I took of the vast expanse of distance before me. at the end of which I emerged on a snowless beach of loose pebbles and stones of different sizes. . Following the impulses of instinct more than anything except the general direction indicated by the compass. stamping through the layers of between two large pieces of hard when my foot.CHAPTER The World I XII. was always to head north until I came to Lake Manasarovara. wedged itself tightly This sort of stone. I decided on taking a north-westei-ly course in making the So I restarted. and in others they did not go down mare than seven or eight inches. and the I staff it me great service once or twice found a job to extricate myself.

what would their occupants think of a stranger. so much so that. about a mile and a quarter in circumference. . but now it began to tell on me. which was rectangular in shape. waters of the ponds were as clear as could be. Still holding when a to my north-westerly direction. I might in vain hope to allay it. suddenly emerging upon them from pathless wilds? Once their suspicion was roused. and I christened the larger pond. but. and little way down I came upon a gourd-shaped pond. which tore the skin and caused blood to flow. as the foot-hold under me consisted of round pebbles. gazing around. I almost forgot fort as 1 stood if all that discomof the ponds.' a little name which you may I sometimes use for myself. and the smaller. as I happened to chance upon them all by myself. The prestige they had any. but was only for memory's sake that I did these things. when it was not sharp angular slabs of Five miles onward. thick with immense flocks of wild the ponds were ducks of different sizes.' after my own name. and respectively about five Both miles and two and a half miles in circumference. it A conceit call it if you like. I was destined to introduce them to the world. ponds formed of melting snow. THREE YEARS IN TIBET. I came upon a pair of broken rock. which described nearly a ' perfect circle. and the scenery around was picturesque in the extreme. Suppose I went to them. Ekai. little matter to me then. to the north-west of a snow-clad mountain that rose far in front of me.78 gi'avel. two or three tents pitched on the ground. though with lacerated feet and stark-stiff about my loose waist with rheumatic pains. after having gone some distance I saw. or spotted black on a white ground. I gave it the name of ' Hisago Ike '—calabash pond. During the descent I felt little of my luggage. brownish or reddish in Otherwise the color. was of. 'Jinkow. The sight aroused in me a sense of intense curiosity mingled with anxiety. leaving the crimson marks of my footsteps behind.

The result was that I decided to take the making nor accurate . a method which borders on divination. in short. one of abnegating self and then forming a judgment. then entered on what termed Danjikwan sanmai TO A TENT OF NOMAD TIBETANS. a meditative process when neither logic up one's mind. in of Japanese-Buddhist terminology. knowledge is present to draw upon for arriving at a conclusion. 79 what was I to do then ? I espied a declivity below me. With nothing I else to help is me to arrive ' at a decision. The process is. far out and I saw that unless I of sight of the tents. should either come on those tents or have took it. which extended north-west in a gradual descent. or an assertion of instinctive powers.' THE WORLD OP SNOW. I my progress barred by a succession of high mountains.

toward the tents. and on this occasion I religiously ^followed that instruction. outside Proceeding and coming its one of the tents. and found to my entire satisfaction formidable cruel looks. only ward them off. but that r should. and of by night- I came within hailing distance of pack of me them. They were animals I with long shaggy fur and very had before then been told that when attacked by dogs of this kind I must not strike them. quietly waving a stick in front of their muzzles. that the dogs thus.80 route fall THEEE YEARS IN that lay TIBET. I called out to occupants. did not try to snap at me. when a five or six ferocious-looking dogs caught sight and began barking furiously. .

as it was unbearably cold to sleep in the open air. the ingredients of was more of the nature which were powdered teait. coming out of the tent and finding a tattered and tired wayfarer. it Japan. to until one accustomed guest constitute a very agreeable beverage. " Why. is when it is found to The Tibetan custom this to serve a with a cup of kind of tea first. My request was cheerfully complied with and. CHAPTER A kind My call XIII. the effect She easily that I had lost believed my explanation to my way while heading for the abode of accepting offered Gelong Rinpoche. declined the baked flour immediately in may observe here that the tea offered me was not brewed in the same it way as we take leaves. said more to herself than to me . bound for Kang Rinpoche. inside the tent. butter and gets salt. poor. and then to regale for him with some baked flour. was responded to by an old woman who. and then it gave me a cup fire of tea out of a kettle that stood boiling I I over the with thanks. forbiddingly offensive in smell.. the old dame expressed her curiosity to know how I happened to be there. after. it is a pilgrim. I that I was from the direction of Lhasa. as the locality was not one generally visited appeared ventured to inform her I by pilgrims. which piece of information produced a very favorable impression on her IX . and besought her to give me a night's lodging in her tent. poor. old Dame." Seeing no reason to suppose that an object of suspicion to her. I excused myself declining the hospitality of my kind to hostess by informing her that I adhered strictly the Buddhist rule of fasting hours. Mount Kailfisa. but of a soup.

just as I was going to sleep. My hostess said that they she and her son were to stay only one more day in that particular spot where I had chanced upon them. as I was told. and suggested that I might make a stay of two or three days at Gelong Rinpoche's. patching the worn-out places with j-ak's hide. but one thing that troubled this me was the sorry condition to which my boots had become reduced and I asked the dame if I could not mend them. the waters of which were too cold to be forded. All was very acceptable to me. Contiiming. In the night. . leading in the conversation that followed. seemed to respect me all the more she told distance. Her son was away — — human in chai-acter. altogether superin the evening. and urged me by all means to call on him. but she expected him back and he cou^ld accompany me in the morning. so as to give myself the time She offered that I should. in my way.82 as to THKBE YBAES IN TIBET. as I explained. however. chiefly concerning the saintly man. the holy just then. two days' soaking in water before it became soft enough to be sewn. as she it. of whom the mother and the son knew no end of Avonderful things. and more conversation ensued amongst us. put on her son's spare pair of boots and proceed to the holy Lama's in them. There was a river.' but in Tibet itself the appellation is applied to its western priests to steppes). my for personality. which required. and she offered me the use of one of her yaks. saying that I might give them back to her son after reaching my destination. me Then. the son turned up. . on to do some mending. literally means 'northern plain. that Gelong Rinpoche's abode was at a day's this and that Lama was the holiest of all the be found throughout the whole Jangthang fjangthang. she said. the morrow. as she wanted him too to pay a visit to the holy man. the old hostess said that a visit to man always resulted in great spiritual benefit. Mending in this case meant.

and easy to ford for as men riding on yaks. to A better acquaintance. while horns are dangerously pointed and threateningly shaped. and on mj^ parting from her she loaded ine with large quantities of baked wheat-flour. by order of tlie good old dame. we were. and had to make a halt of two hours until it had blown over. 83 Early the next morning. she proved to be the very essence of kindness. we took down our luggage from the backs of the j^aks. After a ride of about two and a half miles. butter carrj' his presents. the son busied himself in getting a yak ready for me. which give you a uncomfortable feeling' when turned full on you. The yak is a bovine somewhat larger than our bull. cattle. Crossing two more . and I utilised that interval quite profitably to myself by pumping the youngman for information regarding the routes and geography of the regions I was to go through before I could reach my Resuming our ride. a treatment holy man. to the good old dame. river which was sixty yards wide. besides a farewell cup of tea. During the halt. Its hide is covered all over very thickly with long terminates in a bushy Tibetan. involving ascent and descent of equal length towards the north-west. another for himself. My brought out three yaks. So equipped. and butter. shaggy hair. is and of its tail The female yak called hii in Its face looks it very much like that common but its rather has a pair of piercing eyes. w^' started on our trip in quest of the holy man of the plain. and other things.A KIND OLD DAME. one for me to ride. shows the animal I be a quiet and tractable one. however. As for the which is considered great hospitality in Jangthang. we were overtaken by a hail-storm. though a little lower in height. dried milk. so that it might not get wet. we soon came to a final destination. even much more so than our cattle. tuft. hostess' son may yet have occasion to is for tell what an invaluable beast of burden the yak the Tibetan. and the third to consisting of dried milk.

my and that there was another concave cliff in front of it. The answer he received was absolutely in the negative so he took down the presents and entrusted them to the disciple. a little over six miles. On my asking for information as to how I could reach Kang It Rinpoche. I commenced my mending work by soaking in water a piece of yak's hide which the kind dame Pasang had given me on parting.84 rivers of THREE YEARS IN the like TIBET. the kitchen Having obtained the Lama's permission to make a few days' stay. we he arrived at the entrance of the front if where my companion asked Rinpoche. Continuing and approaching nearer. . Left alone with the occupant of the grey cliff. practices. effect that was to the two or three days' journey. was the dwelling place of Gelong Rinpoche. daily use for devotional utensils. tho. to be sent up to Gelong Rinpoche as from Pasang (his mother's name). In the cave. I found him to be an ordinary Lama of rather good parts. bedding. as he was going to strike his tent and move away there and then. width. as and making an ascent of we came in sight of a large companion informed me. after leaving the cave. put away in proper places.igh knew that he could see Gelong he was considerably behind the regular hour. and then. It was about three o'clock in the afternoon that cave. etc. as I came to discover afterwards. which was not white bi!it greyish in color. for the next fifteen or sixteen days. saying that he could not wait till the next day to see the Lama. I should . setting forth the hail incident as an excuse for his delay. which. were articles of . white cliff. the answer I got was very discouraging. I found out the ascent that what had appeared like a huge and solid piece of rock was really a hollow cliff forming a large cave. and was inhabited by one of Gelong Rinpoche's disciples. would bring me to a region inhabited by nomads for another two or three days I should be in the same region.

and I had to be 'Lhasan' in all 1 did. I told my because all I host. I When my eyes. as I seemed to be loaded with luggage worth taking. we whiled away the morning in religious talk until eleven o'clock. salt and pepper. I ' human was very fortunate. It ' ! ! ! . I got up and set about reading the Sacred Text without rinsing my mouth. host then told that he destination. I should do would be to hand over all had been to Kang Rinpoche two or three times himself. and fasted on the regulation diet of baked flour. How foul I felt in the mouth then but then it was Lhasan. My me After a re-opened meditation exercise. therefore. otherwise I should have had little possibility of still less obtaining even lodging accommodation. in which to my host joined. a companion to the cliff . and salt soup was ready. when the hour for being presented to Gelong Rinpoche had arrived. in that I had chanced upon that kind old dame. making a fire outside the cave. said my host. I saw the Lama already should be remembered that I passed myself off as a pilgrim from Lhasaj here as elsewhere. and gave me a minute description of the route I was to take for that had. butter.' you see When the usual tea.A KIND OLD DAME. my then we breakhost gave me a bowlful of it. That morning. human beings were luxury.' who was noted for her charity . all with uncleansed mouths After that. we both went sleep at about midnight. I had nothing to fear on that score. too scarce in those parts for such a Furthermore he assured me that I should be pounced upon by robbers as soon as I should reach the inhabited parts. 85 of have to go through a wilderness entirely destitute kind. of securing and it was out of the question for me to secure anything like a guide for my onward journey.

walked out to where were the expectant devotees." This shows in what high esteem the holy man to whom I was about to be introduced was held by the local people. Soon after. I found the entrance to the cave barred by a fence and a closed gate. of seventy years of age. unlocking the gate. a grey-haired old priest. " Gelong lobmng gonpo la kyahx mt chio. the night before in their tents. pitched at the foot of the mountain." the recipient sacred words repeating them. named noble-minded Savior. what the followers accompanied by as many bowings in the direction of the cave. who spoke the " Om mani padme hum. the Lama was under no circumstance whatever to be seen. The mani came after a brief sermon. on the top of which the caves are Outside the hours I mentioned before. and it means " I take my refuge in the Gelong. visitors passing the During my stay I noticed that a similar scene took place every morning. waiting to be taken to the white one. Then followed the imparting by the Lama of various : instructive precepts to the audience that. situated.CHAPTER A told XIV. and. dweller in the white cave —and that included natives —said three the within a hundred-mile radius of cliff and as I observed myself. on the . holy Cave=DweJIer. each of whom gave an offering or offerings. but just previous to each person individually went up to a table." as I was of the living times. . as his or her turn came to receive mani. This is. Shortly before noon I walked up to the white cave. There : had now gathered about twenty people in front of the grey cave. either of money or in kind. made his appearance. together with the waiting crowd. The mani is a formula pronounced by the aged Lama. every night before going to bed.

gently touched their In the case of an individual of social position.' third. the in administering the blessing. 87 After three out — they proceeded with bent body and the tongue stuck the mark of profound obeisance and. the best part of in But closer observation of what he did and said convinced me that he was a man of true charity. I found in him a which are self-explanatory. which are at the same time those which they cslW chahwaiig in Tibet. according to the rank of person to whom it is administered.A HOLY CAVE-DWELLEE. in acknowledgment of their courtesy. The dialogue that then followed . who. strikingly-featured. I heads by way of blessing. did not first look like his life a person religious who had passed meditation.ching the head of the recipient with the tufted end of a stick. held their heads close to the latter. The first thing he said to me was that I was not a man to wander about in a dreary wilderness. at because of glance well-preserved physique. boiSvs. The with the palm of his right hand. the 'single-handed blessing.' both of is resorted to by toward his inferiors and laymen. stopping in — front of the table. second the double-handed ' blessing. and consists in tou. These orders of greeting.' which consists in touching the other's head with one's own forehead . Tibetan Lamas use the four kinds of blessing. and Panchen Rinpoche in Shigatse. This last ceremony is performed only by the Dalai Lama in Lhasa. Gelong Rinpoche received me with the double-handed blessing. are first the 'head to head blessing. The fourth a Lama of the highest order stoutly of built. dearly loving his fellow-creatures. grey-haired his old man noble bearing. and he asked me what had brought me to him. and I approached him with a feeling of profound respect. other side of which sat their venerable teacher. of blessing. Lama. Lama used both hands explain may here the Tibetan mode of blessing. which constitutes a special article used in Buddhist ritual.

" " True. and I spent the rest of the day in reading through the Gospel. and I wish to learn the grand secret which serves so well foryour purpose. the Buddhists. fetching out a volume. On the morning following." " What can that be. kindly lent it to me. you know that well enough yourself." The Lama here went into his cave. resembling in its tenets the Hoke-hyo the Sutra SaddJiarma Pnndarlka and in some places it even read like extracts from the last mentioned Gospel. and yet I am privileged imitate him it is thus that I have called on you. and the I ' Grand Gospel of Salvation ' is that guide of mine. taking with me the borrowed volume. in short." " Friend. All Buddh- ism is in you. On asking what was the gist of the Gospel of Salvation. but in ancient days Jenzai Doji travelled far and wide in search of fifty-three wise men. from being a Jenzai Doji. which I found to be a compilation. the Lama and I had quite an argument. I have heard of your fame. which. and we. and you have nothing to learn from me. was an exchange of views." " have the pleasure of seeing that Gospel ? " Most certainly. are lessons from the great hardships then I all taught to derive to undergone by him. I " May was told that it resolved itself into teaching that the three ycina. I then withdrew and went back to the grey cave. I revisited Gelong Rinpoche and returned the Gospel. and." " Good 1 have but one means to guide me in saving am far : ! souls. and have come to be taught one thing. friend ?" different countries in quest of " You are saving the souls of the multitude. In so doing. between Gelong Rinpoche and myself was substantially as below: "I am a travelling priest making a pilgrimage through Buddhist truths. and mended my boots. next day I turned cobbler. based ydnas (vehicles) were but one — — . The. all Buddhism is in the Self.88 THEBE YEAES IN TIBET.

my load by twenty pounds. Back in the grey cave. kindly did the greater part of the work for me. and relaunched myself on my journey. 89 tlie Tibetan school of Buddhism on the part of the Lama. me with I considerable quantities of and them but raisins. 12 . of the cave. an addition which always counts a great deal to a solitary peddler. I once more set myself to repairing my boots. saying that without a it increased might die on the journey. butter. going a long distance over difiicult roads. and I was more successful in sticking the needle into my finger than in proThe upshot was that the occupant gressing with the job. but the work was new to me. and on Japanese and Chinese schools on mine. which in no time began to ache under the weight. made a parting call on the holy when the good man presented baked flour.A HOLY CAVE-DWELLEE. with eighty-five solid pounds on my back. full and good supply of This was all very nice. as I was to do. taking pity on me. Early on the 8th I bade good-bye to the kind-hearted disciple of Trelong Einpoche. on On the 7th of July I dweller of the white cliff.

under the circumstances. discovered this to be no easy task. and I saw at once that I could never survive the crossing of it. I felt better. and it took full two hours to put m^'self in shape to resume the journey. Some hours wade after leaving the grey clii? I reached a it river about 180 yards wide. The river was about hip-deep and the stream quite rapid. of course. What was to be done ? I happened to think of ointment as a remedy. the water was bitingly cold. for my hands were too stiff to do anything. and produced in me a sort of convulsion. stiff and numb in every part. As it was. second plunge. The river was the one of which I my had been informed. In helpless Plight. I took Before plunging into : to noon-meal of baked flour it was then about eleven o'clock.CHAPTER XV. to recover the circulation of blood in the almost frozen limbs but I . and the repast I took the river. went down into Oh! that plunge! it nearly killed me. After tucked up the other my boots and trousers. as well as a preventive. What with the sun shining and my giving mj'self a good rubbing all over. indeed cold enough make my feet quite insensible before I rest of the fording I had gone half-way across. and the managed simply by the help of my two staves. I took out a bottle of clove oil I had with me. but the contact with the water had already chilled me. I at once turned round and crawled up the bank. when I . The next thing to be done was. off I knew it could be forded. I made a cold. and smeared it in abundance all over my body. equipped as before. and when I reached the opposite bank 1 found myself almost a frigid body. to The water was Then. and having also portions of my dress. across.

which was tardy enough. arrangement for putting my tea-pot over the But the fire was still to be made. and then three pieces of nearly equal size placed tripod-like around this cone completed fire. exhaustion made (which I further progress impossible for Settled tea ready. of I set about making a get In Tibetan wilds the only kind of fuel accessible course dead leaves of trees for is to travellers (except kindling purposes) the dry dung of the yak (these animals being set loose to graze for themselves) and the kyang. and built them up into a sort of partially hollow and low elevation.In helpless plight. 91 started out at about two o'clock. Matches being un- making a formance fire of this description until in those regions. and at every hundred or two hundred yards of my progress. But two rough round sticks grinding against the untrained flesh of the shoulder. me for the day. In the two hours which followed. I had to resort to the oldfashioned method of obtainiiig sparks of fire by striking a stone against a piece of iron. This I did by dividing the baggage into two equal parts and. were not much of relief for a novice at this method of carrying burdens. I gathered some of these cone. Habby that they were going to drop And my increased luggage weighed so heavily on my back. with a broad base lumps. and when I had arrived at the bank of a river at about four o'clock. fire to down for a bivouac. that I was now compelled to take it down and devise some new way of carrying it. even a pair of hand-bellows is of little help'. I slung them across my shoulder. I felt as if my legs were so oif . I made an ascent of half a mile and then a descent of about a mile. a species of native wild horse. and I may say that my is not a very easy perone acquires the knack of the thing. and it is again a matter of known . with eighty pounds of pressure. especially when the fuel is not sufficiently dry. tying one to each end of my two staves had tied together). I had to alter my mode of conveyance.


The tea-pot I then was one large enough to hold a quart and a half of water. When enough the tea is boiling had been done. that to it is should add the usual practice with Tibetans.In helpless plight. I would put in some butter and salt. which I followed. for it might attract marauding robbers. a handful of Chinese brick tea but I would throw into had to let the I could I mixture stand boiling for at least two hours before obtain a liquor of the right color and flavor. over quiet. and after a little stirring all was ready to be served. however. it piled it up all over fire to make last the whole night off —a precaution which was necessary to keep prove to be dangerous these parts. snow-leopards. I went about gathering the dung the I could find. the scenery around was not without to the soul. Its pale the moon rose that night I saw it was nearly full. it carried with me and as soon as it began to boil I . even with no fire. giving me When at the same time enough warmth to keep me alive. put some natural soda (which the water when It was this tedious process that I went through on that all river bank. All was light silvered the waters of the river before me. which often nocturnal enemies of man in To keep a fire burning brightly through the night was. all its its With dreary wildness. to court a still greater danger. save for the occasional roars of wild animals. Under these circumstances I left soil my fire it. owing to the diminished atmospheric pressure. with a well-pressed layer of sandy so that it would last till the morning. for whereas a snow-leopard will sometimes leave a sleeping never leave man alone. art to 93 make those sparks kindle the tinder. on the look out from far-off hill and mountain tops. Of the two dangers. and then. that of robbers was the worst. returning. smouldering. In those high regions water boils very quickly. charms that appealed . into is found in Tibet) thrown in. After that. robbers will him alone.

but I failed to come upon a rock upon which. Then I negotiated with him to assist me across the river. Wheu rising slow among the mountain heights The moon I see in those Tibetan wilds. and him to be a pilgrim from Kham. as I had been informed. weak and exhausted. ! On consulting the compass I found that. a prospect particularly unpleasant just then. half-awake and half-asleep. and I could not sleep. By neces- then. I hailed him. articles particularly . When up its the instruction given course. bound Gelong Rinpoche's cave. and while I was wandering over the borderland. ready to start on the day's journey. my country dear. Those islands smiling in the far-off Bast. after having astonished him with my generosity in giving him a comparatively largu quantity of dried peaches and flour. and on going to the river's edge I found its waters frozen. No wonder for I took the wrong direction. as I afterwards found out. My fancy views that orb as Sovereign Lord Of that Celestial Laud. as I thought of of the chilling effects of the icy waters. With a start I got up. sity. survey of the river in an undecided frame I noticed a bonze wading aci'oss the stream towards me. the morning came. Here was a dilemma but I felt sure of one thing. I then stirred up the fire. I could not recall me before whether to follow the river — which would lead up to a high peak. and that was that. I should find an image of Buddha carved. I ! could not survive the ascent of the steep peak. The night was extremely cold. I sat up and fell to meditation. As I stood taking a mind. and after due preparations made a hearty breakfast. I proceeded down the stream. §4 THEEE YEAES llf TIBET. I should have to cross the river. with the river flowing through it. in order to proceed towards the north-west. which I judged must be seventeen or eighteen miles by eight or nine.. for eventually found As he landed on the bank. Proceeding above five miles. I emerged upon an extensive plain. or to proceed down stream.

and having also told me that. . 95 I precious for a lonely traveller through those regions. he bade me good-bye and once more crossed the river. Having landed me and my luggage safely on the other side. I. I should come to an inhabited place after two days' joui-ney. he assisted me to ford the stream.IN HELPLESS PLIGHT. Whatever was the effect of this ill that I was piece of information. started forthwith. heavily burdened with luggage as I was. taking all my luggage on back and leading me by the hand. my liberality soon won him over his to my help. and. following the course he pointed out. heading in the direction prescribed for me. and not equal to the task of crossing the river. for my part. made him understand and weak.

CHAPTER A far XVI. only about one-half of that of the Be this as it may. by the way. or to . With a great effort I raised niyself to a sitting posture and endeavored to calm myself. As soon as I of large. I made a halt. and thought it would be ill-advised to continue my journey I had made only eight miles. I concluded that I had been affected thought then. five up and three that day. took down my luggage (which. fell fast I do not thing pattering realised that I asleep the moment I laid me down for a know how long I had slept. as had been prostrated with a severe attack of rheumatism. and was follow- ed by nausea of an acute type. and I knew that I was not yet to die. Foretaste of distressing Experiences. was lying under a heavy shower I tried to rise. as I that our lung-capacity native Tibetan. Not being subject to heart disease. but I could not all for if my body I literally cracked and ached over. had by this time produced very painful bruises on my back) and then took a dose of hotan that I —a soothing restorative. over undulating land . when someon my face awoke me. and it was out of the question for me to resume the journey then. down. by the I think. After parting with the increased Kham bonze. my first experience of internal hemorrhage. sized hail-stones. But the general aching of the body did not abate at all. I rest. without courage enough to go and search for yak- dung. I felt considerable alarm at this. I had not proceeded before I began to feel a in intensity as I shortness of breath which went along. After a while my pulse became nearly normal and my breathing easier. but I was so greatly fatigued that. is of blood. The result was brought up a good mouthful rarily of the atmosphere.

and sheep's wool. 97 go dung-gathering. the uncertain shapes of distant lofty peaks forming a most weird back-ground against the vast sea of undulating plain. Nor passing crowds I was almost in of all my pain. forgetful choose. an extatic state. Yet the wild weirdness of but. In reply to this I composed the following: On grass among those lofty plains on earth. surrounded by mysterious uncertainty. Appai-eutly there were some Lours of I so went into tho ' meditation exercise/ upon a piece of sheep's hide and wrapped up in the tuh-tulc. nor such secluded mountain-trees. the view was not altogether lost on. Alone upon one of the highest places in the world. I felt much refreshed both in mind and body.: : A POEETASTE OF DISTRESSING EXPEEIENCES. when another uta O Mind! By Dharma's I'ose to m)- mind genial light and warmth The pain -inflicting" snows are melted fast. spiritvial conquest over when I recalled the celebrated uta of that ancient divine of Japan. The passing crowds of men and damsels I look upon as waving sylvan trees. a thoroughfare. . of men and damsels fair.me. fair. Daito Kokushi On Shijyo Gojyo Bridge. Thus in meditation I sat out the night. I ! gradually entering into the state of bodily ailment. alas for my bodily pains. both the scene and the situation would have furnished me with enough matter for my soul's mvisings. a sort of twenty-five pounds. And flow in rushing streams that swee]! away Delusive Ego and Non-Ego both. aiid when the morning came I breakfasted on some dried grapes. night yet sitting left. ill I sit silence holy iindisturbed. As 1 looked up saw the bright moon high above me. and I was Sleep was no more possible. and made good progress on 13 my journey that morning. native bed-quilt weighing about made of thick sail-cloth lined with and around. I I enter meditation deep and wide. made doubly so by the paleness of the moonlight.

Coming to a small clear stream. cloth is almost always dark in color. putting it on to the loom when a sufficient quantity of coarse thread has thus been obtained. and the last mile or so brought back on me the now chronic trouble. . the natives weaving the stufE with yak's hair. and to be allowed a few days' rest there. the welcome I received was in the shape of five or six ferocious-looking native dogs. and it was a right hot appreciate which I had to put all my reception. I could not solve the mystery but it mattered little after all to me then I only wanted to reach the tents as quickly as possible. I had managed to drag myself along to the threshold of the largest of the tents. di-aw out and twist into a yarn between their fingers. I saw far in front of me one white and several black tents pitched in the plain. I went through the process of fire-making and tea-preparing. The sight Tibetan tentof a white tent puzzled me a good deal.98 THREE YEAES IN TIBET. I had walked about five miles. to remaining energy into the gentle warning of my staff. and then took a Crossing the stream and then meal of baked flour. the pain of fatigue and shortness of breath. mounting an elevation. . . When. somehow. which they first take between their teeth.

so saying. and a very hospitable man " her Lama into " proved to be. came to his tent to hear my preaching. which I had to cross. and the beasts all ran away crest-fallen and with tails down. One word from her was enough. Among other things I was told that at half a day's ^distance on horseback there was a river called Kyang-chu (wild horse river). Beautiful Rescuer. smiling. they had been told by my host that I was a holy . she disappeared within I the tent. face. That afternoon and evening I spent in pleasant conversation with my host and his wife. Her answer was of " her that she must first obtain the permission Lama. and then. and in the interval to I learned a good deal about my future route. The necessity which thus arose of having a qualified companion compelled me to prolong but that my stay with my kind host till the 13th of July. Hers was a beautiful to see it was surprised For a while the woman stood staring at me. the occupants of the other tents. a woman. in the pleasant I was engaged work of warding apparently roused by the loud barking of the animals.CHAPTER A While off XVII. it admitted of fording only by those well acquainted with its shallows." and. It was a great relief to me. And. as priest. so beautiful that I in such a wilderness. coming out of the tent. so that I could not help smiling at them. at the invitation of my host. put her head out of the tent. the dogs. I asked the beauty of the wilderness for a night's lodging. At her second appearance was admitted the tent. numbering about thirty men and women. It was on the night of the 12th that. she scolded the dogs. recuperate myself For two days more I was allowed in their tent. a large tributary of the Brahmaputra.


But it was none of my business to pry into the matter any further. so I was considerably perplexed at seeing him living with a wife. dried peaches and and gave him some taking in exchange This sheep's wool. support of her companions. It was enough for me that. as I have already hinted. the assembly and a gem. So where he regaled me with those parts. which even now I keep.' A BEAUTIFUL EESCUBR. Apparently a devoted Buddhist. As for my host the Lama. He called himself Alchu Tulku. and to be my guide in crossing the Kyang-chu. I took it from her hand for a moment. . But she. so much so that he begged me to come to at noon I went to his delicacies his tent and dine with him. with the it. butter and other local products. 101 My who sermon to offerings in kind. valuing it as a memento of a dear little girl of the Tibetan wilds. tent came to my host dates. which by the way strictly enjoins celibacy and abstinence on all its priests. he asked great me a many things about ray religion. It considered to be costly in Ladak trader who was to start on the day following. and behaved in a manner bespeaking a large heart and deeply charitable tressing experiences. which means incarnation of Alchu the name of a place on the plateau. insisted on procured for me various Among the audience was a young girl my accepting from her a neck ornament. I learned that he was really a man of the order belonging to the new sect of Tibetan Buddhism. man little proved to be a trader from Ladak and spoke but Tibetan. His wife was was this ' — exceedingly beautiful. replies . insisted on I my accepting and persuaded to take the gem alone. but with sincere thanks I returned it consisting of seven coral beads her. after all my dis- he received me with open arms. The next day the owner of finally was the white raisins. and seemed to be all highly pleased with my tent. treated me with the utmost kindness. as I really had no use for it.

though he might not perhaps be called a Besides. It was all about " another woman " and also about height. not necessarily for Alchu Tulku only. He probably did so because he was irritated at my appearance on the scene just at that juncture. and it was lucky that I succeeded in the office. I heard noises inside which suggested a fearful quarrel at its On entering. A man of Lama was. but for all my brethren of the Order. as she went on calling her husband names and otherwise insulting him in the vilest language imaginable. What more which could I wish for them? But I was much surprised at a discovery I made on coming back to them from a visit to the white tent. Her face was burning red and undergoing the most disagreeable contortions I had ever seen. noticed that he owned about sixty yaks in addition to two hundred sheep^ and that he was very well very rich man. for the moment he raised his fist. the now thoroughly maddened termagant threw herself at his and. the husband's partiality for his quiet disposition as the his self-composure own relatives. shrieked and howled. shouted. he heroically maintained " beast. and he seemed in every respect the master of a very happy home. I mind. daring him to kill and eat her What could I do ? I feet. I got the woman to go to bed on the one hand. circumstanced. I saw that a wonderful metamorphosis had come over the erstwhile beauty. ! played the part of a peace-maker. brought the last night I spent with my kind host rude awakening. and persuaded the Lama to spend the night with the Ladak trader. But that was a blundering and when he rose move on his part. his charming wife appeared to be thoroughly devoted to him. whose moral And so me a . with eyes shut." silence until she dared to call him and feigned to beat her. When in the evening I approached the Lama's tent.102 THREE YEARS IN TIBET. which caused me to shed tears of deep sympathy. to whose tent I accompanied him.

and who in consequence were forced to go through scenes such as I have described. 103 weakness had betrayed them into breaking their vows of celibacy.A BEAUTIFUL EESCUEE. .

in the of the the 14th of July I bade adieu to Alchu Lama.CHAPTER The Lighter Side On the XVIII. I resumed my due north. or Lama had given me all his about 1 five about the fiftieth part of a peck of rice. was a grand treat I had not tasted rice by the way. or ten go. mountain that the river had its rise. The Kyang-chu was about four hundred and fifty yards wide at places. I saw it flow into and disappear in the upper part of another elevation on the south-east. Alchu go. It for a long time. . about fifty miles to the north-west. It was in that I saw a great snow-covered mountain. Before our parting. who had six men under him and some ponies. ion. while I sat down and read the Scriptures. we went through an undulating land where snow remained here and there. and grasses were struggling to grow. now heading Kyang-chu. comes to these regions and costs about seventy sen per sho. and the latter's men went about gathering fuel and getting things ready. from Nepal. where its waters shot between walls of huge rocks. Experiences. and I had altogether an easy time of it. A ride of about fourteen miles brought us to the river journey. and invited my companion and . I was now a guest of my companion. riding on a horse he lent to me and company of Ladak trader. men partake of it. Before crossing the river we took our noon-meal. and. The river had a sandy bed of considerable depth. Eice. and. My luggage was taken care of by my companFirst. and it was judged dangerous to make the ponies wade across it All the baggage was therefore taken from their laden. whence. following its course with my eye. had to this cooked. while it narrowed to sixty yards or so at others.

Where we the breadth' must have been more than four hundred yards. Karma had a single child' third about twenty-five. was quite the opposite. and another danger was from the blocks of ice 'floating down from the upper reaches. I had time enough to recover myself from the effects of the cold water while the men repacked the baggage on the ponies. warm sun. dulged in the luxury of three wives.THE LIGHTER SIDE 01' THE EXPEKIENCES. for fear of receiving serious cuts. one common husband Karma's was the only instance I for economy's sake. Polygamy is only very rarely his youngest wife. In the Karma visible. and began forded it. or marrying. and carried across the stream piece by piece by the men. Karma was about forty-seven years the next about thirty-five. to cross the icy stream. After hard efforts we reached the opposite shore. came across in Tibet in which one man deliberately inIn Ka^rma^s case fifty yea. where. which we had to take good care to escape. where seven or eight tents were in the largest tent. 105 backs. by practised in Tibet. We were lodged family I observed a very singular type of married life. the owner of which was an elderly man named Karma. where (as I will tell more in it detail later on) nothing is more com- mon than about three or five brothers with one commanal wife.' The depth of the water was from three to four feet. and blind Mr.rs old and . almost unique even in the wondrous land of Tibet. and the of age. all living. we turned north-west along in the the river. who had stripped themselves naked. though tliere are instances of two orthree sisters taking. and after a jog of about fifteen miles we came upon a nomad station. 14 . My companion and I also divested ourselves of all our clothing. The intimation that I had come from Alchu Lama at once secured me most hospitable treatment from Karma. for he was had three wives. Once more in the saddle. The eldest Mrs.

trained companion might induce the refractory animal . but I wanted a fully grown and fully broken one. and a very lively one it was. among which I may mention a rather free use of one of my But the sheep showed that he had a stronger determination than mine. and I readily consented. me some serious and I finally gave in and allowed myself to be led back to Karma's. to stay there that night. My severe exertions even threatened to cause injury. my fifty pounds of more on that of the back and twenty-five Karma's. For my part. Karma expressed his opinion sheep was not yet broken sufficiently for travel- ling purposes. one as its and that the purchase of a better. to obey my will. for all his and I was oblige'd sheep had gone to the plains. to make July 18th I left a beast of burden for me. Mr. luggage on neck. for a couple of days' rest was not disagreeable to me. adducing various proofs of my determination. as I had a mind to find out the best way of managing the animal. On my that second my call on him. and tried putting on his back one half of my share of the burden . with about tail T led the sheep with a yak's rope tied to its The animal proved docile enough for a couple of hundred yards. It wanted to go home. backward. but not further.106 THREE YEAES IN TIBET. I stood on my own right. and there ensued a tug of war between the sheep and its master. On that very e^'ening I bought another. it purchased a sheep. Karma asked me to read the Sacred Books for his family. While staying with him I bought an extra pair of boots. to I also my great inconvenience. I followed the suggestion and paid one yen twenty-five sen for an additional sheep seventy sen would have bought me a younger one. and tried to assert its right to do so with tremendous force. a precaution which I had foolishly omitted to take before. On sheef>. and I began to be dragged staves. I argued with the animal.

. 1o7 morning companion to my . to be a very good and things went splendidly on the trial. this first one proved sheep.THE Lighter side of the oii' THE Expeeiences.

lars. of which I gave full particuTeacher. of Tibet. I saw in told me ej^es something that of Hor-tosho.uspicion which had almost formed in the chief's mind.CHAPTER On XIX. about three o'clock in the of men. I perceived and managed to bring the conversaticjn round to the subject of Gelong RinpoAs good luck would have it. he had half a mind to suspect me. His name was once the danger I might be in. the I chief the district was then glint of travelling. . at the of which the servant with the horse took leave of me. as I afterwards found. 'i ! — Wangdak. the that at the chief's through which They accosted me. had the effect of completely melting away the .-. The next day Wangdak caused one of his men and a horse w licrc to end accompany me for a distance of about six miles. The largest River the day 1 left Karma's. besides having been given many valuable presents by the saintly All these incidents. On the canscd his tliing following day men to look after over ten miles Wangdak lent me a horse and my luggage. the chief happened to elie. after informing me that one night's bivouac and some walking on a comparati\-ely easy road would bring me to another nomad station. All went well. r found his worldly possessions quite equal to the weighty position he held as a district chief. the afternoon 1 was overtaken by a party leader of whom happened of to be. be a gieat believer in Grelong Rinpoche. He then invited me to come to his house-tent the next day and read the Sacred Books for him. Had I met the Yes And more I had been taught to study holy man the mysteries of Bodhi-iiattva and Maha-sattva. A ride of somebrought me to the chief's habitation.

nomad's I shall say no more of the canine an invariable thing on arriving at a At one day's distance from the station I is was to come to Tamchok Khanbab. if possible. l09 In due time I reached tins station. When It is a the morrow came all was done as I had requested. for I . indeed But I took pity on her. and wished to give me something in return. to please her. only too glad to be able to oblige so holy a Lama. and help me to cross. She said that she was very and begged me to examine her. the Nothing could be easier she was river on the morrow. without whom I could not think of any attempt to cross it. I granted her request.I'HE LAKGEST KIVEE 01' TIBEl'. Unfortunately I found no one willing to become my guide. rivers. although I made liberal offers of money and other things of value.could see that hers was a case of consumption in its advanced stage. I was almost on the old ill verge of despair. because my luggage was distributed on three of them. besides telling her self. a C(mple of men and some horses say three to take me to. but not likely to die immediately. which forms and is the upper course of the Brahmaputra. welcome. which tent. as usual. and she implored me to say what that something should be. where I found four tents. The old dame was gratified beyond measure. . ! woman came ease her mind. the greatest of Tibetan and I needed a guide. I told her the plight I was in. how to take care of her- and other things such as a good doctor would say when he knows his patient to be in a hopeless condition. Here was my chance. thing for a Tibetan pack-horse to carry on its back general In its driver and thirty pounds more or less of baggage. and also gave her soine harmless medicine to . on approaching which I was. and having covered about — — . when a sickly looking to me. and asked her to secure. We started at five o'clock in the morning. and to tell her when she would die a pleasant request. my case the horses had an easier time of it. met by a welcome-party of dogs.

. and gave them each a a small piece of thin white silk. when It I crossed it. and thence to Lake Manasarovara. leaving the horses behind. for their trouble Rata. I walked away from thein. Then we plunged stream with to its cuttingly cold water The condition of the was much the same Kyang-chu (except for the greater width be forded) and the water in some places was not more than seven or eight inches deep but the sand was so treacherous that we often sank in it right up to our hips. In this case. we took oar When was at the all was ready more felt the necessity of anointing my body. Upon ti-rra firma on the other side. It generally acciimi)anies a present. meal. as in the other. I once over a mile. A kata is and information. after traversing an uninhabited region for fifteen ov sixteen days the road would take me to Manasarovara first and then to Kang Rinpoche. and when out of their sight I quickly finished the operation. seventeen miles by eleven o'clock. we arrived on the banks of the Tamchok Khanbab. was not more than a water's edge that for crossing. on their backs. I thanked my guides rising to the north-west. into the water. and also helped my sheep to cross. which Tibetans present as a compliment. Under a certain f)retext. Here I prepared my noon-meal in the usual manner. with extensive sand-beaches on either half milesj side. and took it before crossing the river. The width of the beach alone on the eastern side was about two and a and that on the opposite little side about half as much . The men.1 10 THREE YEARS IN TlBEl'. my men pointed to a gorge between two mountains and told me that I was to go through the gorge. the width of the stream itself. after . but at the same time I also felt the un desirability of letting my guides see what I was doing. but is also given away by itself. This river was a mountain stream of considerable breadth. therefore. my guides took my luggage as that of the .

bowed their farewell and were gone. Ill me to recite the Sacred Text from time to time. in order that I might not be set upon and devoured by snowleopards. recrossing the river.THE LARGEST EIVEK OF advising TIBET. .

CHAPTER XX. As for the Brahmaputra. Call it a silly conceit of imagination. had succeeded in pene- trating into the untrodden wilderness of Tibet. it looked like a shining streamer hung out from the bosom of a great mountain. The sight gave me an uta : The distant clouds abont the snowy range Pour forth the mighty Brahmaputra stream. The sight hei-e obtainable of the mighty peaks covered with glittering snow from the top to the bottom was sublime in the extreme. incompar- ably more so than what one sees from Darjeeling or Nepal. about a quarter of a mile's trudging brought me to the outer edge of another expanse of undulating plain. this maj. rising one above another. Like all the others of my production. full of the while taking a rest myself. the imagination would I not have been impossible to me. the eyes could follow and waving down and across an immense. for. . I was feeling so jubilant that I could not help giving vent to my emotion . beach of the Brahmaputra behind. till it no more. conceit or no conceit. Dangers begin After leaving the sandy in Earnest. all Nature's Brilliant Lord.not be worth the name of uta. the elevations here and there assuming the height of hills. The river in its pride majestic seems The waving standard of the Buddha. if you like . I saw the titanic heights of the Himalayas. but when I made these lines. Here I had to pasture my sheep. I drank deep and grandeur of the scenery. named Vairochana. Following the ujjper course of the river to the north-west. plain. and. That darts into the farthest skies which meet The far horizon of the distant lands.

I then went about to collect the usual fuel. I soon came upon a region which was quite the opposite of the country I had As I traversed absence of water supply neither a pool nor a brook was to be seen within the eye's range. Right in the direction. varying in size all the way from a hundred yards to a mile or so in circumference. and her friend. as what I have to tell will show. I found the country around full of pools of water. day —but not a drop of water could be. of a I over a country made about twelve miles before much the same in topography. and the following is an uta my luggage among the three — — that occurred to me man in the midst of shivering is On these high plateaux here no sound heard tlieir Of or beast. except the du^ng of tlie wild horse. The night was extremely cold. The following day noon. I felt as withered up as could 15 . as I found out afterwards. I continued my progress until about seven o'clock in the evening I had walked about twenty-seven miles. I Proceeding north-west in the afternoon. which I could not think of crossing. and then wended my way in a direction which fortunately proved to be the right one for my purpose. For a while I went into meditation. About four o'clock in the afternoon I finished the day's journey by encamping near a good-sized pond. no crickets sing I. and I concluded that the neighborhood was never visited even by yaks. The moon above.: — DANGERS BEGIN IN EARNEST. all in its entire . tunes. and dividing the iriyself and the burden two sheep I started making easy jDrogress onward. below. but found none. and I gave it the name of Chi-ike-ga Hara Plain of a thousand Ponds. but all wrong in other respects. and As for my sheep. that I find. 113 The sheep had of iiow finished grazing. so much so that I could not sleep at all. came to the base huge mountain of snow. pushed onwards. there was some green grass growing for them to graze on. — told.

On reaching the supposed rivor. or anything whatever least liquid form. what was my disappointment and dismay Instead of a stream of of ! obtaining some . I had 110 tea — in fact could not liave anjIt is . NEARLY DYING OF THIRST. I made good headway. since the afternoon of the previous day. I was but novf 1 had a prospect at quenching draught. and allaying the thirst with a pinch of liotan. Not having had a drop in of water. of course thirsty . now and then. — that evening gets before I went to sleep. a on resuming my journey. wonderful I slept how one accusLonied even to hardships well that night.114 THEKE YEAES IN TIBET. I thought I espied stream of water coursing through a sandy country at a distance which I judged to be about seven miles in the direction of my progress. Before sunrise the next morning.

Once more I stood me up to my but none could full length. and wend —north-west. my way on in After proceeding some distance. I found there the dry bed of a river. but on coming to the spot the glittering specks of sand once more disillusioned me only to intensify my thirst.DANGERS BEGIN IN EAENEST. there to the height of about five or six inches. wandering in mad quest of a soothing draught in the hot region of the nether world. and looked round for water be seen. . where all water turned into fire when brought to the mouth. nothing but some blades of grass growing here and ! . I could do nothing but endure the the direction I had chosen for thirst. I once more thought that I perceived a body of water in the midst of another desert of sand. strewn with white pebbles glittering in the sun help imagining myself to be a Then I could not mere shadow. 115 water.

lo and behold was vermilion red. praised ! Buddha be But alas ! I : waiter. But when I it fetched out a bowlful of the vv^ater. Thank heaven ! about eleven o'clock I came within sight of a declivity. such water ! ! ! . how- ever excruciating the torture might be^ there was no help for it after all but to move on in the hope of finding some water me. it should be strained through a piece of woven stuff. and somehow I felt sure that I should find some water at its some was right there was To take the luggage off my back. and were to pass another night waterless. which for all I knew might have been becoming putrid for years. It was not long. however. and run down into the hollow was the work of an instant. in which the Lord telleth that when water which is to be drunk contains living things. before I remembered a teaching of the Blessed Buddha. I had been constantly taking some hotan. Imagine how I then felt! I was dying witli thirst. But. even the hope itself was now almost deserting if I really felt that I to should die of thirst I should get some moisture during the rest of the day. it was a stagnant myriads of little creatures pool of water. get out a wooden bowl. but even that cooling fragrance seemed to increase the distressing dryness. Then my religious scruples disallowed my swallowing any water with living things in it. To say that I felt as if my entire internal system were becoming parched is only to put it mildly. I went bottom. Overtaken by a Sand=Storm. thick and (what was worse) alive with In short. but the very look of the water was forbidding. The tormenting thirst which I experienced after my second disappointment simply beggars description. fail .CHAPTER XXI.


the loose sand actually surged into big billows. There I bivouacked for the night. but the water remained red. —no. before the kettle began to and it being against my rule.118 'I'HEBE Years in tibet. after that memoi'able lunch. and made impossible any progress forward.rticles. was wellhowever. I prepared baked flour with the red any lukewarm water. and low thorny bush. There were no more moving things in it. dashing. o'clock I reached a place advance. "and I took a good long draught of the vermilion liquid. how delicious it was through the process . then. and by about five grown over with creeping grass. like the angry waves of the mightj^ ocean. however. penetrated down the neck. As strong gust after gust of wind arose. But a second bewlful In the usual manner. That quenching I imagine Grod's nectar draught. to take meal after noon. I kept moving just to shake off the sand. ! could not be sweeter. and jDast had proceeded over the sandy desert for about two and it was now three o'clock in the afternoon. I a half miles. I filtered water. which rested in heaps on the luggage. not take it. and I had ai> I Then resumed' my . owing probably to the cold climate. And the lunch I then took was one of the most enjoyable I ever had in Tibet. it subsided with the same suddenness with which it aiose. or form any idea of. as already told. when a terrific sand- storm arose. and Fortunately the storm lasted for only about an hour. while to stand still was to risk being buried alive. tumbling. The wind burrowed deep into the ground here and built high hills of sand there. Not knowing what else to do. filling the air with blinding pa. the leaves of which wev(^ not green but dark to almost blackness. It I could fire built a and went about boiling the nigh twelve o'clock. and to avoid being inhumed. while reciting in silence some passages of the Holy Text. and sweejDing. boil. never A sand-storm is something which one can experience. in Japan. tossing.

at a very short distance. Once on the bank. abundance of fuel with which to make a. It waters flowed into the Brahmaputra. broadened into a lake. wai'ds thoroughl_y enjoyed my sleep. probably knowing instinctively the depth of the water. as I and afterhad not done foi- many a night. leaving the luggage behind. to a large boulder. made a second plunge and returned my luggage. stark naked. In the end I gave in. I 5. but for the assistance I gave them by means of the ropes. and into another basin. I tied one end of the ropes . When half way up the slope I saw a mountain stream flowing across my road.sing the bush-land. Afterwards I ascertained the name its of this river to be Chema-yungdung-gi-chu. and all the clothing The sheep proved good I had on became wet through. and it presented a rather curious sight.OVERTAKEN BY A SAND-STORM. and I found ice quite thick still banks. relieved the animals of their burden. and after taking off all my clothing to get dry for I. and we managed to get to the other side without any accident of course they might have been washed down and drowned. but to proposal they strenuously objected. to clothes high. proved I tucked up my be much deeper than I had judged it came up to my shoulders. For the river.nd that shuddered at the thought of having once more to cross an icy mountain stream. but there was no help. The second crossing was comparatively . to the foot of a after tra\-ev. iind. was only nine along its o'clock in the morning when I reached the Chema-yungdung-gi-chu. 119 fire. but the water . I led them into the water by their ropes. swimmers. My intention was to make my sheep luggage across carry their shares of the this the river . and I finished the I waited till the ice began to melt. not forgetting of course the anointing process. I came mountain which I had to climb. noon-meal before making a plunge into the water. and almost described a right angle when flowing out of this The next morning.

but I desire that I be born again. THEBE YEARS IN TIBET. to bring my staff into service all I could do was to even . But a second thought made it plain to me that to lose my luggage would mean surer death. more or it. all one bundle to be balanced on my head. I lost my foothold. In fact. over an my route lay for ten and thus it uninhabited tract of wilderness. treading on a slippery stone in the bottom. followers and specially the favors of all the Buddhas. whence I might never be able And cling to to get to dry land. if I tried to save my luggage. the power of my luggage I did. and a thorough anointing for the second time. After a rest of about half an hour. All went well. while the bundle slid off my head. until. my baggage into With that acro- batic equipment. my luggage. at least. — — of starvation afterwards. because days. The thought then occurred to me that.120 easy. I should have said that the river. I began to think that it might be just as well to be drowned then as to die less. what with the weight of the luggage on my head. I entered the stream for a third time. as well as the highest Teacher of this world. in mid-stream. was a hundred and eighty had now had quite a course of all involuntarily certainly and a feeling ice and water of numbness was quickly coming over me. Buddha Shakyadesires muni! lam notable to accomplish my and to return the kindness of my parents. in only one hundred yards down the swift stream. and. and more or less exhaustion after the repeated wadings. take firm hold of . I might lose my life. I should be washed into one of the lakes. and. at I the point where I was crossing yards wide. but I was rapidly losing moving my free swimming arm. friends. in order to requite the favors . I made.si3oken my last desire : " ye ! All the Buddhas of the ten quarters. and try to swim with one hand for I was being fast carried down into deep waters. in this life. was wiser to cling to it while life lasted. I had. I fell down into the I had no time water.

and on trying to stand ujj I found that the water was only up to my breast. and I saw my sheep leisurely grazing.OVRETAKEN BY A SAKB-STOKM. it was impossible along and I pulled me to rebalance it on mj head. for heavy with the soaking water. I at last got upon the bank. then. I found that I had been carried more than two hundred and fifty yards down the stream from the point whence I started to cross it. I felt that the end of one of my staves had touched something hard. with which recovered strength I finally managed to reach the " shore of salvation". I was at that time about forty yards from the bank 1 had started for. it taxed all my remaining energy to drag it out after me. perfectly unconscious of their master's sad plight. I had no strength. after me in the water but when . and I rqbbed the 16 ." At that moment. even to crawl up to where my sheep were. I have already received from all. Arrived on the bank. Feeble as I was. with a thrill. 121 STRUGGLE IN THE RIVER. My fingers were stifP and immovaljje. As it for the luggage. In an instant courage returned to me.

I then made two bundles of my luggage. which Mrs. Osaka gave me. and protected in partially dry apparel. my heart and lungs with closed this kind. That evening I had neither courage nor energy to make any fire. when bidding me farewell. which lasted for nearly three hours. Ichibei Watanabe of my life-saving hotan. After more or less recovered the circulation of blood in my limbs. The convulsions had almost left me. and I passed the night wrapped up in my half-wet tuk-titk. and the sun was going down. which consisted in making a suspect cany on his back an extremely heavy load so rackingl)' heavy I then felt to be the weight of my divided luggage. A dose of hotan sent me into a fit of convulsions. The luggagt.122 regions THREE YEAES IN over TIBET. having been done up in hides and skins. an hour's exercise of — — . called Oi-ishi. the water had not penetrated much into it. It was then that I thought of an ancient ipethod of torture. 1 fists. It was now past five o'clock. and I was just able partially to undo my baggage and to take out hotan hotan. and in two crawling trips I carried them to where I had left my sheep grazing. and I was thus able to go to sleep dressed.

while circumstances compelled me to relieve my things worse. however. and every time I take them out. and consequently no tea so I allayed my hunger with some raisins before resuming my journey all at the . ward meant a step nearer to my destination^ When difficulties. I during my last effort to cross the it and altogether Chema-yungdungwas an inauspicious start which After all. day before became thoroughly wet again.CHAPTER XXII. had arrived near a small pond and stopped to bivouac for the night. I cannot help wondering how my life was spared when those things got wet. The sun shone out brightly the next morning. 22. although I had not half recovered from the effect of my experience of the day before.. I had managed sheep of a part of theirs. the shrieking wind and the blinding blizzard were at war That which I had managed to dry tolerably once. The latter I still have in my possession. and I my clothing and the collection I then had of the sacred Scriptures. for the elements were now engaged in a fear- increase I my ful strife — the dazzling lightning. a step forand with that philosophical reasoning I dragged myself onward. To make to get a painful cut on one of my feet gi-chu. and my things were far from being dry. snow began to fall thick and fast. No fire was obtainable even then.650 Feet above Sea=level. and the whole of the following morning was spent in repeating the process of the preceding mornin§^. fire and tea were entirely out of the question. In that way I hud proceeded for aV)out five miles. Consequently even my own share of the lugdried gage proved heavier than before. . the deafening thunder. By one o'clock in the afternoon I was ready to proceed. when. to made on that afternoon.

I store for And little I dreamt of the danger me that afternoon and the day to was still heading for the north-west. JBy five o'clock in the afternoon I had made an ascent of about ten miles. which I afterward ascertained to be a peak called Kon G-yu-i Kangri. and snow was falling faster than ever. and turning first north and then east. I thought it dangerous to continue ni}. however. began the ascent of that great hill. — result of succeeded in getting them to move on a little as the some physical reasoning. though it was plain that they had not fed the whole afternoon. they came to a dead stop and bfgan to breathe heavily.ascent under these conditions. snow. the rope's I reluctsnitly dragged them onward. that was in following. B)and by ni}. at the enfl of which. having made up my mind to go on until I found a hospitable shelving cliff. whether owing to hunger or not I could not tell. Tbereujion felt . or in the neighborhood of Mount Kailiisa. but presently even that process of pleading failed. or some such adhere to that course . 'J'he poor animnls obeyed me nnd walked on for about a hundred J yards. liowever. nothing but snow. The sun had now gone down. and then it began to snow and to blow a gale. I. — It was. and in order I must now climb a snow-clad peak towering into the sky I saw no way of a^'oiding the still a hope task. But the prospect of being frozen to death prevented me from yielding to their not unreasonable obstinacy and put-ting all my strength into . I essayed to make a rapid descent. At first I haven. and encouraged by an uncertain hope of emerging upon or near Kang Rinpoche. But I had not yet found a shelter and so continued my descent.— 124 THREE YEARS IN TIBE'i'. because of the snow. everywhere and all around and presently there were twelve inches on the ground. that I'ises twenty -two thousand six hundred and fifty feet above sea-level.sheep refused to proceed further. shortly after noon.


For all that. and vaguely thought that that must be the feeling of a . and I began to feel considerably warmer than I had been before. "Wrapj)ed up in the clumsy have described. My I poor sheep ! They crept close to me and lay there in the snow. the cold increased in intensity after midnight. emitting occasionally their gentle cry. tion to pass the night in religious meditation. difference: so let fate decide. with the determina-'^ no little alarnij night. I sat myself down between my two sheep. protecting my head with a water-proof coat. and I began to feel that my power of sensation was gradually deserting me. . A few more miles either way would not make much Once in that frame of mind. I took out my night-coverings and wrapped myself up and. which thought had never sounded sadder. thinking that the animals might die that But what could I do ? I knew that I was manj^ a days' journey at least from the nearest human habitation. I still managed to smear man on the point of death. Nor had I ever felt did then. I seemed to be in a trance. so lonely as I manner that I over my body the clove-oil.126 thKee yeaks in tiBbi'. which seemed to prevent to some extent the radiation of the heat of the body.

CHAPTER I XXIII. resignation. But I could not. and saw the two sheep shaking themselves thej. helping it down with snow. Nor did I feel that there was any necessity for its instant solution. On taking out my watch I found that it was then half past ten of what morning I could not tell. something. I was rigid all over. and the hope of re-birth took turns in became a blank. and then all During that blankness I no doubt looked exactly like a dead person. and the sun struggling to force his life-giving rays between the intervals of the hurrying vapors. if I may so describe the mental condition of a man half-way on the road of being frozen to death. and I wanted to shake it off too. Suddenly I awoke. My immediate desire was for nourishment. I opened my eyes. . — some baked gave some also to I took flour. the immense patches of black. fancying that somebody. and I saw the skies still presenting a dismal and threatening appearance. That was strange. which. Regret. by that time.were shaking snow off their bodies. Presently I became more myself mentally. I felt that the condition of my health was not equal to the task of making a second attempt to climb over the . I di'eamily thought. black cloud still fleeing ov pursuing. and my mind. Had I slept only one night. Mechanically I next endeavored to recover the use of my ]imbs. or two in the snow ? The question was more than I could just then solve. had was learnt to feed themselves on flour when green grass lacking. was stirring about me or near me. I my sheep. survive a Sleep in the Snow. I saw the sheep finish shaking off the snow. in a I was now wandering dream-land.

Just at that juncture I heard some clear. Turning along round. and I saw at a distance what I took for a herd of yaks. they informed me that they had arrived at the spot the evening before. ringing sounds.!! Hv-e miles I came to another mountain stream. at almost trembled night in a the prospect of spending another perilous snow. I had now come to the bottom of a valley. and crossing it. wards scene : I composed an utn in memory of that enchanting Like feathers white the snows fall down and lie There on the monntain-river's sandj banks Ko-kow. . Never before had I seen a sight so poetically picturesque. I still proceeded down the incline. and I at the same time down again came the snow.128 THREB YBAES IN TIBET. and I was sure that they were yaks. Kon Gju-i Kangri.Towards these I forthwith directed my steps. for their presence implied that of some fellow-creatures in the neighborhood. On my questioning the men. with the intention of taking a long After poing down more rest at the foot of the mountain. Ko-kow sounds strange a melody I search around for this strange cry. are proudly strutting — The river was about one hu. and I was doubtful of my vision on that occasion. I find. and that a little further on I should come upon a little camp of four tents. The discovery. But presently I saw the dark objects moving about. was delightful.ndred and twenty yards wide. Coming up to the spot. In quiet majesty those moimtain cranes singing thus. as of a bird's cry. so Some little time afterrepresentative of antique serenity. and I continued the descent when 1 resumed iny journey. I saw in seven the or eight cranes stalking majestically shallow part of the river. But I had before been deceived quite often by exposed boulders and rocks which I had taken for yaks. atteiided by some herdsmen. I hear ! — — . I found that the herd consisted of about sixty yaks. wholly unexpected as it was. tha. .

after trudging over snow for nearly ten miles. and a great came over me as I stood in the snow. effort made an joj^. A third tent stood near. sadness That was enough. Dejectedly I moved to a second tent. even to the extent of finally charging me with an intention to rob urgent pleading. while under-feeding and general exhaustion cannot have improved my features. Still I pleaded for charity. I turned away. Probably my ajjpearance was against me 1 had not shaved for two montlis. During that stay I occupied and my time in writing down the twenty-. him. At five o'clock on the second morning I thanked I my host for his hospitality and left him. In fact the treatment was worse for my with a detailed account of my sufferings during the previous eight days or so. with the hope of their accomplishment proving helpful to the^ spiritual need of others as well as paradise. By noon I had arrived near a pond. I begged the occupants met with a flat refusal. but I could not muster courage enough my request there. and there took my midday meal. but in vain. beard no doubt made me look wild. and with an appeal at the fourth and last tent. only seemed to make the master of the tent turn colder. my great I met a ready welcome. and I to repeat like crying myself.I SURVIVE A KLEEF IN THE SNOW. rest near a I was utterly tired out. I came out upon a more or less grass-covered plain. and myself. now proceeded due north and. but : by a pack of barking dogs.six desires which I had formulated. My felt sheep bleated pitifully. and my unkempt hair and of the first tent for a night's K)dging. but there too I received no better : treatment. but a quiet comfortable this I fire made me imagine the joys of was allowed to enjoy all that evening through the next day. 129 My hailed arrival in front of one of the tents was^ as usual. The sight To of my sheep was I melancholy in the extreme. A survey from that point showed me that I had 17 .

wliich appeared to be larger hi extent than the one I had traversed after crossing the Chema Yungdung. cross a sandy desert. The thought of another sand-stor» gave me new enwgy. . and I made no halt until I had walked quite out of the desert. born of fear.130 to THEKE YEARS IN TIBET.

or snowy peak. . quite as large in size In color it is reddish brown. but lacking at the time all my had knowledge of Bonism. . When it was superseded by Buddhism. as a large Japanese horse. its toleration of marriage and of the use of intoxicants. Beyond this I came to a plain of stones of curious shapes. ' Bon ' and Kyang. It has for some adherents. when shorn of its sacrifices. in theory. Bonism is an ancient religion which commanded considerable influence before of the introduction still Buddhism it into that country. in the centre of whicli a solitary mountain rose to a considerable height. And chanced.' ' I walked about five miles over the sand and then reached a piece of grass-land.CHAPTER XXIV. Bon religion. a certain Bon priest recast his religion after the pattern of Buddhism. and called the revised product the New Bonism. almost Buddhism. and are believed to inhabit or temples some particular mountain. is e-\plaiiied in this way. I subsequent!}' learned that the mountain was the sacred abode of the deities of the of Tibet. black mane Avith black hair on the ridge of the back and northern steppes. or pond. is only Buddhism The Bon deities have no shrines under another name. attention was soon diverted by coming in sight of a it was upon one of these divine abodes that I couple of kyangn. I may say that the New Bonism. but continues to exist only its name's sake. or lake. kyang of is the their name given by the Tibetans to the wild horse More accurately it is a species of ass. dedicated to them. Originally Bonism very it is much resembled This Hinduism similarity but now. Without attempting to give any special" particulars of its doctrines. As I have already said.


The horses also stopped. thing they galloped with me. Even a mile and a quarter away. like a fox. ropes. and appeared quite astonished away at the whole performance. When quite near it will look scared. in which panting and giddy. It is never seen singly. When one thinks that it has run far away. except for its tufted tail. I then to perceived my blunder. Altogether it is an animal of very queer habits.'bon' and 'kyang. made a dash for freedom with such suddenness and simultaneity that I lost my hold of the two ropes I then proceeded . most part called by its Tibetan name. a silent Ultimately survey of the stranger from behind. if not in a herd of sixty or seventy. To all ai^pearance it is an ordiuaiy horse. It is a powerful animal. and is extraordinarily fleet.s. when it comes within seeing distance of a man. but always in twos or threes. It has a curious habit of turning round and round. but only to chase further While it lasted the horses seemed and getting into the spirit of the my sheep When I lay prostrate. thoroughly to enjoy it. but Its scientific name is Equns hemioni. fell And a ludicrous race it was. ixnd after to each turn its it will stop for a while. as it were.' 133 and with the belly white. sheep stopped running and began quietly to graze. but only to stop and look back.it will commence this turning round at every short stage it is for the of its approach. I (juietly walked up my sheep. On rising. But ly to come back to my story : my two sheep. and at the slightest thing will wheel round and dash away. and without a movement they allowed me to regain their . apparent- frightened by the approach of the rotating horses. the from me. which is usually spelt kyang in English. to take. it will be found that it has circled back quite near. look at it the man over own back. in a frantic effort to recapture I finally them. comes up quite close. to run a race with them.

the possession of these things might arouse the suspicion of the more intelligent Tibetans. One may as well look for a parcel lost in the sea. and was impossible to follow our footsteps. and I could do well without it. no doubt during that memorable race. my watch and compass. and the trinkets would have been of service in making friends with the simple natives but. we had not run the race over any regular course. the missing bundle contained some fifty mj'self thus rupees in cash. as try to hunt up a small bundle. in His wisdom and mercy. I argued with where in an immense plain. But on that occasion one All is well that ends well. out to hunt after the lost bundle. I gave up my search in a spirit of meek it resignation.134 THEEE YEARS IN TIBET. thing was not quite satisfactory. for I soon discovered that one of my sheep had lost a part of my luggage from its back. It was hard to part with the watch arid the compass. another point of view. Arriving at this conclusion. but it was. lying hidden under grass and leaves. certainly. someBesides. but for it I all then set it was useless. . looked at from : . had caused me to be rid of them. and was most likely that the Lord Buddha. after all. . and an assortment it would have been better not of western trinkets to lose the money. a small portion of what I had with me.

The Power I of Buddhism. so secure. deviating from the Tibetan national high-way. no absolution. On onward on your pilgrimage. no pilgrimage. I thought I was rather hasty in feeling prising murder. I had been told. but what could I do. me in sight of a dark of three men and two women. the north-west had now walked about six miles to described in the last chapter. My first feel inclination on being received into the tent was to easy in mind. brought zone. is noted for I its production of professional robbers and murderers.CHAPTER XXV. for I was identify as the on consulting' my now within a pilgrim-frequented indeed. had heard before that they had even : such a saying in that country as "No ! murder. one of the women the wife of the eldest brother. for that country. the men being brothers. standing on the banks of a large river. killing men and visiting temples. led to lake Manasaxovara. seldom commit But when I was informed that these people were from Dam Grya-sho. no food. which I after the singular proceedings which store of information I was able to path that. since I was now . These reflexions did not bring much ! cheer to my heart . killing men and visiting temples " Even women of that country. and the other a daughter of another of the brothers. like the neighboring one of Kham. where my appeal for a night's lodging was cheerfully granted. I found the occupants of the tent to consist tent. for I had been told that parties com- women. named Ganga by the Tibetans. and I emerged upon a well-trodden road. The discovery was as unexpected as it was pleasing. even in Tibetan wilds. A few more steps. think no more of committing homicide than of killing a sheep.

Then we continued our climb. I judged it to be about two hundred and fifty yards wide and fairly Following the stream for about three and threedeep. had its rise in one snowy peaks that I saw to. Fortunately.the south-east. I ascertained. reverence. as they were heading for the same temporary destination direction This river. which was welling up in a most picturesque way from under an immense The natives call it Chumik thong-ga slab of white marble. with my newly-made companions. babbling spring. and arrived at another spring. and we drank deep of the sacred water. As far as my knowledge goes.136 in their THEEE YEARS IN TIBET. hands ? I could only bide my time. I proceeded in a north-westerly the along the great stream. Its ancient name was Kang Tise. I From the place of our bivouac : saw to the north-west a great snow-clad mountain it was the Kang Rinpoche of Tibet. we came to a clear. It inspired me with the profoundest . now facing north. and emptied its waters into Lake Manasarovara. quarters miles and then making an ascent. which went by the name of Chumik Ganga or the source of the G-ahga. we proceeded north-west again. which we forded at the point where it was at its broadest in that vicinity. and came once more to the river Ganga. on the morning of following day. as by the Tibetans. it is the most ideal of the snow-peaks of all the Himalayas. After leaving the springs. as forming the sources of the sacred Ganga. the Mount Kailasa of the Hindu. Rangchung. and are both looked up to with religious purity. for such had the occupants of the tent become. Early on Augast 3rd. We had travelled only about nine miles that day. and it really made one's as myself. of the heart glad to look at the crystal-like water gushing all its vip in Both these springs are regarded by the Hindus. that is to say. and passed the night on its banks. or the fountain of joy. they did not butcher me that night.

Filled with soul-stirring and and fancies I addressed myself to this sacred pillar of nature. which glad to accede. is for the common good For others treading on Salvation's path. I then considered myself I hundred and performed and eight bows. I purposely made as simple and as appealing to the heart as possible. one took out the manuscript of my twenty-six desires. and read out such strange Chinese sentences. They said that they had never known that the Chinese Lamas were men of such Bodhisattvic mind The upshot was that they asked me to preach to them that night. The preaching over. to have thus been enabled to worship such a holy emblen\ of Buddha's power. They had been watching me like gaping and astonished children. and were all intensely curious to know why I had bowed so manj^ times. confessed my sins. I was glad to explain to them the general meaning of my conduct and thej' seemed to be deeply struck with its significance.THE POWER OF BUDDHISM. ' to it the obeisance of also the luckiest of men. and I looked up to as a natural mandala/ the mansion of a Buddha thoughts Bodhisattvas. All. so much so that they even shed tears of joy. They thought that their ! 18 . and to make the best possible impression on them . Wliate'er and on I mused : my sufferings here and dangers dire. feelings of pure ' 137 it reverence. all. and to vow such vows in its sacred presence.'' and pledged their accomplishment to the Buddha. they said in all sincerity that they were glad of my companionship. seeined to alfect them profoundly. and even offered to regard me as their guest during the two months which they intended to spend in pilgrimage to and round the Kang Rinpoche. I feel. of The sight my performance of these devotional practices must have been a matter of wonder and mystery to my companions. Whate'er befalls me my onward march. a request to which I was very The preaching which followed.

would absolve them completely from their sins. then ! . I blessed the power of Buddhism more tliau ever.138 THREE YEAKS IIST TIBET. Imagine the state of my mind These were of the people who took other men's lives with the same equanimity with which they cut their vegetables yet. their minds had softened. and could not hold back my tears as my companions shed theirs. while Serving such a holy man as I now was to them. . touched now by the light of Buddhism. pilgrimage over such holy ground.

serene and calm. the in the thousands of fathoms below The awe-inspiring scene lasted for about an hour. yet another and another. I was treated to another earthly experience. a in sight peak perpetual snow. same instant. which. and. Heavy pelting hail-stones then joined in the war of elements. Standing almost alone upon a great height. penetrating lightning. coming to the edge of a marsh-like j^ond. and the deepest chasms.! CHAPTER XXVI. which has an altitude of 2-5. revealed the glittering snow on the grand peaks of the Hi}nalaj'as. we pitched to . which shook the rnighty mountains to their very foundaof filled the air with the utmost confusion terrific noises and lurid tongues of fire. and then. which was as soul-stirring as any phenomenon could be. made doubly dark by the contrasts produced by literally tions. While standing absorbed in the severe magnificence of the scenery. remind one of the mighty commotions of the moment We did but little walking after this wonderful sight. with equally wondrous suddenness. rising majestically high above the sur- rounding mountains (themselves of great elevation) was sublimely grand.600 feet above the sea-level. now accompanied by rolling thunder. followed by anothei-. we came was now August of 4th. with not a whisjser of wind before. the sky became blue and the sun shone forth. After proceeding about ten of miles over an undulating range of mountains Man-ri. I saw black clouds with fearful suddenness envelope the world of vision in frightful darkness. Sacred Manasarovara and It its Legends. A magical change in the weather was heralded by a sudden Hash of lightning. and momentary glare of pale. 'J'he view of Man-ri.

to go up a great slope and I was offered a ride on yaks. as was the case through the weeks that followed. all my share of the luggage. an offer which I readily Furthermore. as well as part of the burdens of my sheep. In short. we were now in the presence of the . and both myself and my original companions had altogether an easy time of it. 1 was given the seat of honor in the tent. About thirteen miles onwards a view opened before us which I shall never forget. one of my companions' accepted with entire satisfaction. was now the guest of my companions. and I was not sorry that I had nothing to do with gathering the yak dung. and building the fire. On the 6th of August we had of extremely sharp inclination. ^^^^-^ J^^ ^^^ LAKE MANASAROVARA. so exquisitely grand was the scenery.140 THREE YEARS IN I TIBET. and nothing was exacted of me but to sit down like a good priest. read the Sacred Text and then preach in the evening. or fetching water. was transferred to the back of one of my fellowpilgrims. our tent there for the night.

A huge octagon in shape. seemed like dust. Lake Manasarovara is generally recognised as the highest body of fresh water in the world. form is at once unique and sublime. the perils. with its clear placid waters. the pain of writhing under heavy burdens. It is the Anavatapta of Samskrt (the lake without heat or trouble) and in it centre many of the Buddhistic legends. verily. The passage gives the name of South Zenbu to a certain continent of the world. so dustless and Mount Kailasa itself towers majestically above the peaks around. and are conse- . In Tibetan it is called Mapham Yum-tso. and well of its dignified surroundings —calm. mandala. the exhaustion and the lacerations. the anxiety of wandering over trackless wilds. which was washed away and purified by the spiritual waters of the lake and thus I attained to the spiritual plane of Non-Ego. that I fancied I saw in it the image of our mighty Lord Buddha. Kailasa a picture which guarding its north-western corner. It is this Anavatapta which forms the subject of the famous poetical passage in the Gospel of Kegon. with marvellously symmetrical indentations. together with this scenery showing Its-own-Reality. saka-ndma Mahdvaipidya-Sf'trn. of dashing stream and>freezing blizzard. l4l Lake Manasai'ovara. named in Japanese and in Samskrt Arija-Buddha-Aratan. Lake Milnasarovara. of the Anavatapta is a tree which bears fruits that ai'e omnipotent in healing all human ills.SACRED MAnASAROVAEA AND sacred ITS LEGENDS. Zenhu is a deflection of jamh. its elevation above the sea-level being something over fifteen thousand five hundred feet. and the mighty Mount worthy rugged. all the troubles and sufferings I had just come through. The hunger and thirst. it was a natural five hundred disciples. calmly addressing His Verily. a phonetic translation of the sound produced by anything of weight falling into Now the legend has it that in the centre placid water.

and the Buddha and Bodhisattvas flowers. Anavatapta inhabiting is described to be the only real paradise on earth. and five saints five Buddha Mount Kailasa on their all hundred immortals making on its home on Man-ri. Tamohok Khanbab (flowing out of a horse's mouth). On that night the brilliant .' the hundred and also the birds of paradise singing their celestial melodies. and the sands of emerald are in the east river." circle These rivers are further said each It is said to seven times round the lake and then to take the directions indicated. legend says : As regards . also that several giant lotus flowers bloom in the lake. these four rivers. with a living and its hundred north-west. the name of Zenbu derived. and an unutterably holy elevation to be felt there. and the religious relations between Tibet lion's mouth). the sands of gold are in the west river the sands of diamond are in the north river. Langchen which respectively form the sources of It is from these notions that the sacredness of the Anavatapta is evolved. enjoying eternal beatitude. much sought Further. out of it is after both by Gods and men. When it one of these fruits falls into the pond produces the sound jamb. but the things mentioned in the Scriptures cannot be seen with our mortal eyes. the "The sands of silver are in the south river.142 quently THREE VBAES IN TIBB'l'. its said that the lake has four outlets for Mabcha Khanbab Khanbab (flowing out of a bull's mouth). I believe that anybody would desire to see the spot. Reading that magnificent description. that rises southern shore. the size of which is as large as those of the paradise of the Buddlia Amitabha. ' are seen there sitting on those while in the surrounding mountains are found herbs. which are respectively called (flowing a peacock's mouth). In short. and Senge Khanbab (flowing out of a waters. and India established. The real thing is the region in its wonderfully inspiring is character. the four sacred rivers of India.

With these my mind besoothed now wanders E'en to Akashi in Japan. my home. . The JVIoon o'erhanging from the skies above. 143 moon was lake.. Its watery brilliant sheen illumines me far All pangs of pain and sorrow washed away.these mountains high here Serene — sleeps the lake " Devoid . These impelled me to compose an uta : Among. Bestow their grateful shadows on the lake. A seashore known for moonlight splendors fair. shining in the sky and was reflected on the and Mount Kailasa appeared dimly on the opposite bank. of seething cares " — so named By native bards its broad expanse appears oi: Like the octagonal mirror Japan. The grand Kailas' majestic capped with snow. SACRED MANASAROVAKA AND ITS LEGENDS.

those of the Mabcha Khanbab to the south . made by but in all the maps that I have seen represented as being far smaller than it actually is. and the evening heard from my host. It is in reality a gon with various indentations. in on the shores Lake Manasarovara. is misleading. the sources of the Senge Khanbab may be ascertained with tolerable accuracy but those of the Tamchok Khanbab have hitherto In India. or Indus. give the student an idea of the Lake which respects misleading. Lake in an easterly direction is known as the Brahma. The head-waters of the Langohen Khanbab flow in a westerly direction. that night at many I arrived a Buddhist of Temple known as Tse-ko-lo. as appears in the regular octaa maps. their sources in the stories They have it.CHAPTER The I XXVII. the superior of the . putra. incapable of verification. is given in the story just there is at have related but in realitj' not one of them that actually flows directly out of the Lake. mountains which surround ' and the about the so-called Horse's ' and ' Lion's ' mouths are only legends. a very large body of fresh water. Bartering in Tibet. towards the north. The Sitlej flows away It to the west. and has a travellers. as far as in know. All the western maps. or about two it hundred The shape of the lake also. of course. possible that actual surveys of Lake Manasarovara have been European it is It is. very lotus-flower I fairlj- much resembling is in shape. and the Sita. circumference of some eighty miles. is. the river that flows from the defied investigation. in truth. while the one that issues towards the south is the Ganga. ri. origin of the four rivers it .

the priests in China. not heard anything about him when and he asked me if I had I was passing through The reader will be able to appreciate my astonishment when I tell him that this absconding. who had at one time been in charge of a well-known temple in the vicinity of Lake Manasarovara. but did not seem to be a man very who would lie for the mere pleasure of lying. he said. For instance. 145 Temple. a story which surprised me greatly.. He this had heard rumors that recreant priest was living openly with his wife at Hor-tosho. he treat said. was a man of about fifty-five years of ao-e he was extremely ignorant. This Lama became so infatuated with a beautiful woman whom he took to himself as his wife that he was betrayed into transferring the greater part of the temple property as a gift to her father. and without attracting much attention. In the immediate vicinity. instance. and from time to time cases would arise of extreme depravity in a Lama. there was the case of Alchu Tulku. the place. and everything that he away that was left of value in the temple. I should say. dishonest priest was none other than he who had induced the belle of the place to treat are not always 19 me with so much to be. Lama) and the readiness with which I answered his questions warmed his heart story. He was anxious to hear about the state of Buddhism in China (the reader will remember that I was supposed to be a Chinese. me to the following how it might be with and encouraged him to He did not know. taking with could cai'ry him his wife. BARTERING IN TIBET. but for himself at times thoroughly disgusted he could not help feeling with his brethren in Tibet. This Lama. indulge himself in all manner of excesses with impunity. and not content with that crime he afterwards absconded from the temple. kindness ! Truly men what they seem . a Lama supposed to be an incarnation of Alchu. for an ordinary priest might.

A zigzag climb of ten miles or so brought me within view of I spent the next night at the same temple. destroyer of the outM^ard demeanor. I had had every reason to be grateful to the man and his wife for their hospitalities and I could have wept to think that hypocrites of so black a dye should be found amongst the followers of Buddha. It was at least a comfort to think that things in Japan were It brighter than this. and they worship Mount Kailasa. "that's just like the man. To the followers of the Hindu religion. apparently Brahmana devotees. in Tibetfjn. as it is It is in more commonly shape something like a long cahibash. who had plunged into the Lake it was about ten o'clock and were engaged in the performance of their religious ceremonies. lost in mountain scenery that and presently came across some Hindus and Nepalese. not conceal astonishment from my host. made my way to the Lake Lakgal-tso. and pressed me to accept from them presents consisting of manj' kinds of dried fruits.— 146 I did THEEB YBAES IN TIBET. " Ah ! to be sure. The next morning admiration of I took a the magnificent all surrounded me on sides. one of the deities of the Indian Ti'inity. walk along the Lake. but circumstances that had brought related to him all the me v/ithin the reach of their kind hospitalities. which rises sky-high above the lake. or." was a sad revelation to me. following morning and on the range of mountains that stands like a great wall to the north-west of the Lake. they considered me to be a holy Buddhist Lama. Lake Manasarovara is a sacred sheet of water. Rakas-tal. Awither . called." he said. as being a material manifestation of the sacred Body of Maha- — Shiva. gentle and lovable in an arch-sinner. When they saw me. a very devil incarnate. but he only my smiled at what I told him. and in area smaller than Manasarovara. but at heart faith.

Modern Hindiis revere the Haldahal branch as being the main stream of their sacred bride. after found. River. mountain^ some two and a half miles round at the base. was actually no such channel.JSAETERlNG IN TIBET. every fifteen years. and here I made a further disco ver)'. and was known as the Mabcha Khanbab. on rare occasions. and I was subsequently told that. the waters of the two lakes do actually become c(ninected. The I'iver was over sixty feet wide. the This will account for the statements of the guidebooks to Kang Tise and Mount Kailasa that the relations between the two lakes are those of husband and wife. further south. Hence arises the Tibetan legend that every fifteen years or so Lakgal. 14V seven and a half miles brought me to a spot whence I could see the whole of its surface. stands like a wall of partition between tlie A two it lakes. for all the world. Great . goes to visit Manasarovara. city of Purang on the borders of India and Tibet. as mountain slopes into a ravine though there were a channel to of communication I the water from one lake that there the other. however. ten or phenomenally heavy rains. I now proceeded easily down hill for some thirteen miles or so. the banks of this river we pitched our In the neighborhood I f(jund four or five similar encampments. and where for this looks. tent for the On night. Keeping Lake Lakgal in view. but I discovered that the level of Lake Lakgal is higher than that of Manasarovara. eventually joins the main stream of the G-anga flowing from Haldahal. one of the tributary sources of the It is this river that. flows through G-anga. occupied by traders from Purang. and the then. and that at such times Lake Lakgal flows into Manasarovara. but in ancient times that it t(j was mostly this Mabcha Khanbab was considered be the principal source. the bridegroom. until I arrived at a plain through which I found a large river flowing. after winding through many a defile and cafion of the Himsllayas.

living in the region of perennial snow on the Indian frontier. they count first five and then two beads on the string. a very brisk trade takes place which presents many curious and interesting features. and substitute a black pebble. all sorts white pebbles. But there is no nuiltiplication or division. especially in selling wool and butter. money. they have to do all their reckoning with the beads of a rosary. cotton. marsh-salt. bamboo sticks. wool.. 148 THEEE YEARS IN TlBEl'. and at these times. almost distractingly complicated. which means ten. so that . is used in trade. which they exchange for corn. ten shells to the Tibetan silver coin. Each white pebble represents a unit of one when they have counted ten of these they take them away. they will take Tibet is still in the barter stage. the reckoning of which is a great mystery to them. For such calculations they ann themselves with of aids. It is a very tedious process. In order to add five and two. it is involving several kinds of goods and varying prices. generally Indian currency. numbers of nomads and pilgrims come to this place in July and August of every year. But sometimes. and yaks' tails. : and very little money The people from the interior bring butter. everything is done by the extremely slow jirocess of adding one at a it will take a Tibetan three days to do what a Japanese could do in half an hour. and they seem to be too dense to grasp the simplest sum in arithmetic. black pebbles. but they are incapable of anything better. and then count the whole number thus produced to make sure that the total is really seven. Ten black pebbles are equivalent to one bamboo stick) ten bamboo sticks to one shell. sugar and cloth. which are imported from India by Nepalese and Tibetans. This is no exaggera- time. They cannot do calculations without their beads. Thus business is always slow : when it comes to larger deals. Ignorant of arithmetic andpossessing no abacus to count with. sheep. and white shells. goats.

. These three days were memorable for another reason. The pilgrims who had come with me became such warm admirers of my supposed virtues and sang my praises with so much fervor that a pilgrim girl fell in love with me. 149 I stayed on the banks of this river for three whole I days and watched the traders doing their business. and saw the whole painful tediousness of the transaction. tion.BAKTEKING IW TIBET.

I could not help pitying the little innocent thing. had had my own experiences in these matters in my younger days. of reverend qualities. I said to myself : . rather is it quite usual for women to cherish vain thoughts. had conceived a passion for me.CHAPTER I XXVIII. and Ari in Chinese. She was not beautiful. When occasion allowed. and which follow them into eternity as These things the price they pay for momentary pleasures. with few or no restraints on her romantic fancies. The moment the thought dawned on me. : . she must have thought it a grand thing to be able to go back to her folk with a bride-groom of whom all spoke so well. not only to the girl but to the whole party." I at once set about raising. was still ill already referred had come who. which was lione other than the teaching of our common Buddhism. her the horrors of hell that sinners create for themselves even in this world. a barrier between us. I explained to her all about the vows with which all true I depicted to priests bind themselves and why they do so. But I. though not old. " It may be it is nothing uncommon. includes Ladak and Khunu. Among them was a young damsel was not difficult to perceive. Here I may stop to observe that the country through which we were travelling is called Ngari hi Tibetan and The region is an extensive one. it to of the party of pilgrims I have appeared that some of the party form a rather high opinion of me as a person the company It to. She must have heard her elders talking well of me. and have taken a fancy to me. For I taught. and yet not ugly a comely little thing was she. maiden of nineteen. A Himalayan Romance. and I was able to conquer temptations. A all that.

Purang post of great religious also forms a mid-Himalayan importance as a sacred spot for Buddhist pilgrims. or rather boasted. of Avhich mentio]i has been made more than once. though hicated rather to the south. of —those possession of three Buddhist of images of great renown Mahasattvas Manjushri. . its The town boasts. is its Purang.A ITIMALAYAN ROMANCE. the Mvich as of I image wished to to out and destroyed two of Manjushri alone being saved. According to tradition these were brought thither from Ceylon in olden times. I was apprehensive many dangers my impersonation if I went thither. Unfortunately about six months prior to my arrival in N'gari the Bodhisattva a big fire broke of these idols. 151 RELIGION V. Avalokiteshvara and Yajrapani. LOVE. visit Purang. central mart and enjoys great prosjDCi-ity.

west and looking over the lake. steadily going north-west instead of towards Lhasa. Several days afterwards . yaks' tails. The Tibetan articles offered for sale here were wool. I was just in good time to see brisk transactions going on. I saw islands spread out on its surface like the legs of a gotoku. leaving me behind. and the like. each step I walked brought me nearer to the main road into Tibet. I had hitherto been proceeding in an exactly opposite direction to it. or tripod. My we arrived at a barter port called Gya-nima it was the 17th of August. I saw no less than one hundred and fifty white tents covering the otherwise barren wilderness. and I spent the days of their absence in Joining them again on their return. I stayed over night and spent the whole of the next day at the fair. At G-ya-nima barter is carried on only for two months in the year. however. while the purchases consisted of about the same category of goods as I gave when speaking of the Mabcha Khanbab mart.— ]52 as THKKK YiSARS IN Tibetan gate. that is to say from the 15th of July to the loth of September. coming out in due time to the north of Lake Lakgal. So far as reaching my destination was concerned. We next took our Facing way along the lake towards the north-west. 1900. and some five or six hundred people rushing about to sell and buy in their own fashion. In Grya-karkg — . The traders chiefly come from the Indian part of the Himalaya mountains and meet their Tibetan customers there. TIBJCT. So I gave them the name of G-otoku jimu. the Grovernment maintains there a chal- lenge companions went there. I continued my travels westwards. butter. as also to its capital. north-western On the day following we went back to Grya-karko. making a few small purchases. another barter port. the capital of Tibet. Grya-nima was the most point I reached in my Tibetan journey. But from that point G-ya-nima onwards. or Tripod islands. religious meditation.

When I told him that I was a Chinaman.to say "There you have me. I found out that he had conjectured that I \vas engaged in exploring Tibet at the behest of the British Government. Then he brought in a man who claimed to understand Chinese. and I felt much re-assured when I found that he could not speak Chinese so well as I had anticipated." I thought that these were very strange words to speak to' me. In return I wish you would do what you can to help my business when you go back to India. On interrogating him. trade being carried on even more \'igorou8ly than at Gya-ninia. The man looked at me and seemed . you can no doubt speak Chinese ? " I answered him boldly in the affirmative. I stayed for three or four days. never make myself inconvenient to you. Then I wrote a number of Chinese characters and wanted him to say if he knew them. let us talk in Tibetan. Gya-karko is a trading port for people coming from the north-west plains of Tibet on the one hand and the Hindus inhabiting the Indian Himalayas on the other. he said " If you are Chinese. but the moment I had entered his tent I at once saw that he took me for an English emissary. but as I had had a similar experience with Gya Lama in Nepal it took me no time to recover sufficient equanimity to answer him. who one spoke English." Then my host " Then you are indeed a was greatly astonished and said What can be better ? China is a vast country." Finally he broke into laughter : ' : and said: "I give up. I was not a little embarrassed at this turn of affairs. Among them was one from Milum. who are allowed by the Tibetan Government to come as far as this place. Chinaman : ! SO . This man invited me to dinner on the quiet. Here I saw many merchants from the towns and villages of the Himalayas. 153 Here there were about hundred and fifty tents.A HIMALAYAN ROMANCE. When left to ourselves he immediately addressed me thus I shall : "As I live under the government of your country. I accepted his invitation. so to say.

If there the interior of Tibet as far as G-ya-karko. It is wonderful how a little spark of . Well. * my native oountryj was any business to be done with China I wish you would kindly put me on the track . . inforiuing liim that I had pejietrated father. those born on a Friday being named Pasang. when once kindled. Dawa. The maiden was and spoke only of the good things she if I would only accompany her to She said her mother was a lady her native country. It would have been imprudent for me to write things in detail. Nyima. Rai Sarat Chandra JDas. My who is now living in is once in China. had been duly received by both To return to my romance. I thought it would be a good idea to ask him to take with him my letters and deliver them for me in India. A for after my return to Japan found that my Mr.154 THREE YEAES IN TIBET. burns up and fashions daring schemes and alluring pictures. but I scribbled just a few lines to my friend and teacher. The man proved the honest fellow I took him for I . His manner showed that he was in earnest. letters Ito.passion. my little Dawa proved herself to be an adept in the art of love-making. given to persons born on a Monday. and that he was a man to be trusted. and those on a Sunday. Hige and Mr. and I was much embarrassed to find that little Dawa for that was my little maiden's name had by no means given up her affection for me. besides asking him to post some letters for Japan which I enclosed. I may — — perhaps' mention here. Hige Tokujuso and Ito Ichiso few coins put into the hand of the Milum man secured a ready response to my request. So seeing that this man was going back to India. of Sakai. my would make mine. always at side. We were still staying at Grya-karko. though I shall have occasion to refer to the matter at greater length in another chapter. is a Tibetan name meaning moon. " and he gave me his address written in English. addressed to Mr.

lo5 that her father owned about one hundred and sixty yaks and four hundred sheep that . in height. therefore her family was very rich and their life one perpetual charhamj pfiitmd or round of pleasures. worked up and down. The motion of the piston transforms the mixture into a new beverage which the Tibetans call solclia. in is able to indulge in a perpetual symposium turns. 1 may perhaps explain that chachang pemma means drinking tea and intoxicants alternately. she . Only rich persons can enjoy" the luxury but the mass of Tibetans consider this to be the main object of life. then a piston. as may be imagined. and. But to return to my story Dawa never tired of telling : me that her family vras pros])erous . to fit I may call is with a disc large enough to obtain the cask exactly.witli a wife in world . and se on. is This pump-like of carried on hands and arms. by sheer force a thorough mixing action of the piston of the ingredients. requires a large amount of strength. and that in Tibet one is considered to have attained the highest pinnacle of happiness when he drinking. and that she had not yet come across a man to her heart.wasted on nie. By the way. that even it Lamas were really an ex- allowed to marry in her country cellent thing for every this that was Lama to live happily. save one. It is said that these people can tell whether the solcha. will prove good or bad by listening to the sound produced by the piston as it works up and down. the method of manu- — : facturing the butter-tea juice nearl}' is very curious first : butter. boiled into a of tea and salt are of thrown together feet cylindrical if tub so three it. Seeing that all her words were on]). of an exceedingly kind hctU't . that it would be ^^ise for me to do so. tea with butter in it and then a spirit brewed from wheat.A IliMALAYAN KOMANCE. Consequently chachang pemma is generally used in the sense of earthly beatitude. She added that she was their only daughter. or butter-tea. .

but her And I a common plaintive pleadings were there. When all had failed the daughtei'S of the King of Devils sang thus How like a tender graceful flower am I. I grant But yet 'Tis safe for in love-affairs being wiser grown. than said in that which mere sound and articulation can convey. mortal struggling on. The wise One was about to attain to the state of Absolute Perfection. that am I. happened. with me. The king of all that is evil was very much afraid of this. me to be more stupid still. to imply that I was an incorrigible fool. dearly loved." I composed an uta then : : it be so —a fool let You call me stupid . Wiles temptation now came thick and fast upon me but in such moments I happily remembered the triumph of seemed of : our Lord Shakyamuni at Buddhagaya. but even they were powerless to conquer the Lord. however. though I — strengthened myself by saying " Let me be. and that the girl and I remained alone in the tent.. ! 156 THBEJE YEAKS 151 I'lBEl'. that Dawa's father and brothers were out shopping one day. It is true that doors to their mind women never let but they know . their mouths be the a language unspoken^ which is far more telling. appealing and enticing. but in vain. With all the lovely fragrance of my mouth. but far from the gate of emancipation I could not but pity the poor little creature. : And its Am If melodious music soft and sweet I not mistress of all mirth and joys ? Even Heav'nly bliss is naught to him who lives In amorous dalliance. — So sang the Sirens. my Dawa had nevei' yet It so And many words what she yearned to say. thou rejectest me. The women tried all manner of allurements to secure the fall of the Enlightened One. My Dawa could not of course approach the charms of the arch-devil's daughters. and sent his three daughters to tempt him. She thought . there's none so dull And stupid in the world compared with thee.

my chance from me. he miracles. For in Tibet nothing possesses is suppos^ed to be too great for the Lama. is I said to the maiden . be so intent in the pursuit after ephemeral pleasures as to let her thoughts wander away from her dear. put as it was at a moment when she had allowed her mind to wander so far away from her dear mother. and I . that she should have become it into fear Nor was it e. I do not know how she is faring now. am neither a block of wood. goodmother.xtraordinary so affected.should have been supernatural if I had not felt the power of temptation. superhuman powers and can work . I have been excellent at your : on a pilgrimage with my father for one year and perhaps more. is your mother and yet you don't know how little maiden. This somewhat highly colored statecovild it be possible ? ment of mine seemed to cool down her passion and change to and apprehension. nor a piece of stone. her ? " Poor mind became disturbed. Moreover I remembered with awe the omnipresence of our Lord Buddha. Just then I was mending my I boots. so that she might be preserved. asking her to take the best care of herself.A HIMALAYAN ROMANCE. who claimed to be a good daughter. her. But to yield to such a folly would be against my own profession. : " I have no doubt that all home but do you know whether your mother is still living or dead ? " The question was unexpected and almost stunned her. My mother is a weak woman. She was just able to say "1 do not know whether my mother is living or dead. and I parted with her in tears." girl's Here was attention said of I . warned her. IS? probably that she could not get a better opportunity for her purposes and she tried to make the most of it. —a that ?" " only faring now now chance of diverting the you 3on't know you were telling me of " H'm ! the bliss your home. I almost scolded her. and she almost frightened me with her boldness. and was thus enabled to keep my heart under control. pleaded with She.

Farther on the marsh became deeper. I do not mean to say that my life was in any immediate danger then. I counselled Lama to my little Dawa. her with a good deal of earnestness. we retraced our steps for about three miles and forded. I had inspiring now become an aweAs such. once within the holy zone. generally earned me teaching. and this was very necessary. and. whether after a day of journeying or of begging. talks I knew of that religious always softened the heai'ts my companions. Here there were many merchants on their way to Gyanima and Gya-karko. and about ten three streams. I may add that the evening. the region we were going through was a" country sacred to Buddhism. I used to spend in preaching among my travelling companions. for there were numbers of people always about. even the most . and encamped for the night. and many were the tents thej' had pitched all round. and besides. Further on we found that the depth with my stick. in pursuance of the Buddha's A day's round. and on the 26th of August I started again with the As we travelled on in a north-easterly direction we came to a marshy plain interspersed with pools of water. While there I went on a begging tour amongst the tent occupants a practice which I put into execution whenever possible. I tried to probe pilgrims. its but the solid bottom was beyond that the marsh could not be mv reach. proceeded thence due east. as I might otherwise have been killed by them. and finally succeeded in subduing her passion and conquering the temptation. I had my own reasons for being — painstaking in these preachings. besides. Instead of an object of love. enough to carry me through the next day. We miles further on the marsh came to an end and we found ourselves among mountains. We prolonged our stay at Gya-karko for several days more. Knowing then waters flowing out of the marsh formed themselves into waded across them.158 THBBK YEABS IN TIBEl*.

That spring is fed by the waters of Lake Manasarovara that Hence it may be said with travel thither underground. Such were the reasons why I did so much preachings and fortunately my sermons were well received by my companions. It is the head-water of after westward into India. : equal truth that the river flows out of the lake. it seemed belief.A HIMALAYAN ROMANCE. forms the great Indus that emjaties itself into the Arabian Sea. 159 wicked would not dare to commit either robbery or murder. My companions volunteered to tell me that this river started from Lake Manasarovara. but the river has its source in a spring to be found under a great rock. We were of course all terribly thirsty yet to me the suffering was not half so great as that I had felt during the former distressing experiences already narrated. When I pointed out to them that the Lake Manasarovara was surrounded by English. and. " This was indeed an ingenious way of accounting for the popular But judging from the position of the river. This is the river called Sutlej in . they replied "True. On the 28th of August we travelled about twenty miles over an undulating country. and I had nothing to drink except a cup of tea which I took in the morning just before starting. •to me that it must take its origin on a higher level than that of to Lake Manasarovara and admit I was not (nor am 1 now) ready the correctness of the native contention. Towards the evening we came upon the upper course of the Langchen Khanbab. a river which flows meeting with the Sita. On arriving at the bank of the river we pitched our tents as . Throughout that distance we could not get a drop of water. east of the monastery named Chugo Gonpa (the monastery of the source of the river j. in a gorge on the north-western side of Mount Kailasa. mountains on all sides and had no outlet. But it was necessar}' for me to take precautions in anticipation of dangers that might befall me as soon as I should be out of this sacred region.

.footed into the bargain. The smouldering moxa had it§ effect on my legs. and the sight reminded me I noticed that the plain About a mile and a quarter name of which is identical with that of the one we had already crossed. I felt then more extremely swift.160 usual and THESE YEAES IN passed the night. and applied burning moxa to my benumbed limbs in order to recover their use. for Tibetans are strong and healthy. Having left our baggage. especially with half-frozen feet and that was why I told them not to wait for me. and on reaching the opposite banks I found that I had almost lost my power of So I told my companions to go on while I locomotion. with of our tea-plantations of Uji. On the following day. her father and another woman. There were two others running parallel and at a short distance from one another. further on we came to another stream. In fording the river was much benumbed. but originally Samskrt Pretapuri. after telling me that nothing could go wrong with me if I would only take the road in the direction they pointed out to me. we came upon a river flowing down from the north to the Langchen Khanbab. we saw large boulders of rock making a walled avenue for a distance of about 400 yards. Out of the rock region. As we proceeded westwards along the Langchen Khanbab. was thickly covered with low bushgrowths of some thorny family. we visited a sacred place of great fame in that neighborhood. when an extensive plain lay spread before our view. them in this respect. rested a few minutes. and I was no match. Both these rivers were loin-deep and exceedingly cold. four of us in all. the small I ice-blocks floating in them. Off they went. They are called Tokp)0 Rabsum. tents and other things with two men to take care of them. which in called in Tibetan means three friendly streams. TIBET. Reta-puri in Tibetan pronunciation. We forded one of them and went up a hill for about a hundred and twenty yards. I went on the journey thither with Dawa.

lilce a long train of railway cars. railway engine.A HIMALAYAN BOMANCE. The sight was a grand one. whose note the whistle of looking like a train before of those birds. me made nie think of the whistle The mani-steps in a and ! I felt as if I had arrived once more civilised countrj^ 2-1 . Thence I walked down stream along a river until the temple for which I was heading rose into view. alive. with its maai-steps of stone which looked. I should exactly add that like in that mighty range a of sky-reaching mountains is there lives a species of strange birds. at a distance. 161 and after an hour's rest I miles to a place where the plain proceeded westwards for five came to an end. Nor was this the oidy place where the mani steps could be found- Many of them are to be seen in the Himtilayas.

After Atisha had founded a temple. if Apart from these fancies. On the Road to Nature's Grand Mandala. for beyond I espied a I had entered main building and priests' cjuarters. The name is not inapplicable to the stones are very rare Tibetans. The Tibetans may indeed be regarded as devils that live on dung. must have presented a simihirly filthy appearance at the time of the visit of Atisha. and also what looked like a stone tower. thanks to theii- title of Preta-jDuri. in one of which I passed a night. which stands to this daj'. being undei' the belief that it has some meaning. My companion took to the lea.ve of nie after having completed his visit holy places. I took a frugal lunch in my lodging and then. called Reta-puri (town of hungry devils). several high Lamas resided in this place. for of stone buildings especially attracted my and costly on a Tibetan steppe. I really felt as a civilised region. containing four or five priests' residential (piarters. are rather proud holy of the name. as I said. It is. was the town just mentioned. under the guidance of one of the priests . a name which Paldan Atisha gave to the place when he ai'rived here from India on the work of evangelisation. being themost filthy race of all the people I have ever seen or heard 'Jliey of. founded most imposing Lamaserai. The ignorance of Saniskrt. The whole sight was really impressive.CHAPTEE XXIX. of the Dugpa sect. a \'ery magnificent establishment. The place. who therefore gave to the place the not inapprojjriate Tibetans. and a Lama a called G-yalwa Gottsang Pa. The presence attention.

drawn on a piece of that some crafty priests must have that the picture must picture of some priest and superstition to deter me. and so. and this fantastic story simple-minded folk of Tibet. It was of one storey. but I cannot here relate those revolting stories. have been afterwards tricked oat with piece of workmanship The engraving too was a clumsy and without even the destitute of any merit whatever.'ANU MANDALA. and was in this unlike most other Tibetan Laniaserais. . which are generally two or three storied. of the all I already knew the strange history founder of this Tibetan It the two images worshipped side nausea came over me. such as would startle e\'en the most the premises. Lobon's image was naturally inscribed on the rock when he came here and stood before it. founder of the Old Sect of Tibet. A curtain was hanging in front of the high altar. The most sacred relics in the temple were the images of Sludcj-amuni and Lobon Rinpoche (Padma Gliungne). for I had no such that their eyes might become blind. is fully believed in by the They would not dare to look straight at the image. To this Lobon are attached many strange legends and traditions. when I noticed by side. t6o temple. fear J gazed with careful and convinced myself scrutiny at the engraved image. was the fee for the privilege of looking at the relic behind it. if Buddha. degenerate of Japanese priests.ON THE ROAD TO NATDRe's of the GJ. for of a priest. and one tanka. Lobon was in and behaved practice a devil in the disguise as he had been born for the very purpose of corrupting and preventing the spread of the holy doctrines of Buddha. and so rock a suitable pigments. I paid the fee and found that the relic was nothing else than the image engraved on Tradition says that stone of that abominable Lobon. about sixpence. a sensation of was really blasphemy against sect. sallied out to visit all the holy objects on The main bviildiug was of stous and measured about eight yards by ten.

The chequered coloring was First there was the and looked like a rainbow or a tinted fog. if such a thing could exist. and some others purple. sight. not to Kholgyal is not to Mapham-yumtso. though the Tibetan priests may on their part reply that Japan is not much better in this respect than Tibet.l64 'rHMli: YEARS IN I'IBET. and others protruded over the river. It was a splendid sight. with the opposite Langchen Khanbab. beautiful. lous to regard the I felt sorry for image as a natural impression the sake of the Tibetan religion that such wicked impositions should be suffered to prevail. The nearer bank was equally abrupt and was full of queerly shaped rocks. bank steep and precipitous. Of whatever impious deeds the Lamas may be guilty. some yellow. The place indeed deserves this high honor. and unit doubtedly landscape. for some were sharp and angular. constitutes Let me describe here a one of nature's best. And the rocks were highly fantastic. still others green. There was a rock which .pped Kang Rinpoclie . such as might persuade the creduon a rock. This widely accepted in Tibet. essays in little of this enchanting river flowing towards the west. and each of those rocks bore a name given to it by the priests of the temple." This saying means that the completes is perform the sacred visit to circuit go ai-ound Lake around Lake only Kang Rinpoche one-half of the holy journey unless Reta-puri visited at the same time. slightest technical charm. the whole neighborhood was such as to inspire one with seems to be chaste thoughts and holy ideas. and with rocks piled up here and there. for the Tibetans have a saying " Not to visit Reta-puri is not to visit the to this effect : snow-ca. and that the visit to Lake Mapham-yumtso unless Kholgyal is (Manasarovara) visited at the will avail nothing same time. and that such frauds are riot unknown in Japan. others blue. some crimson.

them there were many hard some white. from a cavern known as the Divine Glrotto. aiid all about incrustations. which are believed to possess a high medicinal value. I returned quarters and passed the night in meditation. if not worse. Lobon Rinpoche. the north. temperature of that particular spring must have far exceeded 100° Fahrenheit. and so they must have. I lost Somehow river my way five in the plain. The visitors to the place are said to carry away pieces of this incrustation. I I ought to have reached in about three looked round and noticed to my surprise that had been travelling towards the north-east. had of not been that I was scandalised by the sight paid to the misguided veneration. indeed some was so hot The that I could hardly dip the tip of my finger into it. deepl)' impressed it have been of the by this unique grandeur of nature." another was called the "'J\vin Images of the saintly Prince and his Lady.165 was knovfn by the name of tlie " Devil Surrender Rock. if properly used. even the kind explanations of my cicerone jarred on my oars. Tiie water of all the springs was warm. As it was. About two hundred and fifty yards down the bank. The next morning I left the place. I had already walked which I hours and when I had not reached the hours." a third bore the name of "Tise Rock. toward^. several hot springs memory were gushing out from between the rocks. Three of them were rather large. while the other three were smaller. still others green or blue. others red. After having visited to all the places of interest. The water of the springs was quite transparent." a fourth " G-oddess of Mercy Rock." and a fifth "Kasyapa Buddha Tower." All these rocks were objects of veneration to the I should common people. instead of . and resumed my journey my toward the tent.

and feared last that I must have been carried away by the river and drowned. By that time the sun had begun to decline. and then our journey towards the sacred mountains began. we proceeded eastward and to the north-east of Lake Lake Manasarovara. I saw the daughter of the family coming out of the tent with some sheep. and I had had nothing to eat I afterwards heard that the people of the all that day. which I crossed. the following day at arrived the steppe lying Rakgal and north-west of slope formed by the gradual descent of the spurs of Tise toward Manasarovara.166 TII&EE YEAES IN TIBET. It was a . Proceeding briskly onward in the right direction I at reached a river. When I arrived at the tent. She was highly delighted to see me. That night we pitched our tent on that plain. and I was told that she was about to On go out in search for me. wear}^ with the walk and with hunger. tent began to be alarmed at my non-appearance.

was what was called and led me round a snowy peak circuit my resembling in shape a human image. them transpired that the pilgpims could not intention of perforin the pilgrimage in companyj for every one of declared his her performing as five days. even the women to get wished to go round twice. principal disciples of the the innermost route considerably more fore so. if the ordinary circuit —for there were three different routes— I Now measures about fifty perform in a day. The route indicated by a narrow track. but it was really a breakwas neck journey. and around the lesser elevations rising Those elevations were compared to the Pounder of -Buddhism. The pilgrims had to the up at midnight and the I to return tent at about eight in the evening. The middle route is more difiicult of accomplishment. many circuits as possible during a stay of four or miles. and they intended to undertake during the short staj^. myself made rather elaborate preparations. Wonders That evening or it of Nature's MandaJa. The route ^elected for the outermost circuit. The last is there- only for supernatural beings. even three circuits which was more than I could had wished to do as my com- panions had resolved. and he who accomplishes twenty-one circuits round the outermost route obtains permission from the Lamas of the four regai'ded as fit . and about that peak.• CHAPTER XXX. believed here to be that of Shakyamuni. after hav- ing performed arduous or journey. and started on the holy food on journey carrying I four five days' my back. for in several places the track went up to the summit of the central peak or to those of some of the elevations round it.

and it struck work of high technical merit for Tibet. is me as a . and behind them I saw temple.168 THKEB YEARS IN TIBET. has at each of I first visited its round which I undertook my four quarters a temple. The income. awaking in me pious thoughts. all goes to the Treasury of the Court of Bhutan. as enshrined in the made of a white lustrous stone. in whose jurisdiction are placed all the religious establishments at Tise. while huge boulders obstruct their j^assage in several places. concerning receipts of temples. The features are of the Tibetan type. Since therefore this route is veiy rarely attempted by it. Tliis temples. pil- grims. exceedingly interesting. circuit is to a large extent indicated by a more or less beaten track. coincidence This the between Japan is and Tibet. the donations from pious folk amounting to as much as ten thousand yen during the three months of the summer season. This anomaly seems to have originated from the fact that the priests of the Dugpa sect of Bhutan formerly reigned supreme at this seat of religion. I was told. These che "Four temples of KangRinpoNyenbo Rizon. At any rate such an income must be regarded as extraordinary for a temple situated in a remote part of Tibet. but is so steep and dangej-ous that ordinary persons hardly ever dare to try it. a very good investment in a worldly sense. which is the name of the temple standing at the western corner. Not unfrequeiitly pilgrims who boldly attempt this most perilous journey are killed by snow-slips. to go round the middle route. In front of the image are erected two ivory tusks about five feet high and very thick. for even in Japan temples dedicated to the Buddha Amitabha are the most popular and enjoy the largest share of <lonations. The image of the Buddha. outermost route. and looked mild and affable. The temple is dedicated to the Buddha Amitabha and I heard that it is four temples are called the ". Amitabha. quite marvellous tales are told about The circuit.


. and had been transported to some lieavenly place. well repaid the labor of I wished to embody my sentiments in a few the jonnu'y. and then left the temple. This one sight alone. gold is not found near this jDlace. the all round being really magnificent. also There ai'e to the a range of snow-capped peaks.170 THREE YEARS IN TIBET. order to receive as sacred objects the offering of the burning lamp. though it is the outrageous treatment to which these books are sometimes subjected bj^ impious priests. There arc rocks of great size towering far into the sky. for ally. to while a others dragon descending inilder and may be I felt as if I compared vv'hite sheet su. but they are not to be compared in grandeur with those on the right. the valley deserves this distinction. down in rapture at the siglit. but only seven Those seven waterfalls have each a are really lerge. but in shelves. scenery several fantastic distinct individuality. who do not scruple to tear out leaves and use them for various improper purjDOses.journe_y through Nature's Tabernacles. I took from the pile a bonk that related to the Buddlia Amitabha. left several falls and. The adjective 'golden' should not be taken in a literal ' sense. a hundred volumes of Tibetan Bncldliist works arranged on Those books were not there for reading. preferable to This use of Buddhist books is peculiar.spended over the rock. at which I had been gazing with extasy. read it. After worship. Rhetorichowever. the first object in which was the Gulden Valley'. So)ne shoot down \\itli great force and look not unlike the sat the fabulous look rock. There are quite a number of them. Then began ni). while beyond them peeps the snow-clad summit Tise. And from the crevices and of the peak of narrov/ grooves between those towering rocks shoot down several cascades as much as a thousand feet in height. I thought.

Avalokiteshvara and \'ajrapani-.y being about while the has was towards dusk that I reached this temple. from Bhutan. and I was allowed to lodge there for the night. It originated in a Gyrva (Jottsang Pa. he snid.ck against a rock. I spent a few pleasant hours with my host. on^.WONUliKS 01' NATUIIe's MANHALA. the high majestic snow-covered peak of Mount Tise. There I found another Lama monastery. which bore the quaint name of Ri Ra Pari (meaning. he arrived at this spot. and soon emerged on the northern section of the Tise group. representing the Buddha Shakyanmui. now in the temple. This Yak's Horn Temple ranks next to the first times. priests than latter the other. were the Bodhisattvas Manjushri. for I had told him that I made it a rule to dispense with the evening meal. Whilst he was going to the mountain. however. The priest who appeared to be the senior man in the place was very kind It faced to me and offered his own chamber for mj' use. went round this natural Mandala in order to find his way in the wilderness. the female yak concealed herself in a cavern. on tlie south from the temple. the three small snowy peaks before the mountain. in ancient temple there four. It in respect to pecuniary of income. It -was believed by the Lama that the female yak was a disguised form of the mother of the Buddha named Vajra. he . brought me a cup of tea with plenty of butter in it. It contains. he found a female yak which proceeded before him and led him on an untrodden path over the snows. 17l verses. a lai'ger number fifteen. but the iuspivatioii would not come. towards Mount Kailasa. and so I in-oceeded on iny way. After finishing his route round the Hoi}' Place. who pointed out to me. ' ' that once. ' ' 'The place ti-adition of the female yak's horn ' ). Mj' host told me that the view He of the moon from this chamber was quite enchanting. and accidentally one of her horns stru.

up to the eternal region beyond this world of woe The holy Founder tells us that the most sacred region in such lies in one's as I was. I took friendly leave of him. For instance. and surrounded by such soulsubduing phenomena. which was led by a guide. in the holy Texts. That night I had one of the pleasantest experiences I remember during my expedition to Tibet it was a pleasure of an elevating kind. that sounds to the ears of the zens of that blissful abode the voice of happy denisome one reading the Scriptures. known under the name of the 'Hill of Salvation'. in that still night and in that remote and : far-off place. my mind soared higher and higher. but I need not narrate here what he exjilained to me. and tlnen started on my journey on the back of the yak. but I. the soft breeze the branches of trees in paradise like is said to produce a pleasant note. then gave me a description in detail of other peaks. . I The next day table monastery stayed at the temple and spent the time The following day I left the hospiand resumed my journey.172 THkEE YEAKS IN TIBEl'. at the soft rays of the moon reflected on the crystal-like current that was flowing with a pleasant murstirring mur. felt elevated own pare mind. My mind was subdued and captivated as I looked. that they were listening to the till it flew and care. Just as. which included the surmounting of a steep hill. so considerate was he in his behavior to me. and moreover gave me some articles of food and various delicacies. with great enjoyment. he lent me a yak to curry me over the hill. so that sweet reflecting stream deluded my murmur of the moonenchanted ears into believing divine music of Buddhism Staying in that sacred place. My host seemed to have had some spiritual affinity with me in a past life. for the account of the range is given in most works treating of Tibet and its geography. sinful mortal and chastened when I found myself an environment.

Climbing- alone was no easy task. legs.WoNbEks OF nature's mandala. and was performing He must have been a his penance in a loud voice. I have quarrelled I have robbed husbands of their wives. As me taking rest that I noticed a burly fellow frantically confessing to and woi-shipping the snowy Tise. all those great sins I rei)ent. for the atmosphere in that elevated region is very rare and was highly tr^-ing to my lungs. but also to obtain immunity for any crimes he might commit in future. When I had ascended the hill for about five miles my respiration became very rapid and I was much exhausted. notorious figure even in that land of universal crime. a place notorious as being a haunt of brigands and highwaymen. I have taken a great deal that did nut belong to me. though I was riding on the yak. and their behavior more than e\a'v convinced me that a strong fanaticism characterises the people of that land. and I have also thrashed people. present and future I have been wicked in the past. commonly adopted as a penance. Of ever so many times. and refreshed myself by taking some medicine. I have murdered a number of all ! men. His extraordinary confession was something in this way: " O great Shakyamuni Saint Kang Einpoche ! ! Buddhas and Bodhisattvas in the ten quarters of the world and in the time past. with ferocious features and fierce eyes. It was while I was for I felt greatly fatigued. j\Iy guide informed me that that man was a native of Kham. even the sturdiest of ' and was one that strained and yet I noticed several young ' pilgrims of both sexes performing the journey according to the one-step-one-bow method. 173 On the hill I came across many Tibetan pilgrims intent on displaying their religious zeal and piety. I therefore rested for awhi'e. I was highly amused to find that this fellow was doingpenance not for his past offences alone. He really looked like a typical highwayman. and so I solemnly perform my .

the mansion of the — The it its immense cloud- Wealth that crystal abode I nmsed furthermore that a mammon-worshipper will certainly one day explore that shining region. ma)' rob people of their goods and wives. I have been absolved sins. and of the Savior. 'and surpassed other sinners by performing a prospective repentance instead of. from those I also spective sins. right a snowy range of the northern pai'ts of Mount Kailasa. Our path next lay over a hill known as the hill of meaning the Pass of the Mother of the Dolma-la. or thrash and beat them.300 feet above seen. indeed dues not appear lower in height than the top of Tise itself. was decidedly original in his conception of penance. I thought. named in Tibetan Gyalpo Norjingi Phoprang. On the crest of Dolma-la stands a natural stone image of the Mother of the Savior. the God of Wealth.174 THE-EE YEAES IN this hill for TIBE'I'. The spot is very famous to Indians also. the height of which is about 22. The air is therefore verv rarefied and the . These were guide as twenty-one images of the Mother This crest of the hill is very high. which means the "residence of King Kuvera". perform here penance for my proin futnre repeat them. On ascending the hill one sees to the the Savior. On the north-east of it a number of queer-shaped rocks and fantastic stones are to be of ? God — not really shining in the emerald sky " all looking like images. I believe that by this confession and repentance. I said in my fancy: "Is messenger. for I may even in described early this times in India the great jDoet Kalidasa magnificent mansion with views in his masterpiece of the Meyhatfuta Seeing it. confining himself to penitence for his past sins. Yet I was told that this convenient mode of repentance was universal in the robber district of Kham. their points explained by my sea-level. penance here on act of them." This fellow. as in the ordinary method. expecting to find a diamond mine.

says that legend. as they are too technical. at the hermit Jetsun Milaraspa. The guardian deities of the place then consulted how to provide against such accidents. can hardly expect to undertake this journey with so much ease. I thought that I should hardly have been able toperform the journey on foot. even though I did not walk on foot but rode on the yak. and that therefore I was deeply indebted to my host for lending me a yak to carry me over the series of hills. of the lungs lungs half as large as those of the Tibetans. lllven when I remained quiet I felt the effect of the high altitude. The descent is rather sharp. who do not possess fatigue. that Milaraspa is said to have led a . Near the foot of the hill I found a large pond which was entirely frozen over associated with an interesting legend. so I dismounted and trotted we reached the eastern jiart of Tise and arrived Zun-tul phuk. and it was uncomfortable sitting on the yak's back. but these I need not give here. and they decided that the — pond should be frozen over all the year around.ir m)^ heart beat rapidly and I suffered much pain.jDarticnlar extent from the effects rarefied atmosphere. fi. one of the founded by venerated saints in the Tibetan hagiology. 175 temperature rery low. I may say. which means the cave of miracles. Afterfor in those days it was not frozen in summer. In a pond ancient times. however.WONDEKS OF NATURE'S MANDALA. I felt very much exhausted. the Grod of Wealth and his family used the water of this pond to wash their hands. the baby slipped off her back into the water and was drowned. As she bent over to wash her hands. wards a woman pilgrim carrying a baby on her back came to the pond. As it was. the most last down At after the animal. The Tibetan pilgrims did not seem to suffer to an^. They possess capacious and can therefore climb any elevated hill without Of course ordinary people. Various interesting traditions are told about this saint.

or ancient religion of . highly austere only poet true tenets of Buddhism. and on the follow- ing day proceeded along the banks of the river Ham-huug(shoe-dropping river) and reached a place which called Gyang-tak-gonpa. me. a place sacred to the Bon. and that he did much to diffuse the He was also a great poet. This is. It is a business as well as a revenue centre for the whole took leave of and here the guide That night I performed my usual religious meditation. as I have mentioned tion. left On the following day our party the station. We advanced in the same direction the next day. The place is situated about one mile off the road and near by is a postal station named Darchen Tazam. life. the His epic. biography therefore reads like full a romance or a great Milaraspa being such a of sublime conceptions.176 THEEE YEARS IN TIBET. to the tefore. his name has attracted the attention of western explorers. translated. who figures in the long hi.story of Tibet. besides about a dozen tents pitched here and there. The station lies on a steppe between the north-western corner of Lake Manasarovara and the north-eastern district. I lodged at one of the houses. and on the morning of the following day my pilgrim companions rejoined me. unique personality in the history of Tibet. and told me that my translation enabled him to interpret something of the spirit of the great Tibetan epic. and proceeded in a south-easterly direc- west of Manasarovara. corner of Lake Lakgal. This station contains about thirty houses built of stone. till we reached the foot of a snowy peak named Bon-Ei. We gi-ohu stayed one night at that temple. and extracts from his poems have been and writer. I He was much delighted with the information which gave him. contained a temple is This temple dedicated to Dorje Karmo. the Goddess named White Vajra. After returning into his national to Darjeeling I explained his poems to a certain Russian traveller who translated them tongue.

On the following day we reached the brow of a hill. which was fried with butter and eaten with salt. It is said that this wild and even kill them. or wolf. resembles a large species of dog with rather thin fur. They large quantities of the fungus. When animal will attack solitary travellers the brothers brought down the animal their eyes gleamed with delight. I tasted it and found places were gathered by the collected it delicious.shment as seen from a distance. but one belonging to the New Sect. on good grounds. and without awakening their suspicion. They declared that they must resume their worldly business. and thought that I had better separate myself from them on some plau^sible pretext. and my male companions no longer considered themmen who had selves as pilgrims.WONDERS OF NATUEb's MANDALA. The changku. I therefore began to be afraid of them. 177 I saw a big temple iu the place. which I found to be not a temple belonging to that old religion. that the three brothers had now and then turned highwaymen and either robbed or murdered travellers. It looked a magnificent e. and projaosed to start by shooting deer. By that time we had left the limits of the sacred to face the stern reali- region.stabli. but as ties of the material world. which in summer turns a fine brownish color. as I had expected. This neighborhood produced various kinds of mushrooms. and some which were growing in damp women of the party. The ears are erect and the face appears ferocious. but we did not go near it. It seemed to me that their shooting not infrequently included extraordinary kinds of game. In winter the color is said to be a whitish grey. g3 . my presence shot an animal flesh or using The shooting was done merely its pleasure and not with the object of eating its skin. and I secretly thought that their eyes would show that same cruel gleam wlien they murdered a wealthy traveller. Tibet. and I suspected. and for there one of the brothers in called in Tibet ehangku.

and that we should express in our prayers an earnest desire to visit this sacred region again I in the future. he pointed to Lake Manasarovara. and soon reached its summit. situated to the west. and so we had to stay in the same place. I (the first When come of I thought that to visit this district Japanese who had ever from a remote country thousands miles away) was now about to take leave of Lake Manasarovara after having been in its neighborhood for several days. They must have hunted down some rabbits and made a meal of them. hi. Here the head of the family said that our pilgrimage must end at this spot. Proceeding eastwards. As we were going down the hill. all Saying followed this. and came back with their mouths stained with blood. The next day. The snow ceased. Septembei' 14tli. for this was the last point where we could have a full view of the Holy Place. snow again fell.CHAPTER XXXI. and also to the snow-capped peak of Manri that stood due south from the middle of the Lake. my host told me that as they had already departed from the Holy Place they should 'now earnestly engage themselves in their worldly pursuits. and we left the place on the following day. The hunting-dogs went out of their own accord on a rabbit-hunting expedition. and I stood gazing at the lake for some time. a peculiar sensation came over me.s he bowed down and and the rest example. An Ominous Outlook. we now came to a long undulating hill. and when asked why at this particular place. therefore they thought it time . and told me that we should here bid farewell and express our good wishes to the sacred region.

He must have seen. that I 179 little should leave tliein. say that her mother was j)robably dead. Dawa was saying that she had heard the Lama. Her aunt received this remark with a laugh. and as a mendicant I entered the encampment. for the aunt spoke in a loud voice. her husband would kill him. even at the risk of my life. that is myself. she continued. my However nothing occurred to me that day. the aunt continued.thirteen thither I wended my way to observe the the small connnnnity. but when my ears caught the word 'Lama' pronounced several times my curiosity was awakened. thought that if should death for having resisted a temptation. and the two women were outside engaged in some earnest talk. her the Lama told her. and condition of Mendicancy was well suited for satisfying my curiosity. disobey my death would be highly approved He would be displeased if I should conscience for the mere fear of death.AN OMINOUS OaTLOOK. It was evident that this last portion of the conversation was intended for my ears. encampment of some twelve or. the brothers occupied in shooting. I On the latter day was reading a Chinese Budclliist Text. and so she had been pressing him for some definite information. I resumed my reading. She must not mind what However. but the next moment I I recovered suffer my tranquillity. My companions remained in the same place that day and the next. husband had been telling her that he must make the Lama mai-ry Dawa. At first I did not pay any attention to what they were saying. that Dawa was in love with him. to ascertain this of the Lama. and that should he refuse. Internally praying for strength of mind to resist the temptation. and had therefore told her this fib in joke. nor the next^ . by the holy Founder. When I I heard that intimidatory warning I at first felt alarmed. We soon reached a tents. She wished. she said.

When she had concluded her story. the rest were in the tent. took all the mushrooms and a cup of baked flour. As soon as I did so. I had finished my I pilgrimage. I at once saw that the consjDiracy was developing.should rather thank to them .180 THREE YEAKS IN TIBET. Then she narrated what one of her uncles. Moreover. I took my seat tent . for " You seemed to be very fond of them. 1 told her with the greatest : composure that killed I by the brothers should be rather glad than afraid to be of her father. and I was not in the least afraid to die. hill. for she had heard something which filled her with fear. for so I hastening my for I de])arture to the plane of Bodhisattvas would pray reach that Happy Abode. even if 1 should be killed now by her father and uncles. Again I visited the place in the disguise of a mendicant brow of a. Some sjjiritual affinity must have brought me into the company of this girl. had nothing to desire in this world. I would not harbor any ill-will. I soon returned and found all Dawa alone in the gone out hunting. had said about his intention to force me to marry his niece. when we struck our tent and proceeded for about five miles close to the from which I saw at a short and I was told that this was another postal station called Tokchen Tazam. 1 . I continued. distance what appeared to be houses. I concluded that I must do my best to dissuade]] the girl fi'om pursuing the object of her misplaced affection. and that matters were growing quite critical. so it seemed to me that I was bound to administer an earnest expostulation. that is one of my male companions. so she told me. priest. them when 1 was enabled would tlierefore ask to be ." I she said thanked her for her kindness. So thinking. so that she might recover from her erring fancy. saying that she had something which she must tell me. I added. she brought me some mushrooms she had collected for me in the morning. The girl stopped me. and then set myself to read my books.

About four o'clock that afternoon the four returned. and therefore wanted nobody to meddle with her. •scolded girl's Dawa flirting with a man. 181 Tlie girl seemed surprised to find her revelation producing an effect quite the reverse of what she had expected. . and spoke some commonplaces about death and the pleasures of life. and at last she gave up the evidently useless task of persuading me. QUARREL BETWEEN BROTHERS. Of course I easily refuted them. killed that very evfuing.AK OMINOUS OUTLOOK. for as soon as they entered the tent. They must have listened for some time to the conversation between Dawa and myself. Upon the father at oirce took her side. much less an uncle who had never given her even so much as one bowl of Hour since she was born. She tried to remonstrate with me on what she considered a foolish resolution. and snappishly told his brother that his Dawa had a father to protect her. the most wicked for of the three brothers severely this.

One thing that troubled me was the lack of sheep to carry my effects. for each brother wanted to go his way. One accused the other of being a robber. and my whole frame shook with pain. The quarrel waxed hotter and fiercer. or even worse. The fellow struck my cheek with his bony knuckles with such force that I fell.so was also met with the recriminating to rob the Grovernment and acciisation of of her aunt. Presently the sun set and the quarrel too spent itself and the night passed without any further outbreak. the eldest with his wife. And this direction. hillj where I and by about sunset I reached the brow of a was obliged to bivouac in the open. remained a passive spectator of the rest of this for I had to lie prostrate from the pain. TJiie confusion i-n the tent had reached its climax. The wordy warfare at last developed into actual blows. so I jumped up and attempted to hold back the youngest brother as he was about to spring at Dawa's father. and hurl stones at each other. The next morning the party broke up. I had heard before that I must push on rapidly. brothers started for the north. as was also the case with me so we had to disperse. terrible scene. each for I . while I could see the others were retracing the road we had come along. and of having murdered men at such and such places. in order to off throw after the scent any of the brothers to rob who might come so 1 2)r<iceeded in me me. and was began having attempted having fled for fear of arrest. and the brothers to abuse each other and to divulge each other's crimes. and Dawa was beginning to cry and . and even began to I thought I must interfere. and separating myself from the rest proceeded in the south-easterly direction. the second with his daughter. and the third alone.l8^ TiiEiiE YEARS IN I'lB^l'. but I purposely took the south-easterly direction. At last I purchased two at six tanka each. and on . and the brothers exchanged fisticuifs. One of the his own destination.

I reached it. a snow-covered plain. and the blackish rocks scattered here and there . I felt safe. This was quite a welcome suggestion. The whole circumference is said to be about forty This lake is bounded by rocky hills on all miles. a little over half a Proceeding along the right side mile in circumference. for thej^ had with them a number of j-aks. where first remained that day and the next. and I left the inonastery with a far more cheerful heart than I had when proceeded in a south-easterly direction. as he was so -peevish and disconsolate at the loss of his partner. 183 The change was too sudden after having lived for so long in the tent. for I could hardly manage him now. of the pond. So once more I had travelling companions. and read a sell.AN OMINOUS OUTLOOK. The other had paid for him. especially as the men were kind enough to offer their services to carry my effects. We and soon came to a small sides. It happened that the party was travelUng in the same direction as myself. and I could not snatch even one wink of sleep during the night. time since and I spent most of my time in stitching my worn-out boots and clothes. On the following day. for I concluded that I was no longer in danger of being pursued by one of the murderous gang. I felt sorely grieved at his I saw only two priests in the temple. we next came to a lake which is very long from north-west to south-east. round pond. I of the name of Sha Chen Khangba. While I was staying in the monastery one of my sheep suddenly fell ill and died. and they proposed that I should go with them. but very narrow. to one of four traders who arrived at the monastery soon had reached it. suitable service for sheep I had to after I at half the price I him. To the four men I also gave the flesh of the dead sheep. [ For parted with the brothers and the troublesome woxnen. and they accepted it with thanks. death. a still reached the small monastery I continuing in the same direction.

where I had narrowly escaped drowning a short tinie . our left. as I heard from my fellow travellers. with the lake on. put in skin-bags and fastened it to ' the back of the yaks. ascended a small elevation close by the lake. we were night in to bivouac. not unlike companions informed me that the white thing was puto. especially in the crevices and I sheltered spots between the adjoining rocks. the pond corresponding to The snow-streaked rocks were not unlike a white fleece of cloud. I therefore passed the to say. it indeed such a break-back ascent that companions. I was lucky enough permission to ride on a yak's back. They told that the soda was to be mixed with tea. with a thin layer of snow. Here tent. and that the white spot indicated the site of a lake which produced natural soda. and looked down on it and also on the small pond. and finally reached the lower course of tlic river Chema Yung- We dung. From that height the serpentine lake looked jast like the fabulous dragon in the act of clutching a round gem. Our road laj' next day over a steep hill. the gem. was situated in the Kong- gyu district. so that they jjresented quite a pretty sight. in religious medi- my usual style.184 THREE YEARS IN partially TIBET. On white spot. the best expedient. that tation. and seemed it was be to trying even to the sturdy legs and lungs of my Tibetan to get As for myself. but I could not sleep on the snow-covered plain. then went on over several low undulating hills. for a sleepless night. slope of the hill Descending the opposite plain which. a lake at a distance. After proceeding about seventeen miles south-eaistwards. were covered. This lake is known by the name of Kong-gyu-i Tso. My When we reached the it lake my me companions eagerly collected the deposit. together we soon reached a this plain I noticed a with all the adjoining country. and so I could negotiate the ascent with no great difflculty. as we reached we had no is its extremitj'.

It was a moonless night. and legs so I was again thrown on my own wits and my own After having travelled for so for continuing my journey. but the sky was full of stars. I indeed could do so with perfect security. IBS As the seation was now well advanced. fit haunt for Gods. according to the districts which it traversed. The majestic so as to make its sharp outline perceptible. who were going to a destination different from mine.— AN OMINOUS OUTLOOK. and I should hardly have been able to make such good progress had it not been for the fact that I could ride every now and then on a yak. for I was carried on a yak's back. before. which threw their twinkling rays on the water of the river. appear In gorgeous splendors from the snowy height. begemmed flashes in countless sight. The Brahmajiutra His banks. and I did so found some tents by the as before on the yak's back. known in this region as Martsan-gi-chu or Kobei-chu.we reached the Brahmaputra. What distressed me most was bivouacking in the open. We where we were allowed to pass a night bank quite a cheering change after so many nights of bivouackof the river ing. 1 now had to travel . The lordly river was quite shallow and could be crossed without trouble. where sleep was out of the question in the cold autumn nights and on ground covered with snow. The vast range of the Himalayas was clearly silhouetted. many days 24 with the help of other people. We were travelling all these days at the rate of about twenty-five miles a day. After proceeding some twenty-five miles to the south-east. numbers decked. The following day I had to part from my companions. scene inspired With me with poetic fervor: Like to the Milky stars Way in Heaven on the at night. the rivef was much shallower and we were able to cross it with comparative ease. on the following day.

The load weighed heavilj'' on my back. so .186 THKEE YEARS IN TIBET. alone with nothing but effects. much exhausted At last I was move my limbs. my back on which to carry my my journey on the following day was a cheerless and fatiguing one. and and the time I occupied in taking rest was perhaps longer that I could hardly than that spent in actual progi-ess.

and asked him to carry my luggage When as far as he could without compromising his own con- venience. With that idea I boldly advanced They and soon came face to face with the three cavaliers. and promised willingly him suitable pay for his trouble. that helpless condition. rest While I was taking was fortunate enough a yak. They were fully armed. in Cheerless Prospect. and for this the highwaymen could have no use. for I made up my mind to surrender whatever things they wished to have out of my effects. and relieved my aching back of its load. I simply wished to keep niy life. but I was not at all afraid. so I was not cheered at the thought of meeting those three fellows. After travelling about three miles. my way. I observed three men coming towards us on horseback. they continued. the latter generally travelling with a pack-horse or a yak to carry their necessaries nor could they be merchants. I at once concluded that they must be highwaymen.CHAPTER A I XXXIT. according to the fashion of the country. and when 1 replied that I was Mount Kailasa they further asked me if had not seen some traders on were their friends. asked me whence I I returning from a visit tc came. and as they approached they looked like burly men. for evidently they were not pilgrims. The traders and they were search- ing for them. a lance and a sword. each with a gun. for they would travel . to see a Tibetan coming along my way leading sitting I he came to where I was greeted him. He consented. To encounter highwaymen is not quite agreeable under any circumstances. . wearing Tibetan huntingcaps. in a caravan. My companion came to the same conclusion and began to show signs of fear.

On the contrary they might olfer some if donation to such a priest.' and of course the direction I gave them was the one which I judged least likely to be frequented by traders. to find out the whereabouts of their friends. After having walked along a river bank for about eight miles we came to a tent which belonged to my companion. I was obliged to give them a 'direction. and then galloped the direction I indicated. donation. The highwaymen were highthanked me. for they said they They did not offer me any had nothing to all present to me now. if a donation coming from such quarters can be regarded as a legitimate profit. and as such they wished me to perform some divination ior sons. ly pleased at off in my divination.l88 THEEB YJSAES IN I replied that I TIBE'l). Now they wished . and relieved his anxiety by assuring him that my divination was a mere sham. however. Well. for I knew that high- waymen who were took after traders with rich goods would scorn the idea of robbing a poor Lama-priest such as they me to be. they asked him to undertake Highwaymen who do business on a large scale often prove a source of substantial profit to Lama-priests. had not met with any such permust be a Lama-priest. For my own part I was rather relieved when the three fellows disclosed their intention. placed under such peculiar circumstances. and was really intended to mislead them instead of giving them any probable" direction. in detail what had passed between the highwaymen and myself. find the traders in order to assault and despoil them. and asked me what I told him I was talking about with those dreadful men. the while My the companion had remained at a distance as a terrified spectator of this strange transaction between highwaymen and mjself. When they had galloped away he emerged from his hiding-place. divination for their sake. the When men then said that I the meaning of their request was quite clear to them. .

which obstructed my sight and blocked my progress. and then. It was a little detour. a part of goat's load on to the my back of his horse.A CHEBBLESS PEOSPECT. as. and I was wet the skin. On the following morning (that is^ on September 26th) I purchased a goat according to the advice of That night I stayed there give rest to my my host. So I followed them. not knowing what to do. as he bade me. I gratefully accepted the hospitable offer. transferred. but it would be dangerous (though not probably fatal. and I was at my wit's end. l89 and there were two slept in the or three others besides. of tent my guide^ and I also during the following day in order to fatigued limbs. The following morning my host left quite earlj^. As luck would have it. just at that moment I met with a horseman. and the people of the tenf and of four or five others. he said. My situation was growing more and more desjx^rate. for to was out of the question. but though I could not be certain of the had to as best I could. yet had occasion to talk with any of them. I was soon after overtaken by a fearful snowstorm. for one going to Lhasa to go with him to his tent. followed the horseman and soon reached his tent. leading the goat. He at once noticed the plight I was in and kindly offered me the hospitality of his tent. and trudged along the snow-covered ground in a 1 had not south-easterly direction for about fifteen miles. it with safety at night. I could not determine in which direction 1 should proceed. but I felt sure .the season was not yet far advanced) to pass that snowy night in the open the cold was too severe to expose oneself to right direction I move on stand . for the storm blinded my eyes and I had to lost my compass still . and packing my effects on the animal's back I left the place. . My Tibetan garment i\as completely drenched. broke up their camii and moved on in the direction in whicli 1 also was to proceed for my journey towards Lhasa.

was insulting her by trying to force hospitaliWhy had I not tried other tents inhabited by men. and why should I be so importunate with her alone ? I was insulting her because she was a woman. The old woman was not softened at all were all in vain. and set up their tents. she added. so I begged them they were an old dame aud her daughter for permission to sleejD in their tent. When saying that ty from her. All that while I was watching the people at work. she made as though she would strike me. with which she was scraping together the kindled yak's dung. me to share theii* tent at night.— 190 THEEE YBAliS lU TIBET. and my earnest requests at the five or six other tents I at last came to the only remaining tent. me theii' hospitality. whether they were willing to receive me or not. on the ground that I should probably be frozen to death if I were to stay outside in the snow on that cold night. I added that 1 might repay their kindness with a suitable present of money. for me to sleep side among off the snow-covered In time the party made a scraped halt. Then I tried another tent. or gazing at the surrounding scenery. up in . I On the contrary she was angry with me. that was impossible hills. for they it and at must out- I thought. asked the people of the tent in which I had slept the preceding night for permission to enjoy a similar favor I was astonished to receive from them a blunt again. and raising aloft the Tibetan tongs. I tried to protest against this merciless treatment she stood an awful passion. and she insisted on my leaving her tent. thought that as this was my last chance I must somehow or other persuade the inmates to admit me. I When the tent-pitching was finished. and urged that they should take compassion on me. selected a suitable site for pitching their camp. that they would again extend to least allow see. the snow. success. and I — by my appeal. but with no better refusal.

while I had to lie down on tent. and that it would not be quite in vain if I read the Holy Texts for their salvation. it is very difficult to receive salvation from me. and she had been sent for me. remembered Buddha's words " For him who has no relationship to me. Of course this was merely my So whose love is universal. Presently she appeared a second time and. and that those motives should be rewarded with kindness. . with the kindest intentions. A Buddhist was held that evening. 1 thought. the fact that I had asked them for a lodging might have ci'eated a certain relationship.CHAPTER No one would take XXXIII. There was something comical in the fact that my kind intentions should be taken for revengeful motives. I sat down on the ground and recited the Buddhist Text. I and quite at my wit's end. and therefore slept comfortably in their tents. said she. by means of which they might yet be saved. " These people were perfect strangers to me. At Death's Door. then hastily withdrew. looking at the four or five tents which appeared to be warm and cozy. But. This must not be done. duty as a follower of Buddha. said that she sujDposed I was conjuring evil spirits to punish her and her mother for their refusal to lodge me. me into liis was thus some dozen yards and. She and her mother had now agreed that they should entertain ine in their tent. and thankfully service accepted the gii-l's invitation. I retired to a distance of : the cold ground. After a while the girl whom I had lately asked for a lodging peeped from her tent and stared at me. approaching me. exposed to the severe winds. But I attributed all to the benevolence of Buddha.


showing his teeth. Quite unexpectedly. there is no use in hurrying. and say what you want. a rule among the ?5 . they should give their having taken all victim enough food for some three days. I replied. I was simple enough to think that they were natives of the place making a trip. the bed-clothes that were heavy. "Well. Tibet that. Let " * us see. " I gave them my purse. and a few other things that were useless to them. returned me the Scriptures. They also demanded to see my bag. however. of robbers they want. Thej^ did not understand what I said and exclaimed: "What "That "That is is that you have on your back?" food. " "Produce your silver first. 193 I left the tent very early. after ransacking it. sticks. and. As they did not seem like The following morning for walked south-east robbers. saying that they needed although neither could It is do without food. then. provided that the I thought I would latter read the Texts and ask for food." that sticking out on your breast ?" silver. "I had Buddhism". which was being carried on the goat. They it. They approached close to me and asked me what I had. I obeyed. I will give you all you want. I said : "You want something "Of course !" one of of me?" them said. Be calm. took. though they were armed.AT death's book. two men rushed out from behind a rock and stopped me." my my "What No seized is is sooner had the last answer been given. "You seem to have. and two miles and a half in a hilly district. than the men my robbers. and I understood at once that they were Promptly making up my mind what to do. all my I food.some valuables on your back.

follow this custom.said TIBET. which Mr. my right hand inwards. reciting the three Ref ages and Five Command- ments of Buddha. Still I had left eight Indian gold coins which I had kept close to my skin. the robbers had gathered together all that they had seized. and before I could look round. and which I did not wish to lose. and it was quite out of the question for me to give them chase. I held the pagoda over their heads and. but that as a layman could not keep it j)roperly. prayed the merit that of their sins might be extinguished by Dharma. and I replied that if they wanted it I would give it. that I pos. I stood up. for they paid no attention to me. or they had some business demanding urgent attendance.194 THREE YEAES IN . for But for some reason or other they climbed a mountain ahead of me. They ran over the mountains like hares. and before I had travelled eight miles it became dark. This was probably more than they expected. according to the Tibetan Perhaps my voice did not reach them. . My baggage having been greatly diminished. therefore.sked me to present to the Dalai Lama. I placed it all on my goat. Then and was going rations. and I cloth a silver pagoda. The night was spent as usual in bivouacking in a creyice between tlu' rocks. to ask of them a few days' on horseback put in an appearance far ahead. They would not even touch it. and went on with iny journey. Dhammapiila of India had a.sessed in my breast- containing relics of Buddha. when two itien turning custom. and made off in the opposite direction. but asked me to place it upon their heads with my benediction. The highit waymen at once wanted to know if I could not give to them. So saying. and did not come as far I called out tc^them and made signs by as where I was. they must expect some misfortune as a punishment for their sacrilege. It was a steep mountain pass. I produced the pagoda and invited them to open it. to ask the horsemen provisions. I thought.

19o to The following morning I wished take a north- easterly direction. clearing it of snow. and I walked and walked until the evening. and when I looked around. though I had no heavy baggage to carry. as to minimise the This. I walked some five miles in that direction. One meal a day would have been sufficient for me.AT death's dook. for I was entirely exhausted. instead of north-east. as I should have done. I communication think. but the me no small pain. As there is always a danger of being frozen dead when one is beset by a snow-storm in a vast plain. but met not a single human being. but having no compasSj. I took the absolute fasting gave precaution to hold with my breath. But I had to Avalk on and on. I thought the mountains ahead resembled the hilly district called Nahru-ye. Sustained by the hojje of finding some old acquaintances at Nahru-ye. for bivouacking in the snow. which I was delighted to see. eating a little snow from time to time to allay my hunger: . there was nothing but the snow. so air. and so thirsty that I ate the snow. The snow began to fall at three o'clock in the afternoon. I the outside according to the methods learned during is the best method soon fell my Buddhist training. morning but the i to a great weather saw the snow had was hue . so as to reach a certain post-town. I found the familiar Kyang-chu river. On waking fallen early next depth.I could not ascertain my bearings. and seem to have strayed off to the south-east and eventnslly due south. Proceeding further. where I had once been in the company of some herdsmen. I was exceedingly hungry. owing to my extreme hunger and thirst. I was almost despairing. But nowhere was there any human being to be seen. and asleep in the hollow. and I selected a hollow in the ground as my bed. Darkness and hunger compelled nie to stoja.

and the cold was extreme.a 196 I TiiEEE YEAJBS IN TIBEi. far aw&y from that place. I crossed the river about nine miles above the place where I had crossed it on the previous occasion. I broke and crossed the river. But slrmber Avas far from me. been a very easy task. MoreoA^er the snow recommenced falling in the evening. and walked due south. and when I lay down I felt the biting coldness of the snow the sun on the snow. the result of the strong glare of My eyes felt as if they would burst. but it did not sweat broke out all over me from found I the pain and cold. on my head. Then the baggage which was being carried by the goat got lost. and After many difficulties I reached injured by the ice-blocks the opposite bank. as sleeping amid the snow on the open field for several nights consecutively would so I mean the end of my life. was just freezing. in trying to calm myself. I had to give up my search and proceed further. The water had decreased to about one-fifth of its usual amount. I my body was becoming benumbed by the frost. I should reach the place where Alchu Lama I lived. keeping my eyes shut. and such things. pushed on until eight o'clock and had covered twenty miles. I rivetted my thoughts on Buddhism. T pressed the snow on lessen the pain in the least. and was fha^^ tried . drugs. so I decided upon travelling in that direction. A cold my eyes. shoes. when another trouble cropped up in the shape of terrible pain in the eyes. for I wished to reach a tent before night. but in vain. If the the crossing of the river would have it — I searched everywhere. but the thin ice entailed the danger to the traveller of being thrown into the deep current. chu thought that by travelling farther across the Kyangriver. and anointed them abundantly with the oil of cloves. It contained what the robbers had left carpet made of sheep-skin. and I could not remain quiet. and. and He never wandered might find him there . and the ice with ice my sticks had been thick.

and was so be. The next day. The effusion soothed iny heart. and at last reach safety. to my great joy. death was far from my thoughts. asking me what I was doing in such a desei't of snow. I was inspired with an uta. Soon he was beside me. 197 doing iny best to keep down the pain. however. At this juncture a horseman put in an appearance far ahead. Fortunately I sustained no injury. and yet the pain of keeping them open. I wished to shout but could not. and I told him with uncommon difficulty that I had been robbed ceased. my bed is snow. and the weakness of my legs. when. pain of . I strained vny eyes. at about six in the morning I decided to proceed on my journey. the pain in my eyes. galloped towards me. The horseman.: AT death's dooe. having apparently observed me. which runs Upon these plains of snow. The snow had and the sun was shining brightly. full of pain. feeling that I was fated to die. and thus made out that it was a horseman. to the increased my eyes. Intellectually. quite unexpectedly. however. owing to the softness of the snow and the lightness of my body. though with terrible pain. and 1 felt more than . and sat down in the snow. My pillow. There was a time. wherever I inight I had had no food for nearly four days. I could not walk with my eyes shut. the eifort seemed to choke me. I thought I could walk on and on. this my snowy journey. October 1. weak that the smallest stone lying in the snow would bring me down. was more than I could bear. and it was only after enormous exertion that I squeezed out two feeble shouts and wildly gesticulated. 1900. however slightly. Were there only some means of getting rid of my bodily pains. I stood up at once and signalled him to approach. And ever thankful for the beauty of the Japanese language. when I got quite exasperated by hunger. I was so overcome by it that I would from time to time fall down. snow my food also the same.

before I reached the tent. for they had to pull down the tents and pack . There was no medicine. galloped away in that direction. made of cream and brown en route. saying that he was in hurry. But it was some time before they could start. but I and fell down. and ate snow. His parents congratulated me on my narrow escape from death. being pilgrims. and that his parents and others were staying beside the mountain ahead sugar. Though he was provided with extra provisions. The next morning. The pain in my eyes was no better. and. I also had to proceed on my journey. owing to the pain 1 felt in my eyes. and I did not little The distance was only a do not remember how often I stumbled till past eleven o'clock. but I took a little milk after a very modest repast. northern steppes of Tibet. were intending to move on day by day. and the best I could do was to cool them with snow. therefore. In spite of the fine bed with which I was accommodated I could not sleep that night. had lost what remained to m« and had had nothing to eat for over three or four days. These peoj)le. More thaii three hours were occupied on the journey. and that I should be able to obtain some accommoda- tion there. He was a young man. he said. above two miles. reach the tent I did not take much of the food. most of my baggage.198 of I'HEEE YEARS IN TIJBET. for fear that the sudden repletion might injure me. He therefore advised me to come to his tent. which consisted of boiled rice covered with butter. and accompanied by sugar and raisins. when the young man came out to welcome me. His reply was that he was a pilgrim. I then enquired of him if I could not find a lodging hereabouts. he would give me only some sweetmeats. and rested. esteemed as a rare delicacy in the 1 swallowed down the food which he gave me so hurriedly that I did not even taste it. full of sympathy. and entertained me with the best sort of Tibetan food. a food which is of us.

support of the sticks. and attempted It was impossible for me to stand up. But as it was equally impossible that I should lie down there for ever. to rise. driving back the animals. Though wondering at heart. and if they did not know the whereabouts of Alchu Lama. while they* were busily engaged in packing had walked to the further end of a row of four or five tents. whom I thought to be in that vicinity. Arriving at a place where there stood two tents. and they drove away the dogs with stones. They asked me if I was acquainted with Alchu Lama. The next moment another dog fastened his teeth on my right leg. me perceived that these tents were smaller than those of Alchu Lama. I could not deal with these dogs so deftly as at other times. At first. and went out of doors. and I lay motionless until an aged dame brought me some medicine. and enquired at one of the tents for . barking loudly. when seven or eight ferocious Tibetan ' dogs attacked me. I I finished my tea therefore. I asked the people what they would advise to do. I dressed the wound with the medicine and bandaged it. But once I was obliged to close my eyes. which I held fast with my hands. and. being a physician. on being answered in the affirmative. which she said was a marvellous cure for such wounds. one of which broke under me and had to be thrown away. and immediately a dog behind me seized one of my sticks. their effects. which attacked me from all sides. But the blood flowed out abundantly from the wound. which brought several men on the scene. Handicapped as I was with the pain in my eyes. would be able to cure me alike I rose with the of the wound and of the eye-disease. I kept my eyes open and brandished my two sticks. 199 them on the yaks. and mounted on the horse. I uttered a feeble cry for help.AT death's door. but in vain. I alighted 1 from the horse. who he said. one of them volunteered to carry me on his horse to the tent of Alchu Lama. and threw me down.

Have you no one to take me to him?" " I have nothing to do with the Lama any more. Have I thus tasted now diiriiif>. the Lama's tents was not the I wanted somehow. But still there was a genuine pleasure in pushing on tlu^ough hardships. the snowy peak of Tise. He kindly dressed my wound with excellent drugs. leave him. and had very jjoor prospects of an easy life in the future. there is no man so wicked as he I intend to . nor can I take you. " Where is your Lama ? " I asked. and was speaking thi. I will direct the man who has brought you here to accompany you. hearing my voice. I had experienced enough of hardship. " He lives about two miles east of this place. which I obeyed. The Lama being out. said that to was the revered Lama who had made a pilgrimage. I was received by he returned home in the evening." " That is not good." said I. ." " I wish to find him. I when the wife. and after I had been given his domestics. I related my adventures to him and asked him for some medicine. Then we had a long talk. I rode to the Lama's tent. and gave When me purgatives. Thanks to his directions. About that time I composed a poem : All bitter hardships in this world of woo. But if you want to go there.this life Ifone will be left for me to suffer more. 1 was in a few days greatly relieved of the suffering both in my leg and eyes.s to that effect. and came out to see me. He also said that I should stay with him for at least a week. in order to recuperate.200 THREE YEARS IN TIBET. . the Lamaj and I was inforiTied that Lama's to reach tent. a repast. but that of his wife's father. saying that it was necessary for me to purge my body in order to prevent the diffusion throughout my system of poison which some of the dogs injected by their bites." "But why do you not yourself return to your own home?" " Oh.

and I had of compose many two which were as The spotless sky is bathed hi light serene lier all-tninquil By that cold moon with ray . As their repentance was sincere. and my bodily troubles were eyes so much relieved that I was able lliis to regale ice. Life Eternal (one of the three books of the Jodo but not found in the Tibetan Canon) the Lama expressed his desire to hear a lecture on it. so that it was advisable for the Lama to send for his wife to come back. couple were so I stayed I congratulated theln on their progress in virtue. This pleasant scene lires nae with memories sweet Of that dear mother-laud now far away. with them for some ten days. I said. when on the Five Vices. He sent two of his men for his wife. whereupon he explained the shortcomings of Both had their reasons. my lit with the magnificent view of the snow and lovely up by the serene moon-light. I consented to the request and expounded the discourse un the days following.AT death's door. the man ought to have magnanimity and to console his wife. nature caused occasion to follows : scenery of me to think of utas. the During deeply my lecture on this discourse moved to repentance for their sins that they wept and at times asked me to suspend the lecture. 201 One day I asked the Lama why he had sent his wife to her parents. The sermon in question treats of all imaginable vices and sins devised by mankind. But. 36 . my country. evening. and I could not say which was wrong. and made him yield to my proposal. which is I referred to the Discourse included in the Gospel of the Buddha Sect. I supported my advice by the doctrines of Buddhism. arranging them into five classes and explaining them in the most appropriate manner. returned to his tent the same his wife. who. The following day. after making some fuss.


2&A Hero on these lonely steppes the grass is dry. pi'ofound. No reeds.At death's dooe. no aatiunn flowers show their smiles . Enhancing thus the loneliness . On high the moon shines on these wilds alone.

When were about to withdraw. Such being the situation. covering a It distance thirteen in a short time. I spent some pleasant days here and was perfectly cured of my illness. but an Englishman. saying that I should take the road to Lhasa. the cave. held a service. I thought the rumor must have reached the effect that the . I thanking them for their kindness. at wait a time before we could see At eleven those all. saying he Lama who had made a pilgrimage to the snowy peak of Tise (this referred to me) was not a Chinaman. and a horse which carried my baggage and our presents to the holy man of the White Cave. the subject of which was not difficult to guess. Alchu Lama added that the ignorance of the masses. who was investigating the situation of affairs in Tibet. was before and we were ordered the priest. myself and three domestics. of rode south miles at full speed. including the Lama. who was engaged in deep meditation.CHAPTER XXXIV. the illustrious priest answering questions. who would take such a true lover of Buddhism as myself for a spy. his wife. I sat in front of the Lama. all on horseback. At the instance of Alchu Lama I decided to pay another visit to Gelong Rinpoche. Our party. for when I was at the tent of Alchu Lama I had heard it stated that rumors were persistently disseminated to the all me. and we parted. though he pretended to be one. eleven to when we reached for the cave. The Saint of the White Cave revisited. was incorrigible. Alchu Lama and his wife thereupon bade me farewell. who had assembled about thirty in officiating. the Lama detained had something to talk to me about. and receiving offerings.

I had prayed that on account of their having come across me. in spite of the overwii aiming hardships Avhich beset me ? I answered that I had no other object studies in than to save all beings by prosecuting my Buddhism. there was no use in invoking evil on their heads. I was at present free from that torture. Then he at once turned to my adventure with the robbers. Then you will not be able to . or saints. tliey might become true men. Thus I tried to parry his matter-of- fact question with a metaphysical answer. asking me whether I had hated those robbers during the time I was with them. But you will probably meet with many such robbers on your way to Lhasa. and I was glad that I could pay my debts." THE SAINT OF THE WHITE CAVE EEVISITED. in the next life I retorted with : if not in this. changing the subject of the conversation. as they had robbed me because I deserved to be robbed. Such being my thoughts. asked me if I had ever been troubled with love affairs. and. On the contrary. : The Lama at once said " Why do you want to save all beings ? " " Only because they are suffering from all sorts of pains. In repl}' I said that though I had once greatly suffered in that connexion. They may even kill you. and hoped to remain so. I myself rather was hateful." " Then you have all beings in view ? " an equally idealistic answer " Having no Ego. for the purpose of revenging myself on them. who had committed the sins which made me deserve the misfortune. and whether I had not cursed them after our parting. The Lama then said : "All your words are rightly said. I replied that there was no use in hating them. how can I have all beings in view ? The priest smiled. me something in asked me a most Presently the priest : matter-of-fact question what was my object in proceeding to Lhasa. ears of the 205 to toll good man^ who was in consequence going reference to it.

If. but I replied "Really? But I do not know my death." This he said suggestively. I believe you will certainly be killed on the way. and then suddenly changed the conversation.: you go on your way." " That curious. on the contrary. I shall take the momatain pass. Mighty 8ttn. : and continued in a solemn you may take any means. I Better return to Nepjil. tone " In order to attain your object. Your journey to Lhasa is not your only object. referring to the Mani." The Lama medituted for a while in deep silence." 206 THREE YEAES lit TIBET. from Lo to Nepal. ! : attainment of the object of my life. and I fail to concur in your opinion that any means is justifiable by its end. risks. and There is a good road betake yourself back to Nepal. much less my birth. has it that the means is the object. you go to Lhasa. You must go at once to Lo. or the sealed book of Tibet. and steer my way is to the capital of Tibet. you will die " His words were intimidating. you must leave for Nepal "I cannot commit myself to such an equivocal I replied argument. If you are sincere in saying that you want to save all beings. better accomplish your object of saving all beings." " Then what route will you take in youv journey and " As a matter of fact. know your You say and know that if . I believe that at the moment when I adopt honest means. I omit here . ! take the road exposed to fatal rash things. I have attained whither will you go " ? my object. than is my arrival at Lhasa. The practice of honest means being the object itself. The Grospel of the Buddha. meaning that the practice of honest means is identical with the attainment The fact that I enter Pai'adise is no more the of an object. that you should future fate. What I know is only to do what is honest. You had give up your intention of proceeding to Lhasa.

of . or fifteen yen in Japanese currency. I thought the mountain pass was full of the Lama's disciples. my way The following morning I was initiated in the mysteries Mani. it was much along farther on I should safer. I saw two tents and a man. and that I was a true seeker after Buddhism. evening. Then I proceeded north. would cast suspicious eyes on me. but not before he had promised to invest me the next morning with the mysterious power of the Maiil. During that night. that if the highway was a little longer than the bye-way. for I could not easily carry so much. and it was pretty heavy. there was no need for all my being troubled about that for everywhere find his disciples. with the object of reaching the highway and not as directed by the Lama. I asked him to reduce the amount of the presents. general readers. Grelong's cave. saying that money and provisions were my first necessaries. The whole of the presents were valued at perhaps sixty tankas. carrying my baggage on my back. for.THE SAINT OF THE WHITE CAVE REVISITED. for which I thanked him sincerely. in spite of their master. and I concluded. and he said wondered how the people of the neighborhood were able to invent such rumors. a big bag of baked iiour. and other articles required by travellers. I decided to take the highway to Lhasa. who when the}' saw the travelling bag. He was sincerely delighted with me and. and when I had walked another five miles. a lump of tea. who. gave me twenty tankas of Tibetan silver. So I accepted the presents and retired. and about noon the following day I left the Lama For about five miles I descended the hill. our dialogue on this subject. that he as it 207 is too technical for taken up with our religious talk that we were unconscious of the approach of the wei'e so We The Lama's suspicions were largely allayed. He said . would remember their master and carry the baggage for me. a copper pan.

dotted about with pools of various depths in which grass growing. neighborhood and for I I did know his face. Soon after I left the place. coming out from one of them and cordially greeting me. I again walked over the swampy plain The swampy plain in Tibet is in an easterly direction.208 THREE YEAES IN TIBET. The next morning I walked eastwards ten miles through a swampy plain. where the naan who had accompanied me put down my baggage and took his leave. for a second time. and then crossed the Brahmaputra. which I had crossed once on my way from the cave of the White Cliff to the snowy peak of Tise. accompanied by a man and two horses carrying my things. Walking through tJie damp place for is about ten miles. So I engaged the men required. I had previously been informed of the place . I spent the followingday in patching up my shirts. I did as he wished. I felt a little embarrassed. . The same evening I arrived in a place on the riverside. I travelled eight miles east along the bank of the Ngar Tsang-gi-chu. had wished to receive my benedicBeing informed of these facts. in consequence. evening. I enquired about the best road. kept by an old woman and her daughter. a large river flowing from the northern steppe^ of Tibet and into the Brahmaputra. and over a hilly pass which was five miles long. where I was met by Alchu Lama. but the water reached . and had the He told man of our blessed religious talk of the other night. I reached the Na-u Tsangbo. On October 16. but I followed him into his tent. way to reach the high- and was informed that I had to cross the Brahmaputra and that I needed a guide and a carrier in order to cross it. knew I had no acquaintances not I in that was rather surprised. apparently a wealthy grazier. tion. whose business it was to watch yaks straying about. had stayed the previous evening at the tent. On the farther bank of the river I found a tent of miserable appearance.where I could cross the river. During the The man.

1909. Happily. and not in the north-easterly direction. 209 my breast. The following day I steered my way due east. however. where I was lodged that night. I reached the opposite bank in safety.THE SAINT OF THE WHITE CAVE REVISITED. which would have led me to Toksum Tazam. and the current was rapid. and I should be able to locate my whereabouts exactly. The Tibetan high-road over river. which I must now describe. this side of On on the side nearer to the snowy round-about way to reach the high-road. was to travel along the highway. away by the the steppes has post-towns at intervals of four or five days' Toksum Tazam. I found a big tent. peak of Tise. The next day. which stood on the high-road. My invariable question was about the way to the high-road. sucked my feet deep down. Proceeding a little farther. I thought. so that. the 19th October. rather a journey from each other. 27 . there were times when I thought I should be swept Moreover the sandy mud which formed the river-bed. as I was carry- ing the heavy baggage on my back. and made walking very difficult. for this route was. The people there informed me that ten or twelve miles further to the north-east there was a post-town called Toksum Tazam. but I met with a serious accident. I again proceeded due east. there From this place I is a post-town called Satsan Tazam.


As soon as I got my body back into a vertical position (for I had fallen almost flat upon my . Some The wade flats. face). I laid the shorter of my sticks horizontally across the mud so as to give a resting place for my feet. Then I slowly moved my feet along the top of the horizontal stick.some shallow water. I managed in a few minute. so that my only course was to select what seeinsd tu bs part. I found myself momentarily sinking further and further into the mire. and then with the aid of the longer stick raised myself slowly until got both my feet upon it. so I begaii at once to cross it by making a bold plunge. swamp. ! . which had been freed from all I encLiuibrancos. and threw them on to the other side then I stripped off my clothes and threw them likewise. though I tried to save myself by means of my sticks. and thus. when tli'3 with my stick.CHAPTER XXXV. leaving myself exposed to the icy wind. I then took the bundles I was carrying one by one off my shoulders. as it was co\'ered with fine sand at the bottom of . thanks to the bghtness of my body. The bog at this place was not more than four j-ardi in width and did not look as if it could be deep. and. appeared be veiy deep. . But alas before I had gone two steps I had sunk deep into it. narrowest and to cross it as besfc I could. it easier days.s to reach tei-ra firma. and to a to I plain was nothing but a was obliged with to across shallow ])lace I streams alternating mud I tried At one came bog which. Then I commenced with the aid of my sticks to balance myself across the bog with as much care and as gingerly as though I had been balancing myself on a tight rope in my j'ounger days.

where there were no fcjrtresses for the molestation of travellers. When some years ago the Raja of Nepal presented the Dalai Lama with a carriage of European make. there is no grass to be except in the immediate environs of Lhasa. fetill. can be seen to this day. I was glad to be once more on the high-road. and it : was therefore it placed as a curiosity in the Palace at Lhasa. where four years ago. Another opinion. The word " high-road " suggests to the mind the idea of a macadamised thoroughfare.a 212 I THBBB YbIbs in TIBBI'. by either carriage or jinriksha. many of the Dalai Lama's advisers recommended him to return the gift. to a tent hospitality for the night. as one which could not possibly be used in Tibet. to be drawn by four horses. was shivering with cold when I got there. This was about Bad roads are universal in Tibet. the most advanced cities in the countrj'. bad as it was. In fact anything is called a high-way in Tibet. than a beaten track. prevailed it was urged that the carriage had been brought from a great distance and could not well be returned without impoliteness. except around Lhasa and Shigatze. where from grass. I fortunately found some pilgrims who gave me my wet clothes as best I could. One day. I reached a tent which was also a grog-shop — . but I was exceedingly jDroud of my acrobatic feat. but that is not what the The high-road was nothing more traveller finds in Tibet. and not too stony. however. It would be a mistake to suppose that carriages could be used on the high-road there is no road in Tibet capable of being used . after a long stretch of desert travelling. made my way where. along which men and beasts trod their way as best they could. if it is frequented by travellers. there are no high-roads. worn off. free In desert places. wringing out put them on again and which I saw near the high-road. and by which I might reasonably hope to reach Lhasa in due time. and.

to whom the dame introduced me as a venerable Lama. I travelled over twelve miles to the south- and a yak with one of the old lady's servants to guide me At the end of the journey to carry my luggage. wool. wheat. was ninety yards square and had a stone chapel annexed. five thousand One of his tents sheep. G-yal Bum was about seveuty-five years old. desirous of Gyal Bum is the second man in the province of Bomba. 213 somewhat strange oasis in the midst of a desert. There were two other tents. and the grog-shop was to remain here for about another month. and an enormous amount of wealth. and on it were placed large quantities of goods. They had no children. . and the like. But it became intelligible when I found that a large fair of salt. and his wife over eighty and blind. for I had made the acquaintance of the landlady sometime before at Tsarang. She had been wondering what had become of me and was very glad that fortune had guided my steps to her tent. barley. and cattle had recently been held in this locality and that the grog-shop had been opened in connexion with the fair by a man from Mondan in the province of Lo. we reached the house of a man named Gyal Bum. The goods were all concealed under Tibetan blankets. It was in this tent that I stayed. tShe was anxious to know if I were going to return to Tsarang. and she gave me such a kind reception that I should have hesitated to accept it from any but - herself. The liquor sold was a kind of beer made from barley. one of ordinary size. which served as weights to secure the tent. wool. The old dame Avas delighted to see me. I reached the tent about dusk. The bottom edge of tlie canvas of the large tent was turned inwards. and possesses two thousand j'aks. The next day east. and were mostly butter. and the hospitality.SOMK EASIEE iiAYS. to which I gave an evasive answer. the other veiy small and fitted up like a tea-house. and was delighted to find myself amongst friends.

they asked me to conduct a benedictory service for them during their life-time — request to which I gave consent the more readily. becomes The old couple asked me many questions about Buddhism. I should be unable to endure the severe rigors of a winter in those regions. of blood. the more I kept myself under control. The old gentleman pressed me. indeed. he said throat. my pale face quite alarmed my host. my One day while walking brought up and found I felt a that the rarity of the atmosphere (he did not call it . because I was much fatigued and wished to recuperate. to so I cold that I One lump clot incident will show that in my anxieties about my health were not groundless. and was glad to find that the bleeding soon ceased. Tibetan law does not permit the adoption of a child from Should a man die without children. but the excellent precepts of my religion enabled me to keep calm. having once begun. but this I declined. went on with such persistence that I began to fear consumption. his heir. another family. though not before I had brought up quite a pool of blood. his nearest relative. When I got home. Furthermore I was afraid that. to make a long stay of a year or more with him. however warmly I might be clad. and when I told him what had happened.a 214 THKE\ YEARS IN TIBET. and the more keenly I felt the pain of the bleeding. was obliged therefore to resist his importunities. I sat down on the grass and stopped my respiration. I was much alarmed. which I to be a and the bleeding. which I answered as kindly as I could. and still felt was sure I could not winter in the tent. as a general but not universal rule. as I feared running any risks in view of the many wild rumors about me that were being circulated throughout the Lo province. and as they had now no hopes except in a future life. as may be imagined. They thought the teaching was excellent. as though for a meditation. for I had already been obliged borrow two fur coats from my host.

and after going ten ri to the south-east. and I learned afterwards that SLich a tippet would cost twenty- yen when new. snow.000. which was already covered with ice and glittering in the dazzling sun. I took my departure. Lhasa is only 12. me any It is is good. reached the house of one Ajo-pu. but by the high-road. He was quite right. He fortunately knew of a very good remedy^ which he applied with great success. covering the shoulders. and when. a village headman. for was very thankful that I had stayed had I spat blood on the journey should have died. reached the banks of the Brahmaputra. its The yi is a sort of somewhat larger than an in Tibet. which vfould have taken me more to the east but Ajo-pu'had told me thata. and ten yen for an old one. The place Bomba is 15. cat that ordinar)' host's and fur much valued My present was a tipjDet of yi fur.t this season I should find no . 'rarity/ 215 he knew nothing) often had a upon Chinese visitors. though in a decreased quantity. I had not originally intended to go by this way. five also where with I I lodged. and no one spits blood on account of the rarity of the for of that similar effect atmosphere at this latter place.SOME EASIER DAYS. He gave me a quantity of butter and ten tankas of coin. and the old gentleman told me that after two such vomitings I should never be similarly troubled again. and thus relieved me of my feai's of a supposed consumption. G-yal I Bum. and sent his servant with a horse to put me well on my Thus I travelled some ten Japanese miles and journey. down a descent. which he said was the only thing that would do lives in the cat. a week later. even at Lhasa. 1900. My host kindly fed me up with milk and other nourishing food. I left Ajo-pu's house on the 29th October. henceforth I was free from these attacks.000 feet above the sea-level. he presented me with the fur of an animal called yi. Three days later I again brought up blood.

. pain in my hip-bone became unbearable. so I jumped off at last and resumed my journey on foot. and offered to take my baggage on one of his was glad to be thus relieved of my burden. a man of the name of G-yal-po. in shape like a man's clenched block- ed the valley. I had no Gyal-po's offer of a bare-backed horse. south. but then my legs began to hart me. threading our way among we came to a place where fist. three great rocks. and the next morning we all set off towards the south-east along yaks. after walking for fifteen miles towards the south-east. crossed a big mountain and came out on an We had travelled nearly twenty miles that day. and the next day. Through this defile the numerous rocks. Presently we cx*-ensive plain. Here the river made a sharp turn to the while our road lay through a valle}' to the southso we bid adieu to the Brahmaputra. I was told that evening that there was another river for me to cross before I got to Tadun-Tazam. and so after a weary walk of five miles I came to a narrow canon through which the river flowed. so that I thankfully accepted was very I am not a good but I trotted on bravely for a while. and after some four rl miles) we came to a plain of soft white sand which tiring to the feet. (ten was a sandy swampy country. This I did. until at last we went. east . and was hospitably received by its kind owner. It was very hard walking. but I consoled myself with thinking that. Then 1 changed my position and rode sideways. till the horseman. herdsmen along the high-road until I reached Tadun-Tazam. and near the close of it I separated from G-yal-po's party. Brahmaputra. while by the other road I should come across them freSure enoughj I found a tent on the banks of the quently. luggage to carry. like a lady. and that perils I as it was full of must hire a guide. at any rate.216 THEEE YBAKS IN TIBET. I the It river. He told me that he was starting the next day along the same route that 1 was taking.

and our feet were quite benjjmbed with cold by the time we had got across but we walked on for another eighteen miles. one of the most populous and wealthy in northern Tibet. It is iu fact not a temple but a town (Tazam). The guide was afraid that the ice. Twelve miles more brought us to Tadun. Tadun means the seven hairs. I started at nine o'clock and walked till a little past noon. We therefore took our lunch. November 1. which was not thick enough to bear us. The ice cut our legs in several places. when we crossed another icy rivulet. and then stopped for the . and in its enclosure is a revenue office. ' ?8 . which was still covered with ice. The next day. and on his advice we waited for the sun to melt it a little. would cut our legs if we attempted to wade through it. and at last about noon broke the ice and began to wade across. 217 arrived about ten o'clock at a river a hundred and twenty yards wide. The temple stands on the summit of a hill.' and the tradition is that the hair of seven Buddhas are interred here.SOME EASIER DAYS. night in a little tent. the most famous temple in northern Tibet.

but I had heard it stated that the place had very good liquor. my landlord to bring a large quantity him with drink of the best liquor I plied until four in the morning. But as soon as the landlord awoke at about half that the pa. feared even by the natives of the Himalayas. though it was evident that he intended to take the first opportunity to quarrel with me. The place was just sixty miles north of Tsarang in the province of Lo in the Himalayas.st five. I would treat him to the best to be obtained in the place if he did not object to coming . 1900. at the temple seeing its treasures and images. whole of November 2nd.CHAPTER XXXVI. to my room. but made believe to be drunk. when to my astonishment I was accosted by an old acquaintance. I was myself a teetotaller. and he fell asleep. When. On the present occasion it was clear that should I take no notice of him. Approaching him with a smile. i did not know this fact. I also rose andtoldhim man lying there was a dear friend of mine. War I spent the Against Suspicion. and this act of kindness of mine softened down his bitterness against me. and that . and after I had seen the treasures I was walking round the temple. While I was in Lo he used to accuse me of being a British spy. I also pretended to sleep. I added. however. a member of his family became sick I gave him medicines. Ordering He accepted my invitation at once. He was a notorious di-unkard and gambler. I said I was delighted to see an old acquaintance. t'did not take anything myself. he would denounce me to the Tibetan Government and obstruct the execution of my object so I decided upon a plan of campaign. and was frequented by merchants from the latter. After many glasses I got him dead drunk.

but would suspect my reasons for phing him with liquor. for the the highway to the south-east. but took the highway running to Lhasa. He would not only doubt the words of the landlord.sible ahead. and to allow me to run behind them. he was to be told that I had gone towards Tsarang. and asked him to tie my luggage on to one of the horses. for which trouble I would The man was a pay. my desire was in vain. It was a caravan of eighty or ninety horses and sixteen men. not of course go towards Tsar an g. I was hastening along deserted. I took his advice and summoned up all my courage to reach those hills. it would be all in vain for me to walk as I was What I wished with all my heart. even at the cost doing. and woidd inform the Tibetan revenue officials of my escape towards Lhasa. he advised me to push on. and set out I did on my journey at six o'clock. was to get a horse or to hire a man But the plain being absolutely to carry my luggage. Yet my fears were not quite man I had to deal with was noted for his shrewdness even among the Himfdayans. "With these orders I paid my bills. In the event of the mounted officials giving chase to me. and could not give me any definite answer. But as the party was stopping that night in a valley between the two hills which were vi. approached another man. If he should ask for ni}. I servant. I '219 would have bim treated with the best liquor whenever he awoke.WAR AdAIUST SUSHCION. who seemed to be the master and brought up the rear. with a similar petition. of all my money. I stopped one of them. He said that he was not able to comply with my request for the present. hard though the work might be. and that he was never to let him go out of the house. and wait there till some arrangements could be made. when a large body of horsemen came galloping up from behind. tijapcd the landlord liberally. pacified.whereabouts. At eight o'clock I reached the moantain slope anp .

The man who to go there was the Tsonghcm. if I could get them to carry my luggage advised me caravan. which I could not understand.220 found THREE YEARS iN TIBE'f. I learned then that he was the Lama of a temple called Lhuntubu-choe-ten in the province of Luto on the northwestern frontier of Tibet. and until I had satisfied him in this connexion he did not believe in my being a Chinaman. raisins. and had special care. The chief and second caravan seemed to be Lamas. studied the Buddhism while at grammar with had been fully instructed in Tibetan Tsarang by Dr. The rest of the party were either monks or servants. whence they brought home tea. and so our He then produced some conversation was held in Tibetan. Chinese characters and made me read and explain them. Buddhist pictures and images. . which he seemed to understand a little. silk. I told him that his Chinese was the Pekin dialect. and the second Lobsang Yanbel. The Lam^thereupon spoke to me in Chinese. so that not only was I . but I said 1 did not eat any meat and gave my reasons for not doing so. tea and meat. as I have already stated. and asked me where I had come from. white tents. The first Lama was named Lobsang Gendun. through this vast pastoral plain of Jangthang but djd not wish them to accompany me as far as Lhasa. They carried dried pears. GyHltsan. near to Ladak on the eastern border of Kashmir. I said I was a Chinese priest. and put before me questions about Tibetan I many Buddhism. woollen goods and other products of Kashmir to Lhasa. and a very convenient one for me. They were a very good company. or chief of the and acted as the business manager for these Lamas. Happilj-. The Lama was apparently two big interested by my explanation. the caravan chief of the They offered me itself having a religious appearance. I I The Lama interrogated me as to the kind of Buddhism had learned and the things I knew.

Without the help of scientific analysis. and seven or eight men went out to collect the mules and horses. harness the horses for their own use. The grooms had thus to catch and feed the horses.up their own especial charges. though without any insight. When I awoke at four the next morning the party were making tea on a fire of dry yak dung. and it will take at least one hour to bring them back. and at times three hours. I proceeded with the until explanation of the he proposed that I should accompany the party. for they knew that they would be well fed with beans as soon as they reached the tents and before The meal served to the caravan consisted beins: loaded. This was just what I was longing fee. strike the tents.day. which seems imnot possible for persons in many tilings on the subject that know. which he seemed to have been studying. and drivi. if I would consent to his request. subject. which had been left during the night to find pasture for themselves. for . rode. these Lamas these couiitries.War able to answer AGAiisisT SUSPICION. The latter was going to Lhasa for the purpose of prosecuting his studies. Presently' everybody was up. These animals often wander over the mountains. load them on tlie horses. he oif ered to pay me suitable fees and give me food during the journey. yaks and goats. chiefly of the flesh of sheep. But these horses did not try to get away from the men who went to fetch them. I even if he paid me no should have been glad to comijly with his wish. He was greatly surprised. one cannot fully A. Moreover. 22l but I the questions quite could did explain and asked me hundreds of questions in grammar. during which he wished to learn grammar. and occasionally pork. but that after that hour they always had plenty of leisure. and one walked. and was in . fifteen of whom. My companions were sixteen in number. and said that they rode two o'clock in the afternoon ever}.s understand the grammar. easily.

which. the fact that I had explained on a previous evening the Tibetan grammar. I was glad to have his company.a destitute condition. He was of grammar. nothing ences. and his suspicion speedily grew into conviction. and I.222 THEEB YEARS IN TIBET. I treated him with circumspection. after in some interesting conversation was held religious questions. company with the caravan simply for the reason that they came from the same province. After we had arrived at Lhasa On that day the night at a he fell into. scholar untrodden ground to him. such it was. was a worthless acquisition. or at least a European. which only fools would take the trouble to make. by request. was an Englishman. after having walked nearly twenty miles in all. I again walked in company with the pedantic monk. which unfortunately towards grew more violent as time progressed. on account of my complexion. But this occurred long afterwards. being then in happier circumstances. its effects. On the 5th. we passed over a large hill and spent swampy place. did all I could to help him. He aud I. of the essential jDrinciples he knew of Buddhism. nor but sectional differ- did he recognise the existence of any It as seemed as if he had only a vague notion the doctrines. but he vexed me greatly hy his evident animosity me. The cause of this animosity was. was of all opinion that the knowledge his manner disclosed his jealousj'. But as his questions did I he suspected that . as I learned afterwards. being pedestrians. A lecture on grammar was again given. took tea before the caravan packed place in a south-easterly direction. Dui-ing the journey. unaccompanied by that of true Buddhism. very of He high opinion of himself. thv connexion with Apparent- monk applied himself to the work of systematicidly investigating ly my personality. and left the My had a walking companion was a pedantic scholar. As though he was.

even by name. suddenly addressed me. and the sun was beautifully reflected on the surface of the river. who posed for a learned scholar. for if he had had the least suspicion of my escape. We travelled two miles and a half in an easterly direction and encamped on the slope of a hill. There I replied that I did not know him. Until we had come to the neighborhood of a town called Lharohe the caravan which I accompanied avoided stopping in towns. were three hundred millions of people in India. Then we crossed the river on horseback. leaving the river. We walked eastward along the bank for about seven miles. That night I felt for the first time safe from the man whom behind at Tadun. After we had the traversed the desert for five miles. enough to enable him to indulge himself in a good bout of drinking. 223 not soar above wTiat I had expected. The usual lessons in the Tibetan granmiar and Buddhism I had left over. which was now sixtyfive miles off. A post-town called Niuk-Tazam stood a little to the north on the river bank. and a thaw having set in at that time. and then. I was able to reply in a manner which dissipated his doubts.thorities of my presence. . That day I walked about twenty three miles. we found the water was flowing on smoothly. we again reached Brahmaputra. for the grass on which their horses fed was not to be found abundantly in such places. saying that having been in India. he would not have missed the opportunity for making money. walked in a north-easterly direction by an up-hill road along the Brahmaputra for another seven miles. The clashing sound of the blocks of ice was inspiriting.WAK AGAINST SUSPICION. the suspicious monk. but we did not visit it. I must have seen Sarat Chandra Das. he must always be unknown There was a great diiference between India and to some. and however famous a man might be. who explored Tibet. I felt that it had been most f orttinate that he had not awaked from his drunken sleep until it was too late for him to inform the au.

school babu' (school-master) The story Tibetans were killed. After this the monk added that as Sarat Cliandra Das was not to mention a renowned personage in India. The monk then narrated how Sarat Chandra Das. many other priests and laymen who were put to death and many others whose property was confiscated. for he goes by the . and I monk referred asked to hear something about the man the to. not to know him. all the Tibetans have become as suspicious as detectives. These words were spoken in a most off unpleasant manner. and the monk was one of the most cunning. and that such a big country as The stories India made such investigations hopeless. When that I too single word. are tales that Tibetan parents everywhere tell to who smuggled a foreigner into Tibet and and of those who concealed the fact from the their children. on eyery imaginuble point. had been executed. and exercise the greatest vigilance towards I was fully acquainted with these facts. I tried to laiigh exercised great away his questions. but I put him with a smile. how he had robbed Tibet of her Buddhism. . saying that I had never seen the face of the Qaeen of England. Grovernment and forfeited their property. who was so renowned. about Sarat Chandra Das are quite well known in Tibet. Owing to the discovery of the adventures of Sarat Chandra Das. caution oven in dropping a however innocent and empty that word might But the Tibetans were very cunning questioners be. it was impossible for ine Probably I pretended not to be acquainted with him. so foreigners. even children being familiar with them who know him by appellation of the of the ' his real but there are few name. with which he had returned to India. 224 Tibet. THEKE TEAKS IN TIBET. how on the discovery of the affair.. Sengchen Dorjechan. had cheated the Tibetan authorities with a passport. the greatest scholar and sage in Tibet. twenty-three j^earsago. he put other queries Other Tibetans who were .

in harassing me. I thought myself in danger.WAR AGAINST equally suspicious joined SUSPICION. from the six quarters of the universe namely: Hell. for the : ' ' ' purpose of connecting Tibetan religion with Buddhism. respectively. so when this subject was inti'oduced a most violent debate was started. They do not know that their country is called Tibet. Hunger. and to bide their time for vengeance. according to the tradition. the founder of the old religion of Tibet. This tradition was perhaps fabricated by some inventive Lama." meaning "black-hearted inquisitive. The . 'Poe' means in Tibetan 'to summon'. and with the view of changing the subjectof the conversation I turned the tables on them by asking them which they just as moment more. the Buddha or Lobon Rinpoche. There is a saying in " Padma Chungne is superior to Buddha/' Padma Tibet revered : Chungne meaning of " born from the Lotus/' the founder Lamaism. Poepa means Tibetans. 225 I felt for him the though I were besieged by an overwhelming force of the enemy. Thus the Tibetans called their country the summoned or Poe'. and the latter the in' ' ' carnate Yogini. The founders of that countrj^. who induced Te-u Tonmar to be her husband. Humanity and Heaven. whom they summoned into being. Asura (fighting demon). and they call their own country Poe'. The Mongols have a raying "Semnak Poepa. But it is a tradition which is believed by the natives. and no one questioned me any more about my personality. The word. But the incideiit was sufficient to put me on my guard. Animalism." Tibetans are extremely and one of their characteristics is to conceal their anger behind a smile. Tibetans. were a man of the name of Te-u Tonmar (red-faced monkey) and a woman named Tak Shimmo (stone she-devil). and one about which Tibetans are never tired of disputing. To them were born six sons. The former was the incarnate God of Mercy. This question is an old one.

name of Pretamany other names which deserve study. It is not known how they came to call Tibet Bodha. the. so that Pdepa means the Tibetans. the puri (town of hungry devils). Hindus do not call tlii. clear even from the fact that Paldan Atisha Tibet has invented. as I have already mentioned.226 THEEE YEAES IN TIBET.s country by the name of Tibet. is namely. but according to their scholars Poe is a contraction of Bodha. . one of the meanings of which is knowing' oi' idea'. They call it Bodha. The Hindus have another ' ' name This for Tibet. but which are too peculiar to be expounded. At all events the 'pa' of Poepa means men. country of 'Hungry Devils'.

The bridge the over the Chaksam does not now it name of the river of the iron bridge derived from the fact that exist but seems to have been was crossed by one of these . though which kind say. fastened to the rocks on either side. but an iron rope.CHAPTER XXXVII. we took our way to tlie south- and marched up and down several rolling hills. and came to a rivulet. It was no fine suspension bridge. hills. and there was nothing to relieve the eye. which lodged beside a swamp on the west of the castle. iron ropes. There were no regular much from . The river it was is more than I can had a tremendously rapid current. by which travellers crossed the river hand over hand. thickly . The scene was exceedingly dismal. We went on for some four miles. Across the Steppes. though it presents a certain martial aspect. For I heard that there is in the vicinity of Lhasa another iron bridge. and at the end of another We four miles arrived at a castle called Sakka Zong. I easily crossed it on my through a plain between the Then we had to tra^'el horse. which were generally bare and devoid of vegetation except when there was a swamp where grasses were seen growing. The style of its architec- that of a temple. and which gave the rfver its name. 6tlij 1900. strewn with blocks of ice but stands upon the summit of a ture differs not hill. which consists of two iron chains. by means of which one can very comfortably pass over the river. and arrived at the Chaksam Tsangbo (river of the iron bridge). On November east. till after walking more than twenty miles we reached the foot of a great snow-covered peak and lodged t'lere. On the 7th we again climbed up and down the spurs of the Himalayas for a distance of over five miles.

On the 9th we travelled for seventeen miles along the same lonely mountain-pass leading to the south-east. I was informed that it was what the Tibetans called a dongyak (wild yak). I was told that the year before last a tribe on the northern plain had made an attack on this locality. though it also has a revenue office in it. often inflicting fatal injuries. we had travelled eight miles. Once I ^-aw the dried and very large tongue of a young dongyak. This strange beast resembled a yak. take up arms. and reached a valley in which we observed an exceedingly large animal ahead of us. wci passed the southern fort.228 I'HEEE YEARS IN Tlfe^T. needed the people in that number. It is describ- men ed as graminivorous. and encamped for the night. Then we travelled five miles more in a south-easterly "direction. It was smaller than the elephant. On asking its name. which was being used as a brush for horses. Its horns measured twenty-five inches in circumference and five feet in Tliese measurements Mere taken afterwards at length. after The following day. on a snow-clad mountain called Chomo-Lhari. when it becomes angry it will attack or animals with its horns. and the evening was spent in my lecture on gramtroops stationed there. Its tongue is extremely rough and anything licked by the animal would be torn to pieces. When some two hundred in mar. but its eyes looked dangerous. vicinity. where I saw the horns of a wild yak. Nothing occurred worthy of mention. as were many succeeding evenings. . tliough there was no doubt that it was not an ordinary yak. The trouble' was still pending as a subject Thus the castle seems to be a fortification of litigation. That day we travelled some fifteen miles. against the attacks of roaming tribes. and it stood about seven feet high. Lhasa. with the result that the latter lost twenty or thirty men and about two thousand yaks. Its size was twice or three times that of the domesticated animal.

grass. on account of the aliundant . In order to pacify him. I said that nothing of the kind was going to take place that night. An honest fellow in the by my art of divination. 229 MEETING A FURIOUS WILD YAK. Tlie night was. a little party asked I me to.ACROSS The steppes. passed in safety or not. and again lodged near a swamp red swampy places for lodging. . spent without any accident. prophesy^ whether that night was to be thought he was afraid of the so. as may be guessed from the fact that the dongyak was quite at home there. and said that in the preceding year six merchants had been killed by robbers there. and wished to know whether robbers were coming. but the truth was not He pointed to a place below the slope. He was therefore going to keep watch that night. dongyak. however. The following day we travelled over the steppes for a distance of fifteen we always prefermiles. But the features of the place were anything but agreable.

It was about that time that a change for tlie better came over the relations between the pedantic monk and myself. and to was glad get rid of the fear that he might inform 18th. the Tibetan authoi'ities of his suspicions about me. On the 11th we travelled again for fifteen miles. and the night A was spent on the bank of the river.230 THREE YEAES IN TIBET. On the morrow we proceeded about seven and a half miles in a south-easterly direction. he seems to have thought that hostility could not be maintained without serious loss to himself. and walked seventeen miles eastwards.. so I reciprocated his kindness. something of urbanity being visible so their manners. He approached me with a kindlj' face. I was informed that the inhabitants of the town numbered about four hundred. we came out upon route. a plain. it would have been very ill-advised for me to . with the result I that our relations became perfectly smooth.steep we passed over two long slopes. and the night was spent at the foot of a and rugged mountain. gentle slope of along a river flowing between rocks. November . Proud as he was. about twelve miles was then accomplished. The following day. The people differed much from we in the nomadic population found in the Jangthang which had visited before. seven miles in length. A journey of about seven and a half miles oyer the plain brought us to a post-town called Gryato Tazam. While the nomads are rude and vulgar . which could not be repelled whatever his motives may have been. lodging again beside a swamp. quarrel with him. where I found a far greater number of stone buildings than at any other post-town I had visited en route. representing sixty families. which we crossed in an easterly direction. and on the 12th crossed a steep pass called Kur La. as the majority of the party had come to entertain a sincere love for and confidence in me. On the 15th we proceeded further to the south-east along the river-side When five miles were covered.

that. . dialect. to especially late at night. we proceeded further and reached a marsh lying to the east. at the end of which journey we found ourselves at a did not take lodgpost-town called Sang Sang Tazam. we resumed. where we decided to pass the night. As these rocks alone are 360 yards high. find ourselves We awoke in the morning completely frost-bound. journey. and belongs to one of the old schools of Lamaism.ACROSS THE STEPP15S. though of modified by the local After making some purchases in the town. and yet felt pretty We cold. which stood together and towered high into the sky. the inhabitants of Gyato Tazam have it is a more course refined tone in their language. The following day we made a journey of about twenty miles through a mountain district situated to the southeast. our Wending oar way about five miles into a mountain region. but encamped iipon a plain in the eastern suburb. we reached the bank of a stream. so that I felt no cold at all. where we made as big a fire as we could. the head priest of the party and a junior Lama were very hospitable towards me and provided me with bedding. 231 whenever they speak. ing in the town. Being the middle of November it was pretty cold. where we stopped for the night. The following day. they speak bluntly. Passing under the temple. lectures on Tibetan As I gave them grammar. without any regard to the persons addressed. but fortunately that. 'ihe temple is called the Sesum Gompa. which was burnt within the tent throughout the night. they went to the trouble of gathering a great mass of yak-dung. the entire height may well be imagined. further. my companions proved themselves so obliging on our arrival there. after proceeding a little less than fifteen miles over two long steep slopes. we found ourWe went about four miles selves on the edge of a plain. and found in the centre of the plain a temple standing upon two large pillar-like rocks.

first indeed I wondered. at sight.yet plateau.232 THESE YEARS IN TIBET. which may be rendered into English thus: How It is to see gTass dead. if it had not snowed during the night. Thereupon I produced a short ida. With frost. beautiful but blooming. upon a high .

Holy Texts Heading in a Slaughter-liouse. They were also in the habit. or near their tents. however. there being no fear decomposition. stood and . direction as before. so I was told. fifteen were despatched after our arrival there. hundred and fifty and invited me cruelty ! to witness the scene of the slaughter. and thirty-five yaks. in a south-easterly we proceeded about four miles. because they yielded excellent meat after their feast upon the rich summer grass. where there stood three buildings. It is the custom of the Tibetans. but of the whole village. to butcher cattle towards the latter part of autumn. Nor was that all. of butchering yaks on the premises. and in- is the best food in the world. animals in their own villages. I was told. owing to the cold climate of the country. now over hills and then across moorland. the slaughter is not carried out on behalf of a single The beasts individual or family. They told me that theories of the yak were very strange. I was told that autumn was the best time for killing cattle. Not frequently I heard people speak anxiously about their stocks of preserved meat in summer. dare not slaughter however. The Tibetans esteem claim that it this dried meat as quite a luxurj'.CHAPTER XXXVIII. Tibetans. A strange sensation came over me when I saw dozens of sheep's hides dangling from the eaves of these buildings. of I knowing something about the operations. of and diy the meat for preservation. and arrived at the base of a mountain. Of the latter. day we visited the place included two butchered on the sheep and goats. and the three buildings in question are used as a common Generally slaughter-house by neighboring inhabitants. it ? What how 30 could I bear to see Desirous.

and afterwards boiled down into a kind of food said to be very delicious. two men pushing the animal on from behind. miserably mistaken. When desirous to obtain this food. and read them for the doomed animal. . on whose head the book and a rosary were placed. The natives believe that this religious proceeding will enable the poor yak to enter into a new state of existence and also absolve the doer of the cruel deed from the evil consequences which might otherwise follow. but ran indoors. The scene was indeed unbearable. but afterwards found that I had been it. The natives handle a sharp knife so dexterously. that a single blow with cient to finish the deadly work. this is done by means of a gash made in the neck of the poor beast. Sadly and slowly a yak was watched tlie spectacle. thump ! something fell outside the doors alas the poor creature was beheaded. and tears were seen standing in its eyesj as if it were conscious of its impending death as soon as it found itself in the pool of blood left by its companions.234 THEEE YEAES IN TIBET. I then thought that the scene was the very extreme of cruelty. it is said to be suffi- The blood gushing forth from the body of the dead beast was received in a pail. but not to kill The blood taken in this way is said to yield much less delicious food than that obtained from the slaughtered animal. and I could no longer stand the ghastly spectacle. I hoped so. ! Presently. A flood of tears came into my eyes. but even the Holy Texts read by the priest were now too much for my endurance. I wished I had money enough to redeem Just then their lives. the legs of the poor creature were tied. wide enough to cause a flow of the blood. too. Holy Texts in hand. for I observed during my subsequent . conducted into the yard. the Tibetans often draw blood even from the bodies of living yaks. but I could see no help for it. As soon as the proper point was reached. a priest came in.

and appeared to be very . November 19th. On the 20th we made a journey of five miles. we had to proceed up a very steep slope about nine miles long. Leaving the scene of this tragedy.ed the bank of a river where we -encamped for the night. For the first time during my journey.HOLY TEXTS IN A SLAUGHTER-HOUSE. At the end of the latter distance we found a river. It was about twelve miles in circumference. I observed in this village patches of wheat-fields. at the end of which we found ourselves at a village called Larung. residence at 235 Lhasa that more than fifty thousand sheep. The next day. on the banks of which we passed the night. deep. we skirted the base of a mountain (upon which there stood a big temple of the Old School. But to return to my itinerary. . and then down another. dotted with cottages. which was situated on the western shore oE a lake bearing the name of Manuyui Tso. again in a mountain region. goats and yalcs were slaughtered tliere during the three months ending in December every year. called the Tasang Gompa) until we reach. seven and a half miles long.

to the cold season I could not observe the condi- wheat actually growing in the fields. however. The case is quite different with the mass of the people. and have learned to utilise the products of modern ingenuity from the West. A very curious story. it is a universal feature of the coun- I once suggested to a native farmer the advisability the pebbles. deposits of pebbles. was told me by a village pandit whom I could hardly credit. This testifies to the primitiveness of the methods of surprised at ' farming obtaining in Tibet. do not mean to speak ill of the Tibetans. but this curious neglect of cleaning the land try. but three bushels are passed as fair. is a fact. indeed. Tradition is to the Tibetans a heavenly dictate. which is apparent absurdity given below. was . with their rich cannot be termed cultivated land in I the proper sense of the word. in a way substantiating the foregoing statement. In the neighborhood of Lhasa four or five bushels are obtained from two pecks of seeds. but practices the reply was simply were not endorsed by tradition. The story. One cannot but be the ill-kept condition of the fields which. if the weather proves favorable.' CHAPTER XXXIX. and controls all social arrangements. entertain some- what more progressive ideas. but I learned at the above village that in that locality the wheat crop was considered ordinary when it was at the rate of two bushels from two pecks of seeds. The Third Metropolis Owing tion of the of Tibet. Those residing in more of removing such that civilised parts of the country. who are still laboring under n thousand and one forms of conservatism. because of the of his narrative. and unusually abundant when the rate reached three bushels.

proceeding for twelve miles along the edge of the lake mentioned above. so that was necessary . In Tibet. a very curious and primitive method is adopted with regard to the land-measuring which forms the. reached a spot where we passed the night. till we found ourselves again on the edge of a big lake. After a journey of sfeven and a half miles through the vale. which somewhat resemble the figure of the king of beasts. while it previous journey was for us to stop through Jangthang. to work upon a given area. as in other countries. by more than one citizen of Lhasa.I'HK THIfiD MJSTROPOLIS OF TIBET. After being entertained by the aforesaid scholar with many other intei-esting stories concerning the manners and customs of Tibet. the different plots of cultivated lands are classified as lands of half a day's tillage. our The fact -was that. where we took lodgings. In other words. taxes are assessed on cultivated fields. and water was very pure. quite to my surprise. as the case we left the village and. and then at another. to the necessity of altei'ing our travelling arrangements. The method consists in setting two yaks. but. 237 subsequently confirmed. as well as the conduct of native priests on. we passed into a valley commonly called the Senge Rung. We covered more than twenty-five miles that day. drawing a plough. as stated in a preceding chapter. as the Tibetans are practically strangers to mathematics. and assessed accordingly. or Lions' Vale. this forced journey being due called Nam Tso Groga. On November 21st we struggled on our way through a gorge extending over a distance of five miles. measured about twelve miles in Proceeding along the northern bank of the lake. or a day's tillage. the assessment being made according to the time taken in the tillage. we arrived at a village bearing the same name. and so may be. its It circumference. basis of the assessment. This name must have been derived from the surrounding rocks.

It now appeared it quite fathomless. There was. for only five days' journey thence to Shigatze. though ferry-boat service. re- sembling those we see used for the purpose in India. which in Tibet usually confor our animals. that fodder enough to into a feed a horse during a night often costs the traveller thirty sen. the city in Tibet. beans and a solution of butter are sometimes given to horses. we of found ourselves in the outskii-ts which is the third in importance Lharche. and we were told that the river-bed would become much wider in summer. a azure-blue. we could fairly claim that we had gone it is far into the interior of the forbidden country. In addition. so that the caravan trade in the interior of Tibet is at once ti-ying and expensive. so that we could not stop until we reached a village where we could secure sufficient fodder The fodder. and had capacity enough to accommodate When we thirty or forty persons and twenty horses. and graze our horses sufficiently^ we had now entered more peopled and cultivated part of the country. where pastures were few. There was no hope of negotiating the stream on horseback. Looking southward. however. and arrived again on the northern bank of the Brilhmaputra. it At this it place the river was not quite as was when we crossed on cmwaters way. The boat had in the middle of her stern a figure representing the head of a serpent. the second Tibetan cit}-. landed on the opposite bank of the river. The latter. On November 22nd we proceeded about twelve miles over a steep slope and across plains. full though in some cases half that sum will be sufficient. Once there. we could see a caravanserai erected by the Chinese. It is sjiaeious but unfurnished. no one . however.238 early THKBB YEARS IN TIBM. a rectangular flat-bottomed boat. sists of wheat and barley stalks and the stems of bean plants. extort such high prices. is generally purchased from inn-keepers. with its was only about two hundred yards wide.

November 23rd. Throughout the night they indulged themselves in a was enlivened by the attendance of several Dui'ing the next day. beans. as a grammar. taking the road leading to the grand Sakya monastery. A few of the party were to accompany me. When the date of my departure came.THE THIRD METEOPOLIS being in charge of native soldiers it. the senior fortable one. was not alone on my road. my personal effects together with their Lama and party Offered me the use of one of their horses. with the junior so that I Lama and a servant. for the Lama. 239 It serves the double purpose of traders aecOramo dating the Chinese on mai-ch. which testified to the . the soil which appeared to be very rich. decided to go with me. they were to proceed to Shigatze through Puntso-ling by the highway. the head Lama gave me ten tankas as a reward for my lectures on Tibetan gospel of Tloliehyo. which girls. It was thought very fortunate for us to have escaped from the dangers of robbers We and wild beasts which infested the north-Avestern regions. 01' TIBET. As for the men of the caravan. Of all the districts in Tibet. Lharohe can supply barley. while the themselves a certain rest of the party also collected sum of among money which they presented to me. so that my trip with them was a very com- We proceeded in a of five miles our of southerly direction. and for a distance way passed through wheat-fields. Besides kindly carrying own. and my to companions decided to celebrate the successful journey their hearts' content. and butter at the lowest possible prices. but as I was to part company with them on the 24th I read the mark of appreciation of the kindness accorded to me hy them throughout my journey with them. itinerant and the betook ourselves to the building for the night. carouse. which proved a jolly as well as a noisy one. I was still staying with the rest of our party at the caravanserai. wheat. We then set out.

painted white. going in a south-easterly direction. after a river for some eighteen miles. crowned with (the disc Sai-iho- doban (the victorious Standard of Buddhism). at least so far as the outward appearances were concerned. again traversed cultivated fields for about eleven miles. Over the walls. and rodai for spectacle was dew of nectar) of dazzling gold. two hundred feet from east to west. and two hundred and forty feet from south to north. by it with regard to agricultural products. The next day. . rose a dark-colored castle. twenty feet high and six feet thick. We then ascended a rapid slope for another five miles. and the main edifice alone measured sixty feet in height. All the structures were of stone. shaped.240 position held THREE YEARS IN TIBET. The sublime and impressive. which were bowcalled Rendah. which was surrounded by high stone walls of about two hundred and twenty yards square. and reached a hamlet we had proceeded along we saw before us the imposing monastery of Sakya.

31 Passing this . painted each about twenty-five feet high. The workmanship seemed even tive of Tibetan art. one blue and the other red. we saw of Entering the front hall.CHAPTBE We XL. seventy-eight feet standing on both sides statues Vajrapani. looking to the we saw on then the wall (which. was of stone over-laid with \vith mud and some lime-like substance) beautiful pictures of deities and saints. and proceeded to pay a visit to the celebrated monastery. to my lay eyes representa- the muscles. paved with stone. The front hall opens to an inner courtyard.each thirty feet high. Again. for instance. The Sakya Monastery. lodged at a iieighboriag inn which placed a cicerone at our service. but a closer examination showed that light was let in through a courtyard. thirty-six feet by thirty. in spite of its dimensions. while the right hand is raised towards the sky and the left one vigorously stretched downward. Groing through the front gate and past several smaller buildings. The structure as a whole is in good repair. standing on the right side. of the four heavenly kings. . Bach image has its right leg a little bent and the left one put forward. where the priests of the inferior orders gather to dine and to read the scriptures. There is no fissure visible in the pictured area. which covered a space twenty-four feet by twenty one. by forty-two. There are also images left. while the higher Lamas have the privilege of living inside the building. first we arrived the in front of of the main edifice. latter At sight interior the appeared to be completely enclosed. such as are seen on each side of the gate of every great -Japanese Temple. being very excellently moulded.

some candle-sticks and a table for oblations.. some written in gilded letters on dark blue-colored paper and others in Sainskrt on the leaves of the fan palm tree (Borassus flahellifurmis) all . The spectacle is a grand exhibition of Buddhist fine arts. 'Ihe and pillars are all covered with gold brocade. the chief feature of the but its effect is greatly impaired by the tasteless and excessive decorations. but put together covered with gold. more than three hundred in number. Sakya Pandit. and that they were all written. and the images. who sent their priests to that country for the purpose. is made of mud image are placed seven water-trays. we were of told. with the exception of a few articles made of silver. gold J ceilings the splendor was simply beyond description. and while wo were again looking round the . I was told that they liad a great number of them there. We left this chamber. In short. the room there stands a statue of Shakyamuni Buddha. however. In front this without much order. There are two entrances to this chamber^ the southern one being open to the priests and the northern one to the Once inside. and his successors. not printed. which is full of valuable collections of ancient Buddhist manuscripts. we entered the main cliamber (which faces where the images of Buddhist deities are placed. all of pare gold. greatly detracts from the impression produced by their intrinsic merits. The disorderly manner in which the images are arranged. thirty-five feet high. At feet the rear of this chamber there is another. With regard to the scriptures in the 'I'ibetan language. In the centre of are emblazoned with very iine gold. Many of these scriptures were brought of the way from India by the founder the temple. chamber consists in its splendor. we were lost in a sea of dazzling visitors.242 courtyard west) THREE TEAES IN TIBET. which. sixty high and two hundred and forty feet wide.

for it is made entirely of precious stones. but I declare myself emphatically to the contrary. The surrounding walls and the floor are also inlaid with gems. Strangely enough. Tibetans regard this smell as a sweet one. seated on a dais covered with two mats in one of the upper rooms. We had an interview ^vith this spiritual superior. On both sides of the main figures chamber we foand two more chambers where diiferent were also kept. 243 oiien. My above rising companions told me .si\-e main chamber smell is I was struck with a strong and subsequent experiences taught me. Of these images. Outside the main edifice^there are several dormitories where some five hundred men south is of the order live. and the priests are so careless as to throw away upon the floor the residue of tea and butter. Then Tinle. used in lighting putrefies.The sakya monasteey. We then retired and left the temple grounds. the one which especially attracted my attention was that of Padma Chungne. This is why the chamber is filled with such a sickening odor. I noticed several palatial buildings a far-ofl: willow plantation. I wanted to ask him a few questions with regard to the diiference between the Sakya doctrines and those of the other sects of Lamaism. 1 I which. -but he told me that he was busy then and asked me to come again the next day. as my wondered how to that time. which not only keeps the floor always wet but also up you may ask. standing to the the stately residence of the 'great instructor' of the temple. Chamba Pasang who looks after the spiritual education of five hundred souls. which are amazingly beautiful. who looked very saint-like. ! had been did insensible to such a stench it Where come from ? Well in Tibetan temples clarified butter is the lamps offered to Buddha. a curious feature of every monastery in Tibet. the founder of the old school of Lamaism.

was married. I therefore paid as would be due to a personage of has. very much suspected some such relation — which was afterwards confirmed during my sojourn at Lhasa. This being so. whom Tibetans as one of the two sacred beings of the world. however. that he is the descendant of is married. wine. and even drinks He In spite of these facts. buildings the temple. I could not think and yet suspicion I who was a genuine priest. not only the public at large but also priests salute him with the rite of 'three bows' which as laid is down by Buddha high priests a mark of reverence due only to and not to laymen. Koma is ' highest treasure Chinese Emperor and and Rinpoused only in the Abbot esteem of the Sakya Monastery. 1 was blamed by companions for my failure to give the Abbot the and when I told them the reason of the omission they were astonished at my rigid observance of The next day. the natives who are honored with an audience by the Abbot pay special respect to him. as that such a man. and when he gives them his blessing in return it is not infrequently accompanied by some presents. him only such respect were received by the Abbot. if he were his son. which He bespeaks his noble descent. to ' proceeded to pay our respects che means the addressing the • him. my 'three bows. when I called the Buddha's teachings. as do all the secular people. I found him playing with a hoy who was behaving toward him in a ' ' very familar way. . While we were returning to our lodgings.a 244 that of THREE YBAES IN these TIBE-f. takes meat for dinner. were the residence of the Abbot and we Sakya Koma Rinpoche. But in reality the Abbot is a laymauj tlie essential point of his excellence being Sakya Pandit himself. When we his rank. a verj^ dignified mien.' upon the great teacher at the appointed hour.

in one of which I lodged The next day I again ascended a steep for the night. I was obliged to take lodgings at the first first I At at least house I could find. when that night in a field south of the monastery. however. then turned to the south- and after proceeding fifteen miles further along the riverside. we reached a big monastery named Kang-chen and passed At first. we found a village where we stopped. Thus freed from encumbrances. . two and a half miles long. east. encamped in a neighboring meadov/. As was customary with them. 245 had intended to stay and study at the temple for two weeks. slope. to I fortunately met transport seven to place men who seemed be and were driving forty or fifty asses. The next or eight day. November 30th. with the It party. T left the town the next day. descended the Tharu river for five miles. On the first of December we proceeded along the river for about ten miles and then left it again for ten miles. where they unburdened their animals and surrounded themselves on all sides except one with the goods thus unloaded. turning eastwards. We lodged under the rock and on the following day we ascended Rangla for five miles and marched more than another five miles on tlie mountainous plains. The drivers. half miles the road gradually ascended along a mountain rivulet in a south-easterly direction and then. I. baggage got wet. we ascended the eastern mountain called Rangla with its perpendicular peaks of red ropk. agents. and as 1 was now separated from my companions For a distance of two and I had to carry my effects myself. but after this discovery I was now loath to remain with such a degenerate priest. and climbed down another As the day was snowy and my twice that length.THS SAKYA MONASTERY. . and I was glad my things in their charge. the men improvised a kind of fire-place. Proceeding ten miles further in a south-easterly direction and along the stream I found two dwellings. became a steep descent of five miles.

we set out together. " They cultivated fields. privilege held good in anj' year. " No. awe-inspiring predictions. " was their reply. and no one need enter- —a custom which did not obtain tain At night I preached to any fear of intruding. It "which were enjoying that any person their holidays" for this year. still under construction. when we found I'ising among the mountains a magnificent temple. so might choose them as roads. The latter had. On making enquiries I learned that the work had been undertaken by the Tibetan Government. " you need not bather yourself on that score. I was told. and that therefore any one whp is . a flood of water will be brought upon it and everything on the face of it destroyed. supported by a book of prophecies brought from China which is apparently the work of some priest with hidden I read the book and found it to be full of motives. that fatal calamities. that as wickedness obtains on the earth. In addition. it will ultimately burst out and Unfortunately this idea is deluge the whole country. for instance. will break out as a prelude to such a flood. that it is mouth of a monstrous dragon. 1 was told. declared that there exists the a spring just beneath the site of the building. and that unless a temple be erected over it. taking my drivers. which is acting under the advice of a soothsayer. it was winter. saw my drivers recklessly making their way through the them that we might be caught by the farmers. was a custom in this locality to raise the wheat-crop every other for the intervening year year. it is stated that the book had been sent from heaven.246 I THEEE YEARS IN TIBET. leaving the fields unemployed in Lhasa and the neighborMoreover. We proceeded seven and a half miles. I expressed my fear to explained to me that these fields were fallow ones. sucli as a great famine or war. and the next day an easterly direction. It states. when the hood.

but of course nothing extraordinary happened to me. .THE SAKYA MONASTERY. oracle-mongers ai'e held in high esteem. I decided to stay at this house. we proceeded and before we had gone far. SO 247 careless as to doubt its truth will be punished with immediate death. we found some five vultures (known among the natives by the name of Oha-goppo) perched on a hill-side. I declared that these prophecies were all false. in the neighborhood of which there stood a temple callpd the Nartang. not only by the Grovernment but also by the. On questioning my companions. who proceeded towards Shigatze. such as silence or abstinence Abstinence from flesh is considered an from meat. at a It is most surprising that sucli superstitions should have led the Government to begin a foolish undertaking But indeed. at an " abhouse" (Nyun ne Lhakhang in Tibetan). well meant. or other rules of abstinence ' ' forms of religious self-denial. used both by priests and laymen for observing the Eight enjoined by the Buddha. Passing under the above-mentioned temple further. but it is full it nonsensical But Tibetans believe in so firmly that translated copies are being circulated all over the country. I was told that there exists in Tibet a very curious and unpleasant custom of offering the corpses of dead men to vultures as a part of the funeral ceremony. the latter are always liungryj and that therefore they are granted an allowance of meat from the kitchen of a temple called the Tashi Lhunpo. general mass of the people. of The book may be sayings. that as in this locality the people do not bring enough carrion to these birds. who consult them whenever thej^ are at fault. so that I parted company with my After some further journeying we arrived stinence This house is carriers. How they are fed on human flesh at a funeral ceremony I shall relate later in my account of Lhasa. Wanting to make some enquiries. great cost.

. ' the three hundred priests who live there being printers. comprising the to the ordinary usages of The next day collection of all the Buddhist writings in Tibet.writings. for the priest not only gave me valuable information on Buddhism but also accorded me cordial treatment. addition. divided into two departments of —Buddha's In own preachings have and an the works the saints. they equally large taries number of printing-blocks for the commen- prepared by the native Lamas. which are immense heaps of wooden printing-blocks. I called upon the head priest of the temple. These blocks are kept in two large buildings. one of which measures about 180 feet by sixty. The interview was at once very instructive and agreeable to me. and found him very clever in conversation.248 austerity THEEB YEAES IN TIBET. who had been specially sent from the Tashi Lhunpo Temple. contrary I visited the Buddhist monks. Nartan^ Temple. where I inspected the most valuable of its treasures. because they eat meat. This temple is the sole publisher of the ' collection of all the Buddhist. by Tibetan priests.

In addition. who thought that^ the mountain at the rear of the temple resembled Sumeru. presented these before in my in view.painted itself dormitories for priests close by. I iDroceeded for about eight miles across a plain in a south-easterly direction. and the palatial building was the Lhunpo Teinple. 32 . spectacle. Gendun Tub. Shigatze.' a legendary mountain mentioned in Buddhist Scriptures.CHAPTBE The next clay. XLI. with December many like whit6. capital Tashi ' The town before me was Sliigatze. templeseen rising buildings red paint were all amidst structures. The name means 'a gloi-ious of ' mass or Mount Sumeru. The monastery owes its name to its founder. when the gold-colored roof of a palatial building. 5th. making a grand and beautiful OUTLINE OF THE MONASTERY OF TASHI LHUNPO. the second Tibet.

is regarded as the Lama of Tibet. . and though it it but the second temple in the country the papal see.Sometimes a kind of regency second Grand in Tibet is Lama ' takes place during the interval between the Dalai Lama's death and the enthrone- ment self. During to my my stay in the town my only biisiness was to visit various . I visited the temple.250 THREE YEARS IS TIBET." Amida-nyorai. for I intended to stay there for some time and to pick up any knowledge I could from those with whom I might come these. the temple and maintains the same dignity as j)art of the city lay beyond some three thousand five hundred dwellings. but his real title is Kijah-hon Chen-ho. meaning ' Great Protector. which is allotted to the Lamaist monks from the northeastern plateau. so that I be an incarnation of visit he was away at could not see him. though he does not is possess any political influence. asked for the dormitory called Peetuk Khamtsan. At length I found it ' into contact. as the science of The secular consisted of statistics is utterly unknown in Tibet. a distant and was believed At the time of palace. I was told Nima. since I had feigned myself to be one of where I and settled myself in it. There to were altogether three thousand three hundred priests in the temple. The number of the inhabitants was stated by the natives to be over thirty thousand. but sometimes the number is increases over five "thousand . yet with reigard to the rank bestowed under this hj the Chinese Emjoeror he superior even to the Dalai ' Lama himself. of "jvh^-t believed to be his re-incarnated This second Grand Lama is commonly called Panchen Rinpoche. having been born in the year of " sheep. the ' he was eighteen years old. The Lama Superior second Grand of this temple for.' while his name is Lob sang Choe-ki noble-minded religious sun '. but this calculation cannot be much trusted.

a venerable years of age. engineering and religious and philosophy ^were centuries ago introduced into from India. I asked him several grammatical questions. and in doing so 1 took care to select such questions as were familiar to me. who. he was inclined answer. logic.— SHIGATZE. One day I called upon the tutor Lama. not . second Grand seventy-four As he was reputed to be the highest authority on Tibetan grammar and rhetoric among the three thousand priests in the temple. phonetics. After a stay of several days at the temple. I was. the majority of in the Government service them consisting of the men who learn just the elementary rules of grammar. as he confessed that he could give no answer and said that he could only refer me to a learned physician living at Engon on the road to Lhasa. those who take to the study of grammar belong to very limited classes. therefore. E71 pasb-ant may be stated that five branches of science science Tibet medicine. are absolute strangers to history and other branches of science. Tsan Chenba.wonderful therefore that there should be scholars who. could give me a satisfactory was. it glad to take leave of him. dis- appointed. I was one day thinking of leaving the town. It is in order to be able to prepare official documents. I to believe. It went witness his procession. wlio was very kind of the priest. 251 I discussed Lamas and of scholars. in spite of their zeal in the investigation and exposition of Buddha's doctrines. when I was informed that so I the Grand Lama was expected home out to presently. for I wanted to know in what way my to me. with whom the teachings Buddha. Under present circumstances. however. host would try to explain them. or even in one of them. but now-a-days very few I will — almost say no —Tibetans — are proficient in them. must be noted that owing to the absence of roads in Tibet the .

that the priests in this temple were very rigid in their conduct. and was accompanied by about three hundred mounted attendants who. priests as they were. which served as roads. carried Buddhist utensils. The second Grand Lama was borne in a palanquin decorated with gold brocades and gorgeous kinds of silk. except in the habit of drinking. the former said he was very sorry Panchen Rinpoche sympathised. I delivered a sermon on the ten Buddhist virtues. In the conversation. story is told. but stated that he was no less sorry that his own priests were exceedingly partial They then discussed which of the two to alcoholic drinks. greatly. which seemed to please them They confessed to me that. there stood cylindrical posts upon which incense was burnt by the waiting crowds. most of whom prostrated themselves on the advent of the cortege. procession passed through the more beaten parts of the On both sides of the country. luxuries that his priests were addicted to the use of tobacco. both sacerdotal and secular. in compliance with the request of the priests in my dormitory. using some kind of wind instruments and drums. and also whether or not measures could be taken to prevent these . The spectacle was so splendid that I congratulated myself on my good fortune in having witnessed it. With regard to this latter an amusing I learned subsequently. the Grand course of Lama One day the Dalai Lama of Lhasa met with of the Tashi Lhunpo monastery. The procession was heralded by the native band. This fact is a sad commentary on the ignorance of the average route Tibetan priests. was the more some effective sinful. but that my delivery was so easy and pleasing that it aroused in them a real zest for Buddhism. instead of being armed. however. they found no interest in the theoretical and diy expositions of Buddha's teachings to which they had been used to listen.252 THREE YEARS IN TIBET. During that night.

The road now turned to the east along that river. the strong smell of which impregnated their breath and thus might prevent detection. any disclosure of his drunkenness being followed by an immediate punishment. who examined his breath. stone. and was writing with it upon white powder sprinkled over a small piece of wood- . But even their great influence could do and the vicious practices were open secrets. 253 nothing. for earth. The bridge parapets made of proceeded four miles to the north. I also found a boy of about twelve 3'ears old sitting beside the fire-place and learning to write. the temple at ten on the morning of December 15th. Some impudent priests often attempted to conceal their inebriation by eating a good deal of garlic. It measures about three hundred and sixty yards in length and eight yards in breadth. The great bridge erected over it is called the Samba Shar. It is unlike our own long in bridges. There I noticed with curiosity that turf instead of the usual yak-duug was heaped besides the fireplace. I was told that in that locality the dried roots of grasses were used as fuel. which means eastern bridge. Every priest returning from the street was bound to present himself before the priestly guard at the gate of the temple. and a further journe)^ of about twelve miles Passing over the bridge. He had a bamboo stick for his pen. hence the heaps of turf. till I found myself on the bank of the Brahmaputra. Leaving. A curious rule was however enacted in order to prevent the habit of drinking. brought me to a village called IV. I proceeded about two miles across the city of Shigatze. when I reached the Tsanchu river.SHIGATZB. vicious habits. where I lodged at a poor farmer's. it consists of slabs of in stones covered with of which are turn placed upon rows wooden the structures erected boards spanning stone water at equal distances of has I about ten yards.

he would possibly be imposed upon by his landlord in the payment of his rent. stones. lives the celebrated tain.254 I'HEEE YEAES IIST TIBEl'. the river on the left and I strug- now became very narrow. gled on for about four miles further. as the old Lhunpo temple had kindly informed grammarian. male priests. who were I ignorant. As to the art of counting. it was taught in a very primitive way. The road. The latter. At night already preached to the members of the family. I but I need not dwell on here in detail. stayed at the temple for the night. There I learned that the larger of the two edifices accommodates two hundred and thirty me. in this locality. talked only something of Buddhism. Every now and then he presented his work to his father and had its ill-done portions corrected by hinij this process being repeated over and over again. but I soon learned the secret. I climbed the mounand reached the temple aftei' an arduous ascent of more than two miles. while the other. write sticks or rosaries being used for the purpose. and the next day I proceeded about five miles along the river mentioned. situated a nunnery where live seventy-two nuns. buildings constitute the priest of the Tashi Engon temp)le where. however. These . I wondered at the care with which the child was taught to practise penmanshipj in spite of the poor condition of the family. and the next day I had an interview with its principal priest. Agriculture was the sole industry and if the tenant did not know how to and count. but . is a The history of temple is verj^ interesting. this it little lower. and then came out upon a wide space. With totally respect to writing locality and counting the poorer classes of this were far above those in Lhasa. which sloped eastward. Looking to the right. with a very steep and rugged mountain on the right. I saw two large buildings standing on the summit of a mountain. being ignorant of grammar and rhetoric.

I asked him to put to me some more difficult questions on rhetoric. simple as it may appear. who is well-known as the highest authority on Tibetan grammar. 255 the physician. but. him which of the Tibetan grammarians he thought the best. so that the study of the Tibetan language must be started with this theme. my host had never read Situ's works. he confessed that he had no knowledge of rhetoric. I next asked accomplish anything. of to refer me to Amdo whom the old priest of the Tashi Lhunpo had such a high opinion. to which question he answered that he preferred Ngulchu Lama's grammar (Ngul-chu being the name of a temple) which. after my host . as they were very simple. I then turned my questions to the number of vowels in the Tibetan alphabet. the host questioned me how long I had been studying the Tibetan language.SHIGATZE. to my great disappointment. I al- most doubted his sincerity. This question. said that there were sixteen vowels in the Tibetan alphabet. I answered quickly. " I replied. though he had heard something of the grammarian. all the vowels mentioned by him were those of the Samskrt embarrass who. would prove too short to He then asked me a few questions on grammar. " Three years. and began to enumerate them. I then called upon this physician and grammarian. which. has been the subject of much discussion. about which there are two different opinions among grammarians. is very imperfect. To my great surprise. was kind enough Ka-sang. to whom I gave some presents in token of my respect. in reality. My question on this subject seemed to some pondering. After the usual greetings had been exchanged. Curiously enough. if the the period three years upon method were a poor one. so that I again asked him why he did not follow the views taken by Situ Lama. My host declared that the greatly depended study of grammar and rhetoric the method used and of that..

In addition. and Tibetan vowels numbered only five. where I was asked by a priest on had talked with the learned doctor. he was still a total stranger to grammar. seemed abashed. The next day. when I was unexpectedly called and stopped by someone . the were only four vowels in his language. so I asked that the number doctor in The mistake him what he thought of the opinioM. and situated upon a towering peak. Tibetan vowels was five. though several western scholars maintain it in works. interview proved a disappointment. The doctor possessed very limited knowledge. (This five. and that 1 should stay with him for at least two or three years if I really wished to study grammar. I proceeded about five miles over an undulating country. the priest confessed that. alphabet. the priest said with an air of importance that the doctor was the highest authority on grammar and rhetoric throughout the province of Tsan. a temple belonging to an older sect of Lamaism. I was so much tickled by these remarks that to I burst out laughing. It their must be noted that the Tibetan characters were invented admitted that the by Thumi Sambhota. He apologised for his of the having mentioned the Samskrt vowels. Crossing a vast plain which stretched along the river. being a great grammariaii and ) rhetorician only in the eyes of ignorant native priests. made my way a half of the and was within some two miles and Pombo Ri-o-che. that one or two interviews with him would be insufficient to secure any benefit. who tells us in his work that there In short. which seemed somewhat embarrass the priest.1256 THEEE YEARS IN TIBET. answered him that I had discussed some I ' my ' grammatical questions with the doctor. I returned to what subject When I room. I eastward.vowel opinion is erroneous. long as he had had the fortune to listen to the doctor's lectures. when I again reached the Brahmaputra river. December 18th. going in a south-easterly direction.

You have money ?" " and I come from Tise. I never a lie. the money is in my pocket. and at sight of them the highwaymen took to their heels. I asked Turning about to see what it could be." " I have a little. 33 ." they said. A Supposed approach. the younger of them threatened me and said " What do you mean ?" : he menaced." Then I took my seat on a stone by the roadside and gave myself up for lost." " What have you on your back ?" " Some food and the Scriptures." I answered." I said." " Unpack it and let us see. and off. Thus I was saved. they expressed their disgust. you may have much money there. On their them what they wanted. " or you shall die. "Tell us what you have and where you come from." " Run violently seized my stick. as I was robbed at Jangthang. " not worth taking." " No. Being a priest.'' I said " tell and not in the baggage.CHAPTER XLII. " Who are they ? " asked the horsemen. leaving the stick and everything else. and on my answering that they had demanded of me my money and baggage. Abruptly picking up a stone. I caught sight of two stout fellows armed with Tibetan swords." I was just going to give them money when three hoi'semen appeared riding towards us. The men strode toward me. "I " am a pilgrim. You may have either the money or the baggage. if you wish. Miracle.

" thanked them and walked on toward the village. the Bodhisattva of that name).e. and found the river running north-east. where there was an image of . where I lodged. " and you will find a village. On the following morning I went eastwards again along a clear stream. Amid such beautiful scenes I went down along the southern banlc of the river. I went up the hill about four miles. "With gait majestic slow they strut about. while my road lay south-east into the mountain. a little village about seven The following day I took off. it having snowed very hard the night before. to "Go will I . Then I amused With my. where I took lunch. and after about eight miles' walk I came to Kurum Namse. Instead of stopping there for the night.me stream for about five miles. and after about four miles I could see from its banks a rocky mountain.see yonder temple/' tliey added after a little pause.258 THEEE YEARS IN TIBET. how white tlie of which the following in one crystals of the snow. sand ! AH spotted gleams upon the river banks The flocks of cranes to me appear to sing The changeless glories of the Path of Ti-uth In their melodious joyful bursts of song On those bejewelled banks they tread in pride : . I went south-east through the deep snow. On December 20th at dawn. lunch at Teshok. at the foot of which there was a temple called Cham Chen G-ompa (meaning 'the monastery of the great image of Charity'.. i. and was so delighted miles that I forgot that I was in so cold a climate. I saw some cranes walking in the snow. While going along the river Brahmaputra. I proceeded eastwards as far as Nya-mo-Hotta. and the horsemen went awa)' westward after a little while. Be quick and we you safe there. and stopped at Tak-tsu-kha in the evening.self with : composing Utas. and stopped at Shab-Tontub. I proceeded still further east along the sa.

purposes. as I remember. The chief priest of the house where I stopped was in great distress on account of some bad dreams which he had had on several successive nights. who lent me a horse. but strangely enough the letter failed to reach its address. Bodhiname means Charity is honored next to Buddha in rank^ but in Tibet he is worshipped a Buddha who will hereafter appear aaain on earth.st that he had never been known to tell a lie. 259 sattva Maitreya (which as as I Buddha Maitreya about thirty-five feet high. During the afternoon of the 31st I was sped on my way by the head priest. I lifted up my .sked to read the Scriptures. but I thought that the reading of the Buddhist canon might do him good. and then at the shrine of the and of Shakyamuni Buddha beside the temple. where I was a. for he had immense wealth. addressed to my bosom friend Tokujuro Hige. and I seized the occasion to send a letter home by him. that a priest was going to Katnumdu in Nepal. and this troubled him much. It was on the 28th of December. I got on the horse. loaded it with my baggage. I knew of no gospel specially suitable for such entered a lamasery. So he asked me to read the Scriptures to him. which is the Lhasa and Shigatze. ' ') divinities. has two hundred dormitories. came to Ta-mi-la. The man was reputed so hone.A SUPPOSED the MiKACLli). so that he might be free from the supposed evil. and going east for about three miles. and from the following day began reading The Aphorisms of the White Lotus of the Wonderful Law and other Scriptures in Tibetan. worshipped at this temple. I Then largest between This temple. I paid him a comparatively large sum of money and asked him to send it registered from the post office of Nepal. While riding to the village. so I told him that I would do as he wished. He had dreamed that he was dying. with three hundred priests. as I have since discovered.

on south-east along the bank of a stream flowing through the mountains. it many cahimities and afflictions being the last day of the 33rd year of Meiji according to the Jajoanese mode of reckoning (A. at 5 o'clock in the morning. that I had now laid by a considerable sum -of money. 1900). where I stopped for the night. but I could not but think that I might be kept safe to do all I could for the cause of Buddhism. I read the Scriptures there for two days. as Buddhism teaches us. but I met with nothing special to mark the day. In a temple of this village there was an image called in Tibetan Sung Chung Dolma (the Mother of Salvation who utters a command) which was about three feet high. Here we found the snow turned into ice. The New Year's Day dawned. and on the following day I proceeded seven miles to Omi. as I had done every New Year's Day. I did not know Vhat adversities were yet in store for me. thanks to Buddha for the grace by which I had been during saved through so the year. who carried my baggage. as the Tibetans use the old calendar. I read the Scriptures at the village till the oth. and so slippery was the ground that we had to take great set out on We went . and my reading the Scriptures earned me so many gifts. and so beautiful that it seemed The Tibetans told me that the as if it might even speak.260 THREE YEARS IN TIBET. I had met the highwaymen. and had been robbed of my money. it is our duty to pray for the health of the sovereign. I my journey with a coolie. and turning east. On the 12th of January. and prays for the welfare of the Imperial Family. and I was living on the food given to me by others. and every Buddhist reads the Scriptures on New Year's Day. For. in however remote a place he may happen to be. I began the New Year's reading of the Scriptures. and received many gifts. Still I got up early at three o'clock in the morning.D. but money was constantly given to me. image at one time actually spoke.

Groing on for about twelve miles we found Choe Ten. and for whom the future would have nothing but Singularly enough. he seemed to be a man who. never studied physiognomy. This temple is among the most famous in Tibet. in a willow plantation along the river. consisting of following six sounds Om-ma-ni-pad-me-hum and meaning " all will be as we will. It had an iron axle through it and was so formed that it would revolve from left to right. care. That very evening a fine lady. would sustain much loss through other men. though often given money and other things. but I thought that I might thus teach a lesson to the Tibetans. I do not know for what disease they might be really efficacious. for he said I looked out of the common. this exactly told his past life. where there were many hot springs. debt. (Prince Diamond). and temple. called Dorje Gyalpo . This temple was so called. and he was so surprised at my words. beourselves at cause the it enshrined a large bronze cylinder holding many ' pieces of paper each bearing the spell ' mam. who are very superstiSo I told him that I was very sorry for him. His memory especially held in great esteem in the country. The founder of the temple was Je Tsong-kha-pa.A SUPPOSED MIBACLE." The tube was beautifully wrapped in copper foil. lest 261 we should fall. the keeper of which was very is in this without any scruple he asked me to read his face rude I had for him. and ornamented with gold and silver. We took our lunch and again went on eastward for about nine miles. for tious. that he told all about me to his richest neighbor. till we came in sight of a temple called Mani liha-khang. mostly because he was the " inventor of the " prayer-cylinder I stopped at this temple. three of them wamn enough to bathe in. who started a new sect. who . though they seemed to me to be good for rheumatism. I saw several places in the stream where steaming springs could be seen boiling up.

Soon. and hurried into the room. only to lind the child quite senseless and cold. and she asked me to save it. But when state of the child I could easily guess I should be if I could have an opportunity of. She went home early that evening.' as I knew that I should have very chance of doing so after reaching Lhasa. So 1 called for some cold water. so I ventured to tell her that I was very sorry. was was the wife of the rich man. I felt the child's pulse.262 I THREE YEARS IN told TIBET. when suddenly my ears caught the sound of weeping and crying women in the kitchen. I was also surprised to learn how my words had come true. though his body was not warm and his neck was nearly stiff. and I was asked to come to the house to read the Scriptures. the mistress of the house came to tell me that the child had died as predicted. a little further up the hill. and put on to his head a piece of wet ! ' " ' . however. as I had read a few books on medicine. What could Something serious must have happened all that mean ? in the house. In the meanwhile I sat in the usual religious meditation. came to me with a child. reading the little 'complete Text. as it was none of my business to go and see. even though it might take several days to do so. for the child seemed likely not to live long. Still I kept quiet. which was beating faintly. to borrow a copy. and asked me to tell its fortune. I This troubled me saw the sickly and feeble what would happen. not a little. 1 thought the disease might be congestion of the brain. Very strange indeed the child fell so ill the following morning that the whole family was struck with my chance prediction. but as they had no copy of the complete Scriptures I asked for a man to be sent to Rong Langba. and I also told her She asked me if about the philosophy of retribution. I thought how glad there was no way of saving its life. 1 said therefore that a long reading of the Scriptures might do some good. 1 said I would.

that my only business besides my reading- was to take them for walks. cloth. the child to her enjoying occasion my reading. I head vigorously for twenty minutes. . so loved many children. You can imagine how glad was his grandmother. at the same time. respect from all present. and I was asked to stay for a long time to read the Scriptures.A SUPPOSED MIRACLE. 263 while. I. quite as if they were my own loved the children so much. who was almost life beside herself with joy to see restored to whom they had supposed to be dead. I told keep quiet and to continue rubbing till the This won for me no small child was perfectly well. rubbed his neck and It was only a short and the easily child began to come to his senses. too. me in my walks I and valleys and on these the one I had saved. I the hills often took walks followed children. Besides reading the Scriptures. faint. or rather was with among by them. was glad to stay there over two months during the cold season.

compared with his other unclean habits that the Tibetan does not wash his plates and dishes.CHAPTER The Tibetans are revy which I XLIII. some Manners and Customs. You can well . is for these are clean in though disgusting even to look at them. Just think of it It is it was clean.servants. foul in their habits. Jangthang I used to have four or five dogs beside me whenever I retired for private purposes. and they was quite clean. but they never wash those used by which I used. I was. . but brought tea in would say that it themselves their eyes. and even the children would laugh I was much troubled at this still I could not do at me. impossible to drink out of such a cup. In the house in which I stayed there were some twentj. but behaves like the lower animals in this respect. He does not even wash or wipe himself after the calls of nature. for in This was a still greater trouble in the tents. it was wiped his sleeve. of may mention here. which might be quite wet and dirty Then he said from being used as a handkerchief. They never washed the cup it every day. from the high priest down to the shepherd j every one does the sagne. but still one must do so. To this there is no single exception. and poured tea into it. otherwise. though it was as dirty as it could be. for I had tlsed it only the night before. much laughed at and suspected when I followed the Japanese I with ! custom in this particular. therefore. If or their it equals. and they brought me a cup of tea every morning. for it would only arouse their suspicions to be It seems to be nothing too strict about such matters. asked a servant to wash my cup. They think cups are unclean if they have been used by their inferiors.

So Tibetan dishes are made of dirt and flour. mouths and hands. have partially cleaned faces. It is necessary at betrothal to show not only the countenance of the girl. others to not in towns or cities. He that of never washes his body their birth. If she is all black except her eyes. all other parts being jet-black. . Girls are equally superstitious about this. and so the only them are the palms of the hands and eyes. For this reason there is little or no filth lying about in Jangthang. clean part about . but also to show how black she is with filth. 265 imagine how terrified I was at first. for they too attach much importance in courting to the blackIf she has a white face and be less fortunate. Tibetans eat with ! their teeth black tliey with belief It is a sickening sight ? Why do not wash their bodies Because they have a superstitious off that is it wipes happiness to wash the body. though the other parts of their bodies are just as black as can be. Why then are their hands so white ? It is because they make dough with their own hands with flour in a bowl. tliough I soon got accustomed to them. This belief not quite so prevalent among the inhabitants of Central Tibet as among those of the remote provinces north of the Himiilayas. It calls forth laughter from wash even the hands and face. ' and. will clean hands she have washed away her luck.the sordes. many have never been washed would if One scarcely believe they boast in the country. Nor since are these the Tibetan's only unclean habits. she is regarded as blessed.MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. for she is said to 34 . They are quite as black on their necks and backs as the African negroes. The country gentlemen and the priests. and the dirt of their hands is mixed with the dough. and her dress is bright with dirt and butter. never having been washed. however. And no sooner had I gone away than the dogs devoured the excrement.


by the beautiful charms of nature. or we sometimes find the eleventh day . People below the middle class have no change of clothes. I looked out of splendor of the sight my window ! to see the snow. We find many strange things in its way of counting days. two seventh davs. the natural beauty of the country often much comforted me. while the people were busy preparing for the my New the Year. Once before the at I tried While Tsarang them. but the Turkistan. comforted. and filling me with sentimental and poetical In this wise I was reminiscences of my native land. very hard to get accustomed to overcome physical revolt. have just stated even filthy rags. therefore. It was often very difficult for me to accept invitations to dinner and tea amid these foul habits. as well as by some interesting thing's which I noticed You can among the ceremonies of the calendar. little Oh imagine how much I was delighted when a ci'ane appeared. I 269 know I it is diiRcult to credit what I myself could not beliete it until I had visited several places and seen Tibetan habits for myself. but it is always One year behind the latter. They are somewhat cleaner. but only in comparito son with their people. say. There are often given. strolling along in the snow. nor the New Year. The priesthood especially are instructed wash their hands and faces and keep their clothes clean. but it is difficult to Tibetan New Year I was reading as usual at desk. hide with dried dirt. amid the unpleasant habits of the people. It filth and mucus. is often as hard as were a concrete of butter. ness of the boys. But people above the middle class are a is Their dress as it little less untidy. The Tibetans use neither the Indian that it Chinese. They blow their noses into their clothes in the presence of others. Still. but generally dress themselves in torn and . which resembles the Chinese in has one leap year in every four.MaNnHes and customs. amid these disagreeable things.

and eats them. two. When their calendars is differ. there being generally a difference of one. dried peaches and small black persimmons. Next comes Tibetan tea. The Tibetan calendar is computed by four officials appointed by the Government. guests and servants follow his exnmple one after another. or to leave one out. as for instance in But this is a matter that should cause little wonder. but.268 THREE YEAKS IN TiJjET. on which are strewn some dried grapes. tosses them up three times. or even three days between them. is put over a heap of baked flour. who count days with black and white fixing the New Year or other great days. but it is very rarely that the New Year's Day of the Tibetan calendar falls on the same day as that of the Chinese. I could not quite make out what all these meant. They take meat dried. gilded and white at the centre. and boiled. while an unlucky one must bo omitted. after the nintli but without the tenth. The New Year's ceremony is generally lield on the day given in the Government calendar. and an oracle consulted to decide which is the proper one to be adopted. The head of the house first picks up some of the fruits with his right hand. and a lucky day was dujjlicated. exchange no words of congratulation. Then his wife. because they in different parts of the country. In this convenient way is constructed the calendar as generally used in Tibet. with fried cakes of wheat flour for each. Tliese are brought in on a tray. unlike the Japanese. it Upon inquiring from an was sometimes necessary to were lucky or unlucky. and seem mostly to enjoy the eating. the best ones are chosen. or handkerchiefs sewn together in the shape of a flag. . raw. stones or shells. On New Year's morning a piece of fire-colored silk. I was told that add one day. though some disagreements are found between the calendars used astrologer. 'J'hey drink the tea and eat the cakes. but roast meat is regarded as uncerfemonial. something in the shape of a copper plate.

But the course of dishes mentioned above is the yak. . Tibet produces fresh-water usually eat it.manneks and customs. while reading my Scriptures amid these charming scenes. Darjeeling live on baked flour from Tibet. At two in the afternoon they have dinner. meat. when they have no fresh herbs or flowers. it is . to kill fish. at which they eat. all classes The Tibetans at generally living on the former. The above circles. radishes. had in India. for they sonietimes eat the gruel in the morning. gruel is made very grown in some parts of Tibet. sions. 260 they subsist chiefly but the Tibetans do not on the meat of and sheep. where it is largely used. are the dishes taken by the Tibetans of the higher class find it hard to get cheese and meat for and put fat in their stead. and. though generally in the evening. goat. fisli. reckoned among their best dishes their usual thick with baked flour with some herbs and flowers put in it. At nine or ten o'clock in the evening they make a sort of meat gruel. and eat cake or fruits. but the Tibetan seems much superior to the Indian. for they consider it sinful Pork is eaten. for they fall Baked flour can of course be ill if they live on rice. for they send orders to Tibet for their native productions. if rich. they use what they have stored and The radish is however much laid by during the summer. wheat dumplings. In this way I passed the festive New Year season. not settled. The Tibetan is fonder of baked flour than of rice. which they make on special occa- The lowest their gruel. The soup has mutton or something else dipped in it. If they put wheat dumplings in the gruel. commonly composed of wheat flour. a sort of macaroni mixed with eggs. Nor is it less difificult for them to get radishes. they again meet at about ten o^clock to drink tea or wine. but only by the Tibetans who have dealings with the Chinese. In the winter. and cheese. After the morning ceremony.

for all their horses were awa}' on Up the Yak-Chn I river I wards. have cost some thirty-five yen. I was surprised and told my landlord about when he told me that birds were more regular than men. in this place a long time in order to read I was determined to leave on the 14th March. called It in Tibetan. as if angry with the latter because it had quarrelled with the other members of the flock. I departed accompanied by a they servant. it. . walled up between high miles. pecking another to death. where I stopped for the night. and related several stories which showed how It is a common saying. a- A little white and black bird like crow. After dinner as I was leaving the house I was presented with some money and a priest's robe. and went on along the river for another seven It was a narrow pass. and precepts of Buddhism. and was very regular in its ways. as it was getting warmer. used to come to was a knowing bird. [Cha tim ta nga tsam shikna mi tim nya tshing tsam shik go. which must the Five I Commands or moral which did with pleasure. before a hair-breadth's deviation from bird's law would be tolerated. I stai-ted at six o'clock the next morning. so. he added. much about Tibetan customs and homes. me much though they desired to do trading journeys. tiU came to a post village called went for about ten miles eastChe-sum. One day while I was looking out of my window I saw one of a flock. red in color and made of wool.) strict the birds were. and could tell one man from another. that one might deviate — Having stayed the Scriptures.270 learned THbEE tBABS IN TIJ3ET. for they told could not send me off on horseback. Kyaka my window. seemingly their head. In the morning the family asked me to recite to them the Three Refuges. and found good material for my study. from humaix laws by the breadth of a log. who carried my luggage.

the hail somewhere in heaven. During the winter when there is much snow. according to the priests. What could it be ? Upon inquiring of my companion I was told it was a hail-proof temple. and the method they have discovered certainly curious enough. until in the summer when the crops are nearly ripe they throw down the hail from the air- Hence the Tibetans must make . where they They then store large quantities of hail out of snow. especially in summer. 271 mountains tlie snow lay deep in the valleys and the water of the streams was frozen. and the old school profess that in order to combat these spirits effectually they must know when fight the demons are preparing the hail. but when I asked more particularly about it at Lhasa. . make gather themselves at a certain place. at When I heard the name for the first time I could not believe my own ears. these spirits.* may be entirely So thej' naturally try to find some means to keep is off the hailstones. which they dread exceedingly. I found that what had been told me was true. for then the crops of wheat and barley. which they can reap only once in a 3'ear or two. looking up to the miles I came to a little top of a mountain on the left. destroyed. and send kinds of evil spirits which hail to hurt the Some priests therefore maintain that they must against and destroy these evil demons in order to keep them off. believe that there are eight delight in afflicting people crops. and was surprised seeing one. The nation is so credulous in the matter of religion that they indiscriminately believe whatever is told to them by Thus for instance they their religious teachers. and go to rest. I will now relate the strange method which the Tibetans have for keeping off hailstones. the lamas.MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. I noticed a white building which looked neither like a temple nor like the dwelling of a priest. I had never heard of such a temple. At the end of about seven opening and.

whereby belays a These pellets are afterwards spell on each shell he makes. The four seasons are indeed mentioned in Tibetan books. fields As early as of March or April the ploughing of the proceeds to wheat begins. chanting words of incantation the while. in passing. and then the Ngak-pa Hail-Subduing-Temple. while the spirits are preparing their hail. The summer there to the 15th of from about the 15th of all March is September and the rest of the year winter. rrom the time that . charms.272 THREE YEARS IN TIBET. Let me remark. but the year is divided into summer and winter. This kind of temple is always built on the most elevated place in the whole and sowing the district. that Tibet has not four seasons. often told that such and such person had offended a Ngak-pa and was cursed to death. and are supposed to drive it back. off sharp weapons to keep the hail. but there are is in reality only two. the Ngak-pas during the summer prepare to fight against the devils. Every village has at least one priest called who works with Ngak-pa perform (the chanters of in- cantations of the old school) and during the winter these Ngak-pas offer prayers. a servant or two in some lonely ravine. or pray for blessings for others. Having spent the winter in this way.' which are pieces of mud about the size of a sparrow's egg. and consequently. for the reason that the greatest advantage is thus obtained for ascertaining the direction from which the clouds containing hail issue forth. But the Tibetans have a general I was belief that the Ngak-pas sometimes curse othets. as we have. These are made by a priest. erected on the top of one of the high mountains. None but priests of good family may devote themselves to this work. where by some seci-et method he makes many shells. the Tibetans hold a secret meeting in some ravine where they prepare 'hail-proof shells. used as missiles when hail falls in the summer.

but it often happens that the overwhelming host comes gloomily upon him with thunders roaring and flashes of lightning that seem to shake the ground under him and rend the sky above. with If in spite of all his fist clenched and finger pointed. and then pronounan enchantment with many flourishes of his rosary in the same manner as our warrior of old did with his baton. all in a frenzy. however. for protection to various deities. The priest then. the protection of the crop from injury by hail becomes more urgent. and his time is fully taken up with making oiferings and sending up prayers. it is said. he fights against the mountain. so that the priest never leaves the temple. the priest continues to reside in the temple. much to do4n the About June. and numberless incantations What is more strange is that the great generally occur i-ipe. 273 the ears of the wheat begin to shoot. the volleys of fields beneath. up and down.MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. hail thicken and strike the his efforts. work of When it happens that big masses of clouds are gathering overhead. the ISTgak-pa first assumes a solemn and stern aspect. like arrows flying in the thick of ces much battle. and the volleys of big hailstones follow. 35 . he visits his own house. three times each day are pronounced. In a wild attempt to drive away the hail clouds. as he has not very earlier part of his service. when the larger part of the it is crops are becoming priest and then the time for the to the on service to bend his whole energies preventing the attack of hail. though from time to time. drawing himself up on the brink of the precipice as firm as the rock itself. pouring down thick and fast. when the wheat has grown larger. the priest grows madder in his wrath. hail storms The service is gone through and night. air. dances in fight against the displaying a fury quite like a madman in a rage. With charms uttered at the top of his voice he cuts the air right and left.


and throws them violently against the clouds as if to strike them. quickly HuatcLes liandfuls cavi-ies 275 of the bullets aforementioned about him." a strange kind of impost. as provided by the law of the land. To make up for the loss the Ngak-pa thus he is entitled at other times. heavy tax for the farmers in Tibet.rment to pieces. which is to be paid to In a plentiful year this rate may be the Ngak-pa. The Ngak-pa as being thus the administrator of justice recapacity in addition to his ceives a large salary in that might therefore be It income that this class of priests is quite wealthy. . he rends his ga. for it is an extra. the hail falls so heavily as to do much harm with a to the crops. preventer of hail. has to be punished apportioned to the amount of injury done sustains. the hail goes drifting away and leaves the place unharmed. in addition to the regular amount which they have to pay to their Government. The power of jurisdiction over the district resides in the person of the Ngak-pa. by the hail. and throws the which he rags up in the to air. There is another custom even more singular than that. unluckily for him. When. and the people come to congratulate him with a great show of gratitude. This is. indeed a increased to two and a half fiJio. the priest is puffed up with pride at the victory he has gained. is it not ? The " hail-prevention-tax" is levied in kind. when the year passes with little or no hail. as sometimes happens. rated at about two sho of wheat per tan of land. so perfectly mad is he in his attempt put a stop to the falling hailstones.MANNERS AND CUSTOMS.tax. If all this avail nothing. but supposed the Tibetan Ngak-pas are most of them singularly poor. his reverence fine. But when. this being founded on •each the belief that the pleiititude or deficiency of the crops summer is dependent entirely on his power. to obtain an income under the name of "hail-prevention.

and add it to its magnificence. so that it is not actually an island. ill-spent. dissipated. but of the village on the western side. The Tibetans are very strict in this respect. The lofty peaks of the Himalayas stand high in a line from the south-east to the south-west of the lake. some of them are flogged on their naked bodies. but some foreign maps call it lake Palti.SVd Their the for THREE YEAKW IN gainSj TIBEO'. though they are at the same time subject to a heavy penalty when the hail season sets in. when a poor-looking Ngak-pa. running north-west. coming of ill-got is from the deception are as founded soon the the upon' superstition people. From this temple I went eastwards for about seven miles. and has an island with a mountain range in its centre. here beautiful scenery here. however. sa)' that the land in the lake is connected with the main land at two points on the south. which dash roaring . I very strong. I found one of the strangest lakes in the world. But influence they exercise over is For instance. and the tempest often lashes into high waves. when I came to a village called Yase. Occasionally too. It is called lake Yamdo-Tso in Tibetan. So these Ngak-pas gain much in peaceful days. No words can describe the must. what the is saying people is. Many lakes have small islands in them. but authoritative geographers state that none has so large a mountain as this. Palti however is not the name of the lake. From the mountains east of this village flows a river called Yakchu. attired like a beggar. and no nobleman who has committed wrong is spared a flogging because of his caste. Some European maps incorrectly give the Yakchu Going on some as having its source in lake Yanido. empties itself into the Brahmaputra. the latter is sure to stick out his tongue and to bow down in profound respect. The lake is about one hundred and eighty miles in circumference. So far about the hail tax. meets with a fine gentleman on the road. which. two miles.

while on the right I could see the marvelled peaks of mountains in the lake. and went north-east along the lake. till I village. I started at four o'clock. the moon began already to lose its dim light. or went deep into the snow. ^. and looked down upon the surface of the lake. 1 went east and then north along a rather wide path by the lake for about six miles came to Palti. There is a castle on a hill in this and very beautiful the lake looks when the castle throws its shadow on the water. looking like a superhuman being. to I proceeded for about four miles to the east. which was. but the invigorating mountain scenery dispelled my fatigue. Amid the charms of nature I lost all my fatigue and weariness. as before. Often I slipped on the ice. On the following day.MANNEKS AND CUSTOMS. The path went pretty nearly north. The bi'ight day was soon coming. but straight up and down in a zig-zag along the mountain. I had walked twenty-five miles that day.''here were mountains on the left and the lake on the right. and then the road turned to the north-east. On the left stood a wall of high mountains. and I encountered much trouble. March 16th. and some mandarin ducks were amusing themselves in the water. and the morning star twinkled on the surface of the water. I lodged at a house at the foot of this castle. the lake. At dawn I climbed up the mountain in deej) snow. I could see among the shadows of the mountains the crescent moon beautifully reflected dimly and faintly on the water. with the jDeaks of the Himalayan mountains amidst the clouds. see the terrible scene of the angryhike waves. in the snow aiid ice. i Standing on a high rook by the shore. 277 upon the shore. while cranes were wildly flying about . and I stood quite entrancSoon the water-fowl were heard on the sands along ed. almost nothing when compared with those which I had met in passing over the Himalayas. though I had been very tired. however.

think him to be an Englishman. tHbee years in tibeT.278 with noisy of cries. for the water is stagnant. they say. an Indian by birth. and there are divers poisonous elements near the lake. the famous Sarat Chandra Das. but. came from India the water and pronounced a spell upon the lake . This being the way that runs between Lhasa and Shigatze there were travellers on among whom was a soldier from Nepal. unfortunately for him. came along and turned the water back to its original One cannot believe color. who passed for an Englishman. and bake their wheat The lake is full of water. There also seem to be places where I think there must be coal I saw several kinds of strange ores and many kinds of herbs which I think may have dissolved in the water and have colored it. Any way the water of the lake must have been poisonous for a long time. as the Tibetans tell. I this beautiful . the day before What No ! a contrast it was with the scene pk^asure on a journey can be than travelling in this way at dawn. He was it. as every one knows. for eating. I still went on for about twelve miles along the lake and came to a little stream in the mountains at about nine o'clock. strange story is told about how it turned poison- About twenty years ago. which is quite false. but it still remained poisonous. at once turned as red as blood. but it is poisonous. I have seen some foreign maps in which the water of this lake is made to flow into the Brahmaputra. A lama. there being no current. with few exceptions. really turned anything that the Tibetans say. It is here that travellers make tea. but the water seems to have Sarat Chandra Das cannot have done red. Sarat Chandra Das. it was just after his refrom Tibet that the water thus changed. found several persons taking lunch as we did amid scenery. turn . but Tibetans. is an Indian. greater A ous. that.

I evei- 279 saw^ and was .MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. one of the most humorous fellows very good company for me.

'? of the Sera monastery heard of the affair and became so irritated about the illtreatment of the woman that. The warrior-priest. with regard to and follow Indian. The soldier. His love of his mother had tempted him from his duty. It of the Palpo tribe of seems that there were about three hundred merchants Nepal at Lhasa. Some thirteen years ago. cotton.CHAPTER XLIV. a Palpo merchant at Lhasa searched a Lhasa woman on the charge that she had stolen a piece of coral from his shop. On to Lhasa. beans and corn. They engage in trade at Lhasa in woollen cloth. When the coral was not found he became so angry that. and alert of the Nepalese tribes. whose company proved not altogether unwelcome in a travel like mine. When she was allowed to go out again.sa and this was so much greater than his love for his mother that he suddenly changed his Among mind and determined to go back to Lhasa. he took her by force into his house. and having ascertained what they wanted ' ' . not Tibetan Buddhism. but at Shigatze on his way to Nepal his thought turned to his love of a woman at Lha. she told the people all that had happened. They are the most active trading. and he answered that it was but a few years ago that his Government first sent a guard to the Tibetan capital.some of them came to enquire into the matter. happened to be one of the Legation Guards of the Minister of Nepal at Lhasa. rice. other things I asked him how many soldiers the Nepal Grovernment kept stationed at Lhasa. jewels. coral. in spite of her protesting tears. dry goods. silk. He told me that a great calamity befell the capital over ten years ago.

which has an incline of about two and a half miles to its top. who dispersed with their spoil the next morning at daybreak. about four miles from the capital. and carried off what they found. These men broke into the deserted houses of the merchants. one chief. and is the Jibbahadur. but about on Lhasa merchants. This affair became a diplomatic question.ON TO LHASA. It runs through a large . vagabonds the city. Among being So the of raiders there were. Their loss was estimated at something under to their houses. together. The chief diplomatist in this affair on the Nepal side was whose name has already been mentioned. The Tibetan Government had to compensate the merchants and a party of twenty-five Nepaleso soldiers came to be stationed at Lhasa. to the Brahmaputra running south-east. at whose of summons they gather themselves them wei'e not in residence at one thousand assembled. from which I obtained my first view of Lhasa. There is a large tributary called Kichu running from the north-east that flows into this river. each armed with sword or a large iron hook. As we walked on we found ourselves at the foot of a steep hill called Genpala. — 230. Presently the merchants returned and were much distressed to find their merchandise gone their only property. besides the priests. Sera to wreck the when only These were preparing to march vengeance on all the Palpo latter got wind of the matter. Many that time. he was the Clerk of the Nepalese Government. as they owned no land. north-east. These warrior-priests are under. and it took over five years to settle it.000 yen. present ISTepalese Minister to Tibet. who at once called out the warrior-priests. the From the summit I could see. 281 went back to Sera and told their chief. they had fled from the city before the bellicose priests entered Lhasa.

for in the summer large stream. The following day. 1'his was the residence of the Dalai Lama of Lhasa. I^he Tibetans then use instead of down the the yak-hide canoe. where I stopped for the night. It is so light that a man can easily lift it. much water and use. soon The hide boat naturally absorbs gets too soft and heavy for and the Tibetan therefore dries his hide boat in the sun after he has used it f(jr half a day in the water. which look very small. and then gradually went down a great slope for about seven miles till I came to Pache. for I had made tweiity-iive miles on foot that day. as well I might bo. with a is a mountain saw showing beautifully in high building. and is called Tse Potala. miles along the southern bank of the river before I came to the ferry of Chaksam. the remaining chains of which may still be seen a little lower The ferry boats are rectangular in shape like Indian boats. which look like those of a toM'n. These ai-e the streets of Lhasa. vessels cannot pass across. and" the ra)etan *ill carry it on his back to the higher part of a . and are used as ferryboats even in the winter when there are not many passengers. Having walked all day in the snow and ice I was very foot-sore and fatigued. and the golden sunshine.282 plain. where I had to cross the river. I descended for another two miles and a half and found myself on the banks of the Brahmaputra. the 17th of March. I rested for a while. when seen so far off. These hide on the water. But it is only in the winter that these boats are used. Formerly there was an iron bridge at this place. in tlie THREE TEARS IN TIBET. to float also signifies a boat. of and the seams are with a canoes make them waterproof. Beyond thfe castle fire to be seen roofs torrering high in the air. middle of which this T. three 'sort They sew together the hides painted over yaks. I walked somie six. Li Tibetan the word Koira (meaning 'hide') lacquer.

The people of the town are indifferent. there consequently a . of which I have of the 'river. the boat again carried up the stream. it is with goods or men. the buds of the willows were already out. for a hide canoe I When was boat. jjlace There being so so many skilful thieves and the being much frequented by travellers. and I was not much ti-oubled on that score. even unkind. situated in the delta formed by the rivers Kichu and Brahmaputra. But our party being too many ferried over the river in one of the regular wooden for Walking about three miles on the dry sandy bed to a beautiful place where I saw rocks and high trees casting their shadows on the water. the green leaves were a delightful sight. In the midst of niy trouble there came along a horseman. It is widely known no place is richer in thieves than Chu-shur and had often been warned to be on my guard is against them.ON TO LHASA. stream. About two miles and a half further on we came to a town called Chu-shur. I hardly know any town on the way to Lhasa worse and more wicked than this. to strangers. but here it is only 11. is so ele\-ated that it looks as much as 18. to whom I gave a little money to carry me on horseback. Though my coolie carried my baggage. They will steal both luggage and goods in transjiort in such a skilful man- in Tibet that I ner that they can hardly be detected. in sunny places beside the water.500 feet high. and will float it 288 down for a is day or two loaded unloaded.s. and are much skilled in robbing them of their luggage. The ground about Lake Yanido. the old wounds on inv feet bewail to smart again. a rather bustling place. the former running from the north-east and the latter from the north-west. Here.500 feet above sea level. I came spoken elsewhere. and I could hardly walk. After seeing only bald mountains and dead leaves for a long time.

till I arrived at At Jang something happened that prevented my from following me any further. hired a horse for myself. Happily I was told of some men who were going with tax-meat to the Government at L'hasa. My feet were aching worse than ever. and he deserted me. Thej' did not travel or nine miles a day. village. and one would suppose that Chu-shur had many rich men . I started towards the north-east (on could procure no horse) along the stream of the Kichu river and walked on until I felt so much pain in foot. placed my luggage in their charge. a donkey-driver came along and I was given a lift on the back Jang. but hired them elsewhere. I had laid myself down on the grass to rest when. for I had travelled about twenty-five miles that day by the help of the donkey but what to do on the following day I was at a loss to conceive. and I. yet they did not take their horses from their own . After dining there. till we came to Nethang. but strange to say. which ran north-east along the Kichu river. and I asked them to take me on one of their horses. too. and here stopped for the night.284 THREE YEARS IN TIBET. to my boundless joy. good circulation of money. They were going to pay the tax to the Government. more than eight On the following day we went about six miles along a narrow rocky mountain path. and started together with them. I was told upon enquiry that there were more poor men in that town than in most of the other towns and villages of Tibet. . coolie of his animal for some ten miles. We halted at a little village named Nam to take rest. as I my feet that I could proceed no further.

and the colleges . the capital of the country. astical district indeed the largest monastery in the ecclesiunder the Dalai Lama. anditissaid that it \vas founded by anindian hermit.700 as a general rule. and has a college. the 20tli. The former has •'). though rises priests who number some sometimes their number as high as nine thousand. till I came to a large bridge which I crossed. on the following 21st. and the latter 3. I again went on towards the north-east. first saw on the looked more I left a splendid monasterj'. At Xetliang there is a temple of the Mothers of Salvawho are most devotitly-svorshippedin Tibet. This is one centre of Tibetan learning. when the priests go out into the country on pilgrimage. while I rode on amid the beautiful scenes of about two miles. to take and asked After my companions care of my baggage the place. Shrl Atisha byname. went on north-east for another four miles.800. But these numbers are only nominal. though laro-est of it sight like was in reality the Eebung monastery. which at a large village. Arrival in Lhasa. I went there to worship tion. March I hired a horse at the village. along the river. and has an army of 7. I saw in all three colleges in Central Tibet.CHAPTEE XLY. day. who organised a new sect in Tibet. On the following day. ai'rive at where I stopped for the night. the It is the kind in the vicinity of Lhasa.500 students. there remain some six thousand only. over a plain of about five miles. and came to a village called Sing Zonkha. During tlie summer. I was to Lhasa. the other two beinff the Sera college in Lhasa and that at G-anden. the twenty-one ilothers of Salvation (Dolma Xishu tsa chik in Tibetan) whose imag-es I found very well made.

Lhasa is too of Lhasa his palace for the slaughter of animals. more or At the . and came to the foot of the hill on A-.'hich stood the palace of the Grand Lama. he was mortified to find that his asses had strayed away. -which also sent from the same It is not very sensible of the Pontiff to get his meat from such a distant place. like the THREE YEAKS IN TIBET. I went on for another five miles. and was so struck it its beauty that he stood gazing at it. thinking that must be a palace of the Gods. it makes no difference whether his meat is bought at Lhasa or at that particular place. killed for him. When he recovered himself.side below this nionastery is a place where 3'aks. The palace is so splendid that even its picture looks beautiful. and the Tibetans have so superstitious a regard for the sheep (se'\'en in number) the meat of which of the road is offered to the Dalai Lama daily. and at therefore. students than their fixed number. the impression it creates at first sight. He saw the magnificent palace. while he lives in the city but he takes another view. other kinds of meat. and goats are killed f(jr the table of the Dalai Lama. He desires to get his meat without being This responsible for giving the order to kill the animals. and near to he does not want to have it thouglit that the animals are . but since it is settled that the meat is served to him shall be taken from this jilace. Rebung monasteiy. looks verj.286 can. he found that there with . take in either fewer sliee]). that they ask for of the animal as such things as the wool and other keepsakes. is pai'ts the Dalai Lama eats place. A certain country- man once drove to Lhasa some asses heavily loaded with butter. Besides sheejo. but there is a quaint little story about it which shows bottom. When he had gathered them.. special care taken in selecting the animals for slaughter.good. I am not going to describe it in detail. the jilace wdiich I had seen from Genpala.

constructed somewhat after the •Chinese fashion. for I was of large open court. find the lost one. the image of Buddha came to be placed in the temple. and came to a bridge called Yuthok Samba.ARRIVAL JN l. This were nine instead of ten. he answered that some one must have stolen his ass while he was looking at the palace. when I came to a sort Here I had to alight. he had not counted the ass on which he was riding. and looked about anxiously to asked what he was looking for.HASA. over which is built a roof in tlie Chinese style. I crossed the bridge and went on another hundred and twenty yards before I found myself at the western gate of Lhasa. It was before king Srong-tsan Grambo (who later introduced . I passed through the gate and rode on some two hundred and fifty yards. I went half a mile along a wide road. 287 OUTLINE OF THE RESIDENCE OF THE DALAI LAMA. a hundred and twenty feet by fifteen. for he had come thither It was some time before he found that 'with ten asses. I enquired how before the large temple of Buddha. When shows how the magnificence of the palace had affected him. south-east of the palace hill.

where it has remained ever since. the Princess took it to the city of Lhasa. but was made by a Buddhist sculptor.288 THKEE YEAES IN TIBET. It was soon found necessary to preach a new form of Buddhism and to invent new characters in which to write its teachings. were sent to India to study Buddhism. and required at the same time that she might be permitted to take with her an image of Buddha. I could not help shedding tears over the goodness of Buddha. for the whole story shows it. sixteen in number. Vishvakarma by name. I my faith in Buddha. Buddha was not originally carved in China. a son of the premier of Tibet. to the great advantage both and of Buddhism. a daughter of the Chinese Emperor Ta-sung of the Thang dynasty. Conse- new Tibetan for letters were formed. There are many cheap inns and hotels in Lhasa. and I have entirely given myself up to as I Him and His religion. So learned quently. but had been informed that they were not respectable^ I desired to stay with a friend. and when he was engaged to Princess Un-ching. still Buddha how great is claims the greatest worship from me. men. and Buddhist doctrines were translated into Tibetan. Buddhism into the country) was won to the religion. The image was thus brought into the country by the Princess at the same time as Buddhism itself. While at Darjeeling I had become acquainted with . which enabled me to see His image at this temple as well as at Budclhagaya in India. I need not say. She demanded a promise from his father that Buddhism should be widely preached in Tibet. of Tibet Buddhism was This image thus of taught over thirteen centuries. of When for lifted was introduced into Tibet through up my thanks before this image Buddha my safe arrival in Tibet. whence I it China. I do not mean that do not respect other Buddhist deities. which had just been brought from India. and to invent new characters. The request being granted. in India.

and was obliged to go there for him. It was known as Bandesha— a magnificent mansion on a plot of about three hundred and sixty feet square. I had no alternative but to go to him. but there also I could not find him. and now. They told me that he had gone out of his mind two years before. and was told the same thing. and did me a lodging during many things for him. giving myself out as a Tibetan. though I did not mean to demand a return for what I had done for him. on whom I could not depend. I waited there for over two hours. and I cannot have been much cleaner than a Tibetan. So I at once hired a coolie to carry my baggage. Hitherto I had passed for a Chinaman. this 289 young noble. I had not trimmed my hair nor shaved my face. and started for the monastery. Like the Rebung monastery. so I made up my mind to pass for one and to live among them. and then to pass the regular entrance examinations.AEEIVAI. I entered the house and asked if he was but heard that my friend had become a lunatic. The examinations for a Tibetan might be too difficult for me. and he had I liked offered ray stay in Lhasa. So I called at his house. so I made up my mind to it direct my steps to the Sera monastery. I learned that he was staying at his brother's villa at Narasailing. as I came from Jangthang. where I feared I might be detected. still I could command the Tibetan language almost as 37 . and when seen from a distance looked like a village. I arrived at the monastery at four o'clock and at once called at the dormitory of Pituk Khamtsan. it was built on the slope of a hill. and then I reflected that it would be of no use for me to see a madman. for I thought would be better for me to be temporarily admitted in the college. and that he went mad at regular periods. nor bathed for a long time. him. IN LHASA.. as I was told he might come. but as such I should have had to go to Pate Khamtsan. in. Guided by the coolie.

Each Khamtsan has its own property. but I will three departments Ta-tsang. take the charge of the house. and all the Khamtsans as a whole are called Sera. It is divided into Maye Ta-tsang. lor the small ones have about fifty priests in them.200 THREE YEAES IN TIJiET. I must say something brieHy about the Sera college. that I could pass without detection. — Je-Ta-tsang. and I was often treated as one. and when I told him about my desire to obtain the year. temporary admission.800 priests. Before I go any further in my narrative. who in turn. by The then head of the dormitory was a very kind and simple old man. The former two departments have eighteen dormitories. and department contains 3. well as a native. The dormitory is occupied by several priests. named Khamtsan. . and so for my own safety I entered the monastery in this guise. called La-toe-pa. These are the largest divisions of the monastery. The first Xgakpa not enter into the sub -divisions. I thought. while there are over a thousand priests in the largest ones. therefore. he gave me ever}' ])articular as to what to do. There were two hundred priests in the house at which I stayed. They differ in size.500 and the third five hundred. the second 2.

flageolets. to deities.ss of priests come to Sera. or lenp down from high rocks. of eight yen a month. The Warrior=Priests of Sera.XLVI. beat drums. and thus test their muscles. harps. the fields or by carrying from the yak-dung from bank of the i-iver Kichu to the monastery wood which has been bi-ought in boats from Sam-ya-e or Kongbo. most of them are from thirty to thii-ty-six j'ears of age when they graduiite. The warrior-priests have no money to ])civ for a course They earn their way by gathering of study in the college. the principal course of the Sera college. who in Tibetan are called Lob-nyer and Thab-to respectivelj^. run up mounifiiii'--. an expense of three yen or. The former cIf. As they come to the college after they have finished the study of the regular courses. a target. The\' graduate from the college after a study of twenty yeai-s. It is also among their daily tasks to play fiutes. though a few clever jiriests receive the decree of doctor at the age of twenty-eight years. but the warrior-priests have another strange daily task to do by which they Every day they repair deserve their strange name. wifli the purpose of study. certain hills and practise throwing large stones at to They jump. scholar-pviests and warrior-priests. Then thirty-five or they serve the scholar-priests as their servants.^ as loudly as they . and to prepare offerings for the The above tasks may not be too humble a low class of jiriests. during which time their special study is the Buddhist Catechism and philosophy. lyres. lu Tibet tliei-e are two classes of priests. as their at CHAPTER name shows. for Atintei\al& Ih'"^ 'ing liovmlnr son g. if they take the regular course.

If both fight bravely till they are wounded. other with of fighting. for they THREE YEARS IN TIBET. and the warrior-priests are therefore allowed sometimes to do things quite unbecoming to priests When any grave matter occurs. these Tibet. This is an open secret. after. the higher class Lamas remote guar. in northern plains in they take these priests as their some body Having no wives to look So invincible and implacable are these fighting priests that they are the most feared Tliey are very quarrelsome. both the fighters go to the appointed place.lii. serious provocation. Once challenged. They fight each swords while If either the umpires judge their way combatants does anything cowardly or mean. be surprised to know or th«y When. though of any in Tibet. with officers tu see them well carried out. 292 can. the umpire leaves the fighters to themselves. are proud of their good voices. they meet death calmly. travel district. the umpire bids them stop fighting. till one or the other is killed. mostly in the evening. When they have no fixed task in the temple. they have rules of their own. of the . anJ. the for instance. no priest can honorably avoid the duel. but the beauty of young boys presents an exciting cause. for to shun it would instantly excom- municate him from among his fellow-priests and he would be driven out of the temple.. and the theft of a boy will often lead to a duel. Then they practise fighting with clubs. There are chiefs among the warrior-priests. they rarely fall out with one another without some They are very daring. they are to their respective seen going of practice. chiefs are often ordered to attend to it with the other warrior-priests A duel being agreed upon. the or anybody else. priests places use by threes or fives The leader may are in that' wonder of what and will perhaps are of great use. too. They scarcely ever fight for a pecuniary matter.

and I have found in them many other On the other points that claim my respect and liking. tliat the warrior-priests be a doctor indispensable among them. Besides. and under that influence they do many rude things. someone accidentally discove ed that I was a and from that time I came to be paid undeserved respect by these priests. This pleased them so much that I I great favorite among them. consider to me often made them worse to go to a native doctor when they were woj. though kind and truthful at first sight. who. but they are much more truthful than the nobles and other priests of the land. When uliey were wounded in their feet or hands during their practice they came to me for cure. think that half-civilised people are more easily cured of wounds than easily set civilised people. except when they offered me something in return and compelled me to accept This kindness won me their hearts. gratis and far better than their native doctors did. Besides. warrior-priests. I scarcely ever took fees from tliem for their recovery.s. to many One day. I was often troubled in my intercourse with the by them in many duties and obliga- . Everywhere became a was greeted with the protruded tongue of salutation. in the The use of all intoxicants being strictly prohibited go when they Lhasa. and takes them to Lhasa. while I treated their wounds. Sera monastery. take the opportunitj' of drinking much of them. Tlic-y saw that it it. The warrior-priests are as a rule not deceitful and cunning at heart. or set their bones. A sprained arm was began so to rigli:. They are very true to their They may look a little rough. where they make friends over a cup of chang (beer or wine). and I gave them medicine gra:is. 293 He tells them to make peace. are deceitful and crafty in seeking their own benefit and happiness. and I was strangely successful with them. hand.THE WAERIOR-PRIESTS OP SEEA. tion. I was helped and guarded respects. I doctor.iJed in a duel.

He seemed to think that also. who hide a mean and warm garments of wool. chief professor of the department which I was him me probationary student. and I was obliged to. according to the regulations of I did not Iniy a priest's robe. A beard is much valued by jirovinces the Tibetans. As my object was pair of shoes. I ]\)urney of over ten months.294 THKEE YEAHS IN TIBET. But 1 answered well. and put a red cloth about two . to question I So I went to Je T'a-tsang. and he put his right me hand on my head. for he was well acquainted with the geography of the country. and a the monastery. I called on the professor with a present of the best tea to be procured in Tibet. though the Kham and other remote that after I was give known medicine to make that I so eager to have a beard. so that they had trimmed and shaved neither hair nor beard in my had grown very long. let it grow. On the day after my I arrival. They would say must have used some medicine to make my beard to grow beards. be a doctor I was often asked to the beard grow. when off I got a jiriest to shave my head. They are grow so long. because they generally have inhabitants of none. he asked several geographical questions. as usual. as I had trMvelled through the provinces on my own feet. It was thus settled that I might be admitted on probation. and told me that it would be veiy unwise of me to do so when it had grown so beautiful. So two classes of priests. as I could in time use the to enter. I was joking. but before 1 was admitted as a found that no examinations were to be given. to be a student priest I bought a hat. His first question " Where are you from ? was \'ou look like a Mongolian. asked him to shave my beard He wondered why I wanted to have it shaved off. for <nie which had been given to me. therefore. crafty behavior under their far for the r. a rosary. So I saluted the Lama with mv tongue out. : are you not one?" Being answered in the negative.tiinas.

engaged a There was a Lama living in the dormitory opposite to mine. I had then to prepare and found that as I myself for the regular entrance examination of the depart- ment of logic. It Avas this man who had asked me if I would take meat. and I was thus soon busy preparing myself. and whom I had told that I did not take it. and to get his permission. I second. and I replied that I had been robbed. One day I was called to his room to see him. The reader must know that (jne has to put such a piece of cloth in round the neck Tibet. " Then you are not from Jangthang. a nice gentle Tibetan. but now I was entirely unmasked. and this person happened to be the one who had treated me very kindly during my journey with the caravan. He then asked me why i had violated the regulations of the place. I was told that among the disciples of the Lama there was oneTobten. as he might have heard from his disciple. and then he told me that he had heard 1 was a Chinaman and good at writing Chinese characters." said the Lama. Finding however that one teacher was not sufficient for the many subjects I had to study. for a Chinaman must go to Pate Khamtsan. at Jangthang. I had hitherto been supposed to have come fi'om Jangthang. because he feared that my deceit might being trouble upon the dormitory. had a permit from the professor T could easily get the sanction of the priest. and thus I was admitted into the college. a stout priest who seemed to be very learned. feet 295 long round my neck as the sign of my admission. and among other questions I was asked if I had not come with a caravan of Ruto from Jangthang to the Sakya temple. and thatl had not money . I had then I in the presence of all noble Jjamas to appear before the priest who sees that the laws are carried out.THE WAREIOR-PRIESTS OT SERA. On the following day 1 found a teacher to help me in my preparation. On my confessing that 1 was not a Tibetan 'he was grieved.

to enter into the enough Pate Khamtsan as a Chinaman. I then asked him to help me to stay with him. In this way I kept on studying day and I was night. pay something for service every year. and I passed for a man from Jangthang. I should have to t . till I had a great swelling in my shoulders. adding that he would leave the matter till objection should be made. I said. obliged to draw some blood from the shoulders by a device of my own. Having told him all these secrets. if I went to the Chinese house. and that he was very sorry for me. Besides. So I was left there without further trouble. which soon cured the swelling. as I could not go to the other house.296 THREE YEAES IN TIBET. The Ijama said that his disciple had told him of the robbery. and then I went to a druggist in the city to buy some medicine.

each surmounted with a movable blade like that of a Chinese These blades had hilt guards. seemed rather heavy. drums. and no one would tell me any more.safety of the Emperor of China. Tibet and North China. under which hung spear. thus making the spear twenty-five feet long altoThe spear. Next followed flutes. On 'enquiry I was told that Peking was invaded by the troops of several foreign countries. I was quite anxious to know more particulars. At the monaster)^ where I lived they held a seci-et meeting for seven days. the handle of which was either of gether. They might be too late.CHAPTER On the 7tli XLVII. First came the players on lyres. They were then to perform something secret for the victory of China. but they were all kept secret. but at every temple in Tibet. about six feet high. during which time special priests offered secret prayers. sixteen feet long. four feet high. and that the Chinese seemed to have been beaten. and large followed by men carrying incense-burners. spear-like objects on each side of the road. The prayer service was held in the Tsochen Hall at Sera. of April I went to see a great service of prayer for the Chinese Emperor in connexion with the " Boxer " war. gold or gilt. 38 . and after it another triangular board. Then came ten nice looking Tibetan boys. flageolets. It was held not only at Sera. all dressed in fine Buddhist robes ornamented with coloredChinese crape. with various figures made of butter on it. fifty gold brocade or fine colored Chinese crape. for two strong warriorThen came a triangular board priests carried each of them. and each burning incense. and commenced with a long warlike procession. still in their teens. they said. but they prayed for the .

" the most splendid I Thus was the ceremony over. There the chief Lama recited something in front of of the triangular figures of butter and of baked wheat. It marched out about two hundred yards from the great hall to an open yard outside the stone fence. built of bamboo. where the view opened as far as Lha^a. made of a mixture of baked flour. Half of these beat drums. the procession came before a grass-roofed shed. His steps and gait were very odd and different from any dancings that I had. They then set fire to the shed. and the of Lhasa came out in great crowds to see it. On the following day all the priests of the monastery were invited . who was to offer the secret prayer. crying out " Lha-kyallo Lha-hijcdlo ! " This is a Tibetan word. Soon the chief Lama was seen. one of had ever seen in Buddhism. spectators clapped their hands. These boards were borne by seven or eight men. at which signal the spear-bearers threw their spears at the shed and then the triangular board of baked flour was thrown at it also. dressed in handsome robes and scarfs quite dazzling to the eye. After these priests cams the chief Lama.ever seen. at the burning of which the priests as well as the people . After them came some two hundred priests. Thus the procession presented a grand sight. and beat drums and cymbals. while the other half carried cymbals. He had dressed himself with some red figure butter and honey. for he marched through their ranks beating time. Another two hundred yards further. in the splendid robes of his high rank. meaning " surely the Gods will triumph. A priest with a pair of cymbals walked through the lines of the priests he seemed to be a sort of band-master. while the two hundred priests around him chanted verses from the Buddhist Scriptures. wood and straw.! 298 THEEE YEARS IN TIBET. Last of all his disciples followed. pretending to throw away his rosary. and of the spear-shaped objects.

to pray that the Dalai Lama of Tibet might be kept from all evil during the year. merchant. her army had taken possession of Peking. In the capital Tibetan capital. could not be such a friendly done Hut others would say against Japan that she country. might have brought the news but it was all very laughable and unreliable. know what to believe. even the very name of which had not yet been heard in Tibet. which was so strong that her troops took possession of Peking. 299 Lhasa to attend the Cho-eii Joe service. some said. while others told me that the Emperor was defeated and was then in Sin-an. every sort of rumor was abroad in the . which lasted a month. and rumor was making its way through Tibet. who married an English lady to the Emperor. The trouble was brought about. . but must have what she had done merely out of her crafty after " land-grabbing diplomacy. Another said that a famine prevailed in China and people were all famished indeed. This was a celebration to said to be only second in importance to the other. or some who had came from Nepal or some who had been to India. Some would say the Emperor of China had bequeathed his throne to the Crown Prince and absconded. Perhaps some merchants who had returned from China. by a wicked minister. she had sent shiploads of rice. and took lodging in the house of a Palpo I got more definite information about the Boxer trouble. while others asserted that there was a country called Japan. I also went to Lhasa. wheat and clothing to the Chinese capital to relieve tens of thousands of natives who were suffering fi-om famine. " as the British nation did. and some merchants told me that Japan was so powerful and so chivalrous that even when. I was^ especially pleased to hear something about Japan. Only I was pretty sure that a war had broken out between China and I Rumor did not .I'lUKT ANU tJOKTH CHINA.

first see that the man by whom to be sent is honest and not likely to betray one's secret. at intervals of thirty minutes.300 other Powers. fore. but letter in that it is was very difficult to send a way one must . sound of flutes called all the priests in Lhasa to the place They chanted the Scriptures and were given of meeting. The Gho-en Joe was a meeting of a kind I had never seen before. such as singing profane songs. Some twenty thousand priests attended that celebration. wari-ior-priests. or pushing each other about. with another and central 8akya temple. No priest was admitted into the Sakya temple but the Dalai Lama or the "greater" professors. But my Tibetan had more than once been shown to be true to his trust. Of the twenty thousand very few were regular priests. Hige of my native province. who came only with the mean all object of filling their stomachs. and often quarrelling with. butter and tea. where the ordinary priests sat. The same kind of pavement was found on the second and third floors. I utilised the occa- and through two letters^ one to Rai I. Instead of reciting from the Scriptm-es. and one cannot easily trust a Tibetan. A wide pavement ran along inside the walls. as usual. In the meantime the Palpo merchant with his kindness sent whom I was sion staying was going to Nepal. In the first place there was a Sakya temple over two hundred and forty yards square. who sat there One could see the rowdiness of these making obscene jokes. one another. the rest being either warrior-priests or loafers. though they did not always attend the meetings. one hundred and twenty yards square. three times. . while over twenty-five thousand assembled on the occasion of the festival held at Lhasa for the safety About five in the morning the of the Emperor of China. theresorts of things during they were openly doing the meeting. THBEE YEAKS IN TIBET. I was glad it to find afterwards that they reached their destination. Sarat Chandra Das in India. and the other to Mr.

but so many merchants . He had the degree of doctor.' from the officers. and the body of his victim is simply thrown away for the birds to devour. and he takes a bowlful of gruel On their way back to their and three cups of tea. In this respect some Tibetan merchants. Each priest brings a bowl which is holds a pint or more. did the office of Tsan-ni his spiritual condition in the least . that occasionally they even This is from the effects of rough treatment. and his fame had spread far and wide. They take baked flour in tea during that time. they receive ge. The guard-priest does not judge between the quarrelling priests. which in Tibetan means alms. It is said that some ' give as much as twenty-five sen or fifty sen per head to each of the priests. Warrior-priests train themselves for two hours in the morning. There once was among these priests a Russian spy from Mongolia. So he is much are detailed to keep order feared by iirst the other priests. some guard-priests among them. landowners and high oflacers believers they are sometimes known to thousand yen in alms to these give There are many who give that sum in that way. Usually the gruel is made of rice. considered to be murder. head. and given gi-atis. and held Kenbo. surprise. respective lodgings. 301 The warrior-priests being so lawless. not improve alms-giving. he often takes them mercilessly by die and thrashes so his them most on not. He often made such Such donations. with much meat in it. the perpetrator of the deed is not punished. without religious faith. and much money is known to be sent for that object are very generous. and at the end thev are given some gruel. who take Still to their huts at the sign of his presence. however. priests. limbs or body. but strikes them any time he sees them quarrelling.TIBET AND NORTH CHINA. or for eight nine from Mongolia.

Inhere were many strange figures formed. and it is during them. money for the sake of their business. It is impossible to . which is as a rule very solemn. treasure. and they patiently wait till they retarn to their own temples. and several Indian tribes were to be seen in the long procession of over two and a half miles. because while they are in Lhasa they authority of the magistrate priest of the under the temple. persons in it played with one auother while spectators. is Rebung and not of their own temples. and the is the best time of the year for begets bad conduct. differently dressed. I On the day that the great celebration was over. that they are afraid to fight a duel before him. the They in the procession various treasures most attractive and musical instruments.302 give THREE YKAKS IN TIBET. Imitations were there of every instrument. each with a special mark. followed by the eight devil kings. Each group was followed by three Unlike a or five hundred priests. lyres. the Tibetan procession marched in a sportive manner. that this doctor was content to think his alms had also promoted In these ways the priests get much money. carried They would even joke with the such as drums. or dress found in Tibet. for the festival procession. objects imitations being some of dragons. fiageolets and Indian flutes. religious procession in Japan. as a rule not generally is festival season A they fight only it appoint the place and time their for it and after they get back to own are dormitories. and of the old costumes that are found in Tibetan history . strict and exacting. after the model of the treasures of the submarine dragon^s palace. This magistrate known to be so severe. moving. pipes. and that duels are most frequent. his virtue. Sufficiency such times that the priests are most contentious and duel vindictive. fought in Lhasa itself. First saw a came groups dressed as the four divine kings. as they told me.

TIBET AND NOETH CHINA. the fifth Pontiff of the New in a Sect. as I saw it only once . This procession had one of the strangest of origins. devised the procession after one dream Buddhist Paradise. my memory does It not serve me for other particulars. 303 enter into details. . and a it which he saw seemed quite fitting that such curious procession should have so vague an origin. is said that Ngak Wang in the G-yamtso.

let rae say. and I was admitted to the college. forty It was on April 18th that I presented myself with other candidates. go through my formal entrance examinations before the festival was entirely over.CHAPTER I did not see as I XLVIII. their object was something more than mere study. they would say. from fifty sen to one yen and sometimes two yen a month per scholar-priest. Admission into Sera College. but it generally came to some ten yen a j'ear. I must have studied it. The examinations were such as are generally given to those who have finished the common course in Tibetan schools. It was on account of that sum of money that many warrior-priests tried to pass the examination. Among the members were a few warrior-priests also. The amount was not fixed. was given both written and oral examinations. and had since studied hard to be had admitted. and I devoted all Once more I overworked spare moments to preparation. and I was obliged to tell them that I had read a few books on medicine. I was admitted as a student of tlie successful . But. though all were not equally fortunate. Scholarships were awarded. They run into debt. because I could cure mj^ own illness. This caused no little wonder among my neighbors^ and I was often asked if I had studied medicine. Before the celebrations were over. This because had to led me to practise it among them afterwards. for only seven out of the forty passed. much of the festival as I might have done. besides the recitation of a passage from the Scriptures. Tbey were not so difficult for me as I had expected. myself. but I bought some more medicine. I went back to my I own monastery for my examination. and was soon well again.

Here Chi means the heart of the Bodhisattva Manjushri and its utterance is supposed to make the questioner one with Him. Sambhogakaya and Nirmanakaya. and the questioner stands up with a rosary in his left hand. which priest-students varying from boys m men in the forties and fifties were studyBuddhist catechism. the questioner goes on to ask " But he was not above was he ? " he will say that it no more than mortal. whose real body is knowledge. for Buddha was If must say also that Buddha had three bodies. The catechised sits in a certain attitude. the answer in the atfirniative or the negative. though himself above will then reply that submitted himself to it in his incarnated body. uttering the words. may be whether Buddha was human or not. and the ways of questioning. Buddha. that one would have thought they were quarrelling with one another while discussing. The rest of the utterance literally means. he be answered in the affirmative. and walks towards him. 305 their teens to ing the fashion. if bright enough. stance. called in Samskrt Dharmakaya. emphasis. Whether mortality. and intonation are quite interesting.ADMISSION INTO SBEA COLLEUK. Chi ! chi tawa choe chan." earnest Then the rules for of in- begins in of according first the the logic Nyaya. first class. is The question. active. Choeku. These terms ' The all pervading body consisting of the purest mean : 39 . and in Tibetan. . The answerer. The catechism is a very pleasant performance. He death." The sense of the whole is " We shall begin the discussion following the nature of ' ' Truth as discussion it is manifested in the Universe. He stretches out his hands with the palm of the left hand downwards and that of the right hand upwards and claps them together. according to the Tibetan in Their way of studying was so interesting and and they were so earnest an-d fervent. could not be so. " in that nature of the truth. Lonjoeku and Tulku.


The question happened to be about physiognomy (kan-sa). the devils of hell in the mind. the ple that questioner never take advantage of the opportunity. Whether the answer be in the affirmative or negative. and that the hands must make so great a noise that the voice of knowledge may by a fearless The object of the questions heart and a brave and answers is to free the mind from all worldliness.AJJMISSION INTO SEKA OOLLEUB. eujcj^iug ' ' the body derived from complete happiness with the light of Truth. to be a pipe.' If the catechised shows any fails weak to point in his answers. -he beats time with hands and feet. the same countryman ed blows came to worship at the temple of Sera. and to get into the very bottom of Truth. for the priests were seemingly very much provoked and railed at each other and exchangThree years later. attitude. which in Tibetan is synonymous with a tobacco-pipe. The countryman thought that they were disputing over a tobaccopipe. holding out his pipe. and felt very sorry for them. it countryman once came to see the scene. he will go on asking many questions in succession. and that with so much animation that. The teacher always teaches the oatechists that the foot must come that the door of hell down so strongly may be broken open.' and the body derived from his boundless mercy and transcendental knowledge for the good of all beings. and drives him real on. when he utters the words of a question. . and was very much surprised that a pipe should be the matter of the quarrel. giving no power to frighten the devils all over the world. less virtues. 307 his count- virtue of Truth in liim'. So he thought he would settle the dispute by arbitration. saying for exam- Buddha was a man born in India. To show how excitedly is the catechism is carried on. and again happened to see the priests disputing hotly about what he thought said that a ! saw them strike each other at the end of the dispute. He He then walked among the priests.

The New Sect of Buddhism owes a great deal of its fine prospects to its catechism. The Catechism is generally held at some beautiful where there are many fine trees.308 wliicli 'ii-iKjla YUARS In TibEi'. add. such as place. elms. willows. This method seems to excite so great an interest among jariest-students that there are alwaj^s many Mongolians in Tibet. while the Old Sect has already lost popularity and is now tottering. tion. the priests have what is ideas the people at large. Though dispute. he offered the pipe and begged them great laughter to settle the thereby causing among them. let But me . It takes the natives twenty years of hard and unceasing study. nuts. with such excitement and with hardly any formality that the questions are asked and answered. When the first Catechism is over. for a half-civilised nation. The catechism forms the chief part of the education of priests. and hardly fewei' at other large temples. and are very rich. with examinations every year. There are three hundred Mongolians at the 8era college. are far . Still it must not be supposed that one could answer these questions without a knowledge of Buddhism. in logical ideas. to obtain the degree of a doctor. though on the whole Tibet does not possess a large variety of trees. It is it was none of his business to coine among the priests. One has to read many texts and reference books before one can go through these questions. who come so far and through so much Tibetan hardship with the sole object of receiving education there. such as that of Tashi Lhunpo. he meant to give them. It is by this spirited Catechism that the naturally dull and lazy Tibetans are goaded on to understand Buddhism. peaches and various others which are not found in Japan. it is only the learned that are rich in logical who have received little educafrom being intelligent. The ground under the trees is covered with beautiful white sand.

and enclosed by stone walls five or six feet high with a gateway constructed in of Truth. diiference of classes. Day and that it night I studied in this way. and after the reading. With their vehement. So one may easily fancy how seen cpestioning While I was having a Catenoisy and excited they are. Under their shades the wrangling priests discuss. 309 termed the G-arden place. . the rest keeping silence. The questioner and the answerer might change. however. to instruction. uncouth gestures strange. there and young and old priests are is no each other. This helps them a great deal to improve their knowledge and wisdom. they begin questioning one another. In the garden. snowchism among I stopped questioning and. Their doubts to melt. went too I now found another them to receive their sometimes came to teach me. there may be no more than one questioner and one answerer. but they could be taken only from that one class. there are no such limitations. In spring the blooming flowers of the peach Are fully blown in " Dharnia-garden" there. like to the melting snows Beneath these trees emitting odours sweet. struck with the beautiful scene around me. Greeting with welcome glee the friendly snows. them under a jjeach-forest in blossom. I thus while they consider- made able progress in my learning. Here they make no difference of classes. I left me too many precious hours to have only one priest to teacher. I wi'ote two Japanese poems which served to give my friends at home some idea of my thoughts.Admission into sekA collegk. But finding soon teach me. whether the class consist of fifty or a hundi-ed priests. flakes began to fall on us. The priests gather themselves there to read from the Scriptures. at ai-e varieties of Chinese fashion. At the other place. The ground there is also covered with white sand. but ask one another concerning their text books and everything else. where there some e(|aany well-wooded flowers.

I was on my walk and happened to hear the pitiful cries of the wounded boy. The sj^ecial favorite of his instructor. young priest priest next door quarrelled with another and hit him with a stone. and was told. they seemed to be much surprised at my improbable question. to the Tibetans. wounded lad was a who feared very much Bone-setting is quite unknown that he might be deformed.310 There to is 'i'UKEE YJEAKS in TiteT. while a Tibetan held his head and left hand. Then I acupunctured that part where the muscle was a little swollen. that it was far better not to do so. I easily set his bone. So going to the wounded boy. which dislocated the student has to observe as a sign of his admittance. and their doctors. when I asked why they did not send for a doctor. a strange custom which a new college I had go to Lhasa and to travel^ as a sign of my admittance^ But one day a young for two days to beg for fuel. It was with some difficulty that I made them believe that a dislocated bone can be easily set. give some inedioine to drink or use. and the boy was soon cured. apply heated iron. who have no knowledge of how to set a dislocated bone. . have one. as it would oidy They were not going to be a heavy expense for nothing. or bone of his upper arm. When I asked if no doctor in Tibet could set a dislocated bone.

reward from the poor. No one in the neighborhood of Lhasa seemed to know how to cure the disease. whole . but the more I declined. their faith in me .with the Incarnate Bodhisattva. and gave it to some patients suffering from dropsy. It is dropsy. So I tried every means to keep the patients from me. medicine gratis. but gave them This may have had a great deal to do with my popularity. I glad to say that this medicine cured six or seven patients out of every ten. began to be known in the city of Lhasa and in the country as far as Shigatze. There is one disease which is most feared as to these patients. Meeting. it is true) and this enabled me to use the medicines. and I was at last obliged to get some medicines from Thien-hothang (a Chinese druggist) in Lhasa. and I came to be regarded as a God of medicine. the more patients I found brought to me. This healing made me an object of much talk. though T could not heal cases that were far gone. I now ing. am This in made me quite famous and my name. I prepared for it a medicine of which I had been told by a Tibetan hermit. fatal by the Tibetans. if at all different from beri-heri. known only my own monastery at first. Often two horses were sent on for me from places of three I took no days' journey distant to take me to patients. and 1 soon found myself surrounded by manjr patients. I gave the medicines most of whom recovered either throvigh or through the efncacy of the drugs for I had studied the rudiments of medical science (of the old school. little. began to fear that I should thus be prevented from studyand so fail to accomplish my chief end.CHAPTER XLIX.

fell ill When. but desired to see what I looked like. therefore. made some patients fear to to die. Some did not like to be told that death was near them.312 THEEE YEAES IN are TIBET. without giving them any medicine. When they fall ill. Some doctors. His recommendation must have come out of his love of fame. too. saw him in person nor is it probable that he ever saw me. while the others. before any doctor is sent for. Fame travels surprisingly fast. was told. in my those who were the stages the disease. I There gave first many medicine of cases to of consumption patients in Tibet. and wherever I went. This. to meditation or religious services and die at ease. In Tibet it is no easy matter sure to . come before me. nor even . and women especially were frightened to The Tibetans have a strange habit. The sorcerer. for it was said that those to whom medicine was given recovered. never asked him to mention me. Often I received a letter politely requesting me to come. come to me. generally with a letter of introduction. began to recommend mp to his patients when he saw my name was making so great a stir in see the patients cured Tibet. whom I taught about death and the future. and at last mine reached the Royal Court. for the life of the patient was supposed to depend entirely on me. a sorcerer is asked to see which doctor is best and what kind of medicine is good. to He would I tell his patients to be sure to come me. but chronic cases I left without any medicine. being pleased by the doctor whom he suggested. a high officer or priest and was told by his sorcerer to see me. A horse was sent to bring me. therefore. were sure that they might gain I salvation. so that I was one day called there. I was very kindly received. therefore. The Dalai Lama was not in reality ill. are so wicked to as to bribe the sorcerer to recommend them enough to the patients. I was be sent for.

whiie boxes in the shape of post pillai's about six yards In them incense is burned when the Dalai goes Lama is along the road. The Grand Lama was not then at Potala. along which were seen manj beautiful stone houses for the priest ofHcials to live in. at the four corners as well as little some other parts of the stone fences are found kennels. therefore a great honor to me. south-west of Potala. None of his predecessors. in which two or three score strong Tibetan dogs are chained. have had such a liking for They bark The gates to the Papal palace are at the east dogs. till I came to a high stone wall over twenty feet high and three hundred and fifty 3'ai'ds square. hundred yards. I came to a square j)iece of ground enclosed by stone fences about one hundred and fifty yards square. rode along a wide road in the forest for about three hundred and fifty yards. but no ordinary priests or even high priests can have the privilege of talking to him. I went west through the large gate in the wall.MEETING WITH THE INCARNATE BODHISATTVA. and west corners of the walls and face south. but at his counti-y palace called Nolpu Lingka. The Dalai Lama is said to be so fond of dogs that whoever brings him a strong hound is treated very kindly and receives great rewards. This was. What is stranger still. About thirty 40 . and I took the liberty of riding the horse sent to take me to the Royal palace. to see His Holiness. in a forest along the Kichu. These houses have each a flower garden which is beautifully decorated with as many trees and plants as can be found in Tibet. This palace is much newer than I the other. and the Pope enjoys the coolness there in summer. 313 He may be seen while passing. however. though there After about a a very wide lawn within the court. Lofty trees are grown in the courtyard on both sides of the road. terribly from their high pens. and found on both sides of the road inside the gate many apart. Hence many dogs are brought from great distances.

. study. and his face resembled mine so much that we might be taken flowers. the other of Tsong-kha-pa. was very busy. with three butter-candles that were left burning both day and night. yards from the gate was a large house into which my horse was led. After this talk with the physician. Then I was taken of to the house of the Court Physician. as he must not talk long with him. and we went north towards the gate mentioned above. The parlor has Chinese sliding doors in white. and there were two beautiful high desks before him. He said that the Dalai Lama might have something that the physician must consult me about. in front of which there was a fur cushion for the guest to sit upon. peacocks. In the room were two images. the founder of the New Sect. which he poured into the physician's cup and then into mine on the desk. This residence the Court Physician has four large rooms^ parlor. and very soon a servant priest brought in the very best tea.314 THREE YEAES IN TIBET. one enters another garden. The Physician was sitting on a Tibetan carpet with painted flowers. Going under the curtain. set on a gilt stand. one of Buddha and house is The beautiful flowers. servants' room and kitchen. I was told to sit on this fur cushion. approached through a garden full of and one then comes to a curtain of white linen. Before the images were Tibetan candlesticks of silver. New for brothers. The physician was said to be very kind and gentle. he added. There was a guard-priest at the gate. with panes of glass. at one side of which is the entrance to the parlor. I was led by him to the Palace. and Such images are found in most shrines of the Sect. who was patients that he wished to see me. ously The physician told me that the Dalai Lama was not seriill and that it was because I had healed so many I But. with pictures of dragons.

that the Pope was well versed in Chinese. I went left along the covered way till I came to the end of the western wall. I had made up mj' mind. for then my imposture would be discovered. the Lord Chamberand Ghoe Bon Kenbo the Papal Chaplain. had a court between them. each with a short club instead of a long one. and the walls. and I feared that he might speak in Chinese.MEETING WITH THl! INCAKNATS BODHISATTVA. and I answered that I had been told I would do with pleasure as he wished me. siirrounded by covered ways. He told me to stay long at Sera and to do as I had done. taking him. and the two former attendants stood on each side. while the He was preceded by Dunnyel Chenmo Tutor sat on the chair a little below them. Seven or eight high priests sat before His Holiness. therefore. lain. 815 dressed in a tight-sleeved priestly cloak. There was another gate about nine yards wide in front of thisThe inner gate was guarded by four priests. when the Dalai Lama appeared from his inner chamber. club. The Dalai Lama then began by praising me healed having many poor pi-iests at Sera. which wore roofed over. He keeps guard with a Inside the gate there was a stone pavement some twenty yards square. Instead of going straight through the court. Then withdrew about four yards and for stood beside the physician. that I . After His Holiness came Yongjin Rinpoche the Papal Tutor. which no common priests are allowed to put on. The Dalai Lama took his seat on the light hand chair in front. where there were some things in the shape of stools. off I saluted him three I times. Walking about ten yards from the inner gate iiito the inner court. in front of the Dalai Lama. it saluted him. The Court Physician leading me a little to one side. and my robe one of I my shoulders stepped before when His Holiness stretched out his right hand to put on iny head. I found on both walls a picture of a fierce looking Mongolian leading a tiger by a rein .


he did not talk Chinese. His under dress was what is called Lema woven of the best Chinese sheep wool. Luckily. He wore a fine Papal crown on his head though he is said to be often bare-headed. that I might be worthy of a Japanese. for though brave-looking. to the great disturbance of the country. or not. The Dalai Lama looks very very high. He had on a silk hood and a great robe called sanghati and under it a fine induk of Tibetan wool about his waist. The Dalai Lama was dressed in a cloak different from that of ii common priest. 317 would in that case frankly tell him to what nationality I belonged. and he phrenologist is brave. He was that he was thinking of appointing me to some high office. however. during which I heard and saw much of him and had frequent interviews with him. he had an Whether the prophesy comes true unlucky face. a moderate height in China. so that one could not but pay reverence in his presence. He is about five feet eight inches high. BOfiHlSATTVA. He held a rosary in his left hand. From my long acquaintance with the Dalai Lama. with no crown at all. His eye-brows are Once a Chinese remarked that the Tibetan Pope would bring about war one day.MEBTINGt WITH THE INCAliNATli. I judge that he is richer in thoughts political thai:) very keen-eyed. which pleased to tell me Tibet. he reallj'' looks the very man of whose face a He has phrenologist would be sure to say something. for I deemed it to be a great honor to be granted an interview with him. He was then aged twenty six. though he retired to his chamber before I had finished drinking. After the talk I was honored by a cup of tea in the presence of the Dalai Lama and drank it with much ceremony. but instead inquii-ed in Tibetan about Buddhism and Buddhists in I answered to his satisfaction. . a very sharp and oonnuanding voice.

He great faith. THKEE YEAES IN 'I'JJiB'J'. he always he not been on his guard. were is if poisoned when eighteen or twenty-two years a wise Dalai old. is This that. who are too weak to do anything against them. Had is. When anything haippened against their iri- . The ex-Minister for Finance was among the ill-fated party driven out of the court by these toadies.s But political thoughts are working most busily in his mind. at whose house I was staying at one time. and the reason Lama is on the throne. He seems to fear the British most. He seems to give full scope to all designs calculated to the British. each None of the five Dalai Lamas from the fourth to the all ninth in Tibet reached their twenty fifth year. and they do all they can to neutralise the force of the few loyal courtiers. bred in Buddhism. Some of these seem to have been wise Dalai Lamas.318 religious. for thej^ received special education History until they were twenty-two or three years old. and is always thinking how to keep them from Tibet. which he must have been poisoned by his retainers. proves that they have written books to instruct the people. and in it lie has and he is very anxious to clear away all from the Buddhism and Buddhists in wa. who pretended to pay great reverence to the sacred Monarch before the people. his courtiers cannot gratify their selfish desires. I could plainly see this while check the encroaching force of remaining near him. however. simply because they could not otherwise stay in their offices. and time his caution has detected the conspiracy and the intriguers were put to death. disloyal thieves who go ]iy the name of courtiers. I could not help shedding teai's Avhen the ex-Papal Minister of Finance. told me about the fate of the predecessors of The Papal Court is a den of the present Dalai Lama. corruption Tibet. He has often been on the point of being poisoned. almost an open secret in Tibet.

It is built and Tibetan styles. he is really in great danger. peaches.s I of been known I often to punish. with some charming flowers. and is much respected. In this subtle way some wicked courtiers turned honest scholars or priests out of the court. Chinese and The royal garden has various trees and has here and there such as willows. terests. had occasion palace and found that in the Indian. he seems to have great sympathy with the afflicted. as seen in a Indian garden. that he is obliged to pay the greatest attention to what is offered him to eat. A variety of flowers^ such . The garden has an artificial is hill in it while. to deprive of their estates. while a part of the roof the rest purely Indian. Chinese to the inner chamber of the it was magnificent. 319 they conspired to communicate with one another and They would them shamelesslj^. has a lawn outside The place seems very good after the it walks. and the Dalai Lama is surrounded by these pretended loyalist devils. though much disliked by the evil local governors. The inside of the palace is bu. Still. but shed tears for him. 1 could not often go so far as to slander to accuse falsely the loyal courtiers.ilt is after the Tibetan rocks Tibet. J'oung as he is. and indeed almost worshipped. for Chinese fashion. style.MEETING WITH THE tNCAENATE BODHISATTVA. whom he ha. Hence he is so dangerovisly situated. He is wise for his age. by his people. But the present Dalai Lama is so prudent and particular that these evil doers can get no chance of doing anything against him. and see to imprison for their evil deeds. and say that such and such a person had been guilty of a disrespectful act against the Dalai Lama. elms and many in other strange trees found only in In Tibet only few flowers bloom in summer^ though are there many winter. for. lest some poison should have been piit in it. when be no court on earth so full thought that there could wicked courtiers.

A table of costly wood is set on the carpets. The papal two Tibetan mats at the farther side of the room. invited which was often to the chief physician's to talk about medicine with him. is The pavement decorated here and there with glittering jewels. I many such rooms. and the stands throne by the best painters in Tibet. over which hangs a picture of Je Rinpoche. though the medical knowledge which I had gained from my own books enabled me to keep up with him deal to in the talk. and beside the throne is spread a thick Tibetan carpet. nn ggg on DO iinDmDiiiinnMuL--— INNER ROOM OF "JHE DALAI LAMA'S COUNTRY HOUSE. There are enter. painted on a gold-dusted canvas. was not allowed to but which looked very beautiful from the outside. poppies. He taught me several things about medicine that I did not know. I There is a tea-bureau. besides. . tulips. This must have done a great make the chief physician welcome me so much.320 THREE YEAES IN TIBET. magnolias. over which is a Chinese carpet walls are painted on of wool. as chrysanthemums. and others are planted in front of the palace veranda.

MEETING "WITH THE INCARNATE BODHISATTVA. the physician went on to say that. He said that he would do me at the same time to see Ministers of State. 1 said. for I had only a smattering of medicine I might heal them of their diseases. the Dalai Lama would give orders to keep me in the country. On these grounds I declined his offer. I feared I might do them more harm than good. So far about my rather too plainly. for My when I left there I said that would When my be no good doctor in the city. I said. I might as well stay in the city as a doctor to practise medicine. while a priest could free them from the most painful and durable of all diseases. It was more urgeiit to study how to heal this. could hardly do anything toward the salvation souls. as His disciples. I feared inconvenience to insist changed 41 the . if I ever tried to leave the city for India. When I heard this had been telling him my secrets it would put me to some on going to India. who had given eighty-four thousand religious medicines to eighty-four thousand mental diseases. What doctor. telling the premier and some other answer was however that I could not very well stay long in Lhasa. only relieved men of earthly pains. could save a dying patient ? Besides. however skilful. but to study Buddhism. or some other far-off country. 321 as a He even said lie would be most glad to recommend me Court Physician. The but of doctor. but I could after all. must study His ways of healing. Finding me so firm in my resolution. and at this he felt very sorry. the physician very plausibly argued that as it was the ultimate object of Buddhism to save men. Buddha was the greatest doctor. and we. object was not medicine. I told him also that I intended to go to India to study Samskrt. not give peace to their souls. his best to that end. for I was most earnest to study Buddhism. and that my only happiness lay _ in staying to I began to repent that I work among the priests. and soon subject of our talk.

322 THEEB YEAES IN TIBET. . medical practice. but nowj something took place of which I had never dreamed.

however. though occasionally a rich student may enjoy the possession of a dirty room for himself on admission. Some studies have thii'd floors. It becamo a matter discussion of hot among. The rooms of the first class given a second-class are used only by incarnate Lamas. my strangely smelling. but my new quarters were . was the best. As things were I was given a second-class study. is A priest must reside there some ten years before he . who come to study. he is room. What happened was this. It is one of the regulations of the college that no new-comer shall have a separate room for himself.the priests of our dormitory PitukKhamtsan whether they should leave me to stay there or not. even a dirty one. the noblemen and the Ministers. clean apartment. I was not eligible to have all a room. rooms. I was. to myself. allowed to live in a room of the fourth class after three years more he may be removed to a study room of the third class. only two-storied. and was removed into the good room toward the end of the same month. and put course. Though not among the poor. When he receives the degree of a doctor. But it must be remembered that everything depends on money. I saw the Dalai Lama on July 21st. but that he shall live with some one else in a room. houses well as of furniture as .CHAPTER L. It was a cosy structure of two storeys with a kitchen and a closet. one must have ai'ticles upstairs The room I'o live in such a. as a great doctor. special rule on After a long discussion. Life in the Sera Monastery. the priests came to an agreement that they should make a my of account. because I was being received by the Grand Lama. me in one of the best pleased to be removed from dark and dirty room to a free.

though three large bowlfuls are given the hall of the monastery. A is tea-cup is covered with a silver lid. again. though times raw. during which time those at table will talk to one another. in which case they pay from one to three yen a month. all of which I had fortunately money enough some to buy. a shirt. radishes and fat. twenty yen to proAt breakfast they take butter-tea It costs and baked Rich priests make tea for themselves in every morning. is baked evening they take some gruel cooked with cheese. and a priest's robe. some of them go to seek rooms for themselves in some other. which are in debt. When it it drunk and new tea is poured in again and left some twenty minutes to cool. though some Khamfcsans. tea at of In the afternoon they drink chiefly dried. who had sudden and had been given a house to grown up all of a keep. higher. vegetables are eaten as compared with the amount of meat. I mean those who spend about seven yen a month for their keep. though diverse in studies. priests.324 THKKE YEAES IN TIBET. or twenty-five sen for a dirty room. this time with some meat. of common wool a pair of besides all shoes. middle. I was obliged to procure many articles needed for my new condition. or read from the Scriptures or do some private business. these articles. Such are the meals of a middle-class . I was now like a poor boy. and By the middle class of priests. which are provided by their temple. They do not pay for their dwellings. flour. The Tibetan in general drinks much tea. servant-priests. a Khamtsan is too full of priests. the In Butter-tea always found in a bowl on the table. flour. take When rents from their priests for their studying-rooms. may be classified into three large divisions. though iii winter no more than five or six minutes are needed. A hood vide suit of clothing as used by student-priests consists of a cloth. because very few gets cool. The lower.

but some rich priests have as many as from five hundred to four thousand yaks and from one to six hundred horses. which is consider- ed a great delicacy. These animals are also employed in ploughing the fields. and use very thick butter-tea every morning. carpenters. tailors. The lower class of priests as well as the middle-class engage in trade. being shaken several times in the cylinder fresh yak butter and salt. each lot being as large as will take two yaks to cultivate in a day. They live very luxuriously. They have from one to six hundred lots of land.tll'B IN THE SEKA MONASTERY. But there are not more than three or four of the priests who have started in trade Avith a capital of five hundred there found among hardly thousand yen. but some of the priests are engaged in There are. with some best tea. and is are any kind of business in Tibet. — in- deed. masons. painters of Buddhist pictures. the shoemakers priests. Agriculture comes Manufacturers of stone-layers Buddhist articles. sheep and goats in the provinces. wear priestly cloaks of the best woollen texture produced in Tibet. many kinds of business in which it. besides. though it would be rare for one of the middle-class to have more than some fifty yaks and ten horses. but no more than ten lots of land may be ploughed by two priests Most yaks in a day. After is . To make the half b^est butter-tea. it skimmed. The priests can hardly lead a wellto-do life without such property or some private business. for what they are given from their temples and by the believers is not sufficient for them. 325 priest. none but priests engage. This makes the and a tea-pot full of such tea costs thirtyit gets dark brown. horses. most of them are engaged in trade. or other Few priests are without some private business next to trade. and some of them breed yaks. have some landed property. and then cattle-breeding. till the tea is first boiled for a day.

though among the or in are still able to keep the wolf from their doors. No words can half describe their poor condition. sen to make. They do not however eat boiled rice by itself. baked flour or egg macaroni is sometimes eaten. even at breakfast. cheese and butter. eats and sugar. it when I saw that looked thick oil. The warrior-priests. and they keep. poorest. rice. In the evening wheat dumplings with gruel are served at table. They are supported by their as I said. private. substance into his tea.326 eight THKBE YUAES IN TIBET. Tea-pots^ or jars. From among and stewards. the best It is circles in one of the best drinks among Tibet. for they build their own villas. live pitifully. they are sure to say they are live getting thinner. from seventy or eighty servants in five or six to their houses. They cannot \\xe a day without meat. with what is called tnt and baked butter The white tsu is a hardened mixture of cheese. or have their own temples. they have always the best dwellings of the temples to estates. radishes. business. the price of which is about fifty sen per sho. each one of them. raw or cooked. besides. and if on some occasion they are kept from it. for they are employed as farmers or as guards. but a bowlful After the of it mixed with grapes and sugar and butter. The above is the usual course of dishes at the tables of the highest circles. I could not at like first drink the tea. is usually taken mixed flour. which they belong. on the contrary. Still. At dinner the priests eat rice imported from Nepal. The priests of the higher class very comfortably. some other they earn money with which they live from hand to mouth. He The Tibetan puts this meat dried. are made it of clay in the shape of ordinary Japanese tea pots. what they call gruel has in it some meat. There is another and far poorer class of priests the scholar-priests who so that — . who drink it every morning. these servants are often selected treasurers The lower class of priests.

which costs thirty-five sen a bag of two and a half bushels. have as to to support themselves as in their but study who must earn students. The poorest priest has in his room a sheep's fur.LIFE IN THE SERA MONASTERY. however. For refreshments they get tea-leaves with which the richer priests have made their tea. and it is insufficient to support them. but they cannot get anj' baked flour. their living well as their expenses They are too busy with their go oyit to make any money. and they have to pay some fifty sen a month in return. In a corner are found a stove. Then they must have some fire to keep them warm in the evening besides something to refresh them. These books. which makes the chief pai't of a meal. for they will sell them as does not together amount to a . But it takes them a month to review what they study in a month in catechisms. A bag hanging in one corner contains the baked flour which supports his life but it is very rarely full. During the period of review they must get some one to help them. Then they must get fuel to make tea out of these leaves. little more than two or three yen a month. During the catechisms they go to Ta-tsang where they are given three cups of tea for dinner. . which all belong to the room. which makes a bed at night. There are no priests. but have five or six copies of the catechism. a wooden bowl. a rosary and a dirty cushion. Baked flour costs at least one and a half yen a month. The most precious items of their property are the text books of the catechism. and a pot or jar. What they receive as offer- ings from the believers and as salary from their temples. 327 studies. They can drink tea gratis every morning at the temple. The fuel is generally yak-dung. are not their permanent property. A priest will burn three or four bagfuls a month if he is not particular and careful. while a poor priest may have to manage with a bagful a year. an earthen pan. however poor.

which. Such is the condition of the poorest priests. In most rooms of nine feet square. The consequence is that they spend their money and are plunged again into such poverty that they must live another couple of days without anything to ofteh takes eat. and I was told that they often passed a couple of days without eating. so that they at last me that they would stop them without giving them somecame to pay so much respect to when they saw me. is in the possession of only a limited number. . over three miles off. I felt so sorry sometimes when I was eoon as their examinations are over. when they were given little in the way of help. but sometimes gave him some money.328 THEEB YEARS IN TIBET. however. When they receive a little money they will hurry to Lhasa. I hardly ever passed thing. consists of their hood^ called to see a patient among them that I not only gave medicine for nothing. where they eat some macaroni. for hunger them to some little restaurant. At night their bed an underdress and a bed coveringj besides an old blanket. to buy some baked flour. He who has a room of his own is among the best of this poor class of priests. Some of them do not come home directly from the city. and wait in reverence while I passed. three or four priests often have a pan in common.

probably because I was kind to them and gave them all sorts of things that I received from my friends and clients. as well as too much cake. I came to be treated very civilly as He lent me a book on medicine. somebody gave me pulverised. I used If I to take to the druggist to give them to the children. my prosperity as a doctor obliged me to buy much medicine. the a good customer. for instance. Li Tsu-shu was about thirty years old and had a very fine house. and I was in consequence more trusted than they. and I boldly undertook every kind of patient. To get some of these medicines I was often obliged to stop a couple of days in his house. I frequently went to this druggist. and T often went to Thien-ho-tliangj a drug store which was kept by Li Tsu-shu. is Every medical herb and root some kinds of horns and stones. milk or grapes. and as I bought great quantities of medicine. to visit the house for a couple of days. who were consequently happened not 43 quite impatient to see me. who owned the largest of the three Chinese drug stores in Lhasa. a mother-in-law and three maids. for my own use. He lived with his wife.CHAPTER LI. a son and a daughter. To go back a little in my story. they be- . They treated me as if I were a member of the family. When. Stillj I admit I possessed more knowledge of physiology than most of the doctors in Lhasa. them sugar. but the Tibetans take every medicine in powdered form. I know I made a very dangerous doctor. reading of which added not a little to my smallknowledge. In China they make decoctions of their medicines. a Chinese from Yunnang. My Tibetan Friends and Benefactors. but I was obliged to go on as a pedant domineering over a societj' of ignoramuses.

This Gijami Menkhang or Chinese druggist had much his house Wan-dzAi Shing-khang. those who used to come to his store was Ma in the street of Among Tseng. and come back with a great store of knowledge about foreign affairs. I saw a man apparently of quality come towards me with The store stands at the corner where the his servant.330 THKEE YEAES IN TIBET. This acquaintance with the children helped afterwards. His office hours being very short. and I was sometimes asked if I had known them in China. He had a Tibetan and a mother and was born in Tibet. J3eing the Secretary of the Chinese Amban. Three times he had gone to and Bombay as a peddlei". shade of Chinese accent. He spoke Tibetan without Secretary to the Chinese Amban. He was a great scholar man of worldly knowledge. This led me to get acquainted with him. I was soon so much beloved by came anxious about me. visited had been twice India. Avhile he spoke and read He had read much in Chinese. He told me many Tibetan secrets and many of their habits and customs both good and bad. and as he was a great friend of the to druggist's. the children that we seemed to have been friends for over ten years. that he would tell me anything before I asked. he had much time spare. in Lhasa. and I found him very amusing. streets leading to Panang-sho and Kache-hakhang meet. I soon found that what was told by him was al ways true.nd Chinese Governments. He was so talkative. and this man came along Ani-sakan street toward Panang- . he came to him very often. His acquaintance pleased me so much that when I was tired of reading I would take a walk to the druggist's. me very when I was leaving Tibet. a Chinese quite as well. with no other object than to talk with this Secretarj^ Once while standing at the door of the druggist's. he was also acquainted Calcutta with the secret relations of the Tibetan a. and in Peking.

When. other things he told me that three months before. the wife of the druggist told me that the young man had hoodwinked me about the wounds. he was evidently a man of much sense. £tnd deeply in debt. side with a sword with the re- that a part of his intestines could be seen. He was on some important business. who knew him. his servants had pierced him through the sult committed theft and.My T1B3STAN Ji'KlENDS AND BENEl'ACTOKM. when reproved severely. I could not find anything in him that showed him to be an idiot on the conAmong trary. though much thinner than be the son of Para the Premier. not being allowed to live long with her. Walking to me the nobleman said " Is it you ? " I looked at before. one of senses. The wife of the druggist. and carefully avoided talking about our having met in that town. she told me. and the young noble seemed to be desirous to talk with me. He said that he was much pleased that I had come to his country. This. when lie turned and looked at me. From what he said and did there. to him and found him. told me that everything concerning his family was known to her. He did not look like a man out of his had been told. Then I heard his servant say that I must be the man. gave him a chair. on account of . for she had before been wifp to his brother. and began our talk bj'' saying that it was about half a year since we had met each other at Gyangtze. He also was aware that his staying at Darjeeling should be kept a secret. as I . but went with me into the house of the druggist. I hinted that it was not good for us to let it be known that we had seen each other at Darjeeling. He passed a few steps by rae. after a long talk. he went on his way. whom I had met at Darjeeling. made him so haggard. The young man. was very prodigal. who. divorced her and was now adopted at Namsailing. ool sho. simply because she was of birth too humble for his family. he added. which She really were given him for wrong-doing on his side.

which he was wounded. Though temporary. though not legally. then beside himselfj otherwise as ed. and not a man to be easily trust- he was very good at taking money from others. so I gave her a little tincture of camphor. but nevertheless desired to have such a famous doctor as myself to feel her pulse. her pain of fifteen years gradually abating. which was a little out of order. besides some medicine for her stomach. she was soon able to enjoy sound sleep. and forms one of the merriest amusements in Tibet. which had long been desired by her. My medicine told well and. In Tibet. Shame on Buddhism therefore that he was living with the nun. the building was well furnished.332 THREE YEARS IN TIBET. with seven or eight nun-attendants beside her. to the Bx-Minister of Finance. Priest nobles are generally supposed to have wives. she could walk a It little. I found there an old nun of about sixty years of age. Finally she and she family. and have every sort of merriment. but a splendid house of wood. though not legally married to them most of them keep such women somewhere. and was aware that she was sinking. who was also a priest of the New Sect. for it To my question whether he was she answered that he was mad or suited him. This called a picnic of lingka. Faith works wonders. that her trouble was rheumatism. and would be satisfied if I could only I examined her and found relieve her a little of her pain. became so well that Her raptures can be imagined. This old lady had been ill for over fifteen years. . the walls of which were covered over inside with painted cloth and outside with white cloth. and the nuns are the . I was invited once to one of these villas in the wheat-fields. or forest party. She said she knew that her disease was incurable. Hers was not a tent. at once reported the condition of her health to her seems that she was married. when people go out to enjoy the flowers (for the flower-season is very short there) they pitch tents in the wheat-fields or in is a forest.

This particular nun was old now and bent with age. for I had already robbed their business. who was a six inches deeply leai-ned scholar. though she was stoutly to women be their wives — at least so built.MY TIBETAN FKIENDS AND best class of BEIJIFACTORS. he — taller was about seven feet than any other Tibetan I saw. In acquainted with the Ex-Minister of matist. He knew men fault and was shrewd with the in business. and also he was much influenced by worldly thoughts. they often repented with tears of the folly they had committed with each other when young. was not pretty. but his passionate behavior soiled what should have been his stainless purity. he warned me guard. . he said. Upon my asking him what he be on my meant. well. exceedingly kind and faithful and never deceit- His only was his living nun. when the f)atients in Sera were keeping me so busy. thsjt I assured should be quite satisfied It I could only obtain a mere living. Besides being sorry for my lack of time for study. 333 had thought the Bx-Minister of Finance. and offered me a dwelling in his residence. who had been sent to me from Lhasa. He had great sympathy with my condition. While talking with me. as well as an experienced diplo- Aged sixty-two. in height me to became Finance. Wlieu one of the man fell servants in the residence of the ill. for ine to cause this wise I they put great faith in me and I could not but believe that Buddha was working through succeed so wondrously among them. he disto closed his fear that I might be poisoned like envied persons. ful. and often said that he was very sorry for me to have to see a patient. he asked me if I should be contented with a moderate living. many other many doctors of Being When I expressed my if concern. He was not bad at heart. he said that he would support me. His dress took twice as much cloth as that of an ordi- nary person. Minister of Finance the Lord I was sure to be summoned.

. could I give more time to study. Not only.334 but quiet THItEB YEAKS IN TIBET. but I if the city physicians. which was the sole object of my coining to Lhasa through so many the part of general patients. this kind offer. then study more devotedly. so that few patients. for I hardships. and ill. should also be on better terms with at the cost of some inconvenience on I was very glad to accept had been much regretting the little time and opportunity I had to study Buddhism. except those who were very and I could dangerously would be likely to trouble nie. It was situated out of the way. he said. comfortable.

My new dwelling was six yards by four. The thick carpet ROOM IN THE FINANCE SECRETARY'S HOUSE- . for I had earned money. leaving a young lad in charge of my quarters at Sera. living I provided for him some way of to Sera occasional!). I removed to the residence of the Ex-Minister with my furniture. So at last. It was divided in the middle into two rooms. Lhasa.to have my catechism. and study. I went colored green with various pictures. and besides everything needed for my livelihood was to be given to me by the Bx-Minister. and being the dwelling of a noble.CHAPTER Japan in LII. and to try to send most patients to some other doctor in the city. much Evei-ything went well with me. I told the lad never to let it out of his mouth that I was with the Bx-Minister. the walls were bi-ightly Still.

and was then sixty-seven years of age. The Ex-Minister had a natural half-brother. The previous year he was created the highest priest in all Tibet. a priestly seat on which Je Tsong-kha-pa. and on which none may sit but the Dalai Lama and this highest priest. I was very . before he was given the privilege. The accommodation was very complete. blacksmiths. Beside this residence there was another. The former. There is. right to it. Ti Rinpoche (the present ruler of Tibet) by title. When this training of long years had made him a priest perfectly learned and virtuous. that of the present Minister of Finance. ca. happened that I found a very good tutor. have a secret training of thirty long years after he had received the degree of doctor in Buddhism. the. He was of Sera extraction. There was a desk of ebony. hunters. The title of his priestly rank is Ti Rinpoche of Ganden. as well as a little Buddhist shrine.ste. It was quiet there and my priest friends no more troubled me in my study by their calls. whose father was a Chinaman.336 THEBE YEARS IN TIBET. and men of the lowest Hence in reality. It was three storied. but it was a little too far for me to it go to my teacher's. however. the Pounder of the New Sect. cannot always seat himself on Ganden. had sat. can sit on it any time. Any person or pi'iest who has attained moral and intellectual perfection after a study and training of some fifty or sixty years may use this seat. the highest priest must be more learned and virtuous than the Grand Lama. Now while the latter. living at sit on it by birth. and had been made a priest when seven years old. in the temple of Ganden. had flowers of gold woven in it in the Tibetan style. he was elected the highest priest in Tibet and given the privilege The Grand Lama had the while Ti Rinpoche had had to to sit on the seat. except sons of butchers. Bx-Minister Cham-ba Choe-sang's being a two-storied house. and everything was clean.

JAPAN IN LHASA. In this way. the more fully I began to know about it. The highest priest at glance at I am. much and its delighted to hear the story of this pilgrimage more so as I had been in Nepal myself. where the that distinction of castes it is given so much import- among the most difficult things for any one to have man. in This ance. the conditions of the servants. and to live a peaceful life. be moved by the charitable deeds Ex-Minister and the nun. though she had not so many ideas as her husband. and instead of blaming of both the them for their bad behavior. the first an interview with such a great I succeeded in learning much about the secrets of Tibetan Buddhism. was of hardly less active temper. and treated me seemed to know what kind of a man me as what I suppose he thought me if He I. and warned me against it. to be. I believe. which brought shame on Buddhism. as they They taught me how had so many things in common. and hermits with whom I studied Buddhism influenced me half so much as this highest priest. indirectly. It must have been for this virtuous Buddhist.wife had made a pilgrimage of repentance about I was twenty years before to Katmandu in Nepal. too. 43 . learned scholars. the I could not but stand the state T)f the family. who influenced the Ex-Minister. none of the many doctors. for he taught me Buddhism in its true form. and began Still. religionists. I came to underhardships. to repent of his sin when fallen into so great a folly. hinted. fortunate to have as 337 my tutor such a high personage. is a privilege denied to most people is Tibet. I rather sympathised with them for it. The more acquainted I became with this family. let me add. great was the power of charming love. he felt some fear for me. This nun. he must have found faithfulness in me. And the nun-wife of the Ex-Minister. his brother. that to fear him. and I felt correspondingly grateful to him.

which was general!}' supposed to be good. If any grave subject presented itself at the court. and the Ex-Minister then gave him his opinions about the subject. and every particular little On the other hand. and we talked quite confidentially with each other. for he was too busy . He receive guests. put off all the dignity of a Minister. subjects discussedThis gave me a good oppor- tunity of studying Tibetan politics. or I should say the secrets are kept from the priests. TIBET. whom. The priests know qnly how reverently to bend their heads before the Dalai Lama. I had opportunity to talk with the present Minister of Finance. Russia and Nepal. While in the monastery. discussing it from various points of view. Had this believe. which. mainly because. where was discussed only the philosophy of Budclhism. and was requested to give my humble opinions about the. but now I succeeded in hearing many pf the diplomatic secrets about the relations of the Govern- ment with China. but would consult with the Ex-Minister. I strong man been appointed Premier under the present able Grand Lama. .333 THREE YEAES IN of the house. who lived next to my house. The Ex-Minister would have been by that time promoted to the position of the highest priest had it not been for his ill-famed deeds of love. I was often present at the meetings of the tyfo Ministers. Britain. to His name was Ten-Jin Choe Gyal he was quiet and very strong-willed. I could hear little or nothing about the Government of the Grand Lama. \vere a cause of impeachment against him. we might have expected much wiser government in Tibet. but are entirely ignorant of the secrpts of their Government. he regarded as his superior. he usually gave no opinion of his own there. but when he talked to me l>e smiled and made me feel quite at home with him. he was often able to disclose to me some important secrets of the Grovernment. Being in the Ministerial chair. I was being treated by the Bx-Minister and his nun-wife as if I were their son.

Many portable shops or stalls may also be seen in the street. Tsa Rong-ba by name. till I came to a shop where I saw a cake of soap. in -vt'hich daily necessaries are sold. ' ' Lhasa. but they are now ousted by the Japanese. clothing and furniture.JAPAN IN LHASA. but rarely mark of in often shops. most was a box of Japanese matches. those which have the trade mark of two from those elephants and of one. Most of these things are of course made in Tibet. Once I was walking along Parkor. different At the sides of the street are in many shops. manufactured by Doi of Osaka. These inanimate Japanese articles are more daring than stores or found the people who made them ! Wishing civilisation. an outcome of Japanese I might be conducive to light in dark Tibet. not very most other countries. Japanese matches. Japanese scroll pictures too are hanging in the houses of rich families. The paper was red with a white picture on it. though some are imports from Calcutta and Bombay But the thing that attracted my eye as also from China. I think before I go on further I shall do well to narrate how I happened to meet him. and articles of food. are imported into the capital of Tibet. who also proved afterwards a great help to me at the time of my departure from Tibet. good aS sny that It looked as . hiUani porcelain is seen in the high circles. the Middle path for the circumambulation of the holy temple of the Buddha and the busiest street in the druggist's. walked along the street. among others. Some Japanese bamboo blinds with Some pictures of women may also be seen in Tibet. as well as the trade wax candles with the an elephant coming out of a house. I 839 have already told how I met the Prince of Para at now I met no less unexpectedly a merchant of Darjeeling. that these articles. Some matches of Swedish make were also imported. besides some other kinds without the names There were to be seen^ of the manufacturers on them.

found in the Tibetan capital. He looked much surprised and told me to come into his house. I recognised her at once. and wondered if he were a kinsman of that merchant. whose it was. he began asking me if I knew him. like a merchant with whom I became acquainted in Darjeeling but I could not believe that he could be settled there. price.S J feared it might soon be out of stock.340 could be THREE YEAES IN TIBET. for it was now getting dark. I walked into and asked how much it cost. which was small in size but neat and clean. the man himself. a. and found his wife who came with him from Darjeeling. Instead of selling me the the master stared me in the face. which I had not The man told me that the soap was too uie another and showed I liked the dearer one better cheap and good kind. No. But I had then so different an tbe shop appearance myself that he too could not easily recognise me. A soap. he was so pleased with them for their good smell that he me to let him have one I cake. but I and bought two cakes of it. I was led into his parlor upstairs. but she seemed to have quite forgotten me. to the Minister of When came home and showed them asked Finance. Even when her husband said she must . name was Tsa Rong-ba. so I gave him both. he led me into his house. couple of days afterwards again went to Tsa Rong-ba's to buy a few cakes of the same soap. Telling his servants to close the doors of the shop. and I He looked very much noticed the master staring at me. For while in self in JajDanese dress Darjeeliag I had usually dressed myand scarcely went out in a Tibetan in Tibet. over I dear. After my arrival MoreI clothed myself entirely as a Tibetan. now had my beard growing long. When I tried to pay the. costume. though I often put it on indoors. at Darjeeling. The sound of his voice plainly told me his identity and I laughed as I replied that I knew him. as I found afterwards.


until he told her how she had received medicine from me when ill at Darjeeling. later that sooner or I shall trouble. a stranger. some evil or other would certainly befall me. who smuggled himself into the country against its laws. and looking the in their eyes. tell them that I am a Japan Lama in disguise. I thought. as she had received much kind treatment from me. know me. and I tried to do so. come into a nice bit of fortune for . and all the kindness of. " Here is you can give ' me up to the authorities.342 THEEE YEAES IN TIBET. I said I had come through pathless wilds. I feared this merchant might betray me to the G-overnment for his own benefit. Then the husband and wife expressed their great wonder that I.the Ministers and the priests at Sera to me would end in air-bubbles. speaking in a determined straight tone of voice. By so doing you may ' have been thinking have to do the same thing myself. but they refused to believe me. Were I known to be a Japanese. for they said there were soldiers placed on guard all along the road. But if you do it for me you will save me the for I serve a double purpose. I said : man and the woman a fine job for you . believe me when I • told them that I had come by the way of Jangthang. I have long made up my mind. which would bring everj'thing in my plan to naught. Assuming a serious attitude. I must get the better of him. had succeeded in entering Tibet. she could not recollect me. only I was afraid that they might not believe me. besides. you may they will reward you for your information with a large sum of money. She then expressed her joy at seeing me in such a strange place and so unexpectedly. But now I thought myself to be within a hair's breadth of the danger of detection. while the authorities will believe ." . when it was exceedingly difficult for even a Tibetan They did not to come or go to the capital.

— : JAPAN IN LHASA. there being forty-five of them to my own knowledge. As it was. ' ' of the Savior " and forms in Tibet the most solemn words of swearing which. He once more gave his pledge. '"' Before I took leave of them they asked me about my lodging." the doctor of Sera. they were most astonished and pleased pleased to know that they had as acquaintance a man of so great renown as I was then in Lhasa. I Tipticed a 343 first change come pver the looks of the woman . From that time at onward I was a frequent visitor and trusted friend Tsa . in a tone of both appeal and reproach. in which the woman joined in the most fear-stricken manner. I pressed them no further. and. -of Indeed he went the length swearing by "Cho-o Rinpoche " Still I that he would never betray me. It is furnish the strongest possible proof of true that Tibetans sincerity. with which they pointed in the direction of the Buddha temple of Lhasa. in all seriousness. both raising their hands. But when. when are uttered in the manner to described. much given swearing. I became convinced of their sincerity. she turned pale and even began to tremble but the man spoke first. lest he should die. they may safely be depended upon for their absolute sincerity. and possess a great variety of expressions for the purpose. and they seemed to be well pleased at the final dispelling most . they subject themselves to the form observed by my host and his wife. and saw that I was For Cho-o Rinpoche means "Holiness safe in their hands. Those commonly in use are " Konjogsum" (Holy three treasures) and " Ama tang te ! " (separate me from my mother) The natives are in the habit of using these oaths as words of interjection. I knew what the latter act with the words of the oath meant. and finding out I was the Serai amchi. of all my suspicion against them. urged them both. earnestly protested that he had no such intention as that of which I seemed —quite voluntarily— to suspect him.

the Chinese druggist.344 THREE YEARS IN TIBET. Rong-ba's. . with always something to give the good couple^ as was the case with me at Gyami menkhang's.

LIII. is nothing unusual in many of the young Tibetan priests. and making trips to the monastery kitchen for his ration of tea. During winter days. then Tibetans. to a somewhat different race. courteous. gei\erally speaking. can be more significant instinctive indolence than the sight of him as he sits dozing there whole day long. Such behavior. and also Khams. with which he occasionally blows his nose. These three groups of students are as distinct in their characteristics as they are in their nationalities. putting on his head to dry a waste scrap of some woollen stuff. to speak of the nationalities of the aspirants . are a very quiet. but are not at all inclined to be diligent —indeed they are as fact that they are a rule as lazy as they can be. the students in the three great colleges are not solely natives of Tibet . Scholastic Aspirants. Tibetans. it is almost beyond the power of Westerners 44 to imagine. who belong they comprise Mongols proper. and intelligent set of students. When the weather is fine he spends all his leisure hours basking in the warm sun and Nothing the squatting naked in front of his of his cell. beyond attending to the routine of chanting the of living will simply possesses the ordinary means sacred text in the service-hall. excusable only in an old or decrepit person. How lazy and sluggish the average Tibetans ai'e. a Tibetan bonze who do no work. The very dirty in their habits seems to come from this their national weakness of being extremely and eternally idle. for instance. and last of all Khams. In fact it is customary to place Mongols first in point of numbers. i^' .CHAPTER First.

and this in spite to of the fact that their country of is generally supposed be no better than a den thieves and . so that the slightest thing causes them to up in tremendous rage. to be pitied for their narrow-mindedness and in spite of all it . and. that try to be other calm and well- balanced. Not stud}' the Mongols : one never sees enjoying themselves in sucli an indolent fashion. are infinitely superior in this respect both to the Mongols and the Tibetans. fifty out of five hundred of of this. but I whom one common fauJt with them is that they are very quickflare tempered. them They they very liard and alwaj's take a very active part in principally because which they have come so far from their liome and country. or of carrying out. the ratio has to be inverted in the case of Tibetans.TIBET. This Mongoliaji pride makes most that the largest Mongols. whom In consequence the bulk of the are but " students militant" or warrior-priests of have already spoken are Tibetans. they are very proud and uppish. The Khams. the catechetical exercises. Mongols are studious and progressive. fact that they are the Being always conscious of the mo. even those petulance.346 THREE YEARS IN SO witli . four hundred and trash.st assiduous of the students. qualities. their in numerous good A Mongol has him to become a great leader like Genghis Khan but the career of that great conqueror was but a meteoric burst of short-lived splendor. the Mongols as a nation seem to be incapable of consolidating their national greatness on anything like a permanent basis. any schemes calculated to secure the permanent progress and improve- ment of their country. Fovir hundred out of the while five hundred Mongols are generally fine students are alive to the purpose for . and number of the winners of the doctor's degree always come from amongst them. like him. on the other hand. Khams and Mongols being seldom found among them.

share in the apathetic appearance of the men. The Kham women and children. I might carry my subdivision much further. have been able to give here only a brief and cursory notice of some of the characteristic features of the princiI pal tribes that inhabit these unfrequented regiops of Central Asia. Bas. to the final goal which they strive . and not very on to topics profitable of therefore pass greater interest. The men. In point of physique. but the worst sinners in this respect are the Tibetans so students are to be found — much Khams. unaffected among the Khams than among any other of the nationalities represented there. of the Khams and I as Maukhams. he is far Khams are chivalrous ahead as a rule of both the others. as a rule. They are often very unbecomingly dressed and have none of the attractiveness of the Tibetan women. 347 A Kham is excitable. and brothers. Tsarongs. he can be admirably patient and persevering when he wills. too. but that would involve a very long discourse. of Sera lead My observations among the students me to infer that more open-hearted. are generally well-spoken and affable in outward demeanor.. unless they are Tibetanised Khams. or Lamas. and speak etc. and averse to flattery. robbers. like their husbands. difference with a few of the most essential of the points of between them. fathers. It is said to the full of thorns and brambles their innermost hearts may be. To their interpret correctly the aspirations of Tibetan ideals. . are unwilling to enter so that the thoroaghlj' into friend- honor of the Khams that even their robbers are honorable and will often give a helping hand to the poor and weak. but he does not lose his temper like a Mongol indeed. Mongols will occasionally demean themselves Ijy fawning upon others in order lo gain some object dear to their hearts. who. blunt and outspoken. however ship with them. and rescue those who stand in imminent peril.SCHOLASTIC ASPIEAKTS.

as well as the highest possible fame in that entirely secluded world of theirs. in its fullest sense. much more influential and far more highly esteemed in society than a learned and virtuous priest who lives on a is small income. eyes for nothing. a priest who owns an estate of a thousand dollars. it iimj TI^REE YEARS IN TIBET. is not at all what they wish to do. goes in their competition. Thus. and there is nothing deep in their religious life. .tation. so that I can remove mountains. To seek religious truth and to practise religious austerities with a view to acquiring knowledge and character sufficient to carry out the noble work of delivering men and leading them to salvation. and understand all mysteries and all knowledge and though I have all faith. Thej. but entirely according to the amount of property which they possess. of In 'I''ibet. " It is more blessed to receive than to give " is their motto. and to enjoy lazy earth as well as in heaven. and mainly of accumulating wealth. seems to be this.l unstate men. and twist S.348 attain. selfish who all oughtr to be The reason why these priests the noblest and most this an. the social estimation of priest and scholars to their learning or virtue. Paul's saying . have been brought to of apostasy. they do so as a means of largest possible gaining repu. and "Though I have the gift of prophecy. not according nor yet ac- cording to the amount of good they have done for their fellow-men. stady and service. however mean and ignorant he may be. is made. and hence the monastic life.simjjlv desire to escape from the painful struggle of life in the world of and comfortable days on Nine hundred and ninety-nine out of a thousand seem to have no conception of the problems of the future life. scholars. If they study. safely be tlie said that is tlieir main purpose procure the in entering priesthood only to amount of fortune. They : believe in the almighty dollar. of extending their influence.

when they have got through the prescribed course of study and have achieved the Doctorate. After poor reaping ease and comfort in the latter part of their lives. but in undue proportion costly for besides spending nearly half their lives in toils and struggles to get it. 349 have not" monej^. custom to appropriate to themselves the remuneration which they receive when they visit laymen's houses for the purpose of chanting the Sacred Text for them. these have the honor of getting the implying the highest learning. in accordance with their priestly duty. It is true. are preparing in the colleges for their degrees..are engaged in trade or industrial enterprises.SCHOLASTIC ASPIRANTS. a sort of porridge of meat mixed with rice. . or for some humanitarian purpose they are exceedingly patient in suffering. they have to give a grand feast to all their schoolmasters to celebrate their graduation. as I havesaid. those of the man of self-denial who strives hard and struggles against difficulties for the noble ambition of winning souls to salvation. it is their It is pitiful to contemplate the condition of the students who. Someof them. a hard monastic life of some twenty years when students will they have completed the whole course of study. of They live study in the midst of want. hard struggling and yet the only will them is the expectation that they be able to enjoy the comfortable life of high priests. Besides. the feast consists only of meat gruel." They are earnest therefore in making' money. To give a feast of this sort requires some five hundred yen at the very least. as there are many capacious stomachs to be filled. a title . lives without scholarship or support. "I am nothing. each bowlful costing over Doctor's degree. and others in agriculture or stock-farming. in whatever way they find profitable. simjjly with the hope of stimulus that encourages . but the quantity given is enormous. but their sufferings are not. They do really suffer. so far as I know.

who probably never succeed in paying if the burden of debt.350 THREE YEARS IN course. but also interest for their money. exceptionally fortunate. disappointing than the future will life of But nothing oif is more those poor priests. By the means of this convenient credit transaction they can procure the means of giving the necessary banquet and much improved at that the wealthy priests their noses the wealthy priests get not only credit for their generosity. they may succeed in It is a lot of doing so only after long and hard struggles. twenty-five sen. thing to contemplate. but fortunately the diploma has its use this time their credit has so . who turned up needy students are very willing now to supply them with the necessary money. Of the poverty-stricken priests cannot possibly provide the money themselves. but such is the hard Tibetan priests. or. TIBET. sad most . simply because they have the degree and chance to pay interest.

so far as I is no detailed account of a marriage in know. who may perhaps have been in Chinese Tibet. So although their descriptions may be correct.CHAPTER As I LIV. I had the good fortune to become acquainted with and occasionally to call on the other Ministers of State. to be found in any of these visitor. but these are from the pens of European travellers. or on the northern frontier visit of Tibet proper. so far as they go. . (In Tibet. work of the DepartSho Khangwa was the second Prime-Minister) During my stay in Lhasa. Tibetan Weddings and for the taking the actual business and standing responsible conduct of aifairs. his daughter married the son of a noble called the Prince of Yutok. Wedded Life. which I attended with curiosity and interest. I was invited to the wedding. . as they vary vastly according to the different localities. especi- books. Before proceeding to relate what I saw on that occasion. was lodging at the house of the Minister of Finance. the senior Minister. a ceremony most solemnly performed. while the others hold onljportfolios. in either case. where marriage-customs and manners differ so much with the widely separated tribes. There are several books containing descriptions of Tibetan marriages. of the name of Sho Khangwa. I may make a few observations on Tibetan marriages in general. there are four Prime-Ministers and three Ministers of Finance. still. yet Lhasa ally in is. among whom was one of the Prime-Ministers. nominal assisting in the ment as vice-Ministers. to give any really trustworthy descriptions . It next to impossible for a passing such a country as Tibet. but were surely not permitted to Lhasa. No general to statement can be made however with regard marriage-customs.

but of husbands. is not only censured by the public husbands as immoral. marry the same woman by mutual agreeand thirdly. and. trictions : liiarriage of brothers with sisters. All the money which the husbands have earned has to be handed over to their wife. he has to beg his wife to so much for such and such a purpose. or between cousins. to mother a of a family dies. second. just as a child does to its mother. she will give him a severe scolding. when a woman. wedding cere- monies of the natives. cases of polyandry are first.sbands is found less clever or less successful in makingmoney than the others. and if one of the hu. already married ment . but also prohibited by the law as criminal. when two or more men not brothers. When give him a husband needs money. one man. If she happens to find any of her husbands keeping back his earnings. that generally prevails known The a peculiar system of marriage \ Tibet —a plurality not of wives . with In case the his consent. which can scarcely be even imagined by people with a civilised moral sense and yet there do exist some res. gains influence over her husband. They are quite insensible to the shame of this dissolute condition of matrimonial relations. to relate my observations and my in stay in the city. either the father or the son takes new spouse. as circumstances have given me special opportunities of life. experiences during It is not only proper. but may also possibly be of some value. and give him slaps instead of caresses. The wife's authority over her is something surprising. observing minutely the people's in Lhasa.352 THREE YEAES IN TIBET. she will break out in anger. social and even of attending several it is and domestic. the other male the law of who becomes at the same time the wife of members of the family without infringing the country. when several brothers take the same woman as their wife at the same time . In . marries another in addition.

they do not but run home and ask their wife's if opinion before coming to a final decision. If a woman who has five brothers as her husbands gives birth to a child. shortj a wife generally exercises a 353 commanding authority over her husbands. objection. is ac- knowledged contract. Though polj^andry Tibet. and the younger brothers their small fathers but this I have not been able to verify. to the effect that either husband or wife may divorce the other whenever he or she has become averse to continuing as the other's partner. who have the same woman as their wife. where the husband's age much exceeds that of his wife) usually both bride and groom are of about equal age. When two or more men have anj'thing to agree upon decide for tbemselves. 110 she has meet again and settle the matter. the prevailing system of marriage in in a there are a few exceptional cases of monogamistic couples. Although there are some exceptions (especially in the couples married late in life. they will is among them. case of . twenty-fifth years of age. One European writer says that in Tibet the eldest of the brothers. the eldest of the brothers is called the father of the child and the rest the uncles. is called the great father of her children. I as a legitimate condition of a matrimonial come now as to a description of the marriage cere- mony or The Tibetans. or thatj and husbands are quite obedient is and quite ready to do everything that required. 45 . generally in cases where the husband is com- paratively influential position. and. too.TIBETAN WEDDINGS AND WEDDED LIFE. •Another peculiarity in connexion with marriage is that an agreement. whether men women. or that they find suitable to soothe her. marry generally between the twentieth and observed in Lhasa. She will order them to go out shopping and to do this to the wife.

the middleman understands that the case is an entirely hopeless one .l has m It is the universal usage throughout the country for the of a for parents enquiries young man a suitable of marriageable age to make bride among families equal in lineage. fortune a girl is found.something to that effect. conditional times and talk of all the young man. or a high priest to ask his . in the remote country or even the city. his parents and everyThen the girl's parents. so far as has gone. When such communicate through a the girl's middleman she with parents. frequently end in divorce. to asking sons. However. whether If may is be given as wife their the finswer a simple negative. parents never tell their daughter at been made. There the almost no such tbing. " will see about it " oi. parents Slie is compelled to decide upon iov her husband. sometimes a girl selects her partner and obtains permission from her parents to marry the man of her choice. and then only will they give a definite answer to the middleman. The husbands and is connected therewith made by the parents wlio and the daughter herself going to be married never permitted to make any choice of her partner. therefore. is Tibetans woman choosing her own all husbands. marry whomsoever her Not only so. but if they say. or they will go to a sorcerer who is believed to be able to give information about the future. 'until the very day of the wedding. These compulsory marriages. as a choice are of my experience of decision only. go to a fortune-teller judgment and advice in this important matter. or that they are going to give hei" in marriage. nor even to take any part in the consultation regarding her own marriage. Such cases. after giving a several consent to the proposal. he We will call on them of good qualities the thing about him. however Jire very exceptional. they at once and rank with their own.-364 THREE YEARS IN is TIBET. but all that a propos3.

before fixing upon the day of the wedding or of beginning to sary preparations. and no consaltation or arrangement is made. without knowing anything of their tions nor the own marriage neither the preliminary consultaname of the bride or groom they are brought . or of the bride's bringing a dowry to her husband as in Japan. make the neces- On the morning of the wedding. to their* social in the public On the of groom's side also his parents send a present some money to the bride's mother as 'breast money' or nurse expense. and that as they are going to have a " lingka feast " she had better have her hair done. have to furnish their daughter with all things needed for her marriage. bridegroom. even after the betrothal has been decided upon. — face to face for the is There no custom of exchanging presents between bride and first time on the wedding day. and starts at once to dress herself quite unconscious of the stratagem. the girl's parents. the parents on both sides go and enquire of a fortune-teller or sorcerer. who have already been informed of the time when the middleman is to come from the groom's house. The girl is generally much delighted at hearing this. remunera- for her marriage and care in bringing up the Then. o-)') The parents on each secret side keej) the whole thing a from their son or daughter. else they would be disgraced eye. casually tell the girl that the weather being very fine they intend going to the Temple. keep up the honor of the family. Thus both bride and groom go to the very day of their wedding. But sometimes a clever girl sees through the artifice and breaks into tears of sorrow at her unexpected de])arture from her old home.TIBETAN WEDDINGS AND WEDDED LIFE. and that she had better go with them. suitable standing. again. only the bride's parents. or anything like a marriage-contract regarding the property of the parties concerned to . . or words to that effect. tion girl.


ordinary people never wash their faces or bodies at all. When a nobleman gets up in the morning. When the water in the mouth is all gone. but will be found a. the girl. To return. when her parents come to her with a new comb. hair-oil too. a sagacious girl is who can see through her parents' artifices to not generally willing dress herself up for the occasion. This is the general custom not only in Lhasa. but also in Shigatze and other towns. is cheerful and gay. But. the parents tell her for the first time that an engagement has already been made with so and so. and herself as smart as they please. and adorning her hair with her old comb and pins.spits it back into his palms little by little and then washes his face with it. and a good You must dress yourself up as bottle of.TIBETAN WEDDINGS AND WEDDED LIFE. a maid or attendant will bring him a ladlef ul of warm water which he first takes in the palms of his hands and then puts into his mouth. The manner in which they wash their faces is almost more like a joke. he will spit and again rub his several times on to his palms face. 357 A girl who is unaware of this artifice will wash and scrub her face and body as her parents bid her. my dear. whom she has to marry that day. we have some new ones for you. pins and other toilet articles (all of which have been secretly presented by the groom's parents through the middleman) and say to her " Your pins and comb are too old. knowing nothing about the trick in store for her and expecting to go out for amusement. busily engaged in her toilet. here they are. After holding it in there for a while he ." and so on. though the nobles do so every morning just after leaving their beds. Then when at last the toilet possible. nicely as : : is complete. as a general custom in Tibet. It is true that basins are used by some Tibetans the above is however the normal way. It is to make be noted that.t weeping her unforeseen calamities and sets herself to . as I have already said.

the bride's parents have to give a series of last farewell banquets for their daughter. During these festivities. the relatives and acquaintances of her parents visit the family with presents of monej^. or clothes. and devotes absolutely no attention to her hair-dressing. to congratulate them on their daughter's happy wedding. but two or three days only in the case of the poor. herself. off to It is not fair of father want to and mother marry me a person How I get out of whom I shall probably not like. dried and boiled (roast meat is never seen at a The boiled meat is cooked in oil and salt. Their cook- three dishes of meat. . . if their family is rich or high in social rank. In this case. the value of the presents differing according wealth as well as their intimacy with the These visitors are cordially entertained with family. . which they drink to excess.358 THREE YEAES IN TIBET. the happiest state in the worldbut at the While drinking. complaining in this strain " leave to Oh ! dear me ! I don't my can home. cheer her up and encourage her to obey and even help her to adorn and dress After all these preparations are over. ing and bill of fare are very simple raw. visitors and host alike enjoying the good things provided. especially rare in the case of wedding : feasts. very depressed. however. or that of goats or sheep pork is sometimes used in Lhasa. food. Tibetan tea and cold spirits. the to who her are there to help in the preparations for her wedding. or even more sometimes. and is to the visitor's . try parents. it ?" And then she becomes girl's friends. The meat they eat is generally the flesh of the yak. or wedding) sometimes in salt and water and is brought in first. which will two weeks. and having a regular good time or what they call a chachang pemma. but beef is very rare throughout the country. they eat nothing at all afternoon meal they take some meat and wheat-cakes.

While eating and drinking the tained made 6i . sugar. 359 butter together with sugar. the guests are enter- a dinner in which a sort of vermicelli. like the moving beads of a rosary. to In the evening. Towards the that it is close of the festive time (I may observe only the poorest folk that dispense with the pre- the eve of the wedding. wheat-Hour and eggs. usually on home to receive the bride. present of some the bride's are obliged to seem a little backabout taking it. each keeping step with are regaled with pleasant talk. and When these are gone. the parents of the bridegroom send their representative and the middleman. raisins and Chinese persimmons served. tea and intoxicants are constantly served during the intervals between the meals. and yet the regularity and solemnity dance does not in least interfere with the keenness and zest of their enjoyment. In this manner they have three or four meals a day and besides these. They dance in a regular and systematic manner. a concoction all of cheese. to the bride's nuptial feasts). or pure Chinese cookery is set before the guests. money parents. again. of dollars to two hundred or even five hundred dollars.TIBETAN WEDDINGS AND WEDDED LIFE. guests feasts begin to flag they revive the fun and when the by singing and It is very interesting to see men and women dancing. dancing and jumping promiscuously round and round the circles. tsu. saying . The instrument used in their dance music is called damnyan. with a number of attendants. who as nnrin or 'breast They bring with them a money' for Some parents (not many) refuse it absolutely. etiquette demanding that they should ward require a good deal of coaxing before accepting such a The nurin may vary in amount from a couple present. a big dish of boiled rice mixed with is butter. and is often used in accompanying sing- ing as well as dancing. the music as carefully as if he were a soldier at of the drill.

Besides the things necessary for a bride to wear during the bridegroom's parents have to many valuable ornaments. for what the is groom's dress. " dress. such as is usually woman of Lhasa on the middle of her her. This gem is said to be a sign of a woman's being married. parents send the bride-elect confined to the under-wear and shoes. This single act on the part of the husband properly and perfectly divorce. a fringe. for unmarried women in that city often wear it as a mere ornament. ear- rings. occasion of the wedding ceremony. are given belt. who wear it high up at the back of the head. exclusively married women. the In Shigatze use of the and the neighboring provinces. and these the bride cannot refuse she must wear them even though they . as a matter of fact. by the ornamented armlets and breast-jewels. finger-rings. neck-rings. gem to is strictly restricted. or asking the authorities to alter the census. Then the middleman gives the bride the Chinese and all other articles necessary for a bride during the wedding ceremony. In addition to these gifts the bride a precious gem. it is not their expectation or their desire to receive any nurin. do not suit generally receives worn by a forehead. though in Lhasa there seems to exist no strict discrimination in the matter. simply to pluck off the gem from his wife's head without the trouble of going to court. so that they can be easily distinguished from In the case of a divorce. certifies and legalises the the ceremony which provide. bride's own parents. belt. to be worn on the .360 THEBE YEARS IN TIBET. but that they " only hope heartily that their daughter will be loved by and enjoy a hapjjy she is life among the family to which given in shoes marriage. these too being presented by the groom's parents. however. a husband has single females. that the girl being their beloved daughter.

this kind. as a penalty for their carelessness. and thus everlasting shame will come upon the bride's family. middleman and the representatives of the or else the groom's family will ridicule them for their ignoi'ance. An interesting feature of this drinking. The reader can imagine the noise and uproar that sometimes But in urging their guests to drink. 46 . Then. those who come to receive the bride stay at the and eujojr a few pleasant hours drinking with the family.to some proverbial expression old time-honored customs. 361 bride's house that night. Tibetan would be very much disappointed and the ordinary and almost feel that he had not been to a proper wedding. have to arm themselves with suitThey have to say that chang able reasons for abstinence. they show what they have the stolen before all the guests assembled next morning.feast is that the middleman and the representatives family have to be very careful not to night. in The refusal to drink must always be clothed according . If they succeed. because of the bi-ide's if it is of the bridegroom's drink too much that the custom for the friends and relatives family to try to steal something from them the drink should happen to make them drowsy. is the worst of all sorts of poison. the bride must strictly obserAe the old ancestral customs.TIBETAN WEDDINGS AND WEDDED LIFE. and their victims have to pay some twenty tanka of them and a half in Amei-ican gold. Tibetan silver. and boast of the or two dollars success of their trick. while the bride's friends and relatives ply their guests with liquor and will take no refusal. wranglings if it was not accompanied with their friendly the over the cups. So the middleman and the others do all they can not to be tempted to drink. that it is a maker of of quarrels or a robber of wisdom. the friends of ensue. in their turn. The others.

In most of the case. to propitiate the God Lu-i Gyalpo. The passages from the Bon scripture which are read on the occasion of the ceremony are very interesting. and. At the same time the priests of the Old School. and thus abandon the family to utter poverty. or King-Dragon. are asked by the family to hold a festal service in honor of the village The object of the festival is to and family Gods. no efforts whatsoever are spared by the family to keep him away from the daughter. to them and recite the Sacred Text for their pleasSuch ceremonies in general are held at the temple which the Scarlet-Hoods belong. but written Bon). is who according to the Tibetan mythology the protector of the fortunes of each individual family. and further to pray the Gods not to do any injury to their family because of their daughter's leaving them for ever. Therefore lest the God should leave the family and follow the daughter to whom he is affectionately attached. are to the effect that the . the consequence will be the entire destruction of his fortune.CHAPTER LV. Simultaneously with ' ' the above another festival is by the priest of the Bon held in the house of the bride religion (pronounced Pon. as in return they promise to make offerings to ure. in the main. It is a constant fear with Tibetans that if it should ever happen that a man should provoke this God's anger by any means whatever. inform the Gods of the daughter's bsing engaged and to take leave of them.s the sentences are the same. generally known as the ' Scarlet-Hoods ' or Eed-Caps. Early in the morning of the nuptial day the father and mother give a farewell banquet in the house of the bride. Wedding Ceremonies. the old religion of Tibet.

In almost all cases the words of exhortation are about the same. the bride goes to the house of her husband. and more especially must she love her husband's younger brothers and sisters with the same kindness that she has for her true brothers or sisters . for the God traditional formality.WEDDING CEEEMONIES. and the like. is Here and there skil-1 the is is intervals of the exhortations inserted a story. so that any- body can understand them. which told by the preacher with such that the bride generally deeply impressed. The sentences say that when she must behave with uniform kindness that. she must treat her servants as if they were her in own children. and instructs her by means of a collection of maxims which he has well committed to memory previous to the ceremony. and they are composed of very easy expressions. . 363 family to which the daughter has been engaged is not enjoying such happiness as the maiden's own family enjoys and again that it is not dignified for the King-Drao-on to . go to another house in pursuit of a girl : it is advisable with the present family and look after its interests. there enters the preacher who is to exhort the bride. When the exhortation is . as it is the duty of a woman to be obedient to her superiors. for among that if superstition is common the people of Tibet the the King-Uragon should leave a family for ever to follow a daughter on her marriage. The preacher is a kind personage. The banquet over. as before for boundless will be the happiness that he shall enjoy in case he stays with the present family as hitherto. He stands in front of the bride. but husband's she must not only be obedient to her parents-inmust also wait upon her husband and his brothers sisters and with equal kindness. selected from people who are accomplished in such things. once she goes to her law. After all. hence these customs are universally observed by the people. this is not a matter of mere to stay . the family will be reduced to utter poverty .

In horseback. no fixed standard as to the property which a bride takes with her to her husband's on the occasion of her marriage. Women in Tibet are very good riders . There is and women experiences case of in the manner of riding. She is dressed in the wedding garment which has been presented to her by the bridegroom. After There is these ceremonies. no difference between men While in Tibet I used to ride in the same manner. to thus placed on horseback. the bride weeps bitterly. 8ome are rich enough to take a piece of land as a dowry.364 over. she ground and lies there obstinately Her features become those of one whose heart is too heavy to part with her parents and her home. clothes. and her head and face are covered with rin- . who. tlie THItEE YEARS IN TIHET. relatives and friends of the bride. father and mother of the bride sit before her. after the Japanese fashion. the bride has at last to leave her old home. bursting into tears. and also wears the ornaments for head and arms which have been presented to her by her own parents. as if they were astride on a verj' low bench. her on horseback are in vain . and use an extremely short stirrup leather. make their exhortations most tenderly and in a most caressing manner. such a case. and with tears repeat exhortations similar to those previoilsly Then also come the recited by the regular preacher. efforts to get prostrates herself on the helpless. and during the first part of my had a hard time of it. makes her way the house of the bridegroom. after which I often felt much pain I about my legs. the bride is lifted up and placed by friends on She does not ride in the same manner as but astride. but some can afford only to take a few When and all she leaves her house. and taking the bride by the hand. thej' do not ride with long stirrups. western-s^ do. but with legs bent back. more especially in the a long ride. Now the bride.

because every impressed with the fact that lie has been entrusted with the very important duty of taking the bride in safety to the house of the bridegroom. it is inscribed with good wishes for her future. the gate of the bridegroom's house is at last reached by the wedding procession. The people who have come to see the bride off and those who have come to receive her all go oil horseback. In these banquets. set before them. are given by the friends of the bride and bridegroom at the houses of their friends or at their own. never press any one to drink to excess. as the case may be. recognising the situation. Sometimes the banquets are given at places two miles apart. 365 chen na-nga. while for the guests it is considered very impolite to taste such to do so without a great deal of The banquets pressure is to be as vulgar as a Chinaman. and so the others. it is customary in Tibet to press one's guests to eat the dainties which have been . green. As a rule. called the 'banner of good omen'. but on dainties immediately the whole it is more usual fields convenient places in house. The neck is also covered with a small banner. On account no glimpse of her face can be caught.WEDDING CEREMONIES. and taken place. and on their way to the bridegroom's house six banquets altogether are given by the relatives of the bride and of the bridegroom. the precious cloths woven from sheep's wool. to have tents erected at on the way to the bridegroom's and to entertain the wedding procession there. however nobody drinks anything one is to excess. and sometimes three. and after the sixth banquet has duly colors. . Those who have coine to see the bride off give three banquets at three different points on the road. red. back of her omen ' is made is of a fine silk stuff dj^ed in five different some fourteen inches or so in length . and those who have come to welcome her give three similar banquets. in stripes of yellow. This 'banner of good of the cloth. white and black.



and as soon as the bride arrives the man. is of the gate of the bridegroom's it is away the by the people. throws it in the face of the bride. and one told that the bride. colored with the red juice of a plant. she finds ingress. taking advantage of any opportunity that may ofEer. may have followed the bride on her way to the Hidden under his right hand. as those who had come way were the relatives of the question as to whether the bride could at once be admitted to the house of the to receive the bride on the bi-idegroom. would not occur to anybody that there should be any bridegroom or n8t. When the bride reaches the gate. like a bayonet it looks like a sword. or the sword evil is of the or charm. there evil spirits. believed a sword secret which is called the Torma. which. but some one must have it. on taking leave of her family. concealed in it. and the people are afraid for want of the divine protec- . and is said to have some secret charm. spirits epidemic diseases to The sword made of a mixture of baked flour. pronounced by a priest. has the closed. and barred against her in front In the crowd gathered house. has lost the protection of the Gods of the of the village and house in which she has been a resident. than the door left is again and the bride standing outside. the fact is quite the reverse. butter and water. it locked. This where the Tibetan custom appear so strange in the eyes of a foreigner. fried hard and Its shape is long and triangular. stuff that all covered with the red fragments of the at her. with which he tears such pieces. man fled inside is the gate. has been thrown origin of such One may wonder what can be the is a custom. a to drive it is man whose duty or epidemic diseases. No sooner . the man has bridegroom's. bolted. the door of which opens to receive him as he discharges this duty. that. and runs inside the gate. It Thus the gate of the bridegroom's house is reached.368 THREE YEARS IN TIBET. is However. The spectators do not know which one in the crowd has the sword.

There is a jjeculiar sort of custom prevalent at weddings. ding procession whose duty it is to say sheppa solemnly " This is the gate which leads to the says as follows store-house where many precious and valuable things are . for the arrival of the By this who have been waiting wedding procession. cloth in so quickly. on her way to the bridegroom's house. indi- cating wishes for good luck and happiness." the say : We want to sheppa. imme- diately after throwing the sword in the face of the bride. the gate. to the and that these might cause some injury hence the use of the Torma epidemic diseases. and therefore the man flies inside the gate lest he should be caught by the people who have come time the people inside the gate. it duty " the is man to wedding procession 'explanation' say say so. The sheppa In response has of consists of manj'' beautiful words and in the fine phrases. the bride 369 must have met with a crowd of evil spirits. that the man must pay twenty tanka as penalty to any of the bride's friends that can catch hold of the cloth naturallj^ therefore. demand that to see the bride off. but for lack this the kata we cannot do On hearing the man inside the gate shows a tiny piece of kata through a " Here is the kata. the man in the wedpulled away. it is quickly On seeing the kata. such evil spirits. by which everj^ one caught by the bride's friends is bound to pay them a penalty of twenty tanka. to their whose to demands. bride's party give shp'ppa (explanation) at the or else the bride cannot be admitted. to conqiier new couple . and one is told that it is in considera- tion of a peculiar custom. : 47 ." but no chink in the gate and says : sooner has he done so than he promptly pulls it back One may wonder why the people should pull the again. or epidemic diseases. tion. gate. or Then one wants to know why the man fled inside the and caused the door to be closed after him.WEDDING CBKEMONIES.

and that these. will do great damage to So its farms and cause much injury to the inhabitants. butter. the inmates of which are as virtuous and beautiful as angels Grods. but in lonely parts of the country it will sometimes take place. on arriving at the village. when ther? is a celebration of some extraordinary is A little of this distributed to each jjerson in the procession. the mother of the bridegroom comes out with some sour milk and chema in her hands. sugar and taro-root. it on his palm and eats it. and inside the gate there of the pillars are built of gold and the do^. Chema is a mixture of baked flour. Upon the gate being opened. as she riding past a certain village.of silver is a hall of worship which is natural cloisonne . and very nice to eat. and that during her journey many evil spirits and epidemic diseases must have taken hold of her. Chema and sour milk are used only occasion. and in order to get a through the village the attendants of the bride mast pay ransom. who receives tlie This ceremony over. Taro-root is a kind of potato. mother leads the party into her . must here not omit to say that on her way is to the brideis groom's. It must be understood that it is generally in the case of a family which its with is not popular neigbors that the bride receives such treatment.370 kept . as large as a man's little linger. made and there is also a palace. THREE YEARS IN TIBET. off the people of the village carry safe passage the bride as a compens- ation for such prospective damage. the bride sometimes caught hold of and carried off by the people of the village." Words of the I similar to these are said. as it is believed by them also that the bride has lost the protection of the Gods of her native place. I may say that this is a very rare occurrence in a town. produced in 'L'ibet. on the pretext that her coming will cause some injury to them. and at the termination sheppa the gate is open.

371 priest of the " house and gives a banquet in honor of the bride. stay in the house of the are bridegroom. groom give a piece other people receive her. she bride from a well-to-do family. three days at least. off. These prayers over. and most of their food is more are very fatty even than Chinese cookery. with the bridegroom. the friends in If and servants bride. and attend the banquets which daily. The feasting over. and to be her protectors henceof the village made the forward. and wedding ceremonies come to . or to receive her. Tibetans for a month at most. to flag the newly married couple are removed to an adThe people who have come either to see the jacent room. when the Old School" is called upon to inform the Gods to and of the house that an addi'ion has been members of the family b}' the arrival of the bride. bride off or to receive her. and that. therefore.WEDDING CEREMONIES. given come him a reasonThe feasting lasts for two or able amount of presents. the Gods are prayed to extend their arms to the bride. the father and mother of the brideof kata to the couple. every one bringing with imagine how foolishly idle are the people of Tibet in their habits. say good-bye to the house. of the bride remain the house the with the is this being the custom. and the reader can well and during this time the friends and relatives to join the banquet. and make her stay with her lives. They give long banquets richly furnished with such food. but for several days following. new family to serve her as long as she In this way the In one month an end. fathei''s takes with her a servant from her in the house. the people who have come to see the bride still. and fond of meat. comes to her old home. and to all the who have come to see the bride off or to Such is the ceremony that makes the happy Before the feasting has begun couple husband and wife. together or one year after the marriage the bride.

Polyandry flourishes in Tibet even at the present time. is at is home the If one of the brothers other absents himself. as long as she for likes. Her husband with her for several days. the bridegroom acting as the middleman. In whom the bride was first married. In this way all possi- means are taken to keep only one of the brothers home. takes himself off from the house on business. and then returns to his house. if he ble at a merchant. In a family where the bride has more than one bridegroom. or on official duties. or for pleasure. either on business.372 they stay there THREE TEARS IN TIBET. sometimes foi- one the month and sometimes three. the bride must also in six or twelve months after marrying the eldest brother. the bride has to marry each one of them separately. so as to let the bride and his younger brother marry during his absence. Such is the polyandry practised by the people of Tibet. the husband comes for her and takes her home again. The wedding ceremony in such a case is carried on privately at the house of the bridegroom. without having any of the this case the eldest brother. each in his turn. if ever a merchant (having been out of tlie country and seen much of the putside world and observed how shameful his habits . and called the sa-simii. It makes no difference if the bridegroom has three or more brothers. in consequence. it is very seldom that we find the brothers living together. marry him In case the bridegroom has a brother. but when the day comes on which the bride has promised her husband to return to his house. When making stays first visit to her father's house. to - mother formal ceremonies to celebrate their weddings. the bride takes with her not more than two or three persons. Sometimes the bride and her brothers-inlaw live together at their pleasure. and in the same manner. and it is considered by the general public to be the right thing to follow and.

WEDDING CEREMONIES. or to who paid no attention what- ever to the application of their religion to the needs of making the principles of true outcome has shameful custom. the natural this Buddhism been that of the world. and in spite of the introduction of wedlock. among the Buddhist believers there has scarcely been any one to social problems. who has ever given any thought as the priests of ancient and moreover. as well as this unreasonable relationship between a husband and wife. it The blame lies entirely with the priests must not be laid at the door of Buddhism. and his protest brushed away with " Luk-su-mindu. times were generally recluses. the practical world.. at 373 of home have been) should is protest against this sort shunned by his fellow-men as a crank. altogether contradictory to the principles of Buddhism. he true Buddhism present that into Tibet the habit has come down to The fact the is time and remains flourishing. has its origin in the Bon religion. . has remained in this part as distinct as possible." This peculiar and ridiculous wedlock." which means "there is no such a custom (in Tibet).

my residence Parkor cityj as I is Lhasa and of toward the Parkor. and found that the criminals were men connected with the Tangye-ling monastery. Pillory in forms. the Lama superior of which is qualified to succeed to the in case. is the name one of the principal streets in that ed. and had their necks fixed in a frame of thick wooden boards about 1^ inches thick. and of the judgment passed upon him. supreme power of the pontificate for one reason or . the criminal exposed sometimes with and at others with both. I confess that I read one or two of them. I could not read were all the sentences. sentencing him to the pillory for a certain number of days and to exile or Hogging afterwards. in early in October I left Tibetan Punishments. some of them tied to posts. The flogging generally ranges from three hundred to seven hundred lashes. when I beheld the miserable spectacle. and three feet square. while others were left fettered at one of the street crossings. and a lock. The frame had in the centre a hole just large enough for the neck and was composed of two wooden boards fastened together by means of ridges. On that particular occasion I saw as many as twenty ci'iminals undergoing punishment. They were all well-dressed. and public the place where being have already mentioncriminals are exposed Tibet takes various to disgrace. even though my curiosity was stronger than the sense of pity that naturally rose in my bosom only handouffsj or fetters alone. From this frame was suspended a piece of paper informing the public of the nature of the crime committed by the exposed person. As so many criminals pilloried on that particular occasion.CHAPTER One day strolled LVI.

Shortly before my a arrival in Lhasa this high post was occupied by distinguished jariest Einpoche. and merthe affairs . His steward went under the this man was charged with the heinous crjme of having secretly made an attempt on the life of the Dalai Lama by invoking the aid of evil deities. the venerable the rest. This amazing revelation led to the wholesale arrest of all the persons suspected of being privy to the crime. The cause of his illness was at last traced to the foot-gear with its invocation paper by the wise men in attendance on the Grand Lama. Norpu Che-ring was the Prime-Minister to the Regent. the post of the Dalai Laina should happen to fall The monastery is therefore one of the most invacant. both priests and lay- men. Lama. admitting of no dispute. for it is a fact.TIBETAN PUNISHMENTS. for was said that the Grand Lama invariably fell ill one way or another ^vhenever he put on these accursed objects. Some people even regarded the latter as the ring-leader in this plot and denounced him as having conspired against the life of the Temo Rinpoche among Grand Lama in order to create for himself a chance of wielding the supreme authority. that Norpu was oppressive. 375 another. A piece of paper containing the dangerous incantation was secreted in the soles of the beautiful foot-gear worn by the Dalai presented to his Holiness. which was then The incantation must have it possessed an extraordinary potency. named Temo name of Norpu and Norpu of Che-ring's conjuration was conducted not according to the Buddhist formula. Che-ring. At any rate Temo Rinpo- che occupied the pontifical seat as Regent before the present Grand Lama was installed on his throne. and conducted Things of state in a high-handed manner. but according to that the Bon religion. fluential institutions in the Tibetan Hierarchy and generally contains a large number of inmates. were even worse than this.

it was torn off. put to death a large number of innocent persons.376 cilessly THREE YBAES IN TIBET. The mere description The torture. and the stick was next drilled in between the flesh and the skin. which were always accompanied with torture. and they were thrown into prison. When I came Lhasa Temo Rinpoche had been dead for some time^ but Norpu Che-ring was still lingering in a stone dungeon which was guarded with special severity. The dungeon had only one narrow hole in the top. because of the grave nature of his crime. or he himself was dragged out whenever he had to undergo his examinations. my arrival. He was therefore a persona ingrata with at least a section of the public. As even criminals possess no more than ten fingers on both hands the inquisitor had to make chary use of this stock of torture. Such was the treatment the ex-Prime-Minister All this had occurred before received at his hands. was devised with diabolical ingenuity. through which food was doled out to the prisoner. for it was invariably associated with the infliction of tortures of a terribly excruciating character. . Hope of escape was out of the question. till the whole number was disposed of. as inflicted on Norpu of it chilled my blood. and some of his enemies lost no time in giving a detailed denunciation of the despotic rule of the Regent and his Prime-Minister as soon as the present Grand Lama was safely enthroned. and such being the case. After the nail had been sufficiently abused as a means of torture. and took only one finger at a time. Naturally therefore the former Regent and his Lieutenant were not regarded with favor by the Grand Lama. the terrible revelation about the shoes was at once followed by to their arrest. and the only opportunity oifered him of seeing the sunshine was by no means a source of relief. for it consisted in driving a sharpened bamboo stick into the sensitive part of the finger directly underneath the nail. Ohe-ring.

the steward's life. but that he was not so mean and depraved as to seek an unmerited deliverance at the cost of his venerable master's life. His master had nothing to do with it. Temo even advised his steward. declaring who carried out his orders. And ed. would reply that his master must have made that baseless confession from the benevolent motive of saving his. that the late Regent Be the 48 real circumstances what they might. From this it may be concluded that Temo had really no hand in the plot. to confess. that is Temo. and during that long period not one word even in the faintest way implicating his master ha'd passed his lips. even supposing was really privy to the plot. but they were denied this satis- by the unflinching courage of their victim. like the priest of noble heart that he was. The steward. 377 tude this torture with admirable fortihe persisted that the whole plot originated in him alone and was put in execution by his own hands only. whenever the two happened to be together at the inquisition. had done. At the same time it must be remembered that Temo was an elder brother of Norpu. so he preferred to suffer pain rather than to be releas- and baffled all the attempts of the torturers. to take the whole responsibility of the plot upon his that'Norpu was merely'" a tool and that therefore the latter was entirely innocent of the crime. Norpu Che-ring bore object in subjecting their former superior and colleague to this infernal torture was to extort from him a confession implicating faction Temo Rinpoche. when .TIBETAN PUNISHMENTS. own shoulders. The inquisitors' . and the fraternal affection which the latter entertained towards the other might therefore have been too strong to allow of his implicating Temo. By the time reached Lhasa Norpu had already endured this painful I existence for two years. on his part. as he. It is sai d that this suffering of Norpu Che-ring had so far awakened the sympathy of Temo Rinpoche himself that the latter tried.


helpless might exist in the Nether fellows. plices. The pillory was to last in each case for three to seven PUNISHED IN PUBLIC. for half of them were sentenced to exile and the remaining half to floggings of from three hundred to five hundred lashes. days. whatever hard words others might utter against him for the mere fact that ho . My heart truly bled for the poor. though the exact number was unknown to outsiders. whom of I saw on that occasion Norpu Che-ring.TIBETAN PUNISHMENTS. I 379 heard all these painful particulars. Besides sixteen Bon priests had been executed as accomwhile the number of laymen and priests who had subordinates been exiled on the same charge must have been largo. . The pilloried criminals were apparently minor oifenders. appealed strongl}' to my heart. my sympathy was powerfully aroused for Norpu. Looking at these pitiable creatures I felt as if I were witnessing a sight such as World. pilloried criminals all The were these. submitted so long to such revolting punishments with such persevering fortitude and with such faithful constancy to his master and brother.

seek some where her gaining admission to the lonely cell dear lord was confined ? And so it came to pass that Madame Norpn bribed the jailei-. A move was lying there. and what faithful wife. was a beautiful lady in the pillory. Her eyes were closed. 380 THREE YEAES IN TIBET. one of the oldest and most respected families in the whole of the vessel containing baked flour Tibetan aristocracy. near the western corner of the building. of one or other of the three rough attendants. She was none other than the wife of Norpu Che-ring. even though Tibetan. But this early and apparently more considerate treatment only jjlunged his family into in a cell less terrible His wife was told that the jailer which her husband was incarcerated was not overstriot and that he was open to corruption. for the frame around her neck did not allow her to it freely. i3roceeded further on. for her own hands were manacled. were near by as guards. Her neck was secured in the regulation frame. apparently police constables. flooded by sunshine. and the ponderous piece of wood was weighing heavily upon her frail shoulders.. A piece of red cloth made of Bhutan silk was upon her head. just as was that of a rougher criminal. whose miserable story I have already told. and Heavy with this sad reflexion I soon arrived at a place to the south of a Buddhist edifice and there. and also some small delicacies that must have been sent b}' relatives All this food she had to take fi'om the bands or friends. It. of the prison in . of trying to . he was at first confined than the stone dungeon to which he was afterwards transferred. and with his connivance was often at her husband's sidej but somehow her greater misery. would the temptation placed before her under such resist means of circumstances. I beheld another heart-rending sight. and was a daughter of the house of Do-ring. which hung very low. When her husband was arrested. Three men.

" These aristocrats were giving sardonic smiles. fettered and manacled. The sencondemn- ed her to so many whippings. I thought. gazing at the pillory with callous indifference. she as I heard afterwards. and then to be conducted to a busy thoroughfare to bo pilloried for public disgrace. was led out of the however for liberation. cratic-looking persons. as if gloating over the misery of the house of Norpu Cheering. B. These same people. but some of them even betrayed their depravity by reviling and jeering at the lady " Serve her right. but first to suffer at the gate of the prison a flogging of three hundred lashes. tence. The sentiment of pity was intensified when I saw a group of idle spectators. who seemed to take so much delight in the calamity of the family of Norpu Che-ring. They were it heartless enough to ajjproach her place of torture and read the judgment paper. Even if it were beyond the comprehension of these brutes to appreciate the meaning of that merciful principle which bids us " hate the offence . must have vied with each other in courting his favor while he was in power and prosperity. brought them to this.TIBETAN PUMISHMENTS. there to remain imprisoned. transgression also 381 reached the ears of the governmentj and she into prison. and J could not help feeling angry witli them.eally the heartless depravity of these ])eople was beyond description. she seemed to be almost insensible when and the mere sight of her emaciated form and death-pale face aroused ray strongest sympathy." " their hard treatment of others has I heard them say : . The spectators not only read out the sentence with an air of perfect indifference. not this piteous prison. then to seven days pillory. was thrown On the very morning of the day on which I came upon sight of the pillory. and lastly to exile at such-and-such a place. tiinong whom I even notic'ed some aristo! Poor woman I saw her. Serve them right. as I heard read aloud by these fellows.

pure in life. and asked him to tell me all he knew about the affair. felt sincerely sorry for the Lady Norpu. that some people used to find fault with the private conduct of Norpu Che-ring. and the former Minister could not deny that there was some reason But Temo Rinpoche was a venerable man. Nobody dared to whisper Now one word of blame about him and his wife. my host told me. the former Minister of him what I had seen in the street. As fiokle as the clew upon t)if trees. " one would. He said that he could not talk thus to others. fidential to me alone. have expected them to be humane enough to show some sympathy towards this woman who was paying so dearly for her excusable indiscretion. and had met with such a sad endsolelj' in consequence of the wicked intrigues of My host was perfectly certain that Temo Rinpoche had absolutely no hand in the plot. for that. he could be conhis followers. pious and benevolent. Tortures are carried to the' extreme of diabolical ingenuity. but pity the offender. To blooming flowers your smiling welcome give Why should your tears of pity cease to flow When blooms or withering flowers pass away f . and so behaved themselves in that shameful manner. related to they were fallen. They are such as one might expect in hell. On my return. He fully shared my sympathy for the unfortunate woman. My sentiment on that particular occasion is partially embodied in heavy steps this : uta that occurred to me as I retraced my You. and returned to my residence with a heavy heart. he was held in high respect. While Norpu Che-ring was in power. and he felt really sorry for them. I. who knew that political rivalry in Tibet was allowed to run to such an extreme as to involve even innocent women in painful punishment. evercliaug'ing foolish herds of men. when I saw my host.382 THEEB YEAES IN TIBET. he continued. I Finance. One . It was true. But they seemed to be utterly impervious to such sentiments.

itself a serious punishment in such a cold country. the criminal receiving it on the bared small of his back. as I know from my by the personal observations. flogging are shocking to see. as the result of The wounds caused flogging. Nothing. mud As to for food. Each bonnet weighs about eight another is heaped on as the torture ' ' The weight at first forces tears out of the eyes is of the victim. object prolonging the torture. that a prisoner generally obliged to ask his friends to send him some food. for even the best of place. may is are of given. Then flogging. The part is soon torn open by the lashing. A but prison-house is in any case an awful especially so in Tibet. after and the poor victim receives a cup which the painful process is resumed. ' as already ' described. even in broad day. but more them has nothing walls and a planked floor. but afterward. is a painful punish- ment. however. and perhaps the flog- with the ging of water. case three hundred or five hundred blows as be. until beater continues his brutal the prescribed the number. sent in from outside reaches the . Very often. suspended. though far milder in itself. as the weight increased. Another consists in placing stone-bonnets on the head of the victim. 383 method consists in drilling a sharpened bamboo stick into the tender part of the tip of the fingers. cut fresh from a willow tree. as it is done with a heavy rod. and is very dark in the This absence of sunlight is interior. pounds. In nine cases out of ten the victims of this corporeal punishment fall ill. were bleeding internally. and while at Ijhasa I more than once prescribed for persons who. prisoners are fed only once a flour.TIBETAN PUNISHMENTS. day with a is couple of handfuls of baked This so is hardly sufficient keep body and soul together. and the blood that oozes out is scattered right and left as the task. the very eye-balls are forced from their sockets. and one after proceeds.

the right of lodging the complaint being limited. . one leaving a criminal to live at large in the exiled place. and ear-cutting and nose-slitting in a case of adultery are the most painful. of the criminal parties. There are two modes of this execution : one by . confining him in a local prison. at a great distance. which is heavier. but only after the hands have been firmly tied for about twelve hours. then comes flogging. inflicted punishment are by the authorities . for the gao. Both parties These forms of upon the accusation of the aggrieved party. The amputation is not done all at once. when taken in flagrante He has simply to report the matter afterwards to the authorities. THREE YEAES IN TIBET. Capital punishment is carried out solely by immersion in water. till they become completely paralysed. and in . to be followed. After this treatment the hands are chopped off at the is wrists in public. With regard to exile there are two different kinds. however. to the husband in fact he himself may with impunity cut off the ears or slit the are visited with this physical deformation. by the then the amputation of the extraction of the eye-balls hands.384 prisoners entire. and the other. The most lenient form of punishment is a fine . handless ones. noses delicto. Then there are other forms of mutilation also inflicted of these as ]3unishment. subtract for their own moutlis more than half of and only a small portion of the whole quantity gets into the prisoners' hands. and naughty street urchins are allowed to pull the cord up and down at their pleasure.ers it. . This panishment generally inflicted on thieves and robbers after their Lhasa abounds in handless beggars beggars minus their eye-balls and perhaps the proportion of eyeless beggars is larger than that of the fifth or sixth offence. The criminals who are about to suffer amputation are generally suspended by the wrists from some elevated object with stout cord.

Several other barbarous forms of punishment are in vogue. and already the road was covered with a thick layer of its crystal carpet. but these I may omit here. of Especially did I think the idea of eternal principles damnation irreconcilable with the mercy and justice. . All these punishments place are for a' struck me as entirely out of country in which Buddhist doctrines held in such high respect. It was the first snow of 49 the season. The head is deposited in a head vase. for I should say that ought to absolve criminals of their offences. the head alone being kept. I stayed in Lhasa till about the middle of October 1901. either at once. " of the horrible name signifying for this sole purpose.tion. down they plunge him up and down is repeated till the criminal expires.a criminal into a 385 bag made of hides and throwing the bag with . The executioners lift him out after about ten minutes. or after it has been exposed in public for three or seven days. and all the rest of the severed members are thrown into the river.TIBETAN PUNISHMENTS. The snow had been falling since execution the previous evening. and its live contents into the water still alive. and this lifting cari'ied to a building a established which bears Damnation. The lifeless body is then cut to pieces. when i decided to return to Sera. On the road from Lhasa to Sera. My host kindly placed at my disposal one of his horses and on this I jogged towards my destina. and the vase is if he is judged to be again. putting. for what I have stated in the preceding paragraphs is enough to convey some idea of criminal procedure as it exists in the Forbidden Land. " Perpetual This practice comes from a superstition people that those whose heads are kept in that edifice will forever be precluded from being reborn in this world. and the other by tying the criminal's hands and feet and throwing him into a river with a heavy stone tied to his body.

At any rate he avoided my eyes. even frightened. by Shom-khe-Lamkha ter. priestlings of and on the day I am speaking of its bed was covered There I noticed a party of five or six young of Sera. (priest's road). besides giving him a farewell present on parting. and I amused myself with composing an On yonder fields of snow the cliildren play. a burly fellow coming from the direction of Lhasa overtook me and began to stare at me. I at once recognised in him one of my old acquaintances. such as I must have appeared to him. forth coine my mind's at eye across is. This river dries up in win- with snow. that human nature over. in This amused me. I made him come along with me. all. Lake Man asaro vara. absorbed highly in the innocent sport calling snowballing. the sights 1 had frequently and reminding me. and was about to walk off with hurried steps. when I bade him stop. While I was watching tlie snow-fight. when he saw me. and treated him quite hospitably at my quarters in the monastery. uta. forgetting for once the stern reprimanding voices of their exacting masters. who gave my face a sharp parting smack. running and pursuing. And fix''' with snow-balls in great glee. his whilom companion of humble attire. He seemed to be three brothers quite astonished. And in these heated contests melts the snow. home. and asked him if he had forgotten my face. shouting and laughing. as already told. now transformed into an aristocratic-looking personage. after very much alike the world And so these little fellows were pelting each other with soft missiles. there is a river about half a mile on this side of Sera. the youngest of the whom I accompanied on the pilgrimage round. and told me that he was going to Sera. as follows. The man could not but confess that he had not. When I thanked him for all the trouble he had taken for .386 THREE YEAES IN TIBET. They throw and scatter these amongst themselves.

and even shed no doubt of remorse.TIBETAN PUNISHMENTS. 387 his me during our pilgrimage. the man bowed tears. Before taking his departure he told me that his brothers were living together were all doing well. and that they . head as if in repentance. at their native place.

While I was busy with preparation. Tibetan in may observe here that in neither a coffin nor urn is used funerals which to deposit the corpse. It is simply laid on a frame made of two wooden poles. Generally a funeral is performed on the third or fourth day after death. is First of all a properly qualified Lama consulted as to the ffuspicious day for j)erforming the ceremony. and such in . space between and two cross The rectangular space thus described is filled in with a rough sort of network of rcpes. previous to the grand monthly catechising contest that I returned to the Sera monastery. The Lama consulted gi. and bids the passages relatives of the deceased read such the Sacred Texts. pure white in color.ves his instructions on all these points after referring to his books. A grim Funeral and grimmer was just Medicine. I had to attend I one his of my is funeral. and that completes the arrangement. then as to the special mode of funeral and the final disposal of the corpse. conduct the ceremony on such and such day. with a proper pieces tied to them. and over the netting is spread a sheet of cloth for the reception of the corpse. and in eager expectation of taking part in this acquaintances died and important function. who insert their heads between the projecting ends of the two longer poles. is thrown over the corpse. the interval being spent in observances peculiar to Tibet. and take the funeral bier from the house at such and such an hour of the day. Another piece of cloth. Incidentally therefore I took part in a ceremony which perhaps unique in the world. The whole burden is then carried on the shoulders of two men.CHAPTER It LVII.

or more properly modes of disposing of corpses. namely : vs^ater. and thought that on death they burial to should return water-burial to these original elements. it is first thoroughly dismemberedj and thrown into the water piece by piece. These four processes of disposing of corpses originate from Hindu philosophj'. water.. This last method is to leave the corpse to the vultures. fire and air. 389 The there are four in vogue on the mode of burial. This troublesome course is adopted from the idea that a dead body thrown in whole will not speedily disappear from sight. flame. is never adopted except when a person dies from small-pox. the name of . for they of interment think if that this dreadful epidemic of is likely to spread the corpse a person stricken pox of is left for birds or is consigned to cremation country of considered as a superior down by smalla river. is Hence cremation confined to the wealthier class only. the process is by no means easy in a where faggots are scarce. earth. and birds of the air. water. of which the four modes being distinguishable from each other by the agencies to be brought into _ priest also advises . A GRIM FUNERAL ANB GRIMMER MEDICINE. for the dried dung the yak is hardly thought proper for the purpose. the one generally regarded as the bpst known under Cha-goppo in Tibet then comes cremation then water-burial. In this particular case alone the Tibetans observe some sanitary principles. and last land-burial. to cremation fire. This last corresponds to the "air-burial" of Buddhism. according to which human bodies are believed to consist it is of four elements. though probablj' by mere accident and not from any conviction. Land- corresponds to the returning to earth. . and the bird-devouring . service. in consigning a dead body to the water. Of the four kinds of burial. Water-burial generally takes place near a large stream but. Though way of disposing dead bodies. earth.

were perched a large number of vultures. At the same man approached the 'corpse with ft broadsword. When the bier was placed upon this rock. believed mode was chosen for the friend whose funeral I how this 'burial' was performed.u> body were severed. with their eyes glistening with ' Air-burial ' attended. the white sheet was taken to the and the priest who had come. stood a big boulder about twelve yards high. are always waiting there for 'burials'. with the rest of the mourners and sympathisers. The top of this stone was level and measured about fifteen feet .390 to the air.~^^^i^SISl few priests. just as butchers do with slaughtered cattle.square. sub-Dalai Lama and other venerable Lamas. By this vultures had gathered in a flock •time the round the place. In dressing the abdomen was first cut open and the entrails removed. On the summits of the surrounding hills. which birds are the denizens. such as the flesh of the thighs. This was the 'burial-ground' for this particular kind of interment. The bodies Lamas are mostly disposed of by this last process. in a small valley formed between two contiguous hills. ^ '"" finishing work of final dressing'.-ii—'-'^ tsome other men. are given a special of burial. undertook the '^__. and even on the inaccessible parts of the rock itself. Lama. were thrown to them and most voraciously '' ' 'i . and big pieces. of of THREE YEAKS IN TIBET.j--^. with which to dress it. Leaving the college at Sera. They off. began to chant their texts accompaniment of drums and cymbals. which consisted in separating the flesh and bones. and I shall briefly describe greed. the cortege proceeded eastward till it reached thebankof a river near which. Next all time one ' ' ' ' the various members of the . after which Ll. including a . such as the Dalai to be incarnations of Bodhisattvas. while those of a few privileged persons only.


baked flour. though they hardly matter of did they devour them. mixed with . prepare or help themselves to tea or take food. for they never wash their hands before they prepare are great tea-drinkfirs. the most they do being to olap their hands. they looked at me with an air of surprise. tea. I was struck with this notion while witnessing the A. or priests. for Tibetans the grave but in chopping the flesh of the corpse The grave-diggers. thus they take a good deal of minced or brain. body was the hair.11 the cloths used in the burial go as a burial ceremony.siness is necessarily tedious and tiresome. perfect nonchalance They do so with have no idea whatever their practice is. and pounding the heap with big stones. They scoffed at my suggestion. how really abominable and horrible it. thing that remained of the dead The Tibetans may practically be considered as a kind of cannibals. and tea is drtirik almost incessantly. Meanwhile the pounders have to take refreshment. their tea Or in fact. and even observed that eating with unwashed hands really added relish to food besides. and The on]y this dainty mixture was also given to the birds. with their hands splashed over with a mash of human flesh and bones. of. for the pounding bu. food without aversion. It has been stated that the Tibetans . Even priests give them help.392 THREE YEAES IN TIBET. as their duty consists not in digging and pounding the bones. the spirit of the dead man would be satisfied when he saw them take fragments of his mortal remains with theh* . for they are accustomed to When I suggested that they might wash their hands before taking refreshment. Then the bones had to be disposed was done by first throwing them into one of the ten cavities on the rock. When the bones had been fairly well pulverised a quantity of baked flour was added to the mass. and this deserve this name. And bones human flesh. so as to get rid of ^he Coarser fragments. course to the grave-diggers. they floiir.

where they are feasted by its members. those who have attended it the house of the bereaved family. All while. accompanied by a small sum of money. While the burial ceremony is also is going on. are descendants of the Rakshasa tribe 393 —a tribe of fiendish on human flesh. It salt. any rate it is somewhat diiferent from the . chanting goes on. are The box is then kept in a temple for about three months. all the watery portion of the corpse silver vessels. By the time the three months have elapsed. Every one allowed to worship near the remains is expected to make some offering in kind. even at the present day. keep vigil over it by turns. as made his and disciples Flowers of the season are also ofl^ered with other things. has been absorbed by the dry. accompanied by the music of pipes and other instruments. of however. and when the call ceremony at is over. When put in sprinkled this a person of high distinction big his is body a box it till and it marsh is salt copiously in over thoroughly this imbedded alkaline padding. they retained the horrible habit of their cannibals to feed who used ancestors. in not observed. during which time offerings when the deceased was yet alive. the country districts. religious flutes. a religious service conducted at the house of the deceased. I shall next describe the mode burying a Dalai dies. and it has become hard and quite sure) that the seems at §0 to me (though I am not Tibetan salt contains a large percentage of soda or other alkalies .A GEIM FUNERAL AND GEIMMEE MEDICINE. Lama is or a high-priest. and what I witnessed at the burial convinced me that. I noticed that at this entertainment intoxicants This discrimination is are served only to the laity. Before the cofKn lights are kept burning in several golden burners containing melted butter. while holy water is offered in seven regularly.

is of earth-burial. gilded. who remarks that the practice is inconsistent earth-burial. which is highly decorated. and also probably are ' ' certain drugs of foreign production. and the whole thing. made with a compound of a certain kind of clay and pulverised particles of wliite sandalwood. when it is used for packing a corpse. For the treatdead body of a G-rand Lama. This compound is carefully spread over all parts of the body. being inlaid gold and others with At any rate. with the strong prejudice which Tibetans possess against as this m->de of burial. imiges are objects of veneration to both priests and ordinary people visit and worship them. or other in fact a soi-t distinguished priest. In construction these roofs double roof of a palace or similar building in Cbina. when it is taken out of the coffin the corpse is thoroughly hardened. This image put in a tabernacle enclosed in a small outer structure. is It is Anally and a ' natural ' image is the result. Such shrines are found in many parts of Tibet. Perhaps some special ingredients mixed in the salt. in that not given to birds or consigned to rivers or . and the eyes are sunk in their sockets. owing to the loss of all fluid elements. and has all its parts shrunk up. according to their superstition. sends the ment accorded the corpse is to the dead person to hell. in the premises of the Tashi Lhunjjo five monastery at Shigatze very such edifices are found. and of course the decoration much resemble the and size of the edifice and tabernacle are with different accord- ing to the rank of the canonised Lamas. Then follows the process of dressThe dressing' in this case is ing' the hardened corpse. image and all. found in Japan.394 salt THREE YEARS IN TIBET. Be that as it may. some of these structures silver. This peculiar mode of embalming high the Tibetans Lamas has been wittily commented upon by a certain Chinaman. their roofs resplendent with gold. these . is kept in a shrine.

for he is most effective under a fond . This salt is considered as an article of great virtue. through some powerful obtain a small quantity of this precious dirt. to procure these pills at any cost. and so excellently serves the purpose of "mental cure". of Grand Lama or other high priests.A GEIM PUNEEiX AMD GRIMMER MEDICINE. Now I come to the most wonderful medicines in the world. sort of The salt medicine reminds me of the existence in Tibet (and happily nowhere else) of another panacea equally abominable. These are mixed with other substances and are made into pills. The Tibetan is glad. The first is the salt used in packing corpses. and among priests of distinction. who swallows a small dose either by itself or dissolved in water for all kinds of ills that flesh is heir to from a slight attack of cold to a serious case — of fatal disease. to The salt is a panacea for the Tibetan. flames. however. which are gilded over and sometimes colored red. would. but is S^O preserved in clay after it has been salted and hardened. patrons of influence. both and solid. and even then only by paying for them a large sum of money. These pills. one thing certain —that it exercises a powerful influence upon the untutored minds of the ignorant Tibetans. make them less sick. The mere mention second series of so-called medicines. and accessible only to a limited number of the privileged class It is distributed only among ai-istoci-atic people. known under the name of T«a Chen-norjnv (precious balls) are not on sale.delusion that they possess a curative power. Only the wealthy merchants and great temples may hope. they being accessible to ordinary people only through some powerful influence. Whatever medical is quality this loathsome compound possesses. instead of curing the peop'e of other of the real nature of this infallibly countries. as the essential ingredients liquid are nothing the than the excreta. They are kept as something .

3&6 THREE YEARS IN TIBET. To do justice to this superstition. who are entitled to attend the Dalai Lama's court. Lama himself according to a secret is and the shocking known only to a select few. when all other means of treatment have failed. I ought to add that the common Tibetans are kept entirely in the dark as to the ingredients of the pills they are taken as medicines . prepared by the Grand certain secret formula. and are used as the last resort. and the pills remain therefore the object of undiminished faith. When.' the like a family treasure. . his case is while if he regarded as having been beyond cure. . ' people of course extol their merit to the skies dies. by some accident. a patient despaired of by doctors recovers after he has been dosed with a few of the precious pills.

ber." It at once occurred to me that the Minister was referring to the case of one Miss Annie R. having been told of her bold venture while I was staying at Darjeeling. But I prudently kept what I knew to myself. day in his apartments to talk with him. or could not rememvia Lhasa. She came there with two servants determined to enter Tibet. and to take part in our chats.CHAPTER LVIII. and being. but I knew it very well. to During the first decade of November^ 1901. a British woman arrived some eight or nine years ago at a place called Nakchukha on the boundary between Tibet and China. " I camiot at all understand their motive. so desirous to wonder why British people are come our country. who attempted to travel from northern China to Darjeeling My host did not know. On one occasion our conversation touched on the subject of a British female missionary. and listened to the Minister as one eager to hear The Minister went a strange and interesting storj^. Taylor. her name. on to tell me how the lady was stopped by the natives of . as I stated before. Lhasa to enjoy as before the hospitality I returned the ex- of At that time the Finance Minister of the day was somewhat less occupied. the nun and myself. and a gentleman of refined and affable manners. " observed the Minister in the course of our talk. where I accidentally met with one of the guides who had accompanied her. a nephew of the nun who was mistress of the house where I was a guest. For instance. he used often to call on and be invited to sit with the ex-Minister. Sometimes I called upon the Minister of the Minister. " I to who attempted to visit Lhasa. Foreign Explorers and the Policy of Seclusion. a missionary.

and deal with the foreign adventuress in a suitable manner. it was in a dialect differing from that in vogue at Lhasa. The Minister a pilgi-image to Lhasa told her that personally he highly appreciated the lady's purpose. but he was under strict orders fi-om the Grrand Lama's Government to forbid the entrance of the lady and of any other foreigner within his dominions. he at once caused the lady to be brought to him but when he saw her. Tibet in ordei. he at first could not understand what she was saying. She had come to the place from proceeding further. His Government did not trouble absolutely like the idea of with being entangled needanother country. She then showed to the Minister a passport she had obtained from the Emperor of China. dare to push her way into the interior. Should she. the party altogether numbering about thirty. should attempt a through the wild districts of Tibet. At last he succeeded in gathering the drift of what she had to say. In other words his commission was to cause the lady at once to quit Tibetan soil.to acquaint herself with the sacred teachings of Tibetan Buddhism.n of a mercias otherwise she would have been ful turn of mind. in disregard of this intimation. for although she spoke Tibetan. besides a number of coolies. that the chieftain of the local tribe . It was very fortunate was a ma. Arrived at Nakchukha. in defiance of journey lessly in its well-meant warning. perhaps death. With that object she wanted to make and to return home by way of Darjeeling. she would be sure to meet with some terrible mishap. The Minister took with him two of his servants. A report on the matter was soon forwarded to Lhasa by the magistrate of the district. and my host was then ordered by his Government to hasten to the spot. which was to this effect.398 'JIIEEE YKARS IN TJliK'J'. and therefore of demanded the withdrawal the lady from . for the Grand Lama's Government could not extend its protection to a foreigner wlio. murdered there and then.

quest. having suffered robbery on the way. As it was ascertained that the lady and her guides were subject to much discomfort. He further added. they were not obliged to obey the Emperor's will in everything. but said that. that if the lady should still persist in her intention. not for one five daj-s in The lady on her part equally remained unyielding in her and persisted on repeating her reor two days only. could not travel through Tibet. This punishment would be waived. After having narrated all these things the Minister once more gave vent to his feeling of wonder at the inexplic- . After all these protracted negotiations. which would. original declaration. at the same time. escoi't her back as far as some safe place. but even foi' four or succession. and in about half a day's time after their last meeting she came to acquaint him with the change in her resolution. if the lady desisted from her purpose and withdrew from Tibet. When the Minister pointed out how foolhardy she was in her desire. he to retrace her steps. possessing a pass- port obtained from the Emperor of China. the lady was at last induced to give up her point. as he told me. should he try by force to set aside this traditional jjolicy. he would be constrained to put her two Tibetan guides under arrest. which was a protectorate under that Emperor. must ask the lady this The Minister dwelt on point courteously but firmly. the lady demanded an explanation as to why a person. the Minister kindly gave her some necessaries before she left Tibet for China. 399 As a messenger of the Grand Lama's Governrnentj especially despatched for this purpose. and punish them according to the laws of the land. The Minister admitted the suzerainty of the Chinese Emperor.FOREIGN EXPLOBEES AND THE POLICY OF SECLUSION. Tibet. however. and that especially in the matter of seclusion they were determined to oppose even the Emperor. in that case. and why she should rather return the of the way she had come under the protection Grand Lama's Government.

ly that neither did I it. for Tibet possessed priests of its many differing little own. and took them home. This explanation has generally been accepted in preference to the other that the Tibetan Buddhism of the fourteenth century — possessed a larger Christianity. who were able to perform many things from those recorded of Jesus Christ in their miraculous character. when a priest of Pordenone. chiefly because the Tibetans of the time had nothing in particular to learn from Odoric. able eagerness which foreio-ners weve wont to show in their desire to visit his country. from the that . planation of fact number of miracles than those of That the latter was the more correct exthe two may be inferred. He took notes of many wonderful things performed by Tibetan priests. His attempt failed. however. while its devoting great energy to propagating doctrine^ in China. named Friar Odoric. I for my part replied discreetto enter know why they should wish but that I had heard that such attempts on the part of cases of foreigners were not a novelty. have profited by what Indeed Odoric himself seems he saw in Tibet. The Tibet first is authentic story of the arrival of a foreigner in recorded in the year 1328. and our conversation next strangers turned to this part of Tibetan history. instead to of imparting anything new to the natives. So only a^ fragment of the account of his travels was preserved. that of the British The Minister himself knew making attempts similar to that lady were not rare. entered Tibet as a propagandist of the Roman Catholic Church. for fear that their publication might compromise the interests of his own religion.the Roman Catholic Church. and claim that he destroyed them in order not to mislead future generations.400 THREE YEAES IN TIBET. Some persons attribute this desti-uction of his own notes by Odoric to the inaccuracies which he had subsequently discovered. kept . but he burnt most of those notes.

in the Bogle. which they entered freely. When Warren Hastings was the Viceroy of India. and reached a Lhasa. and dispatched a commissioner. He failed to reach Lhasa. and this some of them not far from movement on the part of foreign propagandists put the Grand Lama's Government on its guard. Apparently he at first passed through the Chinese region of Tibet. entered Tibet. Meanwhile other Christian missionaries had begun pushing on their work with great activity. That man was Thomas Manning. this time under Captain Turner. that city. Hastings again dispatched a commissioner. probably Frenchmen. In 1781 named George year 1774. and his account of the journey is still extant in print.power. and it was in 1811. it ceased altogether. itself 401 aloof from Tibet. ft is doubtful whether they proceeded as far as Lhasa.FOREIGN EXPLORERS AND THE POLICY OP SECLUSION. at the place about five hundred miles from But he was compelled to return thence homeward. having come to the coaclusion that that coimtrj^ was beyond its evangelising. but with the termination of Hasting's viceroyalty and his return to England the trade began to flag till for lack of encouragement. Coming down as late as 1871. though it is stated that they went from Pekin to Lhasa and thence through Nepal to India. to the latter country Bogle was accompanied by his wife. even up to Lhasa. All channels of communications have since that time become almost closed between the two countries. he conceived the idea of establishing a regular trade connexion between India and Tibet. Only one English explorer reached Lhasa from India. About that time trade between India and Tibet had grown active. who stayed in Tibet for two years. but remained at Shigatze. In 1661 two brothers named Grrueber and D'OrvUle. jevalsky entered Tibet across its eastern border through Kham. but was stopped as soon as he had set his feet in the 51 . a Russian Colonel named Pre- and also to other places. bidding of Tibet's hierarchical Government.

402 THREE YEAES IN TIBET. The result Government. seldom venturing abroad in the daytime. Nomi and Teramoto. reached Shigatze and afterward entered Lhasa. by the his first failure. in He spent most of his time secretly a room of a temple. ly referred to priests or persons of other callings. Messrs. This Russian tried to officer. Hindu had obtained in a very ingenious way a pass from the Tibetan Government. one My host the Minister once incidentalMr. after awhile he returned to India. but they were ordered to withdraw. and he was for a second time asked to undertake another trip into Tibet in the following year. where he remained for two months . The last exploration in I undertaken 1881 and of would mention here is that 1882 by Sarat Chandra Das. It was at this place also that the Japanese priests. and said that two priests from a country named Japan reached Ba-lithang some years ago. as it was not sufficiently clear whether they were really Buddhist driven back. As I heard from a Tibetan. next enter Tibet undaunted from and this time he reached a place about hundred and seventy miles from Lhasa on the boundary line between the Chinese and the Tibetan territories. he conducted his mission with extreme caution. were north. armed with it. whom This been made several times already. but he also had to withdraw f lom Ba-lithang on the boundary between the Chinese and Tibetan dominions. having secured as On his second visit he first before a Tibetan passport. mention has my own teacher. but was again obliged to withdraw. Nomi's attempt. In 1879 an Englishman named Captain Hill entered Tibet from the direction of Ta-chien-lu. of his exploration That was in 1881. he first proceeded as far as Shigatze. and there carried . and when obliged to do so he took every care to avoid attracting to the British was reported the attention of the natives. Dalai Lama's dominions. and.

in a preceding chapter that when the real nature of the mission of Sarat Chandra Das had it become known to the Tibetan Grovernment. Tibet resolved more than ever to enforce strictly the policy of exclusion against all foreigners. 403 out his investigations. I have mentioned. 1 have frequently seen in our Japanese magazines and newspapers articles about Tibet. only to repeat the failure of others. as well as all the persons who had extended any sort of hospitality to him during his stay in the country. involving all the who had been on duty at the barrier-gates through which the Hindu had passed. the number would reach forty or even are taken into when all the would-be exploiers account. The fact must be that those articles are written on the incorrect information found in nu>st works on Tibet. The number I I of abortive Tibetan explorers must be quite large. who first writers of the articles. then he went back to his sphere of in work other parts of Tibet and at last returned to Darjeeling after an absence of less than a year. for In this way he stayed in Lhtisa twenty days. Mr. myself heard of some twenty-five if should not wonder fifty. and all other Christian missionaries who made similar attempts about that time were also unsuccessful. instances of this . a Hungarian. tried to enter Tibet. or twenty-six. which are highly misleading and often fictitious. In 1886 a Secretary of the American Legation at Peking.I'OREIGN EXl'LOEIiBS AKl) THE POLICY OE SECLUSION. After this memorable occurrence. All these persons were thrown into prison and their property was confiscated. Rockhill. was judged more serious than that of the others were condemned to death and executed. caused officials extraordinary distui-bance. and that the inaccuracy is further aggravated by the inventive brains of the most conspicuous in the case of One of the kind is furnished A. unwitting though it was. A number of those whose complicity. Csoma de Koros.

and lived there for a considerable period. near Barjeeling. Unfortunately.404 compiled a thkee years in Tibetan-English tibet. having learned from a Lama in Ladak. To do justice to the Tibetans. Tibetan soil. The author wanted to study the Tibetan language on its the language native. a district on the south-western boundary of Tibet. Jaeschke never entered Tibet. and that lexicographer. mostly Osoma is Lhasa. and thither he went. All such errors being made by Western writers as well as by the latter Japanese. as having spent many years in where the fiction comes in. dictionary. compiled a Tibetan dictionary based on. they were originally a people highly hospitable to strangers. I do not of course alone. probably at the place where he represent this Writers on Tibet.stands at a place fell ill. both Japanese and Western. This sentiment was superseded . His tomb even now. mean to blame the Besides the attempts at Tibetan referred to. Another Jaeschke. but much better than Csoma's. He found impossible to carry out his plan from Ladak.soil and it for that reason attempted to enter Tibet. next to British India. M'ho have frequently appeared at Tibetan frontier stations only to arouse the suspicions of the Grrand Lama's Government. where the compiler resided for more than three years. until the latter has become irrevocably committed to the policy of absolute seclusion. as the Tibetan frontier guards there forbade the entry into Then it occurred to him that he might succeed in his project if he started from Darjeeling. and yet he is generally credited with having successfully crossed the border and reached Lhasa. he caught jungle-fever while travelling in the neighborhood of Darjeeling and died there. never having put his foot on their country of a stranger. exploration already there have from time to time been a number of missionaries or spies despatched by either Russia or England.

popular idea about the supposed designs of England is interesting. Since then. tried to enter repeatedly from the north. but each time the renowned explorer was baffled in his attempt. they would destroy her Buddhism. Sven Hedin. with such visible marks of racial distinction on the surface and also because they are accustomed to make their attempts on a large scale. • for the natives attribute it to the desire on the part of English people to take possession of gold mines which are plentifully found in their country. Sven Hedin succeeded in entering Tibet from Kashmir in . The absolute exclusion dates from the discovery of Sarat Chandra Das' mission.. as the result of by one insidious of fear and even of its ovs^n^ an piece advice which. i'OEEIGN EXPLOHEES AND THE POLICY OP SECLUSION. it was the Government of China gave to effect that if the latter allowed the free entrance of foreigners into her territories. for example. This is of course a very superficial view. probably prompted by some policy of Tibet . and they have therefore naturally come to the conclusion that all those foreigners must The be entertaining some sinister designs on Tibet. while I was staying at Lhasa. 405 of antipathy. and he finally gave it up altogethei*'. in 1 my own humble 190ti. Especially for European people. so far as the interest England seems to feel toward Tibet is concerned for the Tibetan policy of that country. both the Lamas and ordinary people could not but suspect the motive of these adventurers. and replace it with Christianto the The simple-minded Tibetan became dreadfully alarmed at this warning. Dr. but even then he did not all at once put the policy of exclusion into full force. In view of such repeated attempts on the part of foreigners. has become morally impossible to enter Tibet. it Di-. the enforcement of ity. the exclusion policy has become so strict that as it now seems though Tibet has been converted into a nation of detectives and constables.

for it is evident that. but that there might be another calamity far more disastrous and unbearable in its effect. Tibet must oppose. and that was the danger of her national religion being superseded by a strange faith. comes from the desire to prevent Russia from bringing Tibet under her sway and from using that highland as a base of operations in carrying out her ambitious projects on India. opinion. it would not take them long to to turn this internal dissension serve their own mischievous ends. any plans made by foreigners against existence of her. has since acquired a greater force from political considerations. England would hardly be able to feel secure about the safety of India. for should they get an inkling of this state of affairs. that The Tibetan Minister of the Treasury once said to me it would indeed be a great humiliation to Tibet if ever she were reduced to being a tributarj. at all costs. which primarily oiiginated in religious motives. Hence it was absolutely necessary for Tibet that she should forbid the entry of real all foreigners and keep them in the dark as to the condition of the country. . and have been allowed it is not strange that no foreigners the revelation of to enter Tibet since the secret mission of Sarat Chandra J3as. the then Minister of Finance told me in referring to impressed the Tibetans more strongly than ever with the necessity of locking their door against the intrusion of all foreigners. with Russia securely established up there. Therefore. the Minister continued. and consequently the latter should be prevented from hearing of the factious rivalries in the Hierarchy.of another country.406 THKEE i'EAltS IN TIBET. That incident. it. It will thus be seen that the seclusion policy.

and measuring about six miles. the When I remarked to ex-Minister how immense must be the number of the beasts that had been slaughtered in the enclosure. this being the outermost. CHAPTER A Metropolis LIX. who believe that There are several it amounts to visiting every temple and sacred stone house contained within the modes of pei'forming this making a bow at each step.. The walk. It was not the first time that I had seen that fence. peeping . of Filth. so that I had to hurry to keep pace even with his circuit. I went out with the ex-Minister and his attendants for a walk round the Ungkor (circuit) of Lhasa. to observe it with greater care than ever before. the side of this circuit and to the east of Lhasa stood made of countless yak's The fence measures irom one hundred and twenty to two hundred and forty j^ards in length and as it is entirely composed of the horns. By horns. circuit surrounding the city. journey —walking steadily along. leisurely steps. slaughtering place for yak. journey round this circuit is considered as a highly act The j^ious by Tibetans. Our journey on that occasion had no such religious meaning it was merely a walk. Shortly after I had the conversation recorded in the last chapter with the Finance Minister. was rather trying to me. or making one at every three steps. We soon arrived at an opening in the fence and. it is hardly possible to form an idea even in imagination of how many horns weut The enclosure is used as a to the construction of the fence. my host replied that he felt pity for the beasts. for my host was very tall and had very longlegs. but on that particular day I was able a queerly shaped high fence. however.

and are displeased if no meat is served to them at table. and in the presence of the other poor beasts. he continued. As it was.408 in. I really felt pity for the beasts. It was like butchered quite unceremoniously. in a yaks brought there for slaughter. manner quite improper for such a Buddhist country as Tibet. and that the blood of those impious savages must be still running in their veins. I saw a slaughterman chop off the head of a yak in a very impious manner. which were staring with tearful eyes at the butchery of their comrades. He could not but conclude therefore that the Tibetans must be the descendants of Rakshasas or devils. saw some thii-ty The work was done performed. that people soon forget this tender feeling of compassion when they return home. who are of course not expected to care much about such ceremonies. The contrast which the condition of the circuit makes with that of ordinary thoroughfares is beyond description.s undertaken in Lhasa exclusively by Chinese Muhamm^edans. THREE TEAKS IN I TIBET. It is. I subsequently learned that the slaughter of animals i. . The circuit is kept in excellent repair (comparatively j speaking. not merely that the other i-oads are full of but also that they have in their midst open cesspools. The ex-Minister was apparently impressed with a sentiment. for similar he told me that he felt as though he could hardly swallow a morsel of meat after he had witnessed such a horrible scene yet such is human depravity. who not unf requently have to kneel on the ground for their devotions. in a thoroughly businessmanner. for no pious ceremony was such as the touching of the head of a beast about to be slaughtered with a Buddhist Text. that the is to say) for the regular staff of road-commissioners Hierarchy maintains a who are charged with duty of keeping the circuit in good condition for the benefit of the pilgrims. specially constructed and openly frequented by both men and holes.

indeed absolutely inappi'opriate it signifies the ground . too. the people of Lhasa can live with impunity amidst filth and general contaminations. of. the thermometer rarely rises much above Indeed of all the places I have travelled in or eighty. especially after rains in Slimmer. the stench. the people did not seem to suffer to any perceptible extent from such My own theory is that this unhygienic surroundings. I have often heard of the filthy condition of the streets in Chinese cities.A METROPOLIS OF FILTH. a place in Tibet is really a city of devils. The winter there is sufl&ciently cold. it rises to forty or fifty degree. who subsist on vile substances. the utter abomination of the extremely loathsome. and yet. As Panden Atisha remarked. for though at night the mercury falls below freezing point. The wonder is how they can escape being exterminated by pestilence. even in a far lesser degree. which would be sure to visit most other places that neglected. and also whenever I took a walk in the 52 . ' of deities. Lhasa seems to come first in point of a healthy heard It is owing to this precious gift of nature that climate. 409 women. but is less uncomfortable than in our Hokkaido. All these thoughts occurred to me while I walked round the circuit with the city. but I hardly believe they can be as filthy as the streets Lhasa. about Then remember that the Lhasa people drink water from the shallow wells standing amidst such abominable surThe meaning of the word Lhasa itself is roundings. from what I observed during my residence in Lhasa.?' Fahrenheit in the daytime.' and therefore supposedly a place of purity. the laws of sanitation . immunity from epidemic must be due to the extremely healthy climate of Lhasa. for though there are plenty of dogs feeding in the streets they are not enough for the supply. In summer. where the people live in utter defiance of of all in rules hygiene and even decency. ex-Minister. streets The are filth.

disciples the practices of flesh-eating. agree upon cardinal points and in the formula for attaining perfection.CHAPTER I LX. however cursory. That name was derived from a popular tradition that he was born into this world out of a lotus flower in the Pond of Danakosha. but they all a large number of Karmapa. the former being popularly known as the 'Red Cap Sect' and the latter as the ' Yellow Cap. Dukpa. The founder of the Old Sect was a Tantric priest named Lobon Padma Ohungne in Tibetan. upon which I also wish religion. With is that premise I must first of all state that Lamaism divided into two main branches. and must leave out of consideration as much as possible other matters that are ulterior and technical. of the administrative organisation must precede an account of Tibetan diplomacy. although a priest. and others. that. I must confine myself only to a popular exposition of the subject. and declared that the only secret of ing. now in Cabul. and there is very little that is tangiOne thing seems to be certain ble and rational about it. must here give a without it brief description Tibetan any intelligent explanation of the political system is impossible. is subdivided into such as Sakya. for to touch briefly. His career of myths far more fantastic than any of those in the Japanese mythology. In describing the Tibetan national religion. He ingeniously grafted . of the Lamaism. while some notice. in a Eoyal garden of the Kingdom of Urken. one oUer and the other more modern. Zokchenpa. he strictly enjoined on his is full — marriage and drinkcarnal practices on to Buddhist doctrines.' The older Sect sub-sects.

and 'live by this ' means alone a man born into this world of impurities salvation.LAMAISM. nature of Mahabodhi is that as the greatest of human desires hian can attain Mahabodhi bj^ indulging this passion. 411 LOBON PADMA CHUNGNE. perfection for priests consisted in leading a jovial that life. that is oblivion first essential sensuality. can hope to attain quickly to Buddhahood and it is The doctrine that is necessary to satisfy carnal desires based on the theory that great desires partake of the . for by it he can best realise the of the reality of Atman. therefore .

in the main. In fact the Tibetan texts of this particular Sect are far from preserving the original forms of teaching and expression. Sliingon Sect. state. the scope now How- and plan of that quasi-religion must have been extremely limited. conforms to the principle of mercy. men can attain Buddhahood by holy contemplation accompanied by drinking liquors. on a large scale and its doctrine has obtained a wide credence throughout the country. as very few fragments of the texts and canonical extant. so that enjoy ourselves by drinking them and to live a pleasant an ideal state obtained by an intelligent act. because the soul of the animal can be brought under the beneficial influence of the Bodhi in the tliis supreme to life is eater. sect are still extant in Tibet and prepared in India with Tibetan translations are fairly numerous. on the other hand. though it is not possible to speak authoritatively on this subject. . Such even are. and indulgence in carnal desires. 'J. according to the doctrines of the Old Sect. that this Sect tries to justify the indulgence of human desires under the sanc- tion of Buddhism. may say. self. In JajDan also there once existed the Tatekawa school of the which did much to corrupt social order and morals by preaching similar pernicious theories. eating flesh. for they are too full of obscenity. The Old Sect has under- The texts of this the Samskrt texts gone considerable modifications since its introduction into for the Lama priests have freely modified the original according to their own views and opinions. Tibet. In short. and is thus enabled indirectly to attain Liquors give pleasure to men. the details of if I which I could not give here had ample space I at my disposal.412 of THREE YEAKS IN TIBET. another ci'aving of men. the fundamental tenets of this pcirticular Sect. however. writings of that suppressed school are ever. The eating of animal flesh.^he Old Sect of Tibet is.

for they are too full of obscene passages to allow of their being read by the manj-. which took the shape of the so-called New Sect.proved to be too pernicious even for such a corrupt country as Tibet. in stiperseding But the New the degenerated to national religion. but 1 have to keep them in a quite a large closed box. assigned to himself the Herculean task of purging that Augean stable. the). and that of all the conditions of asceticism abstinence from carnal desires was the most important. who was born in a house "amidst onion plots" in Amdo. sufficient At last a number of priests qualified number of his first con- vents and of the supporters of his precepts weie collected to form the nucleus of the ne^v movement. among other Lamaistic writings. But there were not a to receive ordination. and they raised the standard of a spiritual campaign at Ganden. d. This was founded by Paldau Atisha. that priesthood devoid of asceticism was also void. number of volumes treating on the esoteric side of the doctrines of the Old Sect. These degenerate doctrines were widely spread tliroughout Tibet until. a Chinese part of Tibet. which are credited as being most authentic. He took his ground on the fundamental proposition that priesthood must stand on asceticism. in the eleventh century a. A reaction arose against the Old Sect. but first he declared for the necessity of enforcing rules of moral discipline for jjriests. had to conform itself the national . perceiving the fearful state of corruption into which the religion Tibetan had fallen.LAMAI«M. about five hundred years ago. for a priest indulging in these had nothing to distinguish him from a layman. I 413 have brought home. a priest from India. This priest. Sect. situated to the north of Tibet proper.. Je Tsong-kha-pa set an example of following his own precepts. and was after three centuries further perfected by Je Tsong-kha-pa. ^ place about forty niiles from Lhasa.

.4U THEEE YEAES IN TIBET. ^fe^^3 w/(^^^^^^^ JE TSONG-KHA-PA.

The scope of this incarnation is . I shall describe New next that peculiar practice or belief of is the Tibetan religion which called incarnation. and as giving an object-lesson to teach men plained as representing ' proper means ' presenting 'transcendental knowledge.' and how to exercise their inborn intelligence. it is highly probable that worldly circumstances obliged Sect to assume this anomalous position. I have to stop here in my description of the doctrinal side of the Tibetan religion. not differ much from each other.LAMAISM. to give to them a new interpretation of an abstract nature. was interpreted as representing mercy. although they all consisted of dual figures of men and women. Thus men were exoffensive postui'es. is The idea embodied in the doctrine of incarnation that the Buddhas. In that sj'mbolic precef)ts inculcated by way the New Sect explained The images its older rival. so that externally the two do Strange as it may appear. it often represented in had. however. are reincarnated in the shape of priests of pious virtue for the salvation of the people. latter the that had been used by the a were also adopted. The New Sect did not denounce the images worshipped by the followers of the Old Sect. partiality in 415 for esoterism^ wliich is more or less present every form of religion or cult prevailing in Tibet. Animal flesh. and therefore not intended for eating. did not come from carnal indulgence. and women as reit was said that the proper combination of the two elements gave birth to Buddhas. only with sects new interpretation. while liquors were considered as embodying human intelligence. and it therefore included in its S3^stem cei'tain esoteric forms as distinct from the esoterism of the Old Sect. Therefore the birth of Buddhas. for to go further would lead me into the technical and abstruse points. according to this interpretation. again. or saints whose bodies are invisible to man.

for almost every lama with any pretensions above the is common to level believes destined to be reborn into the world to work salvation. so that such incarnations as are accepted to-day different from those of older days. as I shall fui-ther on. . comprehensive in Tibet.416 rather that he for THREE YEAES IN TIBET. This idea seems it have first undergone appear quite describe considerable modifications since was conceived.

especially in the days of the fifth and the sixth Grand Lamas. It happened to in this way. to have taken in This would not be particular- marvellous were it not for the fact. as soon as venerable Gendun Tub any doubt followers in had the minds of died. his There was no longer faithful disciples and that their master had been reborn in that The boy was conveyed to the temple. and was finally installed as the second Grand Lama. till at last the whole system of the consultation of divine oracles assum- ed the shape in which it is found to-day. ly word that he would Enquiry was made. the name of which he declared to be Tashi Lhunpo. place. he left be reborn at such and such a and the birth of a boy was ascertained place at the specified place.CHAPTER LXI. More tlian iouv centuries ago there named Gendun Tub who was a disciple of the New Sect. he could articulate. tions during the periods of his third and fourth successors. Nothing particular occurred in this matter of incarna- boy. When Gendun Tub was about expire. and though the head of the New Sect. was there brought up. lived a priest The Tibetan Hierarchy. he investigated the texts and all matters of the Old Sect and introduced into his 83 own sect many things pertain- . but they grew quite popular afterwards. The fifth Grand Lama was a great promoter of the oracle system. His name was Ngakwang Gyamtso. called Gendun Gyamtso. the very temple where the that. as recorded tradition. the boy declared his wish to return to his temple. It was this priest who the practice of of the founder first originated invocation of oracles which was sub- sequently elaborated into a peculiar habit of selecting incarnations.

and had nothing to do with temporal or administrative affairs.418 ing to the Old. is to say. numbered thirteen. that high Lamas who die are sure re-incarnate somewhere of after the lapse of forty- nine days from the day death. Samye. for the G-rand Lamas had no territories to administer except a small glebe. the Before his time. But to return to the subject of oracle-consultation. for instead of bringing them under his direct control he presented the whole region to the Grand Lama of the day. which therefore dates only about three centuries back. the Grand Lamas held only spiritual power. About that time a powerful Mongolian chieftain Shri named Gaumi Tenjin Choe Gyal invaded Tibet and subdued These all the petty tribes that had hitherto existed there. and. namely Nechung. each counting according to tradition Tibet may thus be considered to have contained one hundred and thirty thousand families. or rather the deities and the work was entrusted presiding over them. in his time. THREE YEAES IN TIBET. that establishment of Hierarchical G-overnment. this is also believed to be the present ten thousand families. according to popular accounts. Thus originated the system of the Hierarchy. owing to the fact that the high Lamas who were to be reborn not unfrequently omitted the trouble of enlightening others about the places of their re-appearance on the earth. By this time the process of consultation had to undergo considerable modifications. Oracle-invocation was extensively practised privilege of undertaking this solemn to four temples. as they do to-day. strange to say. for the Tibetans firmly held. number of the population. Hence arose the . The Mongolian conqueror disposed of the districts he had subdued in a very interesting manner. Lamo and ¥rom the fifth Grand Lamja also dates another G-atons'. These places had to be dis- even to covered therefore. innovation of far greater importance.

that the particular Lama has re-appeared at such and such a place. this movement falls gathering force. whilst others ants. He wears a big head-cloth with silk pendants of five hues hanging from behind. sash hang long strips of cloth. till all of sudden he either to the on his back or jumps up. The medium is attired in a gorgeous fashion. and in such and such a house which faces of a certain in a certain direction. From the knot of the Thus attired. while all the time the discordant sounds made by the orchestra are kept up. the rest being assistThese beat drums and strike cymbals. and this task The process as it is in ^'ogue at present is essentially identical with that prevailing in former times. remaining with closed eyes in a half sitting posture. An enquiry is then made according to the direction and of course the pronouncement of the oracle is confirmed. devolved on the oracle-invokers of one of the four particular temples mentioned before. and so on. and is exceedingly strange. Sometimes strips of glittering brocade are used instead. still contin- uing to shudder. The consultation of the oracle is performed by a number of priests. and a baby corresponding to the description given is found in number of . After a while he begins to tremble and shake. The mediums or invokers who perform this holy business behave themselves in such an extravagant way that the uninitiated would consider them to be stark mad. and has now descended into the body of the medium. that a baby born on a certain day is a re-incarnation of the dead Lama. and is of yellow or red satin. decorated with figures of flowers. according nature of the deity who responds to the invocation. one of whom is a medium. the medium waits for response from the deities. He will then say. that the family consists members.THE TIBETAN HIEEAECHY. chant the Texts. The garment is not unlike that worn by Japanese priests. necessity to determine 4l9 the place of such re-incarnation. to say the least of it.

summoned on that occasion. Their however. and usually those oracles produce three different candidates. for very rarely do the four oracles coincide. it This is of course conducted with great pomp and The the dignitaries who are privileged to take part in are Commissioner residing in Lhasa and the Regent Lama. At any rate the practice of invoking divine oracles ex- tensively came into vogue from the time of the fifth Grand Lama. The three five years. and they are regarded as the guardian togels of the Lama Hierarchy. The choice has therefore to be made from among the three. and they consult their own respective oracles. and is used for all matters great or small. The boy is left under the care of his mother he can be weaned. not infallible. also the Prime Ministers and all the Ministers. this order being generally issued about a year after the death of the august Lama. Chinese Vice-Ministers and a number First the of high Lamas are allowed to be present. as I mentioned before.the priests of the four temples are separately deities are. and then he is brought to the specified till temple where he is educated. and a necessity arises to determine the place of his re-incarnation. from vexed international problems to trifling questions that easily admit of solution. or four boy-candidates (as the case are brought to Lhasa. In education special care is taken to inspire in him the strong self-confidence that he is a holy re-incarnation. Of the four Nechung is the most powerful. solemnity. names of the boy-candi- . THEEl? YEAES in TIBEl'. The four temples dedicated to the four deities are ordered by the authorities to undertake the mysterious business of identification. may be) when they have reached the age of of selection is The ceremony next performed. are four. and often prove just as divided in their judgment as ordinary mortals are. All .420 the house. The oracle-giving deities. Suppose a Grrand Lama dies.

are any. Prom what I have described. and who are connected with do not affirm the fact of bribes.THE TIBETAN HIEEARCHV. for the parents of in reality not the Lama-elect are not only entitled to receive the title of Duke from other the Chinese Government. bearer of that The name written on that paper is read. but I have heard from the Secreinfrequent. dates (three or four in number. puts them into the urn a:fd solemnly picks out one of the papers. and put in a golden urn which is then sealed. the ceremony of selection. The Chinese Commissioner then takes a pair of tiny iyovj sticks something like ordinary chopsticks in shape and size and. above all the acquisition a large fortune. The priests charge of this business are in most cases who have men who make . in which the influence of the oracle-in- vokers plays an important part. For the period of a week a kind of high mass is performed in the ceremony-hall. as the case 42l may be) are written on so many pieces of paper. Strong interest urges them on in this rivalry. tary of the Chinese Commissioner that dishonest practices Indeed the temptagreedy and dishonest minds to tions are too strong for resist. and the name is acknowledged as Grand Lama-elect. When this period expires all the dignitaries before-mentioned are once more assembled around the sealed urn. but at least I have heard that cases of such underhand influence have occurred not unfrequently. Under these circumstances the parents and said to oifer large bribes to to others I relatives of eligible boys are the Chinese Amban. The selection of the Grand Lama is thus made by an elaborate process. there is apparently little if room. This is carefully inspected and the seal is then taken off. in order to entreat the divine intercession for the selection of the real re-incarnation. for trickery. but also enjoy many of advantages. owing to the keen rivalry among the parents of the boy-candidates to have their own boys selected. with his eyes shut.

and that it was nothing less than an embodiment of bribery. once remarked to certain Tibetans that the present of incarnation was a glaring humbug. they grow I mode up. or merchants. . I have even heard that some unscrupulous people corrupt the oracle-priests for the unborn children. for the boys who are the objects of the good chance spiritual of being installed in the temples This property goes. To do justice to the incarnations themselves. In such case the teachers and guardians appeal to their sense of honor and great responsibility. The Nechung who are under the direct patronage of the Hierarchy are generally millionaires^ as millionaires go in This. and that it is lowly. in eight cases out of ten.422 it THEEE YEARS IN 'TIBET. need hardly be added. an incarnation of all vices and corruptions. Most of their business to blackmail every applicant. it is. only very rarely that they are discovered among the must be considered as suggesting the working of some such practices. point of view the expense incurred on this account not unbenefit of their frequently proves a good oracles have a ' investment. as matters stand present. taken in conjunction with another fact. the oracle-priests are therefore extremely wealthy. sa as to have their boys From a worldly accepted as Lamas incarnate when Born. perhaps because of more than they are brought up special care. which are to the boys. Tibet. that the re-incarnations of higher Lamas are generally sons of wealthy aristocrats.' if I may use the profane expression. duly installed. to be Lamas average with their ability. after sure to possess large property. it where their antecedents presided. instead of the souls of departed Lamas. at eifect of incarnation in they have been practical Whatever may have been the former times. Their teachers and guardians treat wards with kindness and never use rough language to them even when they behave as they ought not to behave.

or to have the punishment modified. full They must be educated play to their sense of this particular such a way as to allow self-respect.THE TIBETAN HIERARCHY. that the general mass of the people are left in complete ignorance of all the tricks and intrigues that are concocted and extensively carried on in their boy-incarnations the higher circles. to prevent his being punished. 423 This reminds me of the necessity of treating children with consideration. with what is Those only who are acquainted going on behind the scenes at Lhasa and Shigatze treat those "^evidences' with scorn. nothing more nor less. The Tibetans have not adopted education for mode of from any deep conviction as to educational policy. and hence prevents in natural development. and denounce the re-incarnation affair as downright imposture and a mischievous farce. sense of self-confidence. Oracles are not confined in their operation to matters of incarnation. a sum varying from . and that to abuse them as blooliheads or fools. With guileless innocence the ordinary people swallow all the fabulous tales that are circulated about the alleged evidences fabricated for establishing the re-incarnation of 'Lamas. At best a fraud committed by oracle-priests at the instance of aristocrats who are very often their patrons and protectors. also. they are doing so out of their respect towards their boy-masters. especially the Nechung. they are consulted for A Cabinet Minister to many other purposes. To them the re-incarnation is an embodiment it is of bribery. according to the gravity ten or When ju time that olfence comes to the of the offence. In such a case a Minister has to pay to the priests the minimum of one thousand yen to twenty times that amount. who has committed some error will to hasten those priests. deprives when they err in them of the its their conduct or over their lessons. I should add.

424 THEEE YEARS IN TIBET." And so the Minister is absolved from the charge. a Minister or any other high the country. for their decision. or tnore properly for the decision of their deity. is contrary to the traditions of the country. and in the presence of the personage who in is Grand Lama himself. for the man is at His fault came from inadvertence. On the other hand. does not blindly adopt in all cases the insidious advice of the priests. sooner or later. The Nechung. to be brought. secure in the thought that he has forestalled Grovernment and secretly 'purchased' a favorable understanding with the consulters For to these consulters the matter is sure of the oracles. It is true that the present Grand Lama. for to reject words affairs. is a persona ingrata to the 'Nechung priests danger of bringing down on his head an oracle of terrible nature at any moment. Grand Lama's Government is therefore a formidable one. The oracles will say: "Don't punish the man. ears of the Government. of cases still in the great majority the Nechung's he has to follow it. for to do so will be to invite calamity on Only reprimand is enough. and the question of punishing the offender is brought on the the tapis. and the officials hold them in even greater awe than they do their supreme chief. who exercise such power even in small very often prove to be broken reeds when they are . being a man of wield in the official circles of the great force of mind. The Nechung priests may be even regarded as wielding the real power in the Hierarchical administration. but with a foregone conclusion as to the nature of the response. The unscrupulous priests will even turn the virtues of their unfortunate victim into a means The power which those oracle-priests of denouncing him. The priests will then consult the oracles. the latter can has sit silent without much perturbation. heart well-meaning. or is sentenced merely to a nominal punishment. being bound by the accused party with fetters of gold.

as above mentioned. the second* Grand Lama. He is said to have been born of a dumb woman by some unknown father. in the presence of the Dalai Lama do so and other great dignitaries. The attendants of the medium are then thrown into consternation. of the Fortunately. who inforiped me 54 two Lamaist chiefs are not installed only . The priests proceed to attired in gorgeous dress be- In time the deity responds to the consulted about the policy which the G-overnment has to adopt. and simply continue to tremble some time. refer in passing to the Supposed parentage of the present Tashi Lama. 425 confronted with grave national questions. about the trouble which is invocation. Suppose. fitting the occasion. the by thp agency Nechungs. And so for a grave question. and then drop dov. for which the aid of the oracle is most needed. Spme say that his father was a hermit.m apparently unconscious. say. The will remain silent. I may. Men of learning and sincere piety and not honest conviction are therefore bitterly openly) opposed to the doings of those (though 0]. however. with pomp and solemnity. they are asked to consult the oracles about a diplomatic trouble. priests of Such is the farce of the oracle-system. but the most probable account is the one which I heard from a certain authority. for instance. for instance. Ho will next make one high jump. the Hierarchical Government is left in the lurch its and is compejled to give decision according to own mother-wit. whom they denounce as Ministers of ^eyilSj and as the worst enemies of religion.THB TIBETAN HIEEAECHY. and is medium for supposed to have appeared between it and England. of Tashi Lhunpo.'aple-priests. and must have therefore gone off in holj'^ wrath. while others are of opinion that he was a priest. all whispering to each other which significant nods and headshakes that the deity must have been offended at the impious question put to him.


one Meto-ke-sang (chrysaiithemuinof the ^monastery of was the real father of the present head of the Tashi Lhunpo. flower) Sera. tliat 42'7 a learned doctor. This doctor became a monomaniac after having studied the literature of the Old Sect. of course I cannot vouch for the authenticity of his Though this opinion was held explanation. . The result was the birth of the boy on whom fell the great honor. said to bear a great personal resemblance to that doctor.THE TIBETAN Hierarchy. and at last cohabited with a dumb woman. The Lama is therefore. roamed about the country. mad by a reliable authority of the Sera monastery with whom I was acquainted.

I could not without inviting strong suspicion put an^' questions to my friends expedition. and there are lay officials of corresponding rank and number known under the title of " Dung Khor ". Of these four " Shabpe " the one enjoying precedence in .here still ment system remain many points in the Governwhich I myself am ignorant. may state clerical first of all that the Hierarchy composed of both each consisting of an equal number of higher rank title of and lay departments. bearing the title of " Tung yk chen mo " but the real power is vested in the senior priest. The Qovernment. The priestly functionaries of higher rank are subject to the control of four Grand Secretaries. with my distinguished of enquiries host and some made of and as the result a highly guarded and roundabout way. for besides the fact that the subjects were entirely foreign to the primary objects of my Tibetan and therefore I was not impelled to make any systematic inquiries. in Lhasa about matters of Tibetan politics. I With reserve.CHAPTEE I shall LXII. next describe the system of the Hierarchical it Grovernmentj and other matters relative to based on the subjects far is information I incidentally obtained on those during my stay in Lhasa. Whatever knowledge I could gather on the subject was derived incidentally in the course in of conversations others. Hence this is |. Similarly four " Shabpe " (Premiers) are appointed over the head of the higher lay officials. The priests of bear the who attend to the affairs of State "Tse Dung" and they number one hundred and sixtyfive. men. The information from being complete.

and even the poorest are not exempted from this obligation. The first recipient of the title was granted a certain. a Minister of the Household. two Ministers of War. 429 appointment holds the real powei-j the other three being his councillors aiid advisers. a Minister of Religion. place a relationship and the inhabitants of that particular akin to that between sovereign and This lord is an absolute master of his people. The Cabinet is composed of four Prime-MinisterSj three Ministers of Finance. the land held by him being understood theoretically to belong to the lord. tract of land in recognition of his service. The only means of escape from this obligation consists in becoming a monk. as subject. The lord levy to levies a j^oU-tax on the inhabitants. from say one tanka paid by a poor inhabitant even a hundred paid by a wealthier member of Besides. The relation between Peers and commoners apparently is The Tibetan administration of —a hybrid partaking of feudalism on the one resembles feudalism. However heavy the burden of the poll-tax may be. . in most cases filled ed classes very rarely do they and Shal-ngo castes. . are only by men belonging to the privilegfall to the Ngak-pa. and there must be in the Tibetan priesthood a large number of men who have turned priests solely with the community. both of priests and laymen. varies The of considerably according to the means the payer. it were. each person is obliged to pay it. a Minister of Justice. to the Order. Bon-bo tion an anomalous descriphand and of the modern system of Local Government on the other. for if he neglects to do so he is liable to be punished with flogging and the confiscation pf his property to boot. and four Gtrand Secretaries belonging All these higher posts.TflE dOVBENMENf. and there at once sprung up between this lord of the manor. every freeholder must pay land tax. both in regard to their rights and even their lives.

month a regular allowance. But hope of repayment there is' none. Ti Rinpoche. or the lord of the manor wherein he resides. avoiding the payment of taxes. to take this as a sign of the flourish- ing condition of the national religion and on that ground seem this to be with it. And so his child when is Ije has reach- ed the age of (say) ten years surrendered to th^ . that is to say. I cannot quite agree with argument on the contrary I rather hold that it better to have even two or three precious diamonds is than a heap of stones and broken tiles. and he has to support his family with his own labor and Very often therefore he to pay the poll-tax besides. to The witty remark once made on this subject me by my said : teacher. it is not strange that they should try to evade them by entering the Order. those quarters. But a poor layman cannot expect any help from. rejoice at or He the state of affairs in the " I do not know whether to to regret the presence of so many priests in Tibet. while he less of extra can expect inore or occasional presents allowances in the shape of from charitable people. Some seem satisfied . small as from the Hierarchical Government. and in such case his only hope of succor lies in a loan from his landlord.430 this object of THREE Years in viUM'. when it is remembered how heavy are the burdens imposed on the shoulders of the people. by binding himself to offer his son or daughter as a servant to the creditor when he or she attains a certain age. and so the poor farmer gets that loan under a sti-ange contract. However. is hardly able to drive the wolf of hunger from his door. may illustrate Tibetan priesthood. " The motives that lead people to become priests lying in that region. it is not strange that the Tibetan priesthood should contain plenty of rubbish with very few diamonds among them. The condition of even the poorest priest presents a great contrast to that of other poor people. for the priest is at least sure to obtain every it is.

employ him as a servant and for a loan which does not generally exceed ten yen. a large in the number of priests residing both in Lhasa and provinces. one being subject to the control manors and other to that of the Central Government. do not generally reside on their own estates. the former alone numbering . Not unfrequently the two overlap. The relationship existing between the Peers and the it people residing on their estates. The work of revenue collection is entrusted to two or of the lords of the three Commissioners appointed from lay officials among the clerical or higher rank.THE GOVERNMENT. imposts and import duties. Consequently the Tibetans may be said to be divided two classes of people. creditor. either wholly or partially. consisting of taxes. it must be remembered. and these. and among the items of ordinary expenditure may be mentioned first of all the sums required for supporting. G-overnment prevails more The Peers. On the contrary a centralised form or less at the same time. 431 for fifteen or twenty years. they reside in Lhasa and leave their estates in charge of their stewards. partakes of the nature of feudalism in some essential respects. are despatched every year of to the provinces to collect revenue. but exclusion of cannot be said that feudalism reigns alone in Tibet to the other systems of of Government. these being paid either in money or kind. The lives of the children is who entitled to of poor people may therefore be considered as being foreclosed by their parents. And they are not unfrequently appointed by the Central Government into as Governors of certain districts. The demands on revenue are many and various. therefore. Those pitiable children grow up to be practically slaves of the Peers. and the same people are obliged to pay poll-tax to their lords and other taxes to the Central Government. invested with judicial and executive powers.

these salaries is What very interesting about that the State functionaries very often relinquish the right of reoaivitig tliair salaries. They are sometimes appointed as Governors of provinces. and leave them unclaimed. and is not regarded in so serious a light there in the matter of official stipends are I as in more enlightened countries. who continued to hold for ten of the Minister of Finance. had persistently refrained during that long period from claiming what was When I marvelled at this straage act of diainhe replied that his own estate terestedness on his part. though there were some who punctually received the money to which they were entitled by right. years the his due. po. attend to the various affairs of State. that most of his colleagues And he further of informed me who were men means generally omitted to claim their salaries wholly or in part. The clerical and lay high functionaries. while at other times they are sent on judicia) business. A Premier draws the yearly salary of about six hundred hohiC or four thousand bushels of wheat. man of strict integrity My host was a gentleand morals. The outlay on account is of building temples and religious ceremonies tral not small. supplied what he wanted and so he did not wish to give trouble to the Grand Lama's Bxciiequer.^t My host. about twenty-five thousand. Not that even those who showed themselves so disinterested above corruption. but he used to accept presents offered out of respect to him. The first Lord of the Treasury draws three is hcin- dred and sixty koku.432 THREE YBAES. each numbering one hundred and sixty-five. for heard that some of the Ministers who declined their salaries did not scruple to receive or even to exact bribes. In justice to them I may add that bribery is a universal vice in Tibet. In such cases appointments are never given to . IN TTBET. but that on account of salaries paid to the officials of the Cen- Goyernment appears to be less. the stipend being generally paid in this grain.

one each or two. chief. all the priests under him are naturally open 55 . he is obliged preaching mercy judgment and to sentence persons to exile or even to capital punishment. But the Grand Lama does issue decrees of this irreligious description.THE GOVERNMENT. whenever such a case of wrong-doing comes to his ears. He is not. or sometimes four. clerical 433 or lay officials only. not according to their real deserts. he faithfully adheres he to the rules of mortification enforced by his religion has no wife. They are no longer so now. but my religious however. His position is really highly anomalous. The Grand Lama himself being placed in this false position. but according to the amount of bribes offered. and in equal number. nor does he drink intoxicating liquor. However I was initiated by the Grand Lama in the Hidden Teaching. whether that decree justifiable in the worldly sense or not. occurs it is Sometimes when a case of grave moment submitted to the personal judgment of the in a highly anomal- Grand Lama himself. so I did not follow the advice. does not hesitate to confiscate the property of the offending parties and to deprive thein of their rank. As head of a religion he is positively forbidden by its teachis ings to pass a decree of that nature. inasmuch scruples stood in the way. The Judicial Commissioners were formerly often guilty of injustice and open to the charge of judging cases.' for this ceremony had nothing to do ' with my religious convictions. . for instance. thanks to the vigilance and energy of the present Dalai Lama who. for while he is the dispenser of benevolence religion to pass and the supreme head of a and forbearance. a political as . The Grand Lama is therefore placed ous position. And yet all the priests in Tibet take from the Grand Lama the holy vow of discipline I myself was advised by my Tibetan friends to pass that ceremony. but both are invariablj^ ap- pointed as associates.

The only things that distinctl^y distinguish the priests from laymen are that the former shave their hair and wear priestly robes. I shall next describe the education and to a similar charge. while the young rowdies among them attend to the work of ordinary soldiers. as I have mentioned elsewhere. the caste system in Tibet. . and that it has assumed a form quite contrary to that to which its great reformer Je Tsong-kha-pa elevated it.434 THREE YEARS IN TIBET. . men of the world. the Tibetan priests. and the latter do not that is all. They are partly priests and partly and sometimes it is hardly possible to For instance. and I am sincerely sorry for this degeneration. distinguish them from ordinary laymen. I am compelled to say that Lamaism has fallen. undertake farming or business.

CHAPTER LXIII. In Tibet there exists one class which is the lowest in the scale of social gradation. and of the Tashi Lhunpo monasteries in Shigatze . educational establishments are few and far between. arithmetic and girls reading. From and it is the important position which priests command in Tibet. Smiths are relegated to this grade in Tibet just as in India. In the neighborhood of Shigatze children are taught comparatively well the three subjects of writing. The doors of those schools are. Education is not widely diffused in Tibet. Sons of ordinary people can enjoy the benefit of that education only by joining the order. and for the same reason -that they pursue an objectionable occupation in making edged tools used for slaughtering living things. As might naturally be expected. of course. ferry-men. the system of training them is pretty well developed. grade is subdivided into fishermen. except at monasteries. The only institutions worthy of the name are found on the premises of the Palace at Lhasa. and if ever they enter the privileged order it is by some surreptitious means and by concealing . for otherwise they are refused admission Government schools. all the rest are only ' family schools '. especially the latter. People of this lowest grade are even prohibited from becoming priests. This to lowest smiths. shut against boys of humble origin. — tion of all. a comparatively advanced only at religious schools that one can obtain even education. but in other places no provision exists for teaching children. Education and Castes. the most sinful occupa- and butchers. so that the boys and of ordinary people are generally left uneducated.

the Old Sect clan . one called De-pon Gheha (families of generals) represents the descendants of the generals and . the mantra clan. for of the Dalai Lamas. Even when they do not occupy such elevated positions. Compared with these despised classes. they do not enjoy the same privileges as the others. Tashi Lhunpo also though the other Patriarchs at possess Yabshi of their own. though there are other families that do not differ much from them in orisrin and the royal families of Tibet. they at least hold posts that are of next in importance. and their head entitled to occupy the same rank as the Grand is Lama. 4. Ngah-pa. The 1. In this way some men of the lowest become priests at places remote from their native villages. The Peers consist of the descendants of former ministers and generals. origin have the ordinary people may be : said to enjoy a great advantage. for convenience. They all hold the rank of Duke. The descendants of the Dalai Lama's relatives. Shal-ngo. and those of the former King.436 their real rank. may therefore be considered as forming in practice These should. Peers 2. THEBB YEARS IN TIBB'l'. called Tichen Lha-kyari. classes who . Of these. The descendants in the direct line of that King still exist to this day. and contain the supreme class called Yabshi which is composed of families of the thirteen Grand Lamas. Bon-ho. families of former chieftains. set be privilege. and also of the descendants of the first King of Tibet. are entitled to enter the Grovernment institutions are only four Ger-pa. 3. All the remarks about the Yabshi apply to the families installed at Lhasa. who can become Prime Ministers or other great dignitaries of state provided they are judged to possess qualifications for undertaking those high functions. past and present. apart as a distinct class. The highest posts in the Tibeban Hierarchy are within the easy reach of the Yabshi men. only he does not possess any power in public affairs.

Tibet. though buyers are limited. For instance they are entitled. and therefore may bring upon themselves some calamity. They are also held in great awe by provincials and townsmen. The simpleminded folk believe that if once they incur the displeasure of a Ngak-pa they may be cursed by him. The next grade of the Peerage. even the portfolio of the Premier these Peers. and Such are liable to be dismissed through their intrigues. long since dead. The merits of those warriors. honor and ability seldom go together in freely sold and purchased. who are the descendants of least Lamas who their worked miracles. but considerably below these. to levy the ' hail-tax ' in sunmiei'. High officials of real ability are even regarded as a nuisance by their colleagues. The Ngak-pas play an important part in the social organism of Tibet. obtain for their descendants great respect from the public and they enjoy great privileges. which thus possesses hereditary secrets. the Ngak-pa people occupy the advantageous position of being able to procure money in the . or of ministers of distinguished service. As I mentioned before. not the of them being marriage in violation of the rules of Lama priesthood. by far the greater majority of high official posts are held by men who have obtained them in exchange for money. 43'7 captains who rendei^ed distinguished services when Tibet engaged in war. for official posts are In general. Though occupying the lowest grade in the herald-book of the Peerage. provided that they are is accessible to men of ability. as being magicians of power.tetoUCATIOlJ AUt) CASTES. Those Lamas transmitted their 'hidden arts' exclusively to this social grade. The class that ranks next to Peers is that of the Ngak-pas or miracle workers. and therefore to assume the function of administrators. being the case. consists of the descendants of families of great historic renown. as already mentioned.

The Bon-bo people have to play a certain distinct role This is more of a ceremonial than of a in public affairs. but in most cases only one or two families are found in one all Himalayas. and have left behind them the class who represent this old social institution in Tibet. Families of this particular class are found almost everywhere throughout the country. of people religious nature. shape of proceeds of the hail-tax/ and of presents coming from all classes of people. while commanding such advantages. and undertaking ceremonies favor. and even Peers are often seen to dismount from horseback and give a courteous salute when they happen to meet a beggarly Ngak-pa in the street. they still command gi-eat respect from their neighbors as descendants of ancient families. The third caste is the Bon-bo the name of an old religion which prevailed in Tibet long before the introduction of Buddhism. Sometimes he undertakes other kinds of prayer or even performs symbohc rites with a benevolent or malevolent aim. the Ngak-pa men. Even when they pursue any other kind of business. Though the Bon-bo are descendants of an old religious order. according to circumstances. village or in one district. secui'e their to When people marry. It consists in worshipping local intended to deities. limited nmnbers. are notoriously poor they even stand as synonyms for poverty. Their sole consolation is that they are conscious of the all classes of great power they hold over people . their present representatives are no longer priests. they ask a Bon-bo man pray for them to their local deity. . magistrates or In such cases the Bon-bo are and they sometimes act as local administrators. though in In some remote villages.438 THREE YEAES IN ' TIBET. The priests of this practically extinct religion were allowed to marry. Strange as it may appear. as Tsar-ka in the the villagers are said to belong to this class. . objects of great respect.

one called tong-ba and the other tong-du. The Tibetans are in a highly conservative race. tent to to their children hand down their and so maintain their distinct position in society. but. Tong-du means etymologically "petty people. nor try to persuade them to become converts. those common people who possess some and means and have not fallen into an ignoble state of slavery. to Some tong-ba are reduced to more straitened circumstances than the tong-du. generally considered. present is They are simply conancestral teachings and traditions Strictly speaking this the respect which the people at belonging to particular class enjoy over others due to their honorable lineage. Still they are not strictly speaking slaves they should more properly be considered as poor tenant-farmers. for formerly these . . and these take precedence over all the other Bon-bo. and even a poor Shal-ngo commands the same respect from the public as his richer confrere. is The of fourth the class " Shal-ngo " and of is composed wealth general the descend'ants of ancient in families who acquired their power locality on account in either money or land. the tong-ba are distinguished froni the others by the possession of property. preventing as it does the splitting up of family property among brothers. Not unfrequently the young Bon-bo enter the priesthood." and their rank being one grade lower than that of others. though such relation no longer exists. The former is superior.EDUCATION AND CASTES. .' By far the great majority of the Shal-ngo people possess therefore more or less property. and thbrefore they succeed in most cases in keeping intact their hereditary property. the people of this class are engaged in menial service. Their polyandrous custom too must be conducive to that result. people used to stand in the relation of tenant-farmers land-owners. for they do not preach their tenets to 439 others. Common includes all people are divided into two grades.

who is so inas to of the obey the bidding of his or her heart and to despised race. ferryfour. as before. No ordinary people deign to eat with one belonging to the tong-du class. curious. greater or less as the case special feature of the tong-du. They are called ril. or any other cause. fall in the worldly sense and.440 THREE YEARS IN TIBET. that the ' issues of these mes- alliances tak ta form a social class of their own. smiths first and butchers. This strict rule of social etiquette is in force is even among say. and even when the bond of this mesalliance has been dissolved by divorce. the the four divisons of the lowest class. to prevent their intermarriage . that to men. Of the two rank higher than the other two. which means a mixed race produced by black and white twisted together'. with Thus. however thriving the tong-da may become. woman belonging to the latter class. This punishment is permanent. however. the other two classes are allowed to do vessels. is socially tabooed from his or her own kith and kin. only they may not sit at table with a privileged plebeian. to treat Society continues them and as if nothing had happened in their relative fortunes. It is The mark of social infamy will follow him or her to the grave. They occupy a position even . people. fishermen. while poverty is a However low the tong-ba may of the word. the fallen man or woman can never hope to regain the caste which he or she discreet marry one has forfeited. may be. but must eat or drink from their own It is hardly necessary to add that a strong ban-ier is set up between these four kinds of social outcasts and the ordinary a man or common people. nor do they ever intermarry with them. a strict line of demarcation still continues to separate the two classes. on the other hand. though smiths and butchers are not permitted to eat in the same room common so.

position. such Ngak-pa and Bon-bo races and the still bear the marks of their respectable birth and can easily be distinguished even by strangers from the common people. These gentlemen smiths account. do not forfeit their birth and rank on this privileges. they possess are distinguished by noble Conscious of their elevated on the whole a high sense of honor. to the western saying that " blood will out " gains a special significance when applied to the state of affairs prevailing civilised country. The children of aristocrats. have become smiths from preference. It is evident therefore from what has been stated that a plebeian. who. ranks are more plainly visible The Tibetan proverb corresponding on the surface in Tibet than in most other countries. is obliged to behave respectfully under all circumstances to a man belonging to the Ngak-pa or Bon-bo. and that is the presence of gentlemensmiths. When the latter so forget themselves in their disputes and quarrels with their noble associates as to use rough language. There is one interesting feature in regard to this rigid canon of social caste. 441 lower than that of the four despised classes mentioned abovej and are in fact the lowest caste in Tibet. they are at once punished.- EDUCATION AND CASTBS. even though the latter may be as As each social class forms poor as a church mouse. as the of the men descendants of ancient grandees. in that semi- The aristocrats of Tibet mien and refined manners. practically one distinct community with its own particular etiquette. even when they are in the right. being men of a mechanical turn of mind. are entitled to exact from their humbler playmates great respect and courtesy. no matter how wealthy. The other privileged castes occupying a lower plane. customs and so forth. for instance. . Both by law and custom the higher classes enjoy special and these go a long way.







plebeian in



bearing and appearance, but one thing to their credit is that they are known for strict honesty, and even extreme

poverty seldom tempts



committing arts of


the other hand, the lower classes or social

outcasts are notorious for their criminal propensities to

robbery and murder. In practice they are characterised by crime and wretchedness they are criminals and

form a community of their own, the profession being hereditary. These classes are deservedly held in contempt by the public, and their faces even seem to justify such treatment, for they are remarkable for ferocity, depravity and vileness. As I have mentioned before, lads belonging to the higher ranks are entitled to enter G-overnment schools, but The the subjects taught there are at best imperfect.


in fact

by memory, penmanship and counting. The first subject is the most important, next comes penmanship, the latter receiving even a larger
lessons consist only of learning

allotment of hours than the other.

Counting is a primitive being taught by means of pebbles, pieces of wood, The subject matters of learning by memory are or shells. Buddhist Texts, the elements of grammar, and lastly
This last


a subject of great ambition for
are just like Chinese in their fondexpressions.

Tibetan scholars,
ness for



other high

to be

presented to the

Lama and


high-flown phraseology and with used in ordinary writing, and not found even in Buddhist Texts. The fact is that Tibetan scholars at present hold strange ideas about writing, being of opinion that they should aim at composing in a style






unintelligible to ordinary persons.

The more characters

they can use which cannot easily be understood by others, the better proof, they think, have they given of the







compositions are practically hierographic so far as their


The birch-rod is considered to be the most useful implement in teaching; not exactly a birch-rod, however, but a flat piece of bamboo. The cramming of difficult passages of rhetoric being the principal mode of learning imposed
on pupils, their masters are invariably of opinion that they must make free use of the rod in order to quicken their pupils







between masters and pupils does
that between gaolers and convicts.

not differ

much from



poor fellows, hold their masters in such dread

it exceedingly trying, at the sight of them and their formidable pedagogic weapons, to compose their minds and to go on unfalteringly with their lessons. They cower with fear, and are filled with the perturbing thought that the rod is sure to descend upon them for the slightest stumble they make in the path of learning. The

that they find



of using the rod is to give thirty

blows with

on the


of the pupil.

Prudence counsels the






bidding of his hard master, for in case he hesitates to do so the penalty is generally doubled, and sixty blows instead
of thirty are given. It

a cruel sight to see a



holding out his open hand and submitting to the punish-

ment with tearful mere cruelty.


Surely this


not education but


made an

earnest remonstrance on this subject

with the Minister of Finance who, in

common with the rest,
of of of

used to teach his boys
the rod.




To do justice to the Minister, his method teaching was much more con.siderate than that of most

countrymen, and he very seldom resorted to rough handling, such as binding pupils with cords over-night or compelling them to go without dinner or supper. When however I remonstrated with him on the ground that the
of corporal punishment was entirely opposed to sound priuciples of education, he at first defended the Tibetan system with great earnestness. We had a somewhat animated though courteous dispute on the subject but at length, being a man of great candor of mind, he seemed to perceive the merit of my position. At any rate he ceased to use the rod as he did before, and

generally confined himself to giving a reprimand





of his boys

went astray with

his learning.

The Min-

afterward informed


that his boys seemed to


better progress


they were spared the rod.



also considered as

cating boys.

an efHcient means of edu" Beast," " beggar/' " devil," " ass," " eater

their teachers,

backward boys by and this custom of using fotil language is naturally handed on from teachers to pupils, who when they grow up are sure to pass on those slanderous appellations to
of parents' Hesh," are epithets applied to

the next generation.

While the education of the sons of laymen is conducted with such severity, that of boy disciples by Lama priests

extremely lenient, and


quite in contrast to that of the




are not even reprimanded,


less chastised,

when they

neglect their work.



generally leave

do as they


as uxorious

husbands do towards their wilful wives, so that it is no wonder that the disciples of Lamas very seldom make any They are spoiled by the good progress in learning.
excessive indulgence of their masters.




masters own the evil of their


of education,

and are

careful not to spoil the youthful pupils placed under their





that priests of learning

from among these latter disciples and ability may be expected.
of the Tibetan

The memorising part
as mentioned above,

system of education,

a heavy burden on the pupils.

give some idea of what an important part this occupies in their system, I

To work


note that a young acolyte,
sixteen years old, has to

who has grown



commit to memory, from the oral instruction of his teachers, from three hundred to five hundred pages of Buddhist He has then to undergo an texts in the course of a year. examination on what he has learned. Even for a lad of weak memory, the number of pages is not less than one hundred in a year. For those who have grown older, that



whose age ranges between eighteen and thirty, is still more formidable, being five to eight hundred and even one thousand pages. I was amazed at this mental feat of the Tibetan priests, for I could barely
for those

the task imposed

learn fifty sheets in six months, that being the
limit allotted for aspirants of poor



Tibetan Trade and Industry.



describe the trade of




account must necessarily be imperfect for obvious reasons. I shall begin with an interesting incident that occurred



November, 1901, when


was enabled

to send


letters for the first

time after


arrival in the

country. That was on the 18th of the month, and through the agency of Tsa Rong-ba, a Tibetan trader with


had become acquainted at Darjeeling. This man Government business to buy iron, and as I knew him to be trustworthy I entrusted him with a letter addressed tQ Sarat Chandra Das, in which were enclosed several others addressed to my friends and

started for Calcutta on

relatives in Japan.

The iron which he was commissioned to procure was for the
purpose of manufacturing small arms at an arsenal situated at Dib near Che-Cho-ling, on the bank of the river Kichu, which flows to the south of Lhasa. This industry was an innovation in Tibet, and in fact had

begun only about eight years before that time. It was introduced by a Tibetan named Lha Tse-ring who had lived
a long time at Darjeeling and, at the request of Government, brought back with him about ten gunsmiths, mostly Hindii and Cashmere Mohamedans. Only two of these smiths remained in Tibet at the time I reached Lhasa, the rest having returned home or died;
for his

but as several of the Tibetan smiths had acquired the art from them, no inconvenience was experienced in continuing the industry. This was a great improvement on the old state of affairs, for Tibet had formerly possessed only flint-lock muskets, and even these could not easily be




The manufacture of improved was therefore a great boon to the country, and the Government did not spare expense and trouble Hence it came to encourage the development of the art. about that my acquaintance was authorised by the Government to pi'oceed to Calcutta and procure a supply of iron.
introduced from India.

ought to be mentioned that about


time the

departure of Tibetan merchants to foreign countries for
the transaction of business

had become quite

They proceeded China, and lastly




British India, next

to the Russian

The trade

with the last was, however, quite insignificant as yet, and

whatever relations Tibet may have with Russia are in most cases political and very rarely commercial. I shall first describe the Tibetan trade with British India and Nepal. '. Of Tibetan products exported to India wool is the most important, and next musk and the tails of yaks, fars and leathers. Buddhist images and books, being liable to confiscation when discovered, seldom go abroad, though they are more or less in demand in India. Other goods exported to India are insignificant. Formerly more or less Chinese tea for consumption by the Tibetans residing at Darjeeling used to go to India, but this is no longer

the case.
quantity' of wool sent abroad is quite large. From thousand to six thousand mule-packs go to Darjeeling, about one thousand five hundred to Bhutan, about two thousand five hundred to Nepal and about three thousand to Ladak. These figures are of course far from precise,





returns being wanting) I based


estimates on information obtained from the traders. Besides

the figures given above, there are quantities, greater or
sent to China




did not visit either district,

Manasarovara, but as I and moreover had no means


to say

making an estimate about them, on the sabject.


have nothing



obtained in Tibet, but from a certain species of

deer and not from civet-cats.

The musk-deer
It is of



almost everywhere in that countr)-.

about two

and a half times or three times the size of an ordinary cat, and though resembling the Japanese deer in shape, it is not so tall as the other. The musk-deer subsists on herbage, and is covered with light and soft fur of a deep



has an exceedingly amiable

face indicais

tive of its

mild nature.


characteristic feature


has two small but pretty tusks somewhat curved project-

ing from the upper jaws.
the male, and

found only in pouch attached to the hinder part. A strange fact is that the pouch is said to grow gradually in size from the beginning to the

The musk

contained in a


middle of each lunar month and then gradually to be reduced again until the end of the month, this periodic

change appearing with great regularitj^. The musk-deer therefore shot about the middle of the month, generally between the 13th and 15th. The musk-deer is shot with a gun, but in preserved


such as are found round about Lhasa and other Buddhist headquarters, where shooting and hunting are

forbidden on pain of severe penalties, hunters catch


animal, clandestinely of course,

by means



found almost everywhere in Tibet, principal habitation is in such remote districts as its Kong-bo, Tsai'i and Lo. Musk is very cheap in all those
the deer



costing about one-tenth of the price given


Japan. The musk produced there is also purer than that produced in more prosperous places, for the people being

simple-minded do not tamper with
other substances.


nor adulterate




The musk coming from Lo, for instance, The reputed for purity and cheapness.



by half-naked aborigines, who resemble in outward appearance both Tibetans and Hindus, though ethnologically they are more akin to the former than to
district is inhabited

the latter.

The musk produced by these savages
against articles either of ornament



or domestic utility,
sickles, knives,

such as mirrors, glass beads,

iron pans,

confectionery and foreign trinkets.

Though the musk

obtainable at a very reasonable

in these districts, the risks

and dangers from highthe road are so great

waymen which
that only those

traders encounter on



uncommonly adventurous proceed
sent in larger quantities to China

thither to get a supply from the natives.

The Tibetan musk


than to India, notwithstanding the fact that transport to the latter is easier. Almost all goods from Tibet to China

However, even at present, more Yunnan, whence Japan has been used to obtain its supply. The so-called Yunnan -musk so much prized in Japan therefore comes originally from Tibet. The Blood-horn of the Precious deer 'is the most
travel through Ta-chien-lu.

or less


sent to






valuable item
to China.


the commodities on the export


This horn makes a medicine highly valued by Chinese physicians, being considered to possess the power the


and giving by the Chinese. The horn therefore commands a high price, and even in Tibet a Chinese merchant will give as much as five hundred yen in Japanese currency for a pair of good The inferior horns, however, can be bought at horns.

of invigorating



the face.


in fact

used as an


three yen a piece, these being used not for medicine but only for ornament. Sharp, experienced eyes

even two

are required to distinguish a good and valuable horn from an inferior one, and even in Tibet there are not many such




This special kind of deer


found in the wild

the south-eastern and north-western parts of Tibet^ especially in the former. It is a large animal, larger than

an average horse, but
deer, only that
it is

in shape


resembles an ordinary
it is


As a

covered with

greyish hair, though some are covered with fur of other

renewed every year, the growth beginning from about January of the lunar calendar. The new horns are covered with a hairy epidermis and consist of nothing but thickened blood. They continue to grow, and

The horns



or April





becomes hard and bony, whilst the upper parts remain of the same consistency as before. They are further ramified and elongated with the lapse of time, and the growth reaches its climax by about September, after which the counter process of decay commences and the horns, now grown quite long, drop off about the middle of December. The largest specimens I saw measured thirteen inches in length with the main stem of about 1^ inches in girth, and even such


horns are completely covered with hairy integument.

The best season


the horns,



when they


medically most efficacious,

believed to be April or May,

and it is then that the natives go out to hunt the animal. The shooting should be done with accurate aim so as to drop the animal at once, and the hunters therefore generally aim at the forehead. This is owing to the fact that when the animal is only wounded, instead of being brought down by a single shot, he invariably knocks his head against rocks or trees and breaks the precious horns to pieces. About the month of April or Maj', the animal, probabljr from the necessity of protecting his horns, sojourns in less remote and rocky places, and this habit makes him fall an easy prey to the hunter,



may mention

that I brought

these horns which I bought at Lhasa.
for I

home a fine specimen of They are genuine,

had them judged by a competent expert. The exports to Nepal comprise wool, yak-tails, salt, To the saltpetre, woollen goods and a few other ai'ticles.

lying to the north-east of Tibet, that


to the

north-western parts of China and

Mongolia, go various

kinds of woollen goods; Buddhist books also go largely to Mongolia, as do also Buddhist images, pictures and various

These, considered as objects of

art, are

worthless, though formerly

Tibet produced images

to be

pictures of high artistic standard. old

The contrast between
which are

and new images and

pictures, both of

seen in most temples in Tibet,
the latter are as a rule

glaring, for

clumsy performances, offensive

the taste and also to the sense of decency, being invaria-

men and women with one was once struck with the notion that the Tibetans are characterised by four serious defects, these
bly bi-sexual representations of

common body.


being filthiness, superstition, unnatural customs (such as polyandry), and unnatural art. I should be sorely


were asked
so, I




redeeming points ;
first of all


if I


should mention

the fine

climate in the vicinity of Lhasa

and Shigatze,

their sonor-

ous and refreshing voices in reading the Text, the animated style of their catechisms, and their ancient art. But
to cut short



of Tibetan trade, I

and to resume the description must next give an account of the import


Of the imported goods, those coming from India are Among them may be mentioned woollen cloth for decorating the rooms of temples and for other uses, silk handkerchiefs, Burma crepes, Benares brocades, silk tissues, and cotton fabrics. White cotton piece-goods are mostly in demand, next piece-goods of
mostly in evidence.

light blue



of russet color.

Figured chintzes of various
first of all silk

patterns are also imported more or

Imports from China comprise

fabrics of

sundry kinds, as brocades, tussore
kinds. Silver bullion

silk, crepes



drugs are also imported, but in respect of value tea stands first on the list of Chinese imports. From what I have roughly
estimated, the quantity of tea arriving at Lhasa alone will
cost not less than six


hundred and


thousand yen a year

approximately, while the import to Eastern Tibet, which


more thickly inhabited than the other half of the counmust of course reach a larger figure, for the Tibetans are great tea-drinkers and both high and low imbibe a large quantity of the beverage all through the year. The
poorest people,

who cannot

afford to buy, are


with a thin decoction obtained from the refuse of the teapots of wealthier people. Tea is rather costly, for one brick of inferior quality measuring about one foot long, '6^
inches wide and three inches thick costs two
five sen at


Lhasa; a brick consisting

of only leaves with-

out any mixture of twigs cannot be obtained at less than

we go westward, owing to the and for a brick costing two yew seventy-five sen at Lhasa as much as three yev twenty-five sen has to be paid in Western Tibet. The imports from Bhutan or Sikkim comprise tussore-silk goods, woollen fabrics, and cotton goods. Then from India, Kashmir, or Nepal are imported copper
five yen.


prices rise as

cost of


utensils, grains, dried grapes, dried peaches, dates,


drugs, and precious stones of various kinds, as diamonds, rubies,

agates, turquoises
corals are the


and corals. Of these turquoises most important, being widely used by

the Tibetans as a hair decoration. 'For this purpose the best
quality of turquoises are even more prized than diamonds,

and a good turquoise

of the size of the tip of the small

finger fetches as




as one thousand

two hundred


Coral without spots

rather rare^ and most of those seen

on the heads of the Tibetan women are spotted more or less. The Tibetans are fond of the reddish or deep reddish variety,

which are not popular, among the Japanese. Superior kinds come from China, and one good coral ball from China commands from one hundred and twenty to two hundred and
thirty yen.

Indian specimens are usually inferior in quality.

Coral-beads are also imported from that country.

beads do duty for corals for poorer folk, and imitation corals made in Japan are sold also. These were formerly passed off as genuine by dishonest merchants, and were
sold at comparatively speaking fabulous prices.

now taken

at their

proper value.

They are Cheap foreign fancy

goods and Japanese matches also find their way to Tibet through India. Several queer customs prevail in Tibet concerning business transactions. The mode of selling woollen and
cotton piece-goods

particularly singular.

The standard



the length of the two outstretched

hands, while another measurement based on the length

from the elbow to the tip of the fingers is also used. This measurement is determined by the buyers, so that a large person enjoys the advantage of getting a longer measure, while the merchant is subjected to so much disadvantage. However, this primitive mode of measurement is generally
applied to the native products only, as for foreign cloth the unit of measurement is a square, each side of which is

equal to the breadth of the cloth to be sold.



called a

and akhavaries with the breadth of each piece of cloth. Very seldom are native merchants honest in their dealings; even the most trustworthy ask a price ten to twenty
per cent higher than
the more dishonest

reasonable, and the price asked
really monstrous, being



double or

even as much as

five or six times the real rate.




Another interesting feature in Tibetan transaction.? is the which the merchants bestow on anything which people buy from them. The most common formula of blessing is to this effect " May the goods you have bought from me avert from you disease or any other suffering may your purchase bring good luck and prosperity, so that you may grow richer, build storehouses, and buy more and more goods from us " The blessing accompanying the parting with sacred books is more ceremonious. The merchant reverentially lifts the book over his head in both hands, and then hands it over to the purchaser (a priest in most cases) with this



blessing " May your reverence not only seek the true light from
this sacred

work, but

to that light, so that you

may you conduct yourself according may attain better intelligence,

wisdom and morals, and fit yourself for the holy work of " salvation, for the good of all beings The purchaser has also a ceremony to perform in this transaction, and I must confess that his performance is more obviously selfish, outwardly at least ; for in handing
the price he just touches the dirty coin with his tongue,

then wipes

to the

it on the neck of his "garment, and finally hands merchant after having cast upon it one lingering

glance indicative of his reluctance to part with
act of licking


and wiping signifies that the purchaser has licked off and wiped away for his own benefit all the good luck that was contained in that piece. The coin that goes to the merchant is therefore considered as a mere empty thing, so far as the virtue that was originally contained
it is

these tedious




omitted by big

merchants, such as those engaged in dealing in tea,

the others faithfully observe them, especially those in the




may be supposed that with so little to export and so much to import, the country would be impoverished. This,
however, is not the case, as I shall explain. Tibet has been used to obtain a large amount of gold from Mongolia more

as donations to Tibetan

Lamas than

as the price paid for

This influx of gold from Mongolia has done much thus far in enabling the country to keep the She therefore cannot adopt an balance of her trade. exclusion policy economically, even though she may without

Tibetan goods.

much inconvenience


do so


In fact the

enforcement of economic exclusion would be followed by serious internal trouble, simply because it would put a stop

from Mongolia. However, so far as this Mongolian gold is concerned, it seems as if circumstances were about to bring Tibet to a result tantamount to the enforcement of economic exclusion, for since the war between Japan and China and especially since the Boxer trouble the inflow of Mongolian gold to Tibet has virtually ceased, so much so that the Mongolto the inflow of gold

ian priests


are staying in Tibet for the prosecution

studies are

embarrassed owing



non-arrival of their remittances from home.




have even been obliged to suspend regular attendance at lectures, and to seek some means of earning their livelihood,


the poorer native Buddhist students are

accustomed to do. Another thing that adds to the economic diiSculties of the Tibetans is their tiendency to grow more and more luxurious in their style of living, a tendency that began to be particularly noticeable from about twenty years ago. This has been inevitably brought about by the foreign trade of Tibet and the arrival of goods of foreign origin. All these circumstances have impressed the Tibetans with the necessity of extending their sphere of trade with foreign

instead of confining their commercial operations

at it. India. though sufficiently hard. The supply for is. 457 within the narrov/' bounds of their own country. the of the sheep-farmers whole population would be threatened with starvation. out trade off her commercial relations with the outside world. or more properly the nomadic people of that country. of the greater part of the income they are at present enabled to get from their wool. Urged by strides. the close of foreign markets is certain to bring down prices. and as food the prices of this essential of life cannot be e. is advancing with great the larger judging least from number of people engaged in for as matters stand at present the Forbidden Land may without exaggeration be considered as a "nation of shop-keepers". Eveij are engaged in business 68 kind or tvnother. Tibet cannot. down in proportion to those of who constitute the greater part wool. might but what would be unendurable would be endured be the closing of Indian markets to the wool of Tibet. and therefore to rob the sheep-fai-mers. and Nepal on commercial enterprises. India being the most important consumer of this staple produce More wool being produced than can of the country. on the other hand. necessity. Now suppose that Tibet should prohibit her people embarking in this foreign trade. China and other which are now articles of daily necessity This. even if she would. goods for her people. less than the demand.xjDected to go countries. what would be the consequence ? In the first place she would be unable to get any supply of goods from India. The consequence is that a larger nuinber of the inliabitants have begun to proceed eveiy year to China. The incoming of gold from Mongolia being suspended. .TIBETAN TKADE AND INDUSTRY. . with the exception of those who are disqualified through physical defects of one and age. be reasonably consumed at home. In fact all the people.

The whole proceedwith the shrewdness and vigilant which characterise regular business- conducted to details attention men. who in virtue of the important privileges. (generally at a large profit) to other boys. obtained from the start for salt lakes that are found there. Nepal or Sikkim. sell it to Nor is it thought derogatory for the host to sell his belongings.458 ffii-mers THBIE YEARS IN TIBET. It is interesting to note that even boy-disciples in monasteries are traders in their own way. . not directly. though some of making investments and are content to income derived from their land. None the less the business spirit permeates the whole Peerage. and do not to hesitate to invest their money whenever they happen notice in the shops or other places articles that appeal to their fancy. and monasteries often trade on a large is The G-overnment through its a trader. mostly by proxy. Suppose a visitor to a Peer's house takes a fancy to some of the furniture or hall decoration in it. Priests are not too cents. sell Then these men Bhutan. or exchange for other objects. In such a case it is not considered impolite for the refrain from subsist on the visitor to them and to ask the host the price of that particular article. such as trust reposed in them enjoy various gratis. and even these non-trading Peers are ready to make small bargains now and then. but regular agents. These they bring home and either sell. if the price is considered reasonable. to to deal their goods in those places. In winter when farm-work is northern Tibet to lay in their stock slack they proceed to of salt. the liberty to requisition horses for carrying their goods or to take lodgment Peers are also traders. are partly traders. both ing parties is and so the bargain is struck when can come to terms. to him. ask him. proud itself with secular dollars and scale.


each party trying to impose upon the other in all those dealings. . and that is the danger of stimulating cunning practices. One great evil attends this propensity.460 THEEE YBAES lU TIBET.

That is the only legal tender curTransactions have to be conducted therefore in a rent. These however are passed and received without complaint. and that is a twenty-four sen silver piece. inasmuch as that coin admits of being divided in two ways only. In Lhasa and transactions is other prosperous the unit of four sen. The cut into two. the former passing at sixteen sen and the latter at eight. thereby producing two twelve-«ew be divided into a f piece and a J piece. happens not to possess this one-half piece. there being only one kind of coin. sixteen and twenty-four sen a . Thus four sen is called a khaltang. but there being no four-sen piece one must take with him in making a purchase of four sen one I piece valued.CHAPTER LXV. blocl<s.at sixteen sen. the buyer then produces one ^ piece and one § piece. Currency and Printing coins. For a purchase of eight sen a buyer produces one tanka and receives a piece in change. Commodities are either bartered or bought with regular I should more strictly say the coin. and cut pieces are in most cases perforated iu the centre or worn down places at the edges. twelve sen a chyekka. eight sen a karma. and receives in return for the two one whole piece called a tanka which is valued at twenty-four sen. The unit of transaction being four sen there are six gradations of value between this minimum and a tanka. and receive in return When the seller for it one | piece valued at twelve sen. sen a shohang. rather complicated manner. In the first place it may be pieces . it or may cutting is far from being exact. twenty sen a kahchi tanka. each |- possessing a distinct denomination.

These pieces are in shape. rather a large sum for Of course he had no idea of repaying me. but are not accepted in the G-rand to It Lama's dominions. and indeed everywhere except in Lhasa and Shigatze. and his loan was really blackmail. . prosperous places. owing to be the absence of divided pieces of smaller value. together with a letter. for I had a fairly large amount of money. probably expecting that I would then send him the whole sum asked for. exclaiming that I had insulted him. as in the north-western steppes boundary line serai-circular which form the between Tibet and India. it is impossible to make a purchase of less than one tanka. like servant. I sent back the servant with half of what he had asked. and took no notice of his threat. was a Japanese. Here I should like my monetary dealings. and so on. About that time I chiefly devoted my leisure to collecting Buddhist books. the latter. having heard most probably from his spendthrift master that I sent the sum. But I did not oblige him as he had expected. A few days after another letter reached me from that young man. I have spoken before of the prodigal son of the house of One day this man sent his servant to me with a Para. In some places are found silver pieces which are locally circulated. I was told that he was highly enraged at what I had done. I must] remark here that Buddhist works not in yen. and that he had not asked for the sum for charity. At any rate he sent back the money to me. Like master. and asked for a loan of money. but a sort of blackmail carried out at my expense. for I knew that they could not annoy me repeatedly with impunity. recount what occurred to me in was not an ordinary transaction.462 In less THREE YBAES IN TIBET. again asking for the sum as at first. came to me for a loan or blackmail of fifty I gave that sum too. I decided to save myself from further annoyance and so I letter Tibet.

rate according to monasteries more or less differing in and kind of blocks. white and produce excellent tough fibres. printing is of native origin. called Oho Khang. In return for an applicant has to forward some fee and some donation to the monastery which owns and keeps the particular set of blocks from which he wishes to get an impression or impressions. The books which I collected either through purchase. The roots are The Tibetan is paper is therefore sufficiently strong and durable. I or three at the bazaar in Shigatze. Wages for the men are generally fifty sen a day without board. owing to bad bleaching. this donation generally consisting of a quantity of tussore silk. the leaves and roots of which are poisonous.CURRENCY AND PRINTING BLOCKS. Booksellers in Tibet.or anotlujr. so to say. . The paper used in the cost of printing is rather heavy. ranges from about twenty-five sen to about one yen twenty sen per hundred sheets. and . ordinary use are not sold by booksellers in Tibet . The permission obtained. do not sell their books at their own houses. and any person who wishes to get a copy of any of such works must obtain from the owner of the copyright permission to get this permission an impression of it. saw ten such bookstalls in Lhasa and two and those stallkeepers arranged their stock in trade in heaps instead of leaving their books open to invite inspection. 463 tliey are kept in the form of blocks at one monaster}. were at first kept in my room at the Sera monastery. but not white. at least so far as I observed at Lhasa. and as they work in a very dilatory manner. or by getting special impressions from the original blocks. The fee. made of a certain plant. but at open stalls in the courtyard in front of the western door of the great temple-shrine of the Budcjha Shakyamuni. the applicant next engages either three or six printers. two printers and one assorter forming a special printing party. as booksellers of other countries do.

strange . I thought that during the three thousand years that had elapsed since the founding of the Empire this must be the first time that one of its own subjects had offered such a Empress. prayer in that city of the Forbidden Land then a . the preliminary I . pay in the usual charge of two tanka to edifice.464 THEEE YEARS IN TIBET. after the service had been concluded. the Crown Prince. Accordingly I sent my boy to the Sakya Temple in the city with clarified butter to make an offering of light to the Buddha enshrined in the edifice. a student from a remote country. and they could not but wonder how carry home I. the keepers of the Any one who wishes make this offering has simply to. Meanwhile the end near and at last the of the month of New Year's eve arrived. other. I. and on that particular occasion I therefore sent my boy with two tanka pieces. I therefore kej^t all my subsequent purchases in my room at the house of my host.began. hung a roll on which manner suitable to the was painted an image of Buddha. H. in order to avoid suspicion. After set in front of a tiny sacred tabernacle. December drew I made an arrangement to keep the day according to the Japanese custom. Then I performed a ceremony in order to pray for the prosperity of their Imperial Majesties the Emperor and H. and lastly various offerings. and also for the greater prosperity and glory of the Empire of Japan. could so many books. wonder and curiosity to the rooms not far from my they were heard saying to each of in the contained three times as many books as even a learned doctor possessed in Tibet. hour of midnight. a regular service and kept it up till four in the morning of the New Year's Day. then three stands of silver lamps. This is done by putting clarified butter into the gold lamps placed to before the tabernacle. 1 arranged I my own room it in a occasion. collection my was a subject priests who were quartered The collectioUj own.

several snow-white cranes were stalking at leisure. As I turned my eyes outward. sensation rising in 465 came over me. reflecting golden rays on the snow that covered the surrounding hills and plains.CUEEBNCY AND PETNTING BLOCKS. The whole scene NEW YEAR'S READING Of 59 THE Tf^CTS FOP THE JAPANESE EMPEROR'S WELFARE. . now and then uttering their peculiar cry. and somehow I felt grateful tears my eyes. while service. I noticed the New continuing the Year's sun beginning to ascend its in the eastern sky. Nearer before my eyes and in the spacious court of the monastery.

. liked to invite was exquisite and quite captivating how I should have my own countrymen to come and share this pleasure witli me The service. : "I hear in the garden of the holy seat the voice of the pure-white cranes. the thought about my dear home. glorifying the triumph of the Holy Religion." — 466 THEEE YEARS IN TIBET. th<^ snow-scbne. the cranes. . and the New Year's ! these roused in me a chain of peculiar sentiments at once delightful and sad. I glorify the long and prosperous reign of our sovereign liege who reigns over his realm in the Par East. and this strange association of thoughts I embodied on that occasion in a couple of awk- Day — ward utas freely rendered into prose thus " Here on this Roof of the World and amidst the ascending dawn heralded by the cry of the cranes.

it when I was told by some acquaintance . This may be called the "Festival of Lights. for the sake of the coming festival. The Festival On January this of Lights. of this I myself felt the eifect custom and was obliged to present here a tanka and there two tanka. the expense of people of position from about the second decade of the month of November according to the lunar According to this custom every person enjoys calendar. 1902. and presented a unique sight. such as is adjoining villages blazing with lights the occasion. It is the season when the Tibetans.CHAPTER LXVI. the festival of Sang-joe commenced." every roof in Lhasa and in all the in honor of set burning Hundreds. even thousands of such butter-fed lights were burning on the roofs of monasteries. singing and feasting are the order of the day. priests and laymen. when dancing. The Sang-joe is one of the most popular festivals. to say. give themselves up to great rejoicing. 4th. privilege. and when people put on their gala dresses. In this way I spent about five yen in Japanese I did not doubt money during this season of public begging. that is on November 25th of the lunar calendar. of the begging a present of money from any superior in rank or position position who may visit his house. a sort of religious blackmail. rarely seen in other parts of the world. being the anniversary day of the death of Je Tsongkha-pa the great Lamaist reformer. The arrival of the season is announced by an interesting enforced at custom. and lasts for two weeks. Even people it and means do not think good beneath them to of exercise this privilege of begging.

This midnight ceremony is a solemn aifair which every person in the monastery is obliged to attend. and I felt as if I were transported to the region of IBuddha. cloth with floral designs in blue while on the walls and from the upper parts of regarded as were lighted up by several thousand lamps containing melted butter. It seemed to me as if angels were conducting the service. in violation of is . and felt that the peculiarly subdued tones of the chanting exerted upon my mind a powerful effect. go round at dawn to collect alms in the temple when the service is concluded.468 that thkee yeaes in tibet. of and listening The Sang-joe is also a great occasion of alms and charity. The people being more generously liberally. the lamps shining bright and clear with pure-white rays. thoughts profound piety took possession of ray mind. As I attended this ceremony in the Sera monastery I was highly impressed with the solemnity of the function. tapestries of glittering The lofty hall was hung with brocade and satin the pillars were . my it what was Sang-joe item next year would be threefold in the present year. wound with red woollen and white the . the service consisting of the reading in company of holy Texts. is a sort of vigil. to the chanting of the holy Texts. especially the acolytes and disciples. performed from about midnight to early dawn. owing to the enlargement of the circle of my acquaintances. disposed at this season than at other times give quite I am sorry to say that this pious inclination of 'on the part the people chievous priests. All these unlike those of gas-burners. who do not often abused by misscruple to go. not pillars were in hung religious pictures masterpieces Tibet. and the priests. Sitting in the hall amidst such sacred surroundings. The whole surroundings were in keeping with the The religious side of Sang-joe every night solemnity of the occasion.

together with the more smarting punishment of a flogging. rest by their peculiar appearance way of dressing the hair. Now and then the ears inflict erratic doings of these lads come to the who summon them and upon them a severe reprimand. and especially by their Sometimes their heads are shaved bald. This manner of hairdreSsing is not approved by the Lama authorities. and when they take notice of the locks they ruthlessly pull them off. even go to the extreme younger disciples ' of thrashing the young disciples when they refuse to go on fraudulent errands of this particular description. of whom an account has already been given. 469 the rules. The incorrigible of the higher authorities. abetting the committing them. I was astonished to hear that the priests who are on duty to prevent such irregular practices are in many cases the in very instigators. the warriors rather glory in display the it. These mischievous young people are in most cases warThese warrior-priests. so that when they present themselves monasears or tery they either tuck their ringlets behind the besmear their faces with lamp-black compounded with . Painful as this treatment is. urged on by greed. and swagger about the courage. on a second or even third or fourth round of begging at one time. ' streets to marks of their They are. The ill-gotten proceeds go into the pockets of those unscrupulous inspectors'' who. however. are easily distinguished from the rior-priests.THE FESTIVAL OF LIGHTS. disciples are not disconcerted in the least. leaving the temples swollen and bloody. and of course they are immune from expulsion from the monastery. being conscious that they have their protectors in the official inspectors. cautious to conceal their the notice of the authoriin the smart ' hair-dressing from ties. and consider that these locks of four or five inches long give them a sinai-t appearance. but more often they leave ringlets at each temple.

of a monastery when they find walk round them to the right. a Tibetan Rabelais. They are afraid of killing tiny insects. On the road Duk Nyon are straining at gnats noticed a small stone. but afterwards I was informed of the reason of the strange phenomenon and my wonder disappeared as I became accustomed to I the sight. and And yet they. This priest met on the road a priest of the New Sect. So the New Sect priest bantered Duk Nyon on what he considered a silly proceeding.. to a big rock. but left.470 butter. offensive in appearance of far they are generally also guilty more grave are offences. When at first I saw such blackened faces I wondered what the blackening meant. and even their superiors. They be the descendants in of the bible. who was celebrated for his amusing though none the less sensible way of teaching. THREE YEABS IN TIBET. and it may be imagined that sharp repartees must have been exchanged between the two. His companion marvelled at this strange behavior of Duk Nyon he could not understand why he should have avoided a small stone and then should jump over a large one. and the nights seem to of the holy service ful abused as occasions for indulging in fearreally malpractices. but Duk . am sorry to say that the warrior-priests are not merely . walking . are strict in not step- ping over broken them on the never to the road. Really they and swallowing camels. which over he it carefully avoided walked round it. men of Sodom and Gomorrah mentioned the They are often quite particular in small affairs. which hardly admitted The humorist stooped low to give momentum to his body and the next instant he jumped over it. tiles commit grave sin without much remorse. and instead of Next they came of walking over. There lived once in Tibet a humorous priest named Duk Nyon.

THE FESTIVAL OF LIGHTS. The story goes that his companion was replied that he much abashed at this home-thrust of the humorist. It is merely a season of criminal indulgence for the warrior-priests and other undesirable classes. This witty remark of the old priest may be said to hold true even at the present time. for though the Sang-joe presents a solemn and impressive front outwardlj^^ it is full of abominable sights behind the scenes. but were wont to leap over grave sins without remorse. . who were meticulously exact about small things. 471 Nyon had been merely giving an objectlesson to the New Sect folk.

Aa the position of women bears a vital relation to the prosperity and greatness of a country. beginning with chapter to this subject.CHAPTER LXVII. as in Japan. and each half and left flowing behind. their mode of dress. The sash is not tied. but is merely wound round the body with the end tucked in. I shall devote a residing in Of the women of Tibet those Lhasa are regarded as models of Tibetan womanhood. First let me describe the Lhasa ladies. and they therefore demand most attention. is that women are attired with more and elegance than men. imported from China. passing it three times round the body. Some persons wear a belt made of a piece of silk cloth. The ladies of Lhasa dress their hair somewhat like their Mongolia.' . Another distinguishing mark in Tibetan attire is a sash. not differ note that the women's garments 'do appearance from those of men both are cut in the same way. Tibetan Women. and the only perceptible difference It is interesting to much in . though this fashion is not followed by those in Bhigatze and other parts of Tibet. The ends is of knots. terminating at one end in a fringe. their natural supply being rather scanty. The hair is divided sisters of into plaited into a braid two equal parts down the middle. the cords consisting usually of seven or eight threads on which pearls are strung as beads with a larger pearl or turquoise in the middle. if difference taste it be. a narrow band about an inch and a half wide and eight feet long. the braids are tied with red or green cords with f ringed and these two cords are connected by other beaded cords. in appearance. They use a large quantity of false hair.

The arms are decorated with bracelets. the Lhasan ladies follow toilet. but very much resembles that of their Japanese sisters. the right one made I of pretty shells and the left one of engraved silver. The pendant is generally a miniature golden tabernacle which may cost from two hundred to three hundred. and are made of red and green With all their splendid attire. breast ornament (which may cost as much as three or four thousand yen). Shoes are woollen fabrics. use an apron. for a strange custom in their faces. pretty. The Tibetan ladies being moreover attired in loose and capacious garments look very imposing. but the women of Lhasa. In general appearance too the two cannot be easily distinguished. they often paint their powder as their sisters of other coun- but with a reddish-black substance. must not omit to mention that all the Lhasan women. much to the The complexion of the Lhasan women is not quite fair. ver'y The Tibetans charm of the think that th» natural color of the flesh peeping from underneath the soot adds appearance. 6Q . both rich and poor. women who are Indeed one hardly ever finds in Tibet short and frail as are the average Japanese ladies. They also . are taller in stature and stronger in constitution than the women of Japan. not with white tries do. and indeed of all Tibet. 473 wear a head-ornament made of turquoises or corals. besides a necklace of precious stones. yen. being generally of silver. excepting those worn by ladies of the highest also class. with one large piece surmounting the rest and they put on the middle of the head a cap made of small Then there are usually golden ear-rings and a pearls. Finger-rings are comparatively plain.TIBETAN WOMEN. The ladies of the higher classes have fair complexions so and are as pretty as their sisters of Japan. which in the case of the ladies is made of the best Tibetan wool woven in variegated hues.

both in the matter of business and of Tibet. that they lack weight and dignity. Most of the Tibetan women are content with simply washing this their faces seldom extended higher classes however. Their way of strikes one as inelegant and uninviting. speaking also In contrast to to look at. them. They are therefore objects more to be loved and pitied. especially in Japan. they have plenty of time to devote to their is and hands. their sisters of Lhasa are charming Their only defect is Kham and full of attraction. and their daily conduct is not quite edifying. than to be respected and adored. defect Probably the this singular may have been brought about by polyandrous custom of the country. are less open to this charge. and the surrounding districts are but they generally lack and look cold and repellent. There are manj' things which I might cite to the discredit of the fair sex of Tibet. The women of the middle and . the ladies of the toilet. it is true. such as commands respect from others. universal in Tibet^ but it naturally stands out more conspicuously in contrast to the general habits of women in other countries. fair-complexioned. For instance. is their great activity. Altogether they lack character. The women especially attractiveness.474 THREE YEAES IN of TIBET. but washing to other parts of the body. and seldom possess such nobleness as befits women of rank. If one criticises them severely. having no particular business. Uncleanliness is. That which is particularly noteworthy about the women and probably constitutes their chief merit. they do not mind eating while walking in They are also excitable^ or pretend to be excited by trifling circumstances. their -love of liquor and their uncleanly habits. the streets. but of these I will single out only two. are prone to flirt and to be flippant. also in other respects. one would say that they are more like ballet-girls than ladies of high station.

for instance. and indeed there is nothing wonderful in this when it is remembered that the women of Tibet. whether invited or not. They even choose their husbands from a business point of view. command even more They have leisure than their sisters in other countries. can work just as well as the rougher sex. ladies are not required to engage in such kind of work. The special ladies. of the lower classes spinning. Nor do the ladies of Tibet care much about weaving and Spinning women distaffs. They receive. women with regard to men. regard trade as their own proper sphere of activity. perhaps. and therefore are perfectly entitled to receive the same remuneration. so far as the theory of equality between the sexes is concerned. and they are therefore very shrewd in business of every description. may be considered as surpassing the ideal of western women. The condition of Tibetan especially in the provinces. though some pursue either one or both as is their regular profession. equal wages with men. done with primitive process. and even for a stitching they rely on the tailor. incapable and is a tedious and awkward of producing yarn of an even and fine size. while their domestic cares are also very light. Sewing little considered in Tibet as men's work. though looking of rights sisters of Tibet . for not only are they allowed to have a voice in the affairs of men. as they is do not undertake sewing. their activity is more shown in the form of counsels to their husbands. for instance. These women. being strongly built and sturdy. Yarns such as are produced by spinning jennies are never obtained from native distalfs. It seems that the Tibetan ladies enjoy great influence over their hus- As bands. practically no and public duties. 47^ lower classes.TIBETAN WOMEN. For their stout enjoy from the public almost equal treatment with men. but are often taken into confid'ence by them about matters of importance.

They rage like beings possessed. they are not always faithful to their husbands. devote their whole attention to pleasing them. In short. they exercise in promoting their own something remarkable. They lavish their love upon them. Cases in which husbands were apologising on bent knees to wives furious with passion often came to my notice while I was staying in Tibet. modest and lovely. and they do not care a straw for the good of their husbands so long as they are satisfied. and fortified with that source of strength they receive a selfish The shrewdness aims is decree of divorce from their husbands without any sense of They will. They are very selfish and really rule the roost. and they are often audacious enough to lay the blame on the shoulders of their poor hen-pecked husbands. affectionate . but regard acts something of quite ordinary nature . the women of Tibet seem to possess two antagonistic qualities. and are disposed to run to extremes. On the other hand. more or less. They are heart. and no soothing words or apologies can pacifj' them. so that demure as passion is cats when they are at peace. are nevertheless very courageous at when they fall into a passion their husbands are hardly able to keep them under control. and spare neither pains nor money to anticipate their wishes and so to give them satisfaction. in that case. alleging their inability to support their own wives of inconstancy as ! The whole attention of the Tibetan women is concentrated on their own selfish interests. pack up their belongings and leave their husbands' doors with alacrity. regret.476 THEEE YEARS IN TlhET. From the highest to the lowest. but when their roused they are dreadful as tigers. they are allowed to have their own savings. according to their position and circumstances. as if to make amends for their lack of virtue towards the husbands they do not love. What is worse. Tibetan women are extremely and considerate to the men of their own liking.

the fat begins to from the watery portion. subjected to and then left to cool till a coating of cream appears on This cream is skimmed off. A piece of wood of the same shape as. and this curdled milk is transferred to a narrow deep vessel and a small quantity of lukewarm water is added to it. more or less lukewarm water sufficiently . the wise: first process being in this heat. The mixture becomes curdled. When the curdled mass separate churned in this way. for such stories of faithfulness as are common shall in other countries are conspicuous by their absence in Tibet. own interests. Though sufficiently by the polyandshrewd they invariably lean on the help of one support themselves and their children. Indeed the idea of fidelity to the husband of her first love never seems to enter the mind of even a well-educated woman. The women in the provinces attend to farming and rear cattle. of the middle and lower classes. I touch only briefly on the occupations of Tibetan women yaks. 4'77 habitSj Perhaps this apparent anomaly comes from their immoral and also from the fact that the sensfe of chastity in seriously affected women must have been to. sheep or of butter But the commonest business for them is the making and other substances obtained from milk. the vessel is put into it.protect their reus custom of the country. According to the condition of that separation. Only very ugly or old marry again with indecent haste. the milk is.TIBETAN WOMEIil. women remain widows all the .1 rarely does the bereaved woman remain rest memory of her departed husband. and in the surface. they are never self-dependent. size slightly smaller than. faithfn. If a even when they have sufHoient means at their disposal to husband dies very to the and leaves his widow and children enough to live on. man or anothei". and to the remainder a quantity of sour milk is added and the mixture left for about a day in a covered vessel. and is moved up and down by is a handle.

These clots are known as chttra. easily separable from the sour watery portion. and they are very nice . The butter is then strained. the latter corresponding to the cheese used by western people. and the remainder is boiled till coagulated clots appear.to eat. is not unpalatable. though sour. added and the stirring is resumed. The water or whey. . The chura is used either fresh or in a dried form.478 is tHKee yi)abs jiJ tiUet?. and is especially good for quenching thirst. till the butter-fat and water are completely separated.

common desig- One baby bears the name of Nyima-Chering . Qirls. this meaning Sun in Tibetan. The only thing done to the new-born baby is the anointing of its body (especially the head) with butter. Thus the naming ceremony is almost always performed for boys and very seldom for girls. their sisters. . is born on Sunday is named Nyima. The name is generally determined according to the day of the birth. nor is there a regular midwife. Tibetan Boys and this discrimination Boys enjoy better treatment in Tibet than beginning soon after their birth. a specific individual surname has to be given to each baby. and a quantity of yellow powder made of the saffron flower is then added to it. this naming ceremony is generally performed after the lapse of three days from the time of One strange custom about the birth is that a baby birth. the Tibetan baby may perhaps be described being subjected to butter-washing.CHAPTER LXVIII. . a priest is asked to perform the The process commences with the sprinkling of The water is first blessed by the priest. The individual ceremony. and especially according to the nomenclature For instance a boy or a girl who of the days of the week. As this anointing is rather copiously as applied. . On the naming-day. is never washed. holy water on the baby's head. Though differing more or less according to localities. the same names giving rise to confusion. The babies born on Monday bear the common name of Dawa those on Saturday Penba This general use of those on Friday Pasang and so on. this being carried out twice a day. appellation either precedes or follows the nation.


or is determined by an oracle-consultor. I may add that the boys take a religious . in order to inform the patron deity of the place or of the family of the birth of a baby. to which the relatives and friends of the house are 61 . for in the provinces only wealthy people can afford to the naming ceremony follow this custom. meaning " Moon-all-perfection.father of the baby. when a baby born to him.TIBETAN BOYS AND GIELS. and does not entrust this of school-attendance it is business to another priest. and the relatives and friends of the family are invited to it. When is concluded. it are chiefly observed The ceremony and the banquet that accompanies by people residing in or near a city. such as casks of liquor. and of the fact that that baby has received such and such a name. The beginning another great attains the occasion for boys. or money. rolls of cloth. These of course bring with them On the naming-day suitable presents. This service be taken under the may be undertaken by a priest of either the New or Old Sect or by an oracle-consulter. On the whole the surnames are of an abstract nature as in the case of Japanese names. of boys a great feast is held in honor of the occasion. the officiating priest reads a service. and only rarely by the." The choice of such individual names is usually made by the Lama who attends the ceremony. and praying that the baby protection of that patron shall deity. name when they enter the priesthood. The all last named functionary per- forms with his own hand is the ceremony of name-giving. Sometimes the week nomenclature is disregarded and names of abstract meaning are given to the babies sometimes also names of animals are used. and arrives when the boy age of eight or nine. This day also is celebrated with a feast." another Dawa-pun-tsuok. 481 meaning " Sun longevity.




and these present to the boy a kata, which the boy hangs around his neck with the two ends suspended over his breast. If the boy is sent to a teacher residing at some distance from his home, he leaves his paternal roof and lives under that of his master but when his master

lives in the

neighborhood he daily attends his lessons from


The other great occasions for boys are at the end of school life, and the admission to official service, the latter requiring a ceremony of far greater importance and a more
splendid banquet than the other.

The ceremonies performed for tlie benefit of female childven are fewer in number than those for their brothers. Generally only one ceremony is performed, this being
a festival for celebrating the
consists of

advent of girlhood, and
for the

her hair



done in a simple style. The hair is to hang down behind in four braids, surmounted with a pretty hair ornament made of red coral and turquoises. On this occasion a large
her birth.

The dressing tied and made











bring to the house various kinds of presents.
Boys' amusements are
winter, for instance, they



those in Japan.


play at snow-balling, and in

summer their

favorite sport



a distance, pitching at a target with a stone, skipping,

either singly or in

company, hitting from a distance a

small piece of hardened clay with another piece, or the

marked on the ground a silver by means of a stone or any other hard object these are some of the popular games of boys. Sometimes both boys and girls join in theatricals. Ballgames are now and then seen, but not often. Horse-riding too is a great amusement for boys, but only the sons of
striking out

from a

piece placed in its ventre

rich families can indulge in this.

Poorer boys have to con-



tent themselves with mounting on improvised horseSj such
as rocks or logs of wood.

The Tibetan


do not


much from

those of

other countries in preferring quiet
sports of their brothers.

and refined games

rough amusementj and then singing, which is either theatrical The latter is (Aje-lhamo) or religious (Lama-mani). associated with an interesting custom, and is an imitation of " Lama-mani," who go about the country singing or reciting in quaint plaintive tones the famous deeds
Buddha, or high priests, or even great warriors. These Lama-manis do not use instruments, but possess
of the

Dolls are a favorite


illustrating the


historical accounts





The Tibetan

sing those

pieces, in imitation of

the recitation of the minstrels, one the rest of the juvenile










religious chant interposed.

may mention
in Tibet.







In winter and when the



suspended, they go on tour in the provinces, but about



May, when the field-work

resumed and

the provincials are busy with

the minstrels return to

Lhasa and. ply

their trade there.

Their arrival at the

capital generally coincides with the appearance of the red
so these flies are popularly

known by


rather respectable





The Care


of the Sick.

The tending of sick persons is a task assigned to women in Tibet, and the peculiar notions prevailing about the treatment of patients makes this task doubly onerous.
Tibetan doctors strictly forbid their patients to sleep in the day-time, and so those who tend th^m have to follow this injunction of the doctors and keep the unfortunate patients awake. The patients are not allowed to lie in bed but are



remain leaning upon

some supports

their sides

prepared for them.



give them any help


more nurses need, and above



prevent them from going to sleep. long stand the strain of constant watching, and therefore

These nurses cannot

they are relieved in turn, to resume the task after they have taken more or less rest. The nurses faithfully attend
to their duty, are very quiet so as not to

annoy the


wakeful as they are, and above all to satisfy any of their wants, to comfort and humor thena, and also to keep the rooms clean. This cleaning must be judged strictly by a Tibetan standard, for viewed from the Japanese standpoint it hardly deserves the name. The patients are also kept comparatively clean, considering the general filthy habits
of the Tibetans.


eif ect

of this insanitary condition at

once makes

itself felt to

the olfactory sense of a foreigner



accustomed to more perfect arrangements at home,

for as soon as he enters the

room a peculiar

offensive smell

greets his nose.




most important and tiresome part of the nursing keep the patient awake, aud sometimes nurses

are specially appointed to attend to this work. These nurses keep beside them a bowl containing cold water and




one or two wooden sprinklers. When the patient is about to fall asleep, a nurse sprinkles water on his face^ and this has the effect of preventing sleep. When this watersprinkling fails, the nurse embraces the patient from




call the


presses him forward. Sometimes by name and cause him to recover


The patient


for the trouble

taken by the nurses, being well aware that they do
ensure his recovery.


obedience to the doctor's orders, and from their wish to

The idea that a patient must not be allowed

to sleep







the minds of


and non-pi-ofessional. The him and on the nurses to observe this point strictly as the first essential for his recovery, and any person who comes to visit him first of all gives a similar warning. " Don't allow' him to fall asleep, " repeats the visitor to the nurses, and reminds them that they are
both professional
doctors enjoin both on

responsible for


out faithfully this
that his

cardinal necessity in the treatment of the patient.


a patient dies, the neighbors suspect


not have been strict enough, and must have
to fall asleep


have brought about strange medical custom, and it was easy for me to make enquiries, having been obliged to play the part of a quack doctor through the earnest importunities of the simple-minded Tibetans. So far as I could ascertain from those enquii'ies, the idea seems to be that patients suffering from some diseases are. liable to develop more fever when they sleep in the da;y-time, while patients suffering from a
I tried to find out the reasons that


local disease, resembling dropsy, not unfrequently die while

asleep or while in a state of coma.

seems to have been derived from some cases that occurred some time in the past, the unscientific doctors of Tibet having jumped to a




general conclusion

from certain





add that
it is



efficacious at

for the Tibetans


at times I



I slept as freely as I

from disease while in wished, and of course I found

myself feeling

the better for




that, in Tibet, superstition

plays a far more

important part than medicine in the treatment of diseases.

People believe that a disease


the work of an


which enters the body

of a person,

and therefore

they conclude that that spirit must first be exorcised before a patient may be entrusted to the care of a doctor.

There being various kinds of evil spirits, some high Lama must be consulted in order to determine which particular one has possessed a given patient. A priest before whom the matter is brought consults books on demonology, then pronounces that the disease is the work of such and such an evil spirit, and that for exorcising him such and such a service must be performed.

The consulting priest may specify the name of a Lama when the service to be read is one of importance, but when
it is

an ordinary one


may be performed by any Lama.

At the same time

the consulting priest issues directions
that a doctor should be called been performed for so many days, such a doctor should be invited

about medical treatment
in after the service has





simultaneously with the

performance, or that

medical aid

may be

dispensed with altogether.

These directions are given orally when the Lama who them is one of secondary position, but when he is one of exalted rank the directions are written by one of
his attendants
of his

and the sheet


authenticated by the mark



The Tibetans put implicit faith in the directions issued by such high Lamas, and follow them literally. For



to seek the aid

when the Lama
say for the


them not

of medicine,


and orders the

patient only to perform the rites of exorcism during that
period, they are sure to do so.



who might have

recovered had the aid of medicine been at once iiivoked, may then die, but his family will never blame the Lama

him in greater respect than him an extraordiuaiy power of foresight. They will say that he had foreseen the hopelessness of th^e patient's case, and therefore told them


will rather hold to



not to take the unnecessary trouble of calling in the aid of a doctor until after the lapse of five days.

The reverend knew, they think, that the patient would die by that


Anybody who


dare to

hold the


responsible for the
serious risk of being
as a

death of the patient
a person

would run a






denounced by the faithful believers of depraved mind. Even heart condemn the mischievous and fatal

meddling of the priests in the case of diseases prudently keep silence, for fear of calling down upon themselves the wrath of the fanatical populace. To speak the truth, the Tibetan doctors hardly deserve to be trusted. The word doctor as applied to them is a gross outrage on the noble science, for they possess merely the knowledge (and this too of a very shallow kind) As even that of the primitive medicine of ancient India. knowledge is the result of oral instruction transmitted from father to son for many generations, and not acquired from studying medical works or from investigation, the Tibetan doctors are utterly incompetent for the important
' ' '

function assigned to them.



practically possess only

one stock medi-


the root of a certain poisonous herb called

Being a strong stimulant it is a fatal in a large dose, and even a limited quantity causes a
tsa-tuk in Tibet.



temporary paralysis of the different parts of the body and A change of any kind is sometimes violent diarrhoea.
likely to be taken as a hopeful sign



Tibetan doctors always use more or

less of this

and so the drug for

kinds of




the Japanese doctors were

accustomed to use liquorice-root in olden days. Knowing as I do how untrustworthy and even dangerous the prescriptions of Tibetan doctors are, I sometimes thought that if the choice between the two evils had to be made I should rather recommend to -sick people an exclusive reliance on prayers and faith-cure instead of on the risky medicines prepared by these quacks.

Outdoor Amusements.
There are various methods of feasting in Tibet, but the one which appeals most strongly to the fancy of the people and is, I think, the most refined, is the Lingka. This is a
sort of

garden party held





in the

outskirts of the city of Lhasa.


seldom behave respectably

and with

when they meet

in a social reunion j too frequently


such, occasions disputes

or even quarrels are liable to

But in a Lingka party all those who participate in it behave with decorum, and even people who are generally regarded as quarrelsome characters appear genteel and
affable in deference to the best tradition of the

is suffi-

A Lingka carried

out by a party of warrior-priests

ciently animated, but very seldom do they

mar the


with unseemly quarrels.

The places where

this refined


held are, as

before mentioned, situated very close to the city,

and are

found in all directions except the south, where flows a In the remainder of the circuit woods and groves river. scattered here and there, and also patches of velvety are


of the groves

are enclosed

and are attached

to the private villas of wealthy people, but there are plenty

and lawns which are left open to the public. These lawns and groves present a charming appearance in spring, and the people of Lhasa, after having been chained to the town through the desolate and dreary scenes
of groves

of winter, feel themselves inspired with a




they meet again on turf which is resuming its vigor and putting on a new coat of velvet. There are peach-trees
with their buds about to burst open, while by the' streams


seen willow-trees with their elegant pendant twigs

may be

covered with fresh green leaves.

The whole

city of




were, in agreeable

surroundings of nature.

amusements has arrived,

new harmony with the fascinating The season of pure and innocent and the people, urged on by the
finds its heart beating with a

natural cravings of their hearts, sally forth to the fields in
small parties or large, and enjoy themselves with picnics.


picnic outfit comprises


flour, fried


or meats, cheese, raisins, dried peaches, dried animal flesh,

There are two kinds of native wheat and the other of rice. Of the two the foi'mer is used to a greater extent than the latter. The barley liquor is brewed in a very simple way,
sacks of liquor and tea-sets.

one being


of barley or


certain quantity of barley, generally at the rate of one
to five sho of the liquor, is roasted, then

sho of the grain
left to cool,

and while it is being cooled a quantity of malt added, and the mixture is put in a jug and kept in a




In three days the mixture is converted into it water is added and thoroughly stirred.
then ready, and
it is



ladled out as occasion

requires, or
in another

is strained and put In brewing a superior kind of the liquor, only about two sho of water is added to one sho of

the whole watery portion


the grain and the strained liquid is left to ripen for some weeks. This superior liquor is used only by wealthy

very weak and does not inis drunk. The climate too being comparatively cool and the atmosphere very dry, the fumes of the liquor soon disappear even when a man has imbibed a large quantity.

The ordinary barley

toxicate unless a large quantity

So, prepared with all those provisions, the parties spread their

mats on the


and enjoy themselves

to their hearts'

contents from nine in the morning to six in the afternoon.




i^^^'^%\\\\\V\^^A PICNIC PARTY


Let US suppose that a carpet is laid on the velvety lawn in a wood, and that there are liquors and delicacies to which the party will help themselves. There will also be singing and dancing. Dancing is generally accompanied by vocal music, and it occupies in the eyes of Tibetan people a very important place on the programme
of a public function of this kind.

Everybody appears


think that there
art of

is nothing more enjoyable in life cadenced steps and graceful postures. Even the country people who from lack of opportunities cannot

than the

learn the art, appreciate

and enjoy


just as well as the

inhabitants of


Strangers like myself do not see any
it is

great merit in


Tibetan dancing, but to their eyes

certainly amusing.

In short, the picnic


a source of

most refined relaxation to the Tibetans, for on such occasions they sing and dance, they drink the best of liquors and eat the best of delicacies, their enjoyment very much enhanced by the exquisite environment. Here


theee ykabs in


flows a limpid current

drawn from the river Kicliu and on banks are gambolling and running children and adults.

There stand majestic snow-capped peaks with their slopes covered with verdant forests. Lhasa indeed seems to
at such time its classic


of the




The above description
of their own.

applies to a picnic given

by people

of the higher classes, but their inferiors also

have picnics


picnics got


drinking of

up by people of the lower classes are of and the amusements include the liquors, gambolling, and maybe wrestling.

Tibetan wrestling possesses a peculiarity of

its own, quite from that prevailing in Japan. The wrestlers generally keep apart from their antagonists and do not tug and close in as do their confreres of Japan. Very seldom does a Tibetan wrestler aim at throwing down his

antagonist, the contest consisting in the use of the arms.

amuse themselves with competitions of which is a favorite game of the warriorpriests, and sometimes they try a foot-race. Dancing is a favorite item of amusement in the picnics of the vulgar folks also, and it does not differ much in form from that of people of the higher circles, though it somewhat lacks elegance and at times it even strikes one as scandalous.

The picnickers

Still, one beautiful point about the picnics even of the lower people is that very seldom does a quarrel or any such unseemly incident mar the sweet pleasure of the

and it is evident that the changsn of the lingka upon them a high moral influence and indirectljWhether for people of the higher leads them to good.


circles or for their inferiors,


the changsas the lingka

the purest and most refined of their amusements and the one most conducive to fraternal feeling and good


Russia's Tibetan Policy.

Before proceeding to give an account, necessarily imperof Tibetan diplomacy, I must explain what is the

public opinion of the country as to patriotism.



to say that the attitude of the people in this respect

by no

means does them
to their


So far as


limited observation

goes, the Tibetans,


are suilioiently shrewd in attending


interest, are not so sensitive to matters of

national importance.

seems as


they were destitute of

the sense of




understood by

ordinary people. Not that they are totally ignorant of the meaning of " fatherland," but they are rather inclined
to turn that


to their

own advantage
Such seems,

in jareference

to the interest of their country.

in short, the

general idea of the politicians of to-day.
are more jealous with regard to their few of them, a very limited few it is true, seem to be prepared to defend and promote it at the expense of their private interest, though even in this respect the

The Tibetans


majority are so far unscrupulous as to abuse their religion
for their



In the eyes of the





the most important product of the country, and

they think therefore that they must preserve


Their ignorance necessarily makes them fanatics

and they believe that any one who works any injury to their deserves death. The Hierarchical Government makes a great deal of capital out of this fanatical tendency The holy religion is its justification when of the masses. it persecutes persons obnoxious to it, and when it has committed any wrong it seeks refuge under the same holy name. The Government too often works mischief in the


of religioiij but the masses


do not of course suspect now and then harbor a suspicion, they are deterred from givipg vent to their sentiments, for to speak ill of the religion is a heinous


any such thing




they do

crime in Tibet.






general the Tibetan


are highly selfish

sense of public duty.

children born of

and but poorly developed in the One might naturally suppose that such mothers must be similarly

deficient in this important point.

thought at



open to this charge than their wives and sisters, but I soon found this to be a mistake. I found the men not much better than the women, and equally absorbed in their selfish desires while totally
the Tibetan

men were

neglecting the interests of the State.

A foreign






and wishing

in the Forbidden Land, has only to

push its interests form its diplomatic
has merely to

procedure accordingly.
captivate the hearts

In other words,

the rulers of Tibet, for once the

Cabinet Ministers of the Hierarchical Government

an easy matter. The greedy Ministers will be ready to listen to any insidious advice coming from ou.tside, provided that the advice
over, the next step will be
carries with


literally the

proper weight of gold.


will not care a

straw about the welfare of the State or the
only they themselves

interest of the general public,

are satisfied.
desii'ing to succeed in gaining influence over Tibet must not think that they have an easy task before them. Gold is most acceptable to all Tibetan statesmen, but at times

However, foreign diplomatists
policy of


gold alone


not carry the point.





Tibet has no diplomatic policy in any dignified sense of the word. Its foreign doings are determined by sentiment,



necessarily destitute of


solid foundation,


Russia's tibetan policy.


susceptible to change from a trivial cause.



country which has given a large bribe to the principal statesmen of Tibet may find afterwards that its enormous
disbursements on this account have been a mere waste of money, and that the recipients who were believed to have been secured with golden chains have broken loose from them, for some mere triviality. It is impossible to rely on the faith of the Tibetan statesmen, for they are entirely

by rational conviction. The Muscovites seem to conduct their Tibetan policy with consummate dexterity. Their manoeuvres date from a long time (at least thirty years) back, when Russia's activity towards Tibet began to attract the public attention of
led by sentiment and never

the Powers concerned.
effective instrument in

Russia has selected a highly promoting her interest over Tibet. There was a Mongolian tribe called the Buriats, which
district far

peopled a



away was

to the north-east of Tibet


originally feudatory to


passed some time ago under the control of Russia. The astute Muscovites have taken great pains to insinuate

tribe. Contrary vaunted policy at home, they have never attempted to convert the Mongolians into believers of the Greek Church, but have treated their religion with a strange toleration. The Muscovites oven went farther and actually rendered help in promoting the interests of the Lamaist faith, by granting its monasteries more or less pecuniary aid. It was evident that this policy of Russia originated from the deep-laid plan of captivating the

themselves into the grateful regard of this


hearts of the priests, whose influence was, as it still is, immense over the people. From this tribe quite a large number of young priests are sent to Tibet to prosecute their
learning. These Mongolians are found at the religious centres of young Ganden, Rebon, Sera, Taslii Lhunpo and at other places.
studies at the principal seats of Lamaist




There must be altogether two hundred such students at those seats of learning several able priests have appeared from among them, one of whom, Dorje by name, became a high tutor to the present Dalai Lama while he was a

minor. This great priest obtained from the Hierarchical Government some twenty years ago the honorable title of " Tsan-

Kenbo, " which means an " instructor in the Lamaist Catechism." There were besides him three other instructors but he is said to have virtually monopolised the confidence of the young Lama Chief. Nor was this confidence

misplaced, so far as tbe relation of teaching

and learning
as he

was concerned.

For the

three colleagues both in

Mongolian ability and


surpassed his

in learning,

omitted no pains to win the heart

of. his little pupil,

was naturally led tion and affection.
attaining majority, his


hold him in the greatest estimahis pupil's

The Tsan-ni Kenbo returned home when, on
services as tutor
It is quite likely that

were no longer

he described minutely the work in Tibet to the Russian Government, for it is conceivable that he may have been entrusted by it with some important business during his stay at Lhasa. Soon the Tsan-ni Kenbo re-visited Lhasa, and this time as a priest of great wealth, instead of as a poor student, as he was at first. He brought with him a large amount of gold, also boxes of curios made in Russia. The money and t'.i.e curios must have come to him from the Russian (jovernment. The Dalai Lama and his Ministers were the recipients of the gold and curios, and among the Ministers a young man named Shata appears to have been honored
results of his

The name of the Tsan-ni Kenbo had been remembered with respect since his departure from Lhasa, and his re-appearance as a liberal distributor
with the largest share.
of gifts

completed his triumph.

In their ej^es the Tsan-ni was a Mongolian priest of immense wealth and pious heart. It must be remembered that a work written in former times by some So they When at rare intervals ' ' Lama ment of the —a pronouncement which was supported by some others — that some centuries hence a mighty prince would make his 63 New Sect contained a prophetic pronounce- appearance somewhere to the north of Kashmir. about his acquisition of wealth. and the idea of suspecting how he came to be possessed of such wealth never entered their unsophisticated minds.Russia's tibetan policy. with which of coarse the priests of these monasteries were delighted. The Zaune's programme of conquest was really comprehensive and included a general plan intended for the masses. some inquisitive priests asked the Government officers about the origin of the Tsan-ni's fortune. The astute Tsan-ni did not of course confine his crafty endeavors to the higher circles alone.ve vowed to stand by each other as brothers born. the latter would inform them with a knowing look that the Mongolian Lama was regarded with something like regal respect by his countrymen. had nothing but unqualified praise for him. And so the Government and priesthood placed themselves at the feet of the Tsanni and adored him as their benefactor. Liberal donations were therefore more than once presented to all the important monasteries of Tibet. the priest classes received from him a large share of attention^ due to the mighty influence which they wield over the masses. 497 The Dalai Lama was now ready to lend a willing ear to anything his former tutor represented to him^ while the friendship between him and the young Premier grew so fraternal that they are said to ha. who vied with each other in presenting gold and other precious things There was nothing strange to that venerable priest. . It was based on an old tradition of Tibet and involved no extra disbursements on his part.

and Buddhism once attained a and delightful high prosperity in them. it must one day recover its original Starting from this peculiar surmise the prophet to the conclusion that the place. if I remember With a precision Utopian account has obtained belief from a section of the Tibetan priest-class. as Jam yan Choeje. and that this would be jumped achieved by some powerful prince. the places near it and would bring the whole world under his sway. Tsong-kha-pa. The prophet went into further details and gave the name of the future great country as "Chang Shambhala. the domination of the Buddhist faith. and under Now KashmJr and are districts of great natural beauty situation. therefore prosperity. Chamba Choeje and Gendun Tub. from its advantageous natural position. so that they might at least have the satisfaction of inspecting its cradle. before they were subdued by the Muhammadan conquerors. and he even described at some length the route to be taken in reaching the imaginary country. worthy of Swift's pen.498 THEEE YEAES IN TIBET. Now the Tibetan prophet bequeathed us this important forecast with the idea that when the Tibetan religion . to tlie north of Kashmir. This announcement alone was not sufficiently attracand so tive to awake the interest of the Tibetans. This would-be " prophet " must have concluded a priori that as the faith had once prevailed there. the imborn prince was represented as a holy incarna- founder of the national religion of Tibet. must in some remote future make its power felt through the world. and some of them are said to have undertaken a quest for this future empire. the prophet located the new Buddhist empire of the future at a distance some three thousand miles north-west of Buddhagaya in Hindustan. This place." Chang denoting "northward" and "Shambhala" the name of a certain city or tions of rightly. and his Ministers were to he incarnation of the his principal disciples.

and that in short all the faithful believers in Buddhism must pay respect to the Tsar as a Chang-chub Semba Semba Chenbo.Russia's tibetan policy. been -able to worthy person that I gathered the drift of the exposition given in the pamphlet. Tibetan. Indeed the Tsanni^s pamphlet was preserved with jealous care by all who had copies of it. of that venerable founder. Russia. such care as is bestowed by of a pious bibliographer on a rare text of Buddhist writing. which in Tibetan indicates one next to Buddha. I should state that this announcejnent is Avidely acoejited as truth by the common people of Tibet. I knew several priests who undoubtedly possessed copies . versions. Russian emissary wrote. and must obey it who doubted him. degt'iieratedj 499 it would be saved from extinction by the appearance of tbat mighty Buddhist prince^ who would extend his benevolent influence over the whole world. a worthy reincarnation to his people. was perfectly familiar with the existence of this marvellous tradition. and he was not slow The Tsan-ni Kenbo utilise it to for promoting his own ambitious schemes. this The Tsar. points courteous in his relations to neighboring countries. Russia and the country indicated in the sacred prophecy indisputably proved that Russia must be that that anybodjr was an enemy of Buddhism and of the august will of the Founder of the New Sect. I have not see a copy. and above the all endowed with of This fact and existence several of coincidence between country. being benevolent a virtuous mind. or as a new embodiment of the Founder. but it was from the lips of a trust- the Tsan-ni Kenbo. Such is said to be the tenor of that particular writing of It seems to exist in three different Mongolian and Russian. and that He wrote a pamphlet with the special object of demons- trating that "Chang Shambhala" means is the Tsar in the incarnation of Je Tsong-kha-pa.

on the other hand. The ignorant Tibetans do not of course exercise any great discernment. thanks to the machination of the Tsan-ni Kenbo. and seeing that the goods from England and Russia are naturally make such a striking contrast with each other they jump to the conclusion that the English goods trash. and holds that the Tsar will sooner or later subdue the whole world and found a gigantic Buddhist empire. they are exclusively for presents. raised the credit of Russia in the eyes of the Tibetans I mean the arrival of costly fancy goods from that country. and that the people who produce such things inferior must be an I and unreliable race. The goods Naturally coming from Russia. therefore the goods coming from Russia are of superior quality and can well stand the wear and tear of use. Tsan-ni Kenbo's artful scheme has been crowned with great success. There is another minor reason which has very much . the pamphlet. So the Tibetans may be regarded as extreme Russophiles. hfeard during my stay in Tibet a strange story the It authenticity of which admitted of no doubt. the drift The one from whom I confidentially obtained of the writing told me that he found in it some unknown letters.500 THREE YEAfiS IN TIBET. was kept At . Now. as the Tibetans cannot afford to buy goods of superior quality. for fear that such a request might awake their suspicion. I concluded that the letters must be Russian. iis a great secret and occurred about two years ago. are not intended for sale . for to-day almost every Tibetan blindly believes in the ingenious story concocted by the Mongolian priest. the fancy goods coming from British India are all clieap things which are hardly fit for the uses for which they are intended. The reason is obvious. the merchants who forward these to Tibet must necessarily select only those articles that are readily marketable. but I could not ask permission to inspect them.

and comes from one most illustrious families of Tibet. The Tsar's act in giving is open to a serious charge. with Grand Lama. He must have accepted it merely as a costly garment with no special meaning attached to it. 501 that time the Dalai Lama received as a present a suit of Episcopal robes from the Tsar. of the Tsan-ni.Russia's tibetan policy. and do with such an official that the chief of the Tibetan religion therefore htm nothing to' garment. probably played some part in bosom friend the imposture. On the other hand if the Tsar is presented the suit from religious considerations his act equally inexplicable and deserves condemnation. must have made some plausible explanations to the Dalai Lama when Shata. On the part of the recipient there were extenuating circumstances. whose name I have before mentioned. then that act amounted to sacrilege. and when a person receives it from the superior Head of the holy church it means that that person has been installed in* such a present to hiui the seat of a Bishop. the eldest of the Premiers. in hereditary feud with the great His house stood monastery Tangye-ling . for the Bishop's ceremonial robe is a sign of a high religious function. It was a splendid garment glittering with gold gratitude by the and was accepted. the Premier and the latter asked him about it. who knew all about this present. for he must have been perfectly aware that Lamaism is an entirely distinct religion from the State religion of Russia. a present forwarded through the hands of the Tsar's emissary. It was really a strange transaction. Who of the is Shata is ? Shata. he must have been entirely ignorant as to the real nature of the present. The fact is. for the Tsanni Kenbo. If the Tsar presented the suit as a specimen of an embroidered fabric. I was told. I am certain he would have rejected the offer at once had he had even a faint inkling of its nature^ He was therefore a victim of ignorance and perhaps of imposition.

It was during this period of his wandering existence that he observed the PRIME MINISTER. Shata therefore is the best authority in Tibet about England's Indian policy. At that time the star of Shata was in the decline. EnglsCnd. which could hardly . whose headj Lama Temo Rinpoche. He could not even live in Tibet with safety^ and had to leave the country as a voluntary exile. acted as Regent before the present Dalai Lama had been installed. His mind was filled He was overawed by with the dread of her power and must have trembled at the mere idea of the possibility of her crossing the Himalayas and entering Tibet. administration of India by England.502 THBEE YEARS IN TJBET. and heard much about how India came to be subjugated by that Power. As a wanderer he lived sometimes at Darjeeling and at other times in Sikkim.

503 hope to resist the northward march of England^ when once the latter made up her mind to invade the land. Shata on his part must have rendered help to his Mongolian friend when the latter wished to offer the strange present to the Dalai Lama. But he is nevertheless a man of vigorous mind and does not hesitate about the means. and died a victim enemy. to choose that is to say. He must have thought during his exile that Tibet would have between Russia and China in seeking foreign help against the possible aggression of England. Shata was soon nominated a Premier. The maladministration and unjust practices of which those followers had been guilty during the ascendancy of their master furnished a sufficient cause for bringing a serious charge against the latter. as already told. This tendency was of course stimulated and encouraged by the Tsan-ni Kenbo. who did not neglect to work upon the other's inclination when he saw that it was highly favorable to him. comparatively speaking. in diplomatic affairs. or even of his profor a crime of to his . when his enemy had resigned ohe Regency and surrendered the supreme power to the Dalai Lama. and his pro-Russian tendency must have come from his strong conviction. and the power he then acquired was first of all employed and abused in destroying his old enemy and his followers. though this conviction rested on a slender base. Evidently therefore he carried home some such idea as to Tibetan policy when affairs allowed him to return home with safety. The poor Temo Rinpoche was arrested which he was innocent.RUSSIA'S TIBETAN POLJCY. I do not say that the other Ministers approved of Shata's acts in this significant transaction. Shata is an unscrupulous man and is resourceful in intrigues. He is the best informed man in Tibet. when once he makes up his mind to compass anything. and so he must possess a certain definite view about the foreign policy of Tibet.

On the contraiy some of them may have deprecated both as being opposed to the interests of Tibet. still He very seldom consulted less coming from them. But they could hardly speak out their minds. They know that their former suzerain is fallen upon. The dignitaries entirely helpless. and so they have naturally concluded that they should establish friendly relations with Russia. was he inclined to accept advice Under the circumstances they must The latter interfered with the intei'nal affairs of Tibet and meted out punishments freely to the Tibetan and even to the Grand Lama. even if they knew about it. have connived at the acceptance of the bishop's apparel. much less feared by the Tibetans. They therefore no longer to be depended are prejudiced against England on account is and India. and even if they did they could not restrain Shata. China is no longer respected. which they knew was England's bitter foe. China's loss of prestige in Tibet since the Japano-Chinese war owing to her inability to assert her power over the vassal state has much to do with this pro-Russian leaning. for the simple reason that the executive authority practically rests in the hands of the Senior Premier.504 Russian policy. Tibetans are now conducting themselves in utter disregard or even in defiance of the wishes of China. Previous to that war and before China's internal incompetence had been laid bare by Japan. It is evident that the of her subjugation of Dalai Lama himself favors this presumed that unless he was favorably disposed towards Russia he 'syould never have it view. for they are aware of the powerlessness of China to take any active steps against them. Now she is She could not even demand explanations from Tibet when that country was thrown into an unusual agitation about the Temo Rinpoche's affair. and may safely be . relations like those between master and vassal bound Tibet to China. THREE YEAKS IN TIBET. his colleagues.

Leaving Lhasa on that date the party first proceeded towards the Tsan-ni Kenbo's native place. and so knew nothing about the contents. to which it offered presents brought from Tibet. and in time reached S. whence they were taken by the Siberian railway.Russia's tibetan policy. I asked some of the The Dalai Lama's when in drivers about the contents of the boxes. 505 accepted the bishop's garment from the Tsar. he sent to Russia his grand Chamberlain as envoy with three followers. The smallness of the boxes however arrested my attention. Every load was covered with skin. However they believed that the boxes contained silver. It was about December of 1901 or January of the following year that the party returned home. but they knew for certain that these boxes did not come from China. but they could not tell me anything. When 64 I returned to the house of my host. About two months after the return of the party I went out on a short trip on horseback to a place about fifty miles northWhile I was there I saw two hundred east of Lhasa. the Minister of Finance came in and informed him that on that day a . 1900. It is said that on that occasion a secret understandingwas reached between the two Grovernments. and so I could not even guess what it contained. The party was received with warm welcome by that court. They had been informed by somebody that they came from some unknown place. and I came to the conclusion that some Mongolians must have been bringing ingots of silver as a present: to the Dalai Lama. Petersburg. By that time I had already been residing in Lhasa for some time. intelligent a He is too man to accept any present from a foreign sovereign as a mere compliment. lished friendly inclination was clearly estabDecember. two packed oh each camel. camels fully loaded arrive from the north-east. The load consisted of small boxes. They were hired at some intermediate station.

One day I met him and gradually the trend of our conversation was turned to the last' caravan. It was apparently one of modern pattern. I tried to get some reliable information. On my host inquiring what were the contents of the load^ the Minister replied was a secret. and though I could not as yet form any idea about the contents. He was that this . and could defiantly reject any improper request which that aggressive power. in Russia. quite elated with the weapons. I took a hint from. might make to her. he said) that another caravan of three hundred camels had arrived some time before. I had however by good chance discovered that the load came from Russia. that he told me (confidentially. but it did not impress to me as possessing be quite fit for active service. . as the Tibetans believe her to be. this talk of the Minister and left the room. Now I knew one Government officer who was one of the worst repositories imaginable for any secret he was such a gossip that it was easy to worm out anything from him. any long range nor seem The stock bore an in- scription it was made in the United States The Tibetans being ignorant of Roman letters and English firmly believed that all the weapons were made attesting that of America.506 THEEE TEARS IN TIBET. I had the opportunity to inspect one of the guns sent by Russia. The gentleman was so far obliging. and other interesting objects. five It the hundred seems that about one-half of the load of camels consisted of small arms and ammunition.. heavy load had arrived from Russia. bullets.and so I asked him about the contents of the load. saying that first now for the time Tibet was sufficiently armed to resist any attack which England' might undertake against her. The Chinese Grovernment appears mortified to see Tibet endeavoring to break off her traditional relation with . I found him quite communicative as usual. and that the load brought by so many camels consisted of small fire-arms.

and the question that naturally arises is this " Is Russia's footing in Tibet so firmly established as to enable her to make with any hope ? of 'success I an attempt on India with Tibet as her base not yet taken a deep root. to Nepal. Cliina. Apparently therefore the Russian manoeuvres in Tibet have succeeded.: Russia's tibetan policy. the sovereign at bottom. and even intended to arrest him. suspicion of and the Amban could appears that the British Gov- ernment watched the movements of the Tsan-ni. if Russia should persist in actively pushing on her policy of fascinabut as their attitude does not rest on a solid foundtion . but his very munificence towards Tibet may have some deep That munificence may not be for then Russia must be regarded as" a country . may be meaning nothing . who The are secretly susTsar. Of course those blind followers would remain pro-Russian. . they think. ation they may abandon turn unfavorable for that are any time when affairs take a Russia. and this England against him appears to have been shared by the Nepal Grovernment. if it is. It man and On one occasion the Tsan-ni was secretly sent to Darjeeling and on another occasion never catch hold of him. For it must be remembered it by no means the whole even passive of the higher classes of Tibet of supporters the policy marked out by the Dalai Lama and his trusted lieutenants. as the Tibetan Grovernment extended protection to defeated the purposes of the Amban. 607 and to attach herself to Russia. for Russia's influence in Tibet has She can count only on the Lama and his Senior Premier as her most reliable of the rest friends. who is the incarnate Founder.Dalai " cannot answer this question affirmatively. and the support who are simply blind followers of those two cannot be counted upon. The Chinese Amban But it once tried to interfere with the Tsan-ni Kenbo's dealings in Lhasa. On the contrary. there are some few picious of the motives of Russia. was of no the avail.

. If she neglects this. and neglects to keep watch over the state of affairs in that country.508 THKEE YEARS IN TIBET. Is it not more reasonable and safer to & interpret those repeated acts of outward friendship as coming from her ambitious design to place a snare before Tibet and finally to absorb the country ? Such ideas are. where selfishness is a guiding motive. But those ideas already contain in them a germ of a dangerous nature. which at some favorable opportunity may if Russian movement. composed of people who are quite godly a very rare thing this -world of give and take. They in — do not seem to have reached the ears of the Dalai Lama and the Senior Premier. all the gold she has disbursed in the shape of presents and bribes will prove so much mere waste. Russia develop into a powerful antitherefore will experience a keen disappointment firmly planted she considers her footing in Tibet beyond any fear of shaking. confined to only a very limited section. and are exchanged in whispers between confidential friends. I say.

The revelation of the secret mission of Sarat Chandra Das and the serious agitation that occurred in Tibet. occasioned by her ignorance of the temper of the Tibetans and the general state of affairs in their country. has completely estranged the Tibetan Government from England. She would have saved much of the trouble and money she has subsequently been obliged to give in consequence of her too hasty policy. It is like crying over spilt milk to speak of this failure at present. she tried to coerce Tibet. been closed up entirely since that time. England had opportunities to score a greater success in Tibet than that achieved by Russia. and so England is singled out as an object of abhorrence by Tibet. for confirmed the Tibetan Government in its prejudice in favor of a exclusory policy. including the execution of several noted men. As it was. On the part of England that misunderstanding led to the adoption of a rough and ready method instead of one of ingratiation. such as the virtuous Sengchen Dorjechan and others. and had she followed the Russian method her influence would now have extended far beyond the Himalayas. The Tibetans are on the whole a hospitable people. the attitude of Tibet towards that Power has become one of pronounced hostility. Instead. but I cannot help regretting it for the sake of England. That revelation has had a effect far-reaching that it has involved the interests of Tibet has other countries. . not only against The British India. and the unfavorable discrimination made against England is mainly attributable to mutual misunderstanding.CHAPTER LXXII. and so she failed. since England sent her abortive expedition of force. but even^ against Russia and Persia. Tibet and British India.

such as Darjeeling or Sikkim. quite a lucrative occupation. Then the privilege of carrying on the busisent at present there are quite a ness of palanquin-bearers. are easily allowed to start this business. at least at Darjeeling. veracity and benevolence. should to Lama frontier places. Such. while boys of a hopeful nature are patronised by the Government and are Government expense to higher institutions. The Indian Police officers too are quite indulgent towards the Tibetans. protection. They are well aware that the Lama's Government cuts off a man's arms or extracts . its straightforwardness. still less people of other countries. stronger grows this They are impressed with the treatment of the British Government. and never deal with them natives. The Indian Viceroy is. The longer they remain the under the British sentiment. Thus the children of those Tibetans are at liberty to enter any Grovernment schools without paying fees. after graduation from their respective courses. for instance. in contrast to the merciless dealings of the Government at home. Not that England neglects to take measures calculated to win the favorable opinion of the Tibetans.510 THREE YEARS IN TIBET. At number of 'I'ibetan lads who. Not even natives of India. is practically reserved for the Tibetans. Post Office clerks or teachers. so strictly as with the Indian The Tibetans residing satisfied with their lot. at Darjeeling are therefore quite ful Most of them feel sincerely gratetowards the British Government and are ready to it repay with friendly service. are employed by the Indian Government as surveyors. which inflicts shocking punishments for even minor offences. being the case. believers of India even are prohibited from entering England ever wish to transact any business with Tibet she would be obliged to do so by force. endeavoring to convey friendly impressions to such of the Tibetans as may happen to come the country.

The roads in India are an object. and it is not strange that most of — them become the more disinclined to return home the longer they live in India. his eye-balls for larceny. indirectly winning the The goodwill of the by the Indian Government. the Tibetans naturally come Government which can afford to and maintain such splendid structures must be immensely rich. these greedy Tibetan to the highest bidders. The main reason why they are favorably disposed towards Russia is because they have received gold from that country it was never by the effect of any display of good administrative method that Russia has Tibetans. and of sharing in its prosperity. of there for the first time.TIBET AND BRITISH INDIA. and they therefore begin to nurture the hope of having such a wealthy and" great Government over them. seems to be especially strong among those of the higher classes. to the conclusion that a In the presence of these evi- dences of material greatness. of marvel to the Tibetans who arrive The presence of free hospitals. succeeded so well. so far pursued . This sentiment establish . or similar 511 minor crimes. free asylums. the railways. however. of educational institutions. to produce any percejjtible effect on the Government circles of Tibet. has failed. who have seen India. They are far more inclined to gain advantage for themselves directly from offers of bribes than to profit by an exemplary model of administration. the criminals humane treatment of by the British Government is a thing that can hardly be dreamed of by the people of Tibet. while in India capital punishment is very seldom inflicted even on olienders of a grave character. and it is shared by their inferiors who know policy of that greatness only from hearsay. In short. tele- graphs and telephones all these are objects of wonder and marvel to those Tibetans. They are too far engrossed with personal interests to be open to any great extent to indirect suasion of a moral nature. officials offer their friendship and they do .

Otherwise. grasp a large sum. These two conflicting notions seem to have taken a deep hold on their minds. but some of the courtiers about her were wicked and obstructed her benevolent intentions. The should spect attitude of the priesthood towards England is a puzzled one. Because of this occult affinity the Queen entertained. them The benevolent as arrangements lead the made by them. they believed. and therefore endowed with a supernatural power of subjugating and governing the whole world. such establishing like. They believed her to be an incarnation of the patron Goddess of the Cho-khang temple in Lhasa. whence the gold comes so long as they The policy of the British Grovernment therefore rests on a pedestal set a little too high to be understood and appreciated by the majority of the official circles of Tibet. The Tibetans. they said. laying of railroads and such sceptical understand the But when they think that these same Englishmen did not scruple to annex other people's land to their own dominions. Lamas to think that Englishmeii must ways of Buddhism and be a godly race. The same priests held a strange notion about the late Queen. philanthropic institutions.512 not care at all THEBE YEARS IN TIBET. or as the incarnations of saints. one benevolent and godly and the other infernal and quite wicked. they think. and they try to solve the puzzle without compromising their two convictions. the great . a fraternal feeling towards Tibet. They are puzzled to determine whether they re- denounce the English as devils incarnate. just as Buddha himself had among His disciples some wicked and incorrigible characters. such a marvellous phenomenon as that witnessed in India could hardly have been possible. They explain that there must be two distinct kinds of Englishmen in India. their favorable impression about Englishmen receives a sudden and complete check. must get rid of those pernicious persons for the Queen.

even nothing happens on is the road. The distance from is the nearest station to Lhasa prohibitive of any such if undertaking. however well informed the latter may be about the topography of the districts. Even discipline and superior weapons would not balance the natural advantages which these dreadful people enjoy over intruders. 65 . while mourning for her. I may add that I was frequentljr asked by the literates and other men of learning of my own impression about British India. On such occasions I merely confined myself as for I feared that much as possible to general remarks. was once more restored of When the news of the death the Tibet^ the people. given up to plunder and murder. for they are people who are perfectly uncontrollable. must require five or six months and through of abounding in deserts and wild natives in Amdo and Kham districts hills.TIBET AND BRITISH INDIA. if ever the should be obliged from one reason or another to send a warlike expedition to Lhasa. so that his master might efi^ect accomplish by peaceful means what he could hardly by force. Russia can hardly expect to subdue Tibet It was in consideration of this by force of arms. the Goddess in question. is The presence also a discouraging factor. for they knew that I had visited Buddhagaya and other places in India. The latter existence of the Siberian railway can hardly be expected to give any great help to Russia. for they thought that their Panden Lhamo. 513 Queen reached same time rejoiced. any accurate explanation might awake their suspicions about my supposed personality. and of course thoroughly at home in their own haunts. at the to them. for the march. fact that the Tsan-ni Kenbo has been endeavoring to impose upon the Tibetans that audacious fiction about the identity of the Tsar's person with that of the long- dead Founder of the New Sect.

who are conservative. The to result is that not a. cannot but regard China with a lingering sentiment of respect and attachment. even the Tsan-ni^s painstaking efforts appear to have fallen short of his expectations. some few of the influential Government officials do not seem to approve of the Tsanni's movement. And so both from tradition and prejudice and first who inti'oduced from present superstition. that Prince Srong-tsan Gambo Buddhism into Tibet had as his wife a daughter of the then Emperor of China. and there is a danger of a reaction setting in against him. even though they know that the power of their old patron has considerably declined lately. They even suspect that Russia might have some sinister object in view when she presented gold and other valuable things to the Dalai Lama and others. However. even when the Tsan-ni Kenbo ingeniously represents her as the country indicated Book of Proj>hecy. have mentioned before. Tibet has no newspapers. China. though not as an organised . the mass of the people. They are well aware that Tibet has been placed from time immemorial in a state of vassalage to China. that and so it stands reason the nnfarorable view which is secretly entertained men must have of priests by a limited number of thoughtful leaked out one way or other to at least a section of the public. It must be remembered that the sentiment of the common people towards China still retains its old force. but even without that organ in the Tibetan As I of public opinion the public become acquainted sooner or later with to most important occurrences. and the position which China still occupies in the niches of their hearts can hardly be supplanted by Russia. while the Tibetans believe that the present Emperor of China is an incarnation of a Buddhist deity (the Chang-chub Semba Tambe yang in Tibetan) worshipped on Mount Utai. small number have begun side.514 THREE YEARS IN TIBET.

The priests of and the warrior-priests seem to be particularly conspicuous in this reactionary movement. it must be stated first of all that was closely connected with Tibet many jears ago. and therefore the colleges his faction. during the Grovernor-Geueralship of Warren Hastings. or priests bent on visiting Quite a large number of such Indians . thoughtful portion of the college-priests never tolerated of the as not ards. In the British India British India eighteenth century. Under the agitation circumstances. At least Tibet's attitude toward the Indian Government was not embittered by any hostile sentiment. and so they were inclined to view anything done by the crafty author rebel against Shata and Then again the that tragedy Avith suspicious eyes.TIBET AND BRITISH INDIA 515 movement. with to these prudent thmkers. Then Captain Turner also lived at the same place time as a commercial agent for some time. he cial sent George Bogle to make commerarrangements between the two countries. This gentleman resided a few years at Shigatze. something like a reaction against the pro-Russian already to have set in ingeniously planned by the Tsan-ni Kenbo. Nechung much oracles. Indeed the fact is that Shata has never been a permnia grata with those young men since the tragedy of Temo Rinpoclie. and corrupters of national interests. remains to be seen what steps Russia will take towards Tibet to prevent the Lama's country from slipping away from her grasp. They despised the oracle-priests as drunk- better than men of unsound mind. After that India did not send any more such commissioners. The very fact that Shata patronised this vile set further estranged him from the seems It college-priests. In reviewing the relations that formerly existed between and Tibet. but till about twenty-four years ago the Indian natives were permitted to enter Tibet unmolested- They were generally pilgrims the sacred places.

it would have Chandra Das succeeded in establishing cordial relations with the latter. and with faces smeared with ashes. Chandra Das disguised as an ordinary Sikkimese priest. and iron tongs. completely changed the attitude of Tibet towards India and the outer world and made it adopt a strict policy of exclusion. to see a party of naked priests. Soon the Indian therefore. It was at that time that the Tibetan Government adopted most Indian indiscreet measures at the instance of a fanatical Neehung. The publication of the re- The exploration of Sarat sults of that exploration directed the attention of the Government to the question of delimiting the boundary between Sikkim. its protectorate. and the frontier trouble that followed it. Though official relations had ceased between Tibet and India. . and proceeded distinctly is to build a fort at a frontier place which belonged to Sikkim. continued the fanatic. Prior to the must Sarat have entered Tibet. that his but the Neehung was clamorous and declared presence in the fort would disarm any troops which the Indian Government might send against it. He argued that the presence of a fort would go far towards promoting Tibet's cause in settling the boundary dispute and the fort would become the permament boundary mark. it exploration of was not an uncommon sight. proceeding towards Tibet. each carrying a water-vessel made of gourd. The Tibetan Government said to have at first hesitated to follow that insidious advice. Tibet need not be afraid of the Indian Government and must proceed to construct a fort with all promptitude. Accordingly the fort was built at a place that was beyond the legitimate boundary line of Tibet. I have heexi told. and Tibet. It is not unlikely that if the Indian Grovernment had made at that time some advances acceptable to Tibet. their people therefore were bound together by some friendly connexions till quite recently.S16 TRteEl! YEARS IN TIBET.

indicate the site of this short-lived stronghold built by the Tibetan Government. be killed or wounded on the field. from the of Tibet. which marks the boundary between Sikkim and Tibet. first The issue of that war was a foregone conclusion. Of course England could never concur in such an arrangement. The stronghold was carried by assault by the invaders. their they always remained in the camp and spent soldiers to time in gambling. Thus with some heavy casualty returns on the Tibetan side. leaving their the war ended the invaders. they made short work of it. Now in building a fort in a place which the Tibetans themselves knew to belong to Sikkim. and the troops sent by the Indian Government easily jDut to rout the fighting men The latter held better positions. but were invariably frustrated by the invaders. in utter defiance of the terrible anathema hurled by the indomitable Neohung against them. but contented themselves with issuing be carried out anyhow. at least. and the trouble between her and Tibet at last culminated in war. The Tibetan generals and captains escaped unhurt. to orders and leaving them After issuing orders. while they had the further disadvantage of being commanded by wouldbe genei'als and captains who did not care to lead their training men in person. walls standing on a this hill at The crumbled stone a place about twenty miles on side of Nyatong. 517 troops arrived and. btit they lacked and good weapons. ' infidels ' as they were.TIBET AND BRITISH INDIA. This was about sixteen years ago. they may have reasoned with self-complacency that as Sikkim formerly belonged to Tibet. and far shorter returns on the part of . for the simple reason that they had never exposed themselves to danger. therefore they might not improperly revive their original claim on. discipline. Needless to add that the orders could never be carried out. a portion of that district now under the jurisdiction of England.

Apparently the action of the Indian \^iceroy of that time was crowned with success. but when this complication is viewed with an eye to a longer and more permanent end. result of this war the frontier line was drawn Nyatong.518 THREE YEAKS IN TIBET. influence of Who knows but that the policy England might have been by this time if that patronising had been adopted then. it did not push its claim so far. He should I think. and should have endeavored by some clever manoeuvres. not excluding a rather liberal disbursement of secret service funds. to win the good-will of I think the result would have the ruling circles of Tibet. and that Engiishnien might not be free to come and reside in and about Lhasa to enjoy the pure atmosphere and cool and healthy climate of that firmly established in Tibet district ? . have adopted a course of leniency instead of one of stern punishment. and though the Indian Government would have been justified in extending it further down to Chumbi Samba. As the through I cannot ajjprove of the measures adopted by him. been far more advantageous for the future success of England than recovering at the point of the bayonet a barren tract covering only thirty miles in area.

China used to treat Tibet in a high- handed way. I must therefore confine myself to write with here only to the existing state of those relations. overawed by the display of All is Suzerain. Tibet she is is nominally a protectorate of Ohinaj and as to stich bound pay a tribute to the Suzerain State. while the force of the latter.CHAPTER It requires the LXXIII. on account of the Grand Prayer which is performed every year at Lhasa for the prosperity of the Chinese this Emperor. utterly disregarded. Nepal and Tibet. but any order that is distasteful to them is protect feared and respected any more. erudition and investigations of experts any -adequacy about the earlier relations between China and Tibet. . and therefore do not deserve to be It can easily be understood how the Chinese are mortified at this sudden downThey have tried to recover fall of their prestige in Tibet.Chinese War. it is acceptable. In days gone by^ Tibet used to forward this tribute to China. and instead of that subservient attitude Tibet regards China with scorn. China. but all their endeavors have as yet been The Tibetans listen to Chinese advice when of no avail. As a result of arrangement. Previous to that disastrous event. now changed. but subsequently the pajanent was commuted against expenses which China had to allow Tibet. Tibet ceased to send the tribute and China to send the prayer fund. The Tibetans have come to the conclusion that their masters are no longer able to and help them. The loss of Chinese prestige in Tibet has been truly extraordinary since the Japano. tamely submitted. their old position.

and so. the face of that injunction. The decree. failed to produce any particular impression on the Tibetans. and for other purposes beneficial alike to the people and themselves. It warned the people un- der fjain of severe penalty against molesting and persecuting foreigners. the people. and I thought at that time that the allies must have entered Peking. as they. concluded the decree. I asked a high Grovernment official what Tibet was going to do with the order set forth in the decree. scornfully replied that his . this policy of welcome and hospitality should be adopted in all the provinces and protectorates. were too frequently liable to do from their ignorance of the state of affairs abroad and their misunderstanding of the motives of the foreigners who came to their respective districts. could have issued a decree of that nature. And besides it was highly doubtful whether the Emperor. which he must have known to be utterly opposed to the interests and traditional allow to Englishmen enter the country. was hung up in the square of that city. to The official Government was not obliged to obey an order which the Chinese Emperor issued at his own pleasure. and that this decree nmst have been issued as a result of the conclusion of peace between the Powers and China. for instance. Two other decrees of like import arrived afterwards and were similarly posted up. who was an incarnation of a high saint. I While was staying in Lhasa a yellow paper^ containing the Chinese Emperor's decree issued at the termination of the Boxer trouble. In order to promote these aims of mutual benefit. could refuse. however. the decree continued. These have really come to engage in industrial pursuits or in diffusing religion. the middle kingdom has been opened so as to allow foreigners freedom of travelling to any place they wish.520 THEEE TEARS IN TIBET. The decree was addressed to all the eighteen provinces of China and all her protectorates. and whether the Tibetan Government. in foreigners.

must be remembered that the Government takes great pains to increase its population. Thus we find the . and. that It the population of Nepal is rapidly increasing. and one who Apparently this policy is support his family has is better oif has many attended with success. much less to be obeyed. in order to expand its interests both at home and abroad. utterly most so of the decrees coming from oaths. NEPAL AND TIBET. the fact sible many gamblers' polygamous customs or from though* it remains. neither China. probably under the impression that polygamy is conducive to that end. the cause what it may. of which a large portion annually exported to lower India. the beneficial is of this steady advance of population plainly visible in that coun- where almost every nook and coimer of available land is brought under tillage. therefore. In Nepal thereto prove it fore even a two or more.CHINA. and even the remote forests inhabited by wild beasts are made to contribute their share to the stock is of lumber. far man who can hardly three wives. where woods are tended with extreme care. and so a considerable emigration 66 is taking place. it is encouraging this questionable practice. of a large where every family consisted and girls. and treat them like more nor less. so as the main object aimed at is concerned. is not pos- by accurate statistical returns. by some wicked men near the Emperor's person. indifferent to Whatever be the motive. Whether it be from other causes. number effect of boys Be try. 521 policy issued It was more probably clandestinely of Tibet. declared the Tibetans are my Tibetan friend. as It did not a result of bribes received from foreigners. for I have never seen so many children anywhere as I saw in Nepal. deserve to be trusted. Already the population of Nepiil appears to be too large for the limited area of the country.

Nepalese serving in the army of the Indian Governpient. they They very much resem- ble the Japanese soldiers in stature and general appearance. own country. and when intelligence reached Nepal that Tibet had concluded a secret treaty with Russia. secure that best needy population. Certainly in their capacity of enduring hardships and in running up and down are superior to the British soldiers. bearing heavy knapsacks. while Tibet supplies the immewill sooner or later compel Nepal to defence this highly effective force.. They even seem war. as it does. Perhaps the Nepal Government has that contingency in view in maintaining. In short. while possessing an area about the twelve-fold that of Nepal. so close is the resemblance between the two. 522 THREE YEARS IN TIBET. that . to is far more thinly populated. temperament. rival regular British troops in discipline may even and effectiveness they may perhaps even as surpass the others in mountain their warfare. as education. justice and philanthropy. such would take place in hills. The Russianising tendency of Tibet has recently put Nepal on her guard. the famous Gurkhas. if be prepared to go through to ordeal of for necessary. which cannot find sufficient elbowroom at liome. Indeed the Nepal troops. for Tibet. a standing army which is evidently far above its home requirements in numerical strength. or pursuing trade or opening up wild lands in Sikkim or at Darjeeling. Above all the Nepalese seem to cast their longing glances towards Tibet as the best field for their superfluous population. The one might easily be mistaken for the other. diate cause. In Nepal the military department receives appropriations which are quite out of proportion to those set apart outlet their for peaceful matters. employ for her selfRussia is at the bottom of the impending trouble. as fighters in mountainous places the Gurkhas form ideal soldiers and it seems as though circumstances and also in .

and the lion's share will go to England. 523 the Dalai Tsar. Nepal must necessarily feel uneasy. sjnall benefit. from considerations of self-defence. Lama had received a bishop's robe from the and that a large quantity of arms and ammunition had reached Lhasa from S. adding that if that were really the case then Nepal. Nepal may be driven to declare war on Tibet should the latter. Nepal became considerably alarmed. the of — . and thus enabling Nepal to prosecute that movement. and with good reason. For with Russia established in Tibet. persist in pursuing her pro-Russian policy. What reply Tibet has made to this communication is not accurately known. She may even extend a helping hand. must oppose that arrangement even if the opposition entailed an appeal to arms. is victorious her victory will bring her only a. when I was allowed to see the Ruler. Nepill therefore would be placed in the rather foolish position of having taken the chestnuts from the fire for the British lion to eat. But even if Nepal . but that Nepal sent an informal message to this effect admits of no doubt. and allow Russia to establish herself in that country and it is quite likely that England may be pleased to see Nepal adopt that resolute attitude. for instance by supplying part of the war expense. It is not surprising to hear that Nepal is said to have communicated in an informal manner with Tibet and to have demanded an explanation of the rumors concerning the conclusion of a secret treaty between her and Russia. The reason is obvious. as it would be exposed to the danger of absorption. The present Ruler not to perceive tlmt Nepal is too intelligent a statesman judging at least from my personal observations. The very presence of a powerful neighbor must subject Nepal to a great strain which can hardly be borne for long.CHINA. in which the former may certainly be expected to win. NEPAL AND TIBET. Petersburg. for England has nothing to lose but everything to gain from trouble between Nepal and Tibet.

once his countryof economic men establish their influence in Tibet by virtue undertakings. and is especially kindly to Buddhists. caused a set to be sent to Nepal as a present from himself. The Nepal Government. even if England should cleverly encourage her. The Ruler. is not a Buddhist but a Brahniana. The Tibetans do not seem to harbor any ill-feeling towards their neighbors beyond the mountains. his THRiiE YEARS IN TIBET. Thus. it is hardly likely that Nepal will go to extreme measures towards Tibet. the Dalai Lama. or settle in Tibet. best to create a favorable impression on the Tibetans. when on one occasion the Ruler of Nepal sent his messenger to Tibet to procure a set of Tibetan sutras. appears to be doing its. which is now kept in the Royal Library of Nepal. then they may regard with comparative complacency any advance of Eussian influence in Tibet. still. and the Ruler not unfrequently makes grants of money or timber when Buddhist .. He should confine himself to mak- ing some arrangements with Tibet by which the Nepalese may be enabled on to enter. nor do they regard them as a whole with fear.5^4 Cabinet Minister. It must be remembered that the relations between the two countries are not yet strained. who heard of that errand. he pursues the policy of toleration towards all faiths. it must be remembered. The Buddhists' from Tibet who are staying in Nepal enjoy protection from the Government. on its part. He knows to that it would be far better for countrymen costly content himself with the reality of benefit rather than with the glory of a successful but necessarily war. for Nepal would be in a position to counteract that influence by peaceful means or even by war if necessary. If and to carry profitable undertakings there. though they do fear the Gurkhas on account of their valor and discipline. For instance. The Tibetan G-overnment also seems to be desirous of maintaining a friendly relation with Nepal.

and Nepal is therefore favorably situated for winning the hearts of the Tibetan people. . NEPAL AND TIBET. and cannot spare either energy or money for pursuing any consistent policy towards Tibet. while changes have very frequently taken place in the incumbency of that post. Thus. for order is from being firmly established in that little kingdom. It at easily conceivable that with a judicious use of secret is service funds Tibet. Nepal is at present too deeply absorbed in her internal affairs. Even the Prime Minister. This. ed by the Ruler on the Buddhists is highly appreciated by their friends home. who wields the real power. and domestic troubles and administrative changes occur too frequently. has been assassinated more than once. however. her diplomacy leaves much to be desired. cannot be readily expected Nepal might easily establish her influence in from that country.CHINA. as internal conditions far now are. 525 The care bestowtemples are to be built in his dominion. though the military service of Nepal is sufficiently creditable.

while on the other hand England has the mass of the Tibetan people on her side. the future of Tibet is After all. The Russian policy. The Future Tibet of Tibetan Diplomacy. negligible quantity as a factor in determining The question which most likely to become can at best master of that table-land. This is evidently the safest and most prudent plan for that country. a problem to be solved between those two Powers. for China of the three is at present a its future.— CHAPTBE LXXIV. seeing that when once that object has been attained her interest would remain unimpaired whether Tibet should fall into the hands of England or into those of Russia. while the procedure of England being moderate and its effect. depending as it does on clever manoeuvres and a free use of gold. is for attaining their common of object. Nepal has to confine her ambition to pushing her interests in Tibet by peaceful means. never come to terms in regard to this question England and is Nepal may combine question. It is evident that the three . matter-of-fact is more lasting in Which policy . At present Russia has the ears of an important section of the ruling circles of Tibet. menaced by three is may be said to be countries England. for Russia's occupation would be merely preparatory to the far greater end of making a descent on the fertile plains on the south side of the Himalayas by using I'ibet as a base of operation. therefore. As circumstances stand. is in danger of being upset by any sudden turn of affairs in Tibet. but the combination of Russia with either them out of the Russia's ambition in too obviously at vari- bringing Tibet under her control ance with the interest of the other two to admit of their coming to terms with her. Russia and is Nepal.

At any rate England is warned to be on the alert. for otherwise Russia -may steal a march upon her and upon Lhasa. may be said. In fact. and therefore' as an event . it country would passively submit to the Russian rule. If the Russian troops should ever succeed in reaching Lhasa. The question naturally arises " Will Tibet then eease to be an independent country ? " It is of course impossible to come to any positive conclusion about it. would be placed at the 'mercy of Russia. which could send her troops at any moment down to the fertile plains below. diplomacy is a ticklish affair and must take many other factors into consideration. The entry of those troops would never rouse the patriotic sentiment of the people. for the The must be remembered. what I have stated is too extravagant. Thus would the dream of Peter the Great be realised. for though moderation and practical method will win in the long run. But the effect of this imaginary entry would constitute a serious menace to Tibetans. and the arrival of Russian troops in Lhasa would therefore be regarded as the inevitable effect of a predetermined causation. and is utterly beyond the sphere of possibility. India. I reply that any such thought comes from ignorance of the natural position personally of Some may think Tibet.that must be submitted to without resistance. with Russia established in it the natural strongholds of Tibet. India. is 527 more likely to prevail cannot easily be determined. are thoroughly imbued with the spirit of negative fatalism. that would open up a new era for Tibet. Any person who has ever observed the immense strength which Tibet naturally commands must agree with me that its occupation by Russia would be followed sooner or later by that of India by the same agressive power.THE FUTURE OP TIBETAN DIPLOMACY. but from what : . and of course the British supremacy on the sea would avail nothing against this overland that descent across the Himalayas.

For instance. placing itself under the protection of one suzerain State or another. So I had thought. This supreme chief of the Lama Hierarchy has recently undergone a complete change in his attitude towards England. and has done much towards satisfying popular wishes. the Tibetan people has always maintained the idea of relying upon one or another great power. the Dalai Lama was overcome by great perturbation. it must be the Dalai Lama. Fbrmerly whenever England opened some negotiation with Tibet. while any display of force on the part of England invariably plunged him into the deepest anxiety. first India and then China. During the long period of more than a thousand years. The spirit of dependence on the strong is too deeply implanted in the hearts of the Tibetan people to be superseded now by the spirit of self-assertion and independence. He was often seen on such occasions to shut himself up in a room and. who would be progress country to and prosperity did he possess modern knowledge and were he well informed of the general trend of aifairs abroad. How far the Tibetans lack the manly spirit of independence may easily be judged from the following story about the Dalai Lama. and the same Dalai Lama regards all threats or even encroachments with indifference or even defiance. but my fond hope was rudely shaken. refusing food or rest. Now all is changed. gifted energy qualified and to power lead decision. redressing grievances and discouraging corrupt practices. who with well is unquestionably a his man of of character. He is thoroughly familiar with the condition of his own people. have observed and studied I cannot give a reassuring answer. and I was left in despair about the future of Tibet. . to be absorbed in painful reflexions.528 I THREE YEARS IN TIBET. If ever there were a man in Tibet whose heart was set on maintaining the independence of the country.

In short. With lessly. a small piece of land that had formerly belonged Instead to Tibet. Strong in the id-ea that Russia. the Dalai Lama was not at all perturbed. the Dalai Lama believed that Russia being the only country in the world strong enough to thwart England. of that he is said to have talked big and breathed defiance. His subjects. therefom he need no longer be harassed by anj' fear of the possibility of England's defiance at her. as she had promised the Dalai Lama. it is reported. For my part this sudden change in the behavior of the supreme Lama only caused me to heave a heavy sigh for the future of Tibet. is not far to seek. would extend help whenever his country was threatened by England. unless some miracle should happen. and with no great uphold the independence of the country. He may latter country. when fixing the boundary.THE FUTURE OP TIBETAN DIPLOMACY. encroachment began now to hurl even have thought that the arrival of a large number of arms from Russia would enable Tibet to resist England single-handed. saying that he would make England rue this sooner or later. The conclusion of a secret treaty with Russia was at the bottom of the strange phenomenon. she is sure to be absorbed by 67 . he who had formerly trembled at the mere thought of the of his country. Tibet must be looked upon as doomed. who was at first as timid as a hare towards England. included.It cruelly disillusioned me of the great hopes I had reposed in his character for the welfare The reason why the Grand Lama. were highly impressed on this occasion and they began to regard him as a great hero. the Dalai Lama pontiffs that has ever sat —perhaps one of the greatest Lama on the throne — given up shamemen prepared to and even with exultation. All things considered therefore. 529 when England. chiefly to feel the attitude of Tibet and not from any object of encroachment. to that servile thought of subserviency. should become suddenly as bold as a lion.

some strong Power sooner or later^ and there is no hope that she will continue to exist as an independent country.530 THREE YEAE8 IN TIBET. .

The " Monlam" Festival. and closes on the 25th of the month. they the are priests The temples are no longer sacred places more like gambling-houses places where make themselves merry by holding revels — far into the night. and from day the great In order to make arrangements for the coming festival. altogether. but in practice it the name of the great Tibetan festival performed for and long life.. Holiday however is a gross misnomer. is Moulam literally means . and even stayed away at night. Now is the time when the Tibetan priesthood bids good-bye social restraints. for the days are spent in profane pleasures and in all sorts of sinful amusements. for as the two boys never remained at boy home. In order to allow him to enjoy the season.supplication. and when those who remain from this universal practice are laughed at as old fogeys. And so for days and days religion freely aloof . I had been regularly employing one little boy to run errands and to do all sorts of work. for a while to all moral and when young and old indulge themselves to. The three days beginning on the following New Year's Day and ending with Monlam season sets in. according to the lunar calendar. I engaged another boy on I might have dispensed with this additional this occasion. the priests are given holiday from the 20th of December. the 3rd are given up to the New Year's Festival. the offering of prayers to the deities for his prosperity The festival commences either on the 3rd or 4th of January. it was just as if I had had no boy at all. their heart's content. CHAPTER LXXV. the benefit of the reigning Emperor of China.

the city receives at the same time an equally numerous host of lay visitors from the country. just as people of other countries obliged to do for soldiers when they carry out manoeuvres in their neighborhood. but there must be at least a hundred thousand on this special occasion. but they do not seem to mind the discomfort much. Monlam festival and small temples. number about twenty-five thousand. or even more. These must arrive the contingents of the priestly hosts. and before the time of the present Dalai Lama. so long as snow does not fall. the temporary exodus of the citizens of the present to the provinces. Some owing to lack of accommodation. This is preceded by the From arrival of priests at Lhasa from all parts of Tibet. Rebon.— 532 I'HBEE YBAKS IN I'lBEl'. the monasteries of Sera. Since the accession Grand Lama the direction of the temporary movement has been to reversed. so that the population of Lhasa during this festival season is swollen to them are even obliged to sleep outside. for the citizens are under obligation to offer one or two rooms for the use of the priests during this season. sometimes more and sometimes less. And as in the case are when of soldiers are billeted. according to the year. and the festival has begun be celebrated amidst a vast concourse of the people instead of amidst a desolate scene. Ganden and other large. the arrival of the Monlam festival was signalised not by the inflow of people from the country but by the contrary movement. They take ap their quarters in ordinary houses. Besides the priests. and piety were suspended and in their places profanity and vice were allowed to reign supreme. The wild season being over—it the lasts about twelve days commences.. situated at a greater or less distance. so the priests who come from the countiy are crowded in their temporary abodes. twice its regular number. In ordinary days Lhasa contains about fifty thousand inhabitants. This apparent anomaly . I ought to state that formerly.

Fines are imposed for every trivial offence. the dealings of the Commissioners are excessively during those days. On receipt of a from a creditor. over which the two Commissioners As soon as the post has exercise absolute control. provided they are prepared to give to creditors can easily recover the petition them one-half the sum thus recovered. the greedy officials at once order the debtors and their friends to pay the money on pain of having their property confiscated. They lives. the largest of the three important establishments. therefore. and are known by the title of Shal-ngo. set themselves to collect enough to enable them to live in competence and luxury during the rest of their strict Driven by this inordinate greed. the citizens are frequently fined as yen. much as two hundred of the imperfect on the pretext cleansing of the doorways or of the streets in front of their houses. 533 was due to the extortion which the Festival Commissioners practised on the citizens. engaged in a and with- out any discrimination as to the relative justice of their Then too the festival seasons are a dreadful time for those who have debts not yet redeemed. The appointment to the post of Shal-ngo was and still is an expensive affair for its holder. causes. been secured at such a cost the Shal-ngo loses no time in employing it as a means of recovering that sum. with heavy interest. is undertaken by two of the higher priests Rebon Monastery. in Japanese currency. for then the sum through the help of the Colnmissioners.THE "monlam" festival. who take charge of the judicial affairs of the temple during the term of one yeai'. during his short tenure of office and especially during the two festival seasons of Monlam and Sang-joe. The parties quarrel are ordered to pay a similarly heavy fine. The whole proceedings of the Festival Commissioners. for he must present to the officials who determine the This function of the nomination bribes amounting to perhaps five thousand yen. are not much .

their It is and highnot to be wondered at that at the approach of the festivals the citizens began in a hurry to lock away depths of their to take charge the country.534 'i'HEEB YEAKS IN TIBET. and then leaving one or two men their left during the the city for houses being given over as lodgings the A CORRUPT CHIEF JUSTICE OF THE MONKS. the secret houses. better than the villainous practices of brigands waymen. . for valuable property in absence.

but the sinful practices of the Legal Commissioners in other quarters are still of a abiding people. A cer- Lama. left uncurtailed. The Lama replied that he was surprised to see so many priests suifering tortures at the hands of the guardians of Hell. the Lama. therefore. and extort money from them.THE " MONLAM " FESTIVAL. or like robbers living with impunity amidst ordinary law That such gross abuses and injustice ngos' should have been allowed within the sacred precincts monastery is really marvellous. 535 not remain in the city even one-tenth of lation. and indeed from the way in which they act . the tortures to which ordinary priests werebeing subjected were not very extreme. priests. and they were therefore allowed to live in their new abode with less suffering. Such is the story told at the expense of these Lama sharks. there did its ordinary popu- The shark-like practices of the Shal-ngos are not confined . The Shal-ngos are like wolves in a fold of sheep. However he continued with an air of veracity. But the tortures inilicted on the Shal-ngos of Eebon monastery were horrible. During the Monlam season. had been most impressed during his visits to Hell. The Shalngos' extortions from the citizens were checked when the present Dalai Lama ascended the throne. and the citizens were thus enabled to live in peace and to participate in the festival during the Monlam season. they prey even on their brother-priests for the purpose of satisfying their voracious greed. was once asked by a merchant of Lhasa to tell him with what he. to the festival seasons or to the citizens on the contrary. they were such that the mere recollection of them caused his hair to stand on end. but it is a fact. superstitiously believed to possess a supernatural power of visiting any place in this world or the next and of visiting Paradise or Hell. An tain interesting story is told which shows how the Shal-ngos are abhorred and detested by the Tibetans.

For a room or set of rooms better furnished than . as gifts. as This sum is considerwhen a Dalai Lama is enthroned or dies. the gutters are cleaned. ably larger on a special occasion. The grand service is performed at the magnificent which is so conspicuous in Lhasa. during their short tenure of the circle in fit. the celebrated Buddha's Hall. and there is not space left to move one's elbows. seems to be the only place for which they are Lhasa puts on her cleanest and finest appearance with The filth and garbage that have been left accumulating during the preceding months are carried away. The gifts about ten yeii for ordinary priests. first from five from ten to a little before one from three to about half past four in the afternoon. casualties three-storied edifice are said to happen. The gifts generally amount during the period of the Festival to who attend the ceremony.536 THREE YEAES IN TIBET. and the public are no longer allowed to drop dirt about or in any way the advent of this season. is service is the most important one for the priests it is accompanied by monetary come either from philanthropic folk or from the Government. and range on each occasion from twenty-four sew (Japanese) to seventy-two sen. The service to seven in the morning. Not infrequently. Lamas during this season all the priests who arrive in Lhasa attend the ceremony are required to pay their own lodging expenses. namely the Cho Khang. therefore. The as receipts of the higher are far greater —often one thousand.ten a day. and the lowest it. two thousand or even yen. at the rate of twenty-five to fifty much five thousand On the other hand to . when it may increase to about twenty yen. Hell. During the service this hall is packed to overflowing with priests and pious believers. to pollute the streets. then and lastly The second performed three times a day. office.

however. Besides human figures there are figures of several of the alleged birds of paradise. and they are not allowed to attend the ceremony at their own temples. Quarrels are. accoi-ding to the lunar calendar. The offerings are arranged around the Buddha's Hall. At any rate the priests maintain decorum externally.THE "MONLAM usual the charge FESTIVAI. or many females. very rare during the season. The attendance at the three services is not compulsory. They must live in the 'city. yet it is very rarely neglected. such as illness. The lodging containing of the priests is somewhat exclusivej and they are forbidden to stay at houses selling liquors. and remain there. 68 All these are of Tibetan . Two dragons in an ascending position are fixed to the two sides. though from the ordinary behavior of priests they might naturally be expected to occasion such troubles. while about the middle of the frame the "Enchanted Garden " is represented. and of course only aristocratic priests can afford to hire such rooms. They are expected to attend the three services performed each day. for a distribution of gifts is very often made at each service. a special for supervising priests.. even when those temples are situated near the city. called Khamtsan-gi Giken. or of Princes and other important These figures are all made of butter. During this season. 537 may be three to five yen. peopled either with figures of the Buddha leaching human beings dignitaries. the structure measuring about forty feet high and thirty feet long at the base. and the most conspicuous object among them is a triangular wooden frame with sharp apex. the most magnificent ceremony is carried out at night. unless under exceptional circumstances. besides the Festival Commissioners office who are the Lama sharks of the year. is created. On January j5th. commissioned with the duty of controlling the conduct of the priests. such as are mentioned in Buddhist books.


probably as a I should add that the butter figures ai-e all finely painted and even gilded. To the Tibetans the scene as exhibited on this particular night marks the high. for they are in danger of being raj^s melted when exposed to the of the sun. Indeed. and creditably executed. is attended only by a limited number of priests.'suitable distance from the figures. burning at a . while the lamps and torches that are burning are quite countless. probably three hundred at the utmost out of the twenty-five thousand who are present in the city mony. when those highly decorated and painted figures are seen by the light of butter-lamps or torches that are result of long experience. and as the butter takes color easily the effect produced is very splendid. There must be as many as a hundred and tAventy such ornamental structures around the Hall. it to attend the this yearly Monlam is festival. The privilege of inspecting show therefore regarded as a great honor by this magnificent display is the Tibetan priests.water that is splendid in this world. The cere- must be remembered. 539 workmanship. uncontrollable it was open to universal commotion attended by casualties used to mar the function. The ceremony begins closes.THE "moNLAM'* festival. and it is therequoted as an ideal standard in speaking of anything fore level of all that is uncommonly magnificent. The reason why populace is denied to the inpection of the majority of priests and to the whole of the because formerly. at about eight in the evening and as before mentioned^ at about four the following . it seemed to me as if some gorgeous scene such as we imagine to exist only in Heaven had been transplanted to earth on that particnlair occasion. This offering ceremony concludes at about two o'clock the following morning. and two houi*s later the decorated figures are removed. And so the authorities decided about thirty years ago to perform it in this semi-private manner. when inspection.

Amban only I thought that the sight was too shcfwy and that it lacked the element of solemnity. and behind the carriage followed another lit train this of mounted guards. officers also in their gala dresses. The former I saw from . I did not attend the prayer services. attended.540 morning. The function is sometimes inspected by the Dalai Lama. preceded by a cavalcade of Chinese. things. the other two being unable to be The Premiers come wealthy expensive to the function in order to inspect the offerings. and though through the my host I inspected the offering ceremony. After the procession of the Amban followed the trains of the high priests. and that only for one evening.scene. Butter decorations are to costing from three hundred two thousand yen in Japanese currency. On that occasion onl}'- two of the four Premiers present. as was the case when I had the good fortune to witness it in the company The Amban however does of the ex-Finance Minister. then high lay officials and last of all the Premiers. On his head he wore The procession was the official cap befitting his rank. I believe no such costly butter decorations are to be seen anywhere else in the world. ceremony. procession of the Chinese the streets as it passed through thousands of butter-lamps up with tens of . During the favor of festival I remained as before under the hospitable roof of the ex-Miniater. arranged as offerings. while at other times he does not come. and sat in a carriage up inside with twenty-four tussore silk lanterns in which were burning foreign-made candles. which are contributed by the Peers and the as a sort of obligation. according to their magnitude and the finish of the workmanship and here were over one hundred and twenty such costly decorations . THKEK YBAKS t^ TIBET. He was attired in the not omit to attend the gorgeous official garments of China. lit It was really a fine .


while the latter met them with replies similarly searching the whole stratagem of the querents. Then I moved on to the quarters where the learned priests engaged in carrying out the examination The examination was to the held for the aspirants to the highest degrees obtainable in oral and in the form of interrogations put candidates by the examination committee. and have acquired a thorough knowledge of all the abstruse points in Buddhist theology and have made themselves masters of the art of question and answer. I that these young men were spending their time in their own customary way even during the time of the service. The learned discourses delivered by examiners and examinees awoke in me high admiration.542 THREE YEAES IN TiBEt. clamor ceased and order was restored as if by magic. . for those only are qualified to apply for permission to undergo the examination who have studied hard for twenty years. about four feet long and fairly thick sticks which were green and supple and well suited for inflicting stinging they had noticed — blows. The examiners put most tortuous questions to entice the candidates into the snare of sophistry. trying feats of arms. or engaged All at once the in hot disputes or even open quai-rels. the lattec being composed of the most celebrated theologians in the three colleges. singing songs. and the young priests were seen demurely reciting the service. some subordinates of the Festival Commissioners coming towards them in order to maintain Those subordinates were armed with willow sticks order. The forensic skill of the two parties was such as I had rarely seen anywhere else. and intended to upset So forcible and . were intently Tibet. The candidates too were not unworthy to be examined by such divines. curiosity mere and as an occasion quarters was sufficiently enjoyable assigned to The scene on the went first to the the warrior-priests and observed outsider.

THE "monlam" festival. sixteen candidates of the secondary grade are sent from the universities to pass the examination for the Tso Bamba degree. ha. I observed the laughter to be especially contagious and or the merry sound raised by two strangers^ quarters hall. ha " coming from several thousand throats. They even raised shouts of applause or of laughter. till three men in the would spread to all the others in the the walls resounded with the loud " ha. Every year during the Monlam season sixteen candidates selected from the three colleges are given the degree of Lha Eainha. one called Do Ramha there. men even more learned than the 'Special Doctors. Do Ramba men theologians whose learning can even outshine that . therefore to find among the Do Ramba. which are granted by the monasteries to the young priests studying There are two such degrees. whenever either convincingly refuted his antagonist or was worsted in the argument. meaning Special Doctor. and the other Rim-shi. These strangers were sitting round the examination tables and freely criticised the questions put and replies made. Then there are inferior degrees.' The fact is that the examination for the highest degree is expensive.' and this degree is the most honorable one open to Tibetan divines. and was attended not only by the committee and candidates but by almost all the learned theologians and their disciples. Only those of exceptional acquirements can hope for it. On the occasion of the Ghoen joe festival also. Sometimes divines of great erudition are found among the holders of the Do Ramba degree. The examination was indeed an exhibition of a truly intellectual nature. when one wishes to procure that title at one jump and ' without previously obtaining the intermediary It is not rare. exciting were the arguments offered 543 parties that by both they might be comparedj I thought^ to a fierce contest such as might take place between a lion and a tiger.

but for the rest I devoted my time to prosecuting my studies under a Lhakhamba Doctor and the learned Mae Kenbo of the Sera monastery. ordinary Buddhist text-books not in all its are the Japanese Buddhist though there are quite a large number of theologians in Japan who are thoroughly versed in the philosophy and doctrine of their own particular sects it cannot boast so many divines whose knowledge completely covers the whole field of Buddhist philosophy. as in other parts of the world. In Tibet therefore. The holders of the Do Ramba degree therefore differ considerably in learning. cheap Doctors flaunt their learning. I detached myself from society divines. they must study and make themselves at home in the complete cycle of Buddhist works. the latter being in nine cases out of ten of This degree is easily ]3rocurable for a sum years at the money when one has monasteries of Rebon and of studied five or six Granden. Perhaps the Tibetan first class Doctors possess a better knowledge of Buddhist theology and are more at home great erudition.544 of the THREE YEARS IN TIBET. for ramifications than . and pass for prodigies among the simpleof the country. for there are often men who from pecuniary considerations only are withheld from attempting the examination. and so the young priests of this convenient transaction holders of from the country generally avail themselves and return home as proud the Doctor's title. proud holders of the highest degree. of the highest minded people The Doctors theologians of grade are unquestionably for is knowledge of the enough for the aspirants to that title. Thus while the other priests were attending to their worldly business of making money. and as objects of respect and wonder for their learning among the local folk. but this cannot be said of those holding the other title of mediocre learning. During the festival I frequently went to the Hall to see the function as a curious observer. certain Rim-shi.

even when I w'as obliged. On 24th March of the. They were saw a party of about five hundred troopers by white cloths. and numbered altogether perhaps two thousand five hundred men. they were all clad in a sort of armor and carried small Some were armed with bows flags also of different colors. I observed it from the window of a certain Peer. But irrespective of the different colors. while there was a third which ased cloths of variegated dyes. then another with purple cloths. and the procession of the gaily attired soldiery was not unlike the rows of decorated May dolls arranged for sale in Tokyo on the eve behind. whose house fronted the Buddha's Hall. and arrows and others with guns. Not that I had hitherto neglected the main object which prompted me to undertake this self-assigned expedition to Lhasa. I either read Burjclhist works or attended lectures. to act the part of an amateur doctor and prescribe treatment to Tibetan patients. an acquaintance of mine. I distinguished of the Boys 69 ' Festival in Japan. rate the regulars in and about Lhasa all participated in also the special soldiers temporarily mounted. for the time I had fixed for my departure fi-om Tibet was drawing nearer. from unavoidable circumstances. 1 never suspended my study. . may call the Sword and Fe&tival a sort of Tibetan military review. 4th of the solar calendar the (January festival Tibetan almanac) I sword had the good fortune to witness this performance also. I had the more reason to devote myself to this self-imposed task. I was celebrated at Lhasa. 545 and was absorbed in study. on the contrary. At any it. though the function is not open to general inspection. They were quaintly accoutred. and seemed to be divided according to the colors of the pieces of cloth attached to the back of their helmets and hanging down organised for the occasion.THE "itONLAM" FESTIVAL.

As the thousand priests composing the two par-ties all howled to the fullest extent of their throats.546 THEEE YEARS IN TIBET. and consisted in striking on the bowl and starting a strange dancing movement. careless and negligent of bodily cleanliness at other times. and so on that particular occasion those Tibetans. As the booming sound subsided the procession of soldiery made its appearance and each division went past the Grand Lama's seat constructed on an elevated stand to iihe west of the Hall. are for the first time in the year almost decently clean. not unlike the roar of the tiger. After the howling parties had coinpleted their part in this ceremony. metallic-bowl party was arranged in a row around drum party. out marched a party of Nechung priests. With the termination of this march-past a party of about three hundred priests. The oracle-mongers' party was heralded by a number of sacred-sword-bearers . 'fhe the It was a peculiar signal. came out of the main edifice. each I carrying a metallic bowl used in religious services. the noise made was sufiiciently loud. Each them carried in his right its hand a crooked drum-stick. those oracle-mongers of Tibet to whom reference has been made more than once already. On this the two parties beat their drums and bowls in some sort After this had gone on for some time the whole of tune. all This party took stand in a circle in front of the Hall. carrying a flat drum scribed upon of each with a long handle and with the figure of a dragon inits face. the second party of priests Next marched ously attired in oiit gorge- glittering coats and brocade tunics. party burst out into a chorus of ominous howls. must mention that the function demands of the soldiery and priests the washing of their bodies with warm water on the preceding evening. and soon the signal for the service was given by one of the bowl-men who was apparently a leader. The proceedings began with a signal gun.

Hall. he being required to act as a guardian prevent ' any occurring during the ceremony of the Sword Festival Last of all slowly marched forth the procession of the Ganden Ti Rinpoche. the sacred sword in order to avert any evil obstruct the that may prosperous reign of the . to of undisguised disgust. Gasping like a fish out of and his water and walking assistant. To the Ti Rinpoche was most important function in this ceremony. but there were seen not a small number of priests and looked upon to this laymen who the peculiar appearance of Nechung with eyes The part assigned angel. Then followed the iia two rows.The "monlam" in jPestival. I saw him under a capacious and decorated highly awning which is the same sort of umbrella as that of the Grand Lama. He was attired in the ceremonial robe befitting his rank of Ti Rinpoche. about a dozen each. His appearance was highly impressive and even those priests who had viewed the oracle-mongers with well-deserved scorn were seen in attitudes of sincere respect. oracle-inonger. also That was my sentiment as my eyes met him . of He was was clad in gold brocade and wore head-gear like a left the same cloth. with a tottering gait not unlike the of has lost his power of locomotion through too Nechung slowly emerged from the a man who much liquor. 547 The sword carried measured about four feet in length and was set off with pieces of silk cloth of five different colors. By the ignorant populace he was greeted as an object of veneration. The swordbearers were followed by the bearers of golden censers and other sacred caskets or vessels. fanatic is one of semi-divine character. He behaved man stricken with palsy. dressed cap-h-pie in all the glittering- fashion which Tibetan ingenuity alone could devise. for he truly im- pressed me as a living entrusted the the hurling of spirits Buddha. this Lama mishaps '. supported right and by an that eyes were shut.

in practice it comes to an end only on the following morning and with a custom of practical utility that of carrying stones to the banks of the river Kichu which flows by Lhasa.— 048 Chinese Emperor. The stones required for this purpose are brought by the country people. and are sold at ten or twenty sen a piece. . and each priest or citizen who attends the ceremony buys one or two such stones and conveys them to the banks either on his own back or by hired carriers. The banks must acquire great strength in consequence of this stone-piling. and is often liable to overflow and flood the city. With this sword-hurling the ceremony was brought to a close. The stones thus conveyed to the banks are supposed to possess the effect of atoning for their sins. Though in principle this ceremony concludes the Monlam. THREE YEARS IN TIBET.

business to the But when the master is old enough to manage the affairs of the country he is revered as a living Buddha. The mass of the people would never take arms against the Pope believe to be a living Buddha. or when the regent tyrannises over and offends the people. The Tibetan The standing army thousand of Soldiery. and . hence there great fies number of soldiers) really very few no necessity for a The history of the country testi- that civil commotions take place only when the young chief Lama has died. nor by the despotic power of the ruler. Nepal frontier. social order is not civil commotion. distributed as follows at Lhasa one thousand men. but they are easily real causes that without recourse to arms. nominally five hundred but possibly only hundred at three hundred (there are several hundred Chinese soldiers here). it is hardly country containing six millions of in- habitants against in Tibet foreign invasion and However. and the new master is too to take up the Government for himself. five hundred at Gyantze. five Dam. at Tingri. is Tibet said to consist of five me^ but from my own observation I think this number somewhat exaggerated. Religion is the force that keeps the country in good order. /Minor settled difficulties may arise. who abuse their jjower. whom they This idea is so thoroughly infused into them that there have been is cases of rebellion in Tibet.CHAPTER LXXVI. at Shigatze two thousand. Since then Tibet has ever had a regular army. and so leaves the entire Agent and Ministers. an important fort on the . The have made Tibet feel the necessity of having a standing army have been her two quarrels with Nepal and one with British India. sufficient to jjrotect a iin any case. against whom no one protests. kept by soldiers.

red demons. (Every five hundred Tibetan soldiers are under a chief called De Bon. making five thousand in The Chinese soldiers stationed in the country number two thousand altogether^ and are distributed equally at the four places Lhasa.650 another all. The Chinese soldiers also live in ordinary houses and are exempt from rent. and to be present at the great manoeuvres once a year. and keep stores or carry on any kind They are obliged to of trade. and other inhabitants of hell. for they cannot keep their wives and children on the one bushel of barley a month. as a G-od for driving settlers away evil and who is much revered spirits. Many objects of interest are kept in the shrine. barracks to live in — together. are built at the cost of the citizens. in which live priests who take the services at the Kwanti shrine. the Tibetan soldier has to be drilled four or five times a month. like the Tibetans. but the most curious things are the images of blue demois. Tingri. The lower officers are one for every two hundred and fifty. Close by there is another temple called by the name of the village. But they are free from house-rent. about two miles north of Lhasa on the road leading to the Sera monastery) In the village there is a which lies shrine of Kwanti (a Chinese war-G-od) whom the Tibetans call G-esei-gi Gryalpo (saffron king). In return for his paltry remuneration.) THEBE YEABS In TlhEi. and Tomo. five hundred at Mankham. .) and I have often heard the citizens complain of the burden of building houses for the soldiers. all arranged as if they were retainers of Kwanti. Shigatze. but live in ordinary residences which. one for every twenty-five and one for every fiva/ The Tibetan soldiers receive only one bushel of barley a month as salary. however. They are scattered throughout the city. though the Chinese form the greater proportion of his actual worshippers. do some kind of work. They have no regular. The manoeuvres are held in the vicinity of a little village called Dabchi. as do the common people.

This in because the soldiers have families. and the crops safely out of harm's way") The first twd^ays are reserved for the soldiers and the following two for the Tibetan. with an arsenal standing in the centre. In Tibet archery artillery is still considered an essential art of warriors. they have no wives nor children to take care of. which usually held toof October. in courage I can see no difference. The warrior-priests are far more soldier-like than the regular soldiers. and though the Tibetan soldiers look stouter. and out . the Chinese soldiers pale countenances are very common. The cause of their insignificance is to be traced to the difficulty they have in living upon their small pay. and I doubt whether they can claim to have any more strength than the ordinary citizens. The Tibetan artillery muchN My own Among observations lead me to suspect the valor of the Chinese and Tibetan soldiers.THE TIBETAN SOLDIERY. to any soldiers who have displayed notable ability. yet is has recently been introduced. whose first business in time of war is . to plunder the natives instead is all of serving the country. or silver medals. who give prizes in money Chinese ranging from fifty cents to five dollars. Thence spreads a vast plain five miles to the north. half a mile to the west and five miles to the east. They are indeed far more estimable than the professional soldiers. a fact wliich is my opinion the greatest hindrance to warlike purposes. of such The Tibetans are emotional by nature. the great parade. and have therefore nothing to fear. review is honored by the presence of the Amban and (J'he of the higher Tibetan officers. Soldiers are This is the scene of all summoned from is parts of the country to attend the parade. and taught by Chinese officers or by Tibetans in who have been educated does not amount to India. wards the end of September or the beginning when the barley harvest is over. 551 fur- North of this shi'ine there is a high mound about one long square.

He was in a talkative kind of man and proceeded to explain an oratorical tone. Out- In this district all the inhabitants. —the people of Kham. my head. This is the business most admired by all.. they deem it a great honor to defeat other tribes and kill as many foes as they In Kham they have robber-songs as we have warcan. and cattle-raising. la. even the children singing the lively airs to which they are fitted and 1. no easy task to make a brave army. not excluding the women. I asked why they used robber-songs instead of having war-songs of their own. may be called Their usual vocations are trading. stout-hearted as am. la. of Upon those boundless plateaux. These songs and end with I all la. charger iron-hoofed I bestride With daring valor to attack my foes. la la. clad in iron boots I my feet. When hail-storms rage their fiercest round all With their stones like bullets pelting me. la. . green with grass . mo. when they also have to support families. And when tempestuous I snow-drifts roll in rage. songs: songs in which the people take much delight. no war-songs in Tibet the robber-songs Here is one : . especially it is THREE YEARS IN TIBET. la. My my children and my parents dear Are not my refuge here I trust not them My refuge only is my spirit brave wife. begin with A. Unwed. la. la. 552 people. One exception must be made wardly wild. of final victory. Adventurous. . Like mighty greedy waves engulfing me. la. for. as there are Kham are substituted for them. headlong rush. . la. fear not nay these perils great I like — To brave I . Once when met a Tibetan soldier of my acquaintance. mo mo. they are natural fighters. . Along those sloping tortuous pathless paths Amidst those pointed hornlike rocky steeps My 2. that can resist and stand Against misfortunes and e'en dangers dire. but their favorite profession is robbery. assured 3. soldiers. farming. la.

humanity and righteousness. and in th« other they destroy. great is the difference in their results In one case they ! promote. it is the courage praised in songs like these that strengthens a country. " As you well know. but how thereof great sinners. for robbery." .THE TIBETAN SOLDIERY. are But even good songs. when used indeed wicked weapons. and the singers They are the same songs. the meaning of the songs is 553 very good and noble .

and as the market is necessarily subject to fluctuation even in such an exclusive place realise Tibet. these staples money . can only give here a short account of how how they are paid and by what portion of the people. But the taxpaj-er has one solace. Tibetan Finance. Government cannot always as the the same amount of money from the sale of grain and other commodities collected by the Revenue authorities. As there are no such conveniences have to be transported directly from each district to the central treasury. for nobody except the Revenue Officials can form an approximate idea of the revenue and expenditure of the Government. however. as drafts or orders. The Treasury Department of the Papal Government is called Lahrang Chenho. surface so that I could easily observe sort of feudal tenure. because various kinds of staples are carried in there as duty from the land under his direct jurisdiction. whatever the distance. and from landlords holding under a is ed disbursed. This must partly come from the fact that taxes are paid in kind.CHAPTER LXXVII. and my task being hampered by such serious drawbacks. I the taxes are collected. All that I could get from the Minister of Finance was that a considerable margin of difference existed according to the year. Of course anything like statistical returns are unknown in Tibet. and such matters. next briefly describe the finance of the Tibetan Government. that this I shall subject is extremely complicated' and hardly admits of explanation accurate even by financial experts. It must be remembered. It is so-called. which means the large Kitchen of the Lama. and how the revenue thus coUept- which lie on the and investigate them.

buck-wheat. while the smallest holds are generally used to measure from provinces such as the native place of the Dalai Lama. meal and butter. and it measures about half a bushel. Thus. or such as have personal relations to some high officials of the Government. wheat. the service of post-horses. so that the largest or half as small as measure holds three quarters of a bushel. when necessity arises. districts But from which custom-house. Bo-chik is the name given to a box of the average sisse. The articles thus collected consist of barley. or has done anything that displeases the G-overnment. measures half as large these. and thirty-two boxes for measuring grain. on his way to the treasury. that is. But tax-col- One peculiaritj' in .' Truly a strange method of collecting taxes variety of weights Tibet is the use of an abundant and measures there are twenty scales for weighing meal. they are obliged to pay by the largest measure. staples The small ones the supposed to pay the same number of bushels as the others.TIBETAN PiNANCE. though a favored a quarter. benns. woollen and silk goods. Nor is the measure used for one district a fixed one. such as coral gems. it may change from yeav district is" Suppose one of the most favored districts has produced a great rascal. Thus the various kinds of offences make it necessary to have thirty-two varieties of measures and twenty of weight.s are established vai'ious other things. it never that district are responsible for . such service on such occasions being compulsorj'. twice as much as they did in the preceding year. raisins and peaches are accepted. it. Other districts paj^ animal-skins. it pays in reality only one-half of what the most unfortunate district has to pay. or rebel. lectors use. cotton. It is to be noted however that when the Government has to dispose of those stuffs. and thus the large Kitchen in is an ' omniuni ! gatherum. The whole people of to year. 5^5 he can easily obtain.

and other furniture sum but by far the greater proportion spent for butter. all of them burn- In Tibet the substitution of vegetable at least mal is considered. and money used amounts is for the repairing of for the purchase of to a large stone lanterns . to the great relief of the Papal Treasury. Lamas leave a clause in their wills that rapeseed after death.556 THKEE YJiAES llSf TlBEl'. The stands arranged in rows in the temple of the Buddha in Lhasa alone number no less than two thousand five hundred and in some special cases ten thousand or even a hundred thousand lamps are lighted. oil should not be offered for their souls In front of the image of the Buddha in Lhasa are placed twenty-four large light-stands of pure gold. These and some others have big oil-holders. but as the fixed rate of the tax can- not be increased the bigger measures are used more frequently. not exactly sin. hence the middle-sized ones are mostly used. Costly mal used. The chief expense of the Government is. in former times. though a small part of it is offered by religious people. which is used instead of oil for the myriads of lights which are kept burning day and night. . thoiigli if too small ones are used. that for the service of the Buddha Shakyamuni. such as salaries for priests and officers and wages fqr mechanics and tradesmen in its service are paid with an average measure. ing butter of a high price. uses the larger measures. but the The burdens offering has recently been stopped entirely. of the Tibetan people themselves have been proportionately increased. The temples and towers. it certainly causes complaints on the part of the buyers. as I have stated before. All expenses of Government. large enough to hold five gallons of mal. to be offered by Mongolians. A^lmost all the mal used for the service of the Buddha is furnished by the Treasury of the G-overnment. but a pollution and desecration of Buddha not a few oil for .

to be given out only by the order of the Minister of that department. generally a layman. lives in it. The Central Government does not send goods or money to the Local Government except on such few occasions as need The people special help from the national Treasury. The Zongpon is not paid by the Central Government directly. This was originally a castle built for warlike purposes. Everything offered to the Buddhist Temple and given to the priests at the time of the Great Assembly is at once paid into the Treasury. while others are exempt. 557 In eacli province there are two places where the collection of taxes is made for the Government. but subtracts the equivalent ef his pay from the taxes he has collected. They pay their taxes to the Central Government through their respective Governors. In each local district. The people who belong to the nobility and the higher class of priests are of course assessed by their landowners. He is the chief Governor of the district and collects taxes and sends the things or money he has gathered to the Central Government. for the people are divided into two classes (1) those who are governed by the temple and (2) those who are governed by the Local Government. one of which is the temple. bat in time of peace it serves as a Government office. where all the functions of Government are carried on. Part of the work done by the Tibetan Minister of the Treasury is the management of the subscriptions of the people. so taxes are The Zong is almost always found also collected there. and the other the Local Government : office . under the direct jurisdiction of the Central Government are sometimes made to pay a poll-tax.. TlBE'rAN I'INANCE. Another business taken by the Minister . standing on the top of a hillock of about three hundred feet and a Zongpon (chief of the castle). but there is no definite regulation as to their payment to the Central Government the people of some districts pay. there is what is called a Zong.

the household expenses of the Pope.558 is THREE YEAES IN TlBST. but the officials and priests derive an additional income from the are not iixed. It is said that since the accession of the present Pope both the expenditure and the revenue have been greatly increased. and profits acquired by his own caravans. though usurers sometimes charge over thirty at least per cent. The Treasury of the Grand Lama is called Che Labrang. These expenses and the Pope can draw out as much as he and his own moderation. Thus any officer can or make priest ten per cent on fifteen If hundred officer is dollars without "fails ruiming to much risk. Compound not subtracted from his next interest is unknown in Tibet how. tlie an repay the loan amount year's loan. In this connexion it must also be stated that the Three Great Temples just mentioned receive a vast amount of mal from the Government. The Minister of the Treasury has also to pay all the salaries of officials and pi'iests in the service of the Papal Grovernment. because the . which means the Lama's kitchen on the hill. the leases from meadow-lands in his personal possession. own trading. as compared with those of other countries. ever long the debtor bidden by the law. Government priest of the is six prolong his payment it is forAnother subsidy given by the dollars extra pay per annum to each may Three Great Temples. These expenses for salaries are very small. Officers and priests in Tibet can each borrow fifteen hundred live dollars from the Government can the at an interest of it per cent a year and they per cent. which is lend again at interest fifteen current rate of in Tibet. pleases within the limit of usage. land in their own possession. which is carried on by his The Pope's caravans must be distinguished from those of the Treasury Department. The supplementary resources of the Pope's revenue are subscriptions from the members and laymen.

after his death. and almost all the remaining priest. In the case of an ordinary he leaves property worth five thousand dollars about four thousand is used in gifts to the priests and for the expense of lights. lamaseries of the country for elegance a palace. in its defend the dwellers from the attacks of an enemy no well or spring whatever. live in one part of the They and number one hundred and sixty-five.TIBETAN FINANCE. a deplorable defect Within the high walls that water supply. • 559 Potala and Lama's palace the place castle it is located on a hill. if . in They live good style at the Pope's personal cost. and gaudiness. it can look down upon all other fortifications . charging about twelve cents per bear the castle a month. To reach the top of the hill one has to climb another three hundred feet. title of man represent the highest type of the Tibetan are all priesthood and selected with great care. in view of the strength of its as a temple. The people there is have to go far away to get a bucket of water from a well which can only be reached by descending a hundred and fifty feet of stone steps and crossing another hundred and fifty feet of level ground. As of course there is no building that surpasses there is But in spite of all this. even physique and physiognomy being taken into consideration. is divided in the following way : One-half of the property be divided among his relatives in his native place. The property (in fact of the G-rand Lama. and a palace at once. making the journey three quarters of a mile altogether. The aristocratic priests. As a has no equal in Tibet. and there are therefore many workers who make it their business to do this for them. It is of course no easy work for the residents to carry water so far. it. a temple. who Namgyal Tatsang. and the remaining half is distributed as gifts among the priests of the Great Temples a little more than half) has to and those of the New Sect. It is called is a castle.

his disciples are obliged to borrow money to supply the want of gifts and money for a custom entirely foreign to the lights in his honor — laity. leaving perhaps In cases when a priest three hundred to his disciples.560 THREE YEARS IN TIBET. thousand is used for his funeral expenses. . leaves very little money.

They also recognise the existence of deities subject to the emotions of anger. and makes us happy at length. the seed making the fruit. They also believe that the law of cause and effect is everlasting. that He removes calamities from us. Foreignthem superstitious.CHAPTER LXXVIII. often found A small but precious jewel . 71 . and indeed my own observation also testifies that their faith is veritably a mass of superstition. even though may not be found at the first glance. in the The other precious thing I can point out is their belief law of cause and effect. and ready to punish those that offend them. Future of the Tibetan Religions. they fruit the seed. and the latter simply an object of gratitude. According to this law. but even ignorant Tibetans know the difference between the Gods and the Buddha. communication with this being by dint of religious It is true that they have several unreasonable rites of worship. every man shall enjoy the result of the good that he has done. the former to be feared. lity of They are also sure of the possibi- faith. I can find at least two precious things in the creed of the Tibetans. is among useless rubbish wise men will not throw away the jewel along with the rubbish. and so on for ever. and the In the same way. each deed is rewarded according to its deserts whatever vices one commits will be followed by suffering on the other hand. The Tibetans are essentially a religious people. but in the midst of them they know that Buddha is all love. which may be compared to the rubbish round the jewel. . Yet it would be inaccurate to say that there is ers call no truth in their religion. One of it them is that they recognise the existence of a superhuman being who protects us. .

But the precious Buddhist creed mind and body are everlastingly in accordance with the law of cause and effect and self-compensation is so thoroughly taught to every Tibetan from his childhood by his mother. mostly among the Chinese and the descendants of the immigrants from Kashmir. the world. really think in such such and such The Tibetans often Lamas have been born again and such places. that the home lessons of the Tibetan children almost always take the form of sermons on their mythology and miscellaneous stories connected with Buddhism. By meant Shinnyo or Truth. the Old Bon religion has been greatly modified and has indeed entirelyplained by the light of Buddhism. is apt to lead to superstition. and it is considered to be one branch of Buddhism. One of the thing. lost its original form and been replaced by the New Bonism. in which the Sun God is interpreted as the incarnation of Buddha . In sooth. rather strange to see the calm existence of Muhatnmadani.562 think. unless it be ex- Thus. and have two temples in the suburbs of Lhasa. cling pertinaciously to their doctrines. of which they have a too firm conviction. which resembles the Ryobu Shinto of Japan. and often reproduced in is far their faith worthy enough.s which most struck me was that Muhammadanism is found in Tibet. or rather the incarnation of Shinnyo. One thing that the Musulnifitis in Tibet say is very striking. and the It is other for the Chinese. They number about three hundred in Lhasa and Shigatze. Buddhism is so deeply ingrained in the country that one's that no other religion can exist in Tibet. with two is Bon cemeteries on the side of a distant mountain. but the Tibetan goes further than the Ryobu Shintoist did. our THREE YEARS IN TIBET. They declare that . temples is for the One of the Musulmans from Kashmir. but the doctrine of transmigration. mind Thus is imperishable.sm in a country where Buddhism is so predominant.

. Notwithstanding all their endeavors. They really seemed to think so. and I can but admire their undaunted interior. for in the bible the subject is just touched on. the first aries. For these purposes hundreds of thousands of dollars have already been spent. as Buddhism soul is says. and that the final destiny of the Kingdom of Heaven or Hell. but I think it a modification derived from Buddhism. But I doubted whether any doctrine of that sort had ever been pronounced upon by the thus Muhammadan Kalifate. but Sikkimese who pretend to be Tibetans. I once argued with some of the Muliammadans that no such doctrine as transmigration human which mention the past. never as a lower animal. in but none about suspected that it might have been is to of the future world.FUTURE OP THE TIBETAN RELIGIONS. Of late Christian missionaries have been trying to introduce their religion into Tibet." and previous worlds Muhammadan and they said it with a straight face. spirit. they simply said " There really the doctrine of future religion. : When is. As soon as Darjeeling was opened to foreigners. 563 according to their religion there exist previous and future worlds. is made I Then be found in the Koran. so their But the country does not admit any utmost efforts have no effect on the to convert the Tibetans They attempt therefore to Darjeeling. adopted from the Christian religion. The so-called members are false members. There are also many books written in Tibetan against Buddhism. and the bible and many other religious books have been translated into the Tibetan language. foreigners. they heard there in the me speak is. or those who come who live about Sikkim. pioneers to the town were the Christian missionand ever since they have been preaching their religion with utmost zeal. Christian missions have been so far a failure. and the more earnest are not genuine Tibetans. but that man the is reborn as man.

Go to the house of a reputed Christian and you will always find in some inner room of his house the image of Buddha." But it seems to me that the true meaning of the words of Christ is not fully developed and that its application is far too narrow. or he is not likely to receive any more. while in Christianity there is an infinite power called Cod who prevents one from attaining absolute freedom. It can truly be said that there is not a single Tibetan from the interior of the country who really believes in Christianity. the greatest spiritual freedom is to be attained by one's self.564 THREE YEAKS IN TIBET. I read in the bible " A good tree will bear good fruits and a bad tree will bear bad fruits. one cause of the unpopularity of Christianity among the who have a very deep belief in the theory of . one's own reward. though there are a few who declare themselves Christian because they can thus get a living. before which butter-lamps are burned in secret day and night. I think this is Tibetans." Therefore I cannot say that the doctrine of cause and effect is not alluded to at all in this religion. then I think they might open ' me » the way for Christiaiuty to reach the Tibetans. If they would extend the text and make it applicable to previous and future lives. Let some fundamental differences between Christianity and Buddhism. but its scope is limited. Again the nature of cause and effect is not clear in the Christian religion. When he goes out he pretends to be a Christian. The missionaries make a mistake if they think that they can easily convert a Buddhist ! into a state Christian. Further- more Christ the sentence " Thy faith has saved thee " of : means exactly what Bu^ddha meant " Of one's own deeds. for the reverse is the case. By the Enlightenment' of Buddhism one obtains absolute freedom. and on Sunday he carries his bible and goes to church Such a Christian of course quickly turns his back upon Christ when his pocket "is full.

I believe. Buddhism is corrupt and on the road to decay still it has some jewels in it. of missionaries at the cost' of millions of The predominant have seen Buddhism. "receiving according to one's 565 These are the chief reasons. and the others are the Bon. and is almost naturally inherent in every Tibetan. man comes to the front to . though unnoticed by themselves. so as The present Tibetan to adapt it to the Tibetan people. the Muhammadan and the Christian. We have seon how the old pre-Bucldhist Bon religion has been transformed into the New Bon." own work by scores dollars. and it is probable that it will continue to be . whj' Christianity obtains so few followers among the Tibetans after so many years of hard deeds. predominant in the country by great its own vis inertiae until a undertake the work of religious reformation and to restate the truths of the Great Freedom of Buddha. and how the Muhammadan religion : To sum up what we at religion j^resent is existing within a very small sphere of influence has a shown gradual approach to Buddhism. it does not seem probable that it can flourish in this land unless the present sectarian prejudices of the Churches are entirely removed and a new form and attitude be given it. As to the Christianity of Tibet.rUTUKE OP THE TIBETAN RELIGIONS. which is now looked upon as a sect of Buddhism.

But here is the answer from Lama Shabdung. who had left for came back. Sarat told me to call on him again two days after to receive his answer. both your teacher and also my native country. had bought a large quantity of iron by the secret order of the Government. He also thanked me for my present to him. So I had to carry the letters with I me the way to Calcutta. Tsa Rong-ba. because I. who wrote it on the same day. He was a whom I had entrusted the letters to Tibetan merchant. He had the preceding year. expecting to receive answers from my old acquaintances in Darjeeling. On my way home." Saying this he handed me a letter. . But I could not see him again. The Beginning On the India in of the Disclosure of the Secret. it was stated that the letter to my teacher had been handed to him and another to my home had been registered.CHAPTER LXXIX. and handed them the letters. and it was rather late when I heard of his return. when came back to Darjeeling I found both of them at home. In the letter. but his messenger could not find me at Sera. 30tli of April 1901. to my teacher Sarat Chandra Das at Darjeeling and to a Lama called Shabdung of the same town. for I was at the treasury-minister's on that day. Therefore I could not stay long at Darjeeling and determined to start the next day without securing an answer from Sarat. : the Lama were all away. So early the next morning I started for his house. and if the fact had become known to the Indian Government I should have been arrested. After exchanging a few happy words he said to me " At the time when I reached Darjeeling. been trusted with the business of posting a letter to As soon as he arrived he at once sent for me.

567 (In Tibet it is cnstomary to annex some present to a ' letter. who invited me to tea at his house. he thanked and as a return present sent me some European sugar and a few other things). He was now coming to the capital to receive the ceremony from the Pope Tubten Gryam Tso in Lhasa. and was sitting comfortably in his The man was house.' and as I of thin silk cloth. He also worked (as I learned afterward) as an agent of the Government for buying iron and other articles as Tsa Rong-ba did. by the name of Takbo Tunbai Choen Joe. or the second Pope of Tashi Lhunpo in the city of Shigatze in the Tsan Province was to come up to Lhasa. introduced to me as the Chief of the Pope's caravan. but was not much different from that which I saw at Shigatze. he stared at As soon as he entered the house me with his sharp eyes for a long time. when a Tibetan gentleman came in. in nowise second to the " Nyen-zok " day of the in' vestiture or 'the Deliverance of the of the Commands of the Order' Pope himself. The citizens. The 13th of May (the 4th of April by the Tibetan calendar) was a grand day for Lhasa. men and women. The procession of the day was magnificent and as splendid as was expected. and his children. which means investiture or the deliverance of the Commands'. young and old. all went out to welcome the young prelate to Lhasa and I was also present in the crowd. As we talked I heard of the Transvaal war and various other items of me for that. and if nothing suitable can be found. accompanied by Li Tsu-shu. He had completed his twentieth year and was qualified to receive what in Tibetan is called the Nyen-zok. they enclose a piece Kata. a Chinese apothecary. I accepted. and they were old acquaintances. On our way back I met Tsa Rong-ba.THE BEGINNING OF THE DISCLOSURE OF THE SECRET. news from Darjeeling. for on that day the Grand Lama Panchen Rinpoche. The ceremony is regarded as one of great importance. As . a had acted in accord- ance with this custom when I sent my letter to him.


Next. Besides. he knew that I lodged with the Minister of the treasury. Presently he came close to me. if I cured only three patients they would call it fifty. These considerations made him think me quite reliable. He explained to them that the goods captured did not belong to the Chinese Government on which suspicion they had been seized-^and begged to have them returned. — 73 . the Japanese wer. sometimes inchai-ge of the Pope's caravan. also that in the war between Japan and China. At the time of the Boxer Trouble he was in China and once unfortunately all his goods had been captured by some Japanese soldiers. and went even so far as to say that none could compete with me in the art of medicine. While he was in Calcutta he heard much of the just and brave actions of the Japanese. because he thought if I became a family doctor of the Pope he would derive therefrom great benefit and and when he returned from India he found ray fame Some people had exaggerated my reputation. They were going to carry everything away. . and that I had also several friends among the higher officials and priests. as my influence increased. and I saw that the greatest danger was brewing. as a doctor greatly increased. 569 I looked at him I judged him to be a black-hearted man^ but at the same time I recognised the presence of great smartness. to speak of the intrader Takbo Tunbai Choen Joe. In the room were Tsa Eong-ba and his wife. and had often been to Peking. Then he hastened to the Japanese general at headquarters. Thus his confidence in the Japanese in general aad in myself had been still more increased. but all in vain. he was the clerk of a great merchant named Takbo Tunba.THE BEGINNING OF THE DISCLOSURE OP THE SECRET. and complained that he was a Tibetan and the goods had profit.^ not selfish. Tsa Rong-ba had looked upon me with great hope. but had in view the benefit of China at least I heard him often say so. But here I must diverge to tell a long story.

570 neither THREE YEAES IN TIBET. been brought for. The general. It w^as the first time my been mentioned in Lhasa. When Tsa Eong-ba heard the story and knew that the Choen Joe was an admirer of the Japanese as he himself was. Then with a look as if relieved from some uneasiness he turned to the host and said a few words. but I could not deny the impeachment. who was keenly gazing at me.. coiirse. and the goods which the soldiers. and wondering what would be the next word I should hear from him. but are you to be taken for a Chinaman. and nationality had ." to which I did not reply he continued " At first I thought you were a Mongolian. Then are very strange. A very annoying truth had been uttered. nor were being carried for the Chinese Government. Of then in a ? " I was about to reply to this impertinent question. so continued silently looking into the chiefs face. when I was interrupted by Tsa Rong-ba who spoke knowing way " This gentleman is a Japanese. seeing that he was a Tibetan." Just : all was over. and besought the general that they should be given back. suddenly : You a word. but I never dreamed that such a fancy had taken possession of his . At any rate he had spoken highly of the Japanese when he told the above story to Tsa Rong-ba. mind. This event and other experiences made him think that the Japanese were in the habit of acting justly and righteously. immediately wrote a note in Chinese and in some peculiar characters (undoubtedly Japanese) signed his name and handed it to him telling him to take it to He did as he was told. The Choen cried out: " Joe. not a European. Nor you are Of what nationality in the world are you I found my judgment mistaken. had been seized were returned with no loss whatever. he thought it might do no harm to discover to him he even thought it the person of the Japanese Lama would be profitable for himself to do so.

and thus the secret which had been kept for so long was brought to light in a moment. hear you say so. Besides. 57 tliouglit lie must be a Japanese. The caravan chief talked of his hard experiences in China.1 THE J3EGINNING OF THE DISCLOSURE 01' THK SECRET. So I have abandoned my intention. and I hesitated to say so. I once thought that if I went to Japan and brought strange goods to Lhasa I But I have heard could make a great deal of money. but did not seem to mean to flatter me. I told him that as 1 intended to go back to Japan once more. it was most likely that the words came from his real heart. I doubt it not. and spoke many things about Japan. who abound everywhere. but if you tell it to anyone else. of the recovery of his goods by the favor of the general. I among know that travellers are liable to be deceived by bad people. that the Chinese language. He spoke very highly of Japan. I am afraid it may cause yon both some trouble. Js s \ou are you not take me with you to Japan ? " The prospect was not so bad as I had expected. So you must good a man -will : be very careful about it. I suppose. but was impossible for a Japanese to penetrate Now that I into this country. which is the only foreign : language a few I can speak." ." The sentence was given by these judges before the defendant coald speak a word. But I am glad to find here such a good Japanese as you. is not used in Japan except Chinamen at the seaport towns. I have heard of the fame of the Serai Amchi (doctor of Sera) and am very foreign satisfied to find the so noted doctor in this house. and Japan. and of the superiority of the Japanese soldiers in valor to those of the West. is not an exception. I then thought it Japanese at Peking. I I see. for I have seen many "T see. I would take him. The Choen Joe now turned to me and said " This is very good news for me. Then I said " You and Tsa Eong-ba are the only men that know that lam a Japanese.

but I in am sure you to the have something this you which I cannot trace Chinese. 8ome while later on during the same day I had another startling story told me by the wife of the apothecary. Of course I doubt it. "I will not be only when till it to anyone. " The Japanese are very smart by nature and push on with great patience. From way of talking I could understand . 572 THKEE YKAltS IN TIBET. but did not your ancestors come from a foreign country ? " I replied that I had no definite knowledge about my andon't chai-acter cester's original home. you are always hustling and active. I took my leave and lodged at the druggist's for that night. Secretary of the Chinese Minister stepped into While we were talking together there was some- my room thing in his manner that put me on the alert. It seemed probable that he already knew that 1 was not a Chinaman but a Japanese. and asked him what had made character did not resemble that of the him think that my Chinese. It may sound strange. while most Chinese lack in quickness. But I did not give him any definite answei'. (May 4th) my friend the as usual. It is too delicate a distinction for words. But from whom are you descended?" that he was and trying to find out my secret by iny countenance and expression. and he Igft me. But I see a great difference in your from that of the ordinary people of China.: . it will is positively to your benefit. "I appreciate your advice. of course with a few exceptions like yourself. but which I cannot see in you. but not then. Upon this he said. On the following day." With such pleasant talkings we closed the day. She closely examini ng me. He said " You say you are from Foochee in China. If I do. Instead of being calm. Moreover the Chinese have in general the characteristic of sedateness which you see in me. When I disclose it you may be sure that you will have a great name in Tibet." said the tell it Choen Joe.

but what do you think about it?" I thought the madman was : that way.' This is what he tells me. . At night when all were fast asleep. and on the next day I came to the monastery at Sera. I took out some paper and began to write a letter to the Pope. asked what it was. that mad son It is a story of Para has been telling a strange story. and she said: "Why. told by a madman. and hope you will not mind. and I found him a great man.THE bf:g]nning of the disclosure of the secret. but he is surely a great officer of the Japanese Government. he "whispered to me: 'There is a priest from Japan in this town. heard it. I did this as a preparation against the day when my secret should be disclosed. . Kusho-la (your lordship). 573 began with: "Say. He calls himself a priest. but he said that though affair that was a great take place he knew of a horrible was to in this country. Don't you think the most awful thing in the world is a madman ?" I asked hev reason. I When went to Darjeeling. It is no less a personage than I met and talked with him once when I the Serai Amchi. so of course I think it it cannot be depended upon secret." This conversation occurred on the 14th of May. Is it not strange? Nobody knows he has ever been to Darjeeling." The lady continued. " xlnyhow my husband and many I have told this to you as I others seem to believe it. That night I returned to the mansion of the Minister of the Treasury. who has been sent for the investigation of the country. but answered her not mad if he had spoken " The story of a madman must be only taken as such.

written very nicely. and unless some measures were taken beforehand. The Secret Leaks Out. in the Tibetan language. but I never wrote one that pleased to complete it. Then I say : " My original intention in coming to this country was to glorify and thus to find the way of saving the people world from spiritual pain. both prose and poetry. Fur that purpose I thought it well to write the letter. the seed of pure The time has Buddhism must be in every country of the world. for the people of the world are tired of bodily pleasures which can never satisfy. At that time could not tell how the matter would turn out. It took me three may summarise its contents as As is considered proper in Tibetan the letter begins with respectful words to the master of the beautiful country which is purified with white snow. Among the several countries where Buddhism prevails. and are earnestly seeking for spiritual satisfaction. incurable evil might be the outcome. It is our duty as well as our honor to do this. I have come sown to this country to investigate whether Tibetan Buddhism . which I have still by me. This demand can only be supplied from the fountain of genuine Buddhism. I me better. Impelled by this motive. I Hatter myself that it was I have written many compositions. Why did I I write the appeal ? you may ask. the only places where the true features of the Great Vehicle are preserved as the Bucldliism of the essence of already come Buddhism when are Japan and Tibet.CHAPTER LXXX. nights follows. So I must at any rate make it clear to all that I had come to this country for the study and cultivation of Buddhism and with no other intentions.

575 Thanks be to the Buddha the new Shingon Buddhism sect of in Tibet quite agrees with the real Japan. who were still staying in Lhasa for the ceremony. and begged his acceptance of the gift. and I was admitted to the country which is closed from the world.THE SECEET LEAKS agrees Avith that of Japan. . Mjcountry so far away and over mountains and rivers. — put to death accordingly. both having their founder in the person of the Bodhisattva Nagarjuna. At were many old friends of mine present. When the letter was finished I was in so much haste to copy it on good paper that I did not think anything of the consequence if it were presented that my letter would disclose my person and that I should be . conversation on the pai-ty there the subject of the lives of the ancient saints of Tibet on various other topics. Minister to the moe Lingka. why should your Holiness not desire. Therefore these two countries must work together towards the propagation of the true BudThis was the cause that has brought me to this dhism. a very serious thing in regard to my person was occurring at the other end of the city of Lhasa. OITT. to drink fi*om the fountain of Truth the Gods must therefore have accepted my ardent If that be true. I talked freely with them and spent the whole day in the most pleasant. faithful spirit has certainly wrought on the heart of Buddha. . protect me who have already been protected by the Buddha and other Gods and why not co-operate with me " in glorifying the world with the light of true Buddhism ? In conclusion I added that I had been asked by Dhammapala of Ceylon to present the Pope with a relic of Shakya Buddha and a silver reliquary. That day I went with the ex-Treasury garden-party held at the forest of TseThis was* my last good time in Tibet. While I and was thus passing a pleasant day. On the the 20th of May I returned to Lhasa and lodged at Minister's. and many country-gentlemen.

Yes." said the Pope's brother. my doubts about him have been removed. The Japanese Lama resembles a Chinese Hoshang. He eats no meat and drinks no wine. from Tsa Rong-ba. But now that I hear this from you. and his elder brother was looked upon as his father-in-law. " If I mention his name you must know where he is living. ^¥ben I consider this . He must be an be sent for by the Pope. glasses of wine. But " (shaking his head) " this is news that troubles me not a little. the caravan chief called on Yabsi Sarba (the house of the father of the new Grand Lama). the caravan chief found what he called As I learned it a good opportunity to disclose my person. the Japanese can do quite as great things as the Europeans." After a pause replied : for consideration the Pope's of Serai "I have heard expert physician to Amchi. by the Groverninent of China with the title of and lived in magnificence in the southern part While they were talking together over their of Lhasa. the dialogue between them ran asfoUows: " Has your Highness heard that there is a stranger in this country. the famous Serai Amohi brother a Japanese. the nobility clergy. is His name is Serai Amchi ." 576 THKEE YEARS IN TIBET. One who masters the art of medicine so thoroughly as to gain such a great reputation in so short a space of time cannot be a Chinese. but is far more praiseworthy." " What troubles Your Highness ? " "If I am not wrongly informed. The present Pope had lost both his parents. He was dignified Prince. I once suspected and the that he might be a European. On this same day. " He is a true Laina from Japan. who is neither Chinese nor Mongolian ? " Tell me what he is." " Where is he living?" asked the brother of the Pope. He takes only two meals a day and after midday nothing touches his mouth. Japan is on very friendly terms with England.

There are devils that resemble Buddha in this world . for he had thought the story would please His Highness. Moreover the religion of Japan is the same as that of Tibet is that not a fact which might easily awaken the ambition for subjugation ? Therefore I cannot take him for anything but a spy sent by the Japanese Government to investigate the state of things but suspect her. indeed. He lives Lhasa. greatest devil is the one that can make himself most resemble a Buddha. I cannot 577 Japan is so strong Such a country is very likely to think it easy to subdue a small country like our own. His disappointment was immediately followed by the feeling of fear. . and he often goes to the temple of Sera where meat and meat gruel are freely given as alms to the priests. was at once denied by the Pope's who said so. and with an intention to defend " in me he said : He cannot possibly be taken for a spy. take the case Upagupta." This strong argument brother. in Tibet for a sinister pufJ)ose. but he never touches them. " You consider the for you are short of wisdom. who is said to have been perfect in physique and physiognomy. and thought how he might see the real Buddha. He was born after the death of the Buddha. a country bully China. where meat is considered necessary food. and feeds only on scorched barley. of saint For example. are Will not the nobility who those connected with Serai Amchi suffer as did who were connected with Sarat Chandra Das when he entered the country ? Will not the Sera monasThe matter cannot be overlooked. He was the iifth saint from Shakya Buddha. Sach a man is surely a Lama of Japan. that she can Besides.: THE SECRET LEAKS OUT." This conclusion was an unexpected one for the caravan chief. tery be closed again ? Some measures must be taken about it. He heard 73 .

by his miraculous power. from heaven ? He must have had super- Therefore he to perform such a miracle. had often seen was passing through His woi-ldly life. must not be treated carelessly. But as is customary in Tibet. " This argument was strong enough to make Choen Joe sober and pale. who really is a taken the form of a may have Lama to deceive us. as I learnt afterwards. spy. No. the drink had had its effect. and made the man who was resolved to say nothing speak out the ." The caravan chief said that nothing annoyed him. it was supper-time when he came in. was drinking with unusual haste and Being intimate friends. enter this The very fact that he could country. I wish you would tell me what is the matter with you. Tsa Rong-ba asked the reason. He had determined not to say human power anything about his conversation with the Pope's brother. and the host persuaded him to share with him a few glasses of drink. So he thought he would go and ask the devil-king whether he would. so strictly that he is world. give him a glimpse of the real Buddha. with a rather melancholy face. At any rate this is a difficult problem to solve. But in the meanwhile. tells Did he alight closed from the rest of the by no means an ordinary person. That day (20th of May) towards evening Takbo Tanbai Choen Joe called on Tsa Rong-ba. He did so.578 THREE YEARS IN TIBET. but "prostrate himself before the In a similar manner Serai Amchi. The devil-king immediately put on the appearance of Buddha and He looked so BuddhaDiamond-Seat. and his request was granted at once. Pretty soon the host perceived that the caravan chief a sad look. he cannot be trusted.' sat on the that the devil-king of the sixth heaven the Buddha while the latter ' like that the saint could image. saying: "You must be uneasy in your mind to drink in such a way.

The special reason of his ainxiety was this I possessed a letter from Darjeeling which had reached me through the hand of Tsa Rong-ba. to take me back directly to his house. No wonder he hunted for me everywhere.THE details of the SECRIiT LEAKS buf. I was not in the monastery. and Choen Joe left the the story house. and if I were to be captured the letter would be confiscated. His surprise was great. but telling them to be quiet. Tired with hunting for me. . But. and this messenger could not find me at the Treasury Minister's either. for on that day I The anxiety of Tsa Rong-ba increased did not go there. Tsa Rong-ba asked me " What do you intend to do ? At any rate. 57S) " whole thing as has just been stated. and said Buddha must have led you. one supplying what the other omitted. he had almost given up his attempt. thinking that I must already have been captured. when I was not to be found." I comprehended that something unusual had happened. and he came to me almost trembling and with " How lucky we are to have you here tears too. Evil might come to him as well as to myself. When was over it was midnight. all over the city of Lhasa. When they had finished. I hope you will burn the letter I brought from Darjeeling. 21st) Tsa Rong-ba sent me a messenger accompanied by a But horse to Sera. when towards evening T called at his door. and was ready to listen. my course is already determined I replied I have written an appeal to the Pope. Whatever may be" fall me I have made up my mind. what are you going to do ?" " For myself. leaving the host and hostess in so much anxiety The next morning (May that they could not sleep at all. and it was evident that he would also be put in prison. : ! _ : : prised look. Then they told me the whole story. "Do you know all about it then ? " said he with a sur. I took my seat.


" said I. for I am I the only Japanese it who has to visited country. do not say so I know you heard the . though am . conversation between the caravan chief and the Pope's brother Otherwise how by some mysterious means. protested Tsa Rong-ba. and if the Pope listens to him who can tell the " result ? But I feel sure we must suffer. " he answered. but the Pope's brother is by no means a good-natured man. So I have " made what I thought preparation against it. and the Sera monastery. . don't you think so ? " I cannot tell. you little I doubt not you are a think of what will become of us." power. any harm I myself to any of you. " I heard that the Pope's brother said you is have superhuman power. But are you really going to present to the Pope tlie letter you have written to him ? In doing so. dered in the 'silent contemplation'. and what (2) have come If the presentation of my letter causes it. the Minister of the Treasury. " No. "I could see such a thing. and I believe his saying " No. " what I shall do until I try saniadhi (go into abstract contemplation) For the present 1 can only tell you that there are four things to be consi.THE SECRET LEAKS OUT. We cannot tell what he is going to say to the Pope. think would be very sad leave this I country without telling the people who I am. 581 " Yes. I know. such an occasion as would you come down to our house on this ? But then why have you not been kind enough to call on us a little earlier ? We could not sleep at all last night. who followed a peculiar kind of reasoning. and for. Only I inferred that such a thing must happen. I will not present free from danger." " That is why I looked upon you with respectful awe. I will present the letter though I should : my letter to the suffer from doing this so." said I. " I returned " I have no superhuman true. venerable Lama. If the presentation of They are as follows Pope does not (1) do any harm to you.

as well.582 (3) THREE YEARS IN If I. the cause whether I stay here or I is my duty to stay here and share the evil with my to acquaintances to the conclusion evil whom to escape have caused it." They agreed with me and we parted. but I will say that I must go on a pilgrimage and ask him his judgment whether my departure is advantageous for many people who are suffering and if his judgment agrees with mine I will adopt it. my departure. but if it . TIBET. Pope. I shall follow that. After some time I reached the world of non-Ego. I will If never be the only one I come will by the contemplation that there after be no caused as I my fully departure. But am not contented with my own decision on my own account. and if not. I will leave this country. . if it here and present the of evil because not." The husband and wife. Of course I shall not say that I am a Japanese." said I. interrupted me here and told me that not to ask another's opinion my own judgment I needed would be good enough be acted upon. listening to me attentively. "that will not do. nor that I am going back for that reason. The thing is too serious to be determined by myself for it concerns others to "No.tter's judgment be the same as my teacher's I will follow it. agrees with mine. and if the la. who were . from danger.' and the judgment was seated ' : . That night I was all alone in my room at the Treasury Minister's and quietly entered into the silent contemplation and tried to find the best course to be taken. I will go to India directly. and If it can go to India without giving notice to the does not cause any harm to any of my presentation of acquaintances. (4) the to my letter would I will is it cause stay any harm them after letter. I will go to my teacher Ganden Ti Rinpoche and consult with him. I will go and ask the same of the Lama of Tse-Moeling.

though it was not quite decided whether or not I will .THE SECEET LEAKS OUT. I heard there were many great Lamas in Tibet. but I thought the enough to perceive that I was leaving the country never to come back. and on the other country. do you It may mean cannot live. on Ganden Ti Rinpoche. it is no great loss to theee hand if I leave the Thus I came to the conclusion to leave the people. should present the letter to the Pope before to leaving. " If I stay in this country it 583 whether I present the appeal or not be harmful to the people." country. But by the sick ? people you do not mean the bodily patients. simply stating that I was going on a pilgrimage. other doctors in Lhasa you are going to save them by your departure teacher " judgment half in joke. ? that if and his so you stay here. He gave . will get by your going on a pilgrimage. The master with a smiling face judged for me and said : "The better sick people who (you say) are suffering. but he was surely the most respectable priest of all with whom I became acquainted. This was the last time I saw this venerable was intelligent teacher. Early on the next morning (27th of May) I called. and asked him give me his judgment.

for I was going to tell them a secret which must not be spoken in the presence of others. however. clothes. and I felt I ought to tell my secret to her and the ex-Minister. and it was fine again. the storm had passed. Pope return. yet our acquaintance seemed age-long. As . and though we had been friends only for one year. Thinking. My That day 22nd of I Benefactor's Noble Offer. The the day was magnificent.CHAPTER LXXXI. It was a pitiful sight to see the dignitaries But before the Pope arrived dressed in silk on horse-back in the rain. It was certain that I must leave Lhasa. all dressed in in new suits of Lhasa it had begun to rain heavily. getting wet But when the procession marched along the streets of Lhasa and the Pope entered his temple. The four Prime at Norbu Ling. When we got home I asked the ex-Minister and the nun to stay at home that evening. but how could I leave them without telling them all ? through. The nun had treated me with motherly tenderness. gone' out to see the go. and though I procession of Ministers and the Ministers of several departments and other dignitaries were present. But it was the May and the Pope was to come back to Lhasa from The ex-Minister had I was also obliged to had many things to do for myself. Still no one but the servants and coachmen wei'e allowed to wear anything to protect themseh-es against the rain. I called on them at the appointed time and told them that I was not a Chinese but a Japanese. to whom I owed so much. When night came. that they would not believe me I set before them the passport which I had taken with me. returned to the Trea