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Page 1
Rule_1 "OK" · Rule_1 if a 0.5 d ⋅ ≥ "OK" , "NG" , ( ) :·
The dimension "a" must be greater than or equal to half the hole
diameter, d.
i.e. a > 1/2 * d
For this example, a = 1.125" and since it is greater than 1/2*d which is
0.625". Rule 1 is satisfied.
Rule 1:
There are some geometric guidelines to be considered as recommended
in Reference 1. They will be called Rule 1 and Rule 2.
Geometric Guidelines:
F
y
36 ksi ⋅ :·
F
u
58 ksi ⋅ :·
e 1.125 in ⋅ :·
a 1.125 in ⋅ :·
d 1.25 in ⋅ :·
ksi 1000
lb
in in ⋅
⋅ ≡
t 1.25 in ⋅ :·
e
a
Dia. d
thickness, t
2”
1.75”
3.5”
1/2”
Embed
plate
kip 1000 lb ⋅ ≡ Example of an Overhead Lifting Lug
There is very little published information available on the subject of the design/analysis of
lifting lugs. Therefore, design engineers are left without adequate technical guidance on
this subject. The following provides a systematic method.
Introduction
by Clement Rajendra, PE
Project Engineer, CP&L, Southport, NC 28461
email: clem.rajendra@pgnmail.com
Design/Evaluation of
Overhead Lifting Lugs
DISCLAIMER: The materials contained in this MathCad file are not intended as a representation or warranty
on the part of PDHonline.org or any other person named herein. The materials are for general information
only. They are not a substitute for competent professional advice. Application of this information to a specific
project should be reviewed by registered professional engineer. Anyone making use of the information set
forth herein does so at their own risk and assumes any and all resulting liability arising therefrom.
De s i gn/ Eva l ut i on of Ove r he a d Li f t i ng Lugs
Page 2
P
w2
16.875kip ·
P
w2
0.9 F
y
⋅ t ⋅ d
pin
⋅
1.8
:·
d
pin
d 0.50 in ⋅ − :·
This failure mode involves bearing failure at the pin/lifting lug interface. Often the pin
diameter is much less than the hole diameter. Let us assume a pin diameter 1/2" less than
the hole diameter. Using a bearing stress of 0.9 F
y
, and a "factor" of 1.8, we have (See
Note 1):
Failure Mode 2:
P
w1
32.625kip · P
w1
P
u
5
:·
A factor of safety of 5 is common for lifting components. Therefore, using a
factor of safety of 5, the working load is:
P
u
163.12kip ·
P
u
2 a ⋅ t ⋅ F
u
⋅ :·
This failure mode involves tension failure on both sides of the hole. Therefore, the ultimate
tensile load is given by:
Failure Mode 1:
Evaluation based on Failure Modes:
Rule_2 "OK" · Rule_2 if e 0.67 d ⋅ ≥ "OK" , "NG" , ( ) :·
The dimension "e" must be greater than or equal to 0.67 times the hole
diameter, d.
Thus, e > 0.67 * d
For this example, e = 1.125" and since it is greater than 0.67*d which is
0.8375". Rule 2 is satisfied.
Rule 2:
De s i gn/ Eva l ut i on of Ove r he a d Li f t i ng Lugs
Page 3
Rule_4 "OK" · Rule_4 if t 0.5 in ⋅ ≥ "OK" , "NG" , ( ) :·
Rule_3 "OK" · Rule_3 if t 0.25 d ⋅ ≥ "OK" , "NG" , ( ) :·
In this example, since 0.25 x 1.25 = 0.3125" and the thickness of the lug is 1.25",
this failure mode does not control.
This failure mode involves the outofplane buckling failure of the lug. Per Ref. 1, this failure
is prevented by ensuring a minimum thickness of lug of 0.5 inches and 0.25 times the hole
diameter d.
Failure Mode 5:
P
w4
28.322kip ·
P
w4
1.67 0.67 ⋅ F
y
⋅ e
2
⋅
t
d
⋅
1.8
:·
This failure mode involves tensile failure as the pin tries to push out a block of steel through
the edge of the lug plate. Assuming a block of steel 0.8d in length, allowable load is given
by:
Failure Mode 4:
P
w3
22.5kip ·
P
w3
2 0.4 ⋅ F
y
⋅ e ⋅ t ⋅
1.8
:·
This failure mode involves shear failure as the pin tries to push out a block of steel through
the edge of the lug plate. The shear area is twice the crosssectional area beyond the hole
for the pin. Thus:
Failure Mode 3:
De s i gn/ Eva l ut i on of Ove r he a d Li f t i ng Lugs
Page 4
P
w5
18.984kip ·
P
w5
2 a
eff
⋅ 0.45 ⋅ F
y
⋅ t ⋅
1.8
:·
Therefore, load capacity based on AISC is given by:
a
eff
min AISC
min
( ) :·
AISC
min
a 1.5
e
2
⋅ 4 t ⋅
d
1.25

.
`
,
:·
Combining these three requirements into a single "formula" we have:
Since 1.25 times "a" is 1.25 x 1.125 = 1.406" and is greater than the diameter of hole of
1.25". This requirement is not satisfied. Therefore, the tensile capacity of the lug must
be based on a reduced "a" dimension which will satisfy this requirement.
This requirement states that the diameter of the pin hole shall not be less than 1.25 times
distance from the edge of pin hole to the edge of plate, i.e. dimension a.
Requirement 3:
Since 4 times thickness is 4 x 1.25" = 5" and is greater than 1.125". This requirement is
satisfied.
This requirement states that the distance transverse to the axis of a pinconnected plate
from the edge of the pin hole to the edge of the member, i.e. dimension a, shall not exceed
4 times the thickness at the pin hole.
Requirement 2:
Since 2/3 of A
2
is 1.875 in
2
which is more than A
1
, this requirement is not satisfied.
Therefore, the tensile capacity of the lug must be based on a reduced "a" dimension
which will satisfy this requirement.
A
2
2.813in
2
·
A
1
1.406in
2
·
A
2
2 a ⋅ t ⋅ :·
A
1
t e ⋅ :·
This requirement states that the minimum net area beyond the pin hole, parallel to the axis
of the member (A
1
), shall not be less than 2/3 of the net area across the pin hole(A
2
).
Requirement 1:
The above section of AISC Code has three separate geometry checks that can be applied
to the lifting lug. If these requirements are not met, a smaller value for "a"
should be used for the calculation of tensile capacity, a
eff
.
AISC Code Checks per Section D3.2:
De s i gn/ Eva l ut i on of Ove r he a d Li f t i ng Lugs
Page 5
Based on Ref. 3 f
1
W ( )
W
w t
w
+ ( ) 2 ⋅
W tan β deg ⋅
( )
⋅ l ⋅
w t
w
⋅
t
w
2
3
+

.
`
,
+
W tan α deg ⋅
( )
⋅ l ⋅
w t
w
⋅
w
2
3
+

.
`
,
+ :·
β 20 :·
f
max
7423
1.8
lb
in
⋅ :·
α 45 :· for 1/2 in. fillet weld and 21 ksi
allowable shear stress on
effective throat
Length of weld along lug width w 3.5 in ⋅ :·
Lever arm l 2 in ⋅ :·
Length of welds along lug thickness t
w
1.25 in ⋅ :·
This is an initial guess for Mathcad W 1 kip ⋅ :·
Therefore, the maximum load W that can be applied can be calculated as follows:
W
W tan
β
β
deg
W
W tan
α
α
deg
This is typically the weak link in an overhead lifitng lug, due to offset loading. In general,
the lug is rarely directly over the item to be rigged. Conservatively, let us assume that the
offset is a maximum of 45 degrees in the plane of the lug and 20 degrees normal to the
plane of the lug. The additional loads due to offset can be determined by statics to be as
follows:
Weld between Lug and Base Plate:
De s i gn/ Eva l ut i on of Ove r he a d Li f t i ng Lugs
Page 6
f
2
W ( )
W tan β deg ⋅
( )
⋅
2 w t
w
+ ( ) ⋅
:·
f
3
W ( )
W tan α deg ⋅
( )
⋅
2 w t
w
+ ( ) ⋅
:·
P
w6
root f
1
W ( )
2
f
2
W ( )
2
+ f
3
W ( )
2
+

.
`
,
0.5
f
max
− W ,
]
]
]
:·
P
w6
8.198kip ·
Lug Base Material:
The analysis is similar to the weld above except that there is no interaction between tension
and shear. The capacity is based on the maximum tensile stress at the base of the lug:
W 1 kip ⋅ :·
f
max
0.75 F
y
⋅
1.8
:·
l
w
2 a ⋅ d + :· Lug width
f
1
W ( )
W
l
w
t ⋅
W tan β deg ⋅
( )
⋅ l ⋅
l
w
t
2
6
⋅

.
`
,
+
W tan α deg ⋅
( )
⋅ l ⋅
l
w
2
6
t ⋅

.
`
,
+ :·
P
w7
root f
1
W ( ) ( ) f
max
− W ,
]
]
:·
P
w7
8.283kip ·
De s i gn/ Eva l ut i on of Ove r he a d Li f t i ng Lugs
Page 7
1. As discussed in Reference 1, using a "factor" of 1.8 on AISC allowables results in a factor of safety
of 5 for A36 steel. This is in line with ASME B30.20 which requires a design factor of 3 on yield
strength and ANSI N14.6 which requires a design factor of 3 on yield strength and 5 on ultimate
strength. This is also in line with the load ratings for other components of the lifting assembly such as
slings, shackles, etc.
Notes:
3. Omer Blodgett, "Design of Welded Structures", 1966
2. AISC Manual of Steel Construction (ASD), Ninth Edition, 1989
1. David T. Ricker, "Design and Construction of Lifting Beams", Engineering Journal, 4th Quarter, 1991.
References:
If additional capacity is desired, the anglesα and β can be restricted as needed to increase the
capacity of the lug. In the above example, if these angles are made equal to zero, the maximum
capacity will increase to 16.875 kips.
P
w7
8.283kip ·
P
w6
8.198kip · P
w3
22.5kip ·
P
w5
18.984kip · P
w2
16.875kip ·
P
w4
28.322kip · P
w1
32.625kip ·
Note variation in capacities for each attribute
Cap
allow
8.198kip ·
Cap
allow
min Capacity ( ) :·
Capacity P
w1
P
w2
P
w3
P
w4
P
w5
P
w6
P
w7
( ) :·
Conclusion:
8 Pw2 = 16. using a factor of safety of 5. the ultimate tensile load is given by: Pu := 2 ⋅ a ⋅ t ⋅ Fu Pu = 163. the working load is: Pw1 := Pu 5 Pw1 = 32. e = 1. "NG" ) Rule_2 = "OK" Evaluation based on Failure Modes: Failure Mode 1: This failure mode involves tension failure on both sides of the hole. Using a bearing stress of 0.8.67*d which is 0.12 kip A factor of safety of 5 is common for lifting components. Therefore.67 times the hole diameter. d.875 kip .9 ⋅ Fy ⋅ t ⋅ dpin 1.67 * d For this example. Thus.67 ⋅ d .125" and since it is greater than 0. Rule 2 is satisfied. Let us assume a pin diameter 1/2" less than the hole diameter.Design/Evalution of Overhead Lifting Lugs Page 2 Rule 2: The dimension "e" must be greater than or equal to 0.8375". Therefore. Often the pin diameter is much less than the hole diameter. e > 0.50 ⋅ in Pw2 := 0.9 Fy . Rule_2 := if ( e ≥ 0. and a "factor" of 1. "OK" . we have (See Note 1): dpin := d − 0.625 kip Failure Mode 2: This failure mode involves bearing failure at the pin/lifting lug interface.
8 t d Pw4 = 28. "OK" .4 ⋅ Fy ⋅ e ⋅ t 1.Design/Evalution of Overhead Lifting Lugs Page 3 Failure Mode 3: This failure mode involves shear failure as the pin tries to push out a block of steel through the edge of the lug plate. Thus: Pw3 := 2 ⋅ 0. In this example.25". Per Ref. this failure is prevented by ensuring a minimum thickness of lug of 0.5 ⋅ in .5 inches and 0. The shear area is twice the crosssectional area beyond the hole for the pin.25 x 1.67 ⋅ 0.8 Pw3 = 22.25 = 0. Rule_3 := if ( t ≥ 0. this failure mode does not control. Assuming a block of steel 0. "OK" .3125" and the thickness of the lug is 1. allowable load is given by: 2 1.5 kip Failure Mode 4: This failure mode involves tensile failure as the pin tries to push out a block of steel through the edge of the lug plate.25 ⋅ d .25 times the hole diameter d. "NG" ) Rule_3 = "OK" Rule_4 = "OK" .8d in length. 1. since 0. "NG" ) Rule_4 := if ( t ≥ 0.67 ⋅ Fy ⋅ e ⋅ Pw4 := 1.322 kip Failure Mode 5: This failure mode involves the outofplane buckling failure of the lug.
25".875 in2 which is more than A1.406 in 2 A2 := 2 ⋅ a ⋅ t A2 = 2. Since 1. shall not be less than 2/3 of the net area across the pin hole(A2).813 in 2 Since 2/3 of A2 is 1. load capacity based on AISC is given by: Pw5 := 2 ⋅ aeff ⋅ 0. Requirement 3: This requirement states that the diameter of the pin hole shall not be less than 1. aeff. parallel to the axis of the member (A1).984 kip . This requirement is satisfied. dimension a. a smaller value for "a" should be used for the calculation of tensile capacity.125". i.406" and is greater than the diameter of hole of 1. If these requirements are not met. i.5 ⋅ e 2 4 ⋅t 1. Combining these three requirements into a single "formula" we have: AISCmin := a 1. shall not exceed 4 times the thickness at the pin hole. Requirement 1: This requirement states that the minimum net area beyond the pin hole. A1 := t ⋅ e A1 = 1.2: The above section of AISC Code has three separate geometry checks that can be applied to the lifting lug.Design/Evalution of Overhead Lifting Lugs Page 4 AISC Code Checks per Section D3. Therefore.25 times distance from the edge of pin hole to the edge of plate.25 x 1. Since 4 times thickness is 4 x 1.125 = 1. dimension a. the tensile capacity of the lug must be based on a reduced "a" dimension which will satisfy this requirement.25" = 5" and is greater than 1.25 times "a" is 1.e. This requirement is not satisfied. this requirement is not satisfied. the tensile capacity of the lug must be based on a reduced "a" dimension which will satisfy this requirement.25 d aeff := min( AISCmin) Therefore. Therefore.8 Pw5 = 18.e. Requirement 2: This requirement states that the distance transverse to the axis of a pinconnected plate from the edge of the pin hole to the edge of the member.45 ⋅ Fy ⋅ t 1.
fillet weld and 21 ksi allowable shear stress on effective throat α := β := 7423 lb fmax := ⋅ 1. the maximum load W that can be applied can be calculated as follows: W := 1 ⋅ kip tw := 1. due to offset loading. In general.8 in 45 20 f1 ( W) := W W ⋅ tan ( β ⋅ deg) ⋅ l W ⋅ tan ( α ⋅ deg) ⋅ l + + 2 2 ( w + tw) ⋅ 2 tw w w ⋅ tw + w ⋅ tw + 3 3 Based on Ref.5 ⋅ in This is an initial guess for Mathcad Length of welds along lug thickness Lever arm Length of weld along lug width for 1/2 in.Design/Evalution of Overhead Lifting Lugs Page 5 Weld between Lug and Base Plate: This is typically the weak link in an overhead lifitng lug. 3 . Conservatively.25 ⋅ in l := 2 ⋅ in w := 3. let us assume that the offset is a maximum of 45 degrees in the plane of the lug and 20 degrees normal to the plane of the lug. the lug is rarely directly over the item to be rigged. The additional loads due to offset can be determined by statics to be as follows: α deg W tan α β deg W tan β W W Therefore.
W Pw6 = 8. W Pw7 = 8.8 Lug width fmax := lw := 2 ⋅ a + d f1 ( W) := W W ⋅ tan ( β ⋅ deg) ⋅ l W ⋅ tan ( α ⋅ deg) ⋅ l + + t2 l 2 lw ⋅ t w lw ⋅ ⋅ t 6 6 Pw7 := root ( f1 ( W) ) − fmax .Design/Evalution of Overhead Lifting Lugs Page 6 f2 ( W) := W ⋅ tan ( β ⋅ deg) 2 ⋅ ( w + tw) W ⋅ tan ( α ⋅ deg) 2 ⋅ ( w + tw) f3 ( W) := 2 2 2 0. The capacity is based on the maximum tensile stress at the base of the lug: W := 1 ⋅ kip 0.75 ⋅ Fy 1.283 kip .198 kip Lug Base Material: The analysis is similar to the weld above except that there is no interaction between tension and shear.5 Pw6 := root f1 ( W) + f2 ( W) + f3 ( W) − fmax .
"Design and Construction of Lifting Beams".6 which requires a design factor of 3 on yield strength and 5 on ultimate strength. This is in line with ASME B30. 2. Pw4 = 28. Ninth Edition.283 kip If additional capacity is desired. As discussed in Reference 1. the maximum capacity will increase to 16. "Design of Welded Structures". 1991.198 kip Note variation in capacities for each attribute Pw1 = 32. David T.20 which requires a design factor of 3 on yield strength and ANSI N14. Ricker. Omer Blodgett. Engineering Journal. 1989 3. the angles α and β can be restricted as needed to increase the capacity of the lug.5 kip Pw7 = 8. In the above example.875 kips.198 kip References: 1. etc. if these angles are made equal to zero. 4th Quarter. This is also in line with the load ratings for other components of the lifting assembly such as slings. .Design/Evalution of Overhead Lifting Lugs Page 7 Conclusion: Capacity := ( Pw1 Pw2 Pw3 Pw4 Pw5 Pw6 Pw7 ) Capallow := min( Capacity) Capallow = 8.8 on AISC allowables results in a factor of safety of 5 for A36 steel.875 kip Pw3 = 22. using a "factor" of 1.322 kip Pw5 = 18.625 kip Pw2 = 16. AISC Manual of Steel Construction (ASD).984 kip Pw6 = 8. shackles. 1966 Notes: 1.
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