and have only been imperiectly explored. but seemingly during the six or seven centuries when it was quoted as an authority by all the alchemical adepts. *lpHE Turba Phiksophorum is indisputably the most ancient extant treatise on Alchemy in the Latin tongue. work. certain that the original the Arabic and Syriac is irretrievably lost. not only at the present day. the present editor has neither the opportunity nor the qualifications for undertaking such a task. and. has been familiar only in its Latin garb. What is called in the following pages the second recension. so far as can be ascertained. but they are both 2094035 . There are two codices or recensions of The Turba Philosophorum. manuscripts treating early chemistry are in numbers in the considerable preserved of various libraries of Europe. for in many in Latin respects . is appreciably shorter. on the whole. the it can scarcely be regarded as an original composition. clearer. but it was not. the less corrupt of the two.PREFACE. It is not. Unfortunately. of course. originally written compiler or editor. which differ considerably from one another. wrote either in Hebrew or Arabic however. the .

in a because state.ii. course pursued." It from M. the editor has occasionally substituted that of the alternative and has in most cases indicated the version. has Greek Science. variations of the second recension are appended usually in foot-notes. are also enabled to identify. for the sages. forming " Essai sur la Transmission de Antique au Moyen Age. certainty. Berthelot's researches. bad The longer recension has been chosen for the text of the following translation. but where the reading of the text is so corrupt as to be quite untranslatable. to Alchemy first We time. that Science follows Latin referred connects which which Alchemy. those ancient the Latin literature makes . it seemed desirable to give the work The in its entirety. rightly with preceded the latter was an to the Arabian itself always been Arabian source. to illustrate the striking analogies between the Greek Hermetic century and the Turba. writers of the fourth great scholar and scientist that we the discovery of these analogies. Monsieur Berthelot's invaluable text and translation of the Byzantine Alchemists has been largely made use of. and that with perfect whom all because derived from Greece. some of It is to this owe which are very devoted part la to of his clearly indicated in a chapter the and subject. Preface.

" and that of the smaller collection entitled " Artis There are some translawork existing in German and some French." and in the " Tro's in Anciens Traictes de la Philosophic Naturelle. in amongst the treasures of the Sloane It is collection. and is therefore the most valuable." One English version manuscript is known to the present editor. M. as it is the most ancient. and it will be found in the British Museum are instances in point. are those of the Theatrum Chemi" cum. Those in the latter language are Auriferae Tractatus. rendered. which The exists in the Latin language. are Zosimus. however. direct mediately Philoso- influence.iii. versions contained in Salmon's " Bibliotheque des Philosophes Alchimiques. requent and reverent allusion that they tion." the Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa. and the other writers preserved in the Byzantine collecBerthelot. we now know the Panopolite. ." tions of the also in specially remarkable for the very slender way The which they represent the original. the adepts of the school of Democritus. however. Preface. from the French. treatise on Alchemy. through but channels which are now unknown In any case the Turba summarises the author's preceding Geber. infers that the Greek influence found was not a phorum was derived in The Turbo. and . chief printed versions of The Turba Philo- " sophorum.

commentaries. . contain colloquies. they at the same time belong to the early the It may be added period of Latin Alchemy. It may be added that the great collections of " " Alchemy.iv. and enigmas which pretend to elucidate mysteries of The Turba Philosophorum. has been found useless for the purposes of this translation. Preface. able ARTHUR EDWARD WAITE. While they are of a considerably later date. which the limits of the present volume preclude him from utilising. also that the editor has collected a consider- amount of material concerning this curious work. such as the Theatrum Chemicum and Mangetus.

B . * An I testify that my ancient gloss describes Arisleus as the son of M. unto all who come after wisheth health and mercy. ARISLEUS. TAKEN FROM AN ANCIENT MANUSCRIPT CODEX.* by the grace of thrice great Hermes. and the are mutilated in the fact that most names Turba. which are found volume of the Bibliotheca Chemica. Beyond in the first the similarity of the name. the sophist of the time of Antoninus. The Epistle of Arisleus. Berthelot supposes him to be synonymous with the Aristenes of the second recension (Eleventh Dictum) Abladus. for the Benefit of Posterity. learning from the seat of knowledge. same being as here follows and the : begotten of Pythaa disciple of the disciples goras. concerning the purport of this Book. there seems no reason to suppose that the compiler intended to connect Pythagoras with alchemical traditions through Aristeus. prefixed to the Words of the Sages.THE TURBA PHILOSOPHORUM. MOKE PERFECT THAN ANY EDITION PUBLISHED HERETOFORE. and of the Exercitationes on the Turba.

* the master of the wise and chief of the master.The Turba Philosophorum. persons throughout all regions for the discussion of this most precious Art. the Turba of the Philosophers. and the true Geber. the Kitab-al-Firhirst. Pythagoras. who council. had a greater and Wisdom of gift God of than was granted to Therefore Hermes. and had been constituted the chief ciples. that The book by Master is also called the Third Pythagorical Synod. instituted concerning . Prophets. be the first speaker. to posterity. scholars. that words their be might He a then foundation for commanded of highest Iximidrus. in which Arisleus has gathered together the sayings of the introducing more prudent Pythagoras the among the Philosopher. collecting the opinions of the scholars. to the treatises of El describes Habib. and the tradition which him as an adept of the Hermetic Mystery must be referred to an Arabian origin. where alchemical writings attributed to this sage are freely quoted. said :f * The Greek make no mention alchemists of the Byzantine Collection of Pythagoras. t The variations French version of Salmon has the following distinct " : The beginning of the book. any one after he had a mind to assemble his dis- who were now greatly increased. Italian.

as follows passions thereof are known and understood only by {hose to whom a : knowledge of the Sacred Art is given. Eximidrius. coequalling and that the visible natures. IXIMIDRUS saith of beginning Nature. : .The Turba Philosophorum. humidity and density Occult Philosophy." &c. in own words. however. his and to have put them. moned. he follows mainly the text of the second recension. and are kept If the within bounds by the air. the chief variation " " Occult the original being that instead of Philosophy " reads the vegetable stone. scholar." B2 . which it is as it were." The second recension varies the last " The actions and passage. the terms by attained unto. infinite it nourishes and certain nature But this nature and the times of decocts all things. to But the air did of commanded Pythagoras begin the discourse. which I : all is testify things that the a Certain is perpetual. and which the universal nature nourishes and decocts. his The French translator seems to have summarised the recensions which he had collected. instruct I you that the stars are igneous.* Now." * The same French Translation interprets this obscure " The passage as follows beginning of all things is a it is perpetual. . are times wherein the ends to which that nature brings them are beheld and sumall things. extent. corruption and generation are. 3 The First Dictum. to some Here. with their births and decay.

the Sun by its heat would certainly destroy all that lives. 4 not exist to separate the flames of the sun from living things. the then. and the humidity its own humidity. But the Sun is kept check by the air. breathe forth air did not those winds whereby creatures are generated. assuredly the Sun would overcome the air. The fire. lest that He has created Do you not up. . which should be burnt observe that the Sun when it rises in overcomes the air by its and that the warmth penetrates heat. which thus conquers because it unites the heat of the in Sun to its own heat. from the upper to the lower parts of the heaven the air? presently If. then the Sun would consume all creatures.The Turba Pliilosophomm. But God has provided the separating air. which thus If the helps the water against itself? of water did not nourish the air by such tenuous moisture. Have not water remarked how tenuous you is drawn up into the air by the action of water to the heat of the Sun.

there necessarily issues something tenuous. fire and water are between enemies which no consanguinity. which will become a wind. to the humour. even as thou knowest . for the fire is hot and dry. water. which also becomes spirit and life to all creatures. For the heat of the Sun extracts something tenuous out of the air. fire the air lish peace. which is warm there is and moist. disposed in such manner by the will of God. is thus placed to establook ye all how there And from the tenuous shall arise a spirit "vapour of the being joined because the heat air. The air. 5 extracts moisture from the therefore. by means of which the air conquers the fire itself. and a coruscation appears when the heat of All this.The Turba Philosopher um. but the water is cold and moist. Thus. The TURBA saith: Well hast thou described the fire. the is Sun touches and breaks up a cloud. however. joins these together by its between the concording medium humidity of water and the heat of .

* warm nor according to the mutation of the con* A Crates. represents seasons still . it when warm inspissation it is divided elongation of the rarefaction is when. and the same treatise. EXUMDRUS do magnify the air according to the mighty speech of Iximidrus. by the Sun becomes warm and exaltation of the in air is is grows The cold.The Turba Philcsophorum. Book of enjoined that the operation of the similar comparison is used in the Arabian where philosophical regulated it fire is upon the philosophical matter should be same manner as Nature regulates the after the influence of the four moreover. For the distinction Spring. cold. 6 concerning it. and thou hast believed the word of thy brother. The Second Dictum. for the work is improved thereby. the rarefied. It comparable with the complexion of in which neither is of time. heaven. thereof takes place in heaven by the Sun . The air is inspissated. It is probableTurba in its original form antedated the Book of that the Crates. . older expositions of alchemical philosophy as using the same illustration. and made also it is saith and becomes I : thin its .

The Turba Philosophorum. ANAXAGORAS saith make known I : that the beginning of all which God hath created is those things weight and proportion. 7 stituted disposition with the altering distinctions of the soul. and given account of what thou knowest to be therein. in body. sated Whereat is TURBA the said Excel- : lently hast thou described the air. to press or squeeze Compare also the Greek verb down. and the weight and spissitude of the earth is manifest in proportion but . * The original of the term pietas is pietas et ratio. the that spissitude of the four elements reposes in the earth for the spissitude of . and then cold supervenes upon men. therefore. weight is not found except And know. all ye Turba. but the technical use by the obviously to connect it Hebrew or Arabic original seems with the sense of the Hebrew Paz.* for weight rules all things. when the Sun removed from it. The Third Dictum. is inspis- air. so is Winter The altered. . signifying compactness. Piezo.

therefore. : : cold and moisture inhere therein. Verily the more inspissated than are the rest. is more inspissated than all. water . the together with received from the the air. Then saith the TURBA : Thou hast well spoken. spissitude fire. and . while because fire is warm and dry now that which is warm and dry is more rare than the warm and moist. 8 fire falls into air. increased by the spissitude of fire and reposes in earth. of spissitude into falls the spissitude also of water. Have you not observed how the spissitude of the air. But it is air is less rare warm and than moist. since .The Turba Philosophorum. They say unto him Which element is of less rarity than air ? He answereth Water. four elements is conjoined in earth ? The same. is the most rare of the four elements and is most earth is worthy to possess the rarity of these four ? He answereth : Fire is the most rare among all. Which. and thereunto cometh what is rare of these four. therefore. fire.

up O ! *"You have been of four elements. as also things warm and cold. . that the ancients discoursed . and that which is cold and dry is of less rarity than that which is PYTHAGORAS cold and moist. .The Turba Philosophorum. He is cold and dry. Pandolfus Speak thou. a of less rarity than water ? answereth : Earth. because it is therefore. : Well have ye provided. the description of these four natures. every cold humid g of less rarity than is warm humid." the male and the female. [elements] rise up and two elements are fire and are earth and water. reply make : own Let ! us. is he greater than his fore. for from the apex of ye the world he shall not find an intention therefore. What. there- perfect our discourse. They Direct every one to take our speech in turn. who comprehends what have declared. that it is by means of these four elements that humid and dry things are constituted. Then do they say unto him: Thou hast spoken truly. air . fall down. told Know . Blessed. O Sons of the Doctrine.* out of which saith God hath created all things. Two The two ascending the two descending elements Olympiodorus On the Sacred Art.

preventssaid water the earth from being overflowed by lest it . that water. to wit. gave an between peacemaker water and fire. the air hidden in the If water. dividing these. water and earth. should be plunged into the and it. this air did not exist. and that it is not separated remains above the dry earth. moreover. they destroy one The TURBA saith illustration hereof. TO The Fourth Dictum. the earth would not remain above the humid water. to constituted a hostile things. But PANDOLFUS saith : I signify to- posterity that air is a tenuous matter of water. and it is is. that is to say. from It it. which is under the earth. The province of the air fill up and to make between diverse separation things. namely.The Turba Philosophorum. lest another. he continueth hidden is in the that The : which air is water under the earth which sustains the earth. therefore. They answer Thou : hast said well But complete. it : If you would be . therefore. thy speech.

is the water. the chicken) is sometimes the similitude of a likened to the skin which covers the the white and the yolk are the flesh. represents the earth. lead. it The The seed . to the under this title. the described as the Mystery of the Art. who do not under- those clearer to answereth An egg : an is illustration. the earth. But a or white part. is fire. being cold and dry iron. contains the yolk corresponds to that water.n The Turbo. part is The the shell symbolically. the stone of stone. seed . mercury. that air which divides the earth from the The yolk also of the egg cortex which the represents fire . is still and another on the Nomenclature of is. or air. &c. water of the sea. water of alum. for therein four things are conjoined the visible cortex or shell . A short treatise Egg. (? copperas. because world. is The white . the stone which Armenian tin. representing. is it the It is has been named copper. and the albumen. which is composed of four elements.* very thin inner cortex is joined to the outer cortex. namely. the separating medium between earth and water. is is after it divine water. * The allegory of the philosophical egg can be traced Greek alchemists. itself extant not a stone. Philosophorum. is yolk oily part But the egg. &c. as I have signified to you. and the watery the breath. symbolical. &c.as described the image of the shell is likened to of the egg native sulphur. He stand. . It is copper.

these fire. all philosophers in this most excellent art have described the egg as an example. 12 other air which separates the water from the fire. the upper air is more rare and lower air and air. water. and that which separates the from water the fire. therefore. The Fifth Dictum. which same thing they have set over their work. for which Sun does not ascend over the zones of the earth in a single hour but if it were flat. Conse- quently. But the thicker than the upper air. being nearer to the fire the lower air than In the egg.The Turba Philosophorum. air. are four things earth. the sun would all . four excepted. . But they are both one and the same namely. is subtle. rise in a moment over the whole earth. and But the point of the Sun. the earth from the water. ARISLEUS is a hill saith : Know and not a reason the that the earth plain. is in the centre of the this is the chicken. that which separates things frigid. and yolk.

answereth : the Thou disciple of LUCAS. but the earth. and that the head of all things after Him earth and is tenuous and because fire. it fire rules is all things on earth. having never engendered or been begotten. the In these into them. saith : Arisleus ! 13 Thou hast spoken He answereth : anything the Master has left which bears witness otherwise ? Is there us Yet I that testify God is one. LUCAS You speak only about saith: four natures . Now. The Sixth Dictum. being ponderous and gross. and light. DEMOCRITUS. sustains all things which are ruled by fire. hast well spoken. and all things take place as God hath predestinated. and each one of you observes something concerning these. I testify unto you that all things which God hath created are from these and things which have been created out of them return four natures.The Turba Philosophorwn. living creatures are generated and die. PARMENIDES O briefly. O .

in his The Seventh Dictum. since thy knowledge was derived from Lucas. it is presumption to speak among those who are well LUCAS acquainted with thy master answereth: Albeit Democritus received ! from me the science of natural things. It SOPHORUM represents a tradition hostile to the tradition of . The TURBA answereth attains to that age* he : When he will give no small satisfaction. .The Turba Philosophonim. 14 Lucas. when dealing with the four Then saith ARISLEUS natures O ! : Democritus. but being youth he should keep silence. but the entire episode is remarkable when it is borne in mind what great importance evidently attached to the Democritic school of Greek seems to indicate that the TURBA PHILO- alchemy. that knowledge was derived from the philosophers of the Indies and from I think he the Babylonians surpasses those of his own age in this learning. LOCUSTA saith : All those creatures which have been described by Lucas are two only. of which one is neither * Whether the age indicated is that of the Indian and Babylonian adepts does not appear.

except by piety." " the . Crowd the Philosophers. if completed. and touch. what is this thing which is neither felt. and hearing only which can discriminate between a good and bad word ! Similarly. in fact. Then he : It is that seen. remains For silent throughout the rest of " those of his own age second recension reads " his contemporaries. not seen or felt. thou wilt describe State. nor smooth from rough unless Democritus. nor can sweetness be discriminated from bitterness save by means of is fetid. which are sight. smell. 15 known nor for it is saith expressed. subtly. O hearing. a wholesome odour cannot be separated by reason from one which except through the sense of smell. the deliberations. and. Philosophorum. who. taste. which is not known. accordingly.The Turbo. nor known. PYTHAGORAS Thou : hast entered upon a subject which. of not that it distinguish know you is only sight which can white from black. figures merely as a promising tyro. therefore. because in this world discerned by reason without it is the clients thereof. taste.

And spoken he : I truly will now give a further explanation.The Turbo. is which is natures. of which reason Nature confesses that God is a partaker. or of the stars. or of fire. or described f Saith he : except by reason and piety. except the light of the moon. TURBA answereth : Thou hast well spoken. all which are derived from the light of the Sun. which light living But if beings may is so ordered that attain this subtle light to vision. 16 The by touch. which causes all creatures to give light. they would become darkened. Know that this creature. as such. seeing nothing. and the more subtle than all other light. that is to say. . hath a same the Sun. Philosophorum. and. the world. is neither seen but is perceived by reason alone. yet hast thou omitted to treat of that particular thing which is not known. Are ye then in such haste ? Know that the creature which cognised in none of these five ways is a sublime creature. were removed. answer and : is Thou hast excellently. They nor felt.

and is Recension literally as B . And answereth if. : good Master. this And know that the sublime creature before mentioned has no need of the light of this Sun. which more is lucid than the light of the Sun. dense is composed the in is Consequently the inferior all the created that of two dense things two rare things. thou shalt utter any- whereby our hearts may be vivified. This light. which is more subtle and more lucid.The Turba Philosoplwnnn. For 17 God has appointed the Sun to be the light of the world. by reason of the attenuated nature of the Sun. which is more subtle than their Know light. rarer than is The creatures. they have taken from the light of God. because the Sun is beneath that creature. but nothing of the world and also sublime Sun creature. boon !* great thing * offers The shortened version oi some conspicuous the second variations. TURBA Thou hast excellently described what thou hast related. which now are mortified by thou wilt confer upon us a folly.

&c. as well as in the sciences thereof. which and known.The Turba Philosophorum. for is it is a third connected nature. ." is dense more is in the sublime creation. PYTHAGORAS saith existed before all I : affirm that God and with Him things. as He was know. to the end that it may light the world. Nothing He of the himself creatures. save not seen and is But there seen. the same is sublime reason and piety only. out of which things He afterwards by the arrive save " follows reason . and is realised. and is God Most High. water. Two : of which is natures alone are described by Lucas. is which contains that is Now. reason perceives What ensues is by the help of the five senses. which is as follows : As . at which no one can God. to that nature . that when God was alone. was nothing. all at But first. will of this heaven or earth. T8 The Eighth Dictum. one known nor neither the other whatsoever is in by piety and not described. felt. because rare than the Sun and all inferior . Understand. till towards the close. substantially the same as the text. who made the light which is the Sun. He created four things fire. declare this in order that I may fortify your opinion concerning these four ye elements and arcana. subtle than all creatures. which consists of two dense things and two rare. heaven. that I Philosophers. Know that the Sun is more . which is perceived it is known by by none of these. and earth. air.

created the four ele- He afterwards ments. that they might dwell in the world and perform His judgments therein. there the four elements fire : . sesses cold .warmth and humidity earth. . out of which created what He willed. from tinated 19 because He predesall that beginning the creatures extracted from water should multiply and increase." .* The Which are these. Consequently. both the sublime others. cold. . moisture. which is cold and dry. and of these elements produced The combination dryness. of which were produced from a single element. then. which has . some diverse creatures. created all and the inferior. . is He from the ancient worlds : caused the four qualities to issue namely. By the help of fire. But the TURBA Which. which contains heat and dryness water. heat. O And he: They are the angels. are created out of two ? And he Out of TURBA saith: Master? : : the elements of * In the works Book oj Balances.The Turba Philosophorum. . whom He created out of fire. these elements God created the superior and inferior worlds. before He all. that is to say. which posand moisture air. with this dictum and air are the one of the genuine Arabian a passage which has some analogy " After God had created all things of of Geber.

20 moon. because they are created from one substance. namely. And they Master. continue thy dis: course concerning these three. and earth. TURBA The concerning Then he the Heaven ? God created the Heaven out of water and air. But the TURBA saith : Distinguish these divers crea- .The Turba Philosophorum. which are life to the dead. the second of the rarer things. and the second of the denser things. and some of these are created vegetables . while the sun and the stars are created from a com- is less position of fire saith And : and what air. moon. which is water. and stars. out of water. whence this is also composed of creation of : two. sun. and earth. out of three are created flying things. air. which dense than two. more lucid than the sun. air. beasts. some out of fire. and rejoice our hearts with thy sayings. But the other answereth God : hath further I notify to made of three and out of four you that creatures out . which is air. and Hence the angels stars are composed.

for in vegetables there is no they are created out of earth. : and air.The Turbii Philosophorum. and air. the Sacred Art the issue of the four elements. 21 fire. He fire ? I affirm that they conWhence is that they : answerelh of the air which is : Out of the heat concealed therein . spirit. and Yet fire. air. and among vegetables which have a all are created out of water. tures Beasts are created out of earth he fire. air. but the elementary for I concerning which you were in doubt not produced. does reside in Ye have spoken vegetables. air. Whereat the TURBA.* that * The treatise observes that But out is. and . of Olympiodorus Adam was and of On of four his sons fire. And he : the truth. because flying things. fire. water. and tain And fire. flying things out of . with : your reverence's pardon. while all brute animals are from earth. have signified that a thin fire is present in the air. and water. saith Let us assume that a fire. And one from another. except in things which fire is have spirit and soul. elements our father Adam were created.

or four components must disintegrate. three. whose name no one knoweth except Nicotheos. 22 and water. for it is one. every- thing which God hath created out of one essence dies not until the Day of Judgment. but is no disjunction of that which is there Death consists simple. drinks.The Turba Philosophorum. stand. in libraries of Zosimus. because in all things which have a spirit fire is that which eats. in the separation of the soul from the body. or Arabian alchemists. whom he There are similar references is identified with death. The substitute for his true * The nature name signifies light and fire. and that mysterious personage. or sleeps. further. making reference to the Ptolemy. Understand. and the question whether they eat and sleep. the alchemist himself acknowledges to be undiscoverable. and therein is contained the spiritual man. of the angels. that substance which lacks no complex fire eats. because anything formed out of two. all likewise Under- earth. is The death definition of the disjunction of the composite. igneous earth. how ye that are wise.* terms him virgin earth. by But the carnal Adam of Zosimus signifies material humanity in general. and sanguineous earth. carnal earth. Syriac. and this is death. Zosimus either narrates that the art of alchemy was revealed to mortals by . does not seem to have been discussed by Greek.

therefore. being created of fire. do not eat. the Mother of the Gods appears as a prophetess who obtained initiation into the mysteries of alchemy from the great angel Amnael. . and it was they also who wrote the primeval books of alchemy. but thick fire. then. It will be remembered that magic was also one of the mysteries In the discourse of unfolded by the same intelligences. who desired to possess her. seeing thou assertest that fire is Hence that which eats ye ! each doubt. that the angels. but if ye truly knew the elements. I agree with all whose judgment it is that simple fire eats not. 'And he : his having opinion. the TURBA : Master. it is to them that the tradition of the art must be referred as to a primary source . The TUKBA answereth 23 How : is it. Philosophorum. is exceedingly thin. most they And simple and neither eat. drink. but out of the thinnest of very thin fire of that which being created.The Turbo. Master. and ye are become opponents. The angels. nor sleep. are not created out of thick fire. ye would not deny these things. Isis to Horus. our faculties are able to perceive. for by God's assistance we have the fallen angels. .

O Master. it you. since it is with the object instructing future generations that thou hast summoned us together from our countries. ignorant that Wise have propounded God. to avoid omissions for the sake of future genera- becomes tions. I think that no explanations will be more useful than definitions of those four elements which thou hast taught None of you us to attain. The TURHA all the definitions in answereth : Should your disciples pass over anything. And he : are. I suppose. I will begin the disposition here. but our faculties of hearing and of sight are unable to May God carry such great things.The Turba Philosophorum. reward thee for the sake of thy disof ciples. 24 exhausted thy sayings. since envious men in their books have it separated that. or otherwise I will put . the thou wilt not to Judge Seeing fail come that of recompense ! which to receive from ARISLEUS thou hast the saith : us gathered together for the advantage of posterity. And he: If please you.

for we see that fire is hostile to water. air. which He coagulated. and by the bowlings of Kerkoros. having said unto them Be.* at the TURBA think saith Whereat where it clearest And he for the you future will place it will not be recognised by the generations. for it is the key. by Hermes.The Turba Pkilosophorum. by heaven and earth and hell. The Ninth Dictum. sworn to secrecy been required initiated] of us to reveal person. water. and fire. fail to observe the artless way in . with the : four other elements. water * The is one of the Isis herself is necessity of concealing the Art chief anxieties of the Greek alchemists. the perfection and the end. it end of the book. by " An oath has Anubis." says nothing clearly to any [unDemocritus in the Epistle of Synetius to Dioscorus. EXIMENUS saith : God hath created all things by his word. t The reader will not which this passage betrays the whole dialogue as a literary composition.! I : nor ignored by the Sons of the Doctrine. it be will it where Place : 25 foolish. and they were made. by the height anl the depth. earth. and things contrary were commingled. by the four elements.

which indeed are various. being here mingled. I is But the have stated and by a legion of diversities nature of each diverse. is more than each of these natures ture.The Turba Philosophorum. Out another. they would have been But diverse elements agreeing natures. they lose their own natures. earth and sea. of diverse na- Now is the this di- versity subsists in all creatures. Had they been created out of one element. moon. because the dry being mixed with the humid and the cold combined with the hot. therefore. things created heaven all and the throne thereof. become neither cold nor hot . because they were created out of diverse elements. things that are in the sea. so also the humid being mixed with the dry becomes neither dry nor . are of these four elements. and stars-. the sun. and not alike. the angels. and diversity have been made diverse by also the creations. for with all their natures God. so that they love one hostile to fire. 26 and both are hostile to earth and air. Yet God hath united them peacefully. .

when the four elements are not com- mingled. and thence proceed creatures which never attain to perfection. departing plished. and of these the operation and virtue are well known. and government. nor are their opera- and known. no desire of men accomBut being mixed. humid. These are earth and water. But when the 27 four elements are commingled. from their own natures. not without purpose have I described to you the disposition of these four elements. they agree. earth and water now tions force . are perceptible to the sense of touch and vision. life. they become Over these let us another thing. And the .The Turba Philosophomm. whereof the place is never seen. namely. which yield naught. save in the former elements. But there are two other elements which are neither visible nor tangible. Sons of the Doctrine. except they be left by night to putrefy and become visibly corrupt. food. God further completed his creation by means of increase. for in them is a secret arcanum two of them . is t meditate very carefully.

lest ye fill I will give your hearts with sorrow. he TURBA if Master. t The and hence is composed of the philosophical copper reference throughout all is alchemy. that and I have now discoursed. like man. no Do not therefore. thorities. we Then will give heed to your words. but also in the cesses of the great this not Greek. but it must be remembered that it is one of the Hermetic Methods to describe the pro- work in the language of cosmology.The Turba Philosophomm. has It appears from the same treatise soul. speak only useful words as true from our that present. explains that . and applies to a stage of the alchemical process. and body. that the term is symbolical. you a fundamental axiom. essential substance. For example. four elements. exhaust copper. the a spirit.* your brains and your money. : you : well. made except is spoken. white copper is Another passage describes it as the Gold is said to transform only with The Lexicon of Chrysopeia crude sulphur. will I which all tincture follow will ye Know. that unless you turn the aforesaid copper! into * At this point there appears to be a sudden transition from cosmology to alchemy. 28 speak. a subject of continual Among the earliest au- Book of Crates says that copper. and only in the Latin mediaeval writers. the Byzantine fragment entitled The Nomenclature of the Egg affirms that the egg is the image of the world. lead and copper.

and washing. Berthelot has pointed out that term nummus by the Latin alchemists of the meaning of anterior writers. t until a Tincture} results. and making yellow is an igneous regenera- tion. for in the Collection of example. imbuing. Asem. deprive it of blackness by cooking. the process of whitening a calcination. as also the softening copper. the copper. its Then * M. and make visible coins" 29 and then afterwards again turn it into redness. and that which pro- duces a superficial colouring.The Turba Philosophorum. for in the first again in the Book of Synesius. The book addressed by Democritus to Leucippus says that the alchemical work comprises the process of making white and making yellow (red). is According and coction of the mineral of to Synesius. an alloy of gold and t will the use of the a misconception The reference is to silver. and elsewhere in many places. until the same becomes white. the recipe in the twentyparagraph of the Natural Questions of Democritus. that which so permeates and scaks into a substance as to change its nature. J The Greek Lexicon of Chrysopeia distinguishes two species of tincture. white. . Numerous preparations be found is whitening and reddening Ancient Greek Alchemists. rule it. addressed to Dioscorus. ye Burn therefore accomplish nothing. as. verily. the Philosopher. break it up. the Combination of the White Preparation Address of Isis to Horus. It is invariably an operation with copper.

aeriform water. It is identified with and water of sulphur. cited by Olympiodorus in the Treatise on the Sacred Art. azure water. It is also said that copper is water of silver. and you Next immerse the said tablets in the Water of our Sea. and afterwards (arsenic) into silver. becomes eternal water. is to it in alchemy. ARISLEUS this work Know that the key of the art of Coins. * In this instance the term appears to be used as the the thin strips into which equivalent ot tablets or lamina later is alchemy frequently directs a metal to be cut before it subjected to a given treatment. Rulandus says that it is the philosophical solution of two perfect bodies. Interpreting later writers.The Turba Philosophorum. apparently to the closing of the . after over a gentle fire it is covered. and he enumerates the contradictory names which have been assigned The reference mouth of the vessel. 30 The Tenth Dictum. after preparation. it It is transforms the male into gold. which. quotes Zosimus in definition of the sea as the hermaphrodytic element. J water The Book ofEl-Habib is says that the virtue of eternal that of a spiritual blood. set it until the tablets are melted and become waters or Etheliae.t which is permanent therefore.* Take. t Pelagus.! and. the to Water. boiled. When also primal sulphur. saith: is body which I have shewn reduce it to thin tablets.

and the become variegated. which we call the Flower of Salt. preserved noted that and a process with sulphurated iron is quoted with high approbation from Democritus. is Burnt Copper. Burnt copper is elsewhere the same author as " the metal rendered blooddenned by colour (in view of without. same with Permanent Water. which also is Permanent Water. coins which has preceded from it. which is * is A short excursus On the Diversity of Burnt Copper among the writings of Zosimus." whitening) and tinged within and . This. stir in its like to water of be coagulated. then.The Turba Philosophorum. and the whiteness appear.* which is the Leaven of Gold Cook the and the Flower thereof. until the same becomes red. in pounding lest you become weary. Then rub it. Mix. Cook it. mix with the Gum of Gold. until it be deprived of blackness. and simmer in a gentle fire Brodium until Saginatum. Etheliae until is Then it produced. and cook until Use patience it becomes red Ethelise. where it is many persons prepare it by means of sulphur. 31 which are one and the same thing. cook. therefore. Imbue the Ethelia with its own water.

For in them they putrefy and are generated. and it becomes a most subtle powder. and tin for the liquefaction. which act . taking copper and lead. the water is consumed. all and metals. 32 always with it. seeking you who to deceive after knowledge. therefore. the consanguineous with the consanguiits neous. The Eleventh Dictum. and the first with the first. and make the white red. until the water be dried Continue the operation until all up. because Nature is ruled by Nature. ye rule the Nature of Truth. that unless complexions and compositions. out of this our copper.The Turba Philosophorum. and rejoice. follow them. letting these stand for the grease. stones. ye improperly and effect nothing. Know ye. or blackness. because natures will meet their natures. brodiums. PARMENIDES that saith : Ye must men have envious dealt know volu- minously with several waters. and harmonize well together further. aspire Leave. all these.

there- the teaching of the Wise. do not approach the work. and what renews. how also after love enmity and corruption intervene. and take D . disaster. what savour it possesses. manifold and superfluous things. Nature rejoices in Nature. If indeed. Philosopliorum. until they become what putrefies in gentle the it fire in similar fashion. ye know not the Natures of Truth. it 33 into dust. destroys turns it. Consider. and sadness. set your hands to the work. therefore. what neighbours it naturally has. that may know the Nature of Truth. and how these natures should be united one to another and made at peace. and how they love each other. same. it. and Nature contains Nature.The Turbo. noticed the facts in this Art. since there will follow nothing but harm. Having. reduces and finally herself renews repeats. In these words there is shewn forth unto you the saying : whole work. how they have declared the whole work in this fore. and frequently produces the to nothing. Leave. ye Therefore look in books. therefore.

to treatises belonging to the school of Cinnabar follows the term. are the inspiration of the Turba Philosophorum. and takes complete possession of them. when if ye proceed to coction. it becomes red.* coagulate in the Magnesia.f in Kuhul. itself into Know ye also that gold is not turned into redness save by Permanent Water. according to the Greek Epistle of Synesiusi wax. In one of the Democritus the sign The body of Magnesia of is Synesius and Dioscorus. and on the Metallic Body of Magnesia. for Mercury whitens all bodies and attracts like imparted to their souls. nature white. in the discourse of According to Synesius it signifies the mixture of substances. when it becomes white. it becomes you that it turns the sea red and the colour of gold. tell I gold. and place it upon our Copper. because Nature rejoices * is Nature. Zosimus has a special treatise with reference to the method by which it is mentioned whitened. 34 quicksilver. and the later adepts. | The formulas which are so frequently repeated in the Turba Philotophorum : Nature rejoices in Nature : Nature . t and who is not common Magnesia.The Turba Philosophorum. remark applies equally to the Greek Alchemists. which readily assumes any colour that is it.* in Mercury. And if ye cook still more. or in body of Sulphur make the same which does not burn . to The Magnesia of Alchemy this that treatise. it them by digests coction.

imbuing. or the like degree to be found. therefore. those celestial natures. overcomes nature ruled by Nature : : in the true in the smallest This is that truth Nature contains Nature : are derived literally from Nature is the Greek Alchemists.The Turba Philosophorum. most happy and writers : Sovereign Matter. is that spiritual nature to which !* special and God the cannot. Supreme Wonder O. and caused its natures to rejoice and be glad This. and washing. multiplying the natures of truth by the God O that potent Nature. the same by means of cooking into a humour. * These alchemical Grand Antiphons in O are either borrowed from the Greek alchemists. magnify nothing thereof can give what fire Consequently. therefore. therefore. will of ! which overcame and conquered natures. until it become O red. it be manifested externally. than which is more precious tincture. we glorify and that [species] . If. cooking." &c. or are formed literally on the model of precisely similar exclamations in those " O. 35 Reduce. seven times imbue the same with water. until the hidden nature appear. ! .

knew the truth. and our Sulphur* alone interiors. the If ye highest operation is effected. therefore. liquefied with bodies. the the joined to the other Know also. And if one be volatile but the other endure the endures if either fire. . And as it visibly overcame the surface. but this does not appear so plainly in earlier and especially in Greek Authors. 36 which those investigating wisdom For when it is love. that fire. and Salt figure in all Hermetic ature as the most indispensable principles of the liter- Magnum Opus. even so mastered the it interior. what great thanks ye would give me Learn. The Turba Thou hast spoken excellently Sulphur. For it overcomes those which are mixed. all things. The later writers never weary of affirming that they are not the substances commonly so called. that ! while you are tingeing the cinders. vapours have whitened the surfaces. and changes them to its own colour. you must destroy those that are mixed. consumes answereth * : all further.The Turba Philosophorum. they will certainly whiten the Know ye seekers after Wisdom. Mercury. that one matter overcomes four.

The Turba Philosophorum.



Parmenides, but thou hast not
demonstrated the disposition of the



to posterity, nor






The Twelfth Dictum.






speak at this

time, following the steps of the ancients.
Know, therefore, all ye seekers after


that this treatise


not from

the beginning of the ruling !* Take
quicksilver, t which is from the male,

and coagulate according to custom.
Observe that I am speaking to you in


with custom,


has been already coagulated. Here,
therefore, is not the beginning of the
ruling, but



prescribe this method,


further insight into the artificial character of the

afforded at this point.

designed to be conveyed


The meaning which is
common with many

that in

alchemical works, the instruction begins

middle of the process

for the



more complete confusion

of the uninitiated.
t It


be noted


this connection that the

planets is not
never spoken of

attribution of the seven metals to the seven

found in the Turba.

Thus, quicksilver

as Mercury, nor gold as Sol, &c.


The Turba Philosophorum.


namely, that you shall take the quicksilver from the male, and shall either

impose upon
copper, and it

tin, or governed
be whitened.*



White Magnesia



in the


way, and the male is converted with
But forasmuch as there is a





between the magnet
therefore our nature

Take, then, the vapour


which the Ancients

commanded you

and cook the same with

to take,


own body until tin is produced. Wash
away its blackness according to custom,
and cleanse and roast at an equable
fire until it be whitened, But every body
whitened with governed quicksilver,
for Nature converts Nature. Take,thereis

Magnesia, Water of Alum, Water
of Nitre, Water of the Sea, and Water
whiten with smoke. J Whatof Iron



The second

upon copper, that














alternative reading is: " Therefore Nature also

rejoices in Nature."

Hermes, as quoted by Olympiodorus, defines smoke
warm and the dry.

as intermediary between the

The Turbo, Philosophorutn.


soever ye desire to be whitened
whitened with this smoke, because








Mix, therefore, the
with its faeces until




Roast this white copper till





when whitened does not
















Take, therefore,


ye Sons of the


Doctrine, the white sulphureous nature,
whiten with salt and dew, or with the

Flower of White


Salt,+ until

alternative reading



" until





become a

white coin or tablet."


The shadow

of copper


the flower of copper,

Berthelot explains, protoxide, verdegris.




of Democritus to Leucippus explains that a metal without



a brilliant metal.


Zosimus says that the act

called the destruction of the shadow.



shadow of copper as the black tinge which it
produces in silver. Democritus also gives a recipe for the
removal of the shadow from copper.

defines the


The second

recension in the edition of Mangetus
it is a printer's error.

reads Sol throughout for Sal, but

The Turba Philosophorum.


And know ye, that
excessively white.
the Flower of White Salt is Ethel

The same must be









like gleaming marble, for when
has reached this condition it is a


Arcanum, seeing that
mixed with
Sulphur is
whence an excellent work is accomvery


by reason of the affinity
between them, because natures rejoice
in meeting their own natures.
therefore, Mardek and whiten the same
with Gadenbe,* that is, wine and
vinegar, and Permanent Water. Roast
and coagulate until the whole does not

liquefy in a fire stronger than its own,

namely, the former



Cover the

of the vessel securely,


let it

be associated with


its neighbour, that it
thereof, and





blaze up, for in


Though Martinus Rulandus endeavoured honestly
all the barbarous terms of Alchemy in his
laborious lexicon, and though he was evidently well

to explain

acquainted with the Turba, he omits both Mardeck and


because one thing makes it but many operate therein. wish : shut in with darkness. Afterwards coagulate the same until you attain the red. but one thing only.The Turba Philosophorum. PYTHAGORAS saith We : government which is posit another not from another . For ye need not a number of deal with the things. TURBA the saith Wise you speak as spoken. it more quickly con- verted from nature into nature. becomes red prematurely. those . because beginning of the ruling you this case and in 41 it this will profit the require the white.who for Art of Coins. Know that fire when is it the Soul. and that follow you who do not Master. Let your be gentle in the whitening. The Thirteenth Dictum. and we coagulated it is therefore. you nothing. if have they will to be wholly briefly. sufficient is call This. until coagulation take place. which in each and every grade of your work is The changed into another nature.

but it differs in name. the subject in question causes many colours to appear in complexion.The Turba Philosophorum." According to the second recension. The mony f shorter recension reads : " concerning the har- of the elements. that the said one thing enters into every regimen. also. albeit to sight they are as diverse as possible. . which follows! fire. 42 root. according as it is governed in every regimen. companion without colours to appear for this reason. and is found everywhere. nor to a matrix. this same thing. Know. that the thing which they have described in so many ways follows and attains its companion without magnet follows the even as the fire. nor to a seed. causes And its many when embracing it. and also not a stone common and precious hidden and concealed. iron. being a stone. to which the said thing is not vainly compared. And know. that whatsoever the envious all enjoined in their books conthe composition of natures may have cerning which agree together. for it is also like unto these. this Science and ye seekers after Wisdom.* is in savour there only one. . .

However this may be. because it is therefore. 43 many names. name its is we have called it by many names on account of the excellence of one. yet its nature. is a process upon the stone Alabastron by means of vinegar. is the symbolical encephalous stone which known by is all. and is Alabastron defined to be the calx obtained from eggshells. a device of the Greek alchemists. which has remained un- known is to all later Hermetic lexicographers a variety of natron. the Turba at this point are. it The salt. either before or after the operation with vinegar. which of of Spume Moon. therefore. The preparation The perplexities of the thing given and not given by God. By the Lexicon of Chrysopeia in the By/antine Collection that earliest dictionary of alchemy. .* The TURBA answereth wilt thou not O : Master ! ! mention some of those * Zosimus explains that the uncommunicated mystery which no one among the prophets has dared to divulge by word. more precious . but has revealed only to the initiates. the unknown thing which the despised thing which is is most precious. not a stone. known by everyone yet and .The Turba Philosophorum. not a stone. indicated is the Mythraic Mystery. the name of one is This the stone. may inquirer after take his choice among does not follow that the Lexicon a correct exponent of Zosimus. it appears that the stone Alabastron. without it Nature is never operates anything. saltpetre. and common the uncommunicated secret these substances. and they were fond of recurring to it.

late it in the vessel until a cinder. therefore. and afterwards coagulate it with milk. Break up. I which is from the all * The second that milk is recension adds : " that coagulated. and is the stone out of which also colours appear. Take. Cook it shall also with become of Spume Luna and regulate. and that which flies from the fire and alone whitens copper. t The second recension has a preferable reading shall find the stone formed.* Then pound the calx in the mortar. It will be found in the discourse of of Greek origin. that same gum. Synesius. and already imbued with its own water.The Turba Philosophorum. which assimilates the work and drinks it." J The second recension says " : Gum of Scotia. after the manner symbolical use of milk in alchemy is. 44 names And for he: the guidance of seekers ? called White Ethelia. like so much of the terminology of the Turba. taking care that the humidity does not escape from the vessel but coagu. which imbue with : its " Ye own water. therefore." most . For ye shall find the stone broken. the White Stone. is the stone which we call by all names. therefore. It is White Copper.t This." The is.

identifies The term is much used in alchemy. until be it pounded. and the more the colours vary all the more suffer them to be heated. moreover. and with the scoriae. &c. and do as ye are bidden. when it coagulated. . and is found in Zosimus. Then look and see whether it has become a powder. many same is stone. Mercury. but if not. Rulandus with Ferment. which you know.The Turba Philosophorum. breaking up with a gentle fire. moistening with permanent water. The Turba Philosophorum is not very clear on the subject of the philosophical gum. Out is of this broken up. speaking also philosophically. But colours will appear to you. or the Spume of Luna. speaking philosophically and not literally . 45 and mix with cinder of calx. other things. the and becomes a stone. and without regard to the Lexicon. but the treatise on the Nomenclature of the Egg says that the white of egg among is gum. but it is as clear as the Chrysopeia defines Greek Alchemists. Know. that if you take white quicksilver. probably a philosophical misprint gum for Scoria. roast in a fire stronger than faeces the first fire. but without explanatory context. which you have ruled. therefore. gum for the Lexicon of as the yolk of the egg. Then imbue with permanent water.

ruling the same until a white and coruscating stone shall be produced. uttered something like unto this : name a body. I The theriac and poison of the stone are favourite subjects of discourse Petrus Bonus seems with all among early Latin Alchemists. herein. . t The envious. from envy of O Assembly the Wise. Formula of the Greek Alchemists : Sulphurs are mastered by Sulphurs. 46 any ambiguity occur to you in our discourse. indeed. and for the same may God saith PYTHAGORAS reward thee ! God deliver also : saith : May ACSUBOFEN.The Turba Philosophorum. even as became thee. Then he Ye must know. and humidity thee. us. ACSUBOFEN* Master. and I t ! this And he Humidity is when venom penetrates * have Acsubofen. what is : In the second recension the A Tell humidity ? a venom. The TURBA O answereth therefore. if and so ye find your purpose. like the sovereign remedy authors to have had a destructive as well as and. : ! in humidity. &c. The Fourteenth Dictum. thou hast spoken without envy. that sulphurs are contained in sulphurs. do as ye are bidden. is it Assuberes.

because it is equal thereto. The Greek references equivalent is ios.The Turba Philosophorum. fixed by M. and in no wise permits the soul to be separated from the body. Concerning this. may be compared with a similar recipe for the purple tincture." and Arabian alchemy contains to the venenum ignis. when the soul enters into the interior of the body and holds the body together and tinges I will it. Berthelot as belonging to the tenth or eleventh century. then one seizes upon the other. hold of its because Nature has laid equal. 47 tinges it with an invariable colour. " the elixir resembles a says that poison . and they destroy one For this reason. which occurs at the beginning of the Natural and . and this is recurring continually in the Byzantine Alchemical collection. sulphureous mixed sulphur is produced a most precious colour. nor flees from the fire. and afterwards they no longer flee. out of the another. because of its violence many and subtlety.* a constructive aspect. A Syriac treatise. * This process. after the manner of an enemy. the envious have said When one flies and : the other pursues. repeat my words in Tyrian Take the Animal which is dye. which varies not. worded in the language of the Tyrian dye.

also. dry gradually. urine plays part. it several for until the most precious Tyrian colour shall come out from it to the surface. and rule the same with a gentle fire. and place therewith gradually in a vessel. as is customary. days in Then leave its own vessel. until it be imbued with all its it shall humour. t The second moistened. with I ! Myftic Questions of Democritus. But if you wish to obtain the Tyrian tincture. in which there will be a little colour. an important * In this. take the humidity which that thing has ejected. 48 called Kenckel. and to dry." become . since all water its is a Tyrian colour. Then it cook with that same marine water* until become dry. and cease not to imbue it. The use of sea water is specified in one of the Democritic treatises. adding that tincture whereof the colour was disagreeable to you. Observe how describe the regimen to you Prepare it with the urine of boys. until it shall become earth. to cook. t Afterwards moisten with that humour. after recension reads : " until it shall which evaporate the moisture.The Turba Philosophorum.

you that a colour will thence appear to you the like of which the Tyrians have never And made. 49 water of the sea. according to the rule of sight mix the same with permanent water sufficiently. But if therefore.t cook until it imbibe sea the its own moisture . with dye it alternately. it. be a the still gum which ye * t if ye wish that more exalted in the shall it should colour. imbue the same with continual* water. which which is thou hast prepared. water of desiccated calx . and with permanent clean water. and it be easily pounded. blackness altogether shall depart from Decoct. Then wash with the water of . in its ye wish to bring it to the Tyrian colour. and mix. own humour until it clothe itself with a red colour. and The second recension reads The alternative reading is : : " with water of snow. place permanent water. as ye know to be sufficient. and decoct until rust absorb the water." water of talc. so that it may be tinged. E . and do I tell this day by day. and decoct with a gentle until the fire.The Turba Philosophorum.

FRICTES saith : Wisdom. and steep wool* therein until it extract the force of the tincture from the water. are all " The furnace is one. the one matter. water which is of the nature of cold. therein place what is in the vessel for days and nights. is one only. 50 afterwards desiccate in the sun. But know that ye do not tinge the purple colour except by cold. there- fore. the conceptions of Greek Alchemy. for wool.The Turba Philosophorum. Take. the one way. until it be clothed with a most precious Tyrian colour. restore to the aforesaid water Then and the black Tyrian colour is intensified. The second Moon recension substitutes Luna for Lana. t The one nature. is must be followed one. know O all ye seekers after that the foundation of on account of which many have perished.t There is this Art. therefore. The Fifteenth Dictum. Know also that the Philosophers have called the force which proceeds from that water the Flower. and one is also the way which . * i.. Seek. your intent in the said water .e.

is O Frictes ! And he It : a very sharp vinegar. for ." says the Atsembty of the Philosophert. but the explanation is to the by no . us it Woe reverence. none of us would ever attain this thing. for whichye would die if ye knew it I swear you that if kings were familiar with it.* which makes " The ONB work. ! to O how this nature changeth body into O how admirable is Nature. furnishes blood to the OTHER. one thing which and natures. Nature rejoices nature . one only and same nature. * The Greek Assembly of that the philosophical vinegar the Stone. It is the Philosophers explains obtained by the coction of appears to be an oil which rises surface during the process. but . nature triumphs over nature nature masters nature and this not for one such nature opposed to another such. proceeding by chemical from itself with pain and great labour. is 51 stronger than more sublime all the in opinion of philosophers.The Turba Philosophorum. and the ONE engenders the OTHER. nature charms nature . spirit ! how all. and overPYTHAGORAS saith Name she presides over comes all : ! this Nature. whereas with fools it is But for more common than anything." The process Serpent Ourobobot. How is a thing which we unto all ye fools ! ignorant are ye of this Art.

of the fire. the to cold. which Accordingly. and then it becomes incombustible. And know ye that when it is mixed with the body. pour on flower of salt. Prove it by reasoning and examining (? with puberty fire) until it you see that becomes incombustible. that is to say.The Turba Philosophorum. nor rust can be made. neither whiteness. nor blackness. therefore. diluted in the urine of a person : Take unburnt who has not reached then taking an equal quantity ot brine. it is contained therein. reference to the Mercurial Water.* The Wise : means M. Berthelot supposes a clear. and becomes one therewith it turns the same into a spirit. and tinges with a spiritual and invariable tincture. * The Greek Alchemists give the following recipe for the production of incombustible sulphur Sulphur. ye place the body over the fire without vinegar. further. that . without which vinegar. the sulphur rises to the surface. which is indelible. is inimical Wise have said Rule gently until the sulphur becomes incombustible. 52 gold into sheer spirit. Be careful. it will be burnt and if And know. nor redness. Take the same incom- it bustible water (of sulphur). until no longer burns. the first humour is cold. boil till . that corrupted. dilute as . Know. also.

there- it Know water of the sea. Accordingly they venerate it and name it in the beginning of their book. to redness. O disciples of incombustible sulphur. the For con- vinegar body. Now. it into a cinder. in the case of the divine mystery.The Turbo. I have shewn to you. is. is changed into a stone. the and be disintegrated. but the perfection of the this. that a little of this sulphur burns a strong body. so that it becomes a coin of most intense whiteness. and by the will of Gcd. fore. which they mentioned. and also whitens the body. finally work . by means of after vinegar. This is the . which. and the son of this verts Adam thus described burns it. there follows a complete perfection. dissolve and temper with stone until then Cook. also. 53 men have already shewn to those who possess reason the dispositionof this Art. and the best point of their Art. if ye cook well and deprive of blackness. that the beginning of the whole work is the which succeeds the whitening. Philosophorum.

Have ye not seen. than all natures. which is more perfect. more this and more honourable. SOCRATES O crowd of those that still remain of the Sons of the Doctrine. " body. while I prayed also to God that he would teach books so that I me what it is.The Turbo. how thrice-great red into the body. and it was changed into an invariable colour ?* Know. 54 Turba. says it is infused into the Hermes. that no tincture can be produced without Lead. He shewed me clean water. My prayer was heard. might arrive at the knowledge of this one thing. the disposition of the one thing. that the first virtue * The second recension " is vinegar. and the more I did read books. whereby I vinegar. knew pure The Sixteenth Dictum. Philosophorum. Have ye not seen Hermes infused the the required virtue. and I swear to you by God that I have searched for a long time in precious. therefore. which possesses saith: Know. the more was I illuminated. the same body is changed into an invariable colour ? thrice-great reads : that so often as .

confirmation of this point were recognised by the Egyptians as other bodies are derived. Zosimus.e. and cook again in a very bright spissitude of the body is the until fire destroyed. Berthelot seems to be from Alcool of wine. which if it be infused into bodies. Then all . is the pure impure. iron. pound the same with Water of Nitre until it is thick like grease. 55 and the second is the Lead" of which the Wise have spoken. says : may it possesses in be cited All substances produced by lead alone. and let it be cooked till it becomes black. the by the appearances Panopolite. it the equivalent of alcool and sulphurated antimony in the form of an impalpable powder. it is from lead that the three copper. Take. renders all unchangeand able. tinges them with an invariable colour. or Koheul. to be found in Syriac or more alchemy . which he explains common with a number of other simple bodies and metallic alloys. for i. therefore. Zosimus and Non-substances of Art..The Turba Philosophorum. and is. in Part of any body separated from that which different fact. Lead which is made out of the stone called Kuhul t let it be of the best quality. Rulandus explained by The Alcohol mentioned by M. Berthelot tells us that lead was regarded by the Egyptian alchemists as the generator of the other metals and the first matter of transmutation. the Substances t The is he . . is the to be Lead of the Philosophers. significance accurately Kohol. * M. On in is of the term Kuhul. Kuhul. and tin.

connection with a fragment name on the of the white M. lest with dew. of Democritus." salt. But faction. and the an important part in the ros philosophorum certainly plays Great Mystery.* when ye shall find the same like to a metallic stone. 56 water the therefore. Cook same once more with water until it become tin by lique- the of nitre Again cook until it be deprived of moisture. however. and yet again with fresh water for 10 The explanation of all Rosicrucian mysteries has days. Take it be burnt. it afterwards with dew and the sun. and exceedingly white. because it ' The second it humour is burnt lead. for 10 days with salt water. rejected. again with salt water for 20 days. process In the Natural and Mysterious Questions dew is of whitening. for been referred to the dew of the alchemists.The Turba Philosophorum. and 10 days with fresh water. Berthelot suspects . becomes dry it recension reads and rain water : its " Afterwards pound it 29 days. Thus we up what remains of care. comes being above clean. and with sea and rain water for 21 days. Philosophical Egg it is mentioned and in in the tabulated as a or philosophical albumen. and become dry. Kindle. but here the additions of a later hand. until the stone be- it abounding in precious Pound metal. know when that drinks swiftly.

the for the lead. * M. taking call it the care lest the vinegar be changed into smoke and perish continue this coction . demonstrated white lead. Now. Greek indentifies orpiment with the arsenic The word itself does not occur in the writers. who reappears as Peter Theoctonicos. receiving the because she is in Mix. therefore. I have discovered for you the female therefore. orpiment. therefore. Mix them. for 150 days. Pound same with the sharpest vinegar. Berthelot of the ancients.* with the orpiment female rejoices in strength of the male. assisted by the male. But the male receives a tingeing spirit from the female. Know. in . I have the disposition of the which afterwards follows all being no more than women's work and child's play. 57 incombustible sulphur. also. which it is found.The Turba Philosophorum. that the arcanum of the work of gold proceeds out of the male and the female. and cook till it becomes thick. in like manner. while. but there is a fifteenth century translation from Latin to Greek of the Semita Recta. but I have shewn you the male in the lead. ascribed to Albertus Magnus.

vinegar which It is the Ethelia of placed in the preparation. The Seventeenth Dictum. 58 together. Do not shew these unto the evil. whereby also spirits is possession of bodies. according to the second recension. and leave throughout the night. I have you the power of orpiment. wish that to put it it is on mud Now.The Turba Philosophorum. place in a glass vessel. the woman by whom is ac- notified to which is complished the most great arcanum. but it yet remains to treat concerning the reddening * ! Know. . and pound with Ethelia and very sharp vinegar . all ye seekers after Otherwise Zenon. cook for seven days. for they will laugh. seeing already dry. by which things God perfects the take work. But again imbue therefore. and they become spiritual. if ye (colour). with vinegar. now hast thou spoken about making into white. taking care lest the arcanum smoke away. ZIMON* saith : O Turba of Philosophers and disciples.

and to gather and tinge the fruit in autumn. is of the complexion of air. rule the tingeing natures. the yellowing will be perfect. white. the red. but if ye err. ye are to rule your natures. this Art. In this manner. and is of the complexion of . Thou The TURBA answereth : hast treated the matter extremely * A commentary introduced into the text of Zosimus on Virtue and Interpretation. which is Autumn. fruits are the fourth. Having. which is summer. blame no one save yourselves. to cook in spring. ye red. therefore. there is . season is of a frigid comthis is Winter the second and plexion. . !* also. fire lastly. redden the white the year the first is Know.The Turba Philosophorum. observes If thou dost com: mence by making perfect and solid. and white. in given this example. to coagulate summer. that divided into four seasons . that make cannot 59 unless ye whiten. and this is Spring then follows the third. therefore. namely. . to dissolve in winter. therefore. because the two natures are nothing other than red and Whiten. wherein matured.

. Take red. Berthelot. combine lead therewith. are enumerated by M. including. let equally." : " becomes a mighty .. . etc. in addition to the sur-oxyde of lead. From the composite turned into a red spirit is of the world. . but a spiritual composite. produced the beginning * The substances various founded under the names of which alchemists Minium. Here certainly is the Red Lead of which the wise spake copper and lead become a precious stone mix them . realgar. and cook it until it becomes thick congeal also and desiccate until it becomes red. gold be roasted with them. The second among recension reads spirits. but some of iron. ye rule well.The Turba Philosophorum. another teaching of this kind for the sake of posterity.* the Master at the the copper ordered you of beginning to his which take book. t the male and the female are conjoined there is not produced a volatile wife. not only oxydes t spirit vermillion. cinnabar. con- etc. And he : I will speak of making lead well . which is the modern name of minium. 60 add. becomes a So when tingeing spirit in spirits. Rubric. for if this. therefore.

that with the addition of a little [philosoAnd phical] gum any species of body may be tinged.* after this who find O how many are the seekers gum. the great mystery.The Turba Philosophorum. and how few there are it ! Know that this gum is not ameliorated except by gold alone. which is of our work. and without which nothing is effected called ! The Eighteenth Dictum. when Mundus in identifies Gum with Permanent Water he agreement with the same authority. For there be very many who investigate these applications. . of the passage just cited That which tinges find the following words : and things tinged is Divine The gum of gold is mentioned tinctures water. yet they cannot sustain the labours because they are dimi- * It appears from Zosimus on The Detailed Exposition of the Work. Behold this is the lead which 61 we have Red Lead. out of which our precious stone is generated. and they find certain things. MUNDUS saith seekers after this TURBA The Art must know that the to : the Philosophers in their books have described gum in many ways. in a we is for in the context fragment attributed to Agathodemon. but it is none other than permanent water.

and know it do hold it all those who more honourable than gold. tincture. therefore. when committing these things to writing that the same might gold not perish. and the arcanum existing therein. which has already nished. Our gum. Consequently. held the labours. lest every one should become acquainted therewith. my words. Take. and having become familiar to fools. therefore. the same would not sell it at a small price. the Philosophers. part of the most intense white one gum . Understand. therefore. for without it the gum cannot be improved. Know ye that our gum is stronger than gold. and are they sustain the never diminished. yet gold we also honour. . because out of gum with a little we buy much.The Turba Philosophorum. have not set forth in their books the manifest disposition. for I unto you the applications will explain of this gum. is for Philosophers more precious and more sublime than pearls. 62 But the applications which are made out of the gum and out of the honourable stone.

afterwards extract it. one part of the gall of a fish and one . until the milk fail . mix these por- and cook for forty days. 63 one part of the urine of a white calf. then sprinkle with water of dew. part of the body of gum. mixed dried. fig. mix the same with the gum which equipped with all manner of colours. Having done these things. Also imbue with perit manent water. and cook strongly until the whole force of the water perish . which afterwards mix with milk of the root of grass.The Turbo. tions with milk of ferment. and desiccate until it become of the most intense dryness. and again cook Then moisten until it be dry. When these things have been done. Philosophorunt. and until it become dry evaporate the moisture by Then mix heat. and cook until it be dried. and cock it it with milk of the moisture that till be dried up in the composite. and the entire is body be deprived . with rainwater. without which it cannot be improved . congeal by the heat of the sun till they are Then cook the same.

is to be understood not of previous speakers Assembly. Now. lest the composition spirit is and fly off in pass fumes. Let it remain dismiss for in that tritura- tion or decocting until the spirit penetrate the body. open the vessel. it behoves one who is introduced to this Art to attempt nothing till he is familiar with the power of this Per* The reference to the Masters. The Nineteenth Dictum. in the . For by this regimen the made corporeal. purposed. and ye will find that which ye This. Philosophorum 64 . the Greek Alchemists.The Turbo. which occurs twice in this dictum. DARDARIS saith : It is common knowledge that the Masters* before us have described Permanent Water. namely. These things being accomplished. while ye imbue the same by cooking. but of the older philosophers. until the dryness of its Then thereof be kindled. arcanum therefore. is the of gum. therefore. humidity. which the Philosophers have concealed in their books. and the body Observe the is changed into a spirit. vessel. forty days.

by the will of God it for. invariably this Water. and in commixture. He. and the spirit the same the incorporates spirit incorporates the body into tinged spirit. and the whole regimen. whence the Philosophers have called it Per- thereof manent Water. it contrition.The Turba Philosophorum. may understand its indispennot enter into this Art. as the Masters before me have explained to you. turns that body into spirit.* For these. And know ye. ! The second recension adds : " and the spirit body. transform each other the . because nothing is effected without the Permanent Water. The force is a spiritual blood. and sable regimen. there- not Permanent Water. blood also this therefore. being mixed together and reduced to one. body spirit. having pounded it with the body." F into . arcanum * hath Remember. manent Water. that whatsoever hath as well. like blood. behoves 65 us to use famous Permanent who does fore.

that unknown thing which is known to everyone. Democritus. that polymorphous object which is without form. He answereth : It is disciples ? in honour of their Master. I nature. and the making of * The whole of this Dictum recalls a passage in It is for these Zosimus. its Nevertheless." For this stone is not a stone. why hast thou called phers. The Twentieth Dictum. : Master. many denominations have been white smoke. it it is has no it. and while same time name one. self the following distinction " . no falsehood . lest I should them make them equal with him. have composed this book which is called the Turba. at the money value its nature is one. Then Those who. in con- PYTHAGORAS saith : junction with us. . so that whether flees the fire. or is uttered. which has many names and has no name. ought Then he not to be termed disciples. or white copper. they have frequently described Permanent Water. makes him. ye have PYTHAGORAS discoursed excellently !* answers : Seeing that they are philosoO Belus. that precious thing which has no value. Take that stone which is not a stone. but according it is called the being which given to its exceedingly precious. On Virtue and Interpretation reasons that my excellent master. I refer to aphroselinon. BELUS saith : O disciples.The Turba Philosophorum 66 . do not say absolutely speaking.

namely. they agree with the hidden truth. not to be mixed it with bodies tion . and regimens. because . sold for coins by lapidaries who are called saven .* by yet others its descriphas been further varied. ! and that it the lest is by many names. albeit under many names but in the modes after which they have conjoined the . founded upon its colour.The Turbo. some of whom have to . according the place where it is generated others have adopted another. termed the Green Stone by other some it is called the Stone of the most intense Spirit of Brass. 67 White and the Red in many ways. designated it one fashion. Behold. compositions. some have named it it is Spume * of Luna . and accordingly it is . what is said concerning this A report has gone despised thing abroad that the Hidden Glory of the Philosophers is a stone and not a stone.t some have distin- The second recension reads " Green Lion." Sputum Lunse does not seem to be a term which : t found favour with Latin alchemy. should recognise foolish Certain wise after called men have it. weights. Philosophorum.

In Zosimus. or thousand titles. Aphroselinum. 68 it guished astronomically arith- already received of which the best is has it metically. The Twenty -first Dictum. On Virtue and Interpreta" that from Hermes tion." M. there is a concerning prescription which falls from the moon when referred to as describing where it it waning. seems seldom to have troubled himself about the significance of its bizarre terms. Rulandus." So also others have called it the Heart of the Sun. Lapis Arabicus.. thou hast concerning the despised in the Lexicons. Note also the of mercury. Selenite. " you will find it with me and with Agathodaimon. Moon. &c. and yet others have declared it to be that which is is brought forth out of quicksilver with the milk of volatile things. it Berthelot supposes this passage to volatilisation Turba recalls mythology of allegorise upon the But the expression in the the passage of Synesius. In fact.The Turba Philosophorum. supposed not only to reflect the likeness of the but to be " Rulandus. made from dew by the foam of the Moon. says Hermes. " That which a : produced out of metals. PANDOLFUS much said so wanting saith who Belus." and he is to be found. and how is is has the quality of resisting the fire. O : It very curious to note that is quite frequently quotes the Turba." .

and that no tingeing venomt * The Turba Philosophorum does where the hand is gene- not betray any- and although the reference to the despised stone suggests the stone which the builders have rejected. commenting upon Democritus.t Nature contains Nature.The Turba Philosophorum. verily. it the despised thing which and so on through a number is most of contradicting denominations. is more precious or purer than the Sun. except in may have drawn it so far from that source. the idea is derived from of a Christian compiler. f J The second recension reads " clean water. stone* that thou hast left added by thy brethren I teach stone all is 69 nothing to be Howsoever. Treating. ! posterity that this despised a permanent water." The symbolism of the venom of the philosophers also found : in is Zosimus. the Greek adept calls precious. . ye seekers after manent water is Wisdom. water that per- mundane of because. Zosimus. in his dictum on the subject of calx. life. concerning the uncommunicated mystery of the encephalous stone. and know. Philosophers have stated that Nature rejoices in Nature. and not from the as Zosimus himself New Testament. and Nature overcomes Nature. The Philosophers have constituted this short dictum the principle of the work for reasonable And know ye that no body persons.

Berthelot and it is in without not found in any Alchemy. A quotation from Mary (the first) in Zosimus On the Measure of Yellowing runs thus Copper when burned with sulphur. it figures as the name of the Lexicons of treatise. by M. Know also that our coin when it becomes red. and the venom of serpents. who attempts to make rated without the He. already revealed. becomes an excellent gold without shadow. and recovered : after having undergone the same process several times.The Turba Philosophomm. therefore. the of bodies. and has fallen into that pit wherein his sadness remains. the rouille of metals. Zosimus. of the Cambart him is the the hidden to Philosophers. * he. 70 Sun and its shadow. it is On annotation specific of virtue According to the spirit separated from the substance of a Virtue and Interpretation. The Arcanum answereth Thou : hast TURBA even now intel- The Greek word signifies. treated with oil ot natron. says an M. is called gold who knows fore. is the Transmission of Ancient Science of an adept. . In an ancient alchemical entitled The Code of Truth. Berthelot. body. venom the of the Philosophers without these. there- . already errs. But he who has tinged the venom of Sun and its shadow* the wise out of the has arrived at the highest Arcanum. t his This oriental term Essay on explanation of its referred to significance.

. yet hast not narrated its 71 thou regimen nor its Return. if it has become a see and. but furnace. Let it stay there from evening till morning." t It does not appear that the conception of the Philosopher's Stone as a medicine of metals and of men was familiar to Greek alchemy. until * it becomes Kuhul. t very great ruled excellently well. therefore. in which case ye have stone.* and the same is mixed and pounded with wine.The Turba Philosophorum. for the Then. place in a vessel of burnt clay. black stone. extracting. He saith : I direct you description. ligibly described this stone. which is White Magnesia. but take care not to make use of this except it be pure and clean . which is a great arcanum. and pray God He may grant you the that sight of this Then cook gradually. finally place it in its vessel. to the composition. it Hide comprises everything which concerns whitening by decoction. is far whitening of Magnesia: if it be black. But rule it thus for the white. better to cook this mystery. closed up with The Chemistry of Moses gives the following process " Taking Magnesia and an equal quantity of Cappadocian salt. for it let it it be cooked till it in a glass-maker's whitens. an occult and honourable arca- to take num.

which are the said flower of copper. until its colour turns into that which ye desire. which of the is I is required to following. And know accounts. 72 blackness. that is. and imbue gum that remains. have is reading of the word Hoc. make sense The second . with its confections. that is. or T? . Now. fixed exalted alum.* cook the four. sentence extremely doubtful.The Turba Philosophorum. which blackness see that it does not remain longer than forty days. permanently for 40 or 42 days. gold of the Indies whose root is one. so often must it be desiccated and again humectated. therefore. with the ye that so often as ye imbue the cinder. therefore. God After these days will show you the principle (or beginning) of this stone. and a certain extract of an unguent. of which favoured sight of God there are many which is Cook strongly. therefore. will * The I complete that which authenticity of this sign and the marginal note which editions does not help it out. of a crocus. Pound the same. the stone Atitos. appended to most printed It is no doubt really a mis- immediately recension confirms this view.

* the that work of the to God if begun. Cook. let the gluten of gold. and when it is desiccated it coheres. place the same thirds be finished. the wax until it imbibes therefore. Know also will look kindly rule perfection of this precious stone is with it on us.The Turba Philosophorum. the you perfection of ! untranslatable. which being desiccated. 73 the residue the of the medicine. and is only introduced to provide a meaning. fire until flower and be are ye if I will * original emendation given is its Blessed satisfactory. if not. imbue the rest of the work seven times until the other two- and true earth imFinally.! be more intense than the former. ye understand repeat to The the earth extract But. and to part preserve the two other parts for imthird of buing and cooking alternately the till Let the fire required colour appears. in the text the conjectural has no authority. . bibe them on a hot all. the matter be cerated. reading of the second recension has been owing to the corrupt state of the longer text. t The substituted.

is clean white.The Turba Philosophorum. explain to us what the instructing Pandolfus has stated. For that which ye seek of it by the favour of God. the arcanum of gold and the art of the coin is a dark vestment. and no one . that you your truth. Saith the and art TURBA : Let your discretion. and be not envious. which sand is is the imbue sand therewith. Now. so this great wicked the God and show not arcanum. until it drink up the whole. as you have often been told. wherein true tincture. therefore. THEOPHILUS saith: intelligently and Thou hast spoken elegantly. and beware of the ! The Twenty-Second Dictum. held free from envy. and close the mouth of the vessel effectually. which a most great arcanum. which is the stone of Tyrian colour. Then he : O all ye seekers after this science. made out of the stone seven times imbued. 74 Take the the work. therefore. have I fulfilled do I conjure you by sure Master. will appear to you.

and albeit some have dealt with it intelligibly which and it have treated well. the venom into two equal parts. experiments. Thou thus some are more lucid The TURBA hast truly spoken. and of the Wise. certain others obscurely .* is better rendered in the " Cook with the former part of the venom . therefore. and it changes as a fluxible Divide. until it is drawn out into plates . because the boritis of the Wise liquefies the copper. but preserve the other to pound and imbue the same. answereth And he : : I announce to posterity that between boritis and copper there is an affinity.The Turba Philosophorum. 75 knows what the narrated in Philosophers have books without their reading. than others. For that questionings frequent they have concealed is more sublime and obscure than it is possible to make known in words. cook again with to seven in its * first own water This unintelligible passage recension : for 42 days . cook two to seven in two. liquefy the copper. with one of which water. cook the former part of the venom.

that becomes a matter like mucra. the very great putrefaction which extracts (or contains in itself) the very its *s arcanum. . Then imbue it with the Permanent water which I directed you coagulated stone until it to reserve. it Ac- cordingly. open the and ye vessel. great until it shall Saith the TURBA : have absorbed both. finally. wash the same by cooking until it be deprived of its blackness.* cook. therefore. according to after the black state. it is congealed becomes a very great arcanum.76 The Turba Philosopherum. whitened. that is to say. find copper turned into shall quicksilver. The word is It is the Laton which must be of Oriental origin. Lastly. and become as copper without a shadow. the Philosophers have called this stone Boritis. is the White Stone reduces earth to water. This. therefore. cook it continuously until it be con- For when gealed. it many times until colours manifest. * Boritis. with the other and cook portion. and do this seven times. A late French Lexicon observes that the name was applied by Philosophers to their Mercury when it had reached the extreme black stage." ebibat does not agree with the subsequent But donee duas directions found in each version. and it Rulandus.

ye permanent water. quicksilver. therefore. also exists assuredly between copper and Return to thine exposition. until the water become thin. otherwise. But dividing this water into two parts.The Turba Philosophorum. there will thence result the very great arcanum in the following Take fashion. and white pound strongly by cooking. until there be a white flower. in the one part of the water cook it for eleven.* Magnesia and mix with the male. rule copper and permanent water as I have directed. 77 O TheoAnd lie: It is to be known philus that the same affinity which exists between the magnet and iron. when ye will find it of it water whiter than milk all blackness by cooking . and cook for forty days. ! If." : . not with the hands. deprive continue the cooking until its whole nature be disintegrated. as the flower of salt in its splendour and coruscation : but strongly close the mouth of the vessel. until the de* The second recension reads mixed with the male. forty days. " Take quicksilver .

CERUS* Understand.The Turba Philosophorum. a syrup of pomegranates and until the therefore. you to For the Iksir pounds (or contains) itself. colour which the Philosophers have magnified shall truly appear. that which Theophilus saith : hath told you. cook. weight of the humidity shall fail. and the . 78 filement perish. be accomplished. and leave in its own vessel. the other part which I counselled clean. until be it found and is wholly broken up (or becomes wholly clean). that there exists an affinity between the magnet and the * The name Bellus. substituted by the second recension is . The Twenty-third Dictum. imbue also with the residue of the water. that is to say. preserve. which I have given you. all ye Sons of the Doctrine. namely. until by decoction and by water it be pounded and become like imbue it. until there appear a crocus. wash the same with water. But if ye wish that the whole arcanum.

" says Horus. The second recension adds : " Between the copper and water of the Philosophers. all ye Turba. Here M. Berthelot observes that the reference is to sublimed mercury or the sulphur thereof. 79 by the alliance of composites existing between the magnet and the iron. in the male potency or strength . that why And he : I testify say nothing but what is true ." " " The proper end of the whole art. that your The TURBA Master may believe you answereth : Say what you will. but it is. iron. " The nature According to the alternative version of the one does not agree with the nature of the other. as well to state that the Greek Lexiconof Chrysoptia explains that tin alchemically is cinnabar. while the ruled for is fitly copper one hundred days :* what statement can be more useful to you than that there no is affinity between tinf and The TURBA answerelh : quicksilver ?! Thou hast ill spoken. seeing that all .The Turba Philosophorum." t The definition may not be important. And he : ! I direct which * is you to take quicksilver. and that cinnabar is sublimed vapour obtained by coction in cauldrons. is : \ to obtain the semen of the male secretly. perhaps. having disparaged the true disposition. This affinity and combination is given to them in the space of one hundred days. are you incensed against me ? I Fear the Lord.

as a fact. when it is a most things are male and female. Then take the water which you had divided into two parts. companion. of which one is for liquefying and cook- become a ing the body. and is its defilement. cook the masculine together with the vapour. but the second cleansing that which and its made is are [two] Imbue the stone seven one. which grated. times. and you which process of reunion." &c. and cleanse. until each shall be coagulated and stone. for Nature Olympiodorus On the Sacred Art. it be disinte- body be purged from become and earth.The Turba Philosophorum. 8o cook the same with becomes a fluxible its body until it water. Know also that in the time of forty-two days the whole is changed into earth . liquefy the same until it become as true water. . until all for already burnt. charms Nature. nitre until it become as a liquefied coin. is sought . without this nothing can succeed. certain place will : find that Hence Horus says in a Join the male and the female. Then cook until it be congealed and become like to tin. which is Then wash with water of quicksilver. therefore. by cooking.

until a stone is produced . 81 that is to say.The Turba Philosophorum. Rule the same by cooking and pounding. . O saith Thou : hast spoken I follow Belus. a also most excellent that unto water companion we have Cook it. thy steps and ! answereth thus. until becomes it Know crocus. liquefy. then rule the stone with gluten of gold and syrup of pomegranates until it be broken up. the Doctrine. The Twenty-fourth Dictum. of crocus. BOCASCUS* well. and imbue with the residual desiccated with its name given the therefore. water reserved by you until you attain your purpose. therefore. but do not become envious. But you * The name in the second recension is Boratis. imbue. G . I Take : direct the Sons of lead. for that is not the part of the Wise. And BOCASCUS: Thou speakest the truth. as the Philosophers have ordained. and. and afterwards congeal. and therefore He As it may please you. the great arcanum stone which is out of two things.

its printer's choice Until and . Return. as you have been frequently ordered. with one and liquefied the lead. until. difficult to retain. until it then pound with the water reserved until it acquire a red colour. therefore. to the subject. a rare substance." it is Fabrication of the All. it Having darts towards the upper descends and ascends.* earth . way and a suitable which is termed dried and in the testing of souls.t it coagulate quickwith its equal. spirit. it reaches a it fire. the same be dried and have become as water. Zosimus understands molybdochalchos. avoiding the action quitting its role of fugitive.! Otherwise: " Rule frequently. all employed etherised one met with rarely. therefore. The TURBA answer-eth Thou : hast done nothing but pile up ambiguous words. that I refer to roasting." says the second recension between compari and corpori. 82 have already divided the water into of which you have two parts. And he Ye who wish : to must mix silver. it is a . An the fixation of Mercury by by which unassigned fragment of the Byzantine collection has the following poetical reference to the fixation of Mercury " Mercury is obtained in like manner with artificial : cinnabar. \ is. It is that easily volatilised. mortal." t The Greek alchemists claim to have accomplished * means of the Body of Magnesia. body. it has become cook. state of wisdom. become an hemisphere of the above . cinnabar obtained by the dry " With is it has attained this condition. as I have said.The Turba Philosophorum.

posterity to * The second make bodies not recension reads : bodies. And they : It is said because thou praisest him for his sayings." : " Place it once . and. recension merely says and pound. Afterwards cook it 83 diligently until both become permanent water. until it it The Twenty-fifth Dictum. " Let the whole be coagulated into quicksilver. And he : I know can utter nothing but that which he hath uttered however. do not be inferior to him. because ye have found the whole quicksilver to be coagulated If itself. cook But let again." t more The second in its vessel.The Turba Philosophorum. and place what is necessary. this be desiccated with its own water until this it equal vapour. since thou speakest ! For thou hast illuminated thy words. I counsel that I . cook be coagulated. MENABDUS the for the truth May God saith: reward thee regimen.* by in your vessel ye understand. be coagulated. and then poundt until it becomes a crocus like to the colour of gold.

The Turba Philosophomm. corporeal state." into The in precisely the one body. concludes that Body of Magnesia is molybdochalchos. bodies become not bodies. desired result make will be Hermes and he observes elsewhere is to impart body to the The Body of Magnesia.] f Zosimus." quoted by Olympiodorus in terms which " Except correspond literally with the text of the Turba : you convert corporeal substances into incorporeal. commenting upon Mary. . is is its these bodies accordingly join quicksilver and the body of Magnesia.t the woman also with the man. and unless you two bodies achieved. and incorporeal if I things become pound the things in the * Egg bodies.* For by regimen the composite prepared. and But Mary is incorporeal substances into corporeal. or black lead. no " divine " Zozimus also quotes same fashion. The confusion of old chemis[See note on p. through which bodies are coloured assuredly. understand this regimen. 84 but these incorporeal things bodies. If ye diligently fire and digest The Byzantine fragment upon The contains this statement : Philosophical " Unless bodies lose their and unless bodies again corporeal state. and by means of this there is extracted our secret Ethelia. the try on the subject of the last substance is well known. 82. . and the hidden part of this nature With extracted. that which is assume their desired will not be attained. that to convert and transmute incorporeal.

has been recension says that because Ethelia tinges itself tinged. breaking up. that quicksilver is a fire burning the mortifying and bodies. shall dili- gently pound fiery quicksilver and cook it as required. and being coloured this reason unless it it it And know colours. while the quicksilver comes is attenuated and be- For when ye living. subject to every tincture." " all it holds and things when . * That is. a fixed nature* and colour." which seems a preferable t Alternatively. they clean and fixed things. reading. which does not flee from the fire. and constrains the fire. the more the body is disintegrated. For breaks. which also overcomes. ye will possess Ethel. and the more it is mixed and pounded with the body.The Turba Philosophonim. \ The second colours once it all spirits." " all bodies.t does not colour things be coloured. when it becomes a body and soul with- " one according to the second recension.! that no body can tinge itself unless its spirit be extracted from the secret belly thereof. with one regimen. 85 become And know ye (or join to) the Ethelias.

that unless first it Hence has the copper does not be tinged. and before the copper has been tinged. becomes more " beautiful than gold. effect that How then. 86 which a spiritual out the spirit. but that copper burnt by means of oil of natron. t it is said. if this combination be wanting. The Four Metallic Bodies.The Turba Philosophorum. And that those four bodies which you This distinction between the soul and the spirit is recognised by Zosimus.* tincture. Copper does not tinge so long as it preserves an unique essence. but a tenuous nature colours that which enters into a body. Zosimus copper does not tinge. the tingeing element. but it tinges by its combinacites tion with other bodies. can one succeed in tingeing objects made subject to the action of " fire ? . out of which colours have is manifested. The purifying influence of fire preserves the spirit when the operation has been conducted according to the rules of Art. seeing that a dense thing does not tinge a tenuous. Virtue and Interpretation. however. then the latter is changed into a tincture by from it which man wise tinge know coloured. f In his treatise On Democritus to the <&c. and have extracted a most tenuous (subject). The soul is the primitively sulphureous and caustic nature. ye have ruled the body of copper. and having undergone this treatment repeatedly. who follows Democritus. The spirit is the useful part. When.

The Turba Philosophorum.* but the condensed is a conjoined vapour. the condensed being . which your Master by no The TURBA means ordered you to do ! answereth : Inform us according O your own in to this Zenon. and the humid is the water of for sulphur. that it behoves you to allow the composition to putrefy for forty days. Then and beware of matter. Know. have conjoined two bodies. and overcomes. are directed 87 rule are this copper. sulphurs are contained by sulphurs. O crowd of the Wise." "The condensed and tinctures. and constrains. ZENON saith: I perceive that you. envy he : Know that the colours which shall ! appear to you out of it are these. and then to * the The second humid recension reads: are these two joined with the humid. opinion. and rightly by these things Nature rejoices in Nature. O Sons of the Doctrine. The Twenty-Sixth Dictum. to and that the tinctures which I have signified unto you are the condensed and the humid.

when these colours shall appear to you On : the first black day on the citrine. beware lest you extract the same hastily. the same as an Ixir. because it is a soul extracted out of many things. " Crocus : like unto sericus. are composing the Ixir." t you The second extract the recension substitutes spirit in haste. for it Extract. the purple colour will appear to you the ferment .* finally. birth and life. and cook. lor " Beware lest : perchance it will perish. and imposed upon * The preferable coins reading its :I is tincture. second black red. and . 88 sublimate five Next times in a vessel. and then it tinges with an invariable tinc." the soul shall many things. and the coin of the vulgar shall be then is the Ixir composed imposed out of the humid and the dry. on the third like unto a dry crocus. For this venom is. a tincture extracted out of imposed upon coins. ture." | The second recension reads: "And remain. t were.The Turba Philosophorum. join to a fire of dung. as it lingers. therefore. Know also that wherein there it is called a body But when ye is gold.

among in made its It may be use of it. to those things with life is is it 89 said that between them there exists the same desire as between male and female. from which it rebut it is death to the bodies Accord- extracted. is it have Masters the ingly. the Stone J The comparison of gleaming marble is Western a special instance in point. no vocabulary mentions it. in in the Alchemists is difficult . is And splendour. found. saith : O all ye Turba. but said almost certainly that no later author Moreover.The Turbo. from which joined. and if any one. being introduced to this Art. Philosophorum. he would sustain the tediousness of cooking until he gained his purpose accord- God. ing to the will of The Twenty -Seventh Dictum. which moves evil. until its is Chambar. The most second recension. it splendour to other of the Greek . be observed that the envious GREGORIUS* it to is have to like be ruled marble * The name t Antimony. should know these natures.t it venerable the called find favour with to speak with complete authority. I Turba did not Efflucidinus coruscates it second recension the in bizarre terms of the stone and they have ordered Efflucidinus. therefore.

transport. a thus. however. O Mark proceeds on the subject of And " : Now. which. " all ye investigators of Zosimus." in Work. it it re- peat the process. the which is like his Detailed is quoting the Philosopher. in alchemists. when marble. unto marble. seized with a divine this white sulphur preparation become like unto marble. substances. : Then posterity. It behoves you. is cooked till it becomes earth. direct I becomes to you is it turned assume the aforesaid become hidden into ye see it and colour. because When colour." . until it it and disintegrated is repeatedly cook and imbue shall rule when red. the copper be congealed. having cited is : If the there a great Stephanus. and it a coruscating stone with a let Finally. when it will become gold of a Tyrian colour. Then gold. go they to Show.The Turba Philosophorum. and water. red Willingly . it : is it with until until he that commingled ruled what therefore. the great mystery. he that which tinges tinctures and tinged same is divine water. must you is know remains vinegar. where. he again. therefore. then mystery. becomes it it brilliancy like ye see thus. and especially Exposition of the Democritus.

such variations." anecdote of the alchemists. J The second Otherwise |l with : A common many recension substitutes " sand. Observe. and ye shall imbibe themt several times until the divide into colours which are hidden by no appear unto you. ye knew a person who commenced this nothing of those colours.|| how ye make " a small quantity. 91 when ye have observed that Stone is coruscating. so relinquished the therefore." " until the hidden colours shall appear. the conjunc- work. then water ordered you to two parts. and operated I natures the of who. and the reference seems to be to the division of * Otherwise : The the water indicated in an earlier part of the colloquy. as Norton's Ordinal of Alchemy. imagined that he had made a mistake. Philosophorum. if ye rule it Know that shall see ignorantly.The Turbo. when the redness was somewhat slow in appearing." t opprobrious term is omitted by the second recension. and truth. reproduced and even in Hermetic poems. certain body also work. . quires some degree of redness take the remainder* of the which envioust the ac- it . this and turn into it until earth. to pound this Art.

which take in to test the perfection of the hand.The Turba Philosophorum. Finally. for when it has entered into the said body. it is then most excellent. but earth imbue it until colours for us God shall extract the and they appear. I order that the fire should be gentle in will when it is turned to make the same intense. and if ye effect death will it without the weight.* having em- tion. for the braced his spouse. the redness does not delay in coming. GUSTOS Turba ! saith at I O am all ye surprised." according * The second t That is. congeals." " intenser in congelation. recension reads " the male. passes swiftly into her body. take place. 92 punic dye. and next into powder. and if ye find it impalpable as water. whereupon it be thought to be bad.! and liquefaction. Hence. it turns it first into earth. the second recension. and disintegrates the same. The Twenty-eighth Dictum. : to . the very great force and : nature of this water. breaks up. liquefies.

it will profit you nothing. till Then it becomes he: They meant our copper and our permanent water. and to rule the same with dew and the sun a coin-like stone. 93 otherwise. by reason of the affinity which they know to exist between the in * is a The distinction little difficult between the Wise and the Envious to follow. Greeks indifferently. other hand. when they thus directed you to cook in a gentle fire. and rule with our water. In either case. And know that if ye use any substance other than our copper. the en- : obscurity when us to take lead and little they commanded white quicksilver.The Turba Philosophorum. and affirmed that there should be produced the said coinlike stone. that Nature rejoices Nature. repeat the cooking until it is brought to the required condition. ye shall find all But that has been promised by us. concerning which the Wise have also observed. on the copper with our water. the TURBA answer eth vious* created no Father. nor is it at all certain that the envious had less wisdom than the wise. ye rule our If. they were all . or the wise less envy than the envious.

Philosophorum. that only which is unto begotten from brute ani- and so also with This reference is like is flying creatures. ungrudging manner. Therefore. . as became thee . omitted from the second recension. seekers after this doctrine.The Turbo. . DIAMEDES saith Thou hast spoken in an Moses*. this disposition most precious in their eyes. Saith the TURBA: Why do the envious direct us to take the copper which we have now made. or vice versa. Moses may be a misprint for Gustos. and be held together so that they may become one. that is to say. I will also : O confirm thy words. already. for between them there is a mixed affinity. 94 two bodies. and roasted until it has become gold ? The Twenty-Ninth Dictum. O ye that man does not proceed except being from a man themselves mals * . copper and permanent water. the nature of these two is one. passing over the hardness of the elements which the wise desire to remove. without which they would not so swiftly unite. Know.

illuminated by the fruit of the prayers of Isis. so also I wheat begets wheat. it is a monster which is engendered. made preparations with certain metallic minera. without having recourse to other (unsuitable) substances. and the able to bring forth Should it happen that & creature produced contrary to nature. Thus they succeeded by means of the substantial nature in triumphing over the matter in the preparations. and know that man man. The adepts having participated in the divine power. . I have treated these matters 95 in com- pendious fashion. that is to say. save with her own nature. but make use of venerable Nature. is charms nature. to the underway of a preliminary. my child. Nature dog procreates the dog. and like things Now hath the generally for the reproduction of their like. for out of her Art cometh. the lion begets the lion. therefore. man in man. said that mystery been revealed. consider standing of these things by creation is and generation as a whole. In fact. and nature triumphs through nature. exalting you towards the truth. and having succeeded by the divine assistance." Isis to Horns. even as employed have previously sows man.* See. and man gold serves for the increase of gold. that ye do not neglect the precepts concerning her. who yourselves omit prolixity. and the same hath no consistence. for Nature is truly not improved by Nature.The Turba Philosophorum. and * " When thou hast attained. seeing that thou thyself art not improved except in thy son.

such as the Twelve Chapters of Ostanes: "They have later defined this Stone by saying that permanent water earth . which having been done. Rulandus attributes it to made.The Turba Philosophorum. The fugitive role of Mercury is referred to in the Greek ment on The Fabrication of the All. will ye therefore. add no things. Red Servant is According to other the matter from which the Philosophers extract their Mercury. it running water and fire dead is and frozen It is . t * The allegory ot the Serous Fugitivus abounds in alchemy. the thing which makes and is Speculum Majus of Vincent de Beauvais it appears as a synonym of Mercury. less you rule it. as already cited. for near.* in marriage with his fragrant wife. the swift and the stable In fire . the flying slave. and is found also in old Arabian treatises. son to is the red slave. treatise lexicons. g6 Know out of no other. nearer is it is How the nature of is precious still. burning hard stone and . that who male. f The second begotten. which of course is an obvious symbolism." some &c. Join. powder nor anything else conception is sufficient for us. soft stone. yet the son exceeding that . which must therefore be the marriageable son mentioned in the text above. produced between them matter unto these foreign Art is neither . the the ascribed to Hermes." recension reads " : A true frag- son is . also that un- Nature and seize hold of this obtain nothing.

of art this ! envious you towards your brethren ? They answer : We do not flee except from fools tell . 97 which the regimen cannot endure BACSEN saith Diomedes. .The Turba Philosophorum. where- upon restore unto their again suffer it and beware burning them the sweat thereof. Venerate the king and his wife. us. red that without slave. thou hast publicly re: ! vealed this disposition He ! answereth : even shed more light upon it. become a certain unity. therefore. the King is the spiritual water which gives moisture to the female. lest they be deprived of sense and motion . for 1 will Woe He may Why.* and * According to Rulandus. This passage is the fountain-head of the whole symbolism of the alchemical marriage. and the colour thereof. you deprive are therefore. cause them to remain in the bath until shall body. but there are many meanings. what is thy will ? And he : Place Citrine with his wife after the do not conjunction into the bath kindle the bath excessively. which H is . it to die lest then give . it rest. unto you who fear not God. ye evaporate them by in too strong a fire.

afterwards red. illustrate and the innumerable Latin Alchemy. I have established you therein. able to a Greek source. saith: Thou O Diomedes. and finally until a tingeing venom do not burn them. so that if my duty. if after ye this under- not. since O seekers happy are ye. ye remain ignorant. I have still performed and that briefly. but if ! yourselves. Cook them. most certainly he would reveal unto you the Behold. but stand. which improve the king and his wife.The Turba Philosophorum. BACSEN well. error ! The Thirtieth Dictum. therefore. the Wise. for if God knew that ye possessed a faithful mind. Science. but I hast spoken do not see that concerned. and have extricated you from truth. Compare the Sponsus and Sponsa of the Chemical Nuptials of Christian Rosy Cross. then white. 98 you know not when you may have need of these things. therefore. It pictorial emblems which does not appear to be trace- . until they become black. is produced. it is God who hath concealed the truth from you Blame not. always with royal personages.

that Corsufle is a and that posite. Berthelot. Corsufle is the head. BACSEN saith : I give notice. or as they sometimes wrote it. however. and have confused many with Tell manner all of names. . therefore. to future seekers after this Art. a definition which does not correspond either with the text of the Turba.. explain that Corsufle.The Turba Philosophorum. O it Then he : Bacsen. Nephitus. It signifies impurity of bodies. His dictionary. t The speaker also is different. Under neither form Rulandus is after the term to be found in Rulandus himselt. and it is not found in the collections of Arabian or Syrian alchemy published by M. namely. and not the beginning of the work. The it lexicographers of com- must be roasted alchemy who followed a long interval.e. the obscure. According to the second recension. and I swear by thy father that this is the head of the work. ac- thy opinion in these matters. though he was well acquainted with the Turba. me.t for to cording the true beginning hereof cometh after the completion. the crown. Carsufle. therefore. which might be a mutilated version produced in a German printing office. i. or with the The origin of the word is subsequent vocabularies. includes Cor Fuffla. is the Sulphur of the Philosophers fixed at the Red Stage. 99 thou hast demonstrated the disposition of Corsufle* to posterity Of this same Corsufle the envious have spoken ! in ways.

answereth: well. tin. those of coin. because when it arrives at perfection it tinges the whole body. may he and : Ye some discourse con- cerning the residual matters. they have applied to it all the names of bodies in the its world. ioo seven times. O Thou : Bacsen hast ! The Thirty-First Dictum. The Thirty-Second Dictum. PYTHAGORAS saith How : does the discourse of Bacsen appear to you. all thee. copper. things die and live . gold.The Ttirba Philosophorum. until that colour TURBA be deprived of The and become Ixir. he : names ? oh Corsufle being composition. and also the name of lead. as. for example. it. O have also among the others it Thou Pythagoras spoken ! hast spoken And well. The TURBA answereth spoken the truth. since he has omitted to name the substance And they by Name : Pythagoras artificial its And ! therefore. iron. BONELLUS saith: According to O Pythagoras.

* God . Therefore it behoves you. is like to one dead and then that nature is wanting . when it has been left for nights. have mixed it The text recension reads shall that ye excellently well. O ye Sons of the Doctrine. and after corruption will be improved. to consume that matter with become a boldly until fire cinder. even as a man becomes stronger after resurrection and younger than he was in this world." unto one dead . because that nature from which the humidity is removed. it . in fire until the spirit of that becomes dust like body returns and then in his tomb. that nature which is left by nights. as a man tomb. does indeed seem that dead is (again) is left left for in his powder. The second " Therefore that nature from which the is : humidity has been removed. and is imbued corrupt and unintelligible. that matter will be made strong. when it becomes a These things being done. will of by the 101 God. is it certain nights. will restore and the unto something then turned and like unto it spirit thereof.The Turba Philosophorum. for that cinder receives the * when know it spirit. both the soul and the weak- ness being taken away.

which after and similarly the copper is inspired by the humour from which that same life. therefore. It is thus because copper like man. ye Sons O of the Doctrine. has a body and a as men cometh God is their soul. similarly. for the inspiration of from the air. .IO2 The Turba Philosophorum. many much ye rule it subtly proceed from it. that artists are unable own tinctures until them into a powder to paint with their they convert . ye will know that I speak the truth. even for things will it if proceeds from the smallest things in the world. and hence I have ordered you to burn up the body and turn into a cinder. The case is the same with those who compose the images of the ancients. with the fairer humour until colour than it assumes a it previously possessed. Consider. while others they grind with their hands. cooking some of them to a cinder. But if ye understand what has already been said. the philosophers cannot combine medicines for the sick slaves until they also turn them into powder.

but it is really an egg It is tending to become a metal. it is augmented and multi- plied. as the envious it is have termed it. was. and those qualities by which Simihealing must be effected. that consumed with fire and when copper is several iterated like 103 than it times. until it shall be coloured and shall become like blood . better is multiplied other things. larly. and because God extracts many things out of one thing. then the more its cooked. when it is our first copper. manwas to future generations after what ner it becometh better than it A nd he because : will I it is do so willingly ! . becomes The Turba it answereth: Show. cooked. the more is it thickened until it becomes a stone. philosophers add. afterwards broken and imbued. copper receiving strength and augmented the Hence.The Turba Philosophorum. becomes water . when ye must roast it in a fire more intense than the former. O Bonellus. since He hath created nothing which wants its own regimen. therefore.

is work to the suggested by the common to all found also in the Greek writers. Do according to the Divine pleasure. when placed on is it and changes them coins into gold. and adepts. and Latin among . NICARUS saith: this arcanum * The comparison Now ye have made The TURBA. and so obtain your pur- pose. is is. ye shall be princes people of your time. which in fact. 104 in combustion.The Turba Philosophorum. development above reference. among the The Thirty-Third Dictum. of the progress of the ol the embryo. But if ye arrive at the conclusion of this regimen. you not see that sperm from the blood unless cooked in the liver an intense red it till it colour. there will in no wise proceed from it that colour which ye desire. public. for unless it be cooked diligently until it shall become a powder. and afterwards be putrefied until it shall become a spiritual sperm. not produced be diligently is has acquired which no after change takes place in that sperm ?* It is the same with our work.

tell us. therefore. He ordered us to clear away the darkness therefrom do thou. * M. when they divide But he : It behoves them the water. for example. after the manner of mine the fermentations destined is necessary leaven." in many make others believe. said copper. who says that the test of the material as the embryo is fire nourishes nourished in the mother's womb. is called the ferment of Gold. or at any rate sought to was reaiiy fermentation. " that the true metal multiplied by an operation The places by comparable to is mentioned fermentation of metals the Greek writers: " It that this water.The Turba Philosophornm. then to divide the water into two parts. And they : Distinguish. but there diplosis" imitation are also are traces that the Egyptian goldsmith believed. the alliance of gold or silver with a more or less considerable quantity ot some less precious metal . nevertheless. Berthelot traces the original notion of the fermentation of metals to the sophistication called diplosis. to burn up our copper with one part. designed for the accomplishment of a " Recipes more profound met with. Not the whole. answereth And he: But they 105 : Thus did the Master order. should deter- to produce the like. this was the operation of It is found in the Leyden papyrus. there: . And fore. dissolved in that water. in Comarius.* if For the these. he : I counsel pos- terity to take the gold which they wish to multiply and renovate. by .

106 For the same in manner are cooked and liquefy ye rule well.* the regal Corsufle. then for forty days until the whole shall putrefy." literal * morsel of gold ferment all the dry is repeated in terms essential and little This notion by innumerable Latin alchemists." re- upon . and. in the metallic tact. and its colours appear. BACSEN saith : On account of thy the Philosophers said beware. But then it behoves you to imbue seven times with the residual water. finally. and pound dicta Take in the urine of a calf until the nature means in body to be tinged. used of the like. and appears. after the a small quantity. For this somewhat bizarre reading the second cension substitutes : " It seems needful to lay stress some matters which have been already mentioned. like as water . by cooking they are the red congealed. all the moisture being dried up. so also will this matter. The Thirty-Fourth Dictum. ferments a great mass of paste. which is like to the redness of copper. As a same manner that the leaven of dough. until they absorb all the water. crumble. they are turned into dry earth kindle a fire and place therein .The Turba Philosophorum.

of the Corsufle 107 converted.* But indelible colour. therefore. Putrefy the same diligently until it becomes a powder. but not found.The Turbo. have kings sought. : Shew. then it is called rust. therefore. of a colour like burnt blood. for the true nature has been hidden in the The TUREA Explain to posterity what the of the Corsufle. save only to whom God has granted it. which the fire overcoming hath introduced into the receptive belly of spiritual Nature. and the alchemists of the Nile no more worked in their The increase of the own interest than theminters of coin. and hath coloured with an This. who tells us that in Egypt the divine art of operating on minera belonged to the Kings. belly saith : nature which And And is. And extracted. . Philosophorum. poured upon it seven it absorbs the whole : humour. King's riches was the only end in view. and receives a force which is equal to the hostility of the fire. it which is is is until coruscates. " It was different in the days of Zosimus. and water times he hath from permanent water. is they : A tingeing spirit and coinlike. he how it It is pounded.

The Turba Philosophorum.








Finish your speech,






whiten copper with white water, by

which also they make




not to introduce any foreign matter.
And the TURBA: Well hast thou

spoken, O Bacsen,
also has spoken well




and Nictimerus
Then he: If I
do one of you


The Thirty-Fifth Dictum.




Hast thou


anything to be said by another ? And the
TURBA Since the words of Nicarus and


Bacsen are of



to those


seek after this Art, tell us, therefore,
what thou knowest, according as we
And he : Ye speak the
have said.


ye seekers after this Art
Nothing else has led you into error but
the sayings of the envious, t because what


for this


reason the priests


who were

acquainted with

the mineral secrets did not dare to disclose

In the second recension







t The second recension has an important variation
" The words of the
Egyptians have led us into error."


The Turbo, Philosophorum.

ye seek

sold at the smallest possible




men knew


and how


great was the thing they held in their

hands, they would in no wise sell it.
Therefore, the Philosophers have glori-

venom, t have treated of it
variously, and in many ways, have
taken and applied to it all manner of
fied that

names, wherefore, certain envious persons have said It is a stone and not a

stone, but






sequently, the Philosophers have conFor this
cealed the power thereof.

which ye seek, that ye



concealed in the body,
and hidden away from sight, even as



the soul in the

This passage recalls

effect in the






Greek alchemists,

But ye

statements to the same

as, lor

example, that the

not to be obtained by money, " for the Lord


has delivered the same gratuitously, by reason of the
beggars and the despairing." But this passage from the

Byzantine Assembly of the Philosophers
an interpolation.

The second





in part at least

" that useful


abject thing."




" Therein

tinges, vivifies, gives


the spirit which you seek,

health and


to bodies."


The Turba Philosophorum.

seekers after the Art, unless ye disinthis


body, imbue and pound

cautiously and diligently, until
ye extract it from its grossness (or
grease), and turn it into a tenuous and


have your labour in
vain. Wherefore the Philosophers have


Except ye turn bodies into notbodies, and incorporeal things into
bodies, ye have not yet discovered the
But the TURBA
rule of operation.













posterity how
into not-bodies.



pounded with
they become

And know

not take



that this does

by an exceedingly strong decoction, and continuous



a moderate

The second






not with

becomes dust," but






it is

evidently corrupt.
similar : " The fire

t The counsel of Olympiodorus is
must burn with moderation and gentleness,


the vapour
" Know

should escape in smoke and be lost," And, again
that this Art is not practised by means of a fierce






alchemists say that the Mzgnum Oput
J Some Latin
a work of the hands, which others deny, and a very pretty


The Turba Philosophorum.

with imbibition and putrefaction, with
exposure to the sun and to Ethelia.


envious caused the vulgar to err in
this Art when they stated that the thing
is common in its nature and is sold at

a small price.
They further said that
the nature was more precious than all
natures, wherefore they deceived those

who had

recourse to their books.

same time they spoke the




and therefore doubt not these things.
But the TURBA answereth : Seeing that






envious, explain, therefore, to posterity









the two


you that Art


requires two natures,

for the precious

not produced without the

diversity of opinion has risen





up among interpreters

partisans of the



view, denying the

metallic object of the Art, affirm that the mystery of the

manual operation was the mystery of animal magnetism.
The Turba in the passage above, and in other



against the use of the hands, whatever that may
" Think not

signified, here following

thou, as do some, that




superior to man's."


manual action


of itself and alone

also required that of Nature, an action


the Sacred Art.

" says the second recension. and that the whole body of Magnesia is liquefied as water. And lie When ye shall perceive that the natures have become to fore. therefore. O all ye investigators of this Art. escape. and for then the vapour contains rightly. is significant. other. although flight be essential to * f " Of the elders." a variation which. to follow the sayings of Victimerus. Nothing : the TURBA else helps water : and The whole vapour and the sublimation of water. Demonstrate. The second recension substitutes " The Philoso- phers. its own equal. and that they have been purified. thereis in the them the disposition of the vapour.H2 The Turba Philosophorum.* when he said to his disciples save you work sublimate to And vapour. : water by reason of the heat of the fire. wherefore the envioust call either are joined vapour. because both in and one contains the Thus our stag finds no path to decoctions. then all things have been made vapour. in its way. behoves you. . nor the common It without the precious.

both . and its God nature from the prohas infused into His alienates it it. it all when the one being hidden in the body. gold. lest it flee. which the envious have concealed. They makes them have also called it the black humid and forasmuch as in humidity and dryness. it is free it its spouse . is nothing else wanting perlution man there are . are the other. that favourable colour its it may is not as was. that no place to escape finds made permanent. and its colour varies. but when a and follows its spouse. falls. placed beauty is befall itself it For this reason. thus our work. But the blackness and redness appear. with it coins. The one keeps back it. and falls into sickness. then. the therefore. . rust and properly speaking.The Turba Philosophorum. putrefaction has . it is congealed with it. and hence . and extracts it perties which elect. Philosophers have called the spirit and the soul vapour. so has no opportunity to it for 113 fly. a not and dies by it although it is desirous to escape servitude then when it flight.

because these two become four. AFFLONTUS. nature and names Know in vary further. without contrition of hands. and. : The Thirty-Sixth Dictum. the regimen. that unless ye sublime the cooking. if ye cause them to be * The name in the second recension is Assotes.The Turba Philosophorum. ye have not yet found the work. then a stone. Let Zimon next follow. And know formerly ye. answereth Demonstrate : water is And ! out he two of : . and without envy. . indeed. until the whole become water. 114 but vapour and water. but by others stone. saith: I O substances at the commencement by notify to you all. called it vapour. wherein are and spirit dryness and humidity. every that the humidity become water. that the copper was called sand.* the Philosopher. The TURBA answereth Thou hast spoken excellently. ye investigators of this Art. TURBA The and I say that the work the envious have vapour composed out of two.

when his soul in a vision An Explanation and Oom- . Know also. by others a mysterious angel.The Turba Philosopher urn. that unless not of hands. M. because well the part which is light and spiritual rises to the top. ye have not yet pounded them completely. of him is given by the same writer. Now this is the contrition the of which is Philosophers. become * converted. name equivalent to this. He is quoted by Olympiodorus (On the Sacred Art). and if ye are acquainted with the natures. Agathodaimon is successively included and Agadaimon* among the makers of gold in one of the earlier sections of the Byzantine collection. Cook until a them. by some that he was a man ancient among and a short account " It is stated who philosophised in Egypt. Berthelot points out that there was an the most ancient that he is Egyptian divinity who bore a Zosimus beheld Agathodaimon ascended to the third degree. namely. is the contrition of decoction. Wherefore powder. they therefore. that which but powder and this becomes a spiritual rises to the top of the vessel. that not sublimated sinks down. or that he is the good genius of Egypt. but that which is thick and heavy remains below in the vessel. ye have turned all into powder. 115 complexionated." &c.

is therefore.* ye shall not attain to unless into the work. in its own vessel then . stated. But if been it ground ye ask. saith Cook the copper : come a gentle and impose until be- it and impalpable body. know that when the water has become has then powder diligently. and It to is be . sublimate the same six or seven times until the water shall descend.n6 The Turba Philosophorum. not water the said water water." recension reads : " unless ye turn both . that ye turn the thing mentioned water. how made a powder water And ? is the note that the intention of the Philosophers is that the body before which before it falls into the water is may become water mixed with the other they become one water. for the It body is. when the water has been mentary of Agathodaimon upon the Oracle of Orpheu* is extant in the Greek collection. * The second into water. to the flame of the therefore. necessary be so possessed by that fire it is dis- integrated and becomes weak with the water.

obscure one water . Had they read our books they would know that it is permanent water. comes water. and that Sand of Many Names which Hermes ordered to be washed frequently. But this is the water which its the Philosophers have called Water of Gold. that the blackness of so Sun might be removed. which cannot become permanent with- out companion. enters all ye seekers after ye take this unless that pure body. water. he draws nigh to de- . Good Venom. think that this is clouds. But until the 117 whole be- hearing of water of the fools. will desire. body. There- therein. wherewith it is made one. added to the water. all ye seekers after dismiss names. if the multitude for the anyone err. Philosophorum. which the he introduced And know. the Igneous. that the the solution of the in our copper without by no means ses because no foreign nor does anybe pure. this Art. thing enter unless it fore. what ye thing ye is. nature is of this Art. spirit.The Turbo.

118 and struction. Therefore.The Turba Philosophorum. one nature. Place again in its vessel. there are still a variety of sorts." and ray of honey is is .* * There is an exceedingly curious reference to honey in the Discourse of Synesius. it becomes water by the will of God. concerning answereth : Speak. but dismiss what this foreign. When ye see that the said water is about to become black. keep is loses his life. BONELLUS saith : I speak a little The TURBA will Magnesia. is But certain The question being what the difference between the mercury which from cinnabar. and that which is obtained obtained from arsenic. place it in its vessel. and he quotes Hermes: " the " The ray of honey is white. and all become water therein ! For the heat of the water acting thereupon. until it drink of the vinegar and honey. and cook for forty up the moisture days. and cook with a gentle fire until it liquefy. the Philosopher explains that while all mercury is one. he : O all ye when mixing Magnesia. ye know that the body is already liquefied. the mouth of which close carefully. Sons of the And Doctrine. The Thirty-Seventh Dictum.

or once in every ten nights. in either case. and Virus. Berthelot. the stone becomes dry to the touch. the Latin equivalent. and deprive of its blackness. until. wash the same. week. but it does not follow that this is the significance which was invariably attached to it by the philosophers. and leave it to be soaked therein." have said M. pour very sharp vinegar upon it. Therefore. once in each it. But our copper. absorbs the for forty then humour it completely of the decoction. and the humour perish. the ultimate perfection of pure water appears at the end of days. in later days the term was used to signify the As philosophical dissolvent. the blackness being removed. * The The Greek is given by M. Subsequently. persons uncover 119 say. Hence the envious have said Wash : water. Then it is called copper. until it earth. a fact. which in the special connection is of course obvious.The Turba Philosophorum. Berthelot : Let the venom explains that honey * signifies mercury. become the Magnesia with soft and cook diligently. are words following explanation los. . wherethis is fore they yellow. which the Philobe sophers have ordained should washed with permanent water.

with one of which burn up the body. such as the odour of copper. then this in healing or hurting.The Turba Philosophorum." Hence the term signified the power and not the operation. Therefore. And know. or if the operation. and. O Bonellus ! If it please thee. wherefore. therefore. The TURBA answereth: Thou has spoken excellently. I2O be divided into two parts. the medical action of calx of gold the magnetic virtue communicated to iron by the magnet. . whether of los also signified in a special way the . The Virus. they say that the thing which ye seek whole is it work one. unless that which improves be present in the said thing. that the and regimen does not take place except by water. what ye look for shall in no wise take place. meant certain properties or specific virtues of bodies. all ye seekers after this Science. . finish that which thou otherwise repeat it a second But he Shall I indeed repeat art saying time. : these and like things ? O all ye in- which had exceedingly diverse meaning among the ancients. ivory. oxyde of metals. it behoves you to add those things which are needful. and with the other putrefy. that ye may thereby obtain that which you purpose. all its phases. and sandarac . according to Pliny.

" says Zosimus. into blackness that which is sufficiently Rule the same black. that which the Egyptian prophets desired to know. that which the oracles of the demons have revealed. and though the remark has a particular application. when in the scoriae. so long as may seem desirable But the envious called this composition when it is turned to your purpose. place with the first part of the water in the vessel.* vessel. and it become a stone having no moisture. cook for forty days. it was also with alchemists of in the nature of a general axiom. cook fur- days be accomplished. But that which remained when it had been whitened they called sufficiently white and ordained that it should be ruled : t Again. Then cook until nothing remains except ther until its This done. that which is : "In called black lead. vestigators of this Art. * The whole mystery is The Diversity of Burnt Copper. and have said with vinegar and nitre. all these are the scoria and cinders of Mary.The Turba Philosophorum. and when the water is used up leave it to putrefy in its faeces. wash with water. with permanent water. purify from all uncleanliness. cleanse seven times. fact. 121 our take copper . So Olympiodorus the negative body par excellence." .

standing. . again pound and congeal in its water.The Turba Philosophorum. is nor opposition of substances make to necessary only copper white and then red. Accordingly. Notwiththe most great Arcanum. and cooking Ixir until the stone should become like unto marble its splendour. by reason of the variation it of its there In the work. colours. the truth-speaking Philosophers had no other intention than that of liquefying. Ixir satis. 122 they called the same sufficiently red. neither variety. the envious again said Cook the same with vapour until the stone becomes in : coruscating by reason of its brilliancy. the it is black However. until ye extract its own con- finally. fire TURBA until became it answereth Show : what they intended And he : They called forth unto posterity by these things. however. indeed. own . multiplicity. ye must then pound and wash it seven times with permanent water. But when ye see it thus. pounding. they ordained that it should be ruled with water and The red. it is.

the references to does not seem to have symbolism o* the adepts others have supposed. or with the I mean by exposing it to dew and the There seems no special reason why this should not be understood literally. virtue apart from the vital presence solar rays. in the Pational and Mystical Questions. But I ordain that you rule the same with dew * forth and the sun. says " Whiten this but it : arth with sea water or sweetened saumur. of which one consists in rustt and the other in contrition and decoction. according to the second recension." &c. 123 cealed nature. making . saith Maria.The Turba Philosophorum. dew are not very frequent. as in the rays of the morning sun with which it is chiefly connected. and out with sulphur. In the Turba Philotophorum." and activity of the In Latin alchemy. But ye do *The Greek alchemists assumed a special virtue in dew. however. Democritus. sulphurs are contained in sulphurs. of there a great work. but humour in sulphur mixed comes like humour. Neither alchemically or otherwise was the night dew ever considered beneficial. " in Or. as possessing an inherent water of heaven : sun. was not apparently so much inherent in the moisture itself. appear to you that you. dew appears under another aspect. and it played so important a part in the as Mosheim and t red. there until your purpose signify unto For I are two kinds of whitening and of making red. Wherefore.

however. O Bonellus. Philosophers. so that those initiated in this disposition maybe more bold and certain. he tells us. and I bear witness to all thy words The TURBA saith : Tell us if there be any ! service in the speech of Bonellus. liquefaction " the body and soul which are in the vessel shall quickly perish. spoke and demonstrated to mix the natures. t The Thirty-Eighth Dictum.124 The Turba Philosophorum. EFFISTUS saith: Consider. combine with humour which is per- manent in set water. of this Art. when he wished Take. EFFISTUS saith : Thou hast spoken most excellently. of making a separation from the waters lest the poisons get at you. not need any contrition of hands. the stone of gold. and the body perish with the other things which are in the vessel. Beware. over a gentle fire until t Otherwise. its vessel." . all ye investigators chief of the how Hermes.

and becomes black in the third. I to testify dealbation doth posterity hast ! that Yet. Agadaimon has very properly treated of cooking. The . of the water two-thirds times. and it When earth." . and colours manifest unto you. O : Thou Effistus And briefly inform us further. then let the fire be more intense than before. until is made again becomes dry. white grade. in the description is accompanied in each case by a citation from the Turba. understand that here of the arcanum is the beginning but do this many . and of imbuing. one with another . the matter . this is done. TURBA The answereth spoken excellently. of pounding. In the first second. " for which t The second recension substitutes : cause there must be frequent pounding and imbuing. Philosopherum. he : the not take place save by decoction. In the New Light of Arnoldus de Villa Nova three grades of the operation are described. takes Then place.The Turbo. leave 125 until it and the sand the water dries. and water are combined. t * The Greek equivalent of Decoction identifies the process with that cooking which is so often ordained in all alchemical experiments. red.* Consequently. until perish. together with the special furnaces and appliances required.

The Turba Philosophorum.


Yet I direct you not to pour
on the whole of the water at one time,

the Ixir be submerged, but pour



pound and dessicate, and
several times until the water

in gradually,

do this
be exhausted. Now concerning this
the envious have said
Leave the
water when it has all been poured in






sink to the bottom.

their intention is this, that while the

drying, and when
been turned into powder, leave



glass vessel






in its



passes through various colours, which
the Philosophers have described. By

method of cooking the bodies put
on their spirits and spiritual tinctures,
and become warm.* The TURBA an-



hast given light to us,
O Effistus, and hast done excellently !
Truly art thou cleared from envy




wherefore, let one of you others speak
as he pleases.


The second


and the


spirits are




" bodies


and they tinge."

The Turbo, Philosophorum.


The Thirty-Ninth Dictum.



ye seekers after
this Art, ye can reach no useful result
without a patient, laborious,! and

saith :*




and continuous regimen.




willing to


He, therepersevere in

disposition, and would enjoy the
result, may enter upon it, but he



learn over speedily,
not have recourse to our books,



they impose great labour before
they are read in their higher sense,

once, twice, or thrice.
the Master saith: Whosoever bends





books, devoting
















met with everywhere in the
" Patience and
delay are indis-

like exhortation is

literature of the adepts.

pensable in our magistery.

Haste, indeed,


of the devil's

Rotary of the Philosophers, And
" It is
impossible for this to be known by the seeker
unless he learns it from God, or from the instruction of a
part in this magistery."



also that the



very long



are patience and delay needful in this our magistery."

The Turba Philosophorum.


not occupied with vain thoughts,
but fears God, and shall reign in the

Kingdom without





For what ye seek is not of small price.
unto you who seek the very great
and compensating treasure of God




ye not that for the smallest
purpose in the world, earthly men will
give themselves to death, and what,
therefore, ought they to do for this
most excellent and almost impossible




the regimen



perceived by reason, except


met with a person who was


fear of

God has always been






regarded as

essential to the success of the true alchemist.





to be sought in the fact that the operations of

nature were a region of

awe and wonder

to early experi-

The Greek

alchemists regarded no operation as
possible without the divine concurrence, and Zosimus


" Abide at thine own fireside
acknowledging but one
God and one Art; do not deviate in search of another God;
for God will come to thee, He who is present everywhere.


Rest thy body, and hush thy passions ; so,
governing thyself, thou shall call unto thee the Divine
Being, and the Divine Being will come to thee. . . .






thou shalt

the only


attain truth


thyself, then

existing in thee


shalt thou


and acting thus thou



and nature, rejecting matter with contempt."

The Turba Philosopherum.


acquainted with the elements
I myself, but when he proceeded to
rule this disposition, he attained not to

the joy thereof by reason of his sadness
and ignorance in ruling, and excessive
eagerness, desire,
ing the purpose.

of the Doctrine


and haste concern-


unto you, sons

For one who plants

trees does not look for fruit, save in

due season


he also who sows seeds

does not expect to reap, except at
harvest time.
How, then, should ye
desire to attain this offering

when ye

have read but a single book, or have
adventured only the first regimen ?
But the Philosophers have plainly
stated that the truth is not to be





nothing creates greater pain at heart
than error in this Art, while each

imagines that he has almost the whole

and yet finds nothing in his
hands. Woe unto you
the dictum of the Philosopher, and
how he divided the work when he




pound, cook,


and be

they would not so often repeat their words. 130 thou not weary. and Here. as they have done. pounding. therefore. suffices It is venom to complexionate the then cook times. And if men knew that one decoction and one contrition would them. making rust or redness. have admonished you not to be weary be thereof. roasting. heating. cooking Ethelia. and in order that the mixed body may suffice pounded and cooked diligently. and yet there is one tingeing. to speak in this manner. assimilating. But when thus he divided the work. and until ye perceive that the Ixir is clad in the garment of the Kingdom. to Having darkened the matter you with their words. and do not grow tired of the decoction. are there names. he signified commingling.The Turba Philosophorum. cooking. impalpable spirits. Imbue and cook it until it shall become as I have ordained that it should be ruled by you namely. For when ye behold the Ixir turned into . many it me needful rightly. many regimen. whitening.

JARGUS saith : Thou hast left a part of thy discourse. moreover. and. a dead speech. forth the same clemency shew ! * Latin alchemists made use ot the symbolism of Tyrian dye when describing the Red state of the Magistery. ponder diligently over the we have things which narrated. but that for reading is which is uttered with the lips the is living same Hence we have speech. The second recension reads " then of which the dye f : prehend the sayings of the Philosophers. The Kenckel.* then have ye found that which the Philosophers discovered If ye understand my before you. ordered you to read frequently." shall ye com- . And he: in thy Do thou. there is yet life therein for those who understand themselves). 131 Tyrian colour. Jargus. repeatedly. previously referred to. therefore. O obscure Bacsen ! therefore. Read.t words (and although my words be dead. they will forthwith explain any ambiguity occurring herein.The Turba Philosophorum. is apparently an Eastern term designating the Crustacea from the shells was anciently obtained. The Fortieth Dictum.

Afterwards. that stone must be pounded in its vessel with the water of nitre. ZiMONt uttered. that it may be cooked and pounded true without wearying until the stone is made. subsequently.* until pound with Egyptian vinegar. Whatsoever thou hast Jargos. therefore. so much the more the the said copper shall put on rust. But. Cook. 132 And he answereth : The copper of which thou hast before spoken is not copper. which is the foundation of our work." : t In the second recension the name is Cadmon. it is ye investigators necessary to have a water by which it is all more you cook. nor is it the tin of the vulgar . is true. and you sprinkle.The Turba Philosophomm. . of this art. yet I do saith O : * The second recension reads " It is necessary to use a water which becomes inspissated in proportion as it is cooked. placed in liquefaction until destroyed. it is our work (or body) which must be combined with the body of Magnesia. The Forty-First Dictum. and.

t The TURBA answereth : Inasmuch as thou art speaking. explain for future generations the method of ruling. parts . Magnesia * : but . in this curious with manner is to The Scala Philosophorum speaks of "our perfect tyriac and rotund stone. then cooked until become one the envious Take one part of the pure three parts of copper of then commingle The term rotundum used be understood of the Stone. And he Willingly : it is necessary to take one part of our copper. 133 not see that the whole Turba hath the rotundum.* spoken concerning Then he Speak. and that the one thing. opinion ZIMON concerning saith I thine therefore. -. concerning which let have said body.The Turba Philosophorum." the four elements being concordantly exalted in the quality of the temperate stone. O Zimon it. t There is a variation in the second recension signify to future generations that the verts copper into four is from " : I rotundum which con- one thing." . but of : Permanent Water three them be mixed and they be thickened and stone. to notify ! posterity rotundum turns into four is of derived out elements.

also. mixed with male close the vessel. are thy words ! . ye not see that the complexion of a man formed out of a soul and body .The Turbo. when they prepared the matters and conjoined is spouses mutually in love with other. must ye conjoin these. 134 rectified of earth what is until it vinegar. leads this But when subject further into error ye read in the books of the Philosophers ! that Nature one only. observe . and that she is overcomes all things : Know that they Do are one thing and one composite. the hast each from ! lo second thou how obscure ! ! thou didst How am- made thy book. behold there ascended The TURBA thou wast treating them a golden water answereth of the turn When first unto biguous and : work. in it. ASCANIUS saith: Too much talking. The Forty-Second Dictum. thus. because the Philosophers. O all ye Sons of the Doctrine. and cook continuously becomes earth. Philosophomm.

But conjoin the male to which are vapour* and quicksilver. brought to nothing. will I : Do : between quicksilver. phers observes mercury spirit of : " The first the vulgar. the copper is stir up. and in a special way it was the First all The Rosary of the Philotomatter of bodies is not the of the Philosophers. and they are destroyed. but when the quicksilver conceives the copper. them changes * The matter of Matter into by means Latin alchemists regarded vapour as the first things. copper he : and they go to destruction and are corrupted. but is an unctuous and humid vapour. a fight between them destroy . Then he of position TURBA the answer eth up war Stir perform the first work. until the male and the female become Ethel.The Turba Philosophorum. and mortified in the conversion. and the metallic body from the unctuous. for he who the female. until 135 dis- The And this. because when the conceives copper the quicksilver it coagulates it. the body of the copper until it becomes a powder. . . therecongealed into earth fore. The mineral stone is made from the humid. and this is accomplished by means of our white and red water. It is needful that bodies should be converted into such an unctuous vapour." mercury But of the philosophers this unctuous vapour was the and wise men.

DARDARIS saith Ye have frequently treated of the regimen. t According to the second recension : "much has been said of the regimen but of the conjunction little. recension reads concerning which much also also mortifying " : found sulphur of nature. more than does * The second is that burning every body fire. and subof Ethel. t yet I proclaim : to posterity that they cannot extract the now hidden soul except by Ethelia.The Turba Phflosophomm. The Forty-Third Dictum. quicksilver is fiery. ye extract a pure. sulphureous by the names he a natural It is : which thing* called is of all bodies. and have introduced the conjunction. Inform. therefore. tinges every body. by which bodies become not bodies through continual cooking. spiritual. posterity what is lime soul therefrom." .' in later 1 alchemical writers. 136 makes them red. and next which tinges The TURBA answer eth : every body. And that body. because. and by sub- Know limation of Ethelia. when by diligent cooking ye pound the body.

The Tttrba Philosophoruin.


and that every body which is
mingled with it is ground and delivered


over to be destroyed.



ye have diligently pounded the
bodies, and have exalted them as

produced that
Ethel nature, and a colour which is
tingeing* and not volatile, and it tinges
required, therefrom


the copper which the Turba said did
not tinge until it is tinged, because that
tinged tinges. Know also that
the body of the copper is ruled by



Magnesia, and that quicksilver is four
bodies, also that the matter has no
being except by humidity, because it
is the water of sulphur, for sulphurs
are contained in sulphurs.


what sulphurs are









hidden in four

bodies, and, extracted by themselves,
do contain one another, and are

naturally conjoined. For if ye rule that
which is hidden in the belly of sulphur

with water, and cleanse well that which


" not
fleeing from the fire."

The Turba Philosophorum.


hidden, then nature rejoices, meeting
with nature, and water similarly with its



ye also that the four
bodies are not tinged but tinge.* And



dost thou not say
like the ancients that when they are


I state
tinged, they tinge ? And he
that the four coins of the vulgar populace are not tinged, but they tinge













The Forty-Fourth Dictum.




This one thing of which

thou hast told us, O Dardaris, the
Philosophers have called by many

names, sometimes by two and sometimes

by three names




DARDARIS answereth





And he : The one
setting aside envy.
is that which is fiery, the two is the

According to the second recension, "they tinge a


According to the second recension, they are not
except copper, which then tinges the coins of the


The Turbo, Philosophorum.

body composed



the three



water of sulphur, with which also it is
washed and ruled until it be perfected.


ye not see what the Philosopher
affirms, that the quicksilver which

Cambar ?

quicksilver out of
DARDARIS answereth : What

dost thou

mean by








Cambar and sometimes



For the

this ?



he: Quicksilver of




of Magnesia, but quicksilver
sulphur ascending from the mixed*

Ye must,


putrefy, and



thick thing




be produced, which





hidden in

that other spirit ; then is made the
tincture which is desired of you all.
The Forty-Fifth Dictum.






the passage.


it is




behoves you all,
those bodies are

abbreviations in the printed editions obscure

According to the second recension

Cambar and sometimes

it is


" Some-

Orpiment, but here

The Turba Philosophorum.


being dissolved, to take care lest
they be burnt up, as also to wash them
with sea water, until all their salt be
turned into sweetness, clarifies, tinges,

becomes tincture of copper, and then
Because it was
goes off in flight
necessary that one should become
tingeing, and that the other should

be tinged, for the spirit being separated from the body and hidden in the
other spirit, both become volatile.
Therefore the Wise have said that
the gate of flight must not be opened for that which would flee, (or that

which does not flee),* by whose flight
death is occasioned, for by the conversion of the sulphureous thing into


spirit like




they are




volatile, since

the Philosophers seeing that which was
spirits prone to ascend in the air.


needful to understand that





Magnesia," &c.

The reading


of the second recension
" Close the door on the





and yet were they made flying.* like body iterated They them and extracted." : . and although the cold humid not adapted to the warm humid. bodies by not-bodies. because they are until * " In the second recension the passage reads thus : Concerning these the Philosophers also said They fled not with flying things. we they are made prefer these one. spirit is a to unto the bodies from which were they with the a body like volatiles.The Turba Philosophorum. into that from escape. two bodies. nevertheless Therefore. iterated these to to 141 but the other hot. because by them we rule the whole work. not made volatile volatile the and put them which they could not non-volatiles. namely. become bodies. same were then the for sopher digested. statement of the the that and that which made one is concealed spirit. incorporeals steadfast in the fire. Know humid spirits is is as Philo- agent be tinged are it to refers one of the that cold. a humid another in also the But tingeing to tincture.

those. Nature. which is not possible in any body. Incorporeals. also. and the cold with the dry. comes Know. fire in the depths of the water. fugitives are restrained by in- spirits in corporeals. ATTAMUS saith : It is to be noted that the whole assembly of the Philosophers have frequently treated concerning . These things. incorporeal until the ceives a non-volatile incorporeal rebody . being done. but the earth in the belly of the air.The Turba Philosophorum. mingling the hot with the humid. therefore. Nature contains Nature. similarly flee from bodies . these excepted. that Nature Nature overrejoices in Nature. which do not flee are better and more precious than all bodies. take those which are not volatile and wash the body with the join them . For but every wise avoid bodies. and conceal the fire. con- sequently. 142 conjoined with volatiles. The Forty-Sixth Dictum. water into fire into air. convert the earth into water. therefore.

The Forty-Seventh Dictum. calumniated. sulphate of . Rubigo. MUNDUS treated * Thou of sufficiently While of metals. Why. and rust philosophical became a part of the Great Mystery. The oxydes of iron. The TURBA tious answereth: its 143 true Name. sulphate of arsenic. signifies the rust or many for the redness of rust associated O oxide senses by the alchemists. is work. because it is from gold The TURBA answereth alone. however. have the Philosophers referred it He answereth : Because to the leech ? water is hidden the leech is sulphureous gold as in water . therein rubefaction in the second work. name. Rubigo.The Turba Philosophonim. saith: it this term properly was used in hast already Rubigo. in which the Philosophers ordained that the flower of gold should be taken and a proportion of former gold equally. the oxydes of lead. rubigo.* is a ficti- and not a true name. And he Rubigo by it is not by Rubigo is accord- this for : ing to the work. but to make rubigo is to whiten in the fore. : then. therefore. sulphate of mercury. it in their idea with other forms of red matter.

minium. therefore. perhaps. tions that venom is not ! because subtle have made spirits it into a tenuous spirit. profiteth unto you. identical . This. all that unless ye reduce the thing by fire until those things ascend like a spirit. . identical with mercury . and will instruct future generaa body. and hence on the authority of the Greeks involves the whole art smoke. &c. surprising that what was above and the furnace. we have citrine also white smoke. and thus in various stages of its history we have all things the mystery of the fire alchemy discoursing of that specially philosophical smoke which is identical with scoriae. but he this not Now I say nothing. I will Attamus speak.The Turba Philosophorum. ye Sons of the Doctrine. of venom. is a avoiding the fire and a ponderous effect spirit smoke. should concern itself considerably with the smoke in which it so often ended. ye nought.* which when antimony. therefore. which it venom the Philosopher But tinge every body. have tinged the body and burned with venom. asserts will the Ancient Philosophers thought that he who turned gold into venom had arrived at who can do the purpose. It is not. were names * all more or it less enters the body confounded under the of rubigo.

which is orpiment. a Philosopher would not say so. I enjoin any of these." " the nature rejoices therein. them torture till they be altered.The Turba Philosophorum. or the Spume of Luna. ponderous smoke of the Turba. of which the Latin Geber discourses . as ye know." L . The Forty-Eighth Dictum. for with yellow sulphur . smoke of extreme subtlety. or alum which is out of apples. as ye know. red smoke. or roasted calx. or incombustible sulphur. or the body Kuhul. The : spirit and therewith break up the bodies . Understand. But if there was any singular regimen ways.* Philosophers have Take a black and conjoining all said penetrates it entirely. Many others might be named. PYTHAGORAS unto all saith : you seekers We must affirm after this Art that the Philosophers have treated of conjunction (or continuation) in various But upon you to make constrain the body of quicksilver Magnesia. 145 and makes the body rejoice. but these varieties are sufficient to and lastly the show that smoke was as important the votaries ot " * Otherwise my Lady : to the alchemists as to Nicotine.

for when it is an exceeding strong composition. calcine themselves. Magnesia is whitened with quicksilver. sometimes whether in the plural person. the regimen is not one. and (other some) reBut the Philosopher has designated them under several names. they pursue one another." and see . (substances) generate themselves. also. 146 therefore. you must congeal white water therein. Hence you must not dismiss that Magnesia without the quicksilver. and sometimes in the singular. as the Philosophers have observed in their books. whitening is a calcination. the first congelation is of tin. But the second is com- " There are other denominations. which is one of the composed is it called ten regimens established by the PhiloKnow. in order to test us we are intelligent. are nothing else but water of sulphur. from apples. which all and alum is Know ye also that Magnesia.The Turba Philosophorum." says Synesius in " Thus his letter to Dioscorus. being mixed with quicksilver and sulphur.* Accordingly. and yellowing an igneous regeneration for some of these * . and Kuhul. that when sophers. that sulphur. but when it is reddened you must congeal red water. calx. copper. for. and lead.

and of sulphur. however. but. with the conjunction. all ye Philosophers. "with sulphur and the water thereof. a part Or. The Forty-Ninth Dictum. O BELUS saith sition. and that the science of this Art nothing else and the sublimation of is than vapour water. but compo- one thing * ! : and congelation are Take. therefore. reading this book. 147 posed with water of sulphur." The second recension reads : " It is nothing but vapour and water. think that the composition can be bought. the Philosophers demonstrated in water impure their of have books that the sulphur is from sulphur only. and no sulphur is produced without the water of its calx." . and of quicksilver.* Some. not have dealt sparingly concerning ye composition and contact. It must be known for certain that nothing of the work can be bought. also. contact. heretofore. while the regimen is nothing but the sublimation of quicksilver and its union with the body of t magnesia. of body of Magnesia f quicksilver in the .The Turba Philosophoruni.

* The ancient Latin treatise which passes as the work " The ferment of gold is even as ferment of the bread is bread. then. answereth : O PYTHAGORAS why Belus. O Master ! It is noted that pure water which from sulphur is not composed of be sulphur alone. says sententiously ment is reproduced literally : by the Rosary of the Philo- sophers. t According to the second recension: "the clean water which is from sulphur is not derived from sulphur . is the potent (or revealed) arcanum which tinges every body." The stategold. yet hast not shown its work ? And he: In our called it O Master. for the one sulphur is made out of several sulphurs.The Turba Philosophorum. t How. of Morien. that you might remove any obscurities which are in any books. And to is he : Willingly. hast thou a potent arcanum.* and on these impose pure water of sulphur. from the ancients Therefore have And PYTHAGORAS ! assembled I : you together. 148 from the one composition and a part out of ferment of gold. This. but is composed of several things. we have found the same which thou hast received books.

I The TURBA answereth wish. and other Therefore our like things. balsam of gum." * For this last sentence the second recension substitutes : " and friendship is made constant. and the humour which remains is called humid pitch. that you would also shew the disposition of this potent arcanum ! alone. O Belus. but is composed of several things which make up one sulphur. Master. incomburent fire !* Surely ye perceive what the Philosoin phers have stated concerning decoction. therefore. : O Belus. that a little sulphur burns many strong things. which are conjoined in a to I compose things that they may become And he : Mix. shall ? which strives with the fire which does not strive. that these one G 149 the for fire things suitable same contend. Philosophers are made like to the physicians.The Turba Philosopliorum. because warm venoms cooked with that of the physician the are a gentle. notwithstanding that the tests of the physicians are more intense than those of the Philosophers." .

of sublimation tion was called stalagma. But after it sulphur and magnesia. Another species which meant (16. 211.. to is say.The Turba Philosophorum. spume of Boletus (i. a potent (or open) arcanum ascends from those things it is ye know. a species of and fungus). thus expressing the idea of the extreme attenuation of matter. The Fiftieth Dictum. (Collection des Anciens Alchimistes Grecs. the Philosophers have called it water.) distilla- . as M. is reduced and conjoined into one. by vapourisation or filtration. however. the thickness of When. PANDOLPHUS saith describe the dost * : O If. Int. because which they sulphur also.. thou sublimation* The Greek term which the alchemists of of the Byzantine collection made use of as the equivalent of sublimation. has been reduced call it when sulphur it con- tains sulphur.. "which signifies reduction to the condition of an impalpable powder. 150 And he proclaim to future generaarcanum proceeds from I : tions that this two that compositions. they term a fiery venom. Belus.e. quicksilver. 210). of water. into it gold. The same idea was attached later on by the Latin adepts to their term alcoolisation. signified originally filings. Berthelot informs us.

And future for sulphur wilt accomplish an the generations. thou excellent thing ! Do thou show it forth. there proceeds from the Cambar that quicksilver which is called Ethelia. O Pandolphus And he: The TURBA therefore. M. Orpiment. * According Zendrio. is confounded under the same sign as arsenic. and extract the same from Cambar. same authority reminds us that the name is The applied at the present day to an entirely different composition. 151 : ! philosophers have ordered that quicksilver should be taken out of Cambar. for out of sulphur mixed with sulphur. Berthelot also tells us that it was confused anciently with minium and cinnabar. the obscurity of which I will remove." t The reading Sandarac is realgar in the . second recension in the Greek MSS. to the second or Sanderich.The Turba Philosophorum. derived . but there is another Cambar in sulphur* which Belus hath demonstrated to you. When the same has been sublimed. many works proceed. yet in these words there is a little ambiguity. and albeit they spoke truly.t recension : " there is another sulphur. is it unintelligible. as indeed is quite plain from the Lexicon of Rulandus. See then that the quicksilver is sublimed in tabernacles.

Ebsemich. investigators. soul and body is thick. when truly whitened. it behoves you to destroy the thick body until ye extract a its is spirit. Concerning this. . Therefore." are substituted for this term. from colophon. the wise have said that copper has a soul and a body. Marteck. Now. Philosophers " or the Wise. its Mix. devoid of shadow and blackness. and not known to the ancients under this designation. Magnesia. philosophers have ruled said that. 152 or Kuhul. Magnesia. " * " Throughout the second recension. nor (for ten things). the envious* have called it Then lead from Ebmich. Accordingly. and therewith a clean humid spirit has left its ascended. Chuhul. find your design accomplished. tingeing spirit from the same. it it is has thickened ponderous bodies. also. its there is its by regi- is any shadow therein. being men the perfection of all white nature appears.The Turba Philosophorum. White For. which spirit is tincture. and many other names. the spirit extracted therefrom with light sulphur until you. Copper.

and let the vessel be closed on all eggs. so that its colour [? heat] may be increased. But if its regimen regimen of this ! were commenced from the beginning. con- therefore. 153 The Fifty-First Dictum. saith : Thou hast narrated Pandolphus. " the humidity. first to burn coppert in a gentle fire." the second recension " when the to According t Otherwise. that required in the hatching of like For behoves you to burn it with its humidity lest its spirit be burnt. and its tingeing spirit be concerning extracted. save the last Thou hast.The Turba Philosopherum. I is : increased and the vessel sealed effectually. please you. lest the of the copper and its flying spirit be extracted." fire body . to so far as posterity. body an therefore. composed ambiguous description for readers. And he : be- It hoves you. the body of copper be destroyed. HORFOLCOS* O nothing.! * which the In the second recension the name is Morfoleus. Saith TURBA the this cerning it may : Speak. it sides. you would destroy this obscurity. investigators of this Art.

and fiery venom extracted from iron. but not-bodies bodies. and unalterable and incorruptible. which further they have termed Ethelia. and a substance extracted from all things. is spirit spirits. a fiery venom. bodies. altered Blessed then Him who hath inspired the Wise with the idea of turning a body into a spirit having strength colour. which also they have called the water of our copper. mixed. ye investigators of this Art. 154 envious have said Take : quicksilver out of the Flower of Copper." . " which flower of copper they have called our water. so that what formerly was volatile sul- phur * is now made sulphur Otherwise : not-volatile. be the name of fire. some have that said when all one. bodies are things not- made become And know.The Turba Philosophorum.* Again. extracted out of many things. that every body is dissolved with the all spirit with which without doubt spiritual thing. with which becomes a similar it is it and that every which has a tingeing colour of and is constant against and coloured by bodies.

Exposition of the Work. For whatsoever words ye find in any man's book signify quicksilver. envious have said : of copper.The Turba Philosophorum. all ye that he who is able to ! red by the and then from that fugitive spirit body mixed with it. if Wherefore Know the that out humectated is is thereof. by a the in belly subtle regimen. become fixed tinctures. the following . said : are Things that diligently in the sublimation with fire. pounded of the Ethelia.* which also Water of sulphur occurs recipe cited from and Mary in the Detailed in among one of the the ingredients of a treatises of Zosimus. also. if ye extract a body having Ethelia. after it the moisture by pounded in its water. make your 155 Know. patient only in spite of the tedium of extracting. ye will find that which is suitable as a tincture for anyWherefore the envious have thing. is he tinges every body. and is cooked in sulphur. which we call * water of sulphur. and incombustible sons of learning. body and that spirit can extract the tenuous nature hidden most thereof.

doth whitened because it process occurs calx is is " : a certain natural thing. O Horfolcus. kindle a fire underneath. Place in a mortar. And he: Perfect. * The second recension reads : " Water of Ethelia. O Ixumdrus IXUMDRUS saith You must know that : ! : this Ethelia* which you have previously mentioned and notified. The Fifty-Second Dictum. provided you proceed therewith. therefore. taking equal parts. 156 we sometimes say and copulated is lead and copper coin.The Turba Philosophomm. add white earths until the compound becomes very white. Water of sulphur obtained by means of in this manner Having mixed all the manfactured : waters in the catalogue (which it is impossible to extricate from its context and place in the compass of a footnote). and receive what distils.'' . have called it the Flower of Gold. which also the envious have called by many names. IXUMDRUS saith You will have treated most excellently. concerning the regimen of copper and the humid spirit. what I have omitted." There is also a "pure" water oi sulphur which is obtained somewhat differently. and tinge when it is then truly the Philosophers . whiten.

this indescribable marvel. 2 parts : the Sulphur (another abstruse recipe) You . then have it is which the they called all these things Multiplica- But some have termed their mixed bodies Corsufle and Gum of Gold. or minium. coral. it is when mixed with those ten things Philosophers have denominated fermented urines. those names which tion.t Therefore. copper does But when not tinge ?* is it tinged it because quicksilver tinges when combined with its tincture." " Here is And how he is called Chryso- Synesius. it parts . But tinges. that before it arrives at this terminus. .The Turba Philosophorum. Do you remember not 157 what the Philosophers have said." of : Gold). will find great wonder. or Ochre. alone (produces) Chryso- . are found in the books of the Philo* According to the second recension reaches this point. i part . cook over a fire a potent substance. This carefully regulated. having the colour of cinnabar. t That is Democritus : is " Before it Chrysocorallos of the Greek following is from a ricipe of Pseudoi part Finest Earth of " Minera of Silver." say. preparation given previously (it is too complicated for combine with the humour of reproduction here). quoting expresses himself: (metal) of magnesia. Chios. the to The alchemists. says The body coral. 2 : called copper. Minium of Pontus. corallos (Coral Democritus.

are true and yet are fictitious. must know that the said sulphur cannot whiten * The reading db hominibus for ab omnibus is substi- tuted by the second recension several times in this Dictum. a most great arcanum which the Philosophers have thus described. out of which a tincture and pure spirit ascends with a and the whole pure flower is becomes flower sublimated. because sulphur alone whitens copper. one and one way. which also is pure water that destroys the shade of are And know copper. silver. this the envious call Ethelia. when it is ye that this quickwhitened. O investigators of this Art. It is. Ye. 158 and are thought superfluous and vain. because one are they thing.The Turbo. but there can be no doubt that it is a printer's error. from all things. which mild fire. and is a venom that has a brilliance like marble . .* out of which all things produced. Philosophomm. sophers. orpiment and sandarac. becomes a sulphur which contains sulphur. wholly quicksilver. therefore. This is the quicksilver which is indeed extracted opinion.

I is therefore. to own kind. which.The Turba Philosophorum. that because not." but both readings are obscure and seemingly corrupt. that sulphurs tinge. for it escapes. direct you. . therefore. behoves you to retain it otheris wise with quicksilver of its own kind. unless which it be mixed with white or red. from its sublimated as a vapour. lest it vanish altogether. 159 it ! the habit is When. think tinges* and afterwards the coin of the Vulgar. Wherefore have said. it is what the Philosophers are seeking is the coin of the Philosophers. copper until it is And know ye of this it also that to flees it bodies. that Philosophers sulphurs are contained by sulphurs. own thick escape. quicksilver of its would doubtless escape. further. and then are they certain to escape unless they are united to quicksilver of its own Do kind. the Know. mix quicksilver with quick- silver (of its kind) until together they become one clean water composed out * The second recension substitutes ' fixes bodies. and then whitened in the work sulphur therefore.

name till the 6th century. the second recension substitutes . multiplicity of For the Philosophers have ordered the doctors of this art to make coin-like gold. * M. indeed. red with mucra and with and salt. the great is. arcanum. The Fifty-Third Dictum. posterity. thereExumenus. of which nitre. O Inform. vinegar. The TURBA answereth: fore.* and with turned into rubigo. concern- Berthelot explains that the substance referred to under the terms Nitrum and Natron was really Carbonate of Soda. and that Nitre or Saltpetre was scarcely known in antiquity. but the entire work must be the Art of the Coin. or by any is of the select tingeing agents existing in our coin. t For this Obsemeganus. which also the same Philosophers have called by all manner of names.160 The Turba Philosophorum. . This therefore. the confection with its own gum flowers in a gentle it made is mutal it fire is is cooked with and with earth . of two. ExuMENUst laid saith: The waste the whole envious have Art with the names. nor.

161 ing a few of these names. in whitening the turning rubigo. hence the Philosopher saith that the nature of lead Do you converted. salting. the spirits existing fire did not which the cease to burn continuously.The Turbo. confection the sulphur and coagula. Philosophorum. whitened copper. of Ethel. is frequently fire. pounding vapour cooking sublimating. it and reddens becomes Cambar. and into names Ethelias. but when it is possessed by the smoke of sulphur. when quicksilver is cooked with its confections it is turned into and red. But the M . Philosophers have is swiftly not see that the spoken without Hence we deal in many ways envy with pounding and reiteration. and By water all of these that operation called which has pounded And know and ye. the art of the coagulating. white to Therefore. that quicksilver is the sight. that ? ye may extract in the vessel. that they And he : They may take warning ! have named it washing.

the does not ascend. it ascends an instrument for the intended tincture with which ye tinge. however. 162 water placed with those things prevents the fire from burning. lest they should be injured by the heat of the fire in fire but . The TURBA answereth : its belly Unless ye make not-bodies bodies But concerning ye achieve nothing. the water receives them and repels the flame of from them. and it those befalls things that the more they are possessed by the flame of the more they are hidden in fire. but when does not ascend ye achieve Ethelia that When. the sublimation of water the Philohave sophers And know the pound treated a not little. that unless ye diligently thing in the fire. Ethelia . Arras saith : Unless ye pound the thing diligently in the fire. nothing.The Turba Philosophorum. the depths of the water. and con- it is cerning this Ethelia HERMES saith but Sift the things which ye know another Liquefy the things. There: . : fore.

when it is stirred up. Then take the ponder- ous thing. plain the testa. is Compare the red probably a variation of the . understood metallurgically the second is a vessel of baked of Rulandut. made three. sublimates clouds and elevates the vapours of the TURBA The answereth And dealt obscurely. Paracelsus uses own to signify the skin of Adamic same earth or clay idea.* is Thou : he hast will ex- I : sea. ANAXAGORAS saith: Take the volatile burnt thing which lacks a body. &c. Flower. it in an arbitrary fashion of his man's body. 163 The Master hath does not ascend. may be and two one. it . The Fifty-Fourth Dictum. and thirsting * Two meanings are given to this term in the Lexicon The first is Bloom. But I order to congeal fluxible quicksilver out you of that many things. put forth a view which shall I now Know ye explain to the reasoners. and incorporate it.The Turba Philosophorum.. and two four one. that a very great wind of the south. . and the vessel wherein incombustible sulphur. having smoke. clay.

are Ethelia. but otherwise his labour vain. which has been conjoined testify to with sulphur." of sulphur consists in the : " The whole decoction of . and not to grow to ye seek. place these in a glass vessel over the fire. And know ye that the perfection of this work is the confection of water of sulphur with tabula . it is cooked until becomes Rubigo. Therefore.* finally. cook tired of repeating the process. * According to the second recension perfection tabula. and this other which thirsts. obscurity Anaxagoras. it Philosophers have said able to turn : for all the He who is into golden venom has already achieved the de- sired is Rubigo work. what is this which you expound. to The TURBA answereth : O Explain. and cook until the whole becomes Cambar. Then God will accomplish the arcanum But I direct you continuously.The Turba Philosophorum. 164 imbibe. and beware of being envious And ! lie : I you that this volatile burnt thing.

O all ye Turba. how the envious have in this work discoursed of the perfection rather than the commencement of the same The TUREA answeretli Why. merely coagulated with the But out of both is the beginning dry. ordaining that thereon should be imposed clean of the water of sulphur. three parts. of its ! : have you left it to putrefy And ? he : Thou hast spoken truly . ZENON* saith Pythagoras hath treated concerning the water. which the envious have called by all names. Finally. . putrefaction does not take place without the dry and the humid. asserting that one quickly but the other is fixed and flees. * The name in the second recension is Pitheon. of the is Notwithstanding. therefore.The Turba Philosophorum. 165 The Fifty -Fifth Dictum. the envious have divided this work into work. immovable. at the end of his book he has treated : ferment of gold. and a small quantity gum. I am astonished. But the humid vulgar the Thus putrefy with the humid.

* that the tenuous tingeing agent takes its power out of the tenuous part of the earth. for it is necessary that this work should deal with four things ? They answer : Demonstrate. . air. and cook in the fire and in the air. which are earth and water. whence the spirit and the soul are And know ye dessicated. nor is anything absolved in the Mix. According to the second recension : " The spirit is dessiccated in the soul. * the water. and water. what are those four ? fire. water. air. t is the process of spirit This. therefore. therefore. Art. and Ye have then those four elements : without which nothing is ever generated. And he Earth. out of the tenuous part of the fire and of the air. thereour work." t The second recension merely says that the power in question is derived from the tenuous part of the earth. CONSTANS saith: What have you to do with the treatises of the envious. a tenuous been dessicated.1 66 The Turba Philosophorum. while out of the tenuous part of has fore. The Fifty-Sixth Dictum. the dry with the humid.

truly at the beginning of In the art of gold is the quicksilver from The Cambar. and thereafter tinges the imposed body of all ye coins. that everything may be turned into earth when the tenuous parts of these are things a body a kind then composed is because extracted. But do ye who would tinge observe that bodies For I say are tinged with bodies. . to you what the Philosopher said briefly and his book. and the the dry. the winged things of heaven dry with and all reptiles of the earth.* Beware. for the envious have multiplied and destroyed for you ! They have also described various regimens that they might deceive they have further . lest ye multiply things. called it (or humid with have likened all the it to) the humid. and in coins reading of the second recension has been partly substituted in this unintelligible passage. which is of atmospheric thing.The Turba Philosophorum. by the name of every stone and metal. 167 namely. gall of animals of the sea. however. O investigators of this art.

therefore. This one of the two passages which seem to indicate any planetary attribution of the metals. The Fifty-Seventh Dictum. but even here it may be an analogy borrowed from the astronomy of the period J without any real attribution. which also Hermes has adapted to * In the second recension the t Otherwise the spirit . ACRATUS* saith : I signify to posterity I make philosophy near to the Sun and Moon. take a part direct posof the coins I which the Philosophers have ordered. He. if you are terity to was so intending. In nothing.! Why are of Spumet answereth The your brethren ? And he I have spoken nothing but the truth. is since the two quicksilvers are also one. probably a misreading. And he yet. that will attain to the truth let him take the moisture of the Sun and the that : TURBA an made you the Moon. 1 68 the quicksilver from the Male. however. mercury and quicksilver noted. look beyond this. I : willing. But they Take what the Turba hath adversary to : : taken. in The distinction between the 6yth Dictum should be . it is name is Astratus.The Turba Philosophomm.

" .The Turba Philosophorum. must proceed for Let both be again slowly cooked. let the vessel be opened. to mix same with the coins. be consumed. * According to the second recension : " take a part of the coins of the Philosophers. already pounded with the coins. finally. and Then fear nothing. is found turned into water.* and a part of the copper of the Philosophers. 169 the true tingeing. Repeat the process. Cooking seven days. the whole being they are dried and is Also repeatedly and continuously cook that stone born of copper and coins with a fire is turned into stone. which are the coins of Hermes. place. cook continually the until Kuhul. when the copper. and place the four bodies in the vessel. which is blackness of from the blackness of coins. the mouth of which must be carefully the all closed. and a blackness will appear above. lest the water escape. For when that is consumed a precious whiteness will appear on them returned cooked to until their .

and carefully mouth close the this of the vessel. precious produced from of the that which is Mixing. bodies into are connected spirits made spirits. there- ! with cinder the fore. which is a precious cinder. broken up. until that cinder liquefy there- and then cook and imbue with with. until the stone is destroyed. spirits bodies. Finally. permanent water. how Doctrine. Imbue until it becomes humid. together. for by regimen fugitive bodies become not-fugitive. and turned into cinder. until the composition becomes sweet and mild and red. soul. is congealed and becomes a body of magnesia. it sons ye water. is O Alas. it is cooked until off with . cook again. 170 sharper than the former. Cook in a still hotter fire.The Turbo. Philosophorum. Now hast : and both Then are bodies having a tingeing and germinating answereth turned into are The TURBA thou notified to posterity that Rubigo attaches itself to copper after the blackness is washed Then it permanent water.

according to thy The n he opinion. as : order your sayings to be our books. written in The Fifty-Eighth Dictum. seeing means called things by their proper names ? And he Following your own footsteps. BALGUS* saith The whole Turba. And they Thou : is to do speakest truly. place. and beware of envy ! In the second recensfon this speech mouth of Anastratus.The Turba Philosophorum. : is put into the . but a benefactor sometimes deceives. Afterwards the volatile is turned into a cinder and becomes copper without shadow. 171 the whole body is broken up. Proceed. the work of the Philosophers. I hast by no that thou : have discoursed BONELLUS for if even You speak truly. though his intention good. as you have seen. : O Acratus. otherwise we should not answereth you did have you. what hast thou delivered to posterity. has already spoken. its Attrition also truly takes Concerning. therefore. therefore.

bethe water be in excess. on the other hand. . finally. gently. investigators of this science. 172 You must know that the envious have described this arcanum in the shade . place it in its vessel.The Turba Philosophorum. biguously concealed by the names of it metals. be too dry. mix (or sprinkle) venom. the mouth of which must be closed most carefully. and generally perceived reptiles . and the art of images they have also likened it to trees they have amin physical reasoning . vapours. but stir cause. I. if it . the mouth of which must be closed internally and. . or. and place it in its vessel. not if be too dry. it vigorously as a mass. and beware lest it with ye too much increase the humour. . nevertheless. it will neither be conjoined nor cooked in the chimney hence I direct you to confect it dili- while. to take iron and draw it into plates finally. as is in all their work. direct you. it will be contained lest it in the chimney. and externally with clay. and astronomy. having kindled coals above it.

which is worth citing in connection with the question of the unity of subjects amidst the multiplicity of names. white magnesia. that t The number three is the substance which is. vapour. there shall ye find the iron plates already liquefied . Here is what the Philosophers say on this subject "Divine water. and is one this contains a brief section on the Nomenclature of the Divine Vinegar and the Divine Water. virginal milk. ash of cabbage. There is whitens the body of magnesia. I I notify to you that Among entitled the Greek technical treatises there The Work oj the Four Elements. I direct passes you to keep that part separately. water of calx. oc- cidental matter. Ye must also know that by decoctions and attritions and coloured nature is the by multiplied* it is congealed and fire. burnt copper. milk of the she ass. while on the lid of the vessel ye shall find globules. &c. Philosophorum. because its spiritual nature into the air.The Turbo. of natron. wherefore. a its similar decoction and liquefaction Cambar is not disjoined. . after some days ye shall open 173 and it. sea water. divine vinegar. alum water. By changed. J The second recension says that it it disjoined. virgin's urine. mercury." the second indicated by recension. the bitch. the : black cow. For when the fire is kindled the vinegar* ascends.

and is congealed. and is not burned. t According to the second recension. but the residue becomes a wind in spirit. the sand thereof. and by the heat of the Sun the dew congealed." is joined to the light of second recension. that being wounded.t is perfected by the coming on of night. which the Sun. 174 by the said frequent decoction the weight of a third part of the water is consumed. causes it to and that signal whiteness overcome the terrene fire.! who cooks with the congealed. the dew of the deathis and the more the days pass on the more intensely is it conFor he gealed. Then.* Cambar And know ye the of the that nothing is excellent than more precious or more sand red the the of light Luna of Sputum of second the sea. dealer is joined." J Omitted For substitutes Sun is in the "That which congealed. * " Which Cambar and Sun its spirit is himself bears in the belly the alternative reading.The Turba Philosophorum." is " the spume of the Moon. this nonsensical : is passage the second recension cooked by the heat of the is . for the united with the is Luna Sun's rays.

: our except nothing tinges 175 copper And BALGUS: Thou speakest And lie Why. dark. and approafter discovered this operating.The Turba Philosophorum. has what manner he same tree. hast truly : omitted to describe that ? ^ thou tree. priately fruit extract the when But I inquired of him concerning the growth and the increment. thinking that the same is found without any laborious disposi- Then tion.* who has me notified to followed science. and which shall wholly surround the same. that the Spume of Luna Balgus. it that tree. But thereof. he described that pure whiteness. encircled by * In the second recension this person as Tulleas. Then O BONITES saith Do you not know. how is it fructifies. did and eat of it. build perfection is the fruit when I further asked its nourished with food until he said : Take a house about it. is referred to . which shall also be circular. of the fruit whereof whosoever eateth shall hunger And BALGUS A certain nevermore ? : person. therefore.

most excellent God ! The Fifty-Ninth Dictum. while they have concealed this disposition. Following in the steps of make perfect his sayshould be known that all the I will Philosophers. 176 dew. what marvellous natures. and shall have placed on it a man of a hundred years. It saith : I Speak. Then in the time of 180 days send them away to their homes. which have transformed the soul of that old and the into a juvenile body. Bonites TURBA: brother And he : Bonites ings. Brother. shut and secure the door lest dust or wind should reach them. made into the son ! O man father is Blessed be thou.The Turba Philosophorum. I say that man shall not cease to eat of the fruit of that tree to the perfection of the number [of the days] until man the old shall O become young. THEOPHILUS propose to speak further concerning those things which And the hath narrated. for thy hath discoursed elegantly. yet spoke the .

they for this reason. that mixed with dies. that iron said and be- lives And know. because it tinges the plates it is then . truth in their whatsoever* water first is when treatises named water of life. then the disciples. but better than this illumination. and the more they are multiplied the more ! : : are they * man The adorned. do flourish in the beginning of the summer. According to the second recension tree is adorned. and comAnd he: Would plete thy speech! that I might repeat the like thing And they What is thy will ? Then he Certain fruits. t until are they reference in the second recension is to the old of the previous dictum.The Turba Philosophorum. beware of becoming envious." t : " The more the N . placed in the sun it till imbued. The TURBA answer eth : O Theophilus. rusty. comes young. after which is In these days silence is it liquefies it is becomes and congealed. which proceed first from that perfect tree. 177 all ye does not become rusty except by reason of this water.

In the same way that woman. and being mature become sweet. she lives. to described. and refers. or interpolated at a later period . in any case. make known to I also you that the dragon never dies. furiously loves her. has possibly been indeed. 178 perfected.The Turba Philosophorum. therefore. For the belly of that * The compiler of the Turba seems to have introduced this allegory from another source. and keeps awake contending with her. does not brook being overcome. it its style. something which has not been previously . His beauty. although partly angry. quite out of character with the text as a whole. but the Philosophers have put to death the woman who slays her spouses. is that of the epoch of Trevisan . till he shall have carnal intercourse with her. and God make perfect the foetus. when he multiplies children to himself according to his pleasure. For when the term is finished he turns to her. it will be seen.* from her own fleeing whom with children. yet nor that her husband should possess her who beauty. consumed is by fire who does not approach his wife except by reason of lust. it is.

a sepulchre be dug for the dragon. Let. . Then the wind is lenitude is hidden. woman 179 weapons and venom. until the consumed. therefore. limbs the him mixed with perceiving of a woman he becomes secure from death. and let that woman be is full of who being strongly woman. Philosophorum. the more he buried with him. that out of nothing becomes * : all the elect useful In the second recension the ye disthings without con- name is Bodillus. in the is sun for certain days. saith Know. beholdhim turned into blood. The Sixtieth Dictum.The Turbo. joined with that clasps her and is entwined with her. leave him ing woman. the blood dries up. and they find that venom which now is manifest. But the Philosophers. the more his body. and the whole is turned into blood. BONELLUS* ciples. by the creation of female weapons in the body of the For cut up into parts.

and by the blood." . and the more more. and have the the woman. arriving Otherwise: independent.The Turba Philosophorum. it is nourished with milk. For the man mingling with the sperm is nourished by of the womb. the sperm would not be dissolved.* because sperma is generated out of blood and desire. But God has constituted that heat and blood blood and of the for the nourishment of the sperm until is brought forth. while it it is fire. which reads long as it is little. humour moistening when forty the elapsed sperm is But if the humidity of the nights formed. is dust. nor the foetus be procreated. save by milk and sparingly and gradually. and by heat. towards youth. the bones are strengthened. 180 junction and regimen. the it is led at which it behoves it * it burns the bones being strengthened. womb were not heat." t This absurd confusion is not found in the second " So recension. and in proportion as the vital heat : is maintained. t is you "Know also that act to nothing Thus is in generated without complexion. after which the foetus not nourished.

deceiving prosterity. it is convenient and sweet to the body. and that the nothing bath causes the matter to perish by is means of intense frigid." etc. and from our except from * This passage translatable. demonstrated to you. therefore. and it be disperses. whereif it the fore has is been ye disciples and in become smooth and Behold it augmented. and splendid powder. simulating. is so corrupt as to be almost un- According to the second recension: have in making number lead. strong. fear God. The Sixty-First Dictum. MOSES saith: It the envious have is to be observed that named lead of copper instruments of formation.The Turba Philosophorum. flight indeed. things which ye attempt ! all to rule. puts to If. it but heat. have been tempered. and have represented many ways of instruments. 181 ye that without heat ever generated. all veins the flesh Understand. "The described the process of envious that there are a . Know this Art.* to whom I give notice that there are no instruments our own white.

A i. yet.. being used in the same sense as Latin theology was accustomed to speak of So Bernard Trevisan. etc. but that its configuration. " i. in his Epistle to Thomas of Bononia : " Our stone does not possess a the form of the soul. whereas the human body. nor of what bird. than the powder of Alociae. .. and read Alogia. the form of the stone. many words and no sense. formata).t out of which are suitable instruments produced of formation.e." For is because it is the term concave stone the second recension substitutes gleaming. nor one more conjoined to our composition. or that of other sensitive things. severe critic. Candidas. to the whole work whereof there is no more powder." t | This entire passage is considerably shortened in the second recension. which simply observes that out of the powder mentioned at the beginning.The Turba Philosophorum. 182 concave stone* and marble. is heterogeneous.e. : Yet they have not said what the egg And know ye is. instruments adapted to the egg are composed. having failed to trace this term. Further. form formal (forma formabilis) such as vegetative or it has a formed form (forma sensitive. the Philosophers have already said Take instruments out of the egg. and this homogeneous. might suggest a slight emendation. which form is the elements themselves. but that at the same time the envious have omitted to name the egg. nevertheless.! * The concave stone does not seem to be a term which entered into the nomenclature of We is hear much concerning not to be understood as later philosophers.

its light is taken and extinguished by the sea. commingles. full. ye err in cess. there- take this and place in sand till it be dissolved. namely. having various Zosimus. 183 that the regimen of these things is more difficult than the entire work. the same in a gentle see that it is fire dissolved. but one elixir. Wherefore the Philosophers have ordered that should be ruled with it The moon. because. therefore. Cook. and corrupt the work. until ye Then extinguish with vinegar. in ruling. Ixir.The Turba Philosophorum. . profound judgment. the second burns. being at the fore. however. and ye shall find one thing separated from And know ye that three companions. the true powder of perfection the existence of three powers and three activities proceeding from those powers. the composition be ruled if more than it should be. the first. while the third liquefies. recognises in degrees of perfection. And know ye that while ye are placing the same sand and repeating the prounless ye have patience. it of three holds there is In to have generally recogelixirs. Fundamentally.* Alchemy does not seem nised the existence indeed.

O MUNDUS saith : It behoves you. tincture of the plurality one Tyrian which Philosophers to there is names given abolished the have called it at will. same time held and so also the Elixir of to be the medicine of men. and carmen. and have they and having name. Kenckel." . herbs. fixation. geldum. just as they has a body has mathematically three dimensions. black.The Turba Philosophorum. to know that whatsoever the Philosophers have narrated or ordained. proper penetration. of vinegar twice the vessel impose nine while first made is and hot. because been extracted from tincture. Karnech. etc. seekers all ye after this Art. trouble therefore. The Sixty-Second Dictum. The distinction is a mere subtlety. are one thing Do !* about a of for things. not. 184 the first ounces place. it And our sea. being second when it is heated. Later alchemists speak much of the Elixir at the second is metals is at the White and the first the Elixir at the Red. yet the in exaltation. " Certain According to the second recension Gold have named Chelidony. therefore. Philosophers * : Geldum.

but our Tyrian placed which they and treasuries. they tinged Kenckel with a Tyrian colour . colour. Philosophorum. and is neither sordid nor impure in putrefaction. for purifying altars. is to be traced in corn that is being ground. which also extracted from our red has been and most pure sea. And know ye that we have given many names to it. and mentally there is yet fundabut one name. and lest they should introduce into them anything sordid or impure. which is sweet and of a pleasant odour. each of these has its own name. and after passed through the is it sieve. which are all true an example of which. whence. in their altars was more clean and fragrant than can be described by me. called by has been and the various substances have been separated one from another.The Turbo. to . know not that ancient the condescend to 185 did priests wear artificial garments. for those that possess understanding. For after grinding it another name.

ye changed into be coagulated. most O great all Accordingly. The Sixty-Third Dictum. called saith nature the it because the body therein arcanum is is of the Magnesia. PHILOSOPHUS* terity I : notify to pos- male and wherefore the envious have that female. purple in each grade of its regimen by the name of its own colour. know it itself. 186 wit. that they signify humour. when ye hear of the sea in the books of the water. because * the it germinates In the second recension. and by the medicines they mean Nature. corn. place Magnesia in its ! and vessel. further until and contain envious. many names Thus we call the from which are distinguished. Then. ye seekers after this Art.The Turba Philosophorum. But. opening find shall the Cook it cook after whole diligently ! some days. while by the basket they signify the vessel. is put into . this speech mouth of Rarson.

The Sixty-Fourth DictumA PYTHAGORAS saith : How marvellous the diversity of the Philosophers in those things which they formerly is asserted. coming in to the second recension is This dictum recension. ye find the prescribed blackness shall That This. gether * and [or According buds and flowers t their agreement] . in : to- respect " That which one nevertheless. certain people name But Agadimon demonstrated when he this blackness coins. that the things [or the copper] being first mixed and cooked once. and say But when the envious flowers. they all is therefore." is omitted altogether by the second . has clearly boldly put forth these words O be noted. is the lead which concerning ! black. Wise.The Turba Philosophorum. become to say. of they the have treated very frequently in their books.* Wash : 187 until the blackness of the copper passes away. Some also call it [the lead] of our black coins. all : It is to ye demonstrators of this art.

+ " from the sea. 1 88 and most common of this small wherein the precious thing is thing. who love wisdom. that whereas Mundus hath been teaching all ye this Art. all goes . concealed ! the vulgar knew. but God hath if Yet. ash. ! they would not concealed this from the crowd* lest the world should be devastated. \ On thing has well. HORFOLCUS O saith :t You must know. may become bolder.The Turba Philosophorum. being introduced into this * Literally t In the Art. they would deem it a they knew its efficacy. the same small And and lie if vile thing. The Sixty-Fifth Dictum. and placing before you most lucid syllogisms." second recension the speaker called is Orfulus. he that does not understand what he has said is a brute animal But I will explain ! the regimen of this small thing. : understand then that the Diversity of Burnt Copper. in order that any one. vilify it. O all ye investigators of this art." On become " Be not dissuaded by and when you perceive that every- the principle of Zosimus thine inexperience.

it behoves you to mix the residuum of the whole humour. the until for or gentle. a complexion. until they be dessicated in the said gentle fire. it is . and dealbated on the fire until all things become one colour tion. And know that one spirit burns one thing and destroys one thing. after the fire. with that which is and the dear with that which Know common. afterwards. and then its colour will be . is assuredly consider it.The Turba Philosophorum may more it although dear. and one body strengthens one spirit. cleansed. over and not a gentle of intensifying the fire elements are conjoined. may compose common the 189 . and teaches the same to contend with the But. and be small. whereby they are gradually burnt. with which. Beware fire. governed. first combus- necessary that it should be washed. cooked sincere. these should follow one be embraced and in another. ye that the in beginning of the mixing. it behoves you to commingle elements which are crude.

also. These things by the being disposition. humid becomes dry. and produces that which ye desire.* the lead. But to convert the elements is to make : the moist dry and the fugitive fixed. Whence the Philoso- Convert the elements and pher saith thou shalt find what thou seekest. the death and Know life of ye. liquefied.The Turba Philosophorum. let accomplished the operator in the fire until the gross leave it made subtle. But when the colours begin ye shall behold the miracles of the wisdom proceed from * " The nonAccording to the second recension is the head of this art. be and the subtle remain as a tingeing spirit. into different natures. God favouring. the thick body becomes a spirit. which is the becomes not-liquefied. and the fleeing spirit becomes strong and fit to do battle against the fire. and are changed because the being rejoice. cooked in the fire. I go exalted. that the elements fire. and that the composite germinates itself." : liquid becomes liquid which . diligently For the elements.

The Turba Philosophorum. than precious therefore. and thou treated. knowing what the Philosophers have said Search the latent spirit and : disesteem remains effects * it when it arcanum and not. omitted in the second recension. of God. 191 wonder-working tingeing other natures O ! and Nature. is put into the mouth of Emiganus. ! is Natures these in Nature which multiplies the and makes fixed and composite. the Tyrian colour be until O accomplished. which is Magnesia. seeing that it is t a great many good This dictum is and that which follows things. The Sixty-Sixth Dictum. as it behoves thee.* EXEMIGANUS saith : Thou hast already O Lucas. . hast commanded posterity to prove experiment] and to read the to [or books. heavenly separating the elements by converting regi- men more Nothing. that scarlet. concerning living and concealed silver. Nature.

therefore. And he that : Burn. more lucid than are your words. 1 92 The Sixty-Seventh Dictum. the diversity only in the names. Do And they: Woe hast thou shortly why art thou poisoned And he: Is it desirable speak so." . that the Philosopher saith :* Burn the copper. for they are one said is and the same unto you dealt with how ! it ! with jealousy that I should ! And they : thing. but to make that to whiten is red For the envious have * is life. burn HERMIGANUS replies: Behold something more dark The TURBA answereth than ever the silver.t The following variation occurs in the opening of " The books of the : Philosophers the second recension should be read. And more he : clearly ? I signify to burn. for therein is an arcanum. LUCAS saith and what I I : to testify forth set is posterity.The Turba Philosophorum. As to that which he dark. burn the gold. for they have not in vain advised that the sucking child should be heeded. burn. out of which the Wise have operated good things. : ! which is Illumine." " To make red t According to the second recension: is to vivify. burn.

envious there therefore. seeing that copper. the fore body but that there which is tinges the soul. to whom I testify that the definition of this Art is the the liquefaction of the body and separation of the soul from the body. nature.The Turba Philosophorum. that quicksilver vivifies of the the body . behoves you. there is answereth: the subtle and penetrates the body. and a is a soul. O all ye Sons of the Doctrine. to destroy the body and Whereextract the soul therefrom it ! Philosophers said that the does not penetrate the body. 193 multiplied many names that they might lead posterity astray. that Mercury is hidden by the rays Sun. like Therefore. which is this explain. a man. Despite you have a is The body TURBA desire your put In to dark forth I signify that the And he have narrated and said that : splendour of Saturn does not appear unless it perchance be dark when it ascends in the air. has a soul and a body. words. and it nature.

of which ye have been inquiring. may be astronomical and not . after God. and cook in the sun and black earth for 42 But the second work is perdays. precedes the Sun.* by its fiery strength. 8 pound with white vinegar. all in- ye vestigators of this Art. that our work.The Turba Philosophorum. . as in the of a planetary attribution 57th Dictum. 194 and thus the work But Venus. from the formed month * in the of This is tenth September day of to the tenth the day the second of the two passages mentioned note on page 168 of this volume as containing traces of metals. that is. ATTAMUS saith: O Know. and fore. the reference chemical. ! Then If extinguish in white vinegar. the work is completed Take. 24 ounces thereof have been boiled. but. when she accomplished. by which and with which. boil with coals until they become white. becomes oriental. thereold sea Halsut and stones. is The Sixty-Eighth Dictum. let the heat be extinguished with a third part ounces of the vinegar. is produced by the generation of the sea.

he: And ye see that the matblack. But if the place where it is cooked be humid and dewy it is congealed more quickly. O Mundus. ness of the first decoction is the : I extraction of its Describe what FLORUS When ter is : entirely redness! is And redness. the sign of the goodthat Doctrine. know that . all vinegar be its dried The Sixty-Ninth Dictum. And the fact that one work is congealed more quickly and another more slowly. but leave the same to be cooked until up and it becomes a fixed earth. FLORUS saith : am I thinking of per- thy treatise. while it it be dry it is congealed more slowly. the vinegar a second time in this work. arises from the diversity of cooking.The Turba Philosophorum. 195 Do not impose [or grade] of Libra. like Egyptian earth. FLORUS the cooking A nd ! : And Philosopher! O he Sons of the teach you. for has not accomplished the dis- fecting thou of position O Proceed.

which red has improved the black. Philosophorum. first blackness is produced out of the nature of Marteck.The Turbo. But in the second decoction let that whiteness be placed in a vessel with instruments. for ye know how to discern between them. 196 been has whiteness hidden in the Then it bebelly of that blackness. it does not behove you to extract it. recension affirms that it does behove . until it But when. be certain that redness is hid in that whiteness ! However. hoves you to extract that whiteness most subtly from that blackness. and that redness extracted is from that blackness. and has made peace between the fugitive and the non-fugitive. after this Art. reducing * you The second to extract it. let it be cooked become completely O all ye seekers ye shall perceive that whiteness appear and flowing over all. and its gently white.* but rather to cook it until the whole become a most deep red. with which nothing Know also that the can compare.

And the sulphur which blackens is that which does not open the door to the fugitive and turns into the with the fugitive." : that which readings are corrupt and ungrammatical. And know that the same sulphur cannot ye be handled. " That which cruciates with harm or corruption reading does not cruciate with utility and coadunation. two the answereth he into one. but it cruciates and tinges." : . thereby tracted * it " It converts According to the second recension Both is non-fugitive into a fugitive nature.* Do you not see that the cruciating does not fugitive harm or corruption. Because the : when it changes indelible is it TURBA The And why was : 197 this A nd ? cruciated matter submerged in the body. to know It behoves this sulphur you. which blackens the body. t The second recension somewhat reverses this.The Turba Philosophorum. into an unalterable and nature. but by coadunation and utility of things ?t For if its victim were noxious and cruciate with would not be embraced until its colours were exand unalterable it from inconvenient. therefore.

which it behoves you to rule carefully. I have testified to be the key of the work. for but that . The Seventieth Dictum. which if it hath not. the plurality of these compositions. therefore. nor those things which the merated in nature of truth * have enu- philosophers their books. but one and a suitable nature. and a diversity of natures does not improve that thing. all ye investi- gators of this Art. is For the and the followers one. all that it imposes profits nothing. . which indelible. In the second recension the name is Mandinus. and this does not come to pass without blackness. for by ignorance of ruling some have erred.The Turba Philosoplwrum. MUNDUS* saith : Know. the Masters have said that what is perfected is one. of the red tinctures prepared for the rest does not blacken it . Do not heed. ig8 This we have called water water we have sulphur. which does blacken. that the head is all things. Accordingly.

but one having in itself its own natures and properties.The Turba Philosopher um. BRACUS* * saith : How elegantly Mundus In the second recension this dictum Archelaus. and Nature contains Nature at the same time there are not many or forth therefrom . Nature overcomes Nature. by which it prevails over other things. for him shall a nature rise which shall conquer all and then shall that word be natures. and finished one called those unities Water. fulfilled which was written by the Masters. is ascribed to . conquering ? all The Seventy-First Dictum. This arcanum of is known except by He. namely. Natures. diverse Do you not see that the Master has begun with one Hence has he Sulphureous Nature. 199 Nature have termed it that one thing in the belly whereof is concealed the natural arcanum. that Nature rejoices in Nature. how to extract its complexion and rules equably. therefore. who knows neither seen nor the Wise.

and even as a most tenuous spirit. The PHILOSOPHUS* saith sition. hath described this sulphureous water For unless solid bodies are destroyed ! by a nature wanting a body. But when it ruled it is called by ten names. that is. until the bodies become not-bodies. ye are unable to tinge a body therewith. the body of Magnesia. although they become one. and are called by one name. that the lead then the ten . is It is necessary. which is hidden in the natural belly. and unless ye extract from it its which a tingeing spirit. is The Seventy-Second Dictum. And know that unless the body be withered up and so destroyed that it dies. be turned into blackness * The second recension refers this dictum to Philotis. therefore.20O The Turba Philosophorum. which the ancients have is termed Albar of copper. ye cannot [attain] that most tenuous and tingeing soul. soul. . taken from the colours which appear in the regimen of the body of this Magnesia. : first compo- made out of several things.

Ferment of Gold. f Gold of the Beak. it is called bars and Behold I have replates of metal. but is of Coral as the has become fixed a is. the other is dry. per- there any reference rostrum or rostellum of the alembic ? to the . because it tinges position called every body which has entered into the composition. they are cooked prudently they become is one. of course. we mean nothing more by these names than Albar of copper. but M.t It is also called redundant red sulphur and red orpiment. 201 aforesaid shall appear in the ferment of gold. Berthelot explains that bination oi Sandyx and Sinopis. But while it remains crude lead of copper.The Turba Philosophormn. and are called the good thing of several names. according to it was a com- Rulandus. Gold of Coral. f Later alchemical writers define matter of the Philosophers the red stage. I fectly The when it Gold significance of this phrase inscrutable. with sericon. * Sericon is one of the names of Minium. But when it becomes red it is called Flower of Gold. When all these things have been said.* which is a com- by ten names. But composition is twofold one When humid.

many kinds of I in this most have seen. therefore. have " a certain lapse of time and recognised the necessity for a favourable moment. coals and flame.The Turba Philosophorum. so that he who shall possess this book may belong its unto and himself. fire." See Olympiodorus On the Sacred Art. One is made out of straw and cinder. of Paracelsus : Alterius non sit . 2O2 names when raw. in common with all other alchemists. concerning " Greek.* and the diversity of intensity thereof in every grade. which also we should distinguish from the names when it has been cooked. but one without flame. pondered me now quantity of the it It you the and the numbers of to exhibit to fire. Now. days. Let vealed it its therefore behoves be is over. so that he shall remain secure in that middle way which is closed to those who are deficient precious art. in whole arcanum.i be freed from poverty. f Compare the motto qui suus esse potest. But lead which is the is lead of copper. shows that there are Experiment intermediate grades between these kinds.

every grade it is beheld. Wherefore also a sublime gold and a patent gold is found in the treasuries of the former philosophers. coming out of their own former natures.The Turba Philosophorum. These things being accomplished. elements turned are into lead of copper. they are turned into a new nature. Then they are called one nature and one genus. 203 the days of the night in which will be the perfection of the most great arcanum. there will result a patent and white tincture. occurring frequently. Wherefore those things are unequal which they introduce into Inasmuch as the commingled and are their composition. it : is . unless in a certain way the composition water and is altered in its drinks the In colours. And know most assuredly that if a little gold be placed in the composition. when it is coloured by a venerable redness. it is placed in a glass vessel. I will treat in its proper place in what follows. Although concerning this we elixir read in the sayings of the philosophers Take gold.

gold for gold of coral. lead and Again. lead. consider what Democritus* how he begins speaking from bottom to top. copper. f It will be well in this place to enumerate the terms. he said Take iron. when he begins from the top to the bottom. Albar. Halsut. by his sayings that only semi-gold is taken. lead. For. gold of coral for gold of crocus. 204 only needful to do so once. therefore. Mucra. and he shews. And without doubt gold is not changed iron into * . second place. Absumech. coin. then reversing matters saith. Murtal. therefore.The Turba Philosophorum. Wishing. and the curious use of the Latin word Carmen. and albart for copper. enemy at was forbidden to participate. . to know the certitude of the adversary. he proceeds from top to bottom. mostly ot oriental origin. Corsufle. occurring in the Turba for which no explanation can at present be found. rust without lead and copper. They are : Ebmich. which reversing. he saith : in the Take gold. he again : says And our copper : for coins. for gold. Geldum. Democritus at effectually the beginning of the assembly is and now seems to be quoted as an the conclusion of a symposium in which he silenced.

it vinegar be placed in it.The Turba PhilosopJiorwn. placed until its finally in the utility grade becomes as a mucra. once. therefore. however they said Take gold and it : becomes gold of coral Take gold of coral and it becomes purple gold all . the . the second as red. because these colours come from it. therefore. because. is the redness which all the Philosophers signified. names of those behoves them that these things are only for colours. But by these things which the Philosophers have mentioned under various names. they have signified stronger bodies and forces. appear. it is necessary decocted in be forty days. It may become is that taken. citrine imbued it is it may consumed and cooked Its first be desiccated. . This. until. it is turned into redness. being cooked. and unless it 205 be imbued with vinegar known by the wise. so that it the water being being vessel. appear. is imposed said colours that each rubigo and then vinegar For when the on it.

So is pounded crocus of the it imposed upon coin. I say unto you makes earth black and then with fire. and shall be exalted above the circle of the world. is. but the same.The Turba Philosophorum. Whosoever does not liquefy and coagulate errs Therefore. 206 third as the dry vulgar. enough for the Sons of the Doctrine. * it shall This constitutes recension. when it is placed in the If you seek to fire. if the second omitted from the longer version. we doubt not. till it becomes even that whoso dissolves unto a naked sword. who also fixes the whole with consuming fire. and is be dissolved the last Dictum in but . black . The strength thereof. dissolve. Conclusion. shall ye find what ye seek. This much concerning the revelation of our stone.* AGMON saith : by way of a I will add the following corollary. afterwards whiten so . shall never become corrupted. make the earth greatly. shall be increased. deserves like to be called happy. separate the soul and the water thereof. .

Behold. and yet all do need it There are names to and it. no one is without it. hairless. nothing that Unless the names were is foreign.The Turba Philosopher um. many would deride our . and yet no one can apply the tongue with impunity to its surface. multiplied. Investigate nothing alien is added. wisdom. volatile. cold. soul. you speak the truth if you say that it is not water. you speak Do not then be deceived by falsely. spirit. while. It is also a stone and not a stone. but rest assured that it is one thing. white. add and the place thereof. concave. If you wish that it should fly. 207 you would coagulate. . it is concealed. so that the vulgar might be deceived. it shall be coagulated. the multiplicity of names. and body it is ! . it flies if you say that it is water. many given yet it is called by one only. unto which . if need be.


21. Coin. Dew. 75. Flower of Salt. 140. 29. 90. 44. 121. Death. 87. 135. 161. 178. 39. 64. 44> 601 75> 86. of. 154. 107. Citrine. Fire. Ferment of Gold. 49. 155- 56. 20-22. 122. 187. 133. 148. 135-137. 39. 130. 81. 120. 138. 19. 70. 205. 31. Four Seasons. 7. 23. 1531 182. 32. 106. 5. 26. 57. gum Corsufle. 138. 14. 157. 76. 84. 30. 30. 80. 27. Democritus. Boritis. Flower of Gold.100. 10-13. 71. Arcanum. 60. Air. 132. 72. 9i 4. 117. Earth. 89. 31. 31. Egg. 13. 198. 145. 36. 81. Fixed and Volatile. 28. 62. 57. 144. n. Fire. 139. Elementary Brodium. 59. Four.25-27. 157. Cambar. Gold. 20. 193. 100. gold of coral.81. 27.41. 93) 94i IO 2) 103. Coagula. Flower of Copper. 113. 85. Copper. 105. Burnt Lead. 45. Oadenbe. 74. 44i 58. 16. 72. 204. Angels. 22. 58. 105. 8. Ethelia. ill. 32. 114. 73. 161. 97. Dragon. 122. 21. 39. 8-13. 140-142. Blackness. no. Elements. Foundation of Art. . Burnt Copper. 13. 117. 39. Calx. 143. 201. 29. Crocus. 21. 31. Adam.70.INDEX. 106. 20. 31. 19. 169. 50.23. 151. 122. 105. Efflucidinus. 21. 34. Faeces. 70. Atitos. 156. 18.113. 31. 39. 61. 99. 3-12.

i. go. Putrefaction. 161 . 160. 107. 60. 134. 93. 131. 122. 170. 141. Stone. 34. 39. 143. 109. 93. 55. 79. 163. of the Art. 133. 84. 145. 109 . Spume of the Moon. Marteck. 137. 193. 48. 139. 132. 133. 205. 91. 91. 79. 185. Shadow Smoke. 76. Rubigo. 76. 78. 146. 118. 76. 130. 100. 196. of Metals. H6 body 5 Magnet. Nitre. 71. 68. 34. 57. 45. 49. Kuhul. 36. 67. Hidden Glory. 52. 87. 143. 77. 78. 117. 144. 57. 25. 35. 67. Golden Water. 80. 90. 55. Key 31. 93. Sun. 114 . Rust. 74. of gold. 193. 46. 164. 61-63 . 89. 53. of ascotia. 52. Tyrian Dye. 69. 85. 76. 44. 80. Leaven of Gold. 160. Hermes. 45. 119. 121. 82. 70. 145. 145. 58. 100. 125. 122. Tin. 135.210 INDEX. 122. 169. Permanent Water. 145. Gum. 38. 193. 54. Sulphur. 194. 36. 57. Testa. 130. of scoria. 186. 107. Quicksilver. 64-66. 34. Rotundum. Milk of Fig. 44. 96. Tincture. 184. 79. 137. 72. . 82. 43. 96. 165. 54. 82. 133. Mucra. 67. 61. H2. 117. 121. 60. 82. 130. 180. 168. 39. Magnesia. Mercury. Saginatum. 104. 79. 34. 44. Spirit of Brass. 119. igi. 2. 28. 52. 77. Red Slave. Heart of the Sun. 77. 84^ 162. Orpiment. 63. Saturn. 42. 35. 81. 47-50. Halsut. 76. 86. Male and Female. 58. 34. 106. 59. 77. 94. Greenstone. 71. 174. 67. 123. 31. 39. red lead. 139. 132. 69. 152. 92. 31. 126. l35-i37i Kedness. Ixir. 132. Lead. of. 60. 57.

Whiteness. 150. 52. of of iron. . 132 30. : 58. 75. of 38.211 Urine. 48. 139. 69. 130. 21. 29. . 121. 20. Venom. 119. alum. 117. of sulphur. 119. Vinegar. 139. 55. 137. 4. 63. 53 . 51-54. Venus. of dew. of . 27. 49. 38 gold. 143. 147- 194. 106. Water. 144. 58. 53. nitre. 8-12. 90. 38. 123. 87. 109. 1341 173- 117. 63 of our sea. !32. 59. 98. 46.



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