# ELEMENTARY

MECHANICS & THERMODYNAMICS
Professor John W. Norbury
Physics Department
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
P.O. Box 413
Milwaukee, WI 53201
November 20, 2000
2
Contents
1 MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE 11
1.1 Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.2 Position and Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.3 Average Velocity and Average Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.4 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.5 Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.6 Constant Acceleration: A Special Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1.7 Another Look at Constant Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1.8 Free-Fall Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.9 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2 VECTORS 31
2.1 Vectors and Scalars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.2 Adding Vectors: Graphical Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.3 Vectors and Their Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.3.1 Review of Trigonometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.3.2 Components of Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.4 Unit Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.5 Adding Vectors by Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.6 Vectors and the Laws of Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.7 Multiplying Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.7.1 The Scalar Product (often called dot product) . . . . . 43
2.7.2 The Vector Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.8 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
3 MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS 47
3.1 Moving in Two or Three Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
3.2 Position and Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
3.3 Velocity and Average Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
3
4 CONTENTS
3.4 Acceleration and Average Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
3.5 Projectile Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
3.6 Projectile Motion Analyzed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
3.7 Uniform Circular Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
3.8 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
4 FORCE & MOTION - I 65
4.1 What Causes an Acceleration? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
4.2 Newton’s First Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
4.3 Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
4.4 Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
4.5 Newton’s Second Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
4.6 Some Particular Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
4.7 Newton’s Third Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
4.8 Applying Newton’s Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
4.9 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
5 FORCE & MOTION - II 79
5.1 Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
5.2 Properties of Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
5.3 Drag Force and Terminal Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
5.4 Uniform Circular Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
5.5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
6 POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 89
6.1 Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
6.2 Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
6.3 Work-Energy Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
6.4 Gravitational Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
6.5 Conservation of Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
6.6 Spring Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
6.7 Appendix: alternative method to obtain potential energy . . 103
6.8 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
7 SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES 107
7.1 A Special Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
7.2 The Center of Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
7.3 Newton’s Second Law for a System of Particles . . . . . . . . 114
7.4 Linear Momentum of a Point Particle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
7.5 Linear Momentum of a System of Particles . . . . . . . . . . 115
CONTENTS 5
7.6 Conservation of Linear Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
7.7 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
8 COLLISIONS 119
8.1 What is a Collision? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
8.2 Impulse and Linear Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
8.3 Elastic Collisions in 1-dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
8.4 Inelastic Collisions in 1-dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
8.5 Collisions in 2-dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
8.6 Reactions and Decay Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
8.7 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
9 ROTATION 131
9.1 Translation and Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
9.2 The Rotational Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
9.3 Are Angular Quantities Vectors? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
9.4 Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration . . . . . . . . . 134
9.5 Relating the Linear and Angular Variables . . . . . . . . . . . 134
9.6 Kinetic Energy of Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
9.7 Calculating the Rotational Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
9.8 Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
9.9 Newton’s Second Law for Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
9.10 Work and Rotational Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
9.11 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
10 ROLLING, TORQUE & ANGULAR MOMENTUM 145
10.1 Rolling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
10.2 Yo-Yo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
10.3 Torque Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
10.4 Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
10.5 Newton’s Second Law in Angular Form . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
10.6 Angular Momentum of a System of Particles . . . . . . . . . 149
10.7 Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body Rotating About a Fixed
Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
10.8 Conservation of Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
10.9 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
11 GRAVITATION 153
11.1 The World and the Gravitational Force . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
11.2 Newton’s Law of Gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
6 CONTENTS
11.3 Gravitation and Principle of Superposition . . . . . . . . . . . 158
11.4 Gravitation Near Earth’s Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
11.5 Gravitation Inside Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
11.6 Gravitational Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
11.7 Kepler’s Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
11.8 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
12 OSCILLATIONS 175
12.1 Oscillations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
12.2 Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
12.3 Force Law for SHM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
12.4 Energy in SHM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
12.5 An Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
12.6 Pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
12.7 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
13 WAVES - I 191
13.1 Waves and Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
13.2 Types of Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
13.3 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
13.4 Wavelength and Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
13.5 Speed of a Travelling Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
13.6 Wave Speed on a String . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
13.7 Energy and Power of a Travelling String Wave . . . . . . . . 196
13.8 Principle of Superposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
13.9 Interference of Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
13.10 Phasors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
13.11 Standing Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
13.12 Standing Waves and Resonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
13.13Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
14 WAVES - II 201
14.1 Sound Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
14.2 Speed of Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
14.3 Travelling Sound Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
14.4 Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
14.5 Intensity and Sound Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
14.6 Sources of Musical Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
14.7 Beats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
14.8 Doppler Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
CONTENTS 7
14.9 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
15 TEMPERATURE, HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODY-
NAMICS 211
15.1 Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
15.2 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
15.3 Measuring Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
15.4 Celsius, Farenheit and Kelvin Temperature Scales . . . . . . . 212
15.5 Thermal Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
15.6 Temperature and Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
15.7 The Absorption of Heat by Solids and Liquids . . . . . . . . . 215
15.8 A Closer Look at Heat and Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
15.9 The First Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
15.10 Special Cases of 1st Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . 221
15.11 Heat Transfer Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
15.12Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
16 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 225
16.1 A New Way to Look at Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
16.2 Avagadro’s Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
16.3 Ideal Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
16.4 Pressure, Temperature and RMS Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
16.5 Translational Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
16.6 Mean Free Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
16.7 Distribution of Molecular Speeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
16.8 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
17 Review of Calculus 235
17.1 Derivative Equals Slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
17.1.1 Slope of a Straight Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
17.1.2 Slope of a Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
17.1.3 Some Common Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
17.1.4 Extremum Value of a Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
17.2 Integral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
17.2.1 Integral Equals Antiderivative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
17.2.2 Integral Equals Area Under Curve . . . . . . . . . . . 247
17.2.3 Deﬁnite and Indeﬁnite Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
17.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
8 CONTENTS
PREFACE
The reason for writing this book was due to the fact that modern intro-
ductory textbooks (not only in physics, but also mathematics, psychology,
chemistry) are simply not useful to either students or instructors. The typ-
ical freshman textbook in physics, and other ﬁelds, is over 1000 pages long,
with maybe 40 chapters and over 100 problems per chapter. This is overkill!
A typical semester is 15 weeks long, giving 30 weeks at best for a year long
course. At the fastest possible rate, we can ”cover” only one chapter per
week. For a year long course that is 30 chapters at best. Thus ten chapters
of the typical book are left out! 1500 pages divided by 30 weeks is about 50
pages per week. The typical text is quite densed mathematics and physics
and it’s simply impossible for a student to read all of this in the detail re-
quired. Also with 100 problems per chapter, it’s not possible for a student to
do 100 problems each week. Thus it is impossible for a student to fully read
and do all the problems in the standard introductory books. Thus these
books are not useful to students or instructors teaching the typical course!
In defense of the typical introductory textbook, I will say that their
content is usually excellent and very well writtten. They are certainly very
ﬁne reference books, but I believe they are poor text books. Now I know
what publishers and authors say of these books. Students and instructors
are supposed to only cover a selection of the material. The books are written
so that an instructor can pick and choose the topics that are deemed best
for the course, and the same goes for the problems. However I object to
this. At the end of the typical course, students and instructors are left with
a feeling of incompleteness, having usually covered only about half of the
book and only about ten percent of the problems. I want a textbook that is
self contained. As an instructor, I want to be able to comfortably cover one
short chapter each week, and to have each student read the entire chapter
and do every problem. I want to say to the students at the beginning of
the course that they should read the entire book from cover to cover and do
every problem. If they have done that, they will have a good knowledge of
introductory physics.
This is why I have written this book. Actually it is based on the in-
troductory physics textbook by Halliday, Resnick and Walker [Fundamental
of Physics, 5th ed., by Halliday, Resnick and Walker, (Wiley, New York,
1997)], which is an outstanding introductory physics reference book. I had
been using that book in my course, but could not cover it all due to the
reasons listed above.
CONTENTS 9
Availability of this eBook
At the moment this book is freely available on the world wide web and
can be downloaded as a pdf ﬁle. The book is still in progress and will be
updated and improved from time to time.
10 CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION - What is Physics?
A good way to deﬁne physics is to use what philosophers call an ostensive
deﬁnition, i.e. a way of deﬁning something by pointing out examples.
Physics studies the following general topics, such as:
Motion (this semester)
Thermodynamics (this semester)
Electricity and Magnetism
Optics and Lasers
Relativity
Quantum mechanics
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Nuclear Physics
Condensed Matter Physics
Atoms and Molecules
Biophysics
Solids, Liquids, Gases
Electronics
Geophysics
Acoustics
Elementary particles
Materials science
Thus physics is a very fundamental science which explores nature from
the scale of the tiniest particles to the behaviour of the universe and many
things in between. Most of the other sciences such as biology, chemistry,
geology, medicine rely heavily on techniques and ideas from physics. For
example, many of the diagnostic instruments used in medicine (MRI, x-ray)
were developed by physicists. All ﬁelds of technology and engineering are
very strongly based on physics principles. Much of the electronics and com-
puter industry is based on physics principles. Much of the communication
today occurs via ﬁber optical cables which were developed from studies in
physics. Also the World Wide Web was invented at the famous physics
laboratory called the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). Thus
anyone who plans to work in any sort of technical area needs to know the
basics of physics. This is what an introductory physics course is all about,
namely getting to know the basic principles upon which most of our modern
technological society is based.
Chapter 1
MOTION ALONG A
STRAIGHT LINE
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT:
Design a simple experiment which shows that objects of diﬀerent weight
fall at the same rate if the eﬀect of air resistance is eliminated.
THEMES:
1. DRIVING YOUR CAR.
2. DROPPING AN OBJECT.
11
12 CHAPTER 1. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
INTRODUCTION:
There are two themes we will deal with in this chapter. They concern
DRIVING YOUR CAR and DROPPING AN OBJECT.
When you drive you car and go on a journey there are several things
you are interested in. Typically these are distance travelled and the speed
with which you travel. Often you want to know how long a journey will
take if you drive at a certain speed over a certain distance. Also you are
often interested in the acceleration of your car, especially for a very short
journey such as a little speed race with you and your friend. You want to
be able to accelerate quickly. In this chapter we will spend a lot of time
studying the concepts of distance, speed and acceleration.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION:
1) Drop a ball and hold at diﬀerent heights; it goes faster at bottom if
released from diﬀerent heights
2) Drop a ball and a pen (diﬀerent weights - weigh on balance and show
they are diﬀerent weight); both hit the ground at the same time
Another item of interest is what happens when an object is dropped
from a certain height. If you drop a ball you know it starts oﬀ with zero
speed and ends up hitting the ground with a large speed. Actually, if you
think about it, that’s a pretty amazing phenomenom. WHY did the speed
of the ball increase ? You might say gravity. But what’s that ? The speed
of the ball increased, and therefore gravity provided an acceleration. But
how ? Why ? When ?
We shall address all of these deep questions in this chapter.
1.1 Motion
1.2 Position and Displacement
In 1-dimension, positions are measured along the x-axis with respect to some
origin. It is up to us to deﬁne where to put the origin, because the x-axis is
just something we invented to put on top of, say a real landscape.
1.2. POSITION AND DISPLACEMENT 13
Example Chicago is 100 miles south of Milwaukee and Glendale
is 10 miles north of Milwaukee.
A. If we deﬁne the origin of the x-axis to be at Glendale what is
the position of someone in Chicago, Milwaukee and Glendale ?
B. If we deﬁne the origin of x-axis to be at Milwaukee, what is
the position of someone in Chicago, Milwaukee and Glendale ?
Solution A. For someone in Chicago, x = 110 miles.
For someone in Milwaukee, x = 10 miles.
For someone in Glendale, x = 0 miles.
B. For someone in Chicago, x = 100 miles.
For someone in Milwaukee, x = 0 miles.
For someone in Glendale, x = −10 miles.
Displacement is deﬁned as a change in position. Speciﬁcally,
∆x ≡ x
2
−x
1
(1.1)
Note: We always write ∆anything ≡ anthing
2
−anything
1
where anything
2
is the ﬁnal value and anything
1
is the initial value. Sometimes you will
instead see it written as ∆anything ≡ anthing
f
− anything
i
where sub-
scripts f and i are used for the ﬁnal and initial values instead of the 2 and
1 subscripts.
Example What is the displacement for someone driving from
Milwaukee to Chicago ? What is the distance ?
Solution With the origin at Milwaukee, then the initial position
is x
1
= 0 miles and the ﬁnal position is x
2
= 100 miles, so that
∆x = x
2
− x
1
= 100 miles. You get the same answer with the
origin deﬁned at Gendale. Try it.
The distance is also 100 miles.
14 CHAPTER 1. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
Example What is the displacement for someone driving from
Milwaukee to Chicago and back ? What is the distance ?
Solution With the origin at Milwaukee, then the initial position
is x
1
= 0 miles and the ﬁnal position is also x
2
= 0 miles, so
that ∆x = x
2
− x
1
= 0 miles. Thus there is no displacement if
the beginning and end points are the same. You get the same
answer with the origin deﬁned at Gendale. Try it.
The distance is 200 miles.
Note that the distance is what the odometer on your car reads. The
odometer does not read displacement (except if displacment and distance
are the same, as is the case for a one way straight line journey).
Do Checkpoint 1 [from Halliday].
1.3 Average Velocity and Average Speed
Average velocity is deﬁned as the ratio of displacement divided by the corre-
sponding time interval.
¯ v ≡
∆x
∆t
=
x
2
−x
1
t
2
−t
1
(1.2)
whereas average speed is just the total distance divided by the time interval,
¯ s ≡
total distance
∆t
(1.3)
1.3. AVERAGE VELOCITY AND AVERAGE SPEED 15
Example What is the average velocity and averge speed for
someone driving from Milwaukee to Chicago who takes 2 hours
for the journey ?
Solution ∆x = 100 miles and ∆t = 2 hours, giving ¯ v =
100 miles
2 hours
=
50
miles
hour
≡ 50 miles per hour ≡ 50 mph.
Note that the unit
miles
hour
has been re-written as miles per hour.
This is standard. We can always write any fraction
a
b
as a per b.
The word per just means divide.
The average speed is the same as average velocity in this case
because the total distance is the same as the displacement. Thus
¯ s = 50 mph.
Example What is the average velocity and averge speed for
someone driving from Milwaukee to Chicago and back to Mil-
waukee who takes 4 hours for the journey ?
Solution ∆x = 0 miles and ∆t = 2 hours, giving ¯ v = 0 !
However the total distance is 200 miles completed in 4 hours
giving ¯ s =
200 miles
4 hours
= 50 mph again.
16 CHAPTER 1. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
A very important thing to understand is how to read graphs of position
and time and graphs of velocity and time, and how to interpret such graphs.
It is very important to understand how the average velocity is
obtained from a position-time graph. See Fig. 2-4 in Halliday.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION:
1) Air track glider standing still
2) Air track glider moving at constant speed.
Let’s plot an x, t and v, t graph for
1) Object standing still,
2) Object at constant speed.
Note that the v, t graph is the slope of the x, t graph.
t
x
t
v
t
t
x
t
v
t
(A) (B)
FIGURE 2.1 Position - time and Velocity - time graphs for A) object
standing still and B) object moving at constant speed.
Careully study Sample Problems 2-1, 2-2, Checkpoint 2 and
Sample Problem 2-3. [from Halliday]
1.4. INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY AND SPEED 17
1.4 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed
When you drive to Chicago with an average velocity of 50 mph you probably
don’t drive at this velocity the whole way. Sometimes you might pass a truck
and drive at 70 mph and when you get stuck in the traﬃc jams you might
only drive at 20 mph.
Now when the police use their radar gun and clock you at 70 mph, you
might legitimately protest to the oﬃcer that your average velocity for the
whole trip was only 50 mph and therefore you don’t deserve a speeding
ticket. However, as we all know police oﬃcers don’t care about average ve-
locity or average speed. They only care about your speed at the instant that
you pass them. Thus let’s introduce the concept of instantaneous velocity
and instantaneous speed.
What is an instant ? It is nothing more than an extremely short time
interval. The way to describe this mathematically is to say that an instant
is when the time interval ∆t approaches zero, or the limit of ∆t as ∆t →0
(approaches zero). We denote such a tiny time interval as dt instead of ∆t.
The corresponding distance that we travel over that tiny time interval will
also be tiny and we denote that as dx instead of ∆x.
Thus instantaneous velocity or just velocity is deﬁned as
v = lim
∆t→0
∆x
∆t
=
dx
dt
(1.4)
Now such a fraction of one tiny dx divided by a tiny dt has a special name.
It is called the derivative of x with respect to t.
The instantaneous speed or just speed is deﬁned as simply the
magnitude of the instantaneous veloctiy or magnitude of velocity.
Carefully study Sample Problem 2-4 [from Halliday].
18 CHAPTER 1. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
1.5 Acceleration
We have seen that velocity tells us how quickly position changes. Accelera-
tion tells us how much velocity changes. The average acceleration is deﬁned
as
¯ a =
v
2
−v
1
t
2
−t
1
=
∆v
∆t
and the instantaneous acceleration or just acceleration is deﬁned as
a =
dv
dt
Now because v =
dx
dt
we can write a =
d
dt
v =
d
dt

dx
dt

which is often written
d
dt

dx
dt

d
2
x
dt
2
, that is the second derivative of position with
respect to time.
Example When driving your car, what is your average acceler-
ation if you are able to reach 20 mph from rest in 5 seconds ?
Solution
v
2
= 20 mph v
1
= 0
t
2
= 5 seconds t
1
= 0
¯ a =
20 mph −0
5 sec −0
=
20 miles per hour
5 seconds
= 4
miles
hour seconds
= 4 mph per sec
= 4
miles
hour
1
3600
hour
= 14, 400 miles per hour
2
1.5. ACCELERATION 19
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION (previous demo continued):
1) Air track glider standing still
2) Air track glider moving at constant speed.
Now let’s also plot an a, t graph for
1) Object standing still,
2) Object at constant speed.
Note that the the a, t graph is the slope of the v, t graph.
t
a
t
(A)
t
a
t
(B)
FIGURE 2.2 Acceleration-time graphs for motion depicted in Fig. 2.1.
20 CHAPTER 1. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
1.6 Constant Acceleration: A Special Case
Velocity describes changing position and acceleration describes changing ve-
locity. A quantity called jerk describes changing acceleration. However, very
often the acceleration is constant, and we don’t consider jerk. When driving
your car the acceleration is usually constant when you speed up or slow
down or put on the brakes. (When you slow down or put on the brakes the
acceleration is constant but negative and is called deceleration.) When you
drop an object and it falls to the ground it also has a constant acceleration.
When the acceleration is constant, then we can derive 5 very handy
equations that will tell us everything about the motion. Let’s derive them
and then study some examples.
We are going to use the following symbols:
t
1
≡ 0
t
2
≡ t
x
1
≡ x
0
x
2
≡ x
v
1
≡ v
0
v
2
≡ v
and acceleration a is a constant and so a
1
= a
2
= a. Thus now
∆t = t
2
−t
1
= t −0 = t
∆x = x
2
−x
1
= x −x
0
∆v = v
2
−v
1
= v −v
0
∆a = a
2
−a
1
= a −a = 0
(∆a must be zero because we are only considering constant a.)
Also, because acceleration is constant then average acceleration is always
the same as instantaneous acceleration
¯ a = a
Now use the deﬁnition of average acceleration
¯ a = a =
∆v
∆t
=
v −v
0
t −0
=
v −v
0
t
Thus
at = v −v
0
or
1.6. CONSTANT ACCELERATION: A SPECIAL CASE 21
v = v
0
+at
(1.5)
which is the ﬁrst of our constant acceleration equations. If you plot this on
a v, t graph, then it is a straight line for a = constant. In that case the
average velocity is
¯ v =
1
2
(v +v
0
)
From the deﬁnition of average velocity
¯ v =
∆x
∆t
=
x −x
0
t
we have
x −x
0
t
=
1
2
(v +v
0
)
=
1
2
(v
0
+at +v
0
)
giving
x −x
0
= v
0
t +
1
2
at
2
(1.6)
which is the second of our constant acceleration equations. To get the other
three constant acceleration equations, we just combine the ﬁrst two.
22 CHAPTER 1. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
Example Prove that v
2
= v
2
0
+ 2a(x −x
0
)
Solution Obviously t has been eliminated. From (1.5)
t =
v −v
0
a
Substituting into (1.6) gives
x −x
0
= v
0

v −v
0
a

+
1
2
a

v −v
0
a

2
a(x −x
0
) = v
0
v −v
2
0
+
1
2
(v
2
−2vv
0
+v
2
0
)
= v
2
−v
2
0
or
v
2
= v
2
0
+ 2a(x −x
0
)
Example Prove that x −x
0
=
1
2
(v
0
+v)t
Solution Obviously a has been eliminated. From (1.5)
a =
v −v
0
t
Substituting into (1.6) gives
x −x
0
= v
0
t +
1
2

v −v
0
t

t
2
= v
0
t +
1
2
(vt −v
0
t)
=
1
2
(v
0
+v)t
Exercise Prove that x −x
0
= vt −
1
2
at
2
carefully study Sample Problem 2.8 [from Halliday]
1.7. ANOTHER LOOK AT CONSTANT ACCELERATION 23
1.7 Another Look at Constant Acceleration
(This section is only for students who have studied integral calculus.)
The constant acceleration equations can be derived from integral calculus
as follows.
For constant acceleration a = a(x), a = a(t)
a =
dv
dt

t
2
t
1
a dt =

dv
dt
dt
a

t
2
t
1
dt =

v
2
v
1
dv
a(t
2
−t
1
) = v
2
−v
1
a(t −0) = v −v
0
v = v
0
+at
v =
dx
dt

v dt =

dx
dt
dt
v changes
.
.. cannot take outside integral
actually v(t) = v
0
+at

t
2
t
1
(v
0
+at)dt =

x
2
x
1
dx
¸
v
0
t +
1
2
at
2

t
2
t
1
= x
2
−x
1
= v
0
(t
2
−t
1
) +
1
2
a(t
2
−t
1
)
2
= x −x
0
= v
0
(t −0) +
1
2
a(t −0)
2
= v
0
t +
1
2
at
2
.
.. x −x
0
= v
0
t +
1
2
at
2
a =
dv
dt
=
dv
dx
dx
dt
= v
dv
dx
24 CHAPTER 1. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE

x
2
x
1
a dx =

v
dv
dx
dx
a

x
2
x
1
dx =

v
2
v
1
v dv
a(x
2
−x
1
) =
¸
1
2
v
2

v
2
v
1
=
1
2

v
2
2
−v
2
1

a(x −x
0
) =
1
2

v
2
−v
2
0

v
2
= v
2
0
+ 2a(x −x
0
)
One can now get the other equations using algebra.
1.8 Free-Fall Acceleration
If we neglect air resistance, then all falling objects have same acceleration
a = −g = −9.8 m/sec
2
(g = 9.8 m/sec
2
).
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION:
1) Feather and penny in vacuum tube
2) Drop a cup ﬁlled with water which has a hole in the bottom. Water
leaks out if the cup is held stationary. Water does not leak out if the cup is
dropped.
1.8. FREE-FALL ACCELERATION 25
Carefully study Sample Problems 2-9, 2-10, 2-11. [from Halliday]
Example I drop a ball from a height H, with what speed does
it hit the ground ? Check that the units are correct.
Solution
v
2
= v
2
0
+ 2a(x −x
0
)
v
0
= 0
a = −g = −9.8 m/sec
2
x
0
= 0
x = H
v
2
= 0 −2 ×g (0 −−H)
v =

2gH
Check units:
The units of g are m sec
−2
and H is in m. Thus

2gH has units
of

m sec
−2
m =

m
2
sec
−2
= m sec
−1
. which is the correct
unit for speed.
26 CHAPTER 1. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
HISTORICAL NOTE
The constant acceleration equations were ﬁrst discovered by Galileo
Galilei (1564 - 1642). Galileo is widely regarded as the “father of modern
science” because he was really the ﬁrst person who went out and actually
did expreiments to arrive at facts about nature, rather than relying solely on
philosophical argument. Galileo wrote two famous books entitled Dialogues
concerning Two New Sciences [Macmillan, New York, 1933; QC 123.G13]
and Dialogue concerning the Two Chief World Systems [QB 41.G1356].
In Two New Sciences we ﬁnd the following [Pg. 173]:
“THEOREM I, PROPOSITION I : The time in which any space
is traversed by a body starting from rest and uniformly accel-
erated is equal to the time in which that same space would be
traversed by the same body moving at a unifrom speed whose
value is the mean of the highest speed and the speed just before
acceleration began.”
In other words this is Galileo’s statement of our equation
x −x
0
=
1
2
(v
0
+v)t (1.7)
We also ﬁnd [Pg. 174]:
“THEOREM II, PROPOSITION II : The spaces described by a
falling body from rest with a uniformly accelerated motion are
to each other as the squares of the time intervals employed in
traversing these distances.”
This is Galileo’s statement of
x −x
0
= v
0
t +
1
2
at
2
= vt −
1
2
at
2
(1.8)
Galileo was able to test this equation with the simple device shown in
Figure 2.3. By the way, Galileo also invented the astronomical telescope !
1.8. FREE-FALL ACCELERATION 27
moveable fret wires
FIGURE 2.3 Galileo’s apparatus for verifying the constant acceleration
equations.
[from “From Quarks to the Cosmos” Leon M. Lederman and David N.
Schramm (Scientiﬁc American Library, New York, 1989) QB43.2.L43
28 CHAPTER 1. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
1.9 Problems
1. The following functions give the position as a function of time:
i) x = A
ii) x = Bt
iii) x = Ct
2
iv) x = Dcos ωt
v) x = E sin ωt
where A, B, C, D, E, ω are constants.
A) What are the units for A, B, C, D, E, ω?
B) Write down the velocity and acceleration equations as a function of
time. Indicate for what functions the acceleration is constant.
C) Sketch graphs of x, v, a as a function of time.
2. The ﬁgures below show position-time graphs. Sketch the correspond-
ing velocity-time and acceleration-time graphs.
t
x
t
x
t
x
3. If you drop an object from a height H above the ground, work out a
formula for the speed with which the object hits the ground.
4. A car is travelling at constant speed v
1
and passes a second car moving
at speed v
2
. The instant it passes, the driver of the second car decides
to try to catch up to the ﬁrst car, by stepping on the gas pedal and
moving at acceleration a. Derive a formula for how long it takes to
1.9. PROBLEMS 29
catch up. (The ﬁrst car travels at constant speed v
1
and does not
accelerate.)
5. If you start your car from rest and accelerate to 30mph in 10 seconds,
what is your acceleration in mph per sec and in miles per hour
2
?
6. If you throw a ball up vertically at speed V , with what speed does it
ation equations, and neglect air resistance.
30 CHAPTER 1. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
Chapter 2
VECTORS
31
32 CHAPTER 2. VECTORS
2.1 Vectors and Scalars
When we considered 1-dimensional motion in the last chapter we only had
two directions to worry about, namely motion to the Right or motion to
the Left and we indicated direction with a + or − sign. We found that
the following quantities had a direction (i.e. could take a + or − sign):
displacement, velocity and acceleration. Quantities that don’t have a sign
were distance, speed and magnitude of acceleration.
Now in 2 and 3 dimensions we need more than a + or − sign. That’s
where vectors come in.
Vectors are quantities with both magnitude and direction.
Scalars are quantities with magnitude only.
Examples of Vectors are: displacement, velocity, acceleration,
force, momentum, electric ﬁeld
Examples of Scalars are: distance, speed, magnitude of acceler-
ation, time, temperature
Before delving into vectors consider the following problem.
Example Joe and Mary are rowing a boat across a river which
is 40 m wide. They row in a direction perpendicular to the bank.
However the river is ﬂowing downstream and by the time they
reach the other side, they end up 30 m downstream from their
starting point. Over what total distance did the boat travel?
Solution Obviously the way to do this is with the triangle in
Fig. 3.1, and we deduce that the distance is 50 m.
30 m
40 m
50 m
FIGURE 3.1 Graphical solution to river problem.
2.2. ADDING VECTORS: GRAPHICAL METHOD 33
2.2 Adding Vectors: Graphical Method
Another way to think about the previous problem is with vectors, which are
little arrows whose orientation speciﬁes direction and whose length speciﬁes
magnitude. The displacement along the river is represented as
FIGURE 3.2 Displacement along the river.
with a length of 30 m, denoted as

A and the displacement across the river,
denoted B,
FIGURE 3.3 Displacement across the river.
with length of 40 m. To re-construct the previous triangle, the vectors are
FIGURE 3.4 Vector addition solution to the river problem.
34 CHAPTER 2. VECTORS
The resultant vector, denoted

C, is obtained by ﬁlling in the triangle. Math-
ematically we write

C =

A+

B.
The graphical method of solving our original problem is to take out a
ruler and actually measure the length of the resultant vector

C. You would
ﬁnd it to be 50 m.
Summary: When adding any two vectors

A and

Students should read the textbook to obtain more details about
using the graphical method.
2.3 Vectors and Their Components
The graphical method requires the use of a ruler and protractor for measur-
ing the lengths of vectors and their angles. Thus there is always the problem
of inaccuracy in making these measurements. It’s better to use analytical
methods which rely on pure calculation. To learn this we must learn about
components. To do this we need trigonometry.
2.3.1 Review of Trigonometry
Lines are made by connecting two points. Triangles are made by connecting
three points. Of all the vast number of diﬀerent possible triangles, the
subject of trigonometry has to do with only a certain, special type of triangle
and that is a right-angled triangle, i.e. a triangle where one of the angles is
90

. Let’s draw one:
Hypotenuse
FIGURE 3.5 Right-angled triangle.
2.3. VECTORS AND THEIR COMPONENTS 35
The side opposite the right angle is always called the Hypotenuse. Consider
one of the other angles, say θ.
Hypotenuse
Opposite
θ
FIGURE 3.6 Right-angled triangle showing sides Opposite and Adjacent
to the angle θ.
The side adjacent to θ is called Adjacent and the side opposite θ is called
Opposite. Now consider the other angle α. The Opposite and Adjacent sides
are switched because the angle is diﬀerent.
Hypotenuse
Opposite
α
FIGURE 3.7 Right-angled triangle showing sides Opposite and Adjacent
to the angle α.
Let’s label Hypotenuse as H, Opposite as O and Adjacent as A. Pythago-
ras’ theorem states
H
2
= A
2
+O
2
36 CHAPTER 2. VECTORS
This is true no matter how the Opposite and Adjacent sides are labelled, i.e.
if Opposite and Adjacent are interchanged, it doesn’t matter for Pythagoras’
theorem.
Often we are interested in dividing one side by another. Some possible
combinations are
O
H
,
A
H
,
O
A
. These special ratios are given special names.
O
H
is called Sine.
A
H
is called Cosine.
O
A
is called Tangent. Remember them by
writing SOH, CAH, TOA.
Example Using the previous triangle for the river problem,
write down Sine θ, Cosine θ, Tangent θ Sine α, Cosine α, Tan-
gent α
Solution
Sine θ =
O
H
=
40m
50m
=
4
5
= 0.8
Cosine θ =
A
H
=
30m
50m
=
3
5
= 0.6
Tangent θ =
O
A
=
40m
30m
=
4
3
= 1.33
Sine α =
O
H
=
30m
50m
=
3
5
= 0.6
Cosine α =
A
H
=
40m
50m
=
4
5
= 0.8
Tangent α =
O
A
=
30m
40m
=
3
4
= 0.75
30 m
40 m
50 m
α
θ
FIGURE 3.8 Triangle for river problem.
2.3. VECTORS AND THEIR COMPONENTS 37
Now whenever the Sine of an angle is 0.8 the angle is always 53.1

. Thus
θ = 53.1

. Again whenever Tangent of an angle is 0.75 the angle is always
36.9

. So if we have calculated any of the ratios, Sine, Cosine or Tangent
then we always know what the corresponding angle is.
2.3.2 Components of Vectors
An arbitrary vector has both x and y components. These are like shadows
on the x and y areas, as shown in Figure 3.9.
x
y
A
x
A
y
A
FIGURE 3.9 Components, A
x
and A
y
, of vector

A.
The components are denoted A
x
and A
y
and are obtained by dropping a
perpendicular line from the vector to the x and y axes. That’s why we
consider trigonometry and right-angled triangles!
A physical understanding of components can be obtained. Pull a cart
with a rope at some angle to the ground, as shown in Fig. 3.11. The cart will
move with a certain acceleration, determined not by the force

F, but by the
component F
x
in the x direction. If you change the angle, the acceleration
of the cart will change.
38 CHAPTER 2. VECTORS
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION of Fig. 3.10:
F
F
x
FIGURE 3.10 Pulling a cart with a force

F.
Let’s re-draw Figure 3.10, writing

F as follows:
A
A
x
A
y
θ
α
FIGURE 3.11 Components and angles for Fig. 3.10.
2.4. UNIT VECTORS 39
Let’s denote the magnitude or length of

A simply as A. Thus Pythagoras’
theorem gives
A
2
= A
2
x
+A
2
y
and also
tan θ =
A
y
A
x
and
tan α =
A
x
A
y
(Also sin θ =
Ay
A
, cos θ =
Ax
A
, sin α =
Ax
A
, cos α =
Ay
A
)
Thus if we have the components, A
x
and A
y
we can always get the mag-
nitude and direction of the vector, namely A and θ (or α). Similarly if we
start with A and θ (or α) we can always ﬁnd A
x
and A
y
.
do Sample Problem 3-3 in Lecture
2.4 Unit Vectors
A vector is completely speciﬁed by writing down magnitude and direction
(i.e. A and θ) x and y components (A
x
and A
y
).
There’s another very useful and compact way to write vectors and that is
by using unit vectors. The unit vector
ˆ
i is deﬁned to always have a length of
1 and to always lie in the positive x direction, as in Fig. 3.12. (The symbol
∧ is used to denote these unit vectors.)
x
y
i
FIGURE 3.12 Unit vector
ˆ
i.
40 CHAPTER 2. VECTORS
Similarly the unit vector
ˆ
j is deﬁned to always have a length of 1 also but
to lie entirely in the positive y direction.
x
y
j
FIGURE 3.13 Unit vector
ˆ
j.
The unit vector
ˆ
k lies in the psoitive z direction.
x
y
k
z
FIGURE 3.14 Unit vector
ˆ
k.
Thus any arbitrary vector

A is now written as

A = A
x
ˆ
i +A
y
ˆ
j +A
z
ˆ
k
2.5. ADDING VECTORS BY COMPONENTS 41
2.5 Adding Vectors by Components
Finally we will now see the use of components and unit vectors. Remember
how we discussed adding vectors graphically using a ruler and protractor. A
better method is with the use of components, because then we can get our
answers by pure calculation.
In Fig. 3.16 we have shown two vectors

A and

B added to form

C, but
we have also indicated all the components.
A
x
C
x
A
y
B
x
B
y
C
y
B
C
A
x
y
FIGURE 3.15 Adding vectors by components.
By carefully looking at the ﬁgure you can see that
C
x
= A
x
+B
x
C
y
= A
y
+B
y
This is a very important result.
42 CHAPTER 2. VECTORS
Now let’s back-track for a minute. When we write

C =

A+

B
you should say, “Wait a minute! What does the + sign mean?” We are used
to adding numbers such as 5 = 3 + 2, but in the above equation

A,

B and

C are not numbers. They are these strange arrow-like objects called vectors
which are “add” by putting head-to-tail. We should really write

C =

A⊕

B
where ⊕is a new type of “addition”, totally unlike adding numbers. However
A
x
, B
x
, A
y
, B
y
, C
x
, C
y
are ordinary numbers and the + sign we used
above does denote ordinary addition. Thus

C =

A ⊕

B actually means
C
x
= A
x
+ B
x
and C
y
= A
y
+ B
y
. The statement

C =

A ⊕

B is really
shorthand for two ordinary addition statements. Whenever anyone writes
something like

D =

F+

E it actually means two things, namely D
x
= F
x
+E
x
and D
y
= F
y
+E
y
.
All of this is much more obvious with the use of unit vectors. Write

A = A
x
ˆ
i +A
y
ˆ
j and

B = B
x
ˆ
i +B
y
ˆ
j and

C = C
x
ˆ
i +C
y
ˆ
j. Now

C =

A+

B
is simply
C
x
ˆ
i +C
y
ˆ
j = A
x
ˆ
i +A
y
ˆ
j +B
x
ˆ
i +B
y
ˆ
j
= (A
x
+B
x
)
ˆ
i + (A
y
+B
y
)
ˆ
j
and equating coeﬃcients of
ˆ
i and
ˆ
j gives
C
x
= A
x
+B
x
and
C
y
= A
y
+B
y
2.6. VECTORS AND THE LAWS OF PHYSICS 43
Example Do the original river problem using components.
Solution

A = 30
ˆ
i

B = 40
ˆ
j

C =

A+

B
C
x
ˆ
i + C
y
ˆ
j = A
x
ˆ
i +A
y
ˆ
j +B
x
ˆ
i +B
y
ˆ
j
A
y
= 0 B
x
= 0
C
x
ˆ
i + C
y
ˆ
j = 30
ˆ
i + 40
ˆ
j
C
x
= 30 C
y
= 40
or C
x
= A
x
+B
x
= 30 + 0 = 30
C
y
= A
y
+B
y
= 0 + 40 = 40
C
2
= C
2
x
+C
2
y
= 30
2
+ 40
2
= 900 + 1600 = 2500
.
.. C = 50
carefully study Sample Problems 3-4, 3-5
2.6 Vectors and the Laws of Physics
2.7 Multiplying Vectors
2.7.1 The Scalar Product (often called dot product)
We know how to add vectors. Now let’s learn how to multiply them.
When we add vectors we always get a new vector, namely c =a+

b. When
we multiply vectors we get either a scalar or vector. There are two types of
vector multiplication called scalar products or vector product. (Sometimes
also called dot product or cross product).
The scalar product is deﬁned as
a ·

b ≡ ab cos φ (2.1)
where a and b are the magnitude of a and

b respectively and φ is the angle
between a and

b. The whole quantity a ·

b = ab cos φ is a scalar, i.e. it has
magnitude only. As shown in Fig. 3-19 of Halliday the scalar product is the
44 CHAPTER 2. VECTORS
product of the magnitude of one vector times the component of the other
vector along the ﬁrst vector.
Based on our deﬁnition (2.1) we can work out the scalar products of all
of the unit vectors.
Example Evaluate
ˆ
i ·
ˆ
i
Solution
ˆ
i ·
ˆ
i = ii cos φ
but i is the magnitude of
ˆ
i which is 1, and the angle φ is 0

.
Thus
ˆ
i · i = 1
Example Evaluate
ˆ
i ·
ˆ
j
Solution
ˆ
i ·
ˆ
j = ij cos 90

= 0
Thus we have
ˆ
i ·
ˆ
i =
ˆ
j ·
ˆ
j =
ˆ
k ·
ˆ
k = 1 and
ˆ
i ·
ˆ
j =
ˆ
i ·
ˆ
k =
ˆ
j ·
ˆ
k =
ˆ
j ·
ˆ
i =
ˆ
k ·
ˆ
i =
ˆ
k ·
ˆ
j = 0. (see Problem 38)
Now any vector can be written in terms of unit vectors as a = a
x
ˆ
i+a
y
ˆ
j +
a
z
ˆ
k and

b = b
x
ˆ
i + b
y
ˆ
j + b
z
ˆ
k. Thus the scalar product of any two arbitrary
vectors is
a ·

b = ab cos φ
= (a
x
ˆ
i +a
y
ˆ
j +a
z
ˆ
k) · (b
x
ˆ
i +b
y
ˆ
j +b
z
ˆ
k)
= a
x
b
x
+a
y
b
y
+a
z
b
z
Thus we have a new formula for scalar product, namely
a ·

b = a
x
b
x
+a
y
b
y
+a
z
b
z
(2.2)
(see Problem 46) which has been derived from the original deﬁnition (2.1)
using unit vectors.
What’s the good of all this? Well for one thing it’s now easy to ﬁgure
out the angle between vectors, as the next example shows.
do Sample Problem 3-6 in Lecture
2.7. MULTIPLYING VECTORS 45
2.7.2 The Vector Product
In making up the deﬁnition of vector product we have to deﬁne its magnitude
and direction. The symbol for vector product is a×

b. Given that the result
is a vector let’s write c ≡a ×

b. The magnitude is deﬁned as
c = ab sin φ
and the direction is deﬁned to follow the right hand rule. (c = thumb, a =
foreﬁnger,

b = middle ﬁnger.)
(Do a few examples ﬁnding direction of cross product)
Example Evaluate
ˆ
i ×
ˆ
j
Solution |
ˆ
i ×
ˆ
j| = ij sin 90

= 1
direction same as
ˆ
k
Thus
ˆ
i ×
ˆ
j =
ˆ
k
Example Evaluate
ˆ
k ×
ˆ
k
Solution |
ˆ
k ×
ˆ
k| = kk sin 0 = 0
Thus
ˆ
k ×
ˆ
k = 0
Thus we have
ˆ
i ×
ˆ
j =
ˆ
k
ˆ
j ×
ˆ
k =
ˆ
i
ˆ
k ×
ˆ
i =
ˆ
j
ˆ
j ×
ˆ
i = −
ˆ
k
ˆ
k ×
ˆ
j = −
ˆ
i
ˆ
i ×
ˆ
k = −
ˆ
j
and
ˆ
i ×
ˆ
i =
ˆ
j ×
ˆ
j =
ˆ
k ×
ˆ
k = 0
(see Problem 39) Thus the vector product of any two arbitrary vectors is
a ×

b = (a
x
ˆ
i +a
y
ˆ
j +a
z
ˆ
k) ×(b
x
ˆ
i +b
y
ˆ
j +b
z
ˆ
k)
which gives a new formula for vector product, namely
a ×

b = (a
y
b
z
−a
z
b
y
)
ˆ
i + (a
z
b
x
−a
x
b
z
)
ˆ
j
+(a
x
b
y
−a
y
b
x
)
ˆ
k
(see Problem 49). Study Sample Problem 3-7 and 3-8.
46 CHAPTER 2. VECTORS
2.8 Problems
1. Calculate the angle between the vectors r =
ˆ
i + 2
ˆ
j and

t =
ˆ
j −
ˆ
k.
2. Evaluate (r + 2

t ).

f where r =
ˆ
i + 2
ˆ
j and

t =
ˆ
j −
ˆ
k and

f =
ˆ
i −
ˆ
j.
3. Two vectors are deﬁned as u =
ˆ
j +
ˆ
k and v =
ˆ
i +
ˆ
j. Evaluate:
A) u +v
B) u −v
C) u.v
D) u ×v
Chapter 3
MOTION IN 2 & 3
DIMENSIONS
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT:
Design a simple experiment which shows that the range of a projectile
depends upon the angle at which it is launched. Have your experiment show
that the maximum range is achieved when the launch angle is 45
o
.
THEMES:
1. FOOTBALL.
47
48 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS
3.1 Moving in Two or Three Dimensions
In this chapter we will go over everything we did in Chapter 2 concerning
motion, except that now the entire discussion will use the formation of
vectors.
3.2 Position and Displacement
In Chapter 2 we used the coordinate x alone to denote position. However
for 3-dimensions position is generally described with the position vector
r = x
ˆ
i +y
ˆ
j +z
ˆ
k.
Now in Chapter 2, displacement was deﬁned as a change in position, namely
displacement = ∆x = x
2
− x
1
. In 3-dimensions, displacement is deﬁned as
the change in position vector,
displacement = ∆r = r
2
−r
1
= ∆x
ˆ
i + ∆y
ˆ
j + ∆z
ˆ
k
= (x
2
−x
1
)
ˆ
i + (y
2
−y
1
)
ˆ
j + (z
2
−z
1
)
ˆ
k
Thus displacement is a vector.
Sample Problem 4-1
3.3 Velocity and Average Velocity
In 1-dimension, the average velocity was deﬁned as displacement divided by
time interval or ¯ v ≡
∆x
∆t
=
x
2
−x
1
t
2
−t
1
. Similarly, in 3-dimensions average velocity
is deﬁned as
¯
v ≡
∆r
∆t
=
r
2
−r
1
t
2
−t
1
=
∆x
ˆ
i + ∆y
ˆ
j + ∆z
ˆ
k
∆t
=
∆x
∆t
ˆ
i +
∆y
∆t
ˆ
j +
∆z
∆t
ˆ
k
= ¯ v
x
ˆ
i + ¯ v
y
ˆ
j + ¯ v
z
ˆ
k
3.4. ACCELERATION AND AVERAGE ACCELERATION 49
For 1-dimension, the instantaneous velocity, or just velocity, was deﬁned as
v ≡
dx
dt
. In 3-dimensions we deﬁne velocity as
v ≡
dr
dt
=
d
dt
(x
ˆ
i +y
ˆ
j +z
ˆ
k)
=
dx
dt
ˆ
i +
dy
dt
ˆ
j +
dz
dt
ˆ
k
= v
x
ˆ
i +v
y
ˆ
j +v
z
ˆ
k
Thus velocity is a vector.
Point to note: The instantaneous velocity of a particle is always tangent
to the path of the particle. (carefully read about this in Halliday, pg. 55)
3.4 Acceleration and Average Acceleration
Again we follow the deﬁnitions made for 1-dimension. In 3-dimensions, the
average acceleration is deﬁned as
¯
a ≡
∆v
∆t
=
v
2
−v
1
t
2
−t
1
and acceleration (instantaneous acceleration) is deﬁned as
a =
dv
dt
Constant Acceleration Equations
In 1-dimension, our basic deﬁnitions were
¯ v =
∆x
∆t
v =
dx
dt
¯ a =
∆v
∆t
a =
dv
dt
50 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS
We found that if the acceleration is constant, then from these equations we
can prove that
v = v
o
+at
v
2
= v
2
o
+ 2a(x −x
o
)
x −x
o
=
v
o
+v
2
t
x −x
o
= v
o
t +
1
2
at
2
= vt −
1
2
at
2
which are known as the 5 constant acceleration equations.
In 3-dimensions we had
¯
v ≡
∆r
∆t
or
¯ v
x
ˆ
i + ¯ v
y
ˆ
j + ¯ v
z
ˆ
k =
∆x
∆t
ˆ
i +
∆y
∆t
ˆ
j +
∆z
∆t
ˆ
k
or
¯ v
x
=
∆x
∆t
, ¯ v
y
+
∆y
∆t
, ¯ v
z
=
∆z
∆t
These 3 equations are the meaning of the ﬁrst vector equation
¯
v ≡
∆r
∆t
.
Similarly
v ≡
dr
dt
or
v
x
=
dx
dt
, v
y
=
dy
dt
, v
z
=
dz
dt
Similarly
¯
a ≡
∆v
∆t
or
¯ a
x
=
∆x
∆t
, ¯ a
y
=
∆y
∆t
, ¯ a
z
=
∆z
∆t
and
a ≡
dv
dt
or
a
x
=
dv
x
dt
, a
y
=
dv
y
dt
, a
z
=
dv
z
dt
So we see that in 3-dimensions the equations are the same as in 1-
dimension except that we have 3 sets of them; one for each dimension. Thus
3.5. PROJECTILE MOTION 51
if the 3-dimensional acceleration vector a is now constant, then a
x
, a
y
and
a
z
must all be constant. Thus we will have 3 sets of constant acceleration
equations, namely
v
x
= v
ox
+a
x
t
v
2
x
= v
2
ox
+ 2a
x
(x −x
o
)
x −x
o
=
v
ox
+v
x
2
t
x −x
o
= v
ox
t +
1
2
a
x
t
2
= v
x
t −
1
2
a
x
t
2
and
v
y
= v
oy
+a
y
t
v
2
y
= v
2
oy
+ 2a
y
(y −y
o
)
y −y
o
=
v
oy
+v
y
2
t
y −y
o
= v
oy
t +
1
2
a
y
t
2
= v
y
t −
1
2
a
y
t
2
and
v
z
= v
oz
+a
z
t
v
2
z
= v
2
oz
+ 2a
z
(z −z
o
)
z −z
o
=
v
oz
+v
z
2
t
z −z
o
= v
oz
t +
1
2
a
z
t
2
= v
z
t −
1
2
a
z
t
2
These 3 sets of constant acceleration equations are easy to remember. They
are the same as the old ones in 1-dimension except now they have subscripts
for x, y, z.
3.5 Projectile Motion
52 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS
3.6 Projectile Motion Analyzed
Most motion in 3-dimensions actually only occurs in 2-dimensions. The
classic example is kicking a football oﬀ the ground. It follows a 2-dimensional
curve, as shown in Fig. 4.1. Thus we can ignore all motion in the z direction
and just analyze the x and y directions. Also we shall ignore air resistance.
v
0
v
0 x
v
0 y
range, R
θ
FIGURE 4.1 Projectile Motion.
3.6. PROJECTILE MOTION ANALYZED 53
Example A football is kicked oﬀ the ground with an initial ve-
locity of v
o
at an angle θ to the ground. Write down the x
constant acceleration equation in simpliﬁed form. (Ignore air re-
sistance)
Solution The x direction is easiest to deal with, because there is
no acceleration in the x direction after the ball has been kicked,
i.e. a
x
= 0. Thus the constant acceleration equations in the x
direction become
v
x
= v
ox
v
2
x
= v
2
ox
x −x
o
=
v
ox
+v
x
2
t = v
ox
t = v
x
t
x −x
o
= v
ox
t
= v
x
t (3.1)
The ﬁrst equation (v
x
= v
ox
) makes perfect sense because if
a
x
= 0 then the speed in the x direction is constant, which
means v
x
= v
ox
. The second equation just says the same thing.
If v
x
= v
ox
then of course also v
2
x
= v
2
ox
. In the third equation
we also use v
x
= v
ox
to get
vox+vx
2
=
vox+vox
2
= v
ox
or
vox+vx
2
=
vx+vx
2
= v
x
. The fourth and ﬁfth equations are also consistent
with v
x
= v
ox
, and simply say that distance = speed × time
when the acceleration is 0.
Now, what is v
ox
in terms of v
o
≡ |v
o
| and θ? Well, from Fig. 4.1
we see that v
ox
= v
o
cos θ and v
oy
= v
o
sin θ. Thus (3.1) becomes
x −x
o
= v
o
cos θ t
54 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS
Example What is the form of the y-direction constant acceler-
ation equations from the previous example ?
Solution Can we also simplify the constant acceleration equa-
tions for the y direction? No. In the y direction the acceleration
is constant a
y
= −g but not zero. Thus the y direction equations
don’t simplify at all, except that we know that the value of a
y
is
−g or −9.8 m/sec
2
.
Also we can write v
oy
= v
o
sin θ. Thus the equations for the y
direction are
v
y
= v
o
sin θ −gt
v
2
y
= (v
o
sin θ)
2
−2g(y −y
o
)
y −y
o
=
v
o
sin θ +v
y
2
t
y −y
o
= v
o
sin θ t −
1
2
gt
2
An important thing to notice is that t never gets an x, y or z subscript.
This is because t is the same for all 3 components, i.e. t = t
x
= t
y
= t
z
.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATIONS
1) Drop an object: it accerates in y direction.
Air track: no acceleration in x direction.
2) Push 2 objects oﬀ table at same time. One falls in vertical path and
the other on parabolic trajectory but both hit ground at same time.
3) Monkey shoot.
3.6. PROJECTILE MOTION ANALYZED 55
Example The total horizontal distance (called the Range) that a
football will travel when kicked, depends upon the initial speed
and angle that it leaves the ground. Derive a formula for the
Range, and show that the maximum Range occurs for θ = 45

.
(Ignore air resistance and the spin of the football.)
Solution The Range, R is just
R = x −x
o
= v
ox
t
= v
o
cos θ t
Given v
o
and θ we could calculate the range if we had t. We
get this the y direction equation. From the previous example we
y −y
o
= v
o
sin θ t −
1
2
gt
2
But for this example, we have y −y
o
= 0. Thus
0 = v
o
sin θ t −
1
2
gt
2
0 = v
o
sin θ −
1
2
gt
⇒t =
2v
o
sin θ
g
Substituting into our Range formula above gives
R = v
o
cos θ t
=
2v
2
o
sin θ cos θ
g
=
v
2
o
sin 2θ
g
using the formula sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ. Now R will be largest
when sin 2θ is largest which occurs when 2θ = 90
o
. Thus θ = 45
o
.
56 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS
COMPUTER SIMULATION (Interactive Physics): Air Drop.
H=200 m
R=400 m
origin
FIGURE 4.2 Air Drop.
Example A rescue plane wants to drop supplies to isolated
mountain climbers on a rocky ridge a distance H below. The
plane is travelling horizontally at a speed of v
ox
. The plane
releases supplies a horizontal distance of R in advance of the
mountain climbers. Derive a formula in terms of H, v
0x
,R and
g, for the vertical velocity (up or down) that the supplies should
be given so they land exactly at the climber’s position. If H =
200 m, v
0x
= 250 km/hr and R = 400m, calculate a numerical
value for this speed.(See Figure 4.2.)
3.6. PROJECTILE MOTION ANALYZED 57
Solution Let’s put the origin at the plane. See Fig. 4.2. The
initial speed of supplies when released is v
ox
= +250 km/hour
x −x
o
= R −0 = R
a
y
= −g
y −y
o
= 0 −H = −H (note the minus sign !)
We want to ﬁnd the initial vertical velocity of the supplies,
namely v
oy
. We can get this from
y −y
o
= v
oy
t +
1
2
a
y
t
2
= −H
= v
oy
t −
1
2
gt
2
or
v
oy
=
−H
t
+
1
2
gt
and we get t from the x direction, namely
x −x
o
= v
ox
t = R
⇒t =
R
v
ox
giving
v
oy
=
−H v
ox
R
+
1
2
g
R
v
ox
which is the formula we seek. Let’s now put in numbers:
= −
200 m×250 kmhour
−1
400 m
+
1
2
9.8
m
sec
2
×
400 km
250 km hour
−1
= −125
km
hour
+ 7.84
m
2
hour
sec
2
km
= −125
1000 m
60 ×60 sec
+ 7.85
m
2
×60 ×60 sec
sec
2
1000 m
= −34.722 m/sec + 28.22 m/sec
= −6.5 m/sec
Thus the supplies must be thrown in the down direction (not up)
at 6.5 m/sec.
58 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS
3.7 Uniform Circular Motion
In today’s world of satellites and spacecraft circular motion is very important
to understand because many satellites have circular orbits. Also circular
motion is a classic example where we have a deﬁnite non-zero acceleration
even though the speed of a satellite is constant. This occurs because the
direction of velocity is constantly changing for the satellite even though the
magnitude of velocity (i.e. speed) is constant. This is shown in Fig. 4-19 of
Halliday. The word “uniform” means that speed is constant.
In circular motion, there is a well deﬁned radius which we will call r.
Also the time it takes for the satellite to complete 1 orbit is called the period
T. If the speed is constant then it is given by
v =
∆s
∆t
=
2πr
T
(3.2)
Here I have written
∆s
∆t
∆x
∆t
or
∆y
∆t
because ∆s is the total distance
around the circle which is a mixture of x and y.
2πr
T
is just the distance of
1 orbit (circumference) divided by the time of 1 orbit (period).
What about the acceleration? Well that’s just a =
∆v
∆t
but how do we
work it out? Look at Figure 4.3, where the displacement and velocity vectors
are drawn for a satellite at two diﬀerent positions P
1
and P
2
.
= r
2
- r
1
∆ v = v
2
- v
1

∆ r
r
2

r
1
v
2

v
1

v
1

v
2

∆θ
∆θ
∆s
P
1
P
1
FIGURE 4.3 Circular Motion.
3.7. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION 59
Now angle ∆θ is deﬁned as (with |r
1
| = |r
2
| ≡ r)
∆θ ≡
∆s
r
=
v∆t
r
(3.3)
The velocity vectors can be re-drawn as in the bottom part of the ﬁgure.
The triangle is similar to the top triangle in that the angle ∆θ is the same.
Also the speed v is constant, meaning that
|v
2
| = |v
1
| ≡ v. (3.4)
Writing ∆v ≡ |∆v| the bottom ﬁgure also gives
∆θ =
∆v
v
(3.5)
Now the magnitude of acceleration is
a =
∆v
∆t
(3.6)
Combining the above two equations for ∆θ gives
∆v
∆t
=
v
2
r
, i.e.
a ≡
∆v
∆t
=
v
2
r
(3.7)
This is a very important equation. Whenever we have uniform circular
motion we always know the actual value of acceleration if we know v and
r. We have worked out the magnitude of the acceleration. What about its
direction? I will show you a VIDEO in class (Mechanical Universe video
#9 showing vectors for circular motion) which will clearly show that the
direction of acceleration is always towards the center of the circle. For this
reason it is called centripetal acceleration.
One ﬁnal thing. When you drive your car around in a circle then you, as
the driver, feel as though you are getting pushed against the door. In reality
it is the car that is being accelerated around in the circle, and because of
your inertia, the car pushes on you. This “acceleration” that you feel is
the same as the car’s acceleration. The “acceleration” you feel is called the
centrifugal acceleration. The same idea occurs when you spin-dry clothes in
a washing machine.
60 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS
Example Future spacecraft will be made to spin in order to pro-
vide artiﬁcial gravity for the astronauts. Suppose the spacecraft
is a cylinder of L in length. Derive a formula for the rotation
period would it need to spin in order to simulate the gravity on
Earth. If L = 1 km what is the numerical value foe the period ?
Solution The centifugal acceleration is a and we want it to equal
g. Thus
g =
v
2
r
=
(2πr/T)
2
r
=

2
r
T
2
Thus
T
2
=

2
r
g
giving
T = 2π

L
g
which is the formula we seek. Putting in numbers:
T = 2π

1000 m
9.8 m sec
−2
= 2π

102.04 sec
−2
= 2π ×10.1 sec
= 63.5 sec
i.e. about once every minute!
Example The Moon is 1/4 million miles from Earth. How fast
does the Moon travel in its orbit ?
Solution The period of the Moon is 1 month. Thus
v =
2πr
T
=
2π ×250, 000 miles
30 ×24 hours
= 2, 182 mph
i.e. about 2000 mph!
3.8. PROBLEMS 61
3.8 Problems
1. A) A projectile is ﬁred with an initial speed v
o
at an angle θ with
respect to the horizontal. Neglect air resistance and derive a formula
for the horizontal range R, of the projectile. (Your formula should
make no explicit reference to time, t). At what angle is the range a
maximum ?
B) If v
0
= 30 km/hour and θ = 15
o
calculate the numerical value of
R.
2. A projectile is ﬁred with an initial speed v
o
at an angle θ with respect
to the horizontal. Neglect air resistance and derive a formula for the
maximum height H, that the projectile reaches. (Your formula should
make no explicit reference to time, t).
3. A) If a bulls-eye target is at a horizontal distance R away, derive an
expression for the height L, which is the vertical distance above the
bulls-eye that one needs to aim a riﬂe in order to hit the bulls-eye.
Assume the bullet leaves the riﬂe with speed v
0
.
B) How much bigger is L compared to the projectile height H ?
Note: In this problem use previous results found for the range R and
height H, namely R =
v
2
0
sin 2θ
g
=
2v
2
0
sin θ cos θ
g
and H =
v
2
0
sin
2
θ
2g
.
4. Normally if you wish to hit a bulls-eye some distance away you need to
aim a certain distance above it, in order to account for the downward
motion of the projectile. If a bulls-eye target is at a horizontal distance
D away and if you instead aim an arrow directly at the bulls-eye (i.e.
directly horiziontally), by what (downward) vertical distance would
you miss the bulls-eye ?
5. Prove that the trajectory of a projectile is a parabola (neglect air
resistance). Hint: the general form of a parabola is given by y =
ax
2
+bx +c.
6. Even though the Earth is spinning and we all experience a centrifugal
acceleration, we are not ﬂung oﬀ the Earth due to the gravitational
force. In order for us to be ﬂung oﬀ, the Earth would have to be
spinning a lot faster.
A) Derive a formula for the new rotational time of the Earth, such
that a person on the equator would be ﬂung oﬀ into space. (Take the
radius of Earth to be R).
62 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS
B) Using R = 6.4 million km, calculate a numerical anser to part A)
and compare it to the actual rotation time of the Earth today.
7. A staellite is in a circular orbit around a planet of mass M and radius
R at an altitude of H. Derive a formula for the additional speed that
the satellite must acquire to completely escape from the planet. Check
that your answer has the correct units.
8. A mass m is attached to the end of a spring with spring constant k on
a frictionless horizontal surface. The mass moves in circular motion
of radius R and period T. Due to the centrifugal force, the spring
stretches by a certain amount x from its equilibrium position. Derive
a formula for x in terms of k, R and T. Check that x has the correct
units.
9. A cannon ball is ﬁred horizontally at a speed v
0
from the edge of the
top of a cliﬀ of height H. Derive a formula for the horizontal distance
(i.e. the range) that the cannon ball travels. Check that your answer
has the correct units.
10. A skier starts from rest at the top of a frictionless ski slope of height
H and inclined at an angle θ to the horizontal. At the bottom of
the slope the surface changes to horizontal and has a coeﬃcient of
kinetic friction µ
k
between the horizontal surface and the skis. Derive
a formula for the distance d that the skier travels on the horizontal
surface before coming to a stop. (Assume that there is a constant
deceleration on the horizontal surface). Check that your answer has
the correct units.
11. A stone is thrown from the top of a building upward at an angle θ to
the horizontal and with an initial speed of v
0
as shown in the ﬁgure. If
the height of the building is H, derive a formula for the time it takes
the stone to hit the ground below.
3.8. PROBLEMS 63
θ
v
o
H
64 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS
Chapter 4
FORCE & MOTION - I
THEMES:
1. HOW STRONG A ROPE DO I NEED ?
65
66 CHAPTER 4. FORCE & MOTION - I
4.1 What Causes an Acceleration?
So far we have studied some things about acceleration but we never consid-
ered what causes things to accelerate. The answer is force. The gravitational
force causes objects to fall (i.e. accelerate downwards). Friction force causes
cars to slow down (decelerate), etc.
Fundamental classical physics is all about ﬁnding the force. Once you
know that you can get acceleration as we shall see. Once you have the
acceleration, you can ﬁnd velocity, displacement and time as we have studied
previously.
4.2 Newton’s First Law
A body remains in a state of rest, or uniform motion in a straight line,
unless acted upon by a force.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Tablecloth
4.3 Force
4.4 Mass
4.5 Newton’s Second Law
Newton’s second law of motion is not something we can derive from other
equations. Rather it is a fundamental postulate of physics. It was introduced
by Isaac Newton to describe the cause of acceleration. The law is
Σ

F = ma
Σ

F represents the sum (Σ) of all forces (

F) acting on a single body of mass
m. The body then undergoes an acceleration given by a. One of the key
activities in classical physics is to ﬁnd all the forces Σ

F. Once you have
them then you have the acceleration via a =
Σ

F
m
and once you have that
you can get velocity, displacement and time.
4.6. SOME PARTICULAR FORCES 67
Now Newton’s second law is a vector equation. Thus its actual meaning
is given by 3 equations, namely
ΣF
x
= ma
x
ΣF
y
= ma
y
ΣF
z
= ma
z
Once we have ΣF
x
, ΣF
y
, ΣF
z
we just divide by m to give the accelerations
a
x
, a
y
, a
z
. If they are constant, just plug them into the constant acceleration
equations and solve for the other quantities you are interested in.
One extra point is the units. The units of a are m/sec
2
. The units of m
are kg and thus the units of F are kg m/sec
2
. This is given a special name
called Newton (N). Thus
N ≡ kg m/sec
2
In the English system of units a Pound (lb) is a unit of force. The mass unit
is called slug. The units of acceleration are foot/sec
2
. thus
Pound (lb) ≡ slug foot/sec
2
4.6 Some Particular Forces
Weight
If you stand on a set of scales you measure your weight. If you stand
on the same scales on the moon your weight will be less because the moon’s
gravity is small, even though your mass is the same.
Weight is deﬁned as
W ≡ mg
where g is the acceleration due to gravity. (It’s 9.8 m/sec
2
on Earth, but
only 1.7 m/sec
2
on the Moon.) Weight is a force which pulls you down.
Normal Force
You are sitting still in your chair. The sum of all forces in the x and z
direction are zero (ΣF
x
= 0, ΣF
z
= 0) which means that a
x
= a
z
= 0. Now
you also know that a
y
= 0. (You are not moving.) Yet there is a weight
force W pulling down.
y
= 0 then there must be another force pushing up to balance
the weight force. We call this up force the Normal force N. Thus
ΣF
y
= ma
y
N −W = 0
68 CHAPTER 4. FORCE & MOTION - I
The N has a + sign (up) and W has a − sign (down) and they both balance
out to give zero acceleration. That’s how we know that the chair must push
up on the person sitting on it. The heavier the person, the bigger N must
be.
The Normal force is called “Normal” because it always acts perpendicu-
lar (normal means perpendicular) to the surface (of the chair).
Friction
Friction is another force that we will study shortly.
Tension
Finally another important type of force is tension, which is the force in
a rope or cable when under a stress.
Carefully study Sample Problem 5-4
4.7 Newton’s Third Law
Every action has an equal and opposite reaction.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Fire extinguisher rocket
4.8. APPLYING NEWTON’S LAWS 69
4.8 Applying Newton’s Laws
Carefully study Sample Problems 5-5, 5-6, 5-7, 5-8, 5-9, 5-10, 5-11.
Example A chandelier of mass m is hanging from a single cord
in the ceiling. Derive a formula for the tension in the cord. If
m = 50 kg evaluate a numerical answer for the tension.
Solution Carefully draw a diagram showing all forces, as seen
in Fig. 5.1. Then solve

ΣF = ma. Thus
ΣF
x
= ma
x
ΣF
y
= ma
y
ΣF
z
= ma
z
but all forces and acceleration in the x and z directions are zero
and so the only interesting equation is
ΣF
y
= ma
y
.
Now the forces are tension (+T) in the up direction and weight
(−W) in the down direction. You don’t want the chandelier to
move, so a
y
= 0. Thus
T −W = 0
⇒ T = W
= mg
which is the formula we seek. Putting in numbers:
T = 50 kg × 9.8 m/sec
2
= 490 kg m/sec
2
= 490 N
T
W
FIGURE 5.1 Chandelier hanging from ceiling.
70 CHAPTER 4. FORCE & MOTION - I
Example A chandelier of mass mis now suspended by two cords,
one at an angle of α to the ceiling and the other at θ. Derive a
formula for is the tension in each cord. If m = 50kg and α = 60
o
and θ = 30
o
evaluate a numerical answer for each tension.
Solution Again carefully draw a ﬁgure showing all forces. See
Fig. 5.2.
T
1 T
2
W
θ
α
FIGURE 5.2 Chandelier suspended by 2 cables.
In the z direction all forces and acceleration are zero. We need
to consider the x and y directions (both with a
x
= a
y
= 0),
namely,
ΣF
x
= ma
x
and ΣF
y
= ma
y
T
2x
−T
1x
= 0 and T
2y
+T
1y
−W = 0
Now
T
2x
= T
2
cos θ, T
1x
= T
1
cos α
T
2y
= T
2
sin θ, T
1y
= T
1
sin α
4.8. APPLYING NEWTON’S LAWS 71
giving
T
2
cos θ −T
1
cos α = 0 and T
2
sin θ +T
1
sin α = W
The x equation gives T
2
=
T
1
cos α
cos θ
which is substituted into the
y equation giving
T
1
cos α
cos θ
sin θ +T
1
sin α = W
or
T
1
=
W
cos αtan θ + sin α
=
mg
cos αtan θ + sin α
and upon substitution
T
2
=
T
1
cos α
cos θ
=
mg
sin θ + tan αcos θ
which are the formulas we seek. Putting in numbers gives:
W = mg
= 50 kg × 9.8 m/sec
2
= 490 N
Thus
T
1
=
490N
cos 60 tan 30 + sin 60
= 426 N.
Now put back into
T
2
=
T
1
cos 60
cos 30
=
426N cos 60
cos 30
= 246 N
72 CHAPTER 4. FORCE & MOTION - I
Example If you normally have a weight of W, how much will a
weight scale read if you are standing on it in an elevator moving
up at an acceleration of a ?
Solution The reading on the scale will just be the Normal force.
Thus
ΣF = ma
N − W = ma
N = W +ma
The answer makes sense. You would expect the scale to read a
higher value.
4.8. APPLYING NEWTON’S LAWS 73
Example A block of mass m slides down a frictionless incline of
angle θ.
A) What is the normal force?
B) What is the acceleration of the block?
Solution In Fig. 5.3 the forces are drawn. Notice that I have
chosen the orientation of the y axis to lie along the normal force.
You could make other choices, but this will make things easier
to work out.
N
W
W

c
o
s
θ
W

s
i
n
θ
θ
θ
9
0

θ
y
x
FIGURE 5.3 Block sliding down frictionless incline.
74 CHAPTER 4. FORCE & MOTION - I
A) Analyzing the y direction,
ΣF
y
= ma
y
N −W cos θ = 0
because the block has zero acceleration in the y direction.
Thus
N = W cos θ = mg cos θ
B) Analyzing the x direction,
ΣF
x
= ma
x
W sin θ = ma
x
a
x
=
W sin θ
m
=
mg sin θ
m
= g sin θ
4.8. APPLYING NEWTON’S LAWS 75
Example Derive a formula for the acceleration of the block sys-
tem shown in Fig. 5.4 (Atwood machine). Assume the pulley is
frictionless and the tension T is the same throughout the rope.
T
T
m
1
m
2 W
1
W
2
FIGURE 5.4 Atwood machine.
Solution The tension is the same throughout the rope; thus
T
1
= T
2
= T. Analyze forces in y direction on m
1
;
ΣF
y
= m
1
a
1
T −W
1
= m
1
a (4.1)
with a
1
≡ a. Analyze forces in y direction on m
2
;
ΣF
y
= m
2
a
2
T −W
2
= m
2
a
2
but if a
1
= a then a
2
= −a giving
T −W
2
= −m
2
a (4.2)
Subtracting eqn. (4.2) from eqn. (4.1) gives
T − W
1
−(T −W
2
) = m
1
a −(−m
2
a)
− W
1
+W
2
= m
1
a +m
2
a
a =
W
2
−W
1
m
1
+m
2
=
m
2
−m
1
m
1
+m
2
g
Thus a is positive if m
2
> m
1
and negative if m
2
< m
1
.
76 CHAPTER 4. FORCE & MOTION - I
HISTORICAL NOTE
Isaac Newton is widely regarded as the greatest physicist of all time.
One of his major works was Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica
(Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.) [University of California
Press, Berkeley, California, ed. by F. Cajori; 1934; QA 803 .A45 1934]. Very
early on in the book we ﬁnd the section entitled Axioms, or Laws of Motion.
The laws are stated as follows:
“LAW I: Every body continues in a state of rest, or of uniform
motion in a right line, unless it is compelled to change that state
by forces impressed upon it.
LAW II: The change of motion is proportional to the motive force
impressed; and is made in the direction of the right line in which
that force is impressed.
LAW III: To every action there is always opposed an equal re-
action; or, the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are
always equal, and directed to contrary parts.”
After the axioms are stated, the Principia is then divided into two major
books, namely Book I: The Motion of Bodies and Book II: The Motion of
Bodies (in resisting mediums). In these books we ﬁnd discussion of such
toipics as centripetal forces, conic sections, orbits, rectilinear motion, oscil-
lating pendulum, attractive force of spherical bodies, motion of bodies in
ﬂuids, ﬂuid dynamics, hydrostatics, etc. This makes for wonderful reading
and is highly recommended.
By the way Newton also invented calculus and the reﬂecting telescope !
4.9. PROBLEMS 77
4.9 Problems
78 CHAPTER 4. FORCE & MOTION - I
Chapter 5
FORCE & MOTION - II
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT:
Measure the coeﬃcient of static friction between 2 surfaces.
THEMES:
FRICTION.
79
80 CHAPTER 5. FORCE & MOTION - II
5.1 Friction
There are two types of friction — static and kinetic. When two surfaces are
in relative motion then the friction is kinetic, such as when you slam the
brakes on in your car and the car skids along the road. Eventually, kinetic
friction will cause the car to stop.
If you put a coin on top of a book and tilt the book at a small angle, the
coin will remain stationary. Static friction prevents the coin from sliding.
Tilt the book a bit more and still the coin does not slide. The static friction
has increased to keep the coin in place. Eventually however, static friction
will be overcome and the coin will slide down the book (with kinetic friction
operating). Notice that the maximum amount of static friction occurred
just before the coin started to slide.
(LECTURE DEMONSTRATION of above.)
5.2 Properties of Friction
If you press down hard on the coin, then the friction force will increase.
When you press down you are causing the normal force N to get bigger.
Thus friction is proportional to N. The proportionality constant is called
the coeﬃcient of friction µ.
The kinetic friction force f
k
is given by
f
k
≡ µ
k
N
where µ
k
is the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction. We saw that static friction
varies. However the maximum value of the static friction force f
s,max
is
f
s,max
≡ µ
s
N
Both of these equations can be regarded as deﬁnitions for µ
k
and µ
s
.
(Carefully study Samples Problems 6-1, 6-2, 6-3, 6-4).
5.2. PROPERTIES OF FRICTION 81
Example The coeﬃcient of static friction is just the tangent of
the angle where two objects start to slide relative to each other.
Show that µ
s
= tan θ.
Solution A force diagram is shown in Fig. 6.1.
N
W
W

c
o
s
θ
W

s
i
n
θ
θ
θ
9
0

θ
y
x
f
s
FIGURE 6.1 Block sliding down incline with friction.
82 CHAPTER 5. FORCE & MOTION - II
Analyze forces in y direction
ΣF
y
= ma
y
N −W cos θ = 0
In x direction
ΣF
x
= ma
x
f
s
−W sin θ = 0
µ
s
N −W sin θ = 0
µ
s
=
W sin θ
N
where a
x
= 0 just before object starts to slide. Now we get N
from y equation above (N = cos θ). Thus
µ
s
=
W sin θ
W cos θ
or
µ
s
= tan θ
5.3 Drag Force and Terminal Speed
5.4 Uniform Circular Motion
In the case of circular motion we always know that the acceleration is a =
v
2
r
.
Thus we always know the right hand side of Newton’s second law, namely
ΣF = ma
=
mv
2
r
The forces that produce circular motion get put into the left hand side.
5.4. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION 83
Example In designing a curved road, engineers consider the
speed v of a car and the coeﬃcient of friction between the car
tires and the road. The radius of curvature of the road bend is
chosen to be large enough so that the car will be able to derive
around smoothly in a part-circle. Work out a formula for the
radius of curvature in terms of the speed of the car and the co-
eﬃcient of friction.
Solution Force diagrams are shown in Fig. 6.2. The top part of
the ﬁgure shows that static friction alone keeps the car in circular
motion. (The forward motion of the car involves moving kinetic
friction, but the sideways motion involves static friction.)
N
f
s
x
x
y
side view
view from above
FIGURE 6.2 Car rounding a curve.
84 CHAPTER 5. FORCE & MOTION - II
In the x direction
ΣF
x
= ma
x
f
s
= m
v
2
r
µ
s
N =
mv
2
r
We get N from the y direction,
ΣF
y
= ma
y
N −W = 0
N = W
= mg
Substituting into the x equation gives
µ
s
mg =
mv
2
r
or
r =
v
2
µ
s
g
This formula tells an engineer how large to make the radius of
curvature of the road for a given car speed v (say 5 times the
speed limit) and a coeﬃcient of friction µ
s
.
5.5. PROBLEMS 85
5.5 Problems
1. A mass m
1
hangs vertically from a string connected to a ceiling. A
second mass m
2
hangs below m
1
with m
1
and m
2
also connected by
another string. Calculate the tension in each string.
2. What is the acceleration of a snow skier sliding down a frictionless ski
slope of angle θ ?
Check that your answer makes sense for θ = 0
o
and for θ = 90
o
.
3. A ferris wheel rotates at constant speed in a vertical circle of radius
R and it takes time T to complete each circle. Derive a formula, in
terms of m, g, R, T, for the weight that a passenger of mass m feels at
the top and bottom of the circle. Comment on whether your answers
make sense. (Hint: the weight that a passenger feels is just the normal
force.)
4. A block of mass m
1
on a rough, horizontal surface is connected to a
second mass m
2
by a light cord over a light frictionless pulley as shown
in the ﬁgure. (‘Light’ means that we can neglect the mass of the cord
and the mass of the pulley.) A force of magnitude F is applied to the
mass m
1
as shown, such that m
1
moves to the right. The coeﬃcient
of kinetic friction between m
1
and the surface is µ. Derive a formula
for the acceleration of the masses. [Serway 5th ed., pg.135, Fig 5.14]
86 CHAPTER 5. FORCE & MOTION - II
m
m
1
2
θ
F
5. If you whirl an object of mass m at the end of a string in a vertical
circle of radius R at constant speed v, derive a formula for the tension
in the string at the top and bottom of the circle.
5.5. PROBLEMS 87
6. Two masses m
1
and m
2
are connected by a string passing through a
hollow pipe with m
1
being swung around in a circle of radius R and
m
2
hanging vertically as shown in the ﬁgure.
m
2
R
m
1
Obviously if m
1
moves quickly in the circle then m
2
will start to move
upwards, but if m
1
moves slowly m
2
will start to fall.
A) Derive an expression for the tension T in the string.
B) Derive an expression for the acceleration of m
2
in terms of the period
t of the circular motion.
C) For what period t, will the mass m
2
be at rest?
D) If the masses are equal, what is the answer to Part C)?
E) For a radius of 9.81 m, what is the numerical value of this period?
88 CHAPTER 5. FORCE & MOTION - II
7. A) What friction force is required to stop a block of mass m moving
at speed v
0
, assuming that we want the block to stop over a distance
d ?
B) Work out a formula for the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction that will
achieve this.
C) Evaluate numerical answers to the above two questions assuming
the mass of the block is 1000kg, the initial speed is 60 kmper hour and
the braking distance is 200m.
Chapter 6
POTENTIAL ENERGY &
CONSERVATION OF
ENERGY
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT:
Design any experiment which illustrates that energy is conserved.
THEMES:
MACHINES.
89
90CHAPTER 6. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
In this chapterI am going to include the discussion of Chapter 7 and 8
[from Halliday] all together and try to present a single uniﬁed approach to
the whole topic of work and energy. The textbook by Halliday should be
read very carefully for speciﬁc illustrations of my uniﬁed approach.
In our study of mechanics so far our approach has been to identify all
the forces, divide by mass to get acceleration and then solve for velocity,
displacement, time, etc. There is an alternative formulation of mechanics
which does not rely heavily on force, but rather is based on the concepts of
work and energy. The work-energy formulation of mechanics is worthwhile
since sometimes it is easier to work with and involves only scalar quantities.
Also it leads to a better physical understanding of mechanics. However the
key reason for introducing work-energy is because energy is conserved. This
great discovery simpliﬁed a great deal of physics and we shall study it in
detail.
6.1 Work
The basic concept of work is that it is force times distance. You do work
on an object by applying a force over a certain distance. When you lift an
object you apply a lifting force over the height that you lift the object.
Machines are objects that allow us to do work more eﬃciently. For
example, a ramp is what is called a simple machine. If you load objects into
a truck, then a large ramp (large distance) allows you to apply less force to
achieve the same work.
All students should read my handout on simple machines. There it is
clearly explained why work is deﬁned as force × distance.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: SIMPLE MACHINES
Actually the proper physical deﬁnition of work is more complicated. The
proper deﬁnition is
W ≡

r
f
r
i

F · dr
Writing

F = F
x
ˆ
i +F
y
ˆ
j +F
z
ˆ
k
and
dr = dx
ˆ
i +dy
ˆ
j +dz
ˆ
k
6.1. WORK 91
gives
W =

(F
x
ˆ
i +F
y
ˆ
j +F
z
ˆ
k) · (dx
ˆ
i +dy
ˆ
j +dz
ˆ
k)
=

F
x
dx +F
y
dy +F
z
dz
Let’s ﬁrst look at the 1-dimensional case
W =

x
f
x
i
F
x
dx
If the force F
x
is constant then it can be taken outside the integral to give
W = F
x

x
f
x
i
dx = F
x
[x]
x
f
x
i
= F
x
(x
f
−x
i
) = F
x
∆x
= force × distance
giving us back our original idea. The reason why we have an integral is in
case the force depends on distance. The reason we have the scalar product

F · dr is if the force and distance are at some angle, such as a tall person
pulling a toy wagon along with a rope inclined at some angle.
By the way, the units of work must be Newton × meter which is given
a special name, Joule. Thus
Joule ≡ Newton meter
Example If I push a sled with a constant force of 100 N along
a 5 m path, how much work do I do ?
Solution The force is constant and in only 1-dimension, so
W = F
x
∆x
= 100 N×5 m
= 500 Nm
= 500 Joule
92CHAPTER 6. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
6.2 Kinetic Energy
Now we know that

F = ma and so work can be written
W =

r
f
r
i

F · dr = m

r
f
r
i
a · dr
where m is taken outside the integral because it’s a constant. Let’s just
consider 1-dimension to make things easier. Thus
W =

x
f
x
i
F dx = m

x
f
x
i
a dx
Now use an old trick.
a =
dv
dt
=
dv
dx
dx
dt
using the chain rule for derivatives. But v =
dx
dt
, giving
a =
dv
dx
v
= v
dv
dx
Thus
W = m

x
f
x
i
a dx = m

x
f
x
i
v
dv
dx
dx
= m

v
f
v
i
v dv
= m
¸
1
2
v
2

v
f
v
i
=
1
2
mv
2
f

1
2
mv
2
i
Notice that we have found that the work is equal to the change in the
quantity
1
2
mv
2
. We give this a special name and call it Kinetic Energy
K ≡
1
2
mv
2
Thus we have found that W = K
f
−K
i
or
W = ∆K
The total work is always equal to the change in kinetic energy. Kinetic
energy is the energy of motion. If m is large and v small, or m is small and
6.2. KINETIC ENERGY 93
v large the kinetic energy in both cases will be comparable. Note also that
K must have the same units as W, namely Joule.
What happens when we do work on an object? Well if you lift up an
object, you increase its Potential energy (more about that in a moment). If
you work on an object you can also increase its kinetic energy. If you push a
marble on a table its speed will increase and so you have changed its kinetic
energy.
Example A sled of mass m is stationary on some frictionless
ice. If I push the sled with a force of F over a distance ∆x, what
will be the speed of the sled ?
Solution The force is constant and is 1-dimension, so
W = F ∆x = ∆K = K
f
−K
i
=
1
2
mv
2
f

1
2
mv
2
i
Now v
i
= 0, giving
F ∆x =
1
2
mv
2
f
or
v
f
=

2F ∆x
m
The neat thing is that we can get exactly the same answer with our old
methods, as the next example shows.
94CHAPTER 6. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
Example Work out the previous example using the constant ac-
celeration equations.
Solution The acceleration is just
a =
F
m
The constant acceleration equation that helps us is
v
2
= v
2
0
+ 2a(x −x
0
)
Now x −x
0
= ∆x m and v
0
= 0 giving
v =

2a(x −x
0
)
=

2F ∆x
m
which is the same answer as the previous example.
6.2. KINETIC ENERGY 95
In the previous two examples notice how the equation
W = F∆x =
1
2
mv
2
f

1
2
mv
2
i
is equivalent to
v
2
= v
2
0
+ 2a(x −x
0
)
Modify this to
1
2
v
2
=
1
2
v
2
0
+a(x −x
0
)
1
2
v
2
=
1
2
v
2
0
+a∆x
1
2
mv
2
=
1
2
mv
2
0
+ma∆x
=
1
2
mv
2
0
+F∆x
or
F∆x =
1
2
mv
2

1
2
mv
2
0
= ∆K
as we have above !
Thus the work-energy formulation provides an alternative approach to
mechanics.
96CHAPTER 6. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
6.3 Work-Energy Theorem
Let’s review what we have done. Work was deﬁned as W ≡

F · dr and by
putting in F = ma we found that the total work is always ∆K where the
kinetic energy is deﬁned as K ≡
1
2
mv
2
. Thus
W ≡

r
2
r
1

F · dr = ∆K.
So far so good. Note carefully what we did to get this result. We put in the
right hand side of F = ma to prove W = ∆K. What we actually did was
W =

r
2
r
1
ma · dr ≡ ∆K
Now let’s not put

F = ma but just study the integral
r
2

r
1

F · dr by itself.
Before we do that, we must recognize that there are two types of forces
called conservative and non-conservative. You should carefully read Section
Anyway, to put it brieﬂy, conservative forces “bounce back” and non-
conservative forces don’t. Gravity is a conservative force. If you lift an
object against gravity and let it go then the object falls back to where it
was. Spring forces are conservative. If you pull a spring and then let it go, it
bounces back to where it was. However friction is non-conservative. If you
slide an object along the table against friction and let go, then the object
just stays there.
With conservative forces we always associate a potential energy.
Thus any force

F can be broken up into the conservative piece

F
C
and
the non-conservative piece

F
NC
, as in
W ≡

r
f
r
i

F · dr
=

r
f
r
i

F
C
· dr +

r
f
r
i

F
NC
· dr
≡ W
C
+W
NC
and each piece corresponds therefore to conservative work W
C
and non-
conservative work W
NC
. Let’s deﬁne the conservative piece as the negative
of the change in a new quantity called potential energy U. The deﬁnition is
W
C
≡ −∆U
6.3. WORK-ENERGY THEOREM 97
where −∆U = −(U
f
−U
i
) = −U
f
+ U
i
. Now we found that the total work
W was always ∆K. Combining all of this we have
W = W
C
+W
NC
= ∆K
= −∆U +W
NC
or
∆U + ∆K = W
NC
which is the famous Work-Energy theorem.
98CHAPTER 6. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
6.4 Gravitational Potential Energy
We have been doing a lot of formal analysis. Let’s backtrack a little and
try to understand better what we have done. Let’s look at the conservative
piece a little more closely and examine potential energy in more detail.
Let’s consider the simplest conservative force, namely the weight force
where W = mg which is a constant. Let’s work out W
C
and ∆U in 1-
dimension.
The gravitational force due to weight is

F
C
= −mg
ˆ
j
giving
W
C
≡ −∆U =

F
C
· dr
= −(U
f
−U
i
) = −mg

ˆ
j · (dx
ˆ
i +dy
ˆ
j +dz
ˆ
k) = −mg

y
f
y
i
dy
= −U
f
+U
i
= −mg [y]
y
f
y
i
= −mg(y
f
−y
i
) = −mgy
f
+mgy
i
which gives −U
f
= −mgy
f
, i.e. U
f
= mgy
f
and U
i
= mgy
i
. Thus we can
simply write
U = mgy
which is our expression for gravitational potential energy. If an object is
raised to a large height y then it has a large potential energy.
If we do work in lifting an object, then we give that object potential en-
ergy, just as we can give an object kinetic energy by doing work. Similarly
if an object has potential energy or kinetic energy then the object can do
work by releasing that energy. This is the principle of hydro-electric power
generators. A large amount of water is stored in a dam at a large height y
with a large potential energy. When the water falls and reduces it poten-
tial energy (smaller y) the energy is converted into work to drive electric
generators.
6.5 Conservation of Energy
Let’s summarize again. The work-energy theorem is ∆U + ∆K = W
NC
where K ≡
1
2
mv
2
and for gravity U = mgy. W
NC
is the non-conservative
work, such as friction, heat, sound, etc. It is often zero as in the next
example.
6.5. CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 99
Example If you drop an object from a height H, with what
speed does it hit the ground? Deduce the answer using the work-
energy theorem. Assume W
NC
= 0.
Solution W
NC
= 0 because things such as heat and friction are
negligible. Thus the work energy theorem is
∆U + ∆K = 0
or
U
f
−U
i
+K
f
−K
i
= 0
or
U
f
+K
f
= U
i
+K
i
That is the total energy
E ≡ U +K
is constant. This is the famous conservation of mechanical en-
ergy, i.e. E
f
= E
i
.
We have K =
1
2
mv
2
and U = mgy giving
mgy
f
+
1
2
mv
2
f
= mgy
i
+
1
2
mv
2
i
but y
f
= 0 and y
i
= H and v
i
= 0. Thus
1
2
mv
2
f
= mgH
or
v
f
=

2gH
100CHAPTER 6. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
Example Complete the previous example using the constant ac-
celeration equations.
Solution The most convenient equation is
v
2
= v
2
0
+ 2a(y −y
0
)
but v
0
= 0 and y −y
0
= 0 −H = −H and a = −g, giving
v =

2g(y −y
0
) =

2g(0 −−H)
=

2gH
which is the same answer as before.
Example Prove that a swinging pendulum always rises to the
same height. (Neglect friction.)
Solution With friction ignored we have W
NC
= 0 and
1
2
mv
2
f
+mgy
f
=
1
2
mv
2
i
+mgy
i
I let go of the pendulum with speed v
i
= 0 and it returns with
speed v
f
= 0. Thus
mgy
f
= mgy
i
or
y
f
= y
i
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Bowling Ball Pendulum
6.6. SPRING POTENTIAL ENERGY 101
6.6 Spring Potential Energy
When you pull a spring you feel a force in the opposite direction from which
you pull. Also the force increases with distance. This can be expressed as

F
C
= −kx
ˆ
i
in the x direction. Thus
W
C
≡ −∆U =

F
C
· dr
= −(U
f
−U
i
) = −k

x
ˆ
i · (dx
ˆ
i +dy
ˆ
j +dz
ˆ
k)
= −U
f
+U
i
= −k

x
f
x
i
xdx = −k
¸
1
2
x
2

x
f
x
i
= −k

1
2
x
2
f

1
2
x
2
i

= −
1
2
kx
2
f
+
1
2
kx
2
i
which gives −U
f
= −
1
2
kx
2
f
, i.e. U
f
=
1
2
kx
2
f
and U
i
=
1
2
kx
2
i
. Thus we can
simplify and write
U =
1
2
kx
2
which is our expression for spring potential energy
102CHAPTER 6. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
Example A spring with spring constant k has a mass of m on
one end. The spring is stretched by a distance d. When released,
how fast will the mass be moving when it returns to its original
position? (Assume the motion occurs on a horizontal frictionless
surface.)
Solution W
NC
= 0 giving
U
f
+K
f
= U
i
+K
i
1
2
kx
2
f
+
1
2
mv
2
f
=
1
2
kx
i
+
1
2
mv
2
i
Now x
f
= 0, x
i
= d m and v
i
= 0. Thus
mv
2
f
= kd
2
or
v
f
= d

k
m
IMPORTANT NOTE:
The spring is an example of a variable force F = −kx which varies as
distance. Thus the acceleration a = −
kx
m
is not constant and the constant
acceleration equations cannot be used to solve the previous example. Also
the variable force requires the integral deﬁnition of work as W =

F · dr.
HALLIDAY SIMULATION: “A Spring”
6.7. APPENDIX: ALTERNATIVE METHOD TO OBTAIN POTENTIAL ENERGY103
6.7 Appendix: alternative method to obtain po-
tential energy
Potential energy is deﬁned through
W
c
=

F
c
· dr ≡ −∆U
Let’s just ignore the vectors for the moment and write

F
c
dr = −∆U
Thus we must have
F
c
= −
dU
dr
To see this write

f
i
F
c
dr = −

f
i
dU
dr
dr = −

U
f
U
i
dU = −[U]
U
f
U
i
= −(U
f
−U
i
) = −∆U.
(cf. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus).
For gravity we have

F = −mg
ˆ
j or F = −mg and for a spring we have

F = −kx
ˆ
i or F = −kx. Thus instead of working out the integral

F · dr to
get U, just ask what U will give F according to F = −
dU
dr
.
Example For gravity F = −mg, derive U without doing an in-
tegral.
Solution For gravity dr ≡ dy. The question is what U will give
F = −mg = −
dU
dy
The answer is U = mgy. Let’s check:

dU
dy
= −mg
dy
dy
= −mg
which is the F we started with !
104CHAPTER 6. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
Example For a spring F = −kx, derive U without doing an
integral.
Solution For a spring d ≡ dx. The question is what U will give
F = −kx = −
dU
dx
The answer is U =
1
2
kx
2
. Let’s check

dU
dx
= −
1
2
k
dx
2
dx
= −
1
2
k 2x = −kx
which is the F we started with!
6.8. PROBLEMS 105
6.8 Problems
1. A block of mass m slides down a rough incline of height H and angle
θ to the horizontal. Calculate the speed of the block when it reaches
the bottom of the incline, assuming the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction
is µ
k
.
106CHAPTER 6. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
Chapter 7
SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT:
Locate the center of mass of an object.
THEMES:
FROM ONE TO MANY.
107
108 CHAPTER 7. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES
Almost everything we have done so far has referred to the motion of a
single body of mass m, and we have always been able to treat that single
body as though it were a point. But suppose we wich to study the motion
of a complex object such as a spinning baseball bat (Fig. 9-1 Halliday) or
a dancing ballerina (Fig. 9-8 Halliday) ? A bat and a ballerina can be
considered as a collection of a huge number of single particles. We now
want to study the motion of such systems of particles.
7.1 A Special Point
When we studied say a block sliding down an incline, and replaced it with
just a single point and studied the motion of that point, we made a very
convenient simpliﬁcation. This special point is called the center of mass of an
object and by studying its motion alone we avoid all the extra complications
of a body of ﬁnite size.
“The center of mass of a body or a system of bodies is the points that
moves as though all of the mass were aconcentrated there and all exter-
nal forces were applied there.” [Halliday, 1997]. Notice we have included
a system of bodies. For instance the motion of the Earth-Moon system
around the Sun is actually governed by the center of mass of the two-body
Earth-Moon system.
An easy way to ﬁnd the center of mass is to just regard it as a balance
point. For example the center of mass of a ruler is located as the point
where you can balance the ruler on your ﬁnger without it falling oﬀ. Thus
we already know the answer for a ruler ! The center of mass is located at
the center. We will prove this mathematically in a moment.
7.2 The Center of Mass
Systems of Particles
Now let’s come up with a mathematical deﬁnition for center of mass
which is more precise than just saying it’s the balance point (although the
balance point always gives the correct answer). The location of the center
of mass is deﬁned as
r
cm

1
M
¸
n
i
m
i
r
i
(7.1)
7.2. THE CENTER OF MASS 109
where the sum over i running from 1 to n means sum over all of the point
particles within the body, assuming there are a total of n point particles.
M is the total mass of all the individual bodies and can be written
M ≡
n
¸
i
m
i
(7.2)
We have deﬁned the center of mass. Now let’s see if our deﬁnition makes
sense. First of all it’s a vector equation and so what it really means is the
usual 3-dimensional decomposition as
x
cm

1
M
n
¸
i
m
i
x
i
(7.3)
y
cm

1
M
n
¸
i
m
i
y
i
(7.4)
z
cm

1
M
n
¸
i
m
i
z
i
(7.5)
Let’s just consider the 1-dimensional version for the case of 2 bodies only.
Then the total mass M becomes
M = m
1
+m
2
(7.6)
and (7.2) becomes
x
cm
=
m
1
x
1
+m
2
x
2
m
1
+m
2
. (7.7)
Does this make sense ? Let’s see.
110 CHAPTER 7. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES
Example Where is the position of the center of mass for a sys-
tem consisting of two dumbells, each with the same mass m each
at the end of a 4ft massless rod ?
Solution Now you know that the answer to this must be at the
center of the rod. After all that is the balancing point. That is
our guess is that x
cm
= 2ft. Let’s use our deﬁnition of center of
mass, equation (7.1) and see if it gives this answer.
Now we have a 1-dimensional problem and therefore (7.1) re-
duces to only (7.3). Furthermore we only have two bodies and
this reduces further to (7.7). Choosing the origin of the x-
coordinate system to be at the left dumbell gives x
1
= 0ft and
x
2
= 4ft. Substituting gives
x
cm
=
m×0ft +m×4ft
m+m
= 2ft (7.8)
which is exactly what we expected. Therefore we can believe that
our deﬁnition for center of mass (7.1) makes perfect sense.
Let’s look at what happens if we use a diﬀerent coordinate system.
Example Repeat the previous problem, but with the x-origin
located at the center between the two dumbells instead of on the
left dumbell.
Solution Well now we would guess that the center of mass would
be given by x
cm
= 0. Let’s see if our formula works here. With
the origin of the x-axis chosen to be at the center of the dumbells
we have the position of each dumbell given by x
1
= −2ft and
x
2
= +2ft respectively. Subsituting we get
x
cm
=
m×(−2ft) +m×(+2ft)
m+m
= 0 (7.9)
which is exactly what we expected. Therefore again we can be-
lieve that our deﬁnition for center of mass (7.1) makes perfect
sense.
7.2. THE CENTER OF MASS 111
Being able to ﬁnd the center of mass is actually useful, as the following
example shows.
Example A baby of mass m
B
sits on a see-saw. Mary’s mass is
m
M
. Where should Mary sit in order to balance the see-saw ?
Work out a formula and also a numerical answer if m
B
= 10 kg
and m
M
= 80 kg.
Solution Again our intuition tells us that we can guess that the
ratio of the distances should be 1/8. That is the baby should be
8 times as far away from the center of the see-saw as Mary. Let’s
see if our center of mass deﬁnition (7.1) tells us this.
Again this is a 1-dimensional, 2-body problem and so the formula
for the center of mass is again
x
cm
=
m
B
x
B
+m
M
x
M
m
B
+m
M
.
Now we want the center of mass located at the center of the
see-saw and we will put the origin of our x-axis there as well.
Thus
x
cm
=
m
B
x
B
+m
M
x
M
m
B
+m
M
= 0
giving
m
B
x
B
+m
M
x
M
= 0
which means that
m
B
x
B
= −m
M
x
M
or
x
B
x
M
= −
m
B
m
M
= −
m
M
or
x
M
= −
M
m
x
B
Putting in numbers we get
x
M
= −
80 kg
10 kg
x
B
= −8 x
B
just as we suspected.
112 CHAPTER 7. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES
Rigid Bodies
Above we considered ﬁnding the center of mass of two bodies. This can
easily be extended to 3 or more bodies and some of this will be explored in
the homework. That’s all well and good, but how do we ﬁnd the center of
mass of systems made up of millions of particles such as a baseball bat. In
other words how do we ﬁnd the center of mass of rigid bodies ? That’s what
we will look at now.
In physics whenever we want to change our study from a collection of
discrete particles (desribed by a sum
¸
i
) to a continuous collection of parti-
cles, the sum just changes to an integral. Hopefully this makes perfect sense
from what you have studied in calculus. You all now know that an integral
is just the limit of a sequence of sums.
Now each of the millions of particles in a rigid body has a tiny little mass
denoted by dm. For a discrete collection of particles we had (7.1) as
x
cm

1
M
n
¸
i
x
i
m
i
(7.10)
but for a continuous distribution of particles we now deﬁne
x
cm

1
M

xdm (7.11)
This is easier to work with if we introduce density ρ as mass / volume or
ρ ≡
mass
volume

dm
dV

M
V
. (7.12)
where dV is the volume occupied by the mass dm. Thus our deﬁnition can
be written
x
cm

1
M

xdm ≡
1
M

xρdV
and the same for y and z. If the density is constant, then it can be taken
outside the integral to give
x
cm
=
1
V

xdV
and the same for y and z.
There’s one additional catch. Above we deﬁned a 3-dimensional density
as mass / volume. But what if we have a dense 1-dimensional object such
as a very long and thin pencil. Well then we will want a linear mass density.
7.2. THE CENTER OF MASS 113
Instead of ρ, we use the symbol λ for linear mass density and deﬁne it
as
λ ≡
mass
length

dm
dL

M
L
so that now we have
x
cm

1
M

xdm =
1
M

xλdL
and for a constant λ,
x
cm
=
1
L

xdL
Because this is linear mass density we do not have any equations for x or
y. Similarly we may have mass distributed only in 2 dimensions such as the
surface of a table. We use area mass density deﬁned as
σ ≡
mass
area

dm
dA

M
A
giving
x
cm

1
M

xdm =
1
M

xσ dA
and for constant σ,
x
cm
=
1
A

xdA
and similarly for y; but there is no equation for z. (why?)
Example Locate the center of mass of a very thin pencil of
length L balanced sideways.
Solution Again using intuition we know the answer must be at
the center of the pencil. Now the element of length dL ≡ dx,
and the linear mass density λ of the pencil is constant, so that
x
cm
=
1
L

L
0
xdx
We have taken the origin (x = 0) to be at one end of the pencil.
Thus
x
cm
=
1
L
¸
1
2
x
2

L
0
=
1
L

1
2
L
2
−0

=
1
2
L
which is just the answer we expected! Thus we can believe that
the formulas given previously really do work.
114 CHAPTER 7. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES
7.3 Newton’s Second Law for a System of Particles
For a single particle of mass m we already have encountered Newton’s second
law, namely
¸

F = ma, and
¸

F are all the forces acting on the mass m and
a is the resulting acceleration of the mass m. What happens for a system
of particles?
The end result is
¸

F
ext
= Ma
cm
(7.13)
where
¸

F
ext
is the sum of all external forces acting on the body (all the
internal forces cancel out to zero), M is the total mass of the body and a
cm
is the acceleration of the center of mass of the body.
Example Prove equation (7.13).
Solution Recall our deﬁnition of center of mass, namely
r
cm

1
M
¸
i
m
i
r
i
or
Mr
cm
=
¸
i
m
i
r
i
Taking the time derivative gives
Mv
cm
=
¸
i
m
i
v
i
and taking the time derivative again gives
Ma
cm
=
¸
i
m
i
a
i
=
¸
i

F
i
which is just the sum of all the forces acting on each mass m
i
.
These forces will be both external and internal. However for a
rigid body all the internal forces must cancel because in a rigid
body the particles don’t move relative to each other. Thus
¸
i

F
i
just becomes
¸

F
ext
in agreement with (7.13).
7.4. LINEAR MOMENTUM OF A POINT PARTICLE 115
7.4 Linear Momentum of a Point Particle
A more fundamental way of discussing Newton’s second law is in terms of a
new quantity called momentum. It is deﬁned as
p ≡ mv
and it is important because it is a conserved quantity just like energy. The
proper way to write Newton’s second law is
¸

F =
d p
dt
Now
d p
dt
=
d
dt
(mv) = m
dv
dt
= ma if the mass is constant. Thus
d p
dt
= ma
if the mass is constant. (If the mass is not constant then
d p
dt
=
d
dt
(mv) =
m
dv
dt
+
dm
dt
v = ma +
dm
dt
v so that Newton’s second law actually reads
¸

F =
ma +
dm
dt
v).
7.5 Linear Momentum of a System of Particles
The total momentum

P of a system of particles is just the sum of the
momenta of each individual particle, namely

P =
¸
i
p
i
Now from the previous example we had Mv
cm
=
¸
i
m
i
v
i
=
¸
i
p
i
, giving the
total momentum of a system of particles as

P = Mv
cm
which is a very nice handy formula for the total momentum equals total mass
multiplied by the velocity of the center of mass. Taking the time derivative
gives
d

P
dt
= M
dvcm
dt
= Ma
cm
assuming that M is constant. Thus Newton’s
second law for a system of particles can be written
¸

F
ext
=
d

P
dt
116 CHAPTER 7. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES
7.6 Conservation of Linear Momentum
If all the external forces are zero (
¸

F
ext
= 0) then
d

P
dt
= 0 which implies
that the total momentum

P = constant (7.14)
Note that this is only true if all the external forces are zero. Halliday calls
this a closed, isolated system.
Another way of stating (7.14) is

P
i
=

P
f
Remembering that

P is the total momentum of a system of particles (

P =
p
1
+ p
2
+ p
3
+· · ·), the conservation equation is
p
1
i
+ p
2
i
+ p
3
i
+· · · = p
1
f
+ p
2
f
+ p
3
f
+· · ·
This is a vector equation, so we must always write it out in x, y, or z com-
ponents.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Explosion: spring release on air track.
7.6. CONSERVATION OF LINEAR MOMENTUM 117
Example A riﬂe of mass m
R
ﬁres a bullet of mass m
B
which
emerges at a speed of v
B
f
. With what speed does the riﬂe recoil ?
Solution The bullet-riﬂe system is a closed, isolated system.
When the riﬂe is held at rest the sum of all external forces is
zero. Thus momentum is conserved for the bullet (B)–riﬂe (R)
two body system. The total momentum is

P = p
R
+ p
B
, so that
conservation of momentum is
p
R
i
+ p
B
i
= p
R
f
+ p
B
f
Now this is a vector equation, so it must be written in terms of
components, namely
p
Rx
i
+p
Bx
i
= p
Rx
f
+p
Bx
f
p
Ry
i
+p
By
i
= p
Ry
f
+p
By
f
but there is only motion in the x direction and nothing is hap-
pening in the y direction, so let’s re-write the x-equation, leaving
oﬀ the x’s as
p
R
i
+p
B
i
= p
R
f
+p
B
f
or
m
R
v
R
i
+m
B
v
B
i
= m
R
v
R
f
+m
B
v
B
f
But v
R
i
+ v
B
i
= 0 because before the gun is ﬁred (initial situ-
ation) the bullet and gun do not move. After the gun is ﬁred
(ﬁnal situation) they both move. Thus
O = m
R
v
R
f
+m
B
v
B
f
⇒ v
R
f
= −
m
B
m
R
v
B
f
where the minus sign indicates that the riﬂe moves in a direction
opposite to the bullet.
118 CHAPTER 7. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES
7.7 Problems
1. A particle of mass m is located on the x axis at the position x = 1 and
a particle of mass 2m is located on the y axis at position y = 1 and
a third particle of mass m is located oﬀ-axis at the position (x, y) =
(1, 1). What is the location of the center of mass?
2. Consider a square ﬂat table-top. Prove that the center of mass lies at
the center of the table-top, assuming a constant mass density.
3. A child of mass m
c
is riding a sled of mass m
s
moving freely along an
icy frictionless surface at speed v
0
. If the child falls oﬀ the sled, derive
a formula for the change in speed of the sled. (Note: energy is not
conserved !) WRONG WRONG WRONG ??????????????
speed of sled remains same - person keeps moving when fall oﬀ ???????
Chapter 8
COLLISIONS
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT:
Design a simple experiment illustrating momentum conservation.
THEMES:
COLLISIONS.
119
120 CHAPTER 8. COLLISIONS
8.1 What is a Collision?
8.2 Impulse and Linear Momentum
Leave out
8.3 Elastic Collisions in 1-dimension
Recall our work energy theorem for a single particle,
∆U + ∆K = W
NC
or
U
f
−U
i
+K
f
−K
i
= W
NC
or
U
f
+K
f
= U
i
+K
i
+W
NC
If W
NC
= 0 then energy will not be conserved. For a two-body collision
process, then an inelastic collision is one in which energy is not conserved
(i.e. W
NC
= 0), but an elastic collision is one in which energy is conserved
(W
NC
= 0).
Now if you think of a collision of two billiard balls on a horizontal pool
table then U
f
= mgy
f
and U
i
= mgy
i
, but y
f
= y
i
and thus U
f
= U
i
or
∆U = 0. Thus the above work-energy theorem would be
K
f
= K
i
+W
NC
Thus for collisions where U
i
= U
f
, we often say more simply that an elas-
tic collision is when the kinetic energy alone is conserved and an inelastic
collision is when it is not conserved.
In this section we ﬁrst will deal only with elastic collisions in 1-dimension.
8.3. ELASTIC COLLISIONS IN 1-DIMENSION 121
Example A billiard ball of mass m
1
and initial speed v
1i
hits a
stationary ball of mass m
2
. All the motion occurs in a straight
line. Calculate the ﬁnal speeds of both balls in terms of m
1
, m
2
,
v
1i
, assuming the collison is elastic (Is this a good assumption?).
Solution All the motion is in 1-dimension and so conservation
of momentum (with v
2i
= 0) is just
m
1
v
1i
+ 0 = m
1
v
1f
+m
2
v
2f
and conservation of kinetic energy is
1
2
m
1
v
2
1i
+ 0 =
1
2
m
1
v
2
1f
+
1
2
m
2
v
2
2f
Here we have two equations with the two unknowns v
1f
and v
2f
.
Thus the rest of the problem is simply doing some algebra. Let’s
solve for v
1f
in the ﬁrst equation and then substitute into the
second equation to get v
2f
. Thus
v
1f
= v
1i

m
2
m
1
v
2f
or
v
2
1f
= v
2
1i
−2
m
2
m
1
v
2f
v
1i
+

m
2
m
1

2
v
2
2f
Substituting this into the conservation of kinetic energy equation
gives
1
2
m
1
v
2
1i
=
1
2
m
1
v
2
1i
−m
2
v
2f
v
1i
+
1
2
m
2
2
m
1
v
2
2f
+
1
2
m
2
v
2
2f
which simpliﬁes to
0 = −2m
2
v
1i
+v
2f

m
2
2
m
1
+m
2

giving
v
2f
=
2m
2
m
2
2
m
1
+m
2
v
1i
122 CHAPTER 8. COLLISIONS
which is ﬁnally
v
2
f
=
2m
1
m
1
+m
2
v
1i
Substituting this back into the conservation of momentum equa-
tion gives
m
1
v
1i
= m
1
v
1f
+
2m
1
m
2
m
1
+m
2
v
1i
which gives
v
1f
= v
1i

1 −
2m
2
m
1
+m
2

= v
1i
m
1
+m
2
−2m
2
m
1
+m
2
or
v
1f
=
m
1
−m
2
m
1
+m
2
v
1i
There are some interesting special situations to consider.
1) Equal masses (m
1
= m
2
). This implies that v
1f
= 0 and
v
2f
= v
1i
. That is the projectile billiard ball stops and
transfers all of its speed to the target ball. (This is also
true if the target is moving.)
2) Massive target (m
2
m
1
). In this case we get v
1f
≈ −v
1i
and v
2f

2m
1
m
2
v
1i
≈ 0 which means the projectile bounces
oﬀ at the same speed and the target remains stationary.
3) Massive projectile (m
1
m
2
). Now we get v
2f
≈ 2v
1i
and
v
1f
≈ v
1i
meaning that the projectile keeps charging ahead
at about the same speed and the target moves oﬀ at double
the speed of the projectile.
COMPUTER SIMULATIONS
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: colliding pendula (Sample Problem 10-3)
All students should carefully study the Moving Target discussion on Pg. 220
of Halliday.
8.4. INELASTIC COLLISIONS IN 1-DIMENSION 123
8.4 Inelastic Collisions in 1-dimension
A completely inelastic collision is deﬁned as one in which the two particles
stick together after the collision.
Example Repeat the previous example for a completely inelas-
tic collision.
Solution If the particles stick to each other after the collision
then their ﬁnal speeds are the same; let’s call it V ,
v
1f
= v
2f
≡ V
And writing v
1i
≡ v we have from conservation of momentum
m
1
v + 0 = m
1
V +m
2
V
or
V =
m
1
m
1
+m
2
v
Let’s look again at the special situations.
1) Equal masses (m
1
= m
2
). This gives
V =
1
2
v
2) Massive target (m
2
m
1
). This gives
V ≈
m
1
m
2
v ≈ 0
3) Massive projectile (m
1
m
2
). This gives
V ≈ v
124 CHAPTER 8. COLLISIONS
8.5 Collisions in 2-dimensions
Glancing collisions (i.e. not head-on) are more complicated to analyze. Fig-
ure 10.1 shows a typical conﬁguration.
1i
v
2f
v
1f
v
x
y
m
1
m
2 1
θ
2
θ
FIGURE 10.1 Glancing collision.
8.5. COLLISIONS IN 2-DIMENSIONS 125
Example Write down the conservation of energy and momen-
tum equations for the glancing collision depicted in Fig. 10.1
where the target ball is initially at rest.
Solution Conservation of momentum is
p
1i
+ p
2i
= p
1f
+ p
2f
but p
2i
= 0. In x and y components these are
m
1
v
1ix
= m
1
v
1fx
+m
2
v
2fx
m
1
v
1iy
= m
1
v
1fy
+m
2
v
2fy
or
m
1
v
1i
= m
1
v
1f
cos θ
1
+m
2
v
2f
cos θ
2
0 = −m
1
v
1f
sin θ
1
+m
2
v
2f
sin θ
2
If the collision is elastic we also have conservation of kinetic
energy,
1
2
m
1
v
2
1i
=
1
2
m
1
v
2
1f
+
1
2
m
2
v
2
2f
These three equations must then be solved for the quantities of
interest.
Students should carefully study sample Problems 10-7, 10-8 [Halliday].
126 CHAPTER 8. COLLISIONS
Example A ball of mass m
1
and speed v
1i
collides with a sta-
tionary target ball of mass m
2
, as shown in Fig. 10.1. If the
target is scattered at an angle of θ
2
what is the scattering angle
θ
1
of the projectile in terms of m
1
, m
2
, v
1i
, θ
2
and v
2f
where v
2f
is the ﬁnal speed of the target ?
Solution Conservation of momentum gives
Σ p
i
= Σ p
f
or
Σp
ix
= Σp
fx
and Σp
iy
= Σp
fy
The x direction gives
m
1
v
1i
+ 0 = m
1
v
1f
cos θ
1
+m
2
v
2f
cos θ
2
0 = −m
1
v
1f
sin θ
1
+m
2
v
2f
sin θ
2
We want to ﬁnd θ
1
. Solve the ﬁrst and second equations for θ
1
giving
cos θ
1
=
m
1
v
1i
−m
2
v
2f
cos θ
2
m
1
v
1f
and
sin θ
1
=
m
2
v
2f
sin θ
2
m
1
v
1f
giving
tan θ
1
=
m
2
v
2f
sin θ
2
m
1
v
1i
−m
2
v
2f
cos θ
2
(Notice that this result is valid for both elastic and inelastic
collisions. We did not use conservation of energy.)
8.6 Reactions and Decay Processes
Leave out.
Center of Mass Reference Frame
8.6. REACTIONS AND DECAY PROCESSES 127
Remember that the total momentum

P of a system of particles was given
by

P = Mv
cm
or

P = Mv
cm
=
¸
i
p
i
=
¸
i
m
i
v
i
Up to now we have been measuring velocities with respect to the “Lab”
reference frame, which is the name for the reference frame associated with
a stationary target. The Lab does not move, or in other words v
Lab
= 0.
We can also measure velocities with respect to the center of mass frame
where v
cm
= 0. This is also often called the center of momentum frame
because if v
cm
= 0 then
¸
i
p
i
= 0. If v = velocity in Lab frame and u =
velocity in cm frame then
u = v −v
cm
128 CHAPTER 8. COLLISIONS
Example A red billiard ball of mass m
R
moving at a speed v
R
collides head on with a black billiard ball of mass m
B
at rest. A)
What is the speed of the center of mass ? B) What is the speed
of both balls in the cm frame ?
Solution
v
B
= 0
v
cm
=
m
R
v
R
+m
B
v
B
m
R
+m
B
=
m
R
×v
R
+ 0
m
R
+m
B
=
m
R
m
R
+m
B
v
R
which is the speed of the center of mass. Now get the speed of
the red ball via
u
R
= v
R
−v
cm
= v
R

m
R
m
R
+m
B
v
R
= v
R
(1 −
m
R
m
R
+m
B
) = v
R
(
m
R
+m
B
−m
R
m
R
+m
B
)
=
m
B
m
R
+m
B
v
R
and the speed of the black ball is
u
B
= v
B
−v
cm
= 0 −
m
R
m
R
+m
B
v
R
= −
m
R
m
R
+m
B
v
R
8.7. PROBLEMS 129
8.7 Problems
1. In a game of billiards, the player wishes to hit a stationary target ball
with the moving projectile ball. After the collision, show that the sum
of the scattering angles is 90
o
. Ignore friction and rolling motion and
assume the collision is elastic. Also both balls have the same mass.
130 CHAPTER 8. COLLISIONS
Chapter 9
ROTATION
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT:
Calculate the speed of an ant at the edge of the minute hand on your kitchen
clock.
THEMES:
SPIN.
131
132 CHAPTER 9. ROTATION
9.1 Translation and Rotation
We have studied how point particles and systems of particles (rigid bodies)
move as a whole. The next thing to consider is rotational motion, as opposed
to the translational motion studied previously.
When studying rotational motion it is very convenient and instructive to
develop the whole theory in analogy to translational motion. I have therefore
written the Master Table that we shall refer to often.
9.2 The Rotational Variables
Previously we denoted translational position in 1-dimension with the symbol
x. If a particle is located on the rim of a circle we often use s instead of x
to locate its position around the circumference of the circle. Thus s and x
are equivalent translational variables
s ≡ x
Now the angular position is described by angle which is deﬁned as
θ ≡
s
r
where s (or x) is the translation position and r is the radius of the circle.
Notice that angle has no units because s and r both have units of m. The
angle deﬁned above is measured in radian, but of course this is not a unit.
One complete revolution is 2π radian often also called 360

. (All students
should carefully read Pg. 240 of Halliday for a clear distinction between
Translational position is given by x (or s) and translation displacement
was ∆x ≡ x
2
−x
1
(or ∆s ≡ s
2
−s
1
). Similarly angular displacement is
∆θ ≡ θ
2
−θ
1
and because θ ≡
s
r
then it is related to translation displacement by
∆θ =
∆s
r
=
∆x
r
This is the ﬁrst entry in the Master Table.
9.2. THE ROTATIONAL VARIABLES 133
Secondly we deﬁned translational average velocity as ¯ v ≡
∆x
∆t

∆s
∆t
and
instantaneous velocity as v ≡
dx
dt
=
ds
dt
. Similarly we deﬁne average angular
velocity as
¯ ω ≡
∆θ
∆t
and instantaneous velocity as
ω ≡

dt
Now because we have ∆θ =
∆x
r
we must also have
∆θ
∆t
=
∆x
r∆t
or ¯ ω =
¯ v
r
as
relating average velocity and average angular velocity. Similarly
ω =
v
r
This is the second entry in the Master Table.
Finally the angular acceleration α is deﬁned as
α ≡

dt
and
α =
a
r
relating angular acceleration α to translational acceleration a
t
. (Notice that
a is not the centripetal acceleration. For uniform circular motion α = 0 and
a
t
= 0 because the particle moves in a circle at constant speed v and the
centripetal acceleration is a
r
=
v
2
r
. For non-uniform circular motion, where
the speed keeps increasing (or decreasing) then α = 0 and a = 0.) See the
third entry in the Master Table.
134 CHAPTER 9. ROTATION
9.3 Are Angular Quantities Vectors?
9.4 Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration
The equations for constant angular acceleration are obtained in identical
fashion to the translational constant acceleration equations. They are listed
in the Master Table.
Example A ﬂywheel is spinning at 100 revolutions per second
and is stopped by a brake in 10 seconds. What is the angular
acceleration of the ﬂywheel ?
Solution The initial angular velocity is
ω
0
= 100 ×2π sec
−1
and the ﬁnal angular velocity is ω = 0. Using ω = ω
0
+αt gives
α =
ω −ω
0
t
=
0 −100 ×2π sec
−1
10 sec
= −62.8 sec
−2
Study Sample Problems 11-3, 11-4, 11-5.
9.5 Relating the Linear and Angular Variables
t
and a
r
on Pg. 246 Halliday.
9.6. KINETIC ENERGY OF ROTATION 135
9.6 Kinetic Energy of Rotation
To calculate the kinetic energy of a rotating object we add up all of the
kinetic energies of the individual particles making up the object, namely
K =
¸
i
1
2
m
i
v
2
i
The speeds are v
i
= ωr
i
. Note we do not write v
i
= ω
i
r
i
because the
rotational velocity of all particles is the same value ω. That is ω
1
= ω
2
=
ω
3
= · · · ≡ ω. Substituting gives
K =
¸
i
1
2
m
i
ω
2
r
2
i
=
1
2

¸
i
m
i
r
2
i

ω
2
Deﬁne rotational inertia or rotational mass as
I ≡
¸
i
m
i
r
2
i
and we get
K =
1
2

2
which looks exactly like K =
1
2
mv
2
where instead of velocity v we have ω
and instead of mass (or inertia) m we have rotational mass (or rotational
inertia) I. Recall that mass, or inertia, tells us how diﬃcult it is to move
an object. Similarly the rotational mass, or rotational inertia, tells us how
diﬃcult it is to rotate an object. (Carefully read Pg. 248, Halliday.) See
Master Table.
136 CHAPTER 9. ROTATION
9.7 Calculating the Rotational Inertia
For a continuous distribution of mass the rotational inertia has the sum
replaced by an integral, namely
I ≡
¸
i
r
2
i
m
i
=

r
2
dm
=

r
2
ρdV =

r
2
σdA =

r
2
λdL
where dm has been replaced by ρdV or σdA or λdL depending on whether
the rigid body is 3-dimensional, 2-dimensional or 1-dimensional.
Now when you spin an object, you always spin it about some axis. Take
your physics book for example. It is easy to spin about an axis through the
center (i.e. center of mass) but more diﬃcult to spin about an axis through
the edge of the book.
Remember that the rotational inertia I tells us how diﬃcult it is to
get something rotating, or spinning, just as ordinary inertia m tells us how
diﬃcult it is to get something moving. Thus I is small for the spin axis
through the center of the book, but large for an axis through the edge of
the book. In the formula for I =
¸
i
r
2
i
m
i
=

r
2
dm then r will always be
measured from the rotation axis.
A very handy formula which helps a lot in calculating I is the famous
parallel axis theorem,
I = I
cm
+Mh
2
where I is the rotational inertia about an axis located a distance h from the
center of mass and parallel to a line through the center of mass. M is the
total mass of the whole rigid body. This theorem is proved on Pg. 250 of
Halliday.
Let’s now look at some examples of how to calculate I. Many results are
listed on Pg. 249 of Halliday.
9.7. CALCULATING THE ROTATIONAL INERTIA 137
Example A rod of length L and negligible mass has a dumbbell
of mass m located at each end. Calculate the rotational inertia
about an axis through the center of mass (and perpendicular to
the rod).
Solution See Fig. 11-13(a) in Halliday, Pg. 250. Each dumbbell
is a discrete mass and so we use
I =
¸
i
r
2
i
m
i
= r
2
1
m+r
2
2
m
where there are only two terms because there are only two dumb-
bells, and also m
1
= m
2
≡ m. Now r
1
=
1
2
L and r
2
= −
1
2
L
giving
I =

1
2
L

2
m+

1
2
L

2
m
=
1
2
mL
2
Example Repeat the previous example for an axis through one
of the dumbbells (but still perpendicular to the rod).
Solution See Fig. 11-13(b) in Halliday, Pg. 250. Now we have
r
1
= 0 and r
2
= L giving
I = r
2
1
m+r
2
2
m
= 0 +L
2
m
= mL
2
138 CHAPTER 9. ROTATION
Example Repeat the previous example using the parallel axis
theorem.
Solution The parallel axis theorem is I = I
cm
+Mh
2
where the
total mass if M = 2m and h is the distance from the center of
mass to the rotation axis. Thus h = L/2 giving
I =
1
2
mL
2
+ (2m)

L
2

2
= mL
2
This is the same as before and so we have good reason to believe
that the parallel axis theorem is true.
Example Calculate the rotational inertia of a thin uniform rod
of mass M and length L about an axis through the center of the
rod (and perpendicular to its length).
Solution See the ﬁgure in Table 11-2 of Halliday, Pg. 249. Let
the linear mass density of the rod be λ ≡
M
L
. Then (with dr =
dL)
I =

r
2
dm =

L/2
−L/2
r
2
λdr
where the integration limits are −L/2 to L/2 because the axis is
through the center of the rod. The rod is uniform which means
λ is constant and can be taken outside the integral to give
I = λ

L/2
−L/2
r
2
dr = λ
¸
1
3
r
3

L/2
−L/2
= λ
¸
1
3

L
2

3

1
3

L
2

3
¸
= λ
L
3
12
=
M
L
L
3
12
=
1
12
ML
2
9.7. CALCULATING THE ROTATIONAL INERTIA 139
Example Repeat the previous example for an axis through one
end of the rod.
Solution Now we have
I = λ

L
0
r
2
dr = λ
¸
1
3
r
2

2
0
= λ

1
3
L
3
−0

= λ
1
3
L
3
=
M
L
1
3
L
3
=
1
3
ML
2
Example Repeat the previous example using the parallel axis
theorem.
Solution
I = I
cm
+Mh
2
=
1
12
ML
2
+M

L
2

2
=
1
3
ML
2
140 CHAPTER 9. ROTATION
9.8 Torque
We now want to determine the rotational equivalent of force. Rotational
force is called torque. It is a vector deﬁned as the cross product of r and

F,
τ ≡ r ×

F
Its magnitude is
τ = rF sin φ
where φ is the angle between r and

F. Now r sin φ is just a perpendicular
distance r

= r sin φ, so that
τ = r

F
Carefully read Halliday Pg. 252-253 for a detailed discussion of the meaning
of torque. See the Master Table.
9.9 Newton’s Second Law for Rotation
Now just as we have
¸

F = ma for translational dynamics we would guess
that
¸
τ = I α
would be Newton’s second law for rotation. This is exactly right!
Example Do Sample Problem 11-11 in class (Pg. 253 Halliday).
9.10 Work and Rotational Kinetic Energy
We have seen that in 1-dimension, work is W =

F dx. Similarly for rota-
tions we have
W ≡

τ dθ
See Master Table.
9.10. WORK AND ROTATIONAL KINETIC ENERGY 141
MASTER TABLE
Translational Motion Rotational Motion Relation
Displacement ∆x ≡ ∆s
Velocity v ≡
dx
dt
Acceleration a
t

dv
dt
Angular Displ. ∆θ
Angular Vel. ω ≡

dt
Angular Accel. α ≡

dt
∆x = ∆s = r∆θ
v = rω
a
t
= rα
Constant Accel. Eqns:
v = v
0
+at
v
2
= v
2
0
+ 2a(x −x
0
)
x −x
0
=
v+v
0
2
t
= v
0
t +
1
2
at
2
= vt −
1
2
at
2
Constant Angular Accel:
ω = ω
0
+αt
ω
2
= ω
2
0
+ 2α(θ −θ
0
)
θ −θ
0
=
ω+ω
0
2
t
= ω
0
t +
1
2
αt
2
= ωt −
1
2
αt
2
K =
1
2
mv
2
¸

F = ma
W =

F dx
K =
1
2

2
¸
τ = I α
W =

τdθ
I ≡
¸
i
r
2
i
m
i
=

r
2
dm
τ ≡ r ×

F
142 CHAPTER 9. ROTATION
9.11 Problems
1. Show that the ratio of the angular speeds of a pair of coupled gear
wheels is in the inverse ratio of their respective radii. [WS 13-9]
2. Show that the magnitude of the total linear acceleration of a point
moving in a circle of radius r with angular velocity ω and angular
acceleration α is given by a = r

ω
4

2
[WS 13-8]
3. The turntable of a record player rotates initially at a rate of 33 revo-
lutions per minute and takes 20 seconds to come to rest. How many
rotations does the turntable make before coming to rest, assuming
constant angular deceleration ?
4. A cylindrical shell of mass M and radius R rolls down an incline of
height H. With what speed does the cylinder reach the bottom of the
incline ? How does this answer compare to just dropping an object
from a height H ?
5. Four point masses are fastened to the corners of a frame of negligible
mass lying in the xy plane. Two of the masses lie along the x axis at
positions x = +a and x = −a and are both of the same mass M. The
other two masses lie along the y axis at positions y = +b and y = −b
and are both of the same mass m.
A) If the rotation of the system occurs about the y axis with an angu-
lar velocity ω, ﬁnd the moment of inertia about the y axis and the
B) Now suppose the system rotates in the xy plane about an axis through
the origin (the z axis) with angular velocity ω. Calculate the moment
axis. [Serway, 3rd ed., pg. 151]
6. A uniform object with rotational inertia I = αmR
2
rolls without
slipping down an incline of height H and inclination angle θ. With
what speed does the object reach the bottom of the incline? What
is the speed for a hollow cylinder (I = mR
2
) and a solid cylinder
(I =
1
2
MR
2
)? Compare to the result obtained when an object is
simply dropped from a height H.
9.11. PROBLEMS 143
7. A pencil of length L, with the pencil point at one end and an eraser
at the other end, is initially standing vertically on a table with the
pencil point on the table. The pencil is let go and falls over. Derive a
formula for the speed with which the eraser strikes the table, assuming
that the pencil point does not move. [WS 324]
144 CHAPTER 9. ROTATION
Chapter 10
ROLLING, TORQUE &
ANGULAR MOMENTUM
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT:
Design a simple experiment showing conservation of angular momentum.
THEMES:
SPIN.
145
146 CHAPTER 10. ROLLING, TORQUE & ANGULAR MOMENTUM
10.1 Rolling
All students should read this whole section in Halliday carefully. Note that
when a wheel rolls without slipping, then static friction is involved. When
the wheel slips then kinetic friction is involved. This is discussed in Halliday.
I shall now discuss an important example. (See also Sample Problems 12-1,
12-2, 12-3.)
Example Calculate the rotational inertia of a hollow cylinder
and a solid cylinder, about the long axis through the center of
the cylinder as shown in Fig. 12.1.
dA = 2 π r dr
L
FIGURE 12.1 Solid Cylinder.
Solution The rotational inertia of a hollow cylinder is simply
I = MR
2
To calculate the rotational inertia of the solid cylinder, refer to
Fig. 12.1. The small element of area indicated is dA = 2πrdr
corresponding to a small element of volume dV = dA L =
2πrdrL. Thus the rotational indertia (with ρ =
M
LπR
2
being
the density of the cylinder) is
I =

r
2
dm
10.2. YO-YO 147
=

r
2
ρdV
= ρ2πL

R
0
r
3
dr
= ρ2πL
1
4
R
4
=
M
LπR
2
2πL
1
4
R
4
=
1
2
MR
2
Example If a solid cylinder and a hollow cylinder with the same
mass and radius roll down an incline, which reaches the bottom
ﬁrst?
Solution The kinetic energy of a rolling object now consists of
two terms; one rotational and one translational, i.e.
K =
1
2
I
cm
ω
2
+
1
2
Mv
2
cm
≡ K
rotation
+K
translation
where I
cm
is the rotational inertia about the center of mass and
v
cm
is the translational speed of the center of mass. The rota-
tional inertias of Hoop, Disk and Sphere are
I
Hollow cylinder
= MR
2
I
Solid cylinder
=
1
2
MR
2
The hollow cylinder has the larger moment of inertia and there-
fore more kinetic energy will go into rotation, and thus less into
translation. Therefore the solid cylinder reaches the bottom ﬁrst.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: show the above example.
10.2 Yo-Yo
148 CHAPTER 10. ROLLING, TORQUE & ANGULAR MOMENTUM
10.3 Torque Revisited
Read carefully; Review of Cross Product
10.4 Angular Momentum
10.5 Newton’s Second Law in Angular Form
We have previously deﬁned torque (or angular force) as τ ≡ r ×

F. Now
Newton’s Second Law is
¸

F =
d p
dt
where p ≡ mv is the momentum. We
therefore expect an angular version of Newton’s Second Law involving an-
gular force or torque and angular momentum

l. Thus we expect
¸
τ =
d

l
dt
But we haven’t said what

l is. We can ﬁgure it out.
Consider the following quantity,
d
dt
(r × p) =
dr
dt
× p +r ×
d p
dt
= v ×mv +r ×m
dv
dt
= m(v ×v +r ×a)
but v ×v = 0 giving
d
dt
(r × p) = mr ×a
= r ×

F
= τ
Thus the unknown

l must be

l ≡ r × p
10.6. ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 149
10.6 Angular Momentum of a System of Particles
Let’s call the angular momentum of a system of particles

L. In terms of the
angular momentum

l
i
of each particle, it is

L =
¸
i

l
i
and Newton’s Second Law for a system of particles becomes
¸
τ
ext
=
d

L
dt
as we would expect, based on analogy with
¸

F
ext
=
d p
dt
where p was the
total momentum.
10.7 Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body Rotat-
ing About a Fixed Axis
In a rigid body, all particles rotate at the same speed. Halliday (Pg. 281)
shows that

L = I ω
which is exactly analogous to p = mv.
10.8 Conservation of Angular Momentum
For translational motion we had
¸

F
ext
=
d

P
dt
and for
¸

F
ext
= 0 we had

P =
constant, i.e. conservation of momentum. Similarly from
¸
τ
ext
=
d

L
dt
, then
if there are no external torques
¸
τ
ext
= 0 then the total angular momentum
is conserved, namely

L = constant
150 CHAPTER 10. ROLLING, TORQUE & ANGULAR MOMENTUM
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: example below
Example A student is spinning on a stool and holding two
heavy weights with outstretched hands. If the student brings
the weights closer inward, show that the spin rate increases.
Solution For a rigid body spinning about a ﬁxed axis we had

L = I ω. Angular momentum is conserved, thus

L
i
=

L
f
or
I
i
ω
i
= I
f
ω
f
The moment of inertia of the two weights is I = 2Mr
2
where r
is the length of the student’s arm. The rotational inertia of the
student remains the same. Thus
2Mr
2
i
ω
i
= 2Mr
2
f
ω
f
giving
ω
f
=

r
i
r
f

2
ω
i
And r
i
> r
f
giving ω
f
> ω
i
.
10.8. CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM 151
MASTER TABLE 2
Translational Motion Rotational Motion Relation
¸

F = ma =
d p
dt
¸
τ = I α =
d

l
dt

l = r × p
p = mv

L = I ω
152 CHAPTER 10. ROLLING, TORQUE & ANGULAR MOMENTUM
10.9 Problems
1. A bullet of mass m travelling with a speed v is shot into the rim of a
solid circular cylinder of radius R and mass M as shown in the ﬁgure.
The cylinder has a ﬁxed horizontal axis of rotation, and is originally
at rest. Derive a formula for the angular speed of the cylinder after
the bullet has become imbedded in it. (Hint: The rotational inertia of
a solid cylinder about the center axis is I =
1
2
MR
2
). [WS354-355]
Chapter 11
GRAVITATION
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT:
Design some observations so that you can detect the retrograde motion of a
planet. (Obviously you won’t be able to actually carry out these observations
this week. Why ?)
THEMES:
The Solar System.
153
154 CHAPTER 11. GRAVITATION
The study of gravitation has been one of the core areas of physics research
for the last 500 years. Indeed it was the study of gravity that revolutionized
much of our thinking of our place in the universe, for one of the key results
in the last 500 years was the realization that Earth is NOT the center of
the universe. This has had profound and dramatic consequences for all of
humankind. (I personally believe that an equally profound eﬀect will take
place if extraterrestrial intelligent life is found.)
We shall approach our study of gravitation a little diﬀerent from the
way Halliday discusses it. I wish to emphasize the historical approach to
the subject because it is interesting and helps us understand the physics
much better. A wonderful book that tells the whole story in nice detail is
by R. Kolb, ”Blind Watchers of the Sky” (Helix Books, Addison-Wesley,
New York, 1996). This would be great reading between semesters! Some of
the key historical ﬁgure are the following:
Claudius Ptolemy (l40 A.D.)
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
I would now like to just brieﬂy describe the contributions of each of these
ﬁgures. We shall elaborate on the mathematical details afterwards.
In the system of Ptolemy (l40 A.D.), the Earth was believed to be at
the center of the universe and the Sun, Moon, stars and planets all revolved
around the Earth, as seems to be indicated by simple observation. However,
upon closer inspection it can be seen that the planets (Greek word meaning
wanderer) actually do not move in smooth circles about the Earth but rather
do a kind of wandering motion. Actually they undergo a retrograde motion
with respect to an observer on Earth. This retrograde motion was very
puzzling to the ancients, and ran afoul of the idea that all heavenly bodies
moved in pure circles. In order to save the theoretical notion of pure circles
and yet to explain the observational fact of retrograde motion for the planets,
Ptolemy introduced the idea of epicycles. Figure 14.1 shows that instead
of a planet moving in a great circle about the Earth, as do the Sun and
Stars, Ptolemy’s idea was that another circle called an epicycle moves ina
great circle around the Earth and the planets move around on the epicycles.
This ’explains’ the observations of retrograde motion. But Ptolemy’s system
leaves unanswered the question of where the epicycle comes from. However
this system of epicylces enjoyed great success for over a thousand years.
155
Earth
epicycle
FIGURE 14.1 Ptolemaic epicycle.
However later on came Copernicus (1473-1543), a Polish monk, who
suggested that the Earth is not at the center of the universe. From a psy-
chological point of view, this is probably the most important scientiﬁc idea
in history. Copernicus thought instead that the Sun was at the center of
the universe and that all the planets, including Earth, revolved around it.
This provided an alternative explanation for the retrograde motion of the
planets, for if the planets move at diﬀerent speeds around the Sun, then
from the point of view of an observer on Earth, the planets will appear to
move forward and then backward depending upon the relative orientation.
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) was one of the greates observational astronomers
in history. Of course the telescope had not yet been invented and all of Ty-
cho’s observations were with some geometric instruments and the naked eye.
He mounted an intensive campaign to accurately record the motion of all the
planets. After Tycho died, Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) obtained access to
Tycho’s precision data and was able to use it to ﬁgure out the exact motion
of the planets to a high degree of precision. In particular Kepler discovered
156 CHAPTER 11. GRAVITATION
that the motion of the planets was not the perfect circle after all, but rather
the motions were elliptical. From analyzing Tycho’s data Kepler discovered
3 important facts about the planets. These are usually called Kepler’s laws
of planetary motion. They are
1) All planets move in elliptical orbits with the Sun at one focus.
2) The line joining any planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal
times.
3) The period squared is proportional to the mean distance cubed, i.e.
T
2
∝ R
3
. (The period T is the time it takes for a planet to complete one
orbit of the Sun. For Earth this is 365 days. The mean distance R is the
average distance from the Sun to the planet in question.)
Meanwhile, Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) used the newly invented telescope
to view the heavens for the ﬁrst time. Among his many great discoveries,
were observations of the moons of Jupiter clearly showing orbits around the
planet itself. This was the ﬁrst direct observation of bodies which did not
orbit Earth.
One important point to note about Kepler’s laws is that they were ’mere’
empirical facts. No one understood why they were true. In fact Kepler
spent the rest of his life trying to explain then. It was not until Isaac
Newton (1642-1727) invented a theory of gravity that Kepler’s laws were
ﬁnally understood on a theoretical basis. Newton had been thinking deeply
about what holds the moon in orbit around Earth and what holds the planets
in orbit around the Sun. The story goes that Newton was sitting under
an apple tree watching the apples fall oﬀ the tree onto the ground. It
suddenly occured to Newton that the force causing the apples to fall to the
ground is the same force that keeps the moon in orbit about Earth and the
planets in orbit about the Sun. What a great leap of imagination ! Newton
hypothesized that the gravitational force between any two objects was given
by an inverse square law of the form
F = G
m
1
m
2
r
2
(11.1)
where m
1
and m
2
are the masses of the bodies and r is the distance between
their centers. G is a constant. Note that this says that if the distance
between two bodies is doubled the force drops by a factor of 4. The great
triumph of Newton’s gravitational theory was that he could derive Kepler’s
laws. We shall go through this derivation in a moment.
The story of gravity is not complete without mentioning Einstein’s Gen-
eral Theory of Relativity which was another theory of gravity completely at
odds with Newton’s theory. In Einstein’s theory there is no mention of any
157
forces at all. Rather, gravity is seen to be due to a curvature of space and
time. The concept of force is more of an illusion. Einstein’s theory was also
able to explain Kepler’s laws, but its advantage over Newton’e theory was
that it explained additional facts about the planets such as the precession
of the orbit of mercury and the deﬂection of starlight by the Sun.
Actually even today the story of gravity is not complete. In fact of the
4 forces that we have identiﬁed in nature (gravity, electromagnetism, strong
force, weak force), it is gravity that still remains poorly understood. The
theory of quantum mechanics was invented early this century to describe the
motion of tiny particles such as atoms. The great problem with gravity is
that no one has succeeded in making it consistent with quantum mechanics.
A recent theory, called Superstring theory, may be the answer but we will
have to wait and see. By the way, the physics department at the University
of Wisconsin-Milwaukee is one of the leading centers in the nation for the
modern study of gravity.
158 CHAPTER 11. GRAVITATION
11.1 The World and the Gravitational Force
11.2 Newton’s Law of Gravitation
We already know about Newton’s three laws of motion, the second of which
is
¸

F = ma. These three laws describe motion in general. They never
refer to a speciﬁc force. Newton however did also study in detail a speciﬁc
force, namely gravity. He conjectured that the gravitational force between
two bodies of mass m
1
and m
2
whose centers are separated by a distance of
r has a magnitude of
F = −G
m
1
m
2
r
2
The minus sign tells us that the force points inwards. The value of G was
determined later in 1798 by Cavendish. It’s value measured today is
G = 6.67 ×10
−11
Nm
2
kg
−2
However, it is interesting that today the gravitational constant is the least
accurately known of all the fundamental constants. For instance, its most
accurately known value is actually G = (6.67259±0.00085)×10
−11
Nm
2
kg
−2
[see Particle Properties Data Booklet, 1996] whereas for example the charge
of the electron is (1.60217733 ±0.00000049) ×10
−19
Coulomb or the speed
of light is 299 792 458 m sec
−1
which are known much more accurately than
G. Another example is the strength of the electrical force, called the ﬁne
structure constant, α
−1
= 137.0359895 ±0.0000061.
Note: Halliday (Pg. 323) writes F = G
m
1
m
2
r
2
(i.e. with a plus sign) but then
writes F = −G
m
1
m
2
r
2
on Pages 329 and 331. The equation should always be
written with a minus sign to indicate an atractive inwards force.
Now the vector form of Newton’s Law is

F = −G
m
1
m
2
r
2
ˆ r
where ˆ r is a unit vector point from one mass out to the other. The gravita-
tional force is an inward force and that’s why the minus sign appears.
11.3 Gravitation and Principle of Superposition
11.4. GRAVITATION NEAR EARTH’S SURFACE 159
11.4 Gravitation Near Earth’s Surface
Newton’s formula F = G
m
1
m
2
r
2
is often called the law of Universal Gravita-
tion because it applies to all bodies in the universe. How does it ﬁt in with
our concept of Weight which we deﬁned to be the gravitational force at the
surface of the Earth, namely
W ≡ mg
where g = 9.8 m sec
−1
is the acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the
Earth? Well, if F = G
m
1
m
2
r
2
is universal then it should predict the Weight
force. Let’s see how this comes about.
Example Show that F = G
m
1
m
2
r
2
gives the same result as
W = mg near the surface of Earth.
Solution Let m
1
≡ M be the mass of Earth, which is m
1
=
M = 5.98 × 10
24
kg. Let m
2
≡ m be the mass of a person of
weight W = mg. The distance between the centers of the masses
is just the radius of Earth, i.e. r = 6370 km (which is about 4000
miles, only slightly larger than the width of the United States or
Australia). Thus the gravitational force between the two masses
is
F = G
mM
r
2
= 6.67 ×10
−11
Nm
2
kg
−2
×
m×5.98 ×10
24
kg
(6.37 ×10
6
m)
2
= m×9.8 m sec
−2
which is the same as W = mg. In other words we have predicted
the value of g from the mass and radius of Earth. You could now
do the same for the other planets.
160 CHAPTER 11. GRAVITATION
Example Explain how to measure the mass of Earth.
Solution In the previous example, we found
g = G
M
r
2
where M is the mass of Earth and r is the radius of Earth. Thus
by measuring g (which you do in the lab) and by measuring r
(which the ancient Greeks knew how to do by comparing the
depth of a shadow in a well at two diﬀerent locations at the
same time) then M is given by
M =
gr
2
G
and G was measured in the famous Cavendish experiment (look
this up).
11.5. GRAVITATION INSIDE EARTH 161
11.5 Gravitation Inside Earth
If you go down a deep mine shaft then there will be Earth below you and
Earth above you. It is interesting to ﬁgure out that the Earth above you
won’t have any overall gravitational eﬀect. The easiest way to see this
is to suppose you were located exactly at the center of Earth. Then the
gravitational pull of all the Earth surrounding you above will all cancel out
and you will fee zero net force. Now consider Figure 14.2 where a person
is located at point P inside the Earth, at a distance r from the center of
Earth.
r
B
A
P
FIGURE 14.2 A person is located as point P inside the Earth, as a
distance r from the center of Earth.
I have drawn a dotted circle of radius r intersecting point P. We all
agree that the total mass located inside the dotted circle produces a net
gravitational force on the person. However the mass outside the dotted
circle produces no net gravitational force. This can be seen by considering
the shaded regions A and B. Region A contains a small amount of mass
162 CHAPTER 11. GRAVITATION
which will pull the person at P outwards. However the mass contained in
B will pull in the opposite direction. Now there is more mass in B, but it
is further away and so the gravitational eﬀects of the mass in A and in B
cancel out. Thus we can ignore all of the mass located outside of the dotted
circle.
Example (See also Sample Problem 14-5): A hole is drilled from
the United States to China through the center of Earth. Ignoring
the rotation of Earth, show that a particle dropped into the hole
experiences a gravitational force like Hooke’s law, and therefore
will undergo oscillation in the hole.
Solution Newton’s law is

F = −G
Mm
r
2
ˆ r where M is the mass
contained within the dotted circle (Figure 14.2) and r is the
radius of the dotted circle. Now when the particle falls through
the hole, M keeps getting smaller because r gets smaller as the
particle falls towards the center of Earth. The density of material
in Earth is
ρ =
Mass
Volume
=
M
4
3
πr
3
giving
M =
4
3
πr
3
ρ
where ρ is constant. Thus

F = −G
4
3
πr
3
ρm
r
2
ˆ r
= −
4πG
3
ρmrˆ r
= −Kr
where K ≡
4πG
3
ρm and r = rˆ r. This is exactly Hooke’s law, i.e.
the same as for a spring. Thus the particle will oscillate.
11.6. GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY 163
Example When you go down a mine shaft, do you weigh more
or less than you did at the surface of the Earth ?
Solution We found in the previous example that

F = −
4πG
3
ρmrˆ r
Now ρ is constant and thus

F is bigger when r is big. Thus when
r gets small,

F gets small and your weight therefore decreases.
In fact F = W = mg =
4πG
3
ρmr giving g =
4πG
3
ρr indicating
that g gets smaller as r gets smaller.
11.6 Gravitational Potential Energy
Let’s brieﬂy recall our ideas about work and energy. The total work was
deﬁned as W ≡

F · dr. By substituting

F = ma we found the work was
always equal to the change in kinetic energy, i.e.
W ≡

F · dr = ∆K
The total work consisted of two parts namely, conservative W
C
and non-
conservative W
NC
. We deﬁned potential energy U via
W
C
=

F
C
· dr ≡ −∆U
giving
W = W
C
+W
NC
= −∆U +W
NC
= ∆K
or
∆U + ∆K = W
NC
which we called the work-energy theorem. Now K is always given by K =
1
2
mv
2
(which came from

ma · dr = ∆K) but U is diﬀerent for diﬀerent
forces (because −∆U =

F · dr).
For a spring force

F = −kx
ˆ
i we found U =
1
2
kx
2
. For gravity near the
surface of Earth,

F = −mg
ˆ
j we found U = mgy. For universal gravitation

F = −G
m
1
m
2
r
2
ˆ r we will ﬁnd that the gravitational potential energy is
U = −G
m
1
m
2
r
164 CHAPTER 11. GRAVITATION
Example For gravity near the surface of Earth, prove that
U = mgy.
Solution This was already done in Chapter 8 (these notes).
Let’s do it again.
W
C

F
C
· dr ≡ −∆U
Now

F = −mg
ˆ
j and dr = dx
ˆ
i +dy
ˆ
j +dz
ˆ
k. Thus

F · dr = −mg dy
giving
W
C
= −mg

y
f
y
i
dy ≡ −∆U
= −mg(y
f
−y
i
) = −(U
f
−U
i
)
= −mgy
f
+mgy
i
= −U
f
+U
i
giving
U
f
= mgy
f
U
i
= mgy
i
or just
U = mgy
11.6. GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY 165
Example For universal gravitation, prove that U = −G
m
1
m
2
r
.
Solution
W
C
=

F
C
· dr ≡ −∆U

F = −G
m
1
m
2
r
2
ˆ r and ds ≡ dr = ˆ r dr

F · dr = −G
m
1
m
2
r
2
dr ˆ r · ˆ r = −G
m
1
m
2
r
2
dr
giving
W
C
= −Gm
1
m
2

r
f
r
i
1
r
2
dr = −∆U
= −Gm
1
m
2
¸

1
r

r
f
r
i
= −(U
f
−U
i
)
= −Gm
1
m
2

1
r
f
−−
1
r
i

= −Gm
1
m
2

1
r
f
+
1
r
i

= +G
m
1
m
2
r
f
−G
m
1
m
2
r
i
= −U
f
+U
i
giving
U
f
= −G
m
1
m
2
r
f
U
i
= −G
m
1
m
2
r
i
or just
U = −G
m
1
m
2
r
166 CHAPTER 11. GRAVITATION
Recall that we also had an alternative way of ﬁnding U without having
to work out the integral

F
C
· dr. We had W
C
=

F
C
· dr ≡ −∆U. Ignoring
the vectors we write
F
C
dr = −∆U
meaning that we must have
F
C
= −
dU
dr
This occurs because

f
i
F
C
dr = −

f
i
dU
dr
dr = −

U
f
U
i
dU = −[U]
U
f
U
i
= −(U
f
−U
i
) = −∆U
Example For universal gravitation F = −G
m
1
m
2
r
2
, derive U
without doing an integral.
Solution For universal gravitation, the question is what U will
give
F = −G
m
1
m
2
r
2
= −
dU
dr
The answer is U = −G
m
1
m
2
r
2
. Let’s check:

dU
dr
= +Gm
1
m
2
d
dr

1
r
2

= −
Gm
1
m
2
r
which is the F we started with!
11.6. GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY 167
Escape Speed
If you throw a ball up in the air it always comes back down. If you throw
it faster it goes higher before returning. There is a speed, called the escape
speed, such that the ball will not return at all. Let’s ﬁnd out what this is.
Example Calculate the speed with which a ball must be thrown,
so that it never returns to the ground.
Solution The ball usually returns to the ground because of its
gravitational potential energy U = −G
m
1
m
2
r
. However if we can
throw the ball to an inﬁnite distance, r = ∞, then U will be zero
and the ball will not return. We want to throw the ball so that
it just barely escapes to inﬁnity, that is its speed, when it gets
to inﬁnity, has dropped oﬀ to zero. Using conservation of energy
we have
K
i
+U
i
= K
f
+U
f
or
1
2
mv
2
i
−G
Mm
R
= O +O
where M is the mass of Earth, m is the mass of the ball and R is
the radius of Earth, because we throw the ball from the surface
of Earth. v
i
is the escape speed that we are looking for. Thus
1
2
mv
2
i
= G
Mm
R
and m cancels out giving
v
i
=

2GM
R
for the escape speed. Now the mass and radius of Earth are
M = 6 ×10
24
kg and R = 6370 km, giving
v
i
=

2 ×6.67 ×10
−11
Nm
2
kg
−2
×6 ×10
24
kg
6.37 ×10
6
m
= 40, 353 km hour
−1
≈ 25, 000 miles per hour
168 CHAPTER 11. GRAVITATION
Now you can see that if M is very large or R is very small then the
escape speed gets very big. The speed of light is c = 3 × 10
8
m/sec. You
can imagine an object so massive or so small that the escape speed is bigger
than the speed of light. Then light itself cannot escape. Such an object is
called a Black Hole.
Example To what size would we need to squeeze Earth to turn
it into a Black Hole ?
Solution Let’s set the escape speed equal to the speed of light
c = 3 ×10
8
m/sec. Thus
c =

2GM
R
c
2
=
2GM
R
giving
R =
2GM
c
2
=
2 ×6.67 ×10
−11
Nm
2
kg
−2
×6 ×10
24
kg
(3 ×10
8
msec
−1
)
2
= 4.4 mm
(where M = mass of Earth = 6 × 10
24
kg). Thus if we could
squeeze the Earth to only 4 mm it would be a black hole!
11.6. GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY 169
Example The size of the universe is about 10 billion light years
and its total mass is about 10
53
kg. Calculate the escape speed
for the universe.
Solution A light year is the distance that light travels in one
year. Thus
light year = c ×1 year
= 3 ×10
8
m
sec
×365 ×24 ×60 ×60 sec
= 10
16
m
Thus
v =

2GM
r
=

2 ×6.67 ×10
−11
Nm
2
kg
−2
×10kg
10 ×10
9
×10
16
m
= 3.7 ×10
8
m/sec
= 1.2c
which is 1.2 times the speed of light. Thus is our universe really
a black hole? Do we actually live inside a black hole?
170 CHAPTER 11. GRAVITATION
11.7 Kepler’s Laws
Let’s now use Newton’s law of gravitation to prove some of Kepler’s laws of
planetary motion.
Kepler’s ﬁrst law is that the planets move in elliptical orbits with the
Sun at one focus. This is somewhat diﬃcult to prove and we will leave it to
a more advanced physics course. A picture is shown in Figure 14.3 with the
Sun at the focus of an ellipse.
Sun
Planet
∆ t
∆ t
FIGURE 14.3 Planets sweep out equal areas in equal times.
Kepler’s second law states that the line joining a planet to the Sun sweeps
out equal areas in equal times. This is shown in Fig. 14.3. In the upper
part of the ﬁgure there are two shaded regions with the same area. The
planet takes the same time ∆t to sweep out this area. Thus the planets
move quickly when close to the Sun and move slowly when farther away.
11.7. KEPLER’S LAWS 171
Example Prove that Kepler’s second law can be derived from
Newton’s law of universal gravitation.
Solution Figure 14.4 shows the radius vector r and the displace-
ment v dt for the planet of mass m.
Sun
m
r
v dt
FIGURE 14.4 Area swept out by planet.
The shaded portion is the area swept out and has the shape of
a triangle of area
dA =
1
2
r v dt
The rate of change of area is
dA
dt
=
1
2
r v =
1
2m
mr v =
l
2m
where l is the angular momentum of the planet. But angular
momentum is constant, therefore
dA
dt
= constant
meaning that equal areas are swept out in equal times!
172 CHAPTER 11. GRAVITATION
Kepler’s third law is that the period squared is proportional to the aver-
age distance cubed (T
2
∝ r
3
) for a planetary orbit. This is diﬃcult to prove
for elliptical orbits, which is done in a more advanced physics course. We
will prove it for a circular orbit only.
Actually the essenticity of the elliptical orbits are typically very small.
In other words the elliptical orbits are very close to circular orbits with
the Sun at the center. We shall prove Kepler’s other two laws with the
assumption that the orbits are circles. Thus we immediately know that the
right hand side of F = ma is
mv
2
r
because all uniform circular motion has
the centripetal acceleration given by a =
v
2
r
.
Example Prove that Kepler’s third law can be derived from
Newton’s law of universal gravitation. (Assume circular orbits
only)
Solution F = ma
gives
G
Mm
r
2
= m
v
2
r
Now the period T is the time to complete one orbit. Thus
v =
2πr
T
or
G
M
r
2
=
1
r

2
r
2
T
2
=

2
r
T
2
giving
T
2
=

2
GM
r
3
or
T
2
∝ r
3
11.7. KEPLER’S LAWS 173
Example The distance between Earth and the Sun is about 93
million miles and can easily be determined using parallax and
trigonometry. How can the mass of the Sun be subsequently de-
termined ?
Solution Kepler’s law is T
2
=

2
GM
r
3
giving
M =

2
G
r
3
T
2
Now r = 93,000,000 miles = 150,000,000 km and the period of
Earth is 1 year or
T = 365 ×24 ×60 ×60 sec
Thus the mass of the Sun is
M =

2
6.67 ×10
−11
Nm
2
kg
−2
×
(150, 000, 000 ×10
3
m)
3
365 ×24 ×60 ×60 sec)
2
= 2 ×10
30
kg
Notice that the mass of Earth did not enter. Thus if we observe
two bodies in orbit and know the distance between them we
can get the mass of the other body. this is how astronomers
determine the mass of double star systems. (More than half of
the stars in the sky are actually double stars.)
174 CHAPTER 11. GRAVITATION
11.8 Problems
Chapter 12
OSCILLATIONS
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT:
Measure g from the period of a pendulum.
THEMES:
Clocks.
175
176 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS
12.1 Oscillations
Much of the motion that we have considered, such as motion of a car in
a straight line or projectile motion, has started and then ﬁnished, i.e. it
does not repeat. However a great deal of motion in nature is repetitive
or oscillatory, such as a satellite undergoing circular motion, or an object
suspended on a spring or a buoy bobbing up and down in the water. We
would now like to study oscillations in detail. This will later lead to the
study of wave motion which is also oscillatory in nature.
Oscillations are of great technological importance, especially in regard
to time keeping.
(Note: Mechanical Universe tapes very good – especially discussion of clocks
12.2 Simple Harmonic Motion
An important property of oscillatory motion is the frequency f which is the
number of oscillations completed each second. The units are sec
−1
or Hertz,
often abbreviated as Hz. Thus
1 Hertz = 1 Hz = 1 oscillation per second
= 1 sec
−1
.
Another related quantity is the period T which is the time taken to
complete 1 full oscillation. Now
f =
number of oscillations
time
and if the time is simply T then 1 oscillation is completed. Thus
f =
1
T
In circular motion, which is a type of oscillatory motion, we introduced the
angular speed ω deﬁned as
ω =
∆θ
∆t
Clearly if ∆θ = 2π then ∆t = T giving ω =

T
. Thus angular velocity and
frequency are related by
ω = 2πf
12.2. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 177
In oscillations ω is often called angular frequency.
Any motion that repeats itself at regular intevals is called oscillatory
motion or harmonic motion. Now of all the mathematical functions that you
have ever come across, there is one famous function that displays oscillations
and that is cos θ, which is plotted in Figure 16.1.
0 5 10 15 20
x
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
C
o
s
x
FIGURE 16.1 Plot of cos θ.
Thus the displacement x for oscillatory motion can be written
x = x
m
cos θ
but ω =
θ
t
, giving
x = x
m
cos ωt
We can also introduce a phase angle φ if we want and instead write
x = x
m
cos(ωt +φ)
This is discussed on Pg. 374 of Halliday. Here x
m
refers to the maximum
value of the displacement x. And x
m
is often called the amplitude of the
motion.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Spring and Pendulum
Any motion that obeys the above equation x = x
m
cos ωt is called Simple
Harmonic Motion (SHM).
The velocity of SHM is easy to ﬁgure out. First recall that if y = cos kx
then
dy
dx
= −k sin kx. Now the velocity is
v =
dx
dt
= −ωx
m
sin ωt
178 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS
Also recall if y = sin kx when
dy
dx
= k cos kx. Now the acceleration is
a =
dv
dt
= −ω
2
x
m
cos ωt
from which it follows that
a = −ω
2
x
In Figure 16-4 of Haliday, there is a plot of x, v, a. Notice that when x and
a are at a maximum, then v is a minimum and vice-versa.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show this for Spring
12.3 Force Law for SHM
Now consider Newton’s law for a Spring where the force is given by F = −kx
(Hooke’s law), where k is called the spring constant. Substituting into
F = ma
−kx = ma
but we found that a = −ω
2
x giving
−kx = −mω
2
x
or
ω =

k
m
which is the angular frequency for an oscillating spring. The period is ob-
tained from ω = 2πf =

T
or
T = 2π

m
k
Notice an amazing thing. The period does not depend on the amplitude of
oscillation x
m
! When a spring is oscillating, the oscillations tend to die
down in amplitude x
m
but the period of oscillation remains the same! This
is crucial to the operation of clocks. I can “wind” my spring clock by just
pulling on it a bit and still the period is the same.
12.3. FORCE LAW FOR SHM 179
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show this for Spring and Pendulum. Also
show T ∝

m and T ∝
1

k
.
NNN - FIX For a pendulum, this independence of the period on the
amplitude was ﬁrst noticed by Galileo and led to the development of clocks
which was very important for navigation. The reason was that it enabled one
to determine longitude on Earth. (Latitude was easy to determine just by
measuring the height of the Sun in the sky at noon.) By dragging knotted
ropes behind a ship it was easy to measure the speed of a ship. If one
knew how long one had been travelling (i.e. measure the time of travel, say
with a pendulum or spring clock) then one knew the distance from the port
from which one had set sail. Knowing longitude and latitude gives one’s
position on the Earth. Thus the invention of accurate clocks (based on
the independence of period and amplitude) enabled accurate estimates of
longitude and thus revolutionized navigation.
180 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS
Example F = ma is really a diﬀerential equation, that is an
equation involving derivatives. For the spring, it becomes −kx =
ma = m¨ x where ¨ x =
d
2
x
dt
2
. Thus the diﬀerential equation is
m¨ x +kx = 0
In mathematics there are special techniques for solving diﬀer-
ential equations, which you will learn about in a special diﬀer-
ential equations course. Using these special techniques one can
prove that x = x
m
cos ωt is a solution to the above diﬀeren-
tial equation. (Just like the solution to the algebraic equation
x
2
− 5 = 4 is x = ±3. We verify this solution by sustituting,
(±3)
2
−5 = 9 −5 = 4). Many students will not have yet learned
how to solve diﬀerential equations, but we can verify that the
solution given is correct.
Verify that x = x
m
cos ωt is a solution to the diﬀerential equa-
tion m¨ x +kx = 0.
Solution
x = x
m
cos ωt
˙ x =
dx
dt
= −ωx
m
sin ωt
¨ x =
d ˙ x
dt
=
d
2
x
dt
2
= −ω
2
x
m
cos ωt
Substitute into
m¨ x +kx = 0
giving
−mω
2
x
m
cos ωt +kx
m
cos ωt = 0
or
−mω
2
+k = 0
Thus if
ω =

k
m
then x = x
m
cos ωt is a solution.
12.4. ENERGY IN SHM 181
Example When a mass is suspended from the end of a massless
spring, the spring stretches by a distance x. If the spring and
mass are then put into oscillation, what is the period ?
Solution We saw that the period is given by T = 2π

m
k
. We
don’t know m or k ! We can get k from Hooke’s law F = −kx.
The weight W = mg stretches the spring, thus mg = kx or
k =
mg
x
. Thus
T = 2π

mx
mg
and fortunately m cancels out giving
T = 2π

x
g
12.4 Energy in SHM
We found before that the potential energy stored in a spring is U =
1
2
kx
2
and the kinetic energy is K =
1
2
mv
2
. The conservation of mechanical energy
says that
E
i
= E
f
where the total energy is
E ≡ K +U
That is
K
i
+U
i
= K
f
+U
f
Thus E is constant. However for a spring x and v are always changing. Can
we be sure that E is always constant ?
182 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS
Example For SHM, show that the total energy is always con-
stant even though K and U always change.
Solution Recall that for SHM we have x = x
m
cos ωt and
v = −ωx
m
sin ωt. Thus
U =
1
2
kx
2
=
1
2
kx
2
m
cos
2
ωt
and
K =
1
2
mv
2
=
1
2

2
x
2
m
sin
2
ωt.
Thus U and K always change. Let’s add them.
E = K +U
=
1
2

2
x
2
m
sin
2
ωt +
1
2
kx
2
m
cos
2
ωt
but we previously found that ω =

k
m
giving
E =
1
2
m
k
m
x
2
m
sin
2
ωt +
1
2
kx
2
m
cos
2
ωt
=
1
2
kx
2
m
(sin
2
ωt + cos
2
ωt)
E =
1
2
kx
2
m
which is always constant because the amplitude x
m
is constant!
12.5 An Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator
leave out
12.6. PENDULUM 183
12.6 Pendulum
The Simple Pendulum
A pendulum is a very important type of oscillating motion and a very
important clock (e.g. “Grandfather Clock”). The forces on a pendulum are
shown in Fig. 16-10 of Halliday. Let’s analyze the forces and show that the
period is independent of amplitude.
Example Prove that the period of a pendulum undergoing small
oscillations is given by T = 2π

L
g
where L is the length of the
pendulum.
Solution From Figure 16-10 (Halliday) we have
¸
F
k
= ma
x
where we take the x direction to be perpendicular to the string.
Thus
−mg sin θ = mαL
where α is the angular acceleration α =
d
2
θ
dt
2
. Now for small
oscillations, sin θ ≈ θ, so that
−gθ = m
d
2
θ
dt
2
L
Now compare this to our spring equation which was
−kx = ma
−kx = m
d
2
x
dt
2
which had period T = 2π

m
k
. Thus for the pendulum we must
have
T = 2π

L
g
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show T ∝

L
184 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS
Example A Physical Pendulum consists of a solid piece of mat-
ter undergoing oscillations as shown in Fig. 16.11 (Halliday).
Prove that the period of oscillation is T = 2π

I
mg h
, where I is
the rotational inertia, m is the total mass and h is the distance
from the rotation axis to the center of mass. (See Haliday, Pg.
382) Assume small oscillations.
Solution The torque is
τ = −(mg sin θ)h
where the minus sign indicates that when θ increases the torque
acts in the opposite direction. For small oscillations sin θ ≈ θ
giving
τ ≈ −mgθh
Substitute into Newton’s second law
¸
τ = Iα
gives
−mgθh = I
¨
θ
= I
d
2
θ
dt
2
Now compare this to our spring equation which was
−kx = ma
−kx = m
d
2
x
dt
2
which had period T = 2π

m
k
. Thus for the physical pendulum
we must have
T = 2π

I
mgh
12.6. PENDULUM 185
m
m
m
k
1
1
k
k
1
k
2
k
2
k
2
(a)
(b)
(c)
FIGURE 16.2 Block sliding on frictionless surface with various spring
combinations.
186 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS
Example Two springs, with spring constants k
1
and k
2
, are con-
nected in parallel to a mass m sliding on a frictionless surface,
as shown in Fig. 16.2a. What is the eﬀective spring constant
K? (i.e. If the two springs were replaced by a single spring with
constant K, what is K in terms of k
1
and k
2
?) Assume both
springs have zero mass.
Solution If m moves by an amount x then it feels two forces
−k
1
x and −k
2
x, giving
¸
F = ma
−k
1
x −k
2
x = m¨ x
−(k
1
+k
2
)x = m¨ x
giving
K = k
1
+k
2
12.6. PENDULUM 187
Example The two springs of the previous example are connected
in series, as shown in Fig. 16.2b. What is the eﬀective spring
constant K ?
Solution If spring 1 moves a distance x
1
and spring 2 moves a
distance x
2
then the mass moves a distance x
1
+ x
2
. The force
the mass feels is
F = −K(x
1
+x
2
)
Now consider the motion of the mass plus spring 2 system. The
force it feels is
f = −k
1
x
1
but we must have F = f because ma is same for mass m and
mass plus spring 2 system because spring 2 has zero mass. Thus
K =
k
1
x
1
x
1
+x
2
but
k
1
x
1
= k
2
x
2
(the ratio of stretching
x
1
x
2
=
k
2
k
1
is inversely proportional to spring
strength.) Thus K =
k
1
x
1
x
1
+
k
1
k
2
x
1
giving
K =
k
1
k
2
k
1
+k
2
or
1
K
=
1
k
1
+
1
k
2
188 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS
Example The two springs of the previous example are connected
as shown in Fig.16.2c. What is the eﬀective spring constant K ?
Solution If spring 1 is compressed by x then spring 2 is stretched
by −x. Thus
¸
F = ma
−k
1
x +k
2
(−x) = m¨ x
−(k
1
+k
2
)x = m¨ x
giving
K = k
1
+k
2
12.7. PROBLEMS 189
12.7 Problems
1. An object of mass m oscillates on the end of a spring with spring con-
stant k. Derive a formula for the time it takes the spring to stretch from
its equilibrium position to the point of maximum extension. Check
that your answer has the correct units.
2. An object of mass m oscillates at the end of a spring with spring
constant k and amplitude A. Derive a formula for the speed of the
object when it is at a distance d from the equilibrium position. Check
that your answer has the correct units.
3. A block of mass m is connected to a spring with spring constant k,
and oscillates on a horizontal, frictionless surface. The other end of the
spring is ﬁxed to a wall. If the amplitude of oscillation is A, derive a
formula for the speed of the block as a function of x, the displacement
from equilibrium. (Assume the mass of the spring is negligible.)
4. A particle that hangs from a spring oscillates with an angular fre-
quency ω. The spring-particle system is suspended from the ceiling of
an elevator car and hangs motionless (relative to the elevator car), as
the car descends at a constant speed v. The car then stops suddenly.
Derive a formula for the amplitude with which the particle oscillates.
(Assume the mass of the spring is negligible.) [Serway, 5th ed., pg.
415, Problem 14]
5. A large block, with a second block sitting on top, is connected to a
spring and executes horizontal simple harmonic motion as it slides
across a frictionless surface with an angular frequency ω. The coeﬃ-
cient of static friction between the two blocks is µ
s
. Derive a formula
for the maximum amplitude of oscillation that the system can have if
the upper block is not to slip. (Assume that the mass of the spring is
negligible.) [Serway, 5th ed., pg. 418, Problem 54]
6. A simple pendulum consists of a ball of mass M hanging from a uni-
form string of mass m, with m M (m is much smaller than M). If
the period of oscillation for the pendulum is T, derive a formula for
the speed of a transverse wave in the string when the pendulum hangs
at rest. [Serway, 5th ed., pg. 513, Problem 16]
190 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS
Chapter 13
WAVES - I
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT:
Pluck some strings and verify the frequency equation for strings.
THEMES:
Violin and Guitar.
191
192 CHAPTER 13. WAVES - I
So far we have studied the motion of single particles and systems of
particles. However the motion of waves requires a diﬀerent type of approach,
although we will use extensively some of our results from harmonic motion.
Waves are an important phenomenon in nature. There are water waves,
sound waves by which we hear, light waves by which we see, and radio waves
by which we communicate. Thus in today’s modern society it is important
to understand wave motion.
13.1 Waves and Particles
13.2 Types of Waves
13.3 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves
There are two diﬀerent types of waves. Transverse waves are the ones you
are most familiar with, such as water waves or waves on a string. Transverse
waves have the property that the wave displacement is perpendicular to the
velocity of the wave, as shown in Fig. 17-1 (Halliday). Sound waves are an
example of longitudinal waves in which the wave displacement is parallel to
the wave velocity, as shown in Fig. 17-2 (Halliday). When you hear a sound
wave, the wave travels to your ear and vibrates your ear drum in the same
direction as travel.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Slinky showing tranverse and longitudinal
waves.
13.4. WAVELENGTH AND FREQUENCY 193
13.4 Wavelength and Frequency
There are 3 important variables for a wave, namely, i) the height y of the
wave, ii) the distance x that the wave travels and iii) the time t that the
wave travels. When visualizing a wave we usually think of a y −x plot or a
y −t plot as shown in Fig. 17-4 (Halliday).
The y − x plot represents an instant of time t and is similar to a pho-
tograph or snapshot of a water wave that we would take at the beach. The
distance between wave crests (that we could measure from our snapshot) is
called the wavelength λ.
The y −t plot represents a single location x and is similar to a movie of
a buoy bobbing up and down in the water as a wave passes through. The
buoy is anchored to the ocean ﬂoor at a ﬁxed distance x. The time it takes
the buoy to bob up and down once is called the period T of the wave.
Thus, to summarize, λ is determined from the y − x graph (instant of
time t) whereas T is determined from the y − t graph (ﬁxed distance x).
Carefully study Fig. 17-4 (Halliday). Thus y is a function of both x and t,
written as y(x, t). Now the y −x graph can be written
y(x, 0) = y
m
sin kx
where we have taken the instant of time to be t = 0. The reason we have
written sin kx and not just sinx is because the domain of the sine function
is an angle. We can only ever have sin θ where θ is an angle. Thus we cannot
write sin x because x is not an angle. Actually x is a distance with units of
m. However we want to use x as a plotting variable. To do this we have to
multiply it by something called k, so that the quantity kx is an angle, i.e.
θ ≡ kx. Now what is k? Well if kx is an angle then after one complete wave
cycle, the angle kx must be 2π. Now after one complete cycle the distance
the wave moves is x = λ. Thus we must have
θ = kx
or
2π = kλ
giving
k =
λ

which is called the wave number. Similarly, the y −t graph can be written
y(0, t) = y
m
sin ωt
194 CHAPTER 13. WAVES - I
where we have taken the ﬁxed distance to be x = 0. We did not write sint
because t is not an angle, whereas ωt is an angle. ω is the angular speed
that we have discussed before. Again after one complete wave cycle ωt must
be 2π and after one cycle the time t will just be one period T. Thus we
must have
θ = ωt
or
2π = ωT
giving
ω =

T
= 2πf
which is often called the angular frequency ω. We previously deﬁned f ≡
1
T
in Chapter 16. A general wave can be written
y(x, t) = y
m
sin(kx +ωt)
Does this agree with what we had before? Yes. We can see that
y(x, 0) = y
m
sin kx and y(0, t) = y
m
sin ωt.
13.5 Speed of a Travelling Wave
A handy formula for wave speed is easy to get! In one complete cycle the
wave travels a distance x = λ and takes a time t = T to do it. Thus the
wave speed must be
v =
distance
time
=
x
t
=
λ
T
Simple algebra also gives
v =
λ
T
= fλ =
ω
k
13.5. SPEED OF A TRAVELLING WAVE 195
Example What is the amplitude, wavelength, frequency and
speed of the wave described by
y(x, t) = 5 sin(3x + 2t)
with all quantities in SI units (i.e. 5 m, 3 m
−1
and 2 sec
−1
).
Solution The general wave is
y(x, t) = y
m
sin(kx +ωt)
Thus the amplitude is
y
m
= 5 m
the wave number is
k = 3 m
−1
and angular frequency is
ω = 2 sec
−1
Now k =

k
= 3 m
−1
giving
λ =

k
=

3 m
−1
= 2.1 m
and ω = 2πf = 2 sec
−1
giving
f =
ω

=
2 sec
−1

= 0.32 sec
−1
and the speed is
v = fλ = 0.32 sec
−1
×2.1 m = 0.67 m/sec
196 CHAPTER 13. WAVES - I
13.6 Wave Speed on a String
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Wave speed depends on tension.
When a wave travels on a string, the wave speed depends on both the
string tension τ and the mass per unit length µ, or linear mass density.
What must the exact formula be? (τ is now tension, not torque) Well the
units of v are m sec
−1
and units of τ are N ≡ kg m sec
−1
and units of µ are
kg m
−1
. To get m sec
−1
from kg m sec
−2
and kg m
−1
can only be obtained
with
m sec
−1
=

kg m sec
−2
kg m
−1
=

m
2
sec
−2
= m sec
−1
Thus we must have
v =

τ
µ
And we can combine with our previous formula, so that the wave speed on
a string is v = fλ =

τ
µ
.
13.7 Energy and Power of a Travelling String Wave
Leave out.
13.8 Principle of Superposition
13.9 Interference of Waves
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show wave interference using slinky.
13.10 Phasors
Leave out.
13.11. STANDING WAVES 197
13.11 Standing Waves
13.12 Standing Waves and Resonance
When waves travel down a string they can reﬂect back from the other end
and interfere with the other waves.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Standing waves on slinky.
In this way standing waves of diﬀerent wavelength can be produced. The
wave of lowest frequency (longest wavelength) is called the fundamental
harmonic. Higher frequencies are called higher harmonics. The various
allowed harmonics are shown in Fig. 17-18 (Haliday). The relations between
the wavelength λ and the length of the string L for the various harmonics
are
L =
λ
2
L = λ =

2
L =

2
etc. These can be written in general as
L = n
λ
2
with n = 1, 2, 3, · · ·
Now the wave speed is v = fλ =

τ
µ
and writing λ =
2L
n
gives f
2L
n
=

τ
µ
or
f =
n
2L

τ
µ
This is an extremely important formula for the design of muscial instru-
ments.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show how frequency of Sound from Violin
depends on length L, tension τ and mass density µ, thus verifying the above
formula.
198 CHAPTER 13. WAVES - I
Example Middle C has a frequency of 262 Hz. What tension
do we need to apply to a violin string to get this frequency for
the fundamental harmonic? (Assume the string has a mass of
about 10 gram and a length of 1/4 m.)
Solution The mass per unit length µ is
µ =
10 gram
1/4 m
=
0.01 kg
.25 m
= 0.04 kg m
−1
The frequency is given by f =
n
2L

τ
µ
. The fundamental har-
monic corresponds to n = 1, giving
τ = µ(2Lf)
2
= 0.04 kg m
−1
(2 ×0.25 m ×262 sec
−1
)
2
= 686 kg m
−1
m
2
sec
−2
= 686 kg m sec
−2
= 686 N
13.13. PROBLEMS 199
13.13 Problems
200 CHAPTER 13. WAVES - I
Chapter 14
WAVES - II
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT:
Blow in some pipes and verify the frequency equation for pipes.
THEMES:
Flute and Recorder.
201
202 CHAPTER 14. WAVES - II
14.1 Sound Waves
This chapter is mostly devoted to the study of sound waves, although much
of what we have to say can also be applied to light waves. By the way, sound
waves are longitudinal whereas light waves are transverse.
14.2 Speed of Sound
The speed of sound in any medium is given by
v =

B
ρ
where ρ is the density of the medium and B is the Bulk Modulus deﬁned as
B ≡ −
∆p
∆V/V
where a change in pressure ∆p causes a change in the volume ∆V of a
medium. Students should read Halliday (Pg. 426-427) for a careful discus-
sion of these concepts.
In air the speed of sound is
343 m/sec = 1125 ft/sec = 767 mph
The speed of sound was exceeded in an airplane many years ago. However
the sound barrier was broken by an automobile only for the ﬁrst time in
October 1997!
14.3 Travelling Sound Waves
Leave out.
14.4 Interference
14.5 Intensity and Sound Level
Read Halliday carefully. Understand the formula for sound level
β ≡ 10dBlog
I
I
o
14.6. SOURCES OF MUSICAL SOUND 203
14.6 Sources of Musical Sound
All students should carefully read Pg. 435-436 Halliday. There it is ex-
plained how standing sound waves occur in pipes ﬁlled with air. See Fig.
18-14 (Halliday). The various maxima and minima locations of the standing
waves correspond to maximum and minimum pressures in the pipe as shown
in Fig. 18-13 (Halliday).
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Standing Sound Waves & Water Column
Example For a pipe open at both ends, determine the relation-
ship between the length of the pipe L and the frequencies of the
various harmonics.
Solution The pipe open at both ends is shown in Figs. 18-13,
18-14a (Halliday). There is a pressure node at the closed end
and an anitnode at the open end. The relations between the
wavelength λ and the pipe length L for the various harmonics
is Note the ﬁrst harmonic is actually Fig. 18-13 (Halliday) and
the higher harmonics are in Fig. 18-14a
L =
λ
2
=
1
2
λ
L = λ =
2
2
λ
L =
3
2
λ
L = 2λ =
4
2
λ
etc. These can be written in general as
L =

2
with n = 1, 2, 3 · · ·
204 CHAPTER 14. WAVES - II
Example Repeat the previous example for a pipe open at only
one end.
Solution This is shown in Fig. 18-14b (Halliday). Obviously
L =
λ
4
=

4
L =

4
L =

4
etc. These can be written in general as
L =

4
with n = 1, 3, 5 · · ·
Now recall that v = fλ =

B
ρ
. Thus for the pipe open at both ends
f =
n
2L

B
ρ
with n = 1, 2, 3, · · ·
and for the pipe open at one end,
f =
n
4L

B
ρ
with n = 1, 3, 5, · · ·
These are very important formulas for the design of wind musical instru-
ments, such as a ﬂute or recorder.
Note that a longer instrument (larger L) will give a lower frequency.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Two recorders.
Also note that the frequency depends on the density of air.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Talking with Helium gas.
14.7 Beats
14.8. DOPPLER EFFECT 205
14.8 Doppler Eﬀect
Everyone has noticed the pitch of the sound of a train varies when the
train passes. You can also easily hear this just listening to cars drive down
the road. This change in frequency of a moving sound source is called the
Doppler eﬀect.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Moving Microphone (twirl on a string)
The same Doppler eﬀect is also observed when the listener is moving and
the source is stationary.
We have previously seen that for a stationary observer and source, then
f =
v
λ
where v is the wave speed and λ is the wavelength.
Example An observer moves toward a stationary source of sound
waves at a speed v
D
(detector speed). Derive a formula for the
observed frequency f

in terms of the stationary frequency f.
Solution This situation is shown in Fig. 18-18 (Halliday). The
detector will sense a higher frequency as in
f

=
v +v
D
λ
Now
f

f
=
v+v
D
λ
v
λ
=
v +v
D
v
or
f

= f
v +v
D
v
Note: if the observer was moving away, the result would be
f

= f
v −v
D
v
206 CHAPTER 14. WAVES - II
Example A sound wave moves toward a stationary observer at
a speed v
s
. Derive a formula for the observed frequency f

in
terms of the stationary frequency f.
Solution This situation is shown in Fig. 18-21 (Halliday). This
time it is the wavelength which changes and it will be smaller as
in
λ

= λ −
v
s
f
f

is now (due to change in λ

)
f

=
v
λ

=
v
λ −
vs
f
=
vf
λf −v
s
=
vf
v −v
s
or
f

= f
v
v −v
s
Note: if the source was smoving away, the result would be
f

= f
v
v +v
s
All of the previous results can be combined into a single formula,
f

= f
v ±v
D
v ∓v
s
If v
s
= 0 we get f

= f
v±v
D
v
as before and if v
D
= 0 we get f

= f
v
v∓vs
as
before. An easy way to remember the signs is that if detector and source
are moving toward each other the frequency increases. If they are moving
away from each other the frequencydecreases.
14.8. DOPPLER EFFECT 207
The Austrian physicist, Johann Christian Doppler proposed the eﬀect in
1842. In 1845 it was tested experimentally by Buys Ballot using a locomotive
drawing an open train car with trumpeters playing.
Example Middle C has a frequency of 264 Hz. The D note has
a fequency of 300 Hz. If a trumpeter is playing the C note on
a train, how fast would the train need to travel for a stationary
person (with perfect pitch) on the ground to hear a D note ?
Solution Here v
D
= 0 and we want to ﬁnd v
s
. The frequency
increases and we have
f

= f
v
v −v
s

1
f

=
v −v
s
fv
⇒ v −v
s
=
fv
f

⇒ v
s
= v(1 −
f
f

)
= 767 mph (1 −
264Hz
300Hz
)
= 92 mph
208 CHAPTER 14. WAVES - II
14.9 Problems
1. A uniform rope of mass m and length L is suspended vertically. Derive
a formula for the time it takes a transverse wave pulse to travel the
length of the rope.
(Hint: First ﬁnd an expression for the wave speed at any point a
distance x from the lower end by considering the tension in the rope
as resulting from the weight of the segment below that point.) [Serway,
5th ed., p. 517, Problem 59]
2. A uniform cord has a mass m and a length L. The cord passes over
a pulley and supports an object of mass M as shown in the ﬁgure.
Derive a formula for the speed of a wave pulse travelling along the
cord. [Serway, 5 ed., p. 501]
M
x
L - x
3. A block of mass M, supported by a string, rests on an incline making
an angle θ with the horizontal. The string’s length is L and its mass
is m M (i.e. m is negligible compared to M). Derive a formula for
the time it takes a transverse wave to travel from one end of the string
to the other. [Serway, 5th ed., p. 516, Problem 53]
14.9. PROBLEMS 209

L
θ
M
4. A stationary train emits a whistle at a frequency f. The whistle
sounds higher or lower in pitch depending on whether the moving
train is approaching or receding. Derive a formula for the diﬀerence in
frequency ∆f, between the approaching and receding train whistle in
terms of u, the speed of the train, and v, the speed of sound. [Serway,
5th ed., p. 541, Problem 54]
210 CHAPTER 14. WAVES - II
Chapter 15
TEMPERATURE, HEAT &
1ST LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT:
Put a block of ice into an insulated container of water and measure the
temperature change. Is it what you expect ?
THEMES:
Heating and Cooling.
211
212CHAPTER 15. TEMPERATURE, HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
15.1 Thermodynamics
We now leave our study of mechanics and begin our study of thermody-
namics. The most important system that we will study is an ideal gas and
how the temperature, pressure and volume are related. (Actually, however,
thermodynamic quantities are related to our study of mechanics. This is
the study of the kinetic theory of gases, i.e. a microscopic approach to ther-
modynamics.)
One of the most important properties of a macroscopic system, such as
a liquid or gas is the temperature, or thermal energy.
15.2 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
If two bodies have the same temperature then they are said to be in thermal
equilibrium. Thus the zeroth law of thermodynamics simply states that:
“If two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body, then they are
in thermal equilibrium with each other.”
15.3 Measuring Temperature
15.4 Celsius, Farenheit and Kelvin Temperature
Scales
The antiquated Farenheit temperature scale is only still used in a few coun-
tries (including the United States). Water freezes at 32

F and boils at 212

F.
A much more natural temperature scale, called Celsius or Centigrade, rates
the freezing and boiling point of water at 0

C and 100

C respectively. To
convert between the two scales use
F =
9
5
C + 32
where F is the temperature in Farenheit and C is the temperature in Centi-
15.4. CELSIUS, FARENHEIT AND KELVIN TEMPERATURE SCALES213
Example If you set your house thermostate to 70

F what is the
temperature in Centigrade ?
Solution
F =
9
5
C + 32
F −32 =
9
5
C
C =
5
9
(F −32)
=
5
9
(70 −32)
= 23

C
Example At what temperature are the Farenheit and Centi-
grade scales equal ?
Solution When they are equal the F = C = x giving
x =
9
5
x + 32
x

1 −
9
5

= 32

4
5
x = 32
x = −40

i.e.
−40

F = −40

C
214CHAPTER 15. TEMPERATURE, HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
From a microscopic point of view (see Chapter 20), the temperature of a
substance is related to the speed of the individual molecules which also give
rise to pressure. Thus a gas which has fast moving molecules will have a
high temperature and pressure. What happens if we slow all the molecules
to zero speed? Well then the gas pressure will be zero. The temperature at
which this happens is −273.15

C.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show this.
This leads to a third type of tmperature scale called Absolute temperature
or Kelvin temperature. The Kelvin temperature at which a gas has zero
pressure is deﬁned to be 0

K. Thus
C = K −273.15
where C is the temperature in Centigrade and K is the temperature in
Kelvin.
Example What is the relationship between Farenheit and Kelvin
?
Solution
C = K −273
and
C =
5
9
(F −32)
giving
5
9
(F −32) = K −273
or
F =
9
5
(K −273) + 32
=
9
5
K −459.4
15.5 Thermal Expansion
15.6. TEMPERATURE AND HEAT 215
15.6 Temperature and Heat
15.7 The Absorption of Heat by Solids and Liq-
uids
Heat Capacity
If you put a certain amount of energy or heat into a block of wood then
the temperature will increase by a certain amount. If you do the same thing
to a lump of steel (of the same mass) its temperature increase will be larger
than for the wood. Heat capacity tells us how much the temperature of an
object will increase for a given amount of energy or heat input. It is deﬁned
as
C ≡
Q
∆T
where C is the heat capacity, Q is the heat and ∆T is the temperature
change, or
Q = C(T
f
−T
i
)
Example Which has the largest heat capacity; wood or steel ?
Solution For a given Q then ∆T will be larger for steel. From
C =
Q
∆T
it means that C is small for steel and large for wood.
216CHAPTER 15. TEMPERATURE, HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
Speciﬁc Heat
If we put a certain amount of heat into a small block of steel compared to
a large block then the small block will change its temperature the most. Thus
we also need to include the mass of the block in determining temperature
change. Thus we deﬁne speciﬁc heat (with a lower case c) as
c ≡
Q
m∆T
or
Q = cm(T
f
−T
i
)
In other words the speciﬁc heat is just the heat capacity per unit mass or
c =
C
m
Molar Speciﬁc Heat
Instead of deﬁning speciﬁc heat with the mass of the object, we could
deﬁne it according to the total number of molecules in the object. But if
we write down the total number of molecules we will be writing down huge
numbers. Now we always use other words for huge numbers. Instead of
saying “one hundred tens” we say “thousand”, i.e.
thousand ≡ 1000
or instead of saying “one thousand thousands” we say “million”, i.e.
million ≡ 1, 000, 000
Now even million, billion and trillion are too small for the number of
molecules in an object. Thus deﬁne
mole ≡ 6.02 ×10
23
(This number arose because in 12 grams of
12
C there is 1 mole of atoms.)
Thus molar speciﬁc heat is deﬁned as
c
m

Q
N∆T
where N is the number of moles of molecules in the substance.
Table 19-3 in Halliday has a list of speciﬁc heats and molar speciﬁc heats
for various substances.
15.7. THE ABSORPTION OF HEAT BY SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS 217
Example How much heat is required to increase the tempera-
ture of 2 kg of water from 20

C to 30

C ?
Solution From Table 19-3 of Halliday, the speciﬁc heat of water
is 1.00 cal g
−1
K
−1
. Thus the temperature should be in

K. Now
∆T = 30

C −20

C = 20

C or
∆T = −243

K −−253

K = 10

K
giving
Q = mc∆T
= 2kg × 1 cal g
−1
K
−1
×10 K
= 2000 g × 1 cal g
−1
K
−1
×10 K
= 20,000 cal = 83,720 J
= 20 kcal
where we have used 1 cal ≡ 4.186 J.
218CHAPTER 15. TEMPERATURE, HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
Heats of Transformation
When you put heat or energy into an object the temperature does not
always change! For example, if you put heat into a block of ice at 0

C it
may just melt to a pool of water still at 0

C. Thus heat can cause a change
of phase. Putting heat into water at 100

C may just vaporize the water to
steam at 100

C. The heat of transformation L is deﬁned via
Q ≡ Lm
where Q is the heat and m is the mass. If melting is involved L is called a
heat of fusion L
f
or for vaporizing L is called a heat of vaporization L
v
.
Exercise The latent heat of fusion for water is L
f
= 333 kJ/kg
and the latent heat of vaporization is L
v
= 2256 kJ/kg. Does it
take more heat to melt ice or vaporize water (of the same mass)?
Example How much heat is required to melt 2 kg of ice at 0

C
to water at 0

C ?
Solution The latent heat of fusion is L
f
= 79.5 cal g
−1
giving
Q = Lm
= 79.5 cal g
−1
× 2000 g
= 159,000 cal
= 159 kcal
Example Sample Problem 19-6 (Halliday). (done in class)
Example Sample Problem 19-7 (Halliday). (done in class)
15.8. A CLOSER LOOK AT HEAT AND WORK 219
15.8 A Closer Look at Heat and Work
When discussing work and energy for thermodynamic systems it is useful to
think about compressing the gas in a piston, as shown in Fig. 19.1.
dx
F
FIGURE 19.1 Piston.
By pushing on the piston the gas is compressed, or if the gas is heated
the piston expands. Such pistons are crucial to the operation of automobile
engines. The gas consists of a mixture of gasoline which is compressed by the
piston. Sitting inside the chamber is a spark plug which ignites the gas and
pushes the piston out. The piston is connected to a crankshaft connecting
the auto engine to the wheels of the automobile.
Another such piston system is the simple bicycle pump. Recall our
deﬁnition of Work as
W ≡

F · ds
For the piston, all the motion occurs in 1-dimension so that
W =

F dx
(or equivalently

F ·ds = F dxcos 0

= F dx). The pressure of a gas is deﬁned
as force divided by area (of the piston compressing the gas) or
p ≡
F
A
giving dW = pAdx = pdV where the volume is just area times distance or
dV = Adx. That is when we compress the piston by a distance dx, the
220CHAPTER 15. TEMPERATURE, HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
volume of the gas changes by dV = Adx where A is the cross-sectional area
of the piston. Writing W =

dW gives
W =

V
f
V
i
p dV
which is the work done by a gas of pressure p changing its volume from V
i
to V
f
(or the work done on the gas).
15.9 The First Law of Thermodynamics
We have already studied this! The ﬁrst law of thermodynamics is nothing
more than a re-statement of the work energy theorem, which was
∆U + ∆K = W
NC
Recall that the total work W was always W = ∆K. Identify heat Q as
Q ≡ W
NC
and internal energy (such as energy stored in a gas, which is just
potential energy) is E
int
≡ U and we have
∆E
int
+W = Q
or
∆E
int
= Q−W
which is the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics. The meaning of this law is that
the internal energy of a system can be changed by adding heat or doing
work. Often the ﬁrst law is written for tiny changes as
dE
int
= dQ−dW
15.10. SPECIAL CASES OF 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 221
15.10 Special Cases of 1st Law of Thermodynam-
ics
Adiabatic processes are those that occur so rapidly that there is no
transfer of heat between the system and its environment. Thus Q = 0 and
∆E
int
= −W
For example if we push in the piston very quickly then our work will increase
the internal energy of the gas. It will store potential energy (∆U = ∆E
int
)
like a spring and make the piston bounce back when we let it go.
2. Constant-volume Processes
If we glue the piston so that it won’t move then obviously the volume is
constant, and W =

pdV = 0, because the piston can’t move. Thus
∆E
int
= Q
which means the only way to increase the internal energy of the gas is by
3. Cyclical Processes
Recall the motion of a spring. It is a cyclical process in which the spring
oscillates back and forth. After one complete cycle the potential energy U
of the spring has not changed, thus ∆U = 0. Similarly we can push in the
piston, then let it go and it will push back to where it started, similar to
the spring. Thus ∆E
int
= 0 and
Q = W
meaning that work done equals heat gained.
4. Free Expansion
Another way to get ∆E
int
= 0 is for
Q = W = 0
Free expansion is illustrated in Fig. 19-15 [Halliday].
222CHAPTER 15. TEMPERATURE, HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
Example Sample Problem 19-8 (Halliday). (done in class)
15.11 Heat Transfer Mechanisms
There are three basic processes by which heat is always transferred from one
body to another. These are
1) Convection
2) Conduction
Students should carefully read Section 19.11 of Halliday.
15.12. PROBLEMS 223
15.12 Problems
1. The coldest that any object can ever get is 0 K (or -273 C). It is rare for
physical quantities to have an upper or lower possible limit. Explain
why temperature has this lower limit.
2. Suppose it takes an amount of heat Q to make a cup of coﬀee. If you
make 3 cups of coﬀee how much heat is required?
3. How much heat is required to make a cup of coﬀee? Assume the mass
of water is 0.1 kg and the water is initially at 0

C. We want the water
to reach boiling point.
Give your answer in Joule and calorie and Calorie.
(1 cal = 4.186 J; 1 Calorie = 1000 calorie.
For water: c = 1
cal
gC
= 4186
J
kg C
; L
v
= 2.26×10
6 J
kg
; L
f
= 3.33×10
5 J
kg
)
4. How much heat is required to change a 1 kg block of ice at −10

C to
steam at 110

C ?
Give your answer in Joule and calorie and Calorie.
(1 cal = 4.186 J; 1 Calorie = 1000 calorie.
c
water
= 4186
J
kg C
; c
ice
= 2090
J
kg C
; c
steam
= 2010
J
kg C
For water, L
v
= 2.26 ×10
6 J
kg
; L
f
= 3.33 ×10
5 J
kg
)
224CHAPTER 15. TEMPERATURE, HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
Chapter 16
KINETIC THEORY OF
GASES
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT:
Put a block of ice into an insulated container of water and measure the
temperature change. Is it what you expect ?
THEMES:
Behavior of a Gas.
225
226 CHAPTER 16. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES
16.1 A New Way to Look at Gases
The subject of classical thermodynamics, studied in the last chapter, was
developed in the 18th and 19th centuries before we knew about molecules and
atoms. The kinetic theory of gases attempts to explain all of the concepts of
classical thermodynamics, such as temperature and pressure, in terms of an
underlying microscopic theory based on atoms and molecules. For example,
we shall see that the temperature of a gas is related to the average kinetic
energy of all molecules in the gas.
One mole is the number of atoms in a 12 gram sample of
12
C, and this
number is determine from experiment to be 6.02 ×10
23
. This is often called
Avagadro’s number. The number of molecules must be the number of moles
times the number of molecules per mole. Thus we write Avagadro’s number
as
N
A
= 6.02 ×10
23
mole
−1
and
N = nN
A
where N is the number of molecules and n is the number of moles.
16.3 Ideal Gases
One of the most fundamental properties of any macroscopic system is the
so-called equation of state. This is the equation that speciﬁes the exact
relation between pressure p, volume V , and temperature T for a substance.
The equation of state for a gas is very diﬀerent to the equation of state of
a liquid. Actually there is a giant accelerator, called the Relativistic Heavy
Ion Collider (RHIC) currently under construction at Brookhaven National
Laboratory on Long Island. This accelerator will collide heavy nuclei into
each other at extremely high energies. One of the main aims is to determine
the nuclear matter equation of state at very high temperatures and densities,
simulating the early universe.
Now it turns out that most gases obey a simple equation of state called
the ideal gas law
pV = nRT
16.3. IDEAL GASES 227
where p is the pressure, V is the volume, T is the temperature (in

K), n is
the number of moles of the gas and R is the so called gas constant with the
value
R = 8.31 J mol
−1
K
−1
Recall that the number of molecules is given by N = nN
A
where n is the
number of moles. Thus pV = nRT =
N
N
A
RT and deﬁne Boltzmann’s con-
stant
k ≡
R
N
A
=
8.31J mole
−1
K
−1
6.02 ×10
23
mole
−1
= 1.38 ×10
−23
JK
−1
= 8.62 ×10
−5
eV K
−1
where an electron volt is deﬁned as
eV ≡ 1.6 ×10
−19
J
Thus the ideal gas law is also often written as
pV = NkT
where N is the total number of molecules.
The ideal gas law embodies exactly the properties we expect of a gas:
1) If the volume V is held constant, then the pressure p increases as
temperature T increases.
2) If the pressure p is held constant, then as T increases, p increases.
3) If the temperature T is held constant, then as p increases, V decreases.
LECTURE DEMONSTRATIONS: Show this
Work Done by an Ideal Gas
The equation of state can be represented on a graph of pressure vs.
volume, often called a pV diagram. Remember an equation of state is an
equation relating the three variables p, V , T. A pV diagram takes care of two
variables. The third variable T represents diﬀerent lines on the pV diagram.
These diﬀerence lines are called isotherms (meaning same temperature). An
example is given in Fig.20-1 [Halliday]. For ﬁxed T (say 310 K) the pressure
is inversely proportional to volume as speciﬁed in the ideal gas law. Fig.
20-1 [Halliday] would look diﬀerent for an equation of state diﬀerent from
the ideal gas law.
228 CHAPTER 16. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES
Example What is the work done by any gas (ideal or not) at
constant volume (isometric) ?
Solution If V
i
= V
f
then
W =

V
f
V
i
pdV = 0
which is obvious when we think of the piston in the previous
chapter. If the volume does not change then the piston doesn’t
move and the work is zero.
Example Derive a formula for the work done by any gas (ideal
or not) which expands isobarically (i.e. at constant pressure).
Solution If p is a constant it can be taken outside the integral,
giving
W =

V
f
V
i
pdV
= p

V
f
V
i
dV
= p [V ]
V
f
V
i
= p(V
f
−V
i
)
= p∆V
16.3. IDEAL GASES 229
Example Derive a formula for the work done by a gas when it
expands isothermally (i.e. at constant temperature).
Solution The work done by an expanding gas is given by
W =

V
f
V
i
pdV
But this time the pressure changes. For an ideal gas we have
p =
nRT
V
giving
W = nRT

V
f
V
i
1
V
dV
= nRT [ln V ]
V
f
V
i
= nRT(ln V
f
−ln V
i
)
= nRT ln

V
f
V
i

Carefully study Sample Problems 20-1, 20-2 in Halliday.
230 CHAPTER 16. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES
16.4 Pressure, Temperature and RMS Speed
Carefully study Section 20.4 in Halliday.
Now consider our ﬁrst kinetic theory problem. Imagine a gas, consisting
of n moles being conﬁned to a cubical box of volume V . “What is the
connection between the pressure p exerted by the gas on the walls and the
speeds of the molecules?” (Halliday Pg. 487) Pressure is deﬁned as Force
divided by Area or p ≡
F
A
where F =
dp
dt
. Using Newtonian Mechanics,
Halliday (Pg. 488) shows that
p =
nMv
2
RMS
3V
where n is the number of moles, M is the mass of 1 mole of the gas (so
that nM is the total mass of the gas), v
RMS
is the average speed of the
molecules and V is the volume of the gas. The above equation is derived
purely from applying Newtonian mechanics to the individual molecules. All
students should study the derivation in Halliday (Pg. 488) carefully.
Now by comparing to the ideal gas law pV = nRT or p =
nRT
V
we must
have
nMv
2
RMS
3
= nRT or
v
RMS
=

3RT
M
which shows that the temperature T is related to the speed of molecules!
As shown in Table 20-1 (Halliday) the speed of molecules at room tem-
perature is very large; about 500 m/sec for air (about 1000 mph).
16.5. TRANSLATIONAL KINETIC ENERGY 231
16.5 Translational Kinetic Energy
For a single molecule its average kinetic energy is
¯
K =
1
2
mv
2
RMS
and using v
RMS
=

3RT
M
gives
¯
K =
1
2
m
3RT
M
.
Remember that M is the molar mass, which is the mass of 1 mole of gas
and m is the mass of the molecule. Thus
M
m
= 1 mole = 6.02 ×10
23
= N
A
,
¯
K =
3RT
2N
A
or
¯
K =
3
2
kT
This is a very interesting result. For a given temperature T, all gas molecules,
no matter what their mass, have the same average translational kinetic en-
ergy.
Example In the center of the Sun the particles are bare hydro-
gen nuclei (protons). Calculate their average kinetic energy.
Solution The center of the Sun is at a temperature of about
20,000,000

K. Thus
¯
K =
3
2
kT
=
3
2
×8.62 ×10
−8
eV
K
×20 ×10
6
K
= 2586 eV
≈ 3 MeV
232 CHAPTER 16. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES
16.6 Mean Free Path
Even though room temperature air molecules have a large RMS speed
v
RMS
≈ 500 m/sec, that does not mean that they move across a room
in a fraction of a second. If you open a bottle of perfume at one end of
a room, it takes a while for you to notice the smell at the other end of
the room. This is because the molecules undergo an enormous number of
collisions on their way across the room, as shown very nicely in Fig. 20-4
(Halliday).
The mean free path λ is the average distance that a molecule travels in
between collisions. It is given by
λ =
1

2πd
2
N/V
where d is the average diameter of a molecule, and N/V is the average
number of molecules per unit volume. This formula is discussed on Pages
490-491 (Halliday).
16.7 Distribution of Molecular Speeds
Not all molecules travel at the speed v
RMS
. this is just the average molecular
speed. We would like to know how many molecules travel above or below
this speed. This was worked out by Maxwell. The probbility of a given speed
is
P(v) = 4π

M
2πRT

3/2
v
2
e

Mv
2
2RT
where M is the molar mass of the gas. This probability distribution is
plotted in Fig. 20-7 (Halliday).
16.8. PROBLEMS 233
16.8 Problems
1.
A) If the number of molecules in an ideal gas is doubled, by how much does
the pressure change if the volume and temperature are held constant?
B) If the volume of an ideal gas is halved, by how much does the pressure
change if the temperature and number of molecules is constant?
C) If the temperature of an ideal gas changes from 200 K to 400 K, by how
much does the volume change if the pressure and number of molecules
is constant.
D) Repeat part C) if the temperature changes from 200 C to 400 C.
2. If the number of molecules in an ideal gas is doubled and the volume
is doubled, by how much does the pressure change if the temperature
is held constant ?
3. If the number of molecules in an ideal gas is doubled, and the absolute
temperature is doubled and the pressure is halved, by how much does
the volume change ?
(Absolute temperature is simply the temperature measured in Kelvin.)
234 CHAPTER 16. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES
Chapter 17
Review of Calculus
17.1 Derivative Equals Slope
17.1.1 Slope of a Straight Line
All students will be familiar with the equation for a straight line
y(x) = mx +c (17.1)
where c is the intercept on the y axis and m is the slope of the line. To
prove to ourselves that m really is the slope, we need a good deﬁnition of
slope. Let’s deﬁne
Slope ≡
∆y
∆x

y
f
−y
i
x
f
−x
i
(17.2)
where ∆y is the diﬀerence between ﬁnal and initial values y
f
and y
i
. In Fig.
22.1 the graph of y(x) = 2x+1 is plotted and the slope has been determined
by measuring ∆y and ∆x.
Rather than always having to verify the slope graphically, let’s do it
analytically for all lines. Take x
i
= x as the initial x value and x
f
= x+∆x
as the ﬁnal value. Obviously x
f
−x
i
= ∆x. The initial value of y is
y
i
≡ y(x
i
) = mx
i
+c
= mx +c (17.3)
and the ﬁnal value is
y
f
≡ y(x
f
) = mx
f
+c
= y(x + ∆x) = m(x + ∆x) +c (17.4)
235
236 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS
Thus ∆y = y
f
−y
i
= m(x +∆x) +c −mx −c = m∆x. Therefore the slope
becomes
∆y
∆x
=
m∆x
∆x
= m (17.5)
which is a proof that y = mx +c has a slope of m.
From above we can re-write our formula (17.2) using y
f
= y(x + ∆x)
and y
i
= y(x), so that
Slope ≡
∆y
∆x
=
y
f
−y
i
x
f
−x
i
=
y(x + ∆x) −y(x)
∆x
(17.6)
17.1.2 Slope of a Curve
A straight line always has constant slope m. That’s why it’s called straight.
The parabola y(x) = x
2
+ 1 is plotted in Fig. 22.2 and obviously the slope
changes. In fact the concept of the slope of a parabola doesn’t make any
sense because the parabola continuously curves. However we might think
about little pieces of the parabola. If you look at any tiny little piece it looks
straight. These tiny little pieces are all tiny little line segments, each with
their own slope. Notice that the slope of the tiny little line segments keeps
changing. At x = 0 the slope is 0 (the tiny little line is ﬂat) whereas around
x = 1 the slope is larger.
One of the most important ideas in calculus is the concept of the deriva-
tive, which is nothing more than
Derivative = Slope of tiny little line segment.
In Fig. 22.1 we got the slope from ∆y and ∆x on the large triangle in the
top right hand corner. But we would get the same answer if we had used the
tiny triangles in the bottom left hand corner. What characterizes these tiny
triangles is that ∆x and ∆y are both tiny (but their ratio,
∆y
∆x
= 2 always).
Another way of saying that ∆x is tiny is to say
Tiny = lim
∆x→0
That is the limit as ∆x goes to zero is another way of saying ∆x is tiny.
Examples
1) lim
∆x→0
[∆x + 3] = 3
2) lim
∆x→0
∆x = 0
17.1. DERIVATIVE EQUALS SLOPE 237
3) lim
∆x→0
[(∆x)
2
+ 4] = 4
4) lim
∆x→0
(∆x)
2
+ 4∆x
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
(∆x + 4) = 4
5) lim
∆x→0
3 = 3
For a curve like the parabola we can’t draw a big triangle, as in Fig.
22.1, because the hypotenuse would be curved. But we can get the slope at
a point by drawing a tiny triangle at that point. Thus let’s deﬁne the
Slope of
curve at
a point
≡ lim
∆x→0
∆y
∆x
=
Slope of tiny
little line
segment
≡ Derivative
So it’s the same deﬁnition as before in (17.6) except lim
∆x→0
is an instruction
to use a tiny triangle. Now
∆y
∆x
=
y(x+∆x)−y(x)
∆x
from (17.6) and the derivative
is given a fancy new symbol
dy
dx
so that
dy
dx
≡ lim
∆x→0
y(x + ∆x) −y(x)
∆x
(17.7)
The symbol dy simply means
dy ≡ tiny ∆y
That is, usually ∆y can be big or small. If we are talking about a tiny ∆y
we write dy instead. Similarly for ∆x.
Example Calculate the derivative of the straight line y(x) = 3x
Solution y(x) = 3x
y(x + ∆x) = 3(x + ∆x)
dy
dx
= lim
∆x→0
3(x + ∆x) −3x
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
3x + 3∆x −3x
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
3∆x
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
3 = 3
Thus the derivative is the slope.
238 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS
Example Calculate the derivative of the straight line y(x) = 4
Solution y(x) = 4
y(x + ∆x) = 4
dy
dx
= lim
∆x→0
4 −4
∆x
= 0
The line y(x) = 4 has 0 slope and therefore 0 derivative.
(do Problem 1)
The derivative was deﬁned to give us the slope of a curve at a point. The
two examples above show that it also works for a straight line (A straight
line is a special case of a curve). Now do some examples for real curves.
Example Calculate the derivative of the parabola y(x) = x
2
Solution y(x) = x
2
y(x + ∆x) = (x + ∆x)
2
= x
2
+ 2x∆x + (∆x)
2
dy
dx
= lim
∆x→0
y(x + ∆x) −y(x)
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
x
2
+ 2x∆x + (∆x)
2
−x
2
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
(2x + ∆x)
= 2x
Example Calculate the slope of the parabola y(x) = x
2
at the points x =
−2, x = 0, x = 3.
Solution We already have
dy
dx
= 2x. Thus
dy
dx

x=−2
= −4
dy
dx

x=0
= 0
dy
dx

x=3
= 6
17.1. DERIVATIVE EQUALS SLOPE 239
which shows how the slope of a tiny little line segment varies as we move
along the parabola.
Example Calculate the slope of the curve y(x) = x
2
+ 1 (see Fig. 22.2) at
the points x = −2, x = 0, x = 3
Solution y(x) = x
2
+ 1
y(x + ∆x) = (x + ∆x)
2
+ 1
= x
2
+ 2x∆x + (∆x)
2
+ 1
dy
dx
= lim
∆x→0
y(x + ∆x) −y(x)
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
x
2
+ 2x∆x + (∆x)
2
+ 1 −(x
2
+ 1)
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
2x + ∆x
= 2x
Thus the slopes are the same as in the previous example.
(do Problem 2)
17.1.3 Some Common Derivatives
In a previous example we saw that the derivative of y(x) = 4 was
dy
dx
= 0,
which make sense because a graph of y(x) = 4 reveals that the slope is
always 0. This is true for any constant c. Thus
dc
dx
= 0 (17.8)
We also saw in a previous example that
d
dx
x
2
= 2x. In general we have
dx
n
dx
= nx
n−1
(17.9)
This is a very important result. We have already veriﬁed it for n = 2. Let’s
verify it for n = 3.
Example Check that (17.9) is correct for n = 3.
Solution Formula (17.9) gives
dx
3
dx
= 3x
3−1
= 3x
2
240 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS
We wish to verify this. Take y(x) = x
3
.
y(x + ∆x) = (x + ∆x)
3
= x
3
+ 3x
2
∆x + 3x(∆x)
2
+ (∆x)
3
dy
dx
= lim
∆x→0
y(x + ∆x) −y(x)
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
x
3
+ 3x
2
∆x + 3x(∆x)
2
+ (∆x)
3
−x
3
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
3x
2
+ 3x∆x + (∆x)
2
= 3x
2
in agreement with our result above.
(do Problem 3)
17.1. DERIVATIVE EQUALS SLOPE 241
A list of very useful results for derivatives is given below. You will prove
most of these results in your calculus course. I will just make some comments
Table A-4 Properties of Derivatives and Derivatives of Particular
Functions [Tipler, pg. AP-16, 1991].
Multiplicative constant rule
1. The derivative of a constant times a function equals the constant times
the derivative of the function:
d
dx
[Cy(x)] = C
dy(x)
dx
2. The derivative of a sum of functions equals the sum of the derivatives of
the functions:
d
dx
[y(x) +z(x)] =
dy(x)
dx
+
dz(x)
dx
Chain rule
3. If y is a function of x and x is in turn a function of t, the derivative of y
with respect to t equals the product of the derivative of y with respect to z
and the derivative of z with respect to x:
d
dx
y(x) =
dy
dz
dz
dx
Derivative of a product
4. The derivative of a product of functions y(x)z(x) equals the ﬁrst func-
tion times the derivative of the second plus the second function times the
derivative of the ﬁrst:
d
dx
[y(x)z(x)] = y(x)
dz(x)
dx
+
dy(x)
dx
z(x)
242 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS
Reciprocal derivative
5. The derivative of y with respect to x is the reciprocal of the derivative of
x with respect to y, assuming that neither derivative is zero:
dy
dx
=

dx
dy

−1
if
dx
dy
= 0
Derivatives of particular functions
6.
dC
dx
= 0 where C is a constant 10.
d
dx
tan ωx = ω sec
2
ωx
7.
d(x
n
)
dx
= nx
n−1
11.
d
dx
e
bx
= be
bx
8.
d
dx
sin ωx = ω cos ωx 12.
d
dx
ln bx =
1
x
9.
d
dx
cos ωx = −ω sin ωx
Multiplicative constant rule Example
d
dx
[Cy(x)] = C
dy(x)
dx
.
This just means, for example, that
d
dx
(3x
2
) = 3
dx
2
dx
= 3 ×2x = 6x
(do Problem 4).
d
dx
[y(x) +z(x)] =
dy(x)
dx
+
dz(x)
dx
17.1. DERIVATIVE EQUALS SLOPE 243
Take for example y(x) = x and z(x) = x
2
. This rule just means
d
dx
(x +x
2
) =
dx
dx
+
dx
2
dx
= 1 + 2x
(do Problem 5)
Chain Rule
dy
dx
=
dy
dz
dz
dx
(A rough “proof” of this is to just note that the dz cancels in the numerator
and denominator.) The use of the chain rule is best seen in the following
example, where y is not given as a function of x.
Example Verify the chain rule for y = z
3
and z = x
2
.
Solution We have y(z) = z
3
and z(x) = x
2
. Thus y(x) = x
6
.
.
. .
dy
dx
= 6x
5
dy
dz
= 3z
2
dz
dx
= 2x
Now
dy
dz
dz
dx
= (3z
2
)(2x) = (3x
4
)(2x) = 6x
5
. Thus we see that
dy
dx
=
dy
dz
dz
dx
.
Product Rule
d
dx
[y(x)z(x)] = y(x)
dz(x)
dx
+
dy(x)
dx
z(x)
The use of this arises when multiplying two functions together as illus-
trated in the next example.
Example If y(x) = x
3
and z(x) = x
2
, verify the product rule.
Solution y(x)z(x) = x
5

d
dx
[y(x)z(x)] =
dx
5
dx
= 5x
4
Now let’s show that the product rule gives the same answer.
y(x)
dz(x)
dx
= x
3
dx
2
dx
= x
3
2x = 2x
4
244 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS
dy(x)
dx
z(x) =
dx
3
dx
x
2
= 3x
2
x
2
= 3x
4
y(x)
dz(x)
dx
+
dy(x)
dx
z(x) = 2x
4
+ 3x
4
= 5x
4
in agreement with our answer above.
(do Problem 6)
17.1. DERIVATIVE EQUALS SLOPE 245
17.1.4 Extremum Value of a Function
A ﬁnal important use of the derivative is that it can be used to tell us when
a function attains a maximum or minimum value. This occurs when the
derivative or slope of the function is zero.
Example What are the (x, y) coordinates of the place where the parabola
y(x) = x
2
+ 3 has its minimum value?
Solution The minimum value occurs where the slope is 0. Thus
0 =
dy
dx
=
d
dx
(x
2
+ 3) = 2x
.
. . x = 0
y = x
2
+ 3
.
. . y = 3
Thus the minimum is at (x, y) = (0, 3). You can verify this by plotting a
graph.
(do Problem 7)
246 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS
17.2 Integral
17.2.1 Integral Equals Antiderivative
The derivative of y(x) = 3x is
dy
dx
= 3. The derivative of y(x) = x
2
is
dy
dx
= 2x. The derivative of y(x) = 5x
3
is
dy
dx
= 15x
2
.
Let’s play a game. I tell you the answer and you tell me the question.
Or I tell you the derivative
dy
dx
and you tell me the original function y(x)
that it came from. Ready?
If
dy
dx
= 3 then y(x) = 3x
If
dy
dx
= 2x then y(x) = x
2
If
dy
dx
= 15x
2
then y(x) = 5x
3
We can generalize this to a rule.
If
dy
dx
= x
n
then y(x) =
1
n + 1
x
n+1
Actually I have cheated. Let’s look at the following functions
y(x) = 3x + 2
y(x) = 3x + 7
y(x) = 3x + 12
y(x) = 3x +C (C is an arbitrary constant)
y(x) = 3x
All of them have the same derivative
dy
dx
= 3. Thus in our little game of
re-constructing the original function y(x) from the derivative
dy
dx
there is
always an ambiguity in that y(x) could always have some constant added to
it.
Thus the correct answers in our game are
If
dy
dx
= 3 then y(x) = 3x + constant
(Actually instead of always writing constant, let me just write C)
17.2. INTEGRAL 247
If
dy
dx
= 2x then y(x) = x
2
+C
If
dy
dx
= 15x
2
then y(x) = 5x
3
+C
If
dy
dx
= x
n
then y(x) =
1
n + 1
x
n+1
+C.
This original function y(x) that we are trying to get is given a special
name called the antiderivative or integral, but it’s nothing more than the
original function.
17.2.2 Integral Equals Area Under Curve
Let’s see how to extract the integral from our original deﬁnition of derivative.
The slope of a curve is
∆y
∆x
or
dy
dx
when the ∆ increments are tiny. Notice
that y(x) is a function of x but so also is
dy
dx
. Let’s call it
f(x) ≡
dy
dx
=
∆y
∆x
(17.10)
Thus if f(x) =
dy
dx
= 2x then y(x) = x
2
+ C, and similarly for the other
examples.
In equation (17.10) I have written
∆y
∆x
also because
dy
dx
is just a tiny
version of
∆y
∆x
.
Obviously then
∆y = f ∆x (17.11)
or
dy = f dx (17.12)
What happens if I add up many ∆y’s. For instance suppose you are aged
18. Then if I add up many age increments in your life, such as
Age = ∆Age
1
+ ∆Age
2
+ ∆Age
3
+ ∆Age
4
· · ·
1 year + 3 years + 0.5 year + 5 years + 0.5 year + 5 years + 3 years
= 18 years
I get your complete age. Thus if I add up all possible increments of ∆y I
get back y. That is
y = ∆y
1
+ ∆y
2
+ ∆y
3
+ ∆y
4
+· · ·
or symbolically
y =
¸
i
∆y
i
(17.13)
248 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS
where
∆y
i
= f
i
∆x
i
(17.14)
Now looking at Fig. 22.3 we can see that the area of the shaded section is
just f
i
∆x
i
. Thus ∆y
i
is an area of a little shaded region. Add them all up
and we have the total area under the curve. Thus
Area under
curve f(x)
=
¸
i
f
i
∆x
i
=
¸
i
∆y
i
∆x
i
∆x
i
=
¸
i
∆y
i
= y (17.15)
Let’s now make the little intervals ∆y
i
and ∆x
i
very tiny. Call them dy
and dx. If I am using tiny intervals in my sum
¸
I am going to use a new
symbol

. Thus
Area =

fdx =

dy
dx
dx =

dy = y (17.16)
which is just the tiny version of (17.15). Notice that the dx “cancels”.
In formula (17.16) recall the following. The derivative is f(x) ≡
dy
dx
and y is my original function which we called the integral or antiderivative.
We now see that the integral or antiderivative or original function can be
interpreted as the area under the derivative curve f(x) ≡
dy
dx
.
By the way

f dx reads “integral of f with respect to x.”
Summary: if f =
dy
dx
⇒y =

f dx
Summary of 1.2.1 and 1.2.2
y(x) = x
2
dy
dx
= 2x ≡ f(x)
y(x) = x
2
+ 4
dy
dx
= 2x ≡ f(x)
⇒ if f(x) ≡
dy
dx
= 2x ⇒y(x) = x
2
+c
f(x) =
dy
dx
=
∆y
∆x
∆y = f∆x dy = f dx
y =
¸
i
∆y
i
=

dy
17.2. INTEGRAL 249
=
¸
i
f
i
∆x
i
=

f dx
= Area under curve f(x)
= Antiderivative
y =

f dx
E.g.

2xdx = x
2
+c
do a few more examples.
Example What is

xdx?
Solution The derivative function is f(x) =
dy
dx
= x. Therefore the original
function must be
1
2
x
2
+c. Thus

xdx =
1
2
x
2
+c
(do Problem 8)
17.2.3 Deﬁnite and Indeﬁnite Integrals
The integral

xdx is supposed to give us the area under the curve x, but
our answer in the above example (
1
2
x
2
+ c) doesn’t look much like an area.
We would expect the area to be a number.
Example What is the area under the curve f(x) = 4 between x
1
= 1 and
x
2
= 6?
Solution This is easy because f(x) = 4 is just a horizontal straight line as
shown in Fig. 22.4. The area is obviously 4 ×5 = 20.
Consider

4dx = 4x + c. This is called an indeﬁnite integral or an-
tiderivative. The integral which gives us the area is actually the deﬁnite
250 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS
integral written

x
2
x
1
4dx ≡ [4x +c]
x
2
x
1
≡ (4x
2
+c) −(4x
1
+c)
= [4x]
x
2
x
1
= 4x
2
−4x
1
(17.17)
Let’s explain this. The formula 4x+c by itself does not give the area directly.
For an area we must always specify x
1
and x
2
(see Fig. 22.4) so that we know
what area we are talking about. In the previous example we got 4 ×5 = 20
from 4x
2
− 4x
1
= (4 × 6) − (4 × 1) = 24 − 4 = 20, which is the same as
(17.17). Thus (17.17) must be the correct formula for area. Notice here that
it doesn’t matter whether we include the c because it cancels out.
Thus

4dx = 4x + c is the antiderivative or indeﬁnite integral and it
gives a general formula for the area but not the value of the area itself. To
evaluate the value of the area we need to specify the edges x
1
and x
2
of the
area under consideration as we did in (17.17). Using (17.17) to work out
the previous example we would write

6
1
4dx = [4x +c]
6
1
= [(4 ×6) +c] −[(4 ×1) +c]
= 24 +c −4 −c
= 24 −4 = 20 (17.18)
Example Evaluate the area under the curve f(x) = 3x
2
between x
1
= 3
and x
2
= 5.
Solution

5
3
3x
2
dx = [x
3
+c]
5
3
= (125 +c) −(27 +c) = 98
(do Problem 9)
17.2. INTEGRAL 251
Figure 22.1 Plot of the graph y(x) = 2x + 1. The slope
∆y
∆x
= 2.
252 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS
Figure 22.2 Plot of y(x) = x
2
+ 1. Some tiny little pieces are indicated,
which look straight.
17.2. INTEGRAL 253
Figure 22.3 A general function f(x). The area under the shaded rectangle
is approximately f
i
∆x
i
. The total area under the curve is therefore
¸
i
f
i
∆x
i
.
If the ∆x
i
are tiny then write ∆x
i
= dx and write
¸
i
=

. The area is then

f(x)dx.
254 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS
Figure 22.4 Plot of f(x) = 4. The area under the curve between x
1
= 1
and x
2
= 6 is obviously 4 ×5 = 20.
17.3. PROBLEMS 255
17.3 Problems
1. Calculate the derivative of y(x) = 5x + 2.
2. Calculate the slope of the curve y(x) = 3x
2
+ 1 at the points x = −1,
x = 0 and x = 2.
3. Calculate the derivative of x
4
using the formula
dx
n
dx
= nx
n−1
. Verify
your answer by calculating the derivative from
dy
dx
= lim
∆x→0
y(x+∆x)−y(x)
∆x
.
4. Prove that
d
dx
(3x
2
) = 3
dx
2
dx
.
5. Prove that
d
dx
(x +x
2
) =
dx
dx
+
dx
2
dx
.
6. Verify the chain rule and product rule using some examples of your
own.
7. Where do the extremum values of y(x) = x
2
− 4 occur? Verify your
answer by plotting a graph.
8. Evaluate

x
2
dx and

3x
3
dx.
9. What is the area under the curve f(x) = x between x
1
= 0 and x
2
= 3?
Work out your answer i) graphically and ii) with the integral.
256 CHAPTER 17. REVIEW OF CALCULUS
Bibliography
[1] D. Halliday, R. Resnick and J. Walker, Fundamentals of Physics (Wiley,
New York, 1997).
257

2

Contents
1 MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE 1.1 Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Position and Displacement . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Average Velocity and Average Speed . . . 1.4 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed . . . . . 1.5 Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 Constant Acceleration: A Special Case . . 1.7 Another Look at Constant Acceleration . 1.8 Free-Fall Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . 1.9 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 VECTORS 2.1 Vectors and Scalars . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Adding Vectors: Graphical Method . . 2.3 Vectors and Their Components . . . . 2.3.1 Review of Trigonometry . . . . 2.3.2 Components of Vectors . . . . 2.4 Unit Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Adding Vectors by Components . . . . 2.6 Vectors and the Laws of Physics . . . 2.7 Multiplying Vectors . . . . . . . . . . 2.7.1 The Scalar Product (often called 2.7.2 The Vector Product . . . . . . 2.8 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 12 12 14 17 18 20 23 24 28 31 32 33 34 34 37 39 41 43 43 43 45 46

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. . . . . . . . . dot product) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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3 MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS 47 3.1 Moving in Two or Three Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 3.2 Position and Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 3.3 Velocity and Average Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 3

4 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 Acceleration and Average Acceleration Projectile Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . Projectile Motion Analyzed . . . . . . Uniform Circular Motion . . . . . . . Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 51 52 58 61 65 66 66 66 66 66 67 68 69 77 79 80 80 82 82 85

4 FORCE & MOTION - I 4.1 What Causes an Acceleration? 4.2 Newton’s First Law . . . . . . . 4.3 Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Newton’s Second Law . . . . . 4.6 Some Particular Forces . . . . . 4.7 Newton’s Third Law . . . . . . 4.8 Applying Newton’s Laws . . . . 4.9 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 FORCE & MOTION - II 5.1 Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Properties of Friction . . . . . . 5.3 Drag Force and Terminal Speed 5.4 Uniform Circular Motion . . . 5.5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . .

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6 POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 89 6.1 Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 6.2 Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 6.3 Work-Energy Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 6.4 Gravitational Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 6.5 Conservation of Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 6.6 Spring Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 6.7 Appendix: alternative method to obtain potential energy . . 103 6.8 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 7 SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES 7.1 A Special Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 The Center of Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Newton’s Second Law for a System of Particles 7.4 Linear Momentum of a Point Particle . . . . . 7.5 Linear Momentum of a System of Particles . . 107 108 108 114 115 115

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CONTENTS 7.6 7.7

5

Conservation of Linear Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 119 120 120 120 123 124 126 129

8 COLLISIONS 8.1 What is a Collision? . . . . . . . . 8.2 Impulse and Linear Momentum . . 8.3 Elastic Collisions in 1-dimension . 8.4 Inelastic Collisions in 1-dimension 8.5 Collisions in 2-dimensions . . . . . 8.6 Reactions and Decay Processes . . 8.7 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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9 ROTATION 9.1 Translation and Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 The Rotational Variables . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 Are Angular Quantities Vectors? . . . . . . . 9.4 Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration 9.5 Relating the Linear and Angular Variables . . 9.6 Kinetic Energy of Rotation . . . . . . . . . . 9.7 Calculating the Rotational Inertia . . . . . . 9.8 Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.9 Newton’s Second Law for Rotation . . . . . . 9.10 Work and Rotational Kinetic Energy . . . . 9.11 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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131 . 132 . 132 . 134 . 134 . 134 . 135 . 136 . 140 . 140 . 140 . 142

10 ROLLING, TORQUE & ANGULAR MOMENTUM 145 10.1 Rolling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 10.2 Yo-Yo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 10.3 Torque Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 10.4 Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 10.5 Newton’s Second Law in Angular Form . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 10.6 Angular Momentum of a System of Particles . . . . . . . . . 149 10.7 Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body Rotating About a Fixed Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 10.8 Conservation of Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 10.9 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 11 GRAVITATION 153 11.1 The World and the Gravitational Force . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 11.2 Newton’s Law of Gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

. . . . . . . . . 13. . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 WAVES . . . . . . . . . . 13.5 An Angular Simple Harmonic 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kepler’s Laws . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Standing Waves and Resonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Types of Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.6 Wave Speed on a String . . . . . . .8 Gravitation and Principle of Superposition . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . .13Problems . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gravitational Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . .11 Standing Waves .5 Intensity and Sound Level 14. .6 Pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves . .5 11. . . . . . . .2 Speed of Sound . . . . . . . Gravitation Near Earth’s Surface . Gravitation Inside Earth . . . . .4 11. . . . . . 14. . . . . 12. .8 Principle of Superposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . .6 Sources of Musical Sound 14. . . . . . 14. . . . . . . .1 Oscillations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Energy and Power of a Travelling String Wave 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Interference . . . . . .10 Phasors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Force Law for SHM .8 Doppler Eﬀect . . . . .1 Sound Waves . . .6 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Wavelength and Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Beats . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . 12. . . . . . .I 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 11. . . . . . . 13. . . .4 Energy in SHM . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . CONTENTS .3 11. 13. . . . . . . . . . .7 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . .3 Travelling Sound Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Speed of a Travelling Wave . . . . . . . . .9 Interference of Waves . . . . . . . . . . Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 WAVES . . . . . . .1 Waves and Particles . . . . . . . . . .II 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 159 161 163 170 174 175 176 176 178 181 182 183 189 191 192 192 192 193 194 196 196 196 196 196 197 197 199 201 202 202 202 202 202 203 204 205 12 OSCILLATIONS 12. . . . . .7 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Derivative Equals Slope .2 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics . . . . 16. . . . . .CONTENTS 7 14. 220 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Distribution of Molecular Speeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Problems . 17. .1 Slope of a Straight Line . . . . .7 The Absorption of Heat by Solids and Liquids . 225 .4 Extremum Value of a Function .5 Thermal Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Review of Calculus 17. . . . . . Farenheit and Kelvin Temperature Scales . .1. .8 A Closer Look at Heat and Work . . . . . HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 211 15. . . . . . . 212 15. . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . 222 15. . 215 15. . . . . . . . 17. . . . . . . . . . Temperature and RMS Speed 16. . . . . . . . . . .2 Slope of a Curve . . 212 15. . . . . .9 Problems . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . 17. . . . . .2. . . . . . . .4 Celsius. . . . . . . 219 15. . 233 235 235 235 236 239 245 246 246 247 249 255 . . . . . 226 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . .2. . . . 226 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 15. . . .3 Ideal Gases .2 Integral Equals Area Under Curve 17. . . . . . . . .2 Avagadro’s Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Special Cases of 1st Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Mean Free Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Measuring Temperature . 16. . . 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 .9 The First Law of Thermodynamics . . . . .5 Translational Kinetic Energy . . . . .2. . . 223 16 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 16. . . 16. . .3 Some Common Derivatives . . . . . . . . . .6 Temperature and Heat .2 Integral . . . . . . .1 Integral Equals Antiderivative . . . . . . . . 16. . . .3 Deﬁnite and Indeﬁnite Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 15. 17. . . 212 15. . 208 15 TEMPERATURE.11 Heat Transfer Mechanisms . . . . . . .4 Pressure. . . 212 15. . . . . . . 215 15. . . . . . . . . . . . 232 . . . . . . . 17. . .1 A New Way to Look at Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 . 17. . . . . 226 . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Problems . . . .

The typical text is quite densed mathematics and physics and it’s simply impossible for a student to read all of this in the detail required. Thus ten chapters of the typical book are left out! 1500 pages divided by 30 weeks is about 50 pages per week. Now I know what publishers and authors say of these books. giving 30 weeks at best for a year long course. 1997)]. students and instructors are left with a feeling of incompleteness. and other ﬁelds. having usually covered only about half of the book and only about ten percent of the problems.. Students and instructors are supposed to only cover a selection of the material. Thus it is impossible for a student to fully read and do all the problems in the standard introductory books. it’s not possible for a student to do 100 problems each week. by Halliday. they will have a good knowledge of introductory physics. Thus these books are not useful to students or instructors teaching the typical course! In defense of the typical introductory textbook. but also mathematics. I want to be able to comfortably cover one short chapter each week. chemistry) are simply not useful to either students or instructors. and the same goes for the problems. If they have done that. with maybe 40 chapters and over 100 problems per chapter. 5th ed. and to have each student read the entire chapter and do every problem. Resnick and Walker [Fundamental of Physics. At the fastest possible rate. The books are written so that an instructor can pick and choose the topics that are deemed best for the course. which is an outstanding introductory physics reference book. I want to say to the students at the beginning of the course that they should read the entire book from cover to cover and do every problem. New York. However I object to this. This is overkill! A typical semester is 15 weeks long. The typical freshman textbook in physics. They are certainly very ﬁne reference books. As an instructor. is over 1000 pages long. This is why I have written this book. psychology. but I believe they are poor text books. Resnick and Walker.8 CONTENTS PREFACE The reason for writing this book was due to the fact that modern introductory textbooks (not only in physics. Also with 100 problems per chapter. I will say that their content is usually excellent and very well writtten. I had been using that book in my course. but could not cover it all due to the reasons listed above. I want a textbook that is self contained. Actually it is based on the introductory physics textbook by Halliday. (Wiley. we can ”cover” only one chapter per week. . At the end of the typical course. For a year long course that is 30 chapters at best.

CONTENTS 9 Availability of this eBook At the moment this book is freely available on the world wide web and can be downloaded as a pdf ﬁle. The book is still in progress and will be updated and improved from time to time. .

a way of deﬁning something by pointing out examples. All ﬁelds of technology and engineering are very strongly based on physics principles. Astrophysics and Cosmology Nuclear Physics Condensed Matter Physics Atoms and Molecules Biophysics Solids. i. This is what an introductory physics course is all about. Liquids.10 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION . x-ray) were developed by physicists. Thus anyone who plans to work in any sort of technical area needs to know the basics of physics. Gases Electronics Geophysics Acoustics Elementary particles Materials science Thus physics is a very fundamental science which explores nature from the scale of the tiniest particles to the behaviour of the universe and many things in between.e. Also the World Wide Web was invented at the famous physics laboratory called the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). . chemistry.What is Physics? A good way to deﬁne physics is to use what philosophers call an ostensive deﬁnition. such as: Motion (this semester) Thermodynamics (this semester) Electricity and Magnetism Optics and Lasers Relativity Quantum mechanics Astronomy. Much of the communication today occurs via ﬁber optical cables which were developed from studies in physics. Much of the electronics and computer industry is based on physics principles. medicine rely heavily on techniques and ideas from physics. namely getting to know the basic principles upon which most of our modern technological society is based. For example. many of the diagnostic instruments used in medicine (MRI. Most of the other sciences such as biology. geology. Physics studies the following general topics.

2. DRIVING YOUR CAR. THEMES: 1.Chapter 1 MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT: Design a simple experiment which shows that objects of diﬀerent weight fall at the same rate if the eﬀect of air resistance is eliminated. DROPPING AN OBJECT. 11 .

MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE INTRODUCTION: There are two themes we will deal with in this chapter. Actually.2 Position and Displacement In 1-dimension. speed and acceleration. You want to be able to accelerate quickly.12 CHAPTER 1. say a real landscape. In this chapter we will spend a lot of time studying the concepts of distance. that’s a pretty amazing phenomenom. When you drive you car and go on a journey there are several things you are interested in. WHY did the speed of the ball increase ? You might say gravity.1 Read. because the x-axis is just something we invented to put on top of. . Typically these are distance travelled and the speed with which you travel. Also you are often interested in the acceleration of your car. it goes faster at bottom if released from diﬀerent heights 2) Drop a ball and a pen (diﬀerent weights . especially for a very short journey such as a little speed race with you and your friend. Motion 1. It is up to us to deﬁne where to put the origin. They concern DRIVING YOUR CAR and DROPPING AN OBJECT. and therefore gravity provided an acceleration. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: 1) Drop a ball and hold at diﬀerent heights. Often you want to know how long a journey will take if you drive at a certain speed over a certain distance. positions are measured along the x-axis with respect to some origin. But what’s that ? The speed of the ball increased. 1. both hit the ground at the same time Another item of interest is what happens when an object is dropped from a certain height. If you drop a ball you know it starts oﬀ with zero speed and ends up hitting the ground with a large speed.weigh on balance and show they are diﬀerent weight). But how ? Why ? When ? We shall address all of these deep questions in this chapter. if you think about it.

Displacement is deﬁned as a change in position. x = 100 miles. If we deﬁne the origin of x-axis to be at Milwaukee. Milwaukee and Glendale ? B.1. x = 0 miles. x = 110 miles. then the initial position is x1 = 0 miles and the ﬁnal position is x2 = 100 miles. Sometimes you will instead see it written as ∆anything ≡ anthingf − anythingi where subscripts f and i are used for the ﬁnal and initial values instead of the 2 and 1 subscripts. For someone in Milwaukee. If we deﬁne the origin of the x-axis to be at Glendale what is the position of someone in Chicago. Try it. what is the position of someone in Chicago. Speciﬁcally. so that ∆x = x2 − x1 = 100 miles. ∆x ≡ x2 − x1 (1. For someone in Glendale. Milwaukee and Glendale ? Solution A. For someone in Chicago. . B. x = 0 miles. Example What is the displacement for someone driving from Milwaukee to Chicago ? What is the distance ? Solution With the origin at Milwaukee. For someone in Glendale. You get the same answer with the origin deﬁned at Gendale. The distance is also 100 miles. For someone in Milwaukee. A. For someone in Chicago. x = 10 miles.2. x = −10 miles. POSITION AND DISPLACEMENT 13 Example Chicago is 100 miles south of Milwaukee and Glendale is 10 miles north of Milwaukee.1) Note: We always write ∆anything ≡ anthing2 −anything1 where anything2 is the ﬁnal value and anything1 is the initial value.

2) whereas average speed is just the total distance divided by the time interval. s≡ ¯ (1. v≡ ¯ ∆x x2 − x1 = ∆t t2 − t 1 total distance ∆t (1. The odometer does not read displacement (except if displacment and distance are the same. then the initial position is x1 = 0 miles and the ﬁnal position is also x2 = 0 miles.3 Average Velocity and Average Speed Average velocity is deﬁned as the ratio of displacement divided by the corresponding time interval.14 CHAPTER 1.3) . You get the same answer with the origin deﬁned at Gendale. Do Checkpoint 1 [from Halliday]. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE Example What is the displacement for someone driving from Milwaukee to Chicago and back ? What is the distance ? Solution With the origin at Milwaukee. Note that the distance is what the odometer on your car reads. Try it. as is the case for a one way straight line journey). so that ∆x = x2 − x1 = 0 miles. Thus there is no displacement if the beginning and end points are the same. The distance is 200 miles. 1.

The average speed is the same as average velocity in this case because the total distance is the same as the displacement. ¯ 4 . hour This is standard. ¯ Example What is the average velocity and averge speed for someone driving from Milwaukee to Chicago and back to Milwaukee who takes 4 hours for the journey ? Solution ∆x = 0 miles and ∆t = 2 hours. giving v = 0 ! ¯ However the total distance is 200 miles completed in 4 hours miles giving s = 200hours = 50 mph again.1. giving v = ¯ miles 50 hour ≡ 50 miles per hour ≡ 50 mph. We can always write any fraction a as a per b. b The word per just means divide. AVERAGE VELOCITY AND AVERAGE SPEED 15 Example What is the average velocity and averge speed for someone driving from Milwaukee to Chicago who takes 2 hours for the journey ? Solution ∆x = 100 miles and ∆t = 2 hours. 100 miles 2 hours = Note that the unit miles has been re-written as miles per hour. Thus s = 50 mph.3.

and how to interpret such graphs. t graph for 1) Object standing still. t and v.time and Velocity . [from Halliday] . Checkpoint 2 and Sample Problem 2-3. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE A very important thing to understand is how to read graphs of position and time and graphs of velocity and time. t graph. It is very important to understand how the average velocity is obtained from a position-time graph. 2-4 in Halliday. See Fig. Let’s plot an x.16 CHAPTER 1. 2-2. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: 1) Air track glider standing still 2) Air track glider moving at constant speed.1 Position . Note that the v. Careully study Sample Problems 2-1. x x t v v t t (A) (B) t FIGURE 2.time graphs for A) object standing still and B) object moving at constant speed. 2) Object at constant speed. t graph is the slope of the x.

We denote such a tiny time interval as dt instead of ∆t. . It is called the derivative of x with respect to t. INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY AND SPEED 17 1. Sometimes you might pass a truck and drive at 70 mph and when you get stuck in the traﬃc jams you might only drive at 20 mph. Now when the police use their radar gun and clock you at 70 mph.4.4) ∆t→0 ∆t dt Now such a fraction of one tiny dx divided by a tiny dt has a special name.4 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed When you drive to Chicago with an average velocity of 50 mph you probably don’t drive at this velocity the whole way. What is an instant ? It is nothing more than an extremely short time interval. However.1. v = lim Carefully study Sample Problem 2-4 [from Halliday]. or the limit of ∆t as ∆t → 0 (approaches zero). you might legitimately protest to the oﬃcer that your average velocity for the whole trip was only 50 mph and therefore you don’t deserve a speeding ticket. Thus let’s introduce the concept of instantaneous velocity and instantaneous speed. as we all know police oﬃcers don’t care about average velocity or average speed. Thus instantaneous velocity or just velocity is deﬁned as ∆x dx = (1. The corresponding distance that we travel over that tiny time interval will also be tiny and we denote that as dx instead of ∆x. The instantaneous speed or just speed is deﬁned as simply the magnitude of the instantaneous veloctiy or magnitude of velocity. The way to describe this mathematically is to say that an instant is when the time interval ∆t approaches zero. They only care about your speed at the instant that you pass them.

dx dt dv dt d dt v we can write a = d2 x dt2 = d dt dx dt which is often written ≡ . The average acceleration is deﬁned as v2 − v1 ∆v a= ¯ = t 2 − t1 ∆t and the instantaneous acceleration or just acceleration is deﬁned as a= Now because v = d instead as dt dx dt respect to time. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE 1. what is your average acceleration if you are able to reach 20 mph from rest in 5 seconds ? Solution v2 = 20 mph t2 = 5 seconds v1 = 0 t1 = 0 a = ¯ 20 mph − 0 20 miles per hour = 5 sec − 0 5 seconds miles = 4 = 4 mph per sec hour seconds miles = 14. Acceleration tells us how much velocity changes. 400 miles per hour2 = 4 1 hour 3600 hour .5 Acceleration We have seen that velocity tells us how quickly position changes.18 CHAPTER 1. that is the second derivative of position with Example When driving your car.

1.1. ACCELERATION LECTURE DEMONSTRATION (previous demo continued): 1) Air track glider standing still 2) Air track glider moving at constant speed.2 Acceleration-time graphs for motion depicted in Fig. . t graph. t graph for 1) Object standing still.5. t graph is the slope of the v. 19 a a t (A) (B) t FIGURE 2. Note that the the a. Now let’s also plot an a. 2. 2) Object at constant speed.

then we can derive 5 very handy equations that will tell us everything about the motion. We are going to use the following symbols: t1 ≡ 0 t2 ≡ t x1 ≡ x0 x2 ≡ x v1 ≡ v0 v2 ≡ v and acceleration a is a constant and so a1 = a2 = a.) Also. Thus now ∆t = t2 − t1 = t − 0 = t ∆x = x2 − x1 = x − x0 ∆v = v2 − v1 = v − v0 ∆a = a2 − a1 = a − a = 0 (∆a must be zero because we are only considering constant a.20 CHAPTER 1. very often the acceleration is constant. because acceleration is constant then average acceleration is always the same as instantaneous acceleration a=a ¯ Now use the deﬁnition of average acceleration a=a= ¯ Thus at = v − v0 or ∆v v − v0 v − v0 = = ∆t t−0 t .) When you drop an object and it falls to the ground it also has a constant acceleration.6 Constant Acceleration: A Special Case Velocity describes changing position and acceleration describes changing velocity. When driving your car the acceleration is usually constant when you speed up or slow down or put on the brakes. When the acceleration is constant. However. A quantity called jerk describes changing acceleration. and we don’t consider jerk. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE 1. Let’s derive them and then study some examples. (When you slow down or put on the brakes the acceleration is constant but negative and is called deceleration.

CONSTANT ACCELERATION: A SPECIAL CASE v = v0 + at 21 (1. then it is a straight line for a = constant.6) which is the second of our constant acceleration equations. In that case the average velocity is 1 v = (v + v0 ) ¯ 2 From the deﬁnition of average velocity v= ¯ we have x − x0 t = = giving 1 x − x0 = v0 t + at2 2 (1.5) which is the ﬁrst of our constant acceleration equations. we just combine the ﬁrst two. If you plot this on a v.6. t graph. 1 (v + v0 ) 2 1 (v0 + at + v0 ) 2 ∆x x − x0 = ∆t t .1. To get the other three constant acceleration equations.

6) gives x − x0 = v0 t + 1 v − v0 2 t 2 t 1 = v0 t + (vt − v0 t) 2 1 = (v0 + v)t 2 v − v0 t Exercise Prove that x − x0 = vt − 1 at2 2 carefully study Sample Problem 2. From (1.6) gives x − x0 = v0 v − v0 a v − v0 1 + a 2 a 2 v − v0 a 1 2 2 a(x − x0 ) = v0 v − v0 + (v 2 − 2vv0 + v0 ) 2 2 = v 2 − v0 or 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a(x − x0 ) Example Prove that x − x0 = 1 (v0 + v)t 2 Solution Obviously a has been eliminated.5) a= Substituting into (1.22 CHAPTER 1. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE Example Prove that 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a(x − x0 ) Solution Obviously t has been eliminated. From (1.8 [from Halliday] .5) t= Substituting into (1.

cannot take outside integral actually v(t) = v0 + at t2 x2 (v0 + at)dt = t1 x1 t2 t1 dx 1 v0 t + at2 2 = x2 − x1 1 = v0 (t2 − t1 ) + a(t2 − t1 )2 = x − x0 2 1 = v0 (t − 0) + a(t − 0)2 2 1 2 . a = a(t) a= t2 dv dt dv dt dt v2 a dt = t1 t2 a t1 dt = v1 dv a(t2 − t1 ) = v2 − v1 a(t − 0) = v − v0 v = v0 + at v= v dt = dx dt dx dt dt .7 Another Look at Constant Acceleration (This section is only for students who have studied integral calculus. v changes . For constant acceleration a = a(x).) The constant acceleration equations can be derived from integral calculus as follows. . ANOTHER LOOK AT CONSTANT ACCELERATION 23 1.1.7... x − x0 = v0 t + 1 at2 = v0 t + at 2 2 a= dv dv dx dv = =v dt dx dt dx .

.8 m/sec2 ).8 m/sec2 If we neglect air resistance. Water does not leak out if the cup is dropped. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE x2 a dx = x1 x2 v dv dx dx v dv v2 a x1 dx = v1 a(x2 − x1 ) = = a(x − x0 ) = 1 2 v2 v 2 v1 1 2 2 v − v1 2 2 1 2 2 v − v0 2 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a(x − x0 ) One can now get the other equations using algebra.8 Free-Fall Acceleration a = −g = −9. then all falling objects have same acceleration (g = 9. 1. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: 1) Feather and penny in vacuum tube 2) Drop a cup ﬁlled with water which has a hole in the bottom.24 CHAPTER 1. Water leaks out if the cup is held stationary.

8 m/sec2 x0 = 0 x = H v 2 = 0 − 2 × g (0 − −H) v= Check units: 2gH √ The units of g are m sec−2 and H is in m. with what speed does it hit the ground ? Check that the units are correct. Thus 2gH has units √ √ of m sec−2 m = m2 sec−2 = m sec−1 .8. Solution 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a(x − x0 ) 25 v0 = 0 a = −g = −9. 2-11.1. FREE-FALL ACCELERATION Carefully study Sample Problems 2-9. 2-10. [from Halliday] Example I drop a ball from a height H. which is the correct unit for speed. .

In Two New Sciences we ﬁnd the following [Pg.1642). By the way. PROPOSITION II : The spaces described by a falling body from rest with a uniformly accelerated motion are to each other as the squares of the time intervals employed in traversing these distances. QC 123.G1356].G13] and Dialogue concerning the Two Chief World Systems [QB 41. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE HISTORICAL NOTE The constant acceleration equations were ﬁrst discovered by Galileo Galilei (1564 . 1933. 173]: “THEOREM I.” This is Galileo’s statement of 1 1 x − x0 = v0 t + at2 = vt − at2 2 2 (1. Galileo is widely regarded as the “father of modern science” because he was really the ﬁrst person who went out and actually did expreiments to arrive at facts about nature. New York.3. Galileo also invented the astronomical telescope ! . 174]: “THEOREM II.8) (1.” In other words this is Galileo’s statement of our equation 1 x − x0 = (v0 + v)t 2 We also ﬁnd [Pg.26 CHAPTER 1. PROPOSITION I : The time in which any space is traversed by a body starting from rest and uniformly accelerated is equal to the time in which that same space would be traversed by the same body moving at a unifrom speed whose value is the mean of the highest speed and the speed just before acceleration began. rather than relying solely on philosophical argument. Galileo wrote two famous books entitled Dialogues concerning Two New Sciences [Macmillan.7) Galileo was able to test this equation with the simple device shown in Figure 2.

Schramm (Scientiﬁc American Library. FREE-FALL ACCELERATION 27 moveable fret wires FIGURE 2.8.2. [from “From Quarks to the Cosmos” Leon M.1. 1989) QB43. New York. Lederman and David N.3 Galileo’s apparatus for verifying the constant acceleration equations.L43 .

E. ω? B) Write down the velocity and acceleration equations as a function of time. Derive a formula for how long it takes to . 4. 2. C. a as a function of time.28 CHAPTER 1. The ﬁgures below show position-time graphs. C) Sketch graphs of x. Sketch the corresponding velocity-time and acceleration-time graphs. The instant it passes. the driver of the second car decides to try to catch up to the ﬁrst car. x x x t t t 3. C. ω are constants. by stepping on the gas pedal and moving at acceleration a. A) What are the units for A. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE 1. Indicate for what functions the acceleration is constant. A car is travelling at constant speed v1 and passes a second car moving at speed v2 . E. D. B. If you drop an object from a height H above the ground. v.9 Problems 1. D. work out a formula for the speed with which the object hits the ground. The following functions give the position as a function of time: i) x = A ii) x = Bt iii) x = Ct2 iv) x = D cos ωt v) x = E sin ωt where A. B.

1. If you throw a ball up vertically at speed V . with what speed does it return to the ground ? Prove your answer using the constant acceleration equations. what is your acceleration in mph per sec and in miles per hour2 ? 6. If you start your car from rest and accelerate to 30mph in 10 seconds. and neglect air resistance. .9.) 5. (The ﬁrst car travels at constant speed v1 and does not accelerate. PROBLEMS 29 catch up.

MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE .30 CHAPTER 1.

Chapter 2 VECTORS 31 .

1 Graphical solution to river problem. However the river is ﬂowing downstream and by the time they reach the other side.32 CHAPTER 2. could take a + or − sign): displacement. 3. Quantities that don’t have a sign were distance. . Vectors are quantities with both magnitude and direction.1. They row in a direction perpendicular to the bank.e. Now in 2 and 3 dimensions we need more than a + or − sign. magnitude of acceleration. Scalars are quantities with magnitude only. temperature Before delving into vectors consider the following problem. That’s where vectors come in. Over what total distance did the boat travel? Solution Obviously the way to do this is with the triangle in Fig. velocity and acceleration. velocity. We found that the following quantities had a direction (i. namely motion to the Right or motion to the Left and we indicated direction with a + or − sign. speed and magnitude of acceleration. Example Joe and Mary are rowing a boat across a river which is 40 m wide. they end up 30 m downstream from their starting point. speed.1 Vectors and Scalars When we considered 1-dimensional motion in the last chapter we only had two directions to worry about. momentum. acceleration. time. force. electric ﬁeld Examples of Scalars are: distance. Examples of Vectors are: displacement. and we deduce that the distance is 50 m. VECTORS 2. 50 m 40 m 30 m FIGURE 3.

2. FIGURE 3. with a length of 30 m.3 Displacement across the river. ADDING VECTORS: GRAPHICAL METHOD 33 2.2. denoted B.2 Displacement along the river. denoted as A and the displacement across the river.2 Adding Vectors: Graphical Method Another way to think about the previous problem is with vectors. which are little arrows whose orientation speciﬁes direction and whose length speciﬁes magnitude.4. with length of 40 m.4 Vector addition solution to the river problem. FIGURE 3. To re-construct the previous triangle. 3. the vectors are added head-to-tail as in Fig. The displacement along the river is represented as FIGURE 3. .

To learn this we must learn about components.1 Review of Trigonometry Lines are made by connecting two points. Thus there is always the problem of inaccuracy in making these measurements. i. 2. Mathematically we write C = A + B.34 CHAPTER 2. You would ﬁnd it to be 50 m. . Summary: When adding any two vectors A and B. The graphical method of solving our original problem is to take out a ruler and actually measure the length of the resultant vector C. Let’s draw one: Hypotenuse FIGURE 3. To do this we need trigonometry. denoted C. we add them head-to-tail.5 Right-angled triangle.3 Vectors and Their Components The graphical method requires the use of a ruler and protractor for measuring the lengths of vectors and their angles. a triangle where one of the angles is 90◦ . Of all the vast number of diﬀerent possible triangles. is obtained by ﬁlling in the triangle.e.3. VECTORS The resultant vector. Triangles are made by connecting three points. It’s better to use analytical methods which rely on pure calculation. the subject of trigonometry has to do with only a certain. Students should read the textbook to obtain more details about using the graphical method. 2. special type of triangle and that is a right-angled triangle.

2. α Adjacent Hypotenuse Opposite FIGURE 3. Opposite Hypotenuse θ Adjacent FIGURE 3.7 Right-angled triangle showing sides Opposite and Adjacent to the angle α.3. The Opposite and Adjacent sides are switched because the angle is diﬀerent. VECTORS AND THEIR COMPONENTS 35 The side opposite the right angle is always called the Hypotenuse. Opposite as O and Adjacent as A.6 Right-angled triangle showing sides Opposite and Adjacent to the angle θ. Consider one of the other angles. Let’s label Hypotenuse as H. Pythagoras’ theorem states H 2 = A2 + O2 . say θ. The side adjacent to θ is called Adjacent and the side opposite θ is called Opposite. Now consider the other angle α.

Cosine α. VECTORS This is true no matter how the Opposite and Adjacent sides are labelled. H . write down Sine θ. A is called Tangent. Cosine θ. TOA. it doesn’t matter for Pythagoras’ theorem. .6 50m 5 40m 4 = = = 0. Remember them by writing SOH.6 50m 5 40m 4 = = = 1.36 CHAPTER 2. These special ratios are given special names. CAH.8 Triangle for river problem.33 30m 3 30m 3 = = = 0. O .8 50m 5 30m 3 = = = 0. Tangent α Solution Sine θ = Cosine θ = Tangent θ = Sine α = Cosine α = Tangent α = O H A H O A O H A H O A 40m 4 = = 0. Some possible O A O combinations are H .e.8 50m 5 30m 3 = = = 0. if Opposite and Adjacent are interchanged. Often we are interested in dividing one side by another.75 40m 4 = α 50 m 40 m θ 30 m FIGURE 3. i. Tangent θ Sine α. H A A O is called Sine. Example Using the previous triangle for the river problem. H is called Cosine.

2. 3. determined not by the force F . Cosine or Tangent then we always know what the corresponding angle is.11. as shown in Fig. So if we have calculated any of the ratios. VECTORS AND THEIR COMPONENTS 37 Now whenever the Sine of an angle is 0.75 the angle is always 36. These are like shadows on the x and y areas.3.1◦ .9.2. Ax and Ay . Pull a cart with a rope at some angle to the ground. The cart will move with a certain acceleration. If you change the angle. The components are denoted Ax and Ay and are obtained by dropping a perpendicular line from the vector to the x and y axes. the acceleration of the cart will change.2 Components of Vectors An arbitrary vector has both x and y components. but by the component Fx in the x direction. .9 Components.1◦ .8 the angle is always 53. Sine.9◦ .3. Again whenever Tangent of an angle is 0. y Ay A Ax x FIGURE 3. Thus θ = 53. That’s why we consider trigonometry and right-angled triangles! A physical understanding of components can be obtained. of vector A. as shown in Figure 3.

3.38 LECTURE DEMONSTRATION of Fig. .10.10: CHAPTER 2.10. 3.10 Pulling a cart with a force F . writing A instead of F as follows: A θ α Ay Ax FIGURE 3.11 Components and angles for Fig. VECTORS F Fx FIGURE 3. Let’s re-draw Figure 3.

do Sample Problem 3-3 in Lecture 2. as in Fig. cos α = A ) A A Thus if we have the components. sin α = Ax . A and θ) x and y components (Ax and Ay ). 3. (The symbol ∧ is used to denote these unit vectors. Similarly if we start with A and θ (or α) we can always ﬁnd Ax and Ay . cos θ = Ax . . Ax and Ay we can always get the magnitude and direction of the vector. namely A and θ (or α). There’s another very useful and compact way to write vectors and that is by using unit vectors.) y i x FIGURE 3. Thus Pythagoras’ theorem gives A 2 = A 2 + A2 x y and also tan θ = and tan α = A Ay Ax Ax Ay A y y (Also sin θ = A . The unit vector ˆ is deﬁned to always have a length of i 1 and to always lie in the positive x direction. UNIT VECTORS 39 Let’s denote the magnitude or length of A simply as A.4 Unit Vectors A vector is completely speciﬁed by writing down magnitude and direction (i.12 Unit vector ˆ i.e.12.4.2.

y j x FIGURE 3.14 Unit vector k. y k z ˆ FIGURE 3. VECTORS Similarly the unit vector ˆ is deﬁned to always have a length of 1 also but j to lie entirely in the positive y direction.40 CHAPTER 2. ˆ The unit vector k lies in the psoitive z direction. Thus any arbitrary vector A is now written as ˆ i j A = Axˆ + Ay ˆ + Az k (Think about this and make sure you understand.) x .13 Unit vector ˆ j.

5 Adding Vectors by Components Finally we will now see the use of components and unit vectors. 3. . but we have also indicated all the components.2. By carefully looking at the ﬁgure you can see that Cx = Ax + Bx Cy = Ay + By This is a very important result. In Fig.5. ADDING VECTORS BY COMPONENTS 41 2. Remember how we discussed adding vectors graphically using a ruler and protractor. because then we can get our answers by pure calculation.15 Adding vectors by components. y C B Bx Ay By Cy A Ax Cx x FIGURE 3. A better method is with the use of components.16 we have shown two vectors A and B added to form C.

When we write C =A+B you should say. Whenever anyone writes something like D = F +E it actually means two things. VECTORS Now let’s back-track for a minute. C =A+B is simply i j i j i j Cxˆ + Cy ˆ = Axˆ + Ay ˆ + Bxˆ + By ˆ ˆ + (Ay + By )ˆ = (Ax + Bx )i j and equating coeﬃcients of ˆ and ˆ gives i j Cx = Ax + Bx and Cy = Ay + By . B and C are not numbers. By . Cx . “Wait a minute! What does the + sign mean?” We are used to adding numbers such as 5 = 3 + 2. but in the above equation A. However Ax . They are these strange arrow-like objects called vectors which are “add” by putting head-to-tail. namely Dx = Fx +Ex and Dy = Fy + Ey . The statement C = A ⊕ B is really shorthand for two ordinary addition statements.42 CHAPTER 2. Ay . All of this is much more obvious with the use of unit vectors. Write A = Axˆ + Ay ˆ and B = Bxˆ + By ˆ and C = Cxˆ + Cy ˆ Now i j i j i j. Thus C = A ⊕ B actually means Cx = Ax + Bx and Cy = Ay + By . Cy are ordinary numbers and the + sign we used above does denote ordinary addition. We should really write C =A⊕B where ⊕ is a new type of “addition”. totally unlike adding numbers. Bx .

namely c = a+b.7 2. VECTORS AND THE LAWS OF PHYSICS 43 Example Do the original river problem using components.7. C = 50 carefully study Sample Problems 3-4. Now let’s learn how to multiply them.1 Vectors and the Laws of Physics Multiplying Vectors The Scalar Product (often called dot product) We know how to add vectors. Solution A = 30ˆ i B = 40ˆ j C = A+B i j i j i j Cxˆ + Cy ˆ = Axˆ + Ay ˆ + Bxˆ + By ˆ Ay = 0 Bx = 0 Cxˆ + Cy ˆ = 30ˆ + 40ˆ i j i j Cx = 30 Cy = 40 or Cx = Ax + Bx = 30 + 0 = 30 Cy = Ay + By = 0 + 40 = 40 2 2 C 2 = Cx + Cy = 302 + 402 = 900 + 1600 = 2500 .. As shown in Fig. (Sometimes also called dot product or cross product). There are two types of vector multiplication called scalar products or vector product. 3-19 of Halliday the scalar product is the .6 2.e. The whole quantity a · b = ab cos φ is a scalar.1) where a and b are the magnitude of a and b respectively and φ is the angle between a and b. i. When we multiply vectors we get either a scalar or vector. 3-5 2. The scalar product is deﬁned as a · b ≡ ab cos φ (2. . it has magnitude only. When we add vectors we always get a new vector.2.6.

and the angle φ is 0◦ . VECTORS product of the magnitude of one vector times the component of the other vector along the ﬁrst vector. What’s the good of all this? Well for one thing it’s now easy to ﬁgure out the angle between vectors.1) using unit vectors. as the next example shows. namely a · b = ax bx + ay by + az bz (2.44 CHAPTER 2.1) we can work out the scalar products of all of the unit vectors. Example Evaluate ˆ · ˆ i i Solution ˆ · ˆ = ii cos φ i i but i is the magnitude of ˆ which is 1.2) (see Problem 46) which has been derived from the original deﬁnition (2. do Sample Problem 3-6 in Lecture . Based on our deﬁnition (2. Thus the scalar product of any two arbitrary ˆ az k i j vectors is a · b = ab cos φ ˆ ˆ = (axˆ + ay ˆ + az k) · (bxˆ + by ˆ + bz k) i j i j = ax bx + ay by + az bz Thus we have a new formula for scalar product. (see Problem 38) k j Now any vector can be written in terms of unit vectors as a = axˆ y ˆ + i+a j ˆ and b = bxˆ + by ˆ + bz k. i Thus ˆ· i = 1 i Example Evaluate ˆ · ˆ i j Solution ˆ · ˆ = ij cos 90◦ = 0 i j Thus we have ˆ · ˆ = ˆ · ˆ = k · k = 1 and ˆ · ˆ = ˆ · k = ˆ · k = ˆ · ˆ = k · ˆ = i i j j ˆ ˆ i j i ˆ j ˆ j i ˆ i ˆ · ˆ = 0.

7. The magnitude is deﬁned as c = ab sin φ and the direction is deﬁned to follow the right hand rule.2 The Vector Product In making up the deﬁnition of vector product we have to deﬁne its magnitude and direction.) (Do a few examples ﬁnding direction of cross product) Example Evaluate ˆ × ˆ i j Solution |ˆ × ˆ = ij sin 90◦ = 1 i j| ˆ direction same as k ˆ ˆ× ˆ = k Thus i j ˆ ˆ Example Evaluate k × k ˆ ˆ Solution |k × k| = kk sin 0 = 0 ˆ ˆ Thus k × k = 0 Thus we have ˆ i j ˆ× ˆ = k ˆ×k =ˆ i j ˆ j ˆ i k ×ˆ = ˆ ˆ ˆ j ˆ × ˆ = −k k × ˆ = −ˆ ˆ × k = −ˆ j i i i ˆ j and ˆ×ˆ = ˆ × ˆ = k × k = 0 i i j j ˆ ˆ (see Problem 39) Thus the vector product of any two arbitrary vectors is ˆ ˆ a × b = (axˆ + ay ˆ + az k) × (bxˆ + by ˆ + bz k) i j i j which gives a new formula for vector product. Given that the result is a vector let’s write c ≡ a × b. The symbol for vector product is a × b. b = middle ﬁnger. Study Sample Problem 3-7 and 3-8. MULTIPLYING VECTORS 45 2. .7. namely a × b = (ay bz − az by )ˆ + (az bx − ax bz )ˆ i j ˆ +(ax by − ay bx )k (see Problem 49). a = foreﬁnger. (c = thumb.2.

v D) u × v . Evaluate (r + 2t ). Calculate the angle between the vectors r = ˆ + 2ˆ and t = ˆ − k.8 Problems 1.f where r = ˆ + 2ˆ and t = ˆ − k and f = ˆ − ˆ i j j ˆ i j. VECTORS 2. 3. A) u + v B) u − v C) u. i j j ˆ 2.46 CHAPTER 2. Two vectors are deﬁned as u = ˆ + k and v = ˆ + ˆ Evaluate: j ˆ i j.

Chapter 3 MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT: Design a simple experiment which shows that the range of a projectile depends upon the angle at which it is launched. THEMES: 1. FOOTBALL. 47 . Have your experiment show that the maximum range is achieved when the launch angle is 45o .

48 CHAPTER 3. In 3-dimensions. displacement = ∆r = r2 − r1 ˆ = ∆xˆ + ∆yˆ + ∆z k i j ˆ i j = (x2 − x1 )ˆ + (y2 − y1 )ˆ + (z2 − z1 )k Thus displacement is a vector. the average velocity was deﬁned as displacement divided by time interval or v ≡ ∆x = x2 −x11 .1 Moving in Two or Three Dimensions In this chapter we will go over everything we did in Chapter 2 concerning motion. 3.3 Velocity and Average Velocity In 1-dimension. Sample Problem 4-1 3. except that now the entire discussion will use the formation of vectors. i j Now in Chapter 2. Similarly. displacement is deﬁned as the change in position vector. displacement was deﬁned as a change in position. in 3-dimensions average velocity ¯ ∆t t2 −t is deﬁned as ¯ v ≡ ∆r r 2 − r1 = ∆t t 2 − t1 ˆ ∆xˆ + ∆yˆ + ∆z k i j = ∆t ∆x ˆ ∆y ˆ ∆z ˆ = k i+ j+ ∆t ∆t ∆t = vxˆ + vy ˆ + vz k ¯ i ¯ j ¯ ˆ . namely displacement = ∆x = x2 − x1 .2 Position and Displacement In Chapter 2 we used the coordinate x alone to denote position. However for 3-dimensions position is generally described with the position vector ˆ r = xˆ + yˆ + z k. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS 3.

4 Acceleration and Average Acceleration Again we follow the deﬁnitions made for 1-dimension.3. (carefully read about this in Halliday. ACCELERATION AND AVERAGE ACCELERATION 49 For 1-dimension. 55) 3.4. the average acceleration is deﬁned as ¯ ∆v = v2 − v1 a≡ ∆t t2 − t 1 and acceleration (instantaneous acceleration) is deﬁned as a= Constant Acceleration Equations In 1-dimension. or just velocity. the instantaneous velocity. In 3-dimensions. In 3-dimensions we deﬁne velocity as dt v ≡ dr dt d ˆ ˆ = (xi + yˆ + z k) j dt dx ˆ dy ˆ dz ˆ i+ j+ k = dt dt dt ˆ = vxˆ + vy ˆ + vz k i j Thus velocity is a vector. pg. was deﬁned as v ≡ dx . our basic deﬁnitions were v = ¯ v = a = ¯ a = ∆x ∆t dx dt ∆v ∆t dv dt dv dt . Point to note: The instantaneous velocity of a particle is always tangent to the path of the particle.

∆t Similarly dr v≡ dt or dx dy dz vx = . ay = . Thus . vy + ¯ . vy = . az = ¯ ∆t ∆t ∆t and dv a≡ dt or dvx dvy dvz ax = . one for each dimension. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS We found that if the acceleration is constant. vz = dt dt dt Similarly ¯ ∆v a≡ ∆t or ∆x ∆y ∆z ax = ¯ . vz = ¯ ∆t ∆t ∆t ¯ These 3 equations are the meaning of the ﬁrst vector equation v ≡ ∆r . then from these equations we can prove that v = vo + at 2 v 2 = vo + 2a(x − xo ) vo + v t x − xo = 2 1 x − xo = vo t + at2 2 1 2 = vt − at 2 which are known as the 5 constant acceleration equations.50 CHAPTER 3. az = dt dt dt So we see that in 3-dimensions the equations are the same as in 1dimension except that we have 3 sets of them. In 3-dimensions we had ¯ ∆r v≡ ∆t or ∆x ˆ ∆y ˆ ∆z ˆ vxˆ + vy ˆ + vz k = ¯ i ¯ j ¯ ˆ k i+ j+ ∆t ∆t ∆t or ∆x ∆y ∆z vx = ¯ . ay = ¯ .

5. then ax . Projectile Motion . namely vx = vox + ax t 2 2 vx = vox + 2ax (x − xo ) vox + vx t x − xo = 2 1 x − xo = vox t + ax t2 2 1 2 = vx t − ax t 2 and vy = voy + ay t 2 2 vy = voy + 2ay (y − yo ) voy + vy y − yo = t 2 1 y − yo = voy t + ay t2 2 1 2 = vy t − ay t 2 and vz = voz + az t 2 2 vz = voz + 2az (z − zo ) voz + vz t z − zo = 2 1 z − zo = voz t + az t2 2 1 2 = vz t − az t 2 These 3 sets of constant acceleration equations are easy to remember. PROJECTILE MOTION 51 if the 3-dimensional acceleration vector a is now constant. z. y.5 Read. Thus we will have 3 sets of constant acceleration equations. They are the same as the old ones in 1-dimension except now they have subscripts for x. 3. ay and az must all be constant.3.

Also we shall ignore air resistance. R FIGURE 4. The classic example is kicking a football oﬀ the ground. v0 θ v0 y v0 x range. It follows a 2-dimensional curve.52 CHAPTER 3.6 Projectile Motion Analyzed Most motion in 3-dimensions actually only occurs in 2-dimensions.1 Projectile Motion. 4. . Thus we can ignore all motion in the z direction and just analyze the x and y directions. as shown in Fig.1. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS 3.

6. from Fig. Now. what is vox in terms of vo ≡ |vo | and θ? Well. The second equation just says the same thing. PROJECTILE MOTION ANALYZED 53 Example A football is kicked oﬀ the ground with an initial velocity of vo at an angle θ to the ground. Thus (3. ax = 0. i. 2 2 If vx = vox then of course also vx = vox . (Ignore air resistance) Solution The x direction is easiest to deal with.1) The ﬁrst equation (vx = vox ) makes perfect sense because if ax = 0 then the speed in the x direction is constant.e.1) becomes x − xo = vo cos θ t .3. and simply say that distance = speed × time when the acceleration is 0. which means vx = vox . In the third equation +v +v we also use vx = vox to get vox2 x = vox +vox = vox or vox2 x = 2 vx +vx = vx . The fourth and ﬁfth equations are also consistent 2 with vx = vox . Write down the x constant acceleration equation in simpliﬁed form. 4. Thus the constant acceleration equations in the x direction become vx = vox 2 2 vx = vox vox + vx x − xo = t = vox t = vx t 2 x − xo = vox t = vx t (3. because there is no acceleration in the x direction after the ball has been kicked.1 we see that vox = vo cos θ and voy = vo sin θ.

One falls in vertical path and the other on parabolic trajectory but both hit ground at same time.) LECTURE DEMONSTRATIONS 1) Drop an object: it accerates in y direction.8 m/sec2 . In the y direction the acceleration is constant ay = −g but not zero.54 CHAPTER 3. This is because t is the same for all 3 components. Thus the equations for the y direction are vy = vo sin θ − gt 2 vy = (vo sin θ)2 − 2g(y − yo ) vo sin θ + vy y − yo = t 2 1 y − yo = vo sin θ t − gt2 2 An important thing to notice is that t never gets an x. . Air track: no acceleration in x direction. t = tx = ty = tz . MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS Example What is the form of the y-direction constant acceleration equations from the previous example ? Solution Can we also simplify the constant acceleration equations for the y direction? No. Also we can write voy = vo sin θ. (You should do some thinking about this. Thus the y direction equations don’t simplify at all. except that we know that the value of ay is −g or −9. i. y or z subscript. 2) Push 2 objects oﬀ table at same time.e. 3) Monkey shoot.

From the previous example we had 1 y − yo = vo sin θ t − gt2 2 But for this example. we have y − yo = 0. R is just R = x − xo = vox t = vo cos θ t Given vo and θ we could calculate the range if we had t. Thus θ = 45o . depends upon the initial speed and angle that it leaves the ground. .3. (Ignore air resistance and the spin of the football. Derive a formula for the Range. PROJECTILE MOTION ANALYZED 55 Example The total horizontal distance (called the Range) that a football will travel when kicked.6.) Solution The Range. Thus 1 0 = vo sin θ t − gt2 2 1 0 = vo sin θ − gt 2 2vo sin θ ⇒t = g Substituting into our Range formula above gives R = vo cos θ t 2 2vo sin θ cos θ = g 2 sin 2θ vo = g using the formula sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ. We get this the y direction equation. Now R will be largest when sin 2θ is largest which occurs when 2θ = 90o . and show that the maximum Range occurs for θ = 45◦ .

v0x = 250 km/hr and R = 400m. origin H=200 m R=400 m FIGURE 4. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS COMPUTER SIMULATION (Interactive Physics): Air Drop. The plane releases supplies a horizontal distance of R in advance of the mountain climbers. If H = 200 m. v0x .2.R and g. Derive a formula in terms of H.(See Figure 4. calculate a numerical value for this speed. Example A rescue plane wants to drop supplies to isolated mountain climbers on a rocky ridge a distance H below.) .56 CHAPTER 3.2 Air Drop. for the vertical velocity (up or down) that the supplies should be given so they land exactly at the climber’s position. The plane is travelling horizontally at a speed of vox .

See Fig.2.8 2 × 2 sec 250 km hour−1 km m2 hour = −125 + 7.85 60 × 60 sec sec2 1000 m = −34. 4. We can get this from 1 y − yo = voy t + ay t2 = −H 2 1 2 = voy t − gt 2 or −H 1 + gt t 2 and we get t from the x direction.22 m/sec = −6. namely voy = x − xo = vox t = R ⇒t= giving voy = −H vox 1 R + g R 2 vox R vox 57 which is the formula we seek. namely voy . .3. The initial speed of supplies when released is vox = +250 km/hour x − xo = R − 0 = R ay = −g y − yo = 0 − H = −H (note the minus sign !) We want to ﬁnd the initial vertical velocity of the supplies.84 2 hour sec km 1000 m m2 × 60 × 60 sec = −125 + 7. PROJECTILE MOTION ANALYZED Solution Let’s put the origin at the plane.5 m/sec Thus the supplies must be thrown in the down direction (not up) at 6.722 m/sec + 28.6. Let’s now put in numbers: = − 200 m × 250 km hour−1 400 m 400 km 1 m + 9.5 m/sec.

This is shown in Fig.3 Circular Motion. What about the acceleration? Well that’s just a = ∆v but how do we ∆t work it out? Look at Figure 4. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS 3.e. speed) is constant. there is a well deﬁned radius which we will call r.2) Here I have written ∆s instead of ∆x or ∆y because ∆s is the total distance ∆t ∆t ∆t around the circle which is a mixture of x and y.58 CHAPTER 3. The word “uniform” means that speed is constant.r 1 v2 r2 v2 v1 ∆θ ∆ v = v2 . 4-19 of Halliday. . In circular motion. If the speed is constant then it is given by v= ∆s 2πr = ∆t T (3. 2πr is just the distance of T 1 orbit (circumference) divided by the time of 1 orbit (period).3. where the displacement and velocity vectors are drawn for a satellite at two diﬀerent positions P1 and P2 . P1 v1 ∆s ∆r P1 = r2 . Also the time it takes for the satellite to complete 1 orbit is called the period T . This occurs because the direction of velocity is constantly changing for the satellite even though the magnitude of velocity (i. Also circular motion is a classic example where we have a deﬁnite non-zero acceleration even though the speed of a satellite is constant.7 Uniform Circular Motion In today’s world of satellites and spacecraft circular motion is very important to understand because many satellites have circular orbits.v1 r1 ∆θ FIGURE 4.

Writing ∆v ≡ |∆v| the bottom ﬁgure also gives ∆θ = Now the magnitude of acceleration is a= ∆v ∆t ∆v ∆t (3. When you drive your car around in a circle then you. This “acceleration” that you feel is the same as the car’s acceleration. feel as though you are getting pushed against the door. Also the speed v is constant. as the driver.e. For this reason it is called centripetal acceleration. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION Now angle ∆θ is deﬁned as (with |r1 | = |r2 | ≡ r) ∆θ ≡ v∆t ∆s = r r 59 (3. The same idea occurs when you spin-dry clothes in a washing machine. Combining the above two equations for ∆θ gives a≡ ∆v v2 = ∆t r i. What about its direction? I will show you a VIDEO in class (Mechanical Universe video #9 showing vectors for circular motion) which will clearly show that the direction of acceleration is always towards the center of the circle. In reality it is the car that is being accelerated around in the circle. Whenever we have uniform circular motion we always know the actual value of acceleration if we know v and r. The triangle is similar to the top triangle in that the angle ∆θ is the same. One ﬁnal thing. The “acceleration” you feel is called the centrifugal acceleration.7) This is a very important equation.4) ∆v v (3. the car pushes on you.6) = v2 r . (3. meaning that |v2 | = |v1 | ≡ v.3) The velocity vectors can be re-drawn as in the bottom part of the ﬁgure. and because of your inertia.5) (3.7.3. We have worked out the magnitude of the acceleration. .

Suppose the spacecraft is a cylinder of L in length. Derive a formula for the rotation period would it need to spin in order to simulate the gravity on Earth.60 CHAPTER 3. about 2000 mph! T = 2π .1 sec = 63. If L = 1 km what is the numerical value foe the period ? Solution The centifugal acceleration is a and we want it to equal g. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS Example Future spacecraft will be made to spin in order to provide artiﬁcial gravity for the astronauts.5 sec i.8 m sec = 2π 102. Putting in numbers: 1000 m −2 √ 9. How fast does the Moon travel in its orbit ? Solution The period of the Moon is 1 month. 000 miles v = = T 30 × 24 hours = 2. about once every minute! Example The Moon is 1/4 million miles from Earth.04 sec−2 = 2π × 10.e. Thus 2πr 2π × 250.e. Thus v2 (2πr/T )2 4π 2 r g= = = r r T2 Thus 4π 2 r T2 = g giving T = 2π L g which is the formula we seek. 182 mph i.

Neglect air resistance and derive a formula for the maximum height H. Hint: the general form of a parabola is given by y = ax2 + bx + c. Prove that the trajectory of a projectile is a parabola (neglect air resistance). that the projectile reaches. we are not ﬂung oﬀ the Earth due to the gravitational force. PROBLEMS 61 3. Assume the bullet leaves the riﬂe with speed v0 . In order for us to be ﬂung oﬀ. 6. of the projectile. A) Derive a formula for the new rotational time of the Earth. Even though the Earth is spinning and we all experience a centrifugal acceleration.8 Problems 1. Normally if you wish to hit a bulls-eye some distance away you need to aim a certain distance above it.e.3. which is the vertical distance above the bulls-eye that one needs to aim a riﬂe in order to hit the bulls-eye. If a bulls-eye target is at a horizontal distance D away and if you instead aim an arrow directly at the bulls-eye (i. A) A projectile is ﬁred with an initial speed vo at an angle θ with respect to the horizontal.8. (Your formula should make no explicit reference to time. t). by what (downward) vertical distance would you miss the bulls-eye ? 5. Neglect air resistance and derive a formula for the horizontal range R. A projectile is ﬁred with an initial speed vo at an angle θ with respect to the horizontal. At what angle is the range a maximum ? B) If v0 = 30 km/hour and θ = 15o calculate the numerical value of R. 2. A) If a bulls-eye target is at a horizontal distance R away. . in order to account for the downward motion of the projectile. the Earth would have to be spinning a lot faster. 3. B) How much bigger is L compared to the projectile height H ? Note: In this problem use previous results found for the range R and height H. derive an expression for the height L. directly horiziontally). such that a person on the equator would be ﬂung oﬀ into space. g 4. (Take the radius of Earth to be R). t). namely R = 2 v0 sin 2θ g = 2 2v0 sin θ cos θ v 2 sin2 θ and H = 0 2g . (Your formula should make no explicit reference to time.

8. A mass m is attached to the end of a spring with spring constant k on a frictionless horizontal surface. the range) that the cannon ball travels. Derive a formula for the additional speed that the satellite must acquire to completely escape from the planet. 7. A skier starts from rest at the top of a frictionless ski slope of height H and inclined at an angle θ to the horizontal. . MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS B) Using R = 6. Check that x has the correct units.62 CHAPTER 3. Check that your answer has the correct units. derive a formula for the time it takes the stone to hit the ground below.4 million km. A staellite is in a circular orbit around a planet of mass M and radius R at an altitude of H.e. 9. Derive a formula for the distance d that the skier travels on the horizontal surface before coming to a stop. 10. Derive a formula for the horizontal distance (i. Derive a formula for x in terms of k. 11. R and T . (Assume that there is a constant deceleration on the horizontal surface). A stone is thrown from the top of a building upward at an angle θ to the horizontal and with an initial speed of v0 as shown in the ﬁgure. Due to the centrifugal force. calculate a numerical anser to part A) and compare it to the actual rotation time of the Earth today. At the bottom of the slope the surface changes to horizontal and has a coeﬃcient of kinetic friction µk between the horizontal surface and the skis. A cannon ball is ﬁred horizontally at a speed v0 from the edge of the top of a cliﬀ of height H. the spring stretches by a certain amount x from its equilibrium position. If the height of the building is H. Check that your answer has the correct units. Check that your answer has the correct units. The mass moves in circular motion of radius R and period T .

3.8. PROBLEMS 63 vo θ H .

64 CHAPTER 3. MOTION IN 2 & 3 DIMENSIONS .

I THEMES: 1. HOW STRONG A ROPE DO I NEED ? 65 .Chapter 4 FORCE & MOTION .

One of the key activities in classical physics is to ﬁnd all the forces ΣF .1 What Causes an Acceleration? So far we have studied some things about acceleration but we never considered what causes things to accelerate. Fundamental classical physics is all about ﬁnding the force.2 Newton’s First Law A body remains in a state of rest.5 Newton’s Second Law Newton’s second law of motion is not something we can derive from other equations. or uniform motion in a straight line. accelerate downwards). The gravitational force causes objects to fall (i. FORCE & MOTION . It was introduced by Isaac Newton to describe the cause of acceleration. displacement and time. Once you have them then you have the acceleration via a = ΣF and once you have that m you can get velocity. Friction force causes cars to slow down (decelerate). The body then undergoes an acceleration given by a.e. unless acted upon by a force.4 Read Mass 4.I 4. The answer is force. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Tablecloth 4.66 CHAPTER 4. you can ﬁnd velocity.3 Read Force 4. . 4. The law is ΣF = ma ΣF represents the sum (Σ) of all forces (F ) acting on a single body of mass m. etc. Once you know that you can get acceleration as we shall see. Rather it is a fundamental postulate of physics. Once you have the acceleration. displacement and time as we have studied previously.

az . (It’s 9. Normal Force You are sitting still in your chair. (You are not moving. thus Pound (lb) ≡ slug foot/sec2 4. Thus N ≡ kg m/sec2 In the English system of units a Pound (lb) is a unit of force. just plug them into the constant acceleration equations and solve for the other quantities you are interested in.7 m/sec2 on the Moon.4. If you stand on the same scales on the moon your weight will be less because the moon’s gravity is small. The sum of all forces in the x and z direction are zero (ΣFx = 0.6. ΣFz we just divide by m to give the accelerations ax .) Weight is a force which pulls you down. Weight is deﬁned as W ≡ mg where g is the acceleration due to gravity. Thus its actual meaning is given by 3 equations.6 Some Particular Forces Weight If you stand on a set of scales you measure your weight. Thus ΣFy = may N −W = 0 . even though your mass is the same.) Yet there is a weight force W pulling down. One extra point is the units. namely ΣFx = max ΣFy = may ΣFz = maz Once we have ΣFx . If your ay = 0 then there must be another force pushing up to balance the weight force. but only 1. This is given a special name called Newton (N ). ΣFy . Now you also know that ay = 0. If they are constant. The units of m are kg and thus the units of F are kg m/sec2 .8 m/sec2 on Earth. We call this up force the Normal force N . The mass unit is called slug. ay . The units of a are m/sec2 . The units of acceleration are foot/sec2 . SOME PARTICULAR FORCES 67 Now Newton’s second law is a vector equation. ΣFz = 0) which means that ax = az = 0.

the bigger N must be. The Normal force is called “Normal” because it always acts perpendicular (normal means perpendicular) to the surface (of the chair). Friction Friction is another force that we will study shortly. The heavier the person.7 Newton’s Third Law Every action has an equal and opposite reaction. That’s how we know that the chair must push up on the person sitting on it. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Fire extinguisher rocket .I The N has a + sign (up) and W has a − sign (down) and they both balance out to give zero acceleration. which is the force in a rope or cable when under a stress. Tension Finally another important type of force is tension. Carefully study Sample Problem 5-4 4.68 CHAPTER 4. FORCE & MOTION .

so ay = 0. Solution Carefully draw a diagram showing all forces. Thus ΣFx = max ΣFy = may ΣFz = maz but all forces and acceleration in the x and z directions are zero and so the only interesting equation is ΣFy = may . 5-6. 5-8.1.8 Applying Newton’s Laws Carefully study Sample Problems 5-5. 5-11. You don’t want the chandelier to move. 5-9.1 Chandelier hanging from ceiling.4.8 m/sec2 = 490 kg m/sec2 = 490 N T W FIGURE 5. Putting in numbers: T = 50 kg × 9.8. Derive a formula for the tension in the cord. . Then solve ΣF = ma. Thus T −W =0 ⇒ T = W = mg which is the formula we seek. Example A chandelier of mass m is hanging from a single cord in the ceiling. 5-7. APPLYING NEWTON’S LAWS 69 4. 5-10. as seen in Fig. Now the forces are tension (+T ) in the up direction and weight (−W ) in the down direction. If m = 50 kg evaluate a numerical answer for the tension. 5.

namely. We need to consider the x and y directions (both with ax = ay = 0). In the z direction all forces and acceleration are zero. one at an angle of α to the ceiling and the other at θ.70 CHAPTER 4. If m = 50kg and α = 60o and θ = 30o evaluate a numerical answer for each tension. T1x = T1 cos α T1y = T1 sin α . See Fig. Solution Again carefully draw a ﬁgure showing all forces.I Example A chandelier of mass m is now suspended by two cords.2. ΣFx = max and ΣFy = may T2x − T1x = 0 and T2y + T1y − W = 0 Now T2x = T2 cos θ. T2y = T2 sin θ.2 Chandelier suspended by 2 cables. Derive a formula for is the tension in each cord. α T1 θ T2 W FIGURE 5. FORCE & MOTION . 5.

APPLYING NEWTON’S LAWS giving T2 cos θ − T1 cos α = 0 and T2 sin θ + T1 sin α = W The x equation gives T2 = y equation giving T1 cos α cos θ 71 which is substituted into the T1 cos α sin θ + T1 sin α = W cos θ or T1 = = and upon substitution T2 = = T1 cos α cos θ mg sin θ + tan α cos θ W cos α tan θ + sin α mg cos α tan θ + sin α which are the formulas we seek.4. cos 60 tan 30 + sin 60 T1 cos 60 426N cos 60 = = 246 N cos 30 cos 30 .8 m/sec2 = 490 N Thus T1 = Now put back into T2 = 490N = 426 N. Putting in numbers gives: W = mg = 50 kg × 9.8.

I Example If you normally have a weight of W .72 CHAPTER 4. You would expect the scale to read a higher value. FORCE & MOTION . how much will a weight scale read if you are standing on it in an elevator moving up at an acceleration of a ? Solution The reading on the scale will just be the Normal force. Thus ΣF = ma N N − W = ma = W + ma The answer makes sense. .

4. .3 Block sliding down frictionless incline. A) What is the normal force? B) What is the acceleration of the block? Solution In Fig. 5.8.3 the forces are drawn. You could make other choices. Notice that I have chosen the orientation of the y axis to lie along the normal force. but this will make things easier to work out. y N W co θ 90 − θ x sθ θ W sin θ W FIGURE 5. APPLYING NEWTON’S LAWS 73 Example A block of mass m slides down a frictionless incline of angle θ.

ΣFx = max W sin θ = max ax = W sin θ mg sin θ = = g sin θ m m .74 CHAPTER 4. ΣFy = may N − W cos θ = 0 because the block has zero acceleration in the y direction.I A) Analyzing the y direction. Thus N = W cos θ = mg cos θ B) Analyzing the x direction. FORCE & MOTION .

4 (Atwood machine). (4.2) from eqn. 5. Solution The tension is the same throughout the rope. Assume the pulley is frictionless and the tension T is the same throughout the rope.4 Atwood machine. Analyze forces in y direction on m2 . Analyze forces in y direction on m1 . ΣFy = m1 a1 T − W1 = m1 a with a1 ≡ a.8. T m1 W1 T m2 W2 FIGURE 5. thus T1 = T2 = T . APPLYING NEWTON’S LAWS 75 Example Derive a formula for the acceleration of the block system shown in Fig.1) gives T − W1 − (T − W2 ) = m1 a − (−m2 a) − W1 + W2 = m1 a + m2 a W2 − W1 m2 − m1 a= = g m1 + m2 m1 + m2 Thus a is positive if m2 > m1 and negative if m2 < m1 . (4. (4.2) (4. ΣFy = m2 a2 T − W2 = m2 a2 but if a1 = a then a2 = −a giving T − W2 = −m2 a Subtracting eqn.1) .4.

ﬂuid dynamics. LAW II: The change of motion is proportional to the motive force impressed.A45 1934]. and is made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impressed. or. Very early on in the book we ﬁnd the section entitled Axioms. One of his major works was Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. This makes for wonderful reading and is highly recommended. rectilinear motion. motion of bodies in ﬂuids. etc.76 CHAPTER 4. 1934. by F. or Laws of Motion. namely Book I: The Motion of Bodies and Book II: The Motion of Bodies (in resisting mediums). ed. By the way Newton also invented calculus and the reﬂecting telescope ! . the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal. In these books we ﬁnd discussion of such toipics as centripetal forces. Cajori. Berkeley. unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it. attractive force of spherical bodies. The laws are stated as follows: “LAW I: Every body continues in a state of rest. LAW III: To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction. California. conic sections.) [University of California Press. orbits. and directed to contrary parts. hydrostatics.” After the axioms are stated. FORCE & MOTION . the Principia is then divided into two major books.I HISTORICAL NOTE Isaac Newton is widely regarded as the greatest physicist of all time. or of uniform motion in a right line. oscillating pendulum. QA 803 .

9. PROBLEMS 77 4.9 Problems .4.

FORCE & MOTION .78 CHAPTER 4.I .

THEMES: FRICTION.Chapter 5 FORCE & MOTION . 79 .II SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT: Measure the coeﬃcient of static friction between 2 surfaces.

max ≡ µs N Both of these equations can be regarded as deﬁnitions for µk and µs . 6-3.2 Properties of Friction If you press down hard on the coin. The static friction has increased to keep the coin in place. The kinetic friction force fk is given by fk ≡ µk N where µk is the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction. kinetic friction will cause the car to stop.1 Friction There are two types of friction — static and kinetic. (LECTURE DEMONSTRATION of above. (Carefully study Samples Problems 6-1. 6-2. Eventually. If you put a coin on top of a book and tilt the book at a small angle. When you press down you are causing the normal force N to get bigger.max is fs. The proportionality constant is called the coeﬃcient of friction µ. Notice that the maximum amount of static friction occurred just before the coin started to slide. then the friction force will increase. When two surfaces are in relative motion then the friction is kinetic. such as when you slam the brakes on in your car and the car skids along the road.80 CHAPTER 5.) 5. static friction will be overcome and the coin will slide down the book (with kinetic friction operating). However the maximum value of the static friction force fs. the coin will remain stationary. Thus friction is proportional to N . We saw that static friction varies. Tilt the book a bit more and still the coin does not slide. Static friction prevents the coin from sliding. . 6-4). FORCE & MOTION .II 5. Eventually however.

Solution A force diagram is shown in Fig. Show that µs = tan θ.2. 6. .1. PROPERTIES OF FRICTION 81 Example The coeﬃcient of static friction is just the tangent of the angle where two objects start to slide relative to each other.1 Block sliding down incline with friction.5. y fs N W co θ 90 − θ x sθ θ W sin θ W FIGURE 6.

FORCE & MOTION .4 Uniform Circular Motion 2 In the case of circular motion we always know that the acceleration is a = vr . Thus µs = µs = or µs = tan θ W sin θ W cos θ 5.3 Read Drag Force and Terminal Speed 5. .II Analyze forces in y direction ΣFy = may N − W cos θ = 0 In x direction ΣFx = max fs − W sin θ = 0 µs N − W sin θ = 0 W sin θ N where ax = 0 just before object starts to slide. Now we get N from y equation above (N = cos θ).82 CHAPTER 5. Thus we always know the right hand side of Newton’s second law. namely ΣF = ma mv 2 = r The forces that produce circular motion get put into the left hand side.

but the sideways motion involves static friction.4.2 Car rounding a curve.2. Solution Force diagrams are shown in Fig.) fs x view from above y N side view x FIGURE 6. Work out a formula for the radius of curvature in terms of the speed of the car and the coeﬃcient of friction. (The forward motion of the car involves moving kinetic friction. 6. The radius of curvature of the road bend is chosen to be large enough so that the car will be able to derive around smoothly in a part-circle. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION 83 Example In designing a curved road. engineers consider the speed v of a car and the coeﬃcient of friction between the car tires and the road. . The top part of the ﬁgure shows that static friction alone keeps the car in circular motion.5.

. FORCE & MOTION . ΣFy = may N −W =0 N = W = mg Substituting into the x equation gives µs mg = or r= mv 2 r v2 µs g This formula tells an engineer how large to make the radius of curvature of the road for a given car speed v (say 5 times the speed limit) and a coeﬃcient of friction µs .II ΣFx = max v2 fs = m r mv 2 µs N = r We get N from the y direction.84 In the x direction CHAPTER 5.

) A force of magnitude F is applied to the mass m1 as shown. (Hint: the weight that a passenger feels is just the normal force.5 Problems 1. T . pg. A second mass m2 hangs below m1 with m1 and m2 also connected by another string.5. (‘Light’ means that we can neglect the mass of the cord and the mass of the pulley.135. [Serway 5th ed. What is the acceleration of a snow skier sliding down a frictionless ski slope of angle θ ? Check that your answer makes sense for θ = 0o and for θ = 90o . Calculate the tension in each string. horizontal surface is connected to a second mass m2 by a light cord over a light frictionless pulley as shown in the ﬁgure. A ferris wheel rotates at constant speed in a vertical circle of radius R and it takes time T to complete each circle.. The coeﬃcient of kinetic friction between m1 and the surface is µ. such that m1 moves to the right.) 4. for the weight that a passenger of mass m feels at the top and bottom of the circle. in terms of m.14] . Derive a formula. A block of mass m1 on a rough.5. Derive a formula for the acceleration of the masses. PROBLEMS 85 5. R. Fig 5. g. Comment on whether your answers make sense. A mass m1 hangs vertically from a string connected to a ceiling. 2. 3.

86 CHAPTER 5. derive a formula for the tension in the string at the top and bottom of the circle. If you whirl an object of mass m at the end of a string in a vertical circle of radius R at constant speed v. . FORCE & MOTION .II F θ m1 m 2 5.

Two masses m1 and m2 are connected by a string passing through a hollow pipe with m1 being swung around in a circle of radius R and m2 hanging vertically as shown in the ﬁgure. what is the numerical value of this period? . B) Derive an expression for the acceleration of m2 in terms of the period t of the circular motion.81 m. A) Derive an expression for the tension T in the string. R m1 m2 Obviously if m1 moves quickly in the circle then m2 will start to move upwards. what is the answer to Part C)? E) For a radius of 9. will the mass m2 be at rest? D) If the masses are equal.5. PROBLEMS 87 6. but if m1 moves slowly m2 will start to fall.5. C) For what period t.

II 7. A) What friction force is required to stop a block of mass m moving at speed v0 . assuming that we want the block to stop over a distance d? B) Work out a formula for the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction that will achieve this.88 CHAPTER 5. C) Evaluate numerical answers to the above two questions assuming the mass of the block is 1000kg. the initial speed is 60 km per hour and the braking distance is 200m. FORCE & MOTION . .

89 . THEMES: MACHINES.Chapter 6 POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT: Design any experiment which illustrates that energy is conserved.

6. In our study of mechanics so far our approach has been to identify all the forces.1 Work The basic concept of work is that it is force times distance. The work-energy formulation of mechanics is worthwhile since sometimes it is easier to work with and involves only scalar quantities. displacement. Machines are objects that allow us to do work more eﬃciently. For example. If you load objects into a truck. time. divide by mass to get acceleration and then solve for velocity. but rather is based on the concepts of work and energy. There is an alternative formulation of mechanics which does not rely heavily on force. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: SIMPLE MACHINES Actually the proper physical deﬁnition of work is more complicated.90CHAPTER 6. All students should read my handout on simple machines. The textbook by Halliday should be read very carefully for speciﬁc illustrations of my uniﬁed approach. When you lift an object you apply a lifting force over the height that you lift the object. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY In this chapterI am going to include the discussion of Chapter 7 and 8 [from Halliday] all together and try to present a single uniﬁed approach to the whole topic of work and energy. You do work on an object by applying a force over a certain distance. a ramp is what is called a simple machine. then a large ramp (large distance) allows you to apply less force to achieve the same work. etc. This great discovery simpliﬁed a great deal of physics and we shall study it in detail. The proper deﬁnition is W ≡ Writing ˆ F = Fxˆ + Fy ˆ + Fz k i j and ˆ dr = dx ˆ + dy ˆ + dz k i j rf ri F · dr . However the key reason for introducing work-energy is because energy is conserved. There it is clearly explained why work is deﬁned as force × distance. Also it leads to a better physical understanding of mechanics.

6.1. WORK gives W = = ˆ ˆ i j (Fxˆ + Fy ˆ + Fz k) · (dx ˆ + dy ˆ + dz k) i j Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz

91

Let’s ﬁrst look at the 1-dimensional case
xf

W =
xi

Fx dx

If the force Fx is constant then it can be taken outside the integral to give
xf

W

= Fx
xi

dx = Fx [x]xf xi

= Fx (xf − xi ) = Fx ∆x = force × distance giving us back our original idea. The reason why we have an integral is in case the force depends on distance. The reason we have the scalar product F · dr is if the force and distance are at some angle, such as a tall person pulling a toy wagon along with a rope inclined at some angle. By the way, the units of work must be Newton × meter which is given a special name, Joule. Thus Joule ≡ Newton meter

Example If I push a sled with a constant force of 100 N along a 5 m path, how much work do I do ? Solution The force is constant and in only 1-dimension, so W = Fx ∆x = 100 N × 5 m = 500 Nm = 500 Joule

92CHAPTER 6. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

6.2

Kinetic Energy
rf rf ri

Now we know that F = ma and so work can be written W =
ri

F · dr = m

a · dr

where m is taken outside the integral because it’s a constant. Let’s just consider 1-dimension to make things easier. Thus
xf xf

W =
xi

F dx = m
xi

a dx

Now use an old trick. a=

dv dv dx = dt dx dt
dx dt ,

using the chain rule for derivatives. But v = a = dv v dx dv = v dx

giving

Thus
xf xf

W

= m
xi vf

a dx = m
xi

v

dv dx dx

= m
vi

v dv 1 2 v 2
vf vi

= m

1 1 2 2 = mvf − mvi 2 2

Notice that we have found that the work is equal to the change in the quantity 1 mv 2 . We give this a special name and call it Kinetic Energy 2 1 K ≡ mv 2 2 Thus we have found that W = Kf − Ki or W = ∆K The total work is always equal to the change in kinetic energy. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. If m is large and v small, or m is small and

6.2. KINETIC ENERGY

93

v large the kinetic energy in both cases will be comparable. Note also that K must have the same units as W , namely Joule. What happens when we do work on an object? Well if you lift up an object, you increase its Potential energy (more about that in a moment). If you work on an object you can also increase its kinetic energy. If you push a marble on a table its speed will increase and so you have changed its kinetic energy. Example A sled of mass m is stationary on some frictionless ice. If I push the sled with a force of F over a distance ∆x, what will be the speed of the sled ? Solution The force is constant and is 1-dimension, so W = F ∆x = ∆K = Kf − Ki 1 1 2 2 = mvf − mvi 2 2 Now vi = 0, giving or vf = 2F ∆x m 1 2 F ∆x = mvf 2

The neat thing is that we can get exactly the same answer with our old methods, as the next example shows.

94CHAPTER 6. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

Example Work out the previous example using the constant acceleration equations. Solution The acceleration is just a= F m

The constant acceleration equation that helps us is
2 v 2 = v0 + 2a(x − x0 )

Now x − x0 = ∆x m and v0 = 0 giving v = = 2a(x − x0 ) 2F ∆x m

which is the same answer as the previous example.

6.2. KINETIC ENERGY In the previous two examples notice how the equation 1 1 2 2 W = F ∆x = mvf − mvi 2 2 is equivalent to
2 v 2 = v0 + 2a(x − x0 )

95

Modify this to 1 2 v = 2 1 2 v = 2 1 mv 2 = 2 = or F ∆x = 1 1 2 mv 2 − mv0 2 2 = ∆K 1 2 v + a(x − x0 ) 2 0 1 2 v + a∆x 2 0 1 mv 2 + ma∆x 2 0 1 mv 2 + F ∆x 2 0

as we have above ! Thus the work-energy formulation provides an alternative approach to mechanics.

If you pull a spring and then let it go. However friction is non-conservative. Let’s deﬁne the conservative piece as the negative of the change in a new quantity called potential energy U . Work was deﬁned as W ≡ F · dr and by putting in F = ma we found that the total work is always ∆K where the kinetic energy is deﬁned as K ≡ 1 mv 2 . then the object just stays there. Gravity is a conservative force. Thus any force F can be broken up into the conservative piece FC and the non-conservative piece FN C . to put it brieﬂy. What we actually did was r2 W = r1 ma · dr ≡ ∆K r2 Now let’s not put F = ma but just study the integral r1 F · dr by itself. So far so good. You should carefully read Section 8-2 of Halliday to learn about this. With conservative forces we always associate a potential energy. Thus 2 W ≡ r2 r1 F · dr = ∆K. we must recognize that there are two types of forces called conservative and non-conservative. Spring forces are conservative.96CHAPTER 6. If you slide an object along the table against friction and let go. Anyway. conservative forces “bounce back” and nonconservative forces don’t. The deﬁnition is WC ≡ −∆U . as in W ≡ = ri rf ri rf F · dr FC · dr + rf ri FN C · dr ≡ WC + W N C and each piece corresponds therefore to conservative work WC and nonconservative work WN C . it bounces back to where it was.3 Work-Energy Theorem Let’s review what we have done. Note carefully what we did to get this result. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 6. If you lift an object against gravity and let it go then the object falls back to where it was. Before we do that. We put in the right hand side of F = ma to prove W = ∆K.

WORK-ENERGY THEOREM 97 where −∆U = −(Uf − Ui ) = −Uf + Ui . Combining all of this we have W = WC + WN C = ∆K = −∆U + WN C or ∆U + ∆K = WN C which is the famous Work-Energy theorem.3.6. . Now we found that the total work W was always ∆K.

If an object is raised to a large height y then it has a large potential energy.98CHAPTER 6. Let’s look at the conservative piece a little more closely and examine potential energy in more detail.5 Conservation of Energy Let’s summarize again. Let’s consider the simplest conservative force. namely the weight force where W = mg which is a constant. This is the principle of hydro-electric power generators. Similarly if an object has potential energy or kinetic energy then the object can do work by releasing that energy. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 6.4 Gravitational Potential Energy We have been doing a lot of formal analysis. The gravitational force due to weight is j FC = −mg ˆ giving WC ≡ −∆U = FC · dr ˆ ˆ · (dx ˆ + dy ˆ + dz k) = −mg j i j yf = −(Uf − Ui ) = −mg dy yi = −Uf + Ui = −mg [y]yf = −mg(yf − yi ) = −mgyf + mgyi yi which gives −Uf = −mgyf . such as friction. A large amount of water is stored in a dam at a large height y with a large potential energy. Let’s backtrack a little and try to understand better what we have done. heat. . etc. then we give that object potential energy. i. 6. Let’s work out WC and ∆U in 1dimension. sound. It is often zero as in the next example. Thus we can simply write U = mgy which is our expression for gravitational potential energy. WN C is the non-conservative 2 work. Uf = mgyf and Ui = mgyi . If we do work in lifting an object.e. When the water falls and reduces it potential energy (smaller y) the energy is converted into work to drive electric generators. The work-energy theorem is ∆U + ∆K = WN C where K ≡ 1 mv 2 and for gravity U = mgy. just as we can give an object kinetic energy by doing work.

Thus the work energy theorem is ∆U + ∆K = 0 or Uf − Ui + Kf − Ki = 0 or Uf + Kf = Ui + Ki That is the total energy E ≡U +K is constant.5. This is the famous conservation of mechanical energy. i. CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 99 Example If you drop an object from a height H. We have K = 1 mv 2 and U = mgy giving 2 1 1 2 2 mgyf + mvf = mgyi + mvi 2 2 but yf = 0 and yi = H and vi = 0. with what speed does it hit the ground? Deduce the answer using the workenergy theorem. Ef = Ei .6. Assume WN C = 0. Thus 1 mv 2 = mgH 2 f or vf = 2gH . Solution WN C = 0 because things such as heat and friction are negligible.e.

100CHAPTER 6. giving v = = 2g(y − y0 ) = 2gH 2g(0 − −H) which is the same answer as before.) Solution With friction ignored we have WN C = 0 and 1 1 2 2 mvf + mgyf = mvi + mgyi 2 2 I let go of the pendulum with speed vi = 0 and it returns with speed vf = 0. Thus mgyf = mgyi or y f = yi LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Bowling Ball Pendulum . POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Example Complete the previous example using the constant acceleration equations. Solution The most convenient equation is 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a(y − y0 ) but v0 = 0 and y − y0 = 0 − H = −H and a = −g. Example Prove that a swinging pendulum always rises to the same height. (Neglect friction.

Also the force increases with distance. SPRING POTENTIAL ENERGY 101 6. This can be expressed as i FC = −kx ˆ in the x direction.e. Thus WC ≡ −∆U = FC · dr ˆ x ˆ · (dx ˆ + dy ˆ + dz k) i i j xf xi = −(Uf − Ui ) = −k = −Uf + Ui = −k x dx = −k 1 2 x 2 xf xi 1 2 1 2 = −k x − x 2 f 2 i 1 1 = − kx2 + kx2 f 2 2 i which gives −Uf = − 1 kx2 .6.6. Thus we can i f f 2 2 2 simplify and write 1 U = kx2 2 which is our expression for spring potential energy . Uf = 1 kx2 and Ui = 1 kx2 .6 Spring Potential Energy When you pull a spring you feel a force in the opposite direction from which you pull. i.

how fast will the mass be moving when it returns to its original position? (Assume the motion occurs on a horizontal frictionless surface.102CHAPTER 6. When released. Also the variable force requires the integral deﬁnition of work as W = F · dr. HALLIDAY SIMULATION: “A Spring” .) Solution WN C = 0 giving Uf + Kf = Ui + Ki 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 kxf + mvf = kxi + mvi 2 2 2 2 Now xf = 0. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Example A spring with spring constant k has a mass of m on one end. Thus 2 mvf = kd2 or vf = d k m IMPORTANT NOTE: The spring is an example of a variable force F = −kx which varies as distance. Thus the acceleration a = − kx is not constant and the constant m acceleration equations cannot be used to solve the previous example. xi = d m and vi = 0. The spring is stretched by a distance d.

just ask what U will give F according to F = − dU . Let’s check: − dU dy = −mg = −mg dy dy dU dy which is the F we started with ! . APPENDIX: ALTERNATIVE METHOD TO OBTAIN POTENTIAL ENERGY103 6. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus). Solution For gravity dr ≡ dy. dr Example For gravity F = −mg.7 Appendix: alternative method to obtain potential energy Potential energy is deﬁned through Wc = Fc · dr ≡ −∆U Let’s just ignore the vectors for the moment and write Fc dr = −∆U Thus we must have Fc = − To see this write f i dU dr Fc dr = − Uf dU U dU = − [U ]Uf dr = − i Ui i dr = −(Uf − Ui ) = −∆U.7.6. The question is what U will give F = −mg = − The answer is U = mgy. Thus instead of working out the integral F · dr to F = −kxi get U . For gravity we have F = −mgˆ or F = −mg and for a spring we have j ˆ or F = −kx. derive U without doing an integral. f (cf.

Solution For a spring d ≡ dx. Let’s check 2 − dU 1 dx2 1 =− k = − k 2x = −kx dx 2 dx 2 dU dx which is the F we started with! . The question is what U will give F = −kx = − The answer is U = 1 kx2 .104CHAPTER 6. derive U without doing an integral. POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Example For a spring F = −kx.

Calculate the speed of the block when it reaches the bottom of the incline. assuming the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction is µk . PROBLEMS 105 6.8 Problems 1. .8.6. A block of mass m slides down a rough incline of height H and angle θ to the horizontal.

POTENTIAL ENERGY & CONSERVATION OF ENERGY .106CHAPTER 6.

Chapter 7 SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT: Locate the center of mass of an object. THEMES: FROM ONE TO MANY. 107 .

Thus we already know the answer for a ruler ! The center of mass is located at the center. For example the center of mass of a ruler is located as the point where you can balance the ruler on your ﬁnger without it falling oﬀ.1 A Special Point When we studied say a block sliding down an incline. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES Almost everything we have done so far has referred to the motion of a single body of mass m. we made a very convenient simpliﬁcation.2 The Center of Mass Systems of Particles Now let’s come up with a mathematical deﬁnition for center of mass which is more precise than just saying it’s the balance point (although the balance point always gives the correct answer). 7. 9-1 Halliday) or a dancing ballerina (Fig. 7. An easy way to ﬁnd the center of mass is to just regard it as a balance point. 1997]. and replaced it with just a single point and studied the motion of that point. “The center of mass of a body or a system of bodies is the points that moves as though all of the mass were aconcentrated there and all external forces were applied there. and we have always been able to treat that single body as though it were a point.108 CHAPTER 7. The location of the center of mass is deﬁned as rcm ≡ 1 M n i mi ri (7. We will prove this mathematically in a moment. 9-8 Halliday) ? A bat and a ballerina can be considered as a collection of a huge number of single particles. This special point is called the center of mass of an object and by studying its motion alone we avoid all the extra complications of a body of ﬁnite size.1) . For instance the motion of the Earth-Moon system around the Sun is actually governed by the center of mass of the two-body Earth-Moon system. We now want to study the motion of such systems of particles. Notice we have included a system of bodies. But suppose we wich to study the motion of a complex object such as a spinning baseball bat (Fig.” [Halliday.

2) We have deﬁned the center of mass. First of all it’s a vector equation and so what it really means is the usual 3-dimensional decomposition as xcm ≡ 1 M n mi xi i n (7. m1 + m2 (7.6) .2) becomes xcm = Does this make sense ? Let’s see.5) Let’s just consider the 1-dimensional version for the case of 2 bodies only. m1 x1 + m2 x2 .3) ycm 1 ≡ M 1 M mi yi i n (7. Now let’s see if our deﬁnition makes sense.4) zcm ≡ mi zi i (7.2. Then the total mass M becomes M = m1 + m2 and (7.7) (7. THE CENTER OF MASS 109 where the sum over i running from 1 to n means sum over all of the point particles within the body. assuming there are a total of n point particles. M is the total mass of all the individual bodies and can be written n M≡ i mi (7.7.

1) and see if it gives this answer. Let’s see if our formula works here. . Therefore we can believe that our deﬁnition for center of mass (7.9) which is exactly what we expected. Choosing the origin of the xcoordinate system to be at the left dumbell gives x1 = 0f t and x2 = 4f t. each with the same mass m each at the end of a 4f t massless rod ? Solution Now you know that the answer to this must be at the center of the rod. Solution Well now we would guess that the center of mass would be given by xcm = 0. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES Example Where is the position of the center of mass for a system consisting of two dumbells. Now we have a 1-dimensional problem and therefore (7. Let’s use our deﬁnition of center of mass. equation (7. Furthermore we only have two bodies and this reduces further to (7. Therefore again we can believe that our deﬁnition for center of mass (7. That is our guess is that xcm = 2f t.7).3).1) makes perfect sense. Subsituting we get xcm = m × (−2f t) + m × (+2f t) =0 m+m (7. With the origin of the x-axis chosen to be at the center of the dumbells we have the position of each dumbell given by x1 = −2f t and x2 = +2f t respectively.1) makes perfect sense. Substituting gives xcm = m × 0f t + m × 4f t = 2f t m+m (7.8) which is exactly what we expected. Example Repeat the previous problem. After all that is the balancing point.110 CHAPTER 7. Let’s look at what happens if we use a diﬀerent coordinate system. but with the x-origin located at the center between the two dumbells instead of on the left dumbell.1) reduces to only (7.

7. THE CENTER OF MASS 111 Being able to ﬁnd the center of mass is actually useful. Again this is a 1-dimensional. Let’s see if our center of mass deﬁnition (7. Where should Mary sit in order to balance the see-saw ? Work out a formula and also a numerical answer if mB = 10 kg and mM = 80 kg. That is the baby should be 8 times as far away from the center of the see-saw as Mary.2. 2-body problem and so the formula for the center of mass is again mB xB + mM xM xcm = . Mary’s mass is mM . Example A baby of mass mB sits on a see-saw. as the following example shows.1) tells us this. mB + mM Now we want the center of mass located at the center of the see-saw and we will put the origin of our x-axis there as well. Solution Again our intuition tells us that we can guess that the ratio of the distances should be 1/8. . Thus mB xB + mM xM xcm = =0 mB + mM giving mB xB + mM xM = 0 which means that mB xB = −mM xM or mB m xB =− =− xM mM M or xM = − M xB m Putting in numbers we get 80 kg xM = − xB = −8 xB 10 kg just as we suspected.

10) but for a continuous distribution of particles we now deﬁne xcm ≡ 1 M xdm (7. the sum just changes to an integral. In other words how do we ﬁnd the center of mass of rigid bodies ? That’s what we will look at now. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES Above we considered ﬁnding the center of mass of two bodies. There’s one additional catch. But what if we have a dense 1-dimensional object such as a very long and thin pencil. . That’s all well and good. Well then we will want a linear mass density. then it can be taken outside the integral to give xcm = 1 V xdV and the same for y and z. In physics whenever we want to change our study from a collection of discrete particles (desribed by a sum i ) to a continuous collection of particles.11) This is easier to work with if we introduce density ρ as mass / volume or ρ≡ dm M mass ≡ ≡ .112 Rigid Bodies CHAPTER 7.1) as xcm ≡ 1 M n xi mi i (7. For a discrete collection of particles we had (7. You all now know that an integral is just the limit of a sequence of sums. Thus our deﬁnition can be written xcm ≡ 1 M xdm ≡ 1 M xρdV and the same for y and z. Now each of the millions of particles in a rigid body has a tiny little mass denoted by dm. Above we deﬁned a 3-dimensional density as mass / volume.12) where dV is the volume occupied by the mass dm. but how do we ﬁnd the center of mass of systems made up of millions of particles such as a baseball bat. Hopefully this makes perfect sense from what you have studied in calculus. This can easily be extended to 3 or more bodies and some of this will be explored in the homework. volume dV V (7. If the density is constant.

. but there is no equation for z.2. and the linear mass density λ of the pencil is constant. Thus 1 1 2 L 1 1 2 1 xcm = x L −0 = L = L 2 L 2 2 0 which is just the answer we expected! Thus we can believe that the formulas given previously really do work.7. Similarly we may have mass distributed only in 2 dimensions such as the surface of a table. Now the element of length dL ≡ dx. so that xcm = 1 L L mass dm M ≡ ≡ length dL L x dm = 1 M x λ dL 1 M mass dm M ≡ ≡ area dA A x dm = 1 M x σ dA 1 M x dx 0 We have taken the origin (x = 0) to be at one end of the pencil. (why?) xcm = Example Locate the center of mass of a very thin pencil of length L balanced sideways. We use area mass density deﬁned as xcm = σ≡ giving xcm ≡ and for constant σ. we use the symbol λ for linear mass density and deﬁne it as λ≡ so that now we have xcm ≡ and for a constant λ. THE CENTER OF MASS 113 Instead of ρ. Solution Again using intuition we know the answer must be at the center of the pencil. 1 x dA A and similarly for y. 1 x dL L Because this is linear mass density we do not have any equations for x or y.

However for a rigid body all the internal forces must cancel because in a rigid body the particles don’t move relative to each other. Thus Fi i just becomes Fext in agreement with (7. namely rcm ≡ or M rcm = i 1 M mi r i i mi ri Taking the time derivative gives M vcm = i mi vi and taking the time derivative again gives M acm = i mi ai Fi i = which is just the sum of all the forces acting on each mass mi . Solution Recall our deﬁnition of center of mass.3 Newton’s Second Law for a System of Particles For a single particle of mass m we already have encountered Newton’s second law. What happens for a system of particles? The end result is Fext = M acm (7. Example Prove equation (7.114 CHAPTER 7.13). SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES 7.13) Fext is the sum of all external forces acting on the body (all the where internal forces cancel out to zero). namely F = ma.13). and F are all the forces acting on the mass m and a is the resulting acceleration of the mass m. M is the total mass of the body and acm is the acceleration of the center of mass of the body. These forces will be both external and internal. .

Thus dp = ma dt dt dt d if the mass is constant. (If the mass is not constant then dp = dt (mv) = dt m dv + dm v = ma + dm v so that Newton’s second law actually reads F = dt dt dt ma + dm v).5 Linear Momentum of a System of Particles The total momentum P of a system of particles is just the sum of the momenta of each individual particle. dt 7. Taking the time derivative gives dP = M dvcm = M acm assuming that M is constant. Thus Newton’s dt dt second law for a system of particles can be written dP dt Fext = . namely P = i pi mi vi = i i Now from the previous example we had M vcm = total momentum of a system of particles as P = M vcm pi .4 Linear Momentum of a Point Particle A more fundamental way of discussing Newton’s second law is in terms of a new quantity called momentum. It is deﬁned as p ≡ mv and it is important because it is a conserved quantity just like energy.4. The proper way to write Newton’s second law is F = dp dt d Now dp = dt (mv) = m dv = ma if the mass is constant. giving the which is a very nice handy formula for the total momentum equals total mass multiplied by the velocity of the center of mass.7. LINEAR MOMENTUM OF A POINT PARTICLE 115 7.

the conservation equation is p 1 i + p 2 i + p 3 i + · · · = p1 f + p 2 f + p 3 f + · · · This is a vector equation.14) is Pi = Pf Remembering that P is the total momentum of a system of particles (P = p1 + p2 + p3 + · · ·). y. .14) Note that this is only true if all the external forces are zero. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Explosion: spring release on air track. Another way of stating (7. Halliday calls this a closed. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES 7. or z components. isolated system.116 CHAPTER 7.6 Conservation of Linear Momentum dP dt If all the external forces are zero ( Fext = 0) then that the total momentum P = constant = 0 which implies (7. so we must always write it out in x.

The total momentum is P = pR + pB . isolated system.7. With what speed does the riﬂe recoil ? Solution The bullet-riﬂe system is a closed. so let’s re-write the x-equation. When the riﬂe is held at rest the sum of all external forces is zero.6. leaving oﬀ the x’s as p R i + pB i = p R f + pB f or mR vRi + mB vBi = mR vRf + mB vBf But vRi + vBi = 0 because before the gun is ﬁred (initial situation) the bullet and gun do not move. CONSERVATION OF LINEAR MOMENTUM 117 Example A riﬂe of mass mR ﬁres a bullet of mass mB which emerges at a speed of vBf . . so that conservation of momentum is pRi + pBi = pRf + pBf Now this is a vector equation. namely pRxi + pBxi pRyi + pByi = pRxf + pBxf = p Ry f + pB y f but there is only motion in the x direction and nothing is happening in the y direction. Thus momentum is conserved for the bullet (B)–riﬂe (R) two body system. After the gun is ﬁred (ﬁnal situation) they both move. so it must be written in terms of components. Thus O = mR vRf + mB vBf ⇒ vRf = − mB vB mR f where the minus sign indicates that the riﬂe moves in a direction opposite to the bullet.

derive a formula for the change in speed of the sled. A child of mass mc is riding a sled of mass ms moving freely along an icy frictionless surface at speed v0 . Consider a square ﬂat table-top. 1). SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES 7. What is the location of the center of mass? 2.118 CHAPTER 7. If the child falls oﬀ the sled. assuming a constant mass density.7 Problems 1. y) = (1. A particle of mass m is located on the x axis at the position x = 1 and a particle of mass 2m is located on the y axis at position y = 1 and a third particle of mass m is located oﬀ-axis at the position (x. 3. (Note: energy is not conserved !) WRONG WRONG WRONG ?????????????? speed of sled remains same .person keeps moving when fall oﬀ ??????? . Prove that the center of mass lies at the center of the table-top.

119 .Chapter 8 COLLISIONS SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT: Design a simple experiment illustrating momentum conservation. THEMES: COLLISIONS.

COLLISIONS 8.1 Read What is a Collision? 8.2 Impulse and Linear Momentum Leave out 8. For a two-body collision process.120 CHAPTER 8. but an elastic collision is one in which energy is conserved (WN C = 0). we often say more simply that an elastic collision is when the kinetic energy alone is conserved and an inelastic collision is when it is not conserved.e. WN C = 0). Now if you think of a collision of two billiard balls on a horizontal pool table then Uf = mgyf and Ui = mgyi . . then an inelastic collision is one in which energy is not conserved (i. Thus the above work-energy theorem would be Kf = K i + W N C Thus for collisions where Ui = Uf . ∆U + ∆K = WN C or Uf − Ui + Kf − Ki = WN C or Uf + Kf = Ui + Ki + WN C If WN C = 0 then energy will not be conserved. but yf = yi and thus Uf = Ui or ∆U = 0. In this section we ﬁrst will deal only with elastic collisions in 1-dimension.3 Elastic Collisions in 1-dimension Recall our work energy theorem for a single particle.

assuming the collison is elastic (Is this a good assumption?). Thus the rest of the problem is simply doing some algebra. Let’s solve for v1f in the ﬁrst equation and then substitute into the second equation to get v2f .8. Calculate the ﬁnal speeds of both balls in terms of m1 . Solution All the motion is in 1-dimension and so conservation of momentum (with v2i = 0) is just m1 v1i + 0 = m1 v1f + m2 v2f and conservation of kinetic energy is 1 1 1 2 2 2 m1 v1i + 0 = m1 v1f + m2 v2f 2 2 2 Here we have two equations with the two unknowns v1f and v2f .3. ELASTIC COLLISIONS IN 1-DIMENSION 121 Example A billiard ball of mass m1 and initial speed v1i hits a stationary ball of mass m2 . v1i . Thus v1f = v1i − or 2 2 v1f = v1i − 2 m2 v2f m1 m2 m1 2 2 v2f m2 v2f v1i + m1 Substituting this into the conservation of kinetic energy equation gives 1 1 m2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 v2f + m2 v2f m1 v1i = m1 v1i − m2 v2f v1i + 2 2 2 m1 2 which simpliﬁes to 0 = −2m2 v1i + v2f giving v2f = 2m2 m2 2 m1 m2 2 + m2 m1 v1i + m2 . m2 . All the motion occurs in a straight line.

COLLISIONS 2m1 v1i m1 + m2 Substituting this back into the conservation of momentum equation gives 2m1 m2 m1 v1i = m1 v1f + v1i m1 + m2 which gives v1f = v1i 1 − or v1f = 2m2 m1 + m2 = v1i m1 + m2 − 2m2 m1 + m2 m1 − m2 v1i m1 + m2 There are some interesting special situations to consider. 1) Equal masses (m1 = m2 ). (This is also true if the target is moving. In this case we get v1f ≈ −v1i 2m1 and v2f ≈ m2 v1i ≈ 0 which means the projectile bounces oﬀ at the same speed and the target remains stationary. COMPUTER SIMULATIONS LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: colliding pendula (Sample Problem 10-3) All students should carefully study the Moving Target discussion on Pg.122 which is ﬁnally v2f = CHAPTER 8. 220 of Halliday.) 2) Massive target (m2 m1 ). This implies that v1f = 0 and v2f = v1i . That is the projectile billiard ball stops and transfers all of its speed to the target ball. Now we get v2f ≈ 2v1i and 3) Massive projectile (m1 v1f ≈ v1i meaning that the projectile keeps charging ahead at about the same speed and the target moves oﬀ at double the speed of the projectile. . m2 ).

This gives V ≈ 3) Massive projectile (m1 m1 v≈0 m2 m2 ). This gives 1 V = v 2 2) Massive target (m2 m1 ). INELASTIC COLLISIONS IN 1-DIMENSION 123 8. 1) Equal masses (m1 = m2 ). Example Repeat the previous example for a completely inelastic collision.8.4. Solution If the particles stick to each other after the collision then their ﬁnal speeds are the same.4 Inelastic Collisions in 1-dimension A completely inelastic collision is deﬁned as one in which the two particles stick together after the collision. v1f = v2f ≡ V And writing v1i ≡ v we have from conservation of momentum m1 v + 0 = m1 V + m2 V or V = m1 v m1 + m2 Let’s look again at the special situations. This gives V ≈v . let’s call it V .

1 shows a typical conﬁguration. .1 Glancing collision.124 CHAPTER 8. not head-on) are more complicated to analyze. Figure 10. y v2f v1i m1 θ2 x m2 θ 1 v1f FIGURE 10.5 Collisions in 2-dimensions Glancing collisions (i.e. COLLISIONS 8.

COLLISIONS IN 2-DIMENSIONS 125 Example Write down the conservation of energy and momentum equations for the glancing collision depicted in Fig. 1 1 1 2 2 2 m1 v1i = m1 v1f + m2 v2f 2 2 2 These three equations must then be solved for the quantities of interest. Students should carefully study sample Problems 10-7. . In x and y components these are m1 v1ix = m1 v1f x + m2 v2f x m1 v1iy = m1 v1f y + m2 v2f y or m1 v1i = m1 v1f cos θ1 + m2 v2f cos θ2 0 = −m1 v1f sin θ1 + m2 v2f sin θ2 If the collision is elastic we also have conservation of kinetic energy.5.8. Solution Conservation of momentum is p1i + p2i = p1f + p2f but p2i = 0. 10.1 where the target ball is initially at rest. 10-8 [Halliday].

) 8. as shown in Fig.126 CHAPTER 8. If the target is scattered at an angle of θ2 what is the scattering angle θ1 of the projectile in terms of m1 . Solve the ﬁrst and second equations for θ1 giving m1 v1i − m2 v2f cos θ2 cos θ1 = m1 v1f and sin θ1 = giving tan θ1 = m2 v2f sin θ2 m1 v1i − m2 v2f cos θ2 m2 v2f sin θ2 m1 v1f (Notice that this result is valid for both elastic and inelastic collisions. We did not use conservation of energy. Center of Mass Reference Frame . COLLISIONS Example A ball of mass m1 and speed v1i collides with a stationary target ball of mass m2 . v1i . 10.1. θ2 and v2f where v2f is the ﬁnal speed of the target ? Solution Conservation of momentum gives Σpi = Σpf or Σpix = Σpf x and Σpiy = Σpf y The x direction gives m1 v1i + 0 = m1 v1f cos θ1 + m2 v2f cos θ2 0 = −m1 v1f sin θ1 + m2 v2f sin θ2 We want to ﬁnd θ1 . m2 .6 Reactions and Decay Processes Leave out.

which is the name for the reference frame associated with a stationary target. This is also often called the center of momentum frame because if vcm = 0 then pi = 0. The Lab does not move. We can also measure velocities with respect to the center of mass frame where vcm = 0. or in other words vLab = 0. REACTIONS AND DECAY PROCESSES 127 Remember that the total momentum P of a system of particles was given by P = M vcm or P = M vcm = pi = mi vi i i Up to now we have been measuring velocities with respect to the “Lab” reference frame. If v = velocity in Lab frame and u = i velocity in cm frame then u = v − vcm .6.8.

A) What is the speed of the center of mass ? B) What is the speed of both balls in the cm frame ? Solution vB = 0 vcm = = = mR vR + mB vB mR + mB mR × vR + 0 mR + mB mR vR mR + mB which is the speed of the center of mass. Now get the speed of the red ball via uR = vR − vcm = vR − mR vR mR + mB mR mR + mB − mR = vR (1 − ) = vR ( ) mR + mB mR + mB mB = vR mR + mB and the speed of the black ball is uB = vB − vcm mR = 0− vR mR + mB mR = − vR mR + mB . COLLISIONS Example A red billiard ball of mass mR moving at a speed vR collides head on with a black billiard ball of mass mB at rest.128 CHAPTER 8.

7.7 Problems 1. the player wishes to hit a stationary target ball with the moving projectile ball. Ignore friction and rolling motion and assume the collision is elastic. Also both balls have the same mass. After the collision. . PROBLEMS 129 8. show that the sum of the scattering angles is 90o . In a game of billiards.8.

COLLISIONS .130 CHAPTER 8.

Chapter 9 ROTATION SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT: Calculate the speed of an ant at the edge of the minute hand on your kitchen clock. THEMES: SPIN. 131 .

240 of Halliday for a clear distinction between radian and degrees. If a particle is located on the rim of a circle we often use s instead of x to locate its position around the circumference of the circle. One complete revolution is 2π radian often also called 360◦ . as opposed to the translational motion studied previously.1 Translation and Rotation We have studied how point particles and systems of particles (rigid bodies) move as a whole. . 9. Similarly angular displacement is ∆θ ≡ θ2 − θ1 and because θ ≡ s r then it is related to translation displacement by ∆θ = ∆s ∆x = r r This is the ﬁrst entry in the Master Table.2 The Rotational Variables Previously we denoted translational position in 1-dimension with the symbol x. Thus s and x are equivalent translational variables s≡x Now the angular position is described by angle which is deﬁned as θ≡ s r where s (or x) is the translation position and r is the radius of the circle.132 CHAPTER 9. When studying rotational motion it is very convenient and instructive to develop the whole theory in analogy to translational motion. The next thing to consider is rotational motion. The angle deﬁned above is measured in radian. but of course this is not a unit. (All students should carefully read Pg. I have therefore written the Master Table that we shall refer to often. Notice that angle has no units because s and r both have units of m. ROTATION 9.) Translational position is given by x (or s) and translation displacement was ∆x ≡ x2 − x1 (or ∆s ≡ s2 − s1 ).

THE ROTATIONAL VARIABLES 133 Secondly we deﬁned translational average velocity as v ≡ ∆x ≡ ∆s and ¯ ∆t ∆t dx ds instantaneous velocity as v ≡ dt = dt .9. Finally the angular acceleration α is deﬁned as α≡ and dω dt a r relating angular acceleration α to translational acceleration at . α= . For uniform circular motion α = 0 and at = 0 because the particle moves in a circle at constant speed v and the 2 centripetal acceleration is ar = vr .2. Similarly we deﬁne average angular velocity as ∆θ ω≡ ¯ ∆t and instantaneous velocity as ω≡ dω dt v ¯ r ∆x Now because we have ∆θ = ∆x we must also have ∆θ = r∆t or ω = ¯ r ∆t relating average velocity and average angular velocity.) See the third entry in the Master Table. Similarly as ω= v r This is the second entry in the Master Table. For non-uniform circular motion. where the speed keeps increasing (or decreasing) then α = 0 and a = 0. (Notice that a is not the centripetal acceleration.

They are listed in the Master Table. Read Halliday. 9. 9. Read Halliday.134 CHAPTER 9.5 Relating the Linear and Angular Variables We have already discussed this. . Using ω = ω0 + αt gives α = ω − ω0 0 − 100 × 2π sec−1 = t 10 sec −2 = −62. 11-5. ROTATION 9.8 sec Study Sample Problems 11-3.3 Are Angular Quantities Vectors? Yes. What is the angular acceleration of the ﬂywheel ? Solution The initial angular velocity is ω0 = 100 × 2π sec−1 and the ﬁnal angular velocity is ω = 0. 246 Halliday. Example A ﬂywheel is spinning at 100 revolutions per second and is stopped by a brake in 10 seconds. Especially read about at and ar on Pg.4 Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration The equations for constant angular acceleration are obtained in identical fashion to the translational constant acceleration equations. 11-4.

Note we do not write vi = ωi ri because the rotational velocity of all particles is the same value ω. That is ω1 = ω2 = ω3 = · · · ≡ ω. (Carefully read Pg.) See Master Table. 248.6. Substituting gives K= i 1 1 2 mi ω 2 ri = 2 2 2 mi ri ω 2 i Deﬁne rotational inertia or rotational mass as I≡ i 2 mi ri and we get 1 K = Iω 2 2 which looks exactly like K = 1 mv 2 where instead of velocity v we have ω 2 and instead of mass (or inertia) m we have rotational mass (or rotational inertia) I. or inertia. .9. or rotational inertia. Recall that mass. KINETIC ENERGY OF ROTATION 135 9. tells us how diﬃcult it is to move an object. Similarly the rotational mass.6 Kinetic Energy of Rotation To calculate the kinetic energy of a rotating object we add up all of the kinetic energies of the individual particles making up the object. tells us how diﬃcult it is to rotate an object. namely K= i 1 2 mi vi 2 The speeds are vi = ωri . Halliday.

It is easy to spin about an axis through the center (i. center of mass) but more diﬃcult to spin about an axis through the edge of the book. . Let’s now look at some examples of how to calculate I. 250 of Halliday. or spinning. Many results are listed on Pg. Take your physics book for example.e. ROTATION 9.136 CHAPTER 9. just as ordinary inertia m tells us how diﬃcult it is to get something moving. but large for an axis through the edge of 2 the book. In the formula for I = ri mi = r2 dm then r will always be i measured from the rotation axis. Now when you spin an object. I = Icm + M h2 where I is the rotational inertia about an axis located a distance h from the center of mass and parallel to a line through the center of mass. Thus I is small for the spin axis through the center of the book. you always spin it about some axis. A very handy formula which helps a lot in calculating I is the famous parallel axis theorem.7 Calculating the Rotational Inertia For a continuous distribution of mass the rotational inertia has the sum replaced by an integral. namely I≡ = 2 ri mi = r2 dm r2 λdL r2 ρdV = i r2 σdA = where dm has been replaced by ρdV or σdA or λdL depending on whether the rigid body is 3-dimensional. This theorem is proved on Pg. 2-dimensional or 1-dimensional. M is the total mass of the whole rigid body. 249 of Halliday. Remember that the rotational inertia I tells us how diﬃcult it is to get something rotating.

Calculate the rotational inertia about an axis through the center of mass (and perpendicular to the rod). Now r1 = 1 L and r2 = − 1 L 2 2 giving I = = 1 L 2 1 mL2 2 2 1 m+ − L 2 2 m Example Repeat the previous example for an axis through one of the dumbbells (but still perpendicular to the rod). Solution See Fig. Now we have r1 = 0 and r2 = L giving 2 2 I = r1 m + r2 m = 0 + L2 m = mL2 . Pg. Pg. Solution See Fig. 250.7. and also m1 = m2 ≡ m. 11-13(b) in Halliday.9. Each dumbbell is a discrete mass and so we use I = = 2 ri m i i 2 r1 m 2 + r2 m where there are only two terms because there are only two dumbbells. 250. CALCULATING THE ROTATIONAL INERTIA 137 Example A rod of length L and negligible mass has a dumbbell of mass m located at each end. 11-13(a) in Halliday.

Then (with dr = L dL) I= r2 dm = L/2 −L/2 r2 λ dr where the integration limits are −L/2 to L/2 because the axis is through the center of the rod. Example Calculate the rotational inertia of a thin uniform rod of mass M and length L about an axis through the center of the rod (and perpendicular to its length). Solution The parallel axis theorem is I = Icm + M h2 where the total mass if M = 2m and h is the distance from the center of mass to the rotation axis. ROTATION Example Repeat the previous example using the parallel axis theorem. Thus h = L/2 giving I = L 1 mL2 + (2m) 2 2 = mL2 2 This is the same as before and so we have good reason to believe that the parallel axis theorem is true. Pg. Solution See the ﬁgure in Table 11-2 of Halliday. 249. The rod is uniform which means λ is constant and can be taken outside the integral to give L/2 I = λ = λ = −L/2 r2 dr = λ 3 1 3 r 3 L/2 −L/2 3 1 3 L 2 − 1 L − 3 2 =λ L3 12 M L3 1 = M L2 L 12 12 .138 CHAPTER 9. Let the linear mass density of the rod be λ ≡ M .

CALCULATING THE ROTATIONAL INERTIA 139 Example Repeat the previous example for an axis through one end of the rod.7. Solution I = Icm + M h2 1 = M L2 + M 12 1 = M L2 3 L 2 2 .9. Solution Now we have I = λ 1 2 2 r 3 0 0 1 3 1 3 = λ L −0 =λ L 3 3 M1 3 1 = L = M L2 L 3 3 L r2 dr = λ Example Repeat the previous example using the parallel axis theorem.

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9.8

Torque

We now want to determine the rotational equivalent of force. Rotational force is called torque. It is a vector deﬁned as the cross product of r and F , τ ≡r×F Its magnitude is τ = rF sin φ where φ is the angle between r and F . Now r sin φ is just a perpendicular distance r⊥ = r sin φ, so that τ = r⊥ F Carefully read Halliday Pg. 252-253 for a detailed discussion of the meaning of torque. See the Master Table.

9.9

Newton’s Second Law for Rotation
F = ma for translational dynamics we would guess τ =I α

Now just as we have that

would be Newton’s second law for rotation. This is exactly right! Example Do Sample Problem 11-11 in class (Pg. 253 Halliday).

9.10

Work and Rotational Kinetic Energy
F dx. Similarly for rota-

We have seen that in 1-dimension, work is W = tions we have W ≡ τ dθ See Master Table.

9.10.

WORK AND ROTATIONAL KINETIC ENERGY MASTER TABLE

141

Translational Motion Displacement ∆x ≡ ∆s Velocity v ≡
dx dt dv dt

Rotational Motion Angular Displ. ∆θ Angular Vel. ω ≡
dθ dt dω dt

Relation ∆x = ∆s = r∆θ v = rω at = rα

Acceleration at ≡

Angular Accel. α ≡

Constant Accel. Eqns: v = v0 + at
2 v 2 = v0 + 2a(x − x0 )

Constant Angular Accel: ω = ω0 + αt
2 ω 2 = ω0 + 2α(θ − θ0 )

x − x0 =

v+v0 2 t

θ − θ0 =

ω+ω0 2 t

= v0 t + 1 at2 2 = vt − 1 at2 2 K = 1 mv 2 2 F = ma W = F dx

= ω0 t + 1 αt2 2 = ωt − 1 αt2 2 K = 1 Iω 2 2 τ = Iα W = τ dθ I≡
2 r i mi =

r2 dm

i

τ ≡r×F

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CHAPTER 9. ROTATION

9.11

Problems

9.11. PROBLEMS

143

7. A pencil of length L, with the pencil point at one end and an eraser at the other end, is initially standing vertically on a table with the pencil point on the table. The pencil is let go and falls over. Derive a formula for the speed with which the eraser strikes the table, assuming that the pencil point does not move. [WS 324]

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THEMES: SPIN. 145 . TORQUE & ANGULAR MOMENTUM SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT: Design a simple experiment showing conservation of angular momentum.Chapter 10 ROLLING.

then static friction is involved. When the wheel slips then kinetic friction is involved. dA = 2 π r dr L FIGURE 12.1. The small element of area indicated is dA = 2πrdr corresponding to a small element of volume dV = dA L = M 2πrdrL.146 CHAPTER 10. about the long axis through the center of the cylinder as shown in Fig. Note that when a wheel rolls without slipping.1 Solid Cylinder. 12-2.1. 12. (See also Sample Problems 12-1.) Example Calculate the rotational inertia of a hollow cylinder and a solid cylinder. ROLLING. Solution The rotational inertia of a hollow cylinder is simply I = M R2 To calculate the rotational inertia of the solid cylinder. TORQUE & ANGULAR MOMENTUM 10. 12-3. Thus the rotational indertia (with ρ = LπR2 being the density of the cylinder) is I = r2 dm . refer to Fig.1 Rolling All students should read this whole section in Halliday carefully. I shall now discuss an important example. This is discussed in Halliday. 12.

LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: show the above example. YO-YO = r2 ρdV R 147 = ρ2πL 0 r3 dr 1 = ρ2πL R4 4 M 1 = 2πL R4 LπR2 4 1 = M R2 2 Example If a solid cylinder and a hollow cylinder with the same mass and radius roll down an incline. 1 1 2 K = Icm ω 2 + M vcm ≡ Krotation + Ktranslation 2 2 where Icm is the rotational inertia about the center of mass and vcm is the translational speed of the center of mass.2 Read Yo-Yo . 10. one rotational and one translational. i. and thus less into translation.10. The rotational inertias of Hoop. which reaches the bottom ﬁrst? Solution The kinetic energy of a rolling object now consists of two terms.2. Therefore the solid cylinder reaches the bottom ﬁrst.e. Disk and Sphere are IHollow cylinder = M R2 1 ISolid cylinder = M R2 2 The hollow cylinder has the larger moment of inertia and therefore more kinetic energy will go into rotation.

Now F = dp where p ≡ mv is the momentum. We can ﬁgure it out. Consider the following quantity.5 Angular Momentum Newton’s Second Law in Angular Form We have previously deﬁned torque (or angular force) as τ ≡ r × F . d (r × p) = dt dr dp ×p+r× dt dt = v × mv + r × m dv dt = m(v × v + r × a) but v × v = 0 giving d (r × p) = mr × a dt = r×F = τ Thus the unknown l must be l ≡r×p .4 10. Thus we expect τ= dl dt But we haven’t said what l is.3 Torque Revisited Read carefully. ROLLING. We Newton’s Second Law is dt therefore expect an angular version of Newton’s Second Law involving angular force or torque and angular momentum l.148 CHAPTER 10. Review of Cross Product 10. TORQUE & ANGULAR MOMENTUM 10.

based on analogy with total momentum. namely L = constant . 10. Halliday (Pg. In terms of the angular momentum li of each particle.6 Angular Momentum of a System of Particles Let’s call the angular momentum of a system of particles L. all particles rotate at the same speed. conservation of momentum. where p was the 10. ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES 149 10.8 Conservation of Angular Momentum Fext = dP dt For translational motion we had and for Fext = 0 we had P = constant. then dt if there are no external torques τext = 0 then the total angular momentum is conserved.7 Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body Rotating About a Fixed Axis In a rigid body.e. it is L= i li and Newton’s Second Law for a system of particles becomes τext = dL dt Fext = dp dt as we would expect. Similarly from τext = dL .6. i.10. 281) shows that L = Iω which is exactly analogous to p = mv.

ri rf 2 ωi .150 CHAPTER 10. Thus 2 2 2M ri ωi = 2M rf ωf giving ωf = And ri > rf giving ωf > ωi . If the student brings the weights closer inward. show that the spin rate increases. Angular momentum is conserved. ROLLING. thus Li = Lf or Ii ωi = If ωf The moment of inertia of the two weights is I = 2M r2 where r is the length of the student’s arm. The rotational inertia of the student remains the same. TORQUE & ANGULAR MOMENTUM LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: example below Example A student is spinning on a stool and holding two heavy weights with outstretched hands. Solution For a rigid body spinning about a ﬁxed axis we had L = Iω.

10.8. CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM MASTER TABLE 2 Translational Motion Rotational Motion Relation dp dl l =r×p F = ma = τ = Iα = dt dt p = mv L = Iω 151 .

152 CHAPTER 10. and is originally at rest. [WS354-355] 2 . ROLLING.9 Problems 1. A bullet of mass m travelling with a speed v is shot into the rim of a solid circular cylinder of radius R and mass M as shown in the ﬁgure. TORQUE & ANGULAR MOMENTUM 10. Derive a formula for the angular speed of the cylinder after the bullet has become imbedded in it. (Hint: The rotational inertia of a solid cylinder about the center axis is I = 1 M R2 ). The cylinder has a ﬁxed horizontal axis of rotation.

153 . (Obviously you won’t be able to actually carry out these observations this week. Why ?) THEMES: The Solar System.Chapter 11 GRAVITATION SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT: Design some observations so that you can detect the retrograde motion of a planet.

1 Ptolemaic epicycle. for if the planets move at diﬀerent speeds around the Sun. After Tycho died. This provided an alternative explanation for the retrograde motion of the planets. including Earth. Of course the telescope had not yet been invented and all of Tycho’s observations were with some geometric instruments and the naked eye. who suggested that the Earth is not at the center of the universe. He mounted an intensive campaign to accurately record the motion of all the planets. then from the point of view of an observer on Earth. Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) was one of the greates observational astronomers in history. this is probably the most important scientiﬁc idea in history. Copernicus thought instead that the Sun was at the center of the universe and that all the planets. However later on came Copernicus (1473-1543). From a psychological point of view.155 epicycle Earth FIGURE 14. In particular Kepler discovered . a Polish monk. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) obtained access to Tycho’s precision data and was able to use it to ﬁgure out the exact motion of the planets to a high degree of precision. the planets will appear to move forward and then backward depending upon the relative orientation. revolved around it.

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that the motion of the planets was not the perfect circle after all, but rather the motions were elliptical. From analyzing Tycho’s data Kepler discovered 3 important facts about the planets. These are usually called Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. They are 1) All planets move in elliptical orbits with the Sun at one focus. 2) The line joining any planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times. 3) The period squared is proportional to the mean distance cubed, i.e. T 2 ∝ R3 . (The period T is the time it takes for a planet to complete one orbit of the Sun. For Earth this is 365 days. The mean distance R is the average distance from the Sun to the planet in question.) Meanwhile, Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) used the newly invented telescope to view the heavens for the ﬁrst time. Among his many great discoveries, were observations of the moons of Jupiter clearly showing orbits around the planet itself. This was the ﬁrst direct observation of bodies which did not orbit Earth. One important point to note about Kepler’s laws is that they were ’mere’ empirical facts. No one understood why they were true. In fact Kepler spent the rest of his life trying to explain then. It was not until Isaac Newton (1642-1727) invented a theory of gravity that Kepler’s laws were ﬁnally understood on a theoretical basis. Newton had been thinking deeply about what holds the moon in orbit around Earth and what holds the planets in orbit around the Sun. The story goes that Newton was sitting under an apple tree watching the apples fall oﬀ the tree onto the ground. It suddenly occured to Newton that the force causing the apples to fall to the ground is the same force that keeps the moon in orbit about Earth and the planets in orbit about the Sun. What a great leap of imagination ! Newton hypothesized that the gravitational force between any two objects was given by an inverse square law of the form F =G m1 m2 r2 (11.1)

where m1 and m2 are the masses of the bodies and r is the distance between their centers. G is a constant. Note that this says that if the distance between two bodies is doubled the force drops by a factor of 4. The great triumph of Newton’s gravitational theory was that he could derive Kepler’s laws. We shall go through this derivation in a moment. The story of gravity is not complete without mentioning Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity which was another theory of gravity completely at odds with Newton’s theory. In Einstein’s theory there is no mention of any

157 forces at all. Rather, gravity is seen to be due to a curvature of space and time. The concept of force is more of an illusion. Einstein’s theory was also able to explain Kepler’s laws, but its advantage over Newton’e theory was that it explained additional facts about the planets such as the precession of the orbit of mercury and the deﬂection of starlight by the Sun. Actually even today the story of gravity is not complete. In fact of the 4 forces that we have identiﬁed in nature (gravity, electromagnetism, strong force, weak force), it is gravity that still remains poorly understood. The theory of quantum mechanics was invented early this century to describe the motion of tiny particles such as atoms. The great problem with gravity is that no one has succeeded in making it consistent with quantum mechanics. A recent theory, called Superstring theory, may be the answer but we will have to wait and see. By the way, the physics department at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee is one of the leading centers in the nation for the modern study of gravity.

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CHAPTER 11. GRAVITATION

11.1

The World and the Gravitational Force

11.2

Newton’s Law of Gravitation

We already know about Newton’s three laws of motion, the second of which is F = ma. These three laws describe motion in general. They never refer to a speciﬁc force. Newton however did also study in detail a speciﬁc force, namely gravity. He conjectured that the gravitational force between two bodies of mass m1 and m2 whose centers are separated by a distance of r has a magnitude of m1 m2 F = −G 2 r The minus sign tells us that the force points inwards. The value of G was determined later in 1798 by Cavendish. It’s value measured today is G = 6.67 × 10−11 Nm2 kg−2 However, it is interesting that today the gravitational constant is the least accurately known of all the fundamental constants. For instance, its most accurately known value is actually G = (6.67259±0.00085)×10−11 Nm2 kg−2 [see Particle Properties Data Booklet, 1996] whereas for example the charge of the electron is (1.60217733 ± 0.00000049) × 10−19 Coulomb or the speed of light is 299 792 458 m sec−1 which are known much more accurately than G. Another example is the strength of the electrical force, called the ﬁne structure constant, α−1 = 137.0359895 ± 0.0000061.
m Note: Halliday (Pg. 323) writes F = G m1 2 2 (i.e. with a plus sign) but then r m writes F = −G m1 2 2 on Pages 329 and 331. The equation should always be r written with a minus sign to indicate an atractive inwards force. Now the vector form of Newton’s Law is

F = −G

m1 m2 r ˆ r2

where r is a unit vector point from one mass out to the other. The gravitaˆ tional force is an inward force and that’s why the minus sign appears.

11.3

Gravitation and Principle of Superposition

11.4. GRAVITATION NEAR EARTH’S SURFACE

159

11.4

Gravitation Near Earth’s Surface

m Newton’s formula F = G m1 2 2 is often called the law of Universal Gravitar tion because it applies to all bodies in the universe. How does it ﬁt in with our concept of Weight which we deﬁned to be the gravitational force at the surface of the Earth, namely W ≡ mg

where g = 9.8 m sec−1 is the acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the m Earth? Well, if F = G m1 2 2 is universal then it should predict the Weight r force. Let’s see how this comes about.
m Example Show that F = G m1 2 2 gives the same result as r W = mg near the surface of Earth.

Solution Let m1 ≡ M be the mass of Earth, which is m1 = M = 5.98 × 1024 kg. Let m2 ≡ m be the mass of a person of weight W = mg. The distance between the centers of the masses is just the radius of Earth, i.e. r = 6370 km (which is about 4000 miles, only slightly larger than the width of the United States or Australia). Thus the gravitational force between the two masses is F = G mM r2 m × 5.98 × 1024 kg (6.37 × 106 m)2

= 6.67 × 10−11 Nm2 kg−2 × = m × 9.8 m sec−2

which is the same as W = mg. In other words we have predicted the value of g from the mass and radius of Earth. You could now do the same for the other planets.

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CHAPTER 11. GRAVITATION

Example Explain how to measure the mass of Earth. Solution In the previous example, we found g=G M r2

where M is the mass of Earth and r is the radius of Earth. Thus by measuring g (which you do in the lab) and by measuring r (which the ancient Greeks knew how to do by comparing the depth of a shadow in a well at two diﬀerent locations at the same time) then M is given by M= gr2 G

and G was measured in the famous Cavendish experiment (look this up).

2 A person is located as point P inside the Earth. This can be seen by considering the shaded regions A and B. Then the gravitational pull of all the Earth surrounding you above will all cancel out and you will fee zero net force. Now consider Figure 14. Region A contains a small amount of mass . as a distance r from the center of Earth. at a distance r from the center of Earth.5. The easiest way to see this is to suppose you were located exactly at the center of Earth.11. I have drawn a dotted circle of radius r intersecting point P .2 where a person is located at point P inside the Earth. We all agree that the total mass located inside the dotted circle produces a net gravitational force on the person.5 Gravitation Inside Earth If you go down a deep mine shaft then there will be Earth below you and Earth above you. GRAVITATION INSIDE EARTH 161 11. However the mass outside the dotted circle produces no net gravitational force. B P A r FIGURE 14. It is interesting to ﬁgure out that the Earth above you won’t have any overall gravitational eﬀect.

i. Now when the particle falls through the hole. Thus we can ignore all of the mass located outside of the dotted circle. M keeps getting smaller because r gets smaller as the particle falls towards the center of Earth. . and therefore will undergo oscillation in the hole.e.162 CHAPTER 11. Thus F πr3 ρm r ˆ r2 4πG = − ρm rˆ r 3 = −Kr = −G 3 4 r where K ≡ 4πG ρm and r = rˆ. Ignoring the rotation of Earth. The density of material in Earth is Mass M ρ= = 4 3 Volume 3 πr giving 4 M = πr3 ρ 3 where ρ is constant. show that a particle dropped into the hole experiences a gravitational force like Hooke’s law. GRAVITATION which will pull the person at P outwards. 3 the same as for a spring. Now there is more mass in B. However the mass contained in B will pull in the opposite direction. This is exactly Hooke’s law. m Solution Newton’s law is F = −G M2 r where M is the mass ˆ r contained within the dotted circle (Figure 14. but it is further away and so the gravitational eﬀects of the mass in A and in B cancel out. Example (See also Sample Problem 14-5): A hole is drilled from the United States to China through the center of Earth.2) and r is the radius of the dotted circle. Thus the particle will oscillate.

conservative WC and nonconservative WN C . F gets small and your weight therefore decreases. By substituting F = ma we found the work was always equal to the change in kinetic energy. For a spring force F = −kxˆ we found U = 1 kx2 . F = −mg j m F = −G m1 2 2 r we will ﬁnd that the gravitational potential energy is ˆ r U = −G m1 m2 r FC · dr ≡ −∆U . For universal gravitation surface of Earth. Now K is always given by K = 1 2 ma · dr = ∆K) but U is diﬀerent for diﬀerent 2 mv (which came from forces (because −∆U = F · dr). do you weigh more or less than you did at the surface of the Earth ? Solution We found in the previous example that F = − 4πG ρm rˆ r 3 Now ρ is constant and thus F is bigger when r is big.11.e.6 Gravitational Potential Energy Let’s brieﬂy recall our ideas about work and energy. The total work was deﬁned as W ≡ F · dr. For gravity near the i 2 ˆ we found U = mgy.6. 11. W ≡ F · dr = ∆K The total work consisted of two parts namely. GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY 163 Example When you go down a mine shaft. Thus when r gets small. We deﬁned potential energy U via WC = giving W = WC + WN C = −∆U + WN C = ∆K or ∆U + ∆K = WN C which we called the work-energy theorem. i. In fact F = W = mg = 4πG ρmr giving g = 4πG ρr indicating 3 3 that g gets smaller as r gets smaller.

Solution This was already done in Chapter 8 (these notes). Thus j i j F · dr = −mg dy giving WC = −mg yf yi dy ≡ −∆U = −mg(yf − yi ) = −(Uf − Ui ) = −mgyf + mgyi = −Uf + Ui giving Uf = mgyf Ui = mgyi or just U = mgy . prove that U = mgy. GRAVITATION Example For gravity near the surface of Earth. Let’s do it again.164 CHAPTER 11. WC ≡ FC · dr ≡ −∆U ˆ Now F = −mgˆ and dr = dxˆ + dyˆ + dz k.

Solution WC = F = −G FC · dr ≡ −∆U m1 m2 r and ds ≡ dr = r dr ˆ ˆ r2 m 1 m2 m1 m2 ˆ ˆ F · dr = −G 2 dr r · r = −G 2 dr r r giving WC = −Gm1 m2 rf ri 1 dr = −∆U r2 rf ri = −Gm1 m2 − 1 r = −(Uf − Ui ) = −Gm1 m2 − = −Gm1 m2 − 1 1 −− rf ri 1 1 + rf ri m1 m 2 m1 m2 = +G −G = −Uf + Ui rf ri giving Uf Ui or just U = −G m1 m 2 rf m1 m 2 = −G ri = −G m1 m2 r .11. GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY 165 Example For universal gravitation.6. prove that U = −G m1rm2 .

Solution For universal gravitation. Ignoring the vectors we write FC dr = −∆U meaning that we must have FC = − This occurs because f i dU dr FC dr = − Uf dU U dU = −[U ]Uf dr = − i dr i Ui = −(Uf − Ui ) = −∆U f m Example For universal gravitation F = −G m1 2 2 .166 CHAPTER 11. the question is what U will give m1 m2 dU F = −G 2 = − r dr m1 m2 The answer is U = −G r2 . Let’s check: − d dU = +Gm1 m2 dr dr 1 r2 =− Gm1 m2 r which is the F we started with! . derive U r without doing an integral. GRAVITATION Recall that we also had an alternative way of ﬁnding U without having to work out the integral FC · dr. We had WC = FC · dr ≡ −∆U .

We want to throw the ball so that it just barely escapes to inﬁnity. because we throw the ball from the surface of Earth. Let’s ﬁnd out what this is. such that the ball will not return at all. There is a speed. GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY Escape Speed 167 If you throw a ball up in the air it always comes back down. giving vi = 2 × 6. Example Calculate the speed with which a ball must be thrown. Thus 1 Mm mv 2 = G 2 i R and m cancels out giving vi = 2GM R for the escape speed. However if we can throw the ball to an inﬁnite distance.6. called the escape speed. so that it never returns to the ground. 000 miles per hour .67 × 10−11 Nm2 kg−2 × 6 × 1024 kg 6. r = ∞.11. Now the mass and radius of Earth are M = 6 × 1024 kg and R = 6370 km. when it gets to inﬁnity. has dropped oﬀ to zero. then U will be zero and the ball will not return. vi is the escape speed that we are looking for. Using conservation of energy we have Ki + Ui = Kf + Uf or Mm 1 2 mvi − G =O+O 2 R where M is the mass of Earth. that is its speed. If you throw it faster it goes higher before returning. 353 km hour−1 ≈ 25. m is the mass of the ball and R is the radius of Earth. Solution The ball usually returns to the ground because of its gravitational potential energy U = −G m1rm2 .37 × 106 m = 40.

The speed of light is c = 3 × 108 m/sec. Thus c= c2 = giving R = 2GM c2 2 × 6.4 mm 2GM R 2GM R (where M = mass of Earth = 6 × 1024 kg). GRAVITATION Now you can see that if M is very large or R is very small then the escape speed gets very big. Such an object is called a Black Hole.67 × 10−11 Nm2 kg−2 × 6 × 1024 kg = (3 × 108 m sec−1 )2 = 4. You can imagine an object so massive or so small that the escape speed is bigger than the speed of light.168 CHAPTER 11. Then light itself cannot escape. Example To what size would we need to squeeze Earth to turn it into a Black Hole ? Solution Let’s set the escape speed equal to the speed of light c = 3 × 108 m/sec. Thus if we could squeeze the Earth to only 4 mm it would be a black hole! .

Thus is our universe really a black hole? Do we actually live inside a black hole? . Calculate the escape speed for the universe.6.7 × 10 m/sec = 1. Thus light year = c × 1 year m = 3 × 108 × 365 × 24 × 60 × 60 sec sec = 1016 m Thus v = = 2GM r 2 × 6. Solution A light year is the distance that light travels in one year.67 × 10−11 Nm2 kg−2 × 10kg 10 × 109 × 1016 m 8 = 3.2c which is 1. GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY 169 Example The size of the universe is about 10 billion light years and its total mass is about 1053 kg.2 times the speed of light.11.

14. Kepler’s ﬁrst law is that the planets move in elliptical orbits with the Sun at one focus. In the upper part of the ﬁgure there are two shaded regions with the same area. ∆t Sun Planet ∆t FIGURE 14. Kepler’s second law states that the line joining a planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times.3.7 Kepler’s Laws Let’s now use Newton’s law of gravitation to prove some of Kepler’s laws of planetary motion.170 CHAPTER 11. This is shown in Fig. This is somewhat diﬃcult to prove and we will leave it to a more advanced physics course. . Thus the planets move quickly when close to the Sun and move slowly when farther away. The planet takes the same time ∆t to sweep out this area. GRAVITATION 11. A picture is shown in Figure 14.3 Planets sweep out equal areas in equal times.3 with the Sun at the focus of an ellipse.

But angular momentum is constant.4 Area swept out by planet. The shaded portion is the area swept out and has the shape of a triangle of area 1 dA = r v dt 2 The rate of change of area is dA 1 1 l = rv = mr v = dt 2 2m 2m where l is the angular momentum of the planet. Solution Figure 14. KEPLER’S LAWS 171 Example Prove that Kepler’s second law can be derived from Newton’s law of universal gravitation. therefore dA = constant dt meaning that equal areas are swept out in equal times! .7. v dt r Sun m FIGURE 14.11.4 shows the radius vector r and the displacement v dt for the planet of mass m.

which is done in a more advanced physics course. Example Prove that Kepler’s third law can be derived from Newton’s law of universal gravitation. GRAVITATION Kepler’s third law is that the period squared is proportional to the average distance cubed (T 2 ∝ r3 ) for a planetary orbit. In other words the elliptical orbits are very close to circular orbits with the Sun at the center. We will prove it for a circular orbit only. Thus v= or G giving T2 = or T 2 ∝ r3 4π 2 3 r GM 2πr T M 1 4π 2 r2 4π 2 r = = 2 2 r r T T2 .172 CHAPTER 11. This is diﬃcult to prove for elliptical orbits. We shall prove Kepler’s other two laws with the assumption that the orbits are circles. Actually the essenticity of the elliptical orbits are typically very small. Thus we immediately know that the 2 right hand side of F = ma is mv because all uniform circular motion has r 2 the centripetal acceleration given by a = vr . (Assume circular orbits only) Solution gives F = ma G Mm v2 =m r2 r Now the period T is the time to complete one orbit.

KEPLER’S LAWS 173 Example The distance between Earth and the Sun is about 93 million miles and can easily be determined using parallax and trigonometry. 000 × 103 m)3 365 × 24 × 60 × 60 sec)2 Notice that the mass of Earth did not enter.67 × = 2 × 1030 kg × (150.000 km and the period of Earth is 1 year or T = 365 × 24 × 60 × 60 sec Thus the mass of the Sun is M = 4π 2 10−11 Nm2 kg−2 6.000 miles = 150.000. (More than half of the stars in the sky are actually double stars. this is how astronomers determine the mass of double star systems.) . How can the mass of the Sun be subsequently determined ? Solution Kepler’s law is T 2 = M= 4π 2 3 GM r giving 4π 2 r3 G T2 Now r = 93.11. Thus if we observe two bodies in orbit and know the distance between them we can get the mass of the other body.000. 000.7.

174 CHAPTER 11.8 Problems . GRAVITATION 11.

THEMES: Clocks.Chapter 12 OSCILLATIONS SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT: Measure g from the period of a pendulum. 175 .

or an object suspended on a spring or a buoy bobbing up and down in the water. has started and then ﬁnished. We would now like to study oscillations in detail. OSCILLATIONS 12. which is a type of oscillatory motion. often abbreviated as Hz. Another related quantity is the period T which is the time taken to complete 1 full oscillation. Thus f= 1 T In circular motion. we introduced the angular speed ω deﬁned as ∆θ ω= ∆t Clearly if ∆θ = 2π then ∆t = T giving ω = 2π . However a great deal of motion in nature is repetitive or oscillatory.) 12.2 Simple Harmonic Motion An important property of oscillatory motion is the frequency f which is the number of oscillations completed each second.1 Oscillations Much of the motion that we have considered. it does not repeat. especially in regard to time keeping.e. such as motion of a car in a straight line or projectile motion. The units are sec−1 or Hertz. Thus 1 Hertz = 1 Hz = 1 oscillation per second = 1 sec−1 .176 CHAPTER 12. (Note: Mechanical Universe tapes very good – especially discussion of clocks and navigation. Thus angular velocity and T frequency are related by ω = 2πf . Oscillations are of great technological importance. i. Now f= number of oscillations time and if the time is simply T then 1 oscillation is completed. This will later lead to the study of wave motion which is also oscillatory in nature. such as a satellite undergoing circular motion.

Any motion that repeats itself at regular intevals is called oscillatory motion or harmonic motion. Now the velocity is v= dx = −ωxm sin ωt dt . giving t x = xm cos ωt We can also introduce a phase angle φ if we want and instead write x = xm cos(ωt + φ) This is discussed on Pg. which is plotted in Figure 16. Thus the displacement x for oscillatory motion can be written x = xm cos θ but ω = θ . Now of all the mathematical functions that you have ever come across.12.5 -1 0 5 10 x 15 20 FIGURE 16. there is one famous function that displays oscillations and that is cos θ.2. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 177 In oscillations ω is often called angular frequency. 374 of Halliday. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Spring and Pendulum Any motion that obeys the above equation x = xm cos ωt is called Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM).1 Plot of cos θ. First recall that if y = cos kx dy then dx = −k sin kx. 1 0.5 Cos x 0 -0. The velocity of SHM is easy to ﬁgure out. Here xm refers to the maximum value of the displacement x.1. And xm is often called the amplitude of the motion.

The period does not depend on the amplitude of oscillation xm ! When a spring is oscillating. there is a plot of x. v. Substituting into F = ma −kx = ma but we found that a = −ω 2 x giving −kx = −mω 2 x or ω= k m which is the angular frequency for an oscillating spring. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show this for Spring 12. I can “wind” my spring clock by just pulling on it a bit and still the period is the same.178 Also recall if y = sin kx when a= from which it follows that dy dx CHAPTER 12.3 Force Law for SHM Now consider Newton’s law for a Spring where the force is given by F = −kx (Hooke’s law). a. Now the acceleration is dv = −ω 2 xm cos ωt dt a = −ω 2 x In Figure 16-4 of Haliday. The period is obtained from ω = 2πf = 2π or T T = 2π m k Notice an amazing thing. where k is called the spring constant. the oscillations tend to die down in amplitude xm but the period of oscillation remains the same! This is crucial to the operation of clocks. OSCILLATIONS = k cos kx. . then v is a minimum and vice-versa. Notice that when x and a are at a maximum.

12. . (Latitude was easy to determine just by measuring the height of the Sun in the sky at noon. FORCE LAW FOR SHM 179 LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show this for Spring and Pendulum. Knowing longitude and latitude gives one’s position on the Earth. Also √ 1 show T ∝ m and T ∝ √k . The reason was that it enabled one to determine longitude on Earth.e. measure the time of travel. If one knew how long one had been travelling (i.3. this independence of the period on the amplitude was ﬁrst noticed by Galileo and led to the development of clocks which was very important for navigation. Thus the invention of accurate clocks (based on the independence of period and amplitude) enabled accurate estimates of longitude and thus revolutionized navigation.) By dragging knotted ropes behind a ship it was easy to measure the speed of a ship. Navigation and Clocks NNN . say with a pendulum or spring clock) then one knew the distance from the port from which one had set sail.FIX For a pendulum.

Using these special techniques one can prove that x = xm cos ωt is a solution to the above diﬀerential equation. We verify this solution by sustituting. For the spring. that is an equation involving derivatives. but we can verify that the solution given is correct. it becomes −kx = 2x ma = m¨ where x = d 2 . (±3)2 − 5 = 9 − 5 = 4). (Just like the solution to the algebraic equation x2 − 5 = 4 is x = ±3. Thus the diﬀerential equation is x ¨ dt m¨ + kx = 0 x In mathematics there are special techniques for solving diﬀerential equations. Verify that x = xm cos ωt is a solution to the diﬀerential equation m¨ + kx = 0. k m . x Solution x = xm cos ωt dx x = ˙ = −ωxm sin ωt dt dx ˙ d2 x x = ¨ = 2 = −ω 2 xm cos ωt dt dt Substitute into m¨ + kx = 0 x giving −mω 2 xm cos ωt + kxm cos ωt = 0 or −mω 2 + k = 0 Thus if ω= then x = xm cos ωt is a solution. OSCILLATIONS Example F = ma is really a diﬀerential equation. which you will learn about in a special diﬀerential equations course.180 CHAPTER 12. Many students will not have yet learned how to solve diﬀerential equations.

4. The weight W = mg stretches the spring. The conservation of mechanical energy 2 says that Ei = E f where the total energy is E ≡K +U That is Ki + Ui = Kf + Uf Thus E is constant. Can we be sure that E is always constant ? . the spring stretches by a distance x.12. Thus x mx T = 2π mg and fortunately m cancels out giving T = 2π x g 12.4 Energy in SHM We found before that the potential energy stored in a spring is U = 1 kx2 2 and the kinetic energy is K = 1 mv 2 . what is the period ? Solution We saw that the period is given by T = 2π m . ENERGY IN SHM 181 Example When a mass is suspended from the end of a massless spring. If the spring and mass are then put into oscillation. However for a spring x and v are always changing. thus mg = kx or k = mg . We k don’t know m or k ! We can get k from Hooke’s law F = −kx.

OSCILLATIONS Example For SHM. E = K +U 1 1 = mω 2 x2 sin2 ωt + kx2 cos2 ωt m 2 2 m but we previously found that ω = E = = k m giving 1 k 2 1 m xm sin2 ωt + kx2 cos2 ωt 2 m 2 m 1 2 kx (sin2 ωt + cos2 ωt) 2 m 1 2 kx 2 m E = which is always constant because the amplitude xm is constant! 12. Let’s add them. m 2 2 Thus U and K always change. Solution Recall that for SHM we have x = xm cos ωt and v = −ωxm sin ωt. Thus 1 1 U = kx2 = kx2 cos2 ωt 2 2 m and 1 1 K = mv 2 = mω 2 x2 sin2 ωt.182 CHAPTER 12.5 leave out An Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator . show that the total energy is always constant even though K and U always change.

6. Example Prove that the period of a pendulum undergoing small oscillations is given by T = 2π pendulum. Thus for the pendulum we must L g √ L T = 2π LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show T ∝ . “Grandfather Clock”). Let’s analyze the forces and show that the period is independent of amplitude. The forces on a pendulum are shown in Fig. so that −gθ = m d2 θ L dt2 d2 θ . sin θ ≈ θ. Thus −mg sin θ = mαL where α is the angular acceleration α = oscillations.g.12. PENDULUM 183 12. L g where L is the length of the Solution From Figure 16-10 (Halliday) we have Fk = max where we take the x direction to be perpendicular to the string. 16-10 of Halliday. dt2 Now for small Now compare this to our spring equation which was −kx = ma d2 x −kx = m 2 dt which had period T = 2π have m k.6 Pendulum The Simple Pendulum A pendulum is a very important type of oscillating motion and a very important clock (e.

where I is the rotational inertia. m is the total mass and h is the distance from the rotation axis to the center of mass. 382) Assume small oscillations. 16. Thus for the physical pendulum I mgh T = 2π . Solution The torque is τ = −(mg sin θ)h where the minus sign indicates that when θ increases the torque acts in the opposite direction.11 (Halliday). I Prove that the period of oscillation is T = 2π mg h . OSCILLATIONS Example A Physical Pendulum consists of a solid piece of matter undergoing oscillations as shown in Fig. For small oscillations sin θ ≈ θ giving τ ≈ −mgθh Substitute into Newton’s second law τ = Iα gives ¨ −mgθh = I θ d2 θ = I 2 dt Now compare this to our spring equation which was −kx = ma d2 x −kx = m 2 dt which had period T = 2π we must have m k. Pg. (See Haliday.184 CHAPTER 12.

2 combinations.12. Block sliding on frictionless surface with various spring .6. PENDULUM 185 (a) k1 k2 m (b) k1 k2 m (c) k1 m k2 FIGURE 16.

with spring constants k1 and k2 . giving F = ma x −k1 x − k2 x = m¨ −(k1 + k2 )x = m¨ x giving K = k1 + k2 . OSCILLATIONS Example Two springs. What is the eﬀective spring constant K? (i. are connected in parallel to a mass m sliding on a frictionless surface. 16. as shown in Fig.2a. what is K in terms of k1 and k2 ?) Assume both springs have zero mass. If the two springs were replaced by a single spring with constant K. Solution If m moves by an amount x then it feels two forces −k1 x and −k2 x.186 CHAPTER 12.e.

6. The force the mass feels is F = −K(x1 + x2 ) Now consider the motion of the mass plus spring 2 system. The force it feels is f = −k1 x1 but we must have F = f because ma is same for mass m and mass plus spring 2 system because spring 2 has zero mass.2b.12. PENDULUM 187 Example The two springs of the previous example are connected in series. Thus K= but k1 x1 = k2 x2 (the ratio of stretching x1 = k2 is inversely x2 k1 x1 strength. as shown in Fig. What is the eﬀective spring constant K ? Solution If spring 1 moves a distance x1 and spring 2 moves a distance x2 then the mass moves a distance x1 + x2 . 16.) Thus K = k1k1 giving x1 + k x1 2 k1 x1 x1 + x2 proportional to spring K= or k1 k2 k1 + k2 1 1 1 + = K k1 k2 .

OSCILLATIONS Example The two springs of the previous example are connected as shown in Fig.188 CHAPTER 12. What is the eﬀective spring constant K ? Solution If spring 1 is compressed by x then spring 2 is stretched by −x. Thus F = ma −k1 x + k2 (−x) = m¨ x −(k1 + k2 )x = m¨ x giving K = k1 + k2 .16.2c.

the displacement from equilibrium.. [Serway. A particle that hangs from a spring oscillates with an angular frequency ω.) [Serway. with a second block sitting on top. A large block. (Assume that the mass of the spring is negligible.. A simple pendulum consists of a ball of mass M hanging from a uniform string of mass m. 5th ed. 513. Problem 16] .7 Problems 1. PROBLEMS 189 12. Derive a formula for the time it takes the spring to stretch from its equilibrium position to the point of maximum extension.7. An object of mass m oscillates at the end of a spring with spring constant k and amplitude A. frictionless surface. (Assume the mass of the spring is negligible. pg. A block of mass m is connected to a spring with spring constant k. with m M (m is much smaller than M ). 415. derive a formula for the speed of the block as a function of x. If the period of oscillation for the pendulum is T . 5th ed. 418. Derive a formula for the speed of the object when it is at a distance d from the equilibrium position.12. Check that your answer has the correct units. pg. derive a formula for the speed of a transverse wave in the string when the pendulum hangs at rest. If the amplitude of oscillation is A. Check that your answer has the correct units. (Assume the mass of the spring is negligible. Problem 54] 6. pg. The coeﬃcient of static friction between the two blocks is µs . 5th ed. is connected to a spring and executes horizontal simple harmonic motion as it slides across a frictionless surface with an angular frequency ω.) [Serway. Derive a formula for the maximum amplitude of oscillation that the system can have if the upper block is not to slip.) 4. The other end of the spring is ﬁxed to a wall. and oscillates on a horizontal. The car then stops suddenly. as the car descends at a constant speed v. The spring-particle system is suspended from the ceiling of an elevator car and hangs motionless (relative to the elevator car). 2. Derive a formula for the amplitude with which the particle oscillates. Problem 14] 5. An object of mass m oscillates on the end of a spring with spring constant k.. 3.

OSCILLATIONS .190 CHAPTER 12.

THEMES: Violin and Guitar. 191 .Chapter 13 WAVES .I SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT: Pluck some strings and verify the frequency equation for strings.

Waves and Particles 13.I So far we have studied the motion of single particles and systems of particles. However the motion of waves requires a diﬀerent type of approach.1 Read. WAVES . Thus in today’s modern society it is important to understand wave motion. the wave travels to your ear and vibrates your ear drum in the same direction as travel. Transverse waves have the property that the wave displacement is perpendicular to the velocity of the wave. light waves by which we see. and radio waves by which we communicate. Waves are an important phenomenon in nature. Transverse waves are the ones you are most familiar with. such as water waves or waves on a string. as shown in Fig. There are water waves. Sound waves are an example of longitudinal waves in which the wave displacement is parallel to the wave velocity. 17-2 (Halliday). as shown in Fig.2 Read. sound waves by which we hear. 13. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Slinky showing tranverse and longitudinal waves. . Types of Waves 13. although we will use extensively some of our results from harmonic motion.3 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves There are two diﬀerent types of waves. 17-1 (Halliday).192 CHAPTER 13. When you hear a sound wave.

t) = ym sin ωt . ii) the distance x that the wave travels and iii) the time t that the wave travels.13. Thus we cannot write sin x because x is not an angle. the angle kx must be 2π. The y − x plot represents an instant of time t and is similar to a photograph or snapshot of a water wave that we would take at the beach. 17-4 (Halliday). so that the quantity kx is an angle.e. Now after one complete cycle the distance the wave moves is x = λ. Thus we must have θ = kx or 2π = kλ giving k= λ 2π which is called the wave number. We can only ever have sin θ where θ is an angle. To do this we have to multiply it by something called k.4 Wavelength and Frequency There are 3 important variables for a wave. 17-4 (Halliday). written as y(x. t). The reason we have written sin kx and not just sin x is because the domain of the sine function is an angle. The y − t plot represents a single location x and is similar to a movie of a buoy bobbing up and down in the water as a wave passes through. i) the height y of the wave. Similarly. i. θ ≡ kx. WAVELENGTH AND FREQUENCY 193 13. to summarize. However we want to use x as a plotting variable. When visualizing a wave we usually think of a y − x plot or a y − t plot as shown in Fig. 0) = ym sin kx where we have taken the instant of time to be t = 0. The time it takes the buoy to bob up and down once is called the period T of the wave. namely. Actually x is a distance with units of m. Thus y is a function of both x and t. Thus. The buoy is anchored to the ocean ﬂoor at a ﬁxed distance x. Now what is k? Well if kx is an angle then after one complete wave cycle. Now the y − x graph can be written y(x. Carefully study Fig.4. The distance between wave crests (that we could measure from our snapshot) is called the wavelength λ. the y − t graph can be written y(0. λ is determined from the y − x graph (instant of time t) whereas T is determined from the y − t graph (ﬁxed distance x).

whereas ωt is an angle.5 Speed of a Travelling Wave A handy formula for wave speed is easy to get! In one complete cycle the wave travels a distance x = λ and takes a time t = T to do it. WAVES . We did not write sin t because t is not an angle. Thus we must have θ = ωt or 2π = ωT giving ω= 2π = 2πf T 1 T which is often called the angular frequency ω. t) = ym sin(kx + ωt) Does this agree with what we had before? y(x. A general wave can be written y(x. t) = ym sin ωt.I where we have taken the ﬁxed distance to be x = 0. 0) = ym sin kx and y(0. Yes. We can see that 13. Thus the wave speed must be distance x λ v= = = time t T Simple algebra also gives v= λ ω = fλ = T k . ω is the angular speed that we have discussed before.194 CHAPTER 13. We previously deﬁned f ≡ in Chapter 16. Again after one complete wave cycle ωt must be 2π and after one cycle the time t will just be one period T .

5 m. SPEED OF A TRAVELLING WAVE 195 Example What is the amplitude.1 m = 0. frequency and speed of the wave described by y(x.32 sec−1 2π 2π . t) = ym sin(kx + ωt) Thus the amplitude is ym = 5 m the wave number is k = 3 m−1 and angular frequency is ω = 2 sec−1 Now k = 2π k = 3 m−1 giving λ= 2π 2π = 2.1 m = k 3 m−1 and ω = 2πf = 2 sec−1 giving f= and the speed is v = f λ = 0. 3 m−1 and 2 sec−1 ).13.e. t) = 5 sin(3x + 2t) with all quantities in SI units (i. wavelength.32 sec−1 × 2. Solution The general wave is y(x.5.67 m/sec ω 2 sec−1 = = 0.

To get m sec−1 from kg m sec−2 and kg m−1 can only be obtained with m sec−1 = = Thus we must have v= τ µ √ kg m sec−2 kg m−1 m2 sec−2 = m sec−1 And we can combine with our previous formula.10 Leave out.196 CHAPTER 13. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show wave interference using slinky. so that the wave speed on τ a string is v = f λ = µ . WAVES . 13. 13. 13.6 Wave Speed on a String LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Wave speed depends on tension.I 13. Phasors .8 Principle of Superposition Read carefully.7 Energy and Power of a Travelling String Wave Leave out.9 Interference of Waves Read carefully. When a wave travels on a string. the wave speed depends on both the string tension τ and the mass per unit length µ. 13. not torque) Well the units of v are m sec−1 and units of τ are N ≡ kg m sec−1 and units of µ are kg m−1 . What must the exact formula be? (τ is now tension. or linear mass density.

2. The various allowed harmonics are shown in Fig. 13. In this way standing waves of diﬀerent wavelength can be produced. 17-18 (Haliday).11 Standing Waves Read carefully.11. tension τ and mass density µ. · · · 2 2L n τ Now the wave speed is v = f λ = µ and writing λ = or n τ f = 2L µ gives f 2L = n τ µ This is an extremely important formula for the design of muscial instruments. 3.12 Standing Waves and Resonance When waves travel down a string they can reﬂect back from the other end and interfere with the other waves. STANDING WAVES 197 13. The relations between the wavelength λ and the length of the string L for the various harmonics are L = λ 2 2λ 2 L = λ= L = 3λ 2 etc. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show how frequency of Sound from Violin depends on length L. Higher frequencies are called higher harmonics. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Standing waves on slinky. . thus verifying the above formula. These can be written in general as L=n λ with n = 1. The wave of lowest frequency (longest wavelength) is called the fundamental harmonic.13.

What tension do we need to apply to a violin string to get this frequency for the fundamental harmonic? (Assume the string has a mass of about 10 gram and a length of 1/4 m.) Solution The mass per unit length µ is µ= 10 gram 0. WAVES .04 kg m−1 1/4 m .198 CHAPTER 13.04 kg m−1 (2 × 0.25 m τ µ. giving The fundamental har- τ = µ(2Lf )2 = 0.01 kg = = 0.I Example Middle C has a frequency of 262 Hz.25 m ×262 sec−1 )2 = 686 kg m−1 m2 sec−2 = 686 kg m sec−2 = 686 N . n The frequency is given by f = 2L monic corresponds to n = 1.

13 Problems .13.13. PROBLEMS 199 13.

200 CHAPTER 13.I . WAVES .

201 .Chapter 14 WAVES . THEMES: Flute and Recorder.II SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT: Blow in some pipes and verify the frequency equation for pipes.

14. 14.2 Speed of Sound B ρ ∆p ∆V /V The speed of sound in any medium is given by v= where ρ is the density of the medium and B is the Bulk Modulus deﬁned as B≡− where a change in pressure ∆p causes a change in the volume ∆V of a medium.4 Interference Read carefully. Students should read Halliday (Pg.5 Intensity and Sound Level β ≡ 10dB log I Io Read Halliday carefully. However the sound barrier was broken by an automobile only for the ﬁrst time in October 1997! 14. 14. In air the speed of sound is 343 m/sec = 1125 ft/sec = 767 mph The speed of sound was exceeded in an airplane many years ago. although much of what we have to say can also be applied to light waves. 426-427) for a careful discussion of these concepts.II 14.3 Travelling Sound Waves Leave out. Understand the formula for sound level . WAVES . By the way.1 Sound Waves This chapter is mostly devoted to the study of sound waves. sound waves are longitudinal whereas light waves are transverse.202 CHAPTER 14.

18-13 (Halliday). SOURCES OF MUSICAL SOUND 203 14. There it is explained how standing sound waves occur in pipes ﬁlled with air. See Fig. 18-14a (Halliday). 18-13 (Halliday) and the higher harmonics are in Fig. These can be written in general as L= nλ with n = 1. determine the relationship between the length of the pipe L and the frequencies of the various harmonics. The relations between the wavelength λ and the pipe length L for the various harmonics is Note the ﬁrst harmonic is actually Fig. 435-436 Halliday.14. 18-13. 2. 18-14a L = λ 1 = λ 2 2 2 L = λ= λ 2 3 L = λ 2 4 L = 2λ = λ 2 etc.6 Sources of Musical Sound All students should carefully read Pg. 3 · · · 2 . The various maxima and minima locations of the standing waves correspond to maximum and minimum pressures in the pipe as shown in Fig. There is a pressure node at the closed end and an anitnode at the open end.6. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Standing Sound Waves & Water Column Example For a pipe open at both ends. 18-14 (Halliday). Solution The pipe open at both ends is shown in Figs.

3. f= n 4L B with n = 1. · · · ρ These are very important formulas for the design of wind musical instruments. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Talking with Helium gas. Also note that the frequency depends on the density of air. 5 · · · 4 B ρ. Obviously L = L = L = λ 1λ = 4 4 3λ 4 5λ 4 etc. 3.204 CHAPTER 14. . These can be written in general as L= nλ with n = 1. 2. Note that a longer instrument (larger L) will give a lower frequency. 3. Solution This is shown in Fig.7 Beats Read carefully. 5.II Example Repeat the previous example for a pipe open at only one end. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Two recorders. Now recall that v = f λ = f= n 2L Thus for the pipe open at both ends B with n = 1. · · · ρ and for the pipe open at one end. 18-14b (Halliday). such as a ﬂute or recorder. WAVES . 14.

8. 18-18 (Halliday). LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Moving Microphone (twirl on a string) The same Doppler eﬀect is also observed when the listener is moving and the source is stationary. Derive a formula for the observed frequency f in terms of the stationary frequency f . then f= v λ where v is the wave speed and λ is the wavelength. The detector will sense a higher frequency as in f = Now f = f or v + vD λ v + vD v v+vD λ v λ = v + vD v Note: if the observer was moving away. This change in frequency of a moving sound source is called the Doppler eﬀect. We have previously seen that for a stationary observer and source. You can also easily hear this just listening to cars drive down the road. Example An observer moves toward a stationary source of sound waves at a speed vD (detector speed). Solution This situation is shown in Fig.8 Doppler Eﬀect Everyone has noticed the pitch of the sound of a train varies when the train passes. DOPPLER EFFECT 205 14.14. the result would be f =f f =f v − vD v .

WAVES . f =f v ± vD v vs If vs = 0 we get f = f v±vD as before and if vD = 0 we get f = f v vvs as v before. An easy way to remember the signs is that if detector and source are moving toward each other the frequency increases. This time it is the wavelength which changes and it will be smaller as in vs λ =λ− f f is now (due to change in λ ) f = = = or f =f v λ v λ− vs f = vf λf − vs vf v − vs v v − vs v v + vs Note: if the source was smoving away. . Derive a formula for the observed frequency f in terms of the stationary frequency f . If they are moving away from each other the frequencydecreases. Solution This situation is shown in Fig. 18-21 (Halliday).II Example A sound wave moves toward a stationary observer at a speed vs . the result would be f =f All of the previous results can be combined into a single formula.206 CHAPTER 14.

In 1845 it was tested experimentally by Buys Ballot using a locomotive drawing an open train car with trumpeters playing. Example Middle C has a frequency of 264 Hz.14. The D note has a fequency of 300 Hz. Johann Christian Doppler proposed the eﬀect in 1842. how fast would the train need to travel for a stationary person (with perfect pitch) on the ground to hear a D note ? Solution Here vD = 0 and we want to ﬁnd vs .8. If a trumpeter is playing the C note on a train. DOPPLER EFFECT 207 The Austrian physicist. The frequency increases and we have f ⇒ 1 f v v − vs v − vs = fv fv = f f = v(1 − ) f = f = 767 mph (1 − = 92 mph 264Hz ) 300Hz ⇒ v − vs ⇒ vs .

p. Derive a formula for the speed of a wave pulse travelling along the cord. WAVES . [Serway. Derive a formula for the time it takes a transverse wave pulse to travel the length of the rope. Derive a formula for the time it takes a transverse wave to travel from one end of the string to the other. [Serway. 5th ed. The cord passes over a pulley and supports an object of mass M as shown in the ﬁgure..) [Serway. p. p.II 14. A uniform rope of mass m and length L is suspended vertically.x x M 3. The string’s length is L and its mass is m M (i. 516.e. A block of mass M .9 Problems 1.208 CHAPTER 14. 517. A uniform cord has a mass m and a length L. 5th ed.. Problem 59] 2. rests on an incline making an angle θ with the horizontal. m is negligible compared to M ). supported by a string. 501] L . (Hint: First ﬁnd an expression for the wave speed at any point a distance x from the lower end by considering the tension in the rope as resulting from the weight of the segment below that point. Problem 53] .. 5 ed.

the speed of sound. Derive a formula for the diﬀerence in frequency ∆f . 541. A stationary train emits a whistle at a frequency f .. p.14. 5th ed. The whistle sounds higher or lower in pitch depending on whether the moving train is approaching or receding. and v.9. between the approaching and receding train whistle in terms of u. Problem 54] . the speed of the train. PROBLEMS 209 L M θ 4. [Serway.

210 CHAPTER 14. WAVES .II .

211 . HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT: Put a block of ice into an insulated container of water and measure the temperature change.Chapter 15 TEMPERATURE. Is it what you expect ? THEMES: Heating and Cooling.

A much more natural temperature scale. Measuring Temperature 15. a microscopic approach to thermodynamics. pressure and volume are related. The most important system that we will study is an ideal gas and how the temperature. (Actually. or thermal energy.1 Thermodynamics We now leave our study of mechanics and begin our study of thermodynamics. rates the freezing and boiling point of water at 0◦ C and 100◦ C respectively.3 Read.2 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics If two bodies have the same temperature then they are said to be in thermal equilibrium. called Celsius or Centigrade.e. To convert between the two scales use 9 F = C + 32 5 where F is the temperature in Farenheit and C is the temperature in Centigrade. TEMPERATURE. 15. such as a liquid or gas is the temperature. Water freezes at 32◦ F and boils at 212◦ F. Thus the zeroth law of thermodynamics simply states that: “If two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body. This is the study of the kinetic theory of gases. thermodynamic quantities are related to our study of mechanics. however. then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other. i.4 Celsius. Farenheit and Kelvin Temperature Scales The antiquated Farenheit temperature scale is only still used in a few countries (including the United States). . HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 15.) One of the most important properties of a macroscopic system.” 15.212CHAPTER 15.

−40◦ F = −40◦ C .e. FARENHEIT AND KELVIN TEMPERATURE SCALES213 Example If you set your house thermostate to 70◦ F what is the temperature in Centigrade ? Solution 9 F = C + 32 5 9 F − 32 = C 5 C = 5 (F − 32) 9 5 = (70 − 32) 9 = 23◦ C Example At what temperature are the Farenheit and Centigrade scales equal ? Solution When they are equal the F = C = x giving 9 x = x + 32 5 x 1− 9 5 = 32 4 − x = 32 5 x = −40◦ i.15. CELSIUS.4.

the temperature of a substance is related to the speed of the individual molecules which also give rise to pressure.5 Read.15◦ C. What happens if we slow all the molecules to zero speed? Well then the gas pressure will be zero. This leads to a third type of tmperature scale called Absolute temperature or Kelvin temperature. Thermal Expansion . LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show this. Example What is the relationship between Farenheit and Kelvin ? Solution C = K − 273 and giving 5 (F − 32) = K − 273 9 or F = = 9 (K − 273) + 32 5 9 K − 459. The temperature at which this happens is −273. Thus C = K − 273. The Kelvin temperature at which a gas has zero pressure is deﬁned to be 0◦ K. Thus a gas which has fast moving molecules will have a high temperature and pressure. HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS From a microscopic point of view (see Chapter 20). TEMPERATURE.15 where C is the temperature in Centigrade and K is the temperature in Kelvin.4 5 5 C = (F − 32) 9 15.214CHAPTER 15.

15. or Q = C(Tf − Ti ) Example Which has the largest heat capacity. Q is the heat and ∆T is the temperature change.7 The Absorption of Heat by Solids and Liquids Heat Capacity If you put a certain amount of energy or heat into a block of wood then the temperature will increase by a certain amount.6 Temperature and Heat Read very carefully. . Heat capacity tells us how much the temperature of an object will increase for a given amount of energy or heat input. If you do the same thing to a lump of steel (of the same mass) its temperature increase will be larger than for the wood. wood or steel ? Solution For a given Q then ∆T will be larger for steel. From Q C = ∆T it means that C is small for steel and large for wood. It is deﬁned as Q C≡ ∆T where C is the heat capacity.6. TEMPERATURE AND HEAT 215 15. 15.

i. Thus we deﬁne speciﬁc heat (with a lower case c) as c≡ or Q = cm(Tf − Ti ) In other words the speciﬁc heat is just the heat capacity per unit mass or c= Molar Speciﬁc Heat Instead of deﬁning speciﬁc heat with the mass of the object. But if we write down the total number of molecules we will be writing down huge numbers. Now we always use other words for huge numbers.) where N is the number of moles of molecules in the substance. million ≡ 1. thousand ≡ 1000 or instead of saying “one thousand thousands” we say “million”.e. Table 19-3 in Halliday has a list of speciﬁc heats and molar speciﬁc heats for various substances.02 × 1023 (This number arose because in 12 grams of Thus molar speciﬁc heat is deﬁned as cm ≡ Q N ∆T 12 C Q m∆T C m there is 1 mole of atoms. we could deﬁne it according to the total number of molecules in the object. . 000 Now even million. Thus we also need to include the mass of the block in determining temperature change.216CHAPTER 15. HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS Speciﬁc Heat If we put a certain amount of heat into a small block of steel compared to a large block then the small block will change its temperature the most.e. billion and trillion are too small for the number of molecules in an object. 000. Thus deﬁne mole ≡ 6. Instead of saying “one hundred tens” we say “thousand”. i. TEMPERATURE.

000 cal = 83. THE ABSORPTION OF HEAT BY SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS 217 Example How much heat is required to increase the temperature of 2 kg of water from 20◦ C to 30◦ C ? Solution From Table 19-3 of Halliday. Now ∆T = 30◦ C − 20◦ C = 20◦ C or ∆T = −243◦ K − −253◦ K = 10◦ K giving Q = mc∆T = 2kg × 1 cal g−1 K −1 × 10 K = 2000 g × 1 cal g−1 K −1 × 10 K = 20.7.720 J = 20 kcal where we have used 1 cal ≡ 4.15. Thus the temperature should be in ◦ K.186 J. . the speciﬁc heat of water is 1.00 cal g−1 K −1 .

The heat of transformation L is deﬁned via Q ≡ Lm where Q is the heat and m is the mass.218CHAPTER 15. Does it take more heat to melt ice or vaporize water (of the same mass)? Example How much heat is required to melt 2 kg of ice at 0◦ C to water at 0◦ C ? Solution The latent heat of fusion is Lf = 79. Exercise The latent heat of fusion for water is Lf = 333 kJ/kg and the latent heat of vaporization is Lv = 2256 kJ/kg. TEMPERATURE.5 cal g−1 giving Q = Lm = 79. If melting is involved L is called a heat of fusion Lf or for vaporizing L is called a heat of vaporization Lv .000 cal = 159 kcal Example Sample Problem 19-6 (Halliday). Thus heat can cause a change of phase. Putting heat into water at 100◦ C may just vaporize the water to steam at 100◦ C. HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS Heats of Transformation When you put heat or energy into an object the temperature does not always change! For example.5 cal g−1 × 2000 g = 159. if you put heat into a block of ice at 0◦ C it may just melt to a pool of water still at 0◦ C. (done in class) . (done in class) Example Sample Problem 19-7 (Halliday).

1 Piston. Another such piston system is the simple bicycle pump. the . Sitting inside the chamber is a spark plug which ignites the gas and pushes the piston out. or if the gas is heated the piston expands. That is when we compress the piston by a distance dx. Recall our deﬁnition of Work as W ≡ F · ds For the piston. 19.15. The gas consists of a mixture of gasoline which is compressed by the piston. Such pistons are crucial to the operation of automobile engines. as shown in Fig.8 A Closer Look at Heat and Work When discussing work and energy for thermodynamic systems it is useful to think about compressing the gas in a piston. A CLOSER LOOK AT HEAT AND WORK 219 15.8. all the motion occurs in 1-dimension so that W = F dx (or equivalently F ·ds = F dx cos 0◦ = F dx). By pushing on the piston the gas is compressed.1. dx F FIGURE 19. The piston is connected to a crankshaft connecting the auto engine to the wheels of the automobile. The pressure of a gas is deﬁned as force divided by area (of the piston compressing the gas) or p≡ F A giving dW = pAdx = pdV where the volume is just area times distance or dV = Adx.

which was ∆U + ∆K = WN C Recall that the total work W was always W = ∆K. The meaning of this law is that the internal energy of a system can be changed by adding heat or doing work.9 The First Law of Thermodynamics We have already studied this! The ﬁrst law of thermodynamics is nothing more than a re-statement of the work energy theorem.220CHAPTER 15. Writing W = dW gives Vf W = Vi p dV which is the work done by a gas of pressure p changing its volume from Vi to Vf (or the work done on the gas). Identify heat Q as Q ≡ WN C and internal energy (such as energy stored in a gas. Often the ﬁrst law is written for tiny changes as dEint = dQ − dW . TEMPERATURE. which is just potential energy) is Eint ≡ U and we have ∆Eint + W = Q or ∆Eint = Q − W which is the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics. HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS volume of the gas changes by dV = Adx where A is the cross-sectional area of the piston. 15.

15.10.

SPECIAL CASES OF 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 221

15.10

Special Cases of 1st Law of Thermodynamics

1. Adiabatic Processes Adiabatic processes are those that occur so rapidly that there is no transfer of heat between the system and its environment. Thus Q = 0 and ∆Eint = −W For example if we push in the piston very quickly then our work will increase the internal energy of the gas. It will store potential energy (∆U = ∆Eint ) like a spring and make the piston bounce back when we let it go. 2. Constant-volume Processes If we glue the piston so that it won’t move then obviously the volume is constant, and W = pdV = 0, because the piston can’t move. Thus ∆Eint = Q which means the only way to increase the internal energy of the gas is by adding heat Q. 3. Cyclical Processes Recall the motion of a spring. It is a cyclical process in which the spring oscillates back and forth. After one complete cycle the potential energy U of the spring has not changed, thus ∆U = 0. Similarly we can push in the piston, then let it go and it will push back to where it started, similar to the spring. Thus ∆Eint = 0 and Q=W meaning that work done equals heat gained. 4. Free Expansion Another way to get ∆Eint = 0 is for Q=W =0 Free expansion is illustrated in Fig. 19-15 [Halliday].

222CHAPTER 15. TEMPERATURE, HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

Example Sample Problem 19-8 (Halliday). (done in class)

15.11

Heat Transfer Mechanisms

There are three basic processes by which heat is always transferred from one body to another. These are 1) Convection 2) Conduction 3) Radiation Students should carefully read Section 19.11 of Halliday.

15.12. PROBLEMS

223

15.12

Problems

1. The coldest that any object can ever get is 0 K (or -273 C). It is rare for physical quantities to have an upper or lower possible limit. Explain why temperature has this lower limit. 2. Suppose it takes an amount of heat Q to make a cup of coﬀee. If you make 3 cups of coﬀee how much heat is required? 3. How much heat is required to make a cup of coﬀee? Assume the mass of water is 0.1 kg and the water is initially at 0◦ C. We want the water to reach boiling point. Give your answer in Joule and calorie and Calorie. (1 cal = 4.186 J; 1 Calorie = 1000 calorie.
J J J For water: c = 1 cal = 4186 kg C ; Lv = 2.26 × 106 kg ; Lf = 3.33 × 105 kg ) gC

4. How much heat is required to change a 1 kg block of ice at −10◦ C to steam at 110◦ C ? Give your answer in Joule and calorie and Calorie. (1 cal = 4.186 J; 1 Calorie = 1000 calorie. J J J cwater = 4186 kg C ; cice = 2090 kg C ; csteam = 2010 kg C J J For water, Lv = 2.26 × 106 kg ; Lf = 3.33 × 105 kg )

224CHAPTER 15. TEMPERATURE, HEAT & 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

Chapter 16

KINETIC THEORY OF GASES
SUGGESTED HOME EXPERIMENT: Put a block of ice into an insulated container of water and measure the temperature change. Is it what you expect ? THEMES: Behavior of a Gas.

225

Thus we write Avagadro’s number as NA = 6. This accelerator will collide heavy nuclei into each other at extremely high energies. in terms of an underlying microscopic theory based on atoms and molecules. The kinetic theory of gases attempts to explain all of the concepts of classical thermodynamics.3 Ideal Gases One of the most fundamental properties of any macroscopic system is the so-called equation of state. This is often called Avagadro’s number.02 × 1023 . studied in the last chapter. 16.1 A New Way to Look at Gases The subject of classical thermodynamics. This is the equation that speciﬁes the exact relation between pressure p. 16. The equation of state for a gas is very diﬀerent to the equation of state of a liquid. such as temperature and pressure. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 16. volume V .2 Avagadro’s Number One mole is the number of atoms in a 12 gram sample of 12 C. and temperature T for a substance. One of the main aims is to determine the nuclear matter equation of state at very high temperatures and densities. Actually there is a giant accelerator. and this number is determine from experiment to be 6. simulating the early universe. The number of molecules must be the number of moles times the number of molecules per mole. called the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) currently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island. For example. we shall see that the temperature of a gas is related to the average kinetic energy of all molecules in the gas. was developed in the 18th and 19th centuries before we knew about molecules and atoms.02 × 1023 mole−1 and N = nNA where N is the number of molecules and n is the number of moles. Now it turns out that most gases obey a simple equation of state called the ideal gas law pV = nRT .226 CHAPTER 16.

volume.38 × 10−23 JK−1 = 8. V decreases. An example is given in Fig. 3) If the temperature T is held constant. The third variable T represents diﬀerent lines on the pV diagram. For ﬁxed T (say 310 K) the pressure is inversely proportional to volume as speciﬁed in the ideal gas law.3.20-1 [Halliday]. These diﬀerence lines are called isotherms (meaning same temperature). then as T increases. Thus pV = nRT = NA RT and deﬁne Boltzmann’s constant k ≡ 8.62 × 10−5 eV K−1 where an electron volt is deﬁned as eV ≡ 1. The ideal gas law embodies exactly the properties we expect of a gas: 1) If the volume V is held constant.6 × 10−19 J Thus the ideal gas law is also often written as pV = N kT where N is the total number of molecules. T is the temperature (in ◦ K). . V is the volume. IDEAL GASES 227 where p is the pressure.31J mole−1 K−1 R = NA 6. 20-1 [Halliday] would look diﬀerent for an equation of state diﬀerent from the ideal gas law.31 J mol−1 K−1 Recall that the number of molecules is given by N = nNA where n is the N number of moles. T . n is the number of moles of the gas and R is the so called gas constant with the value R = 8. then the pressure p increases as temperature T increases. LECTURE DEMONSTRATIONS: Show this Work Done by an Ideal Gas The equation of state can be represented on a graph of pressure vs. A pV diagram takes care of two variables. p increases. V . 2) If the pressure p is held constant.16. then as p increases. often called a pV diagram.02 × 1023 mole−1 = 1. Fig. Remember an equation of state is an equation relating the three variables p.

228 CHAPTER 16. at constant pressure). Solution If p is a constant it can be taken outside the integral. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Example What is the work done by any gas (ideal or not) at constant volume (isometric) ? Solution If Vi = Vf then Vf W = Vi pdV = 0 which is obvious when we think of the piston in the previous chapter. giving Vf W = Vi pdV Vf = p Vi V dV = p [V ]Vf i = p(Vf − Vi ) = p∆V . If the volume does not change then the piston doesn’t move and the work is zero. Example Derive a formula for the work done by any gas (ideal or not) which expands isobarically (i.e.

. IDEAL GASES 229 Example Derive a formula for the work done by a gas when it expands isothermally (i. 20-2 in Halliday.3.e.16. Solution The work done by an expanding gas is given by Vf W = Vi pdV But this time the pressure changes. at constant temperature). For an ideal gas we have p = nRT giving V Vf W = nRT Vi 1 dV V V = nRT [ln V ]Vf i = nRT (ln Vf − ln Vi ) Vf = nRT ln Vi Carefully study Sample Problems 20-1.

Now by comparing to the ideal gas law pV = nRT or p = nRT we must V have 2 nM vRM S 3 = nRT or vRM S = 3RT M which shows that the temperature T is related to the speed of molecules! As shown in Table 20-1 (Halliday) the speed of molecules at room temperature is very large. Using Newtonian Mechanics. Imagine a gas. Temperature and RMS Speed Carefully study Section 20. The above equation is derived purely from applying Newtonian mechanics to the individual molecules.4 in Halliday. 488) carefully. 488) shows that p= 2 nM vRM S 3V where n is the number of moles. consisting of n moles being conﬁned to a cubical box of volume V .230 CHAPTER 16. All students should study the derivation in Halliday (Pg. A dt Halliday (Pg. Now consider our ﬁrst kinetic theory problem. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 16. .4 Pressure. vRM S is the average speed of the molecules and V is the volume of the gas. 487) Pressure is deﬁned as Force divided by Area or p ≡ F where F = dp . about 500 m/sec for air (about 1000 mph). “What is the connection between the pressure p exerted by the gas on the walls and the speeds of the molecules?” (Halliday Pg. M is the mass of 1 mole of the gas (so that nM is the total mass of the gas).

Example In the center of the Sun the particles are bare hydrogen nuclei (protons).16.000. TRANSLATIONAL KINETIC ENERGY 231 16.5. all gas molecules. m 3RT ¯ Avagadro’s number. Solution The center of the Sun is at a temperature of about 20. have the same average translational kinetic energy.5 Translational Kinetic Energy 1 2 ¯ K = mvRM S 2 For a single molecule its average kinetic energy is ¯ and using vRM S = 3RT gives K = 1 m 3RT .62 × 10−8 × 20 × 106 K 2 K = 2586 eV ≈ 3 MeV . Thus M = 1 mole = 6. M 2 M Remember that M is the molar mass. Calculate their average kinetic energy. For a given temperature T . no matter what their mass. Thus K = 2NA or 3 ¯ K = kT 2 This is a very interesting result. which is the mass of 1 mole of gas and m is the mass of the molecule.000◦ K. Thus ¯ K = 3 kT 2 eV 3 = × 8.02 ×1023 = NA .

7 Distribution of Molecular Speeds Not all molecules travel at the speed vRM S . 20-4 (Halliday). The probbility of a given speed is 3/2 M v2 M P (v) = 4π v 2 e− 2RT 2πRT where M is the molar mass of the gas. that does not mean that they move across a room in a fraction of a second. This was worked out by Maxwell.232 CHAPTER 16.6 Mean Free Path Even though room temperature air molecules have a large RM S speed vRM S ≈ 500 m/sec. The mean free path λ is the average distance that a molecule travels in between collisions. as shown very nicely in Fig. This formula is discussed on Pages 490-491 (Halliday). . If you open a bottle of perfume at one end of a room. this is just the average molecular speed. This is because the molecules undergo an enormous number of collisions on their way across the room. 20-7 (Halliday). 16. This probability distribution is plotted in Fig. and N/V is the average number of molecules per unit volume. it takes a while for you to notice the smell at the other end of the room. We would like to know how many molecules travel above or below this speed. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 16. It is given by λ= √ 1 2πd2 N/V where d is the average diameter of a molecule.

8. by how much does the pressure change if the volume and temperature are held constant? B) If the volume of an ideal gas is halved. Problems A) If the number of molecules in an ideal gas is doubled.) . 2.16. by how much does the pressure change if the temperature is held constant ? 3. If the number of molecules in an ideal gas is doubled. by how much does the volume change ? (Absolute temperature is simply the temperature measured in Kelvin. and the absolute temperature is doubled and the pressure is halved.8 1. D) Repeat part C) if the temperature changes from 200 C to 400 C. PROBLEMS 233 16. by how much does the pressure change if the temperature and number of molecules is constant? C) If the temperature of an ideal gas changes from 200 K to 400 K. by how much does the volume change if the pressure and number of molecules is constant. If the number of molecules in an ideal gas is doubled and the volume is doubled.

KINETIC THEORY OF GASES .234 CHAPTER 16.

Chapter 17 Review of Calculus 17. 22. Obviously xf − xi = ∆x.3) .1. Take xi = x as the initial x value and xf = x + ∆x as the ﬁnal value. let’s do it analytically for all lines.1) where c is the intercept on the y axis and m is the slope of the line. To prove to ourselves that m really is the slope. In Fig.1 the graph of y(x) = 2x + 1 is plotted and the slope has been determined by measuring ∆y and ∆x. The initial value of y is yi ≡ y(xi ) = mxi + c = mx + c and the ﬁnal value is yf ≡ y(xf ) = mxf + c = y(x + ∆x) = m(x + ∆x) + c 235 (17. we need a good deﬁnition of slope.1 Derivative Equals Slope Slope of a Straight Line All students will be familiar with the equation for a straight line y(x) = mx + c (17. Rather than always having to verify the slope graphically. Let’s deﬁne yf − yi ∆y Slope ≡ ≡ (17.4) (17.2) ∆x xf − xi where ∆y is the diﬀerence between ﬁnal and initial values yf and yi .1 17.

But we would get the same answer if we had used the tiny triangles in the bottom left hand corner.1. If you look at any tiny little piece it looks straight.2 Slope of a Curve A straight line always has constant slope m. 22.236 CHAPTER 17. One of the most important ideas in calculus is the concept of the derivative.5) ∆x ∆x which is a proof that y = mx + c has a slope of m. At x = 0 the slope is 0 (the tiny little line is ﬂat) whereas around x = 1 the slope is larger. In Fig. Another way of saying that ∆x is tiny is to say Tiny = lim ∆x→0 That is the limit as ∆x goes to zero is another way of saying ∆x is tiny. The parabola y(x) = x2 + 1 is plotted in Fig. From above we can re-write our formula (17. so that Slope ≡ yf − yi ∆y y(x + ∆x) − y(x) = = ∆x xf − xi ∆x (17. ∆x = 2 always). REVIEW OF CALCULUS Thus ∆y = yf − yi = m(x + ∆x) + c − mx − c = m∆x. 22. Examples 1) lim [∆x + 3] = 3 ∆x→0 ∆x→0 2) lim ∆x = 0 .6) 17. In fact the concept of the slope of a parabola doesn’t make any sense because the parabola continuously curves. Therefore the slope becomes ∆y m∆x = =m (17.2) using yf = y(x + ∆x) and yi = y(x). each with their own slope.1 we got the slope from ∆y and ∆x on the large triangle in the top right hand corner. However we might think about little pieces of the parabola. That’s why it’s called straight.2 and obviously the slope changes. What characterizes these tiny ∆y triangles is that ∆x and ∆y are both tiny (but their ratio. These tiny little pieces are all tiny little line segments. which is nothing more than Derivative = Slope of tiny little line segment. Notice that the slope of the tiny little line segments keeps changing.

as in Fig. Example Calculate the derivative of the straight line y(x) = 3x Solution y(x) = 3x y(x + ∆x) = 3(x + ∆x) dy dx = 3(x + ∆x) − 3x ∆x→0 ∆x 3x + 3∆x − 3x = lim ∆x→0 ∆x 3∆x = lim = lim 3 = 3 ∆x→0 ∆x ∆x→0 lim Thus the derivative is the slope.1.17.6) except lim is an instruction ∆x→0 ∆y to use a tiny triangle. usually ∆y can be big or small. DERIVATIVE EQUALS SLOPE 3) lim [(∆x)2 + 4] = 4 ∆x→0 237 4) lim (∆x)2 + 4∆x = lim (∆x + 4) = 4 ∆x→0 ∆x→0 ∆x ∆x→0 5) lim 3 = 3 For a curve like the parabola we can’t draw a big triangle. Similarly for ∆x.7) That is. If we are talking about a tiny ∆y we write dy instead. Now ∆x = y(x+∆x)−y(x) from (17. Thus let’s deﬁne the Slope of Slope of tiny ∆y curve at ≡ lim ≡ Derivative = little line ∆x→0 ∆x a point segment So it’s the same deﬁnition as before in (17. 22. . because the hypotenuse would be curved.1. But we can get the slope at a point by drawing a tiny triangle at that point.6) and the derivative ∆x dy is given a fancy new symbol dx so that dy y(x + ∆x) − y(x) ≡ lim dx ∆x→0 ∆x The symbol dy simply means dy ≡ tiny ∆y (17.

Example Calculate the derivative of the parabola y(x) = x2 Solution y(x) = x2 y(x + ∆x) = (x + ∆x)2 = x2 + 2x∆x + (∆x)2 dy dx = y(x + ∆x) − y(x) ∆x→0 ∆x 2 + 2x∆x + (∆x)2 − x2 x = lim ∆x→0 ∆x = lim (2x + ∆x) lim ∆x→0 = 2x Example Calculate the slope of the parabola y(x) = x2 at the points x = −2. Thus dy dx dy dx dy dx = −4 x=−2 =0 x=0 =6 x=3 . (do Problem 1) The derivative was deﬁned to give us the slope of a curve at a point. x = 0. Now do some examples for real curves.238 CHAPTER 17. x = 3. dy Solution We already have dx = 2x. The two examples above show that it also works for a straight line (A straight line is a special case of a curve). REVIEW OF CALCULUS Example Calculate the derivative of the straight line y(x) = 4 Solution y(x) = 4 y(x + ∆x) = 4 dy 4−4 = lim =0 dx ∆x→0 ∆x The line y(x) = 4 has 0 slope and therefore 0 derivative.

Solution Formula (17.2) at the points x = −2.9) is correct for n = 3. x = 0.1.9) gives dx3 = 3x3−1 = 3x2 dx . x = 3 Solution y(x) = x2 + 1 y(x + ∆x) = (x + ∆x)2 + 1 = x2 + 2x∆x + (∆x)2 + 1 dy dx = y(x + ∆x) − y(x) ∆x→0 ∆x x2 + 2x∆x + (∆x)2 + 1 − (x2 + 1) = lim ∆x→0 ∆x = lim 2x + ∆x lim ∆x→0 = 2x Thus the slopes are the same as in the previous example. Example Check that (17. This is true for any constant c. Example Calculate the slope of the curve y(x) = x2 + 1 (see Fig. DERIVATIVE EQUALS SLOPE 239 which shows how the slope of a tiny little line segment varies as we move along the parabola. In general we have (17. which make sense because a graph of y(x) = 4 reveals that the slope is always 0. 22.3 Some Common Derivatives dy In a previous example we saw that the derivative of y(x) = 4 was dx = 0.17. We have already veriﬁed it for n = 2.8) = 2x. Thus dc =0 dx We also saw in a previous example that d 2 dx x (17. (do Problem 2) 17.1. Let’s verify it for n = 3.9) dxn = nxn−1 dx This is a very important result.

y(x + ∆x) = (x + ∆x)3 = x3 + 3x2 ∆x + 3x(∆x)2 + (∆x)3 dy dx y(x + ∆x) − y(x) ∆x x3 + 3x2 ∆x + 3x(∆x)2 + (∆x)3 − x3 = lim ∆x→0 ∆x = lim 3x2 + 3x∆x + (∆x)2 = ∆x→0 lim = 3x in agreement with our result above.240 CHAPTER 17. Take y(x) = x3 . ∆x→0 2 (do Problem 3) . REVIEW OF CALCULUS We wish to verify this.

Table A-4 Properties of Derivatives and Derivatives of Particular Functions [Tipler. the derivative of y with respect to t equals the product of the derivative of y with respect to z and the derivative of z with respect to x: d dy dz y(x) = dx dz dx Derivative of a product 4. I will just make some comments about them. AP-16. You will prove most of these results in your calculus course. If y is a function of x and x is in turn a function of t. pg.1. 1991]. The derivative of a constant times a function equals the constant times the derivative of the function: d dy(x) [Cy(x)] = C dx dx Addition rule 2. The derivative of a product of functions y(x)z(x) equals the ﬁrst function times the derivative of the second plus the second function times the derivative of the ﬁrst: d dz(x) dy(x) [y(x)z(x)] = y(x) + z(x) dx dx dx .17. DERIVATIVE EQUALS SLOPE 241 A list of very useful results for derivatives is given below. The derivative of a sum of functions equals the sum of the derivatives of the functions: d dy(x) dz(x) [y(x) + z(x)] = + dx dx dx Chain rule 3. Multiplicative constant rule 1.

for example. assuming that neither derivative is zero: dy = dx dx dy −1 if dx =0 dy Derivatives of particular functions dC = 0 where C is a constant dx d(xn ) 7. The derivative of y with respect to x is the reciprocal of the derivative of x with respect to y. ln bx = dx x Multiplicative constant rule Example This just means. d tan ωx = ω sec2 ωx dx d bx 11. dx dx d dx2 (3x2 ) = 3 = 3 × 2x = 6x dx dx (do Problem 4). = nxn−1 dx d 8. sin ωx = ω cos ωx dx d 9.242 Reciprocal derivative CHAPTER 17. e = bebx dx d 1 12. Addition rule Example d dy(x) dz(x) [y(x) + z(x)] = + dx dx dx . 10. that d dy(x) [Cy(x)] = C . REVIEW OF CALCULUS 5. cos ωx = −ω sin ωx dx 6.

Solution We have y(z) = z 3 and z(x) = x2 . This rule just means d dx dx2 (x + x2 ) = + = 1 + 2x dx dx dx (do Problem 5) Chain Rule dy dy dz = dx dz dx 243 (A rough “proof” of this is to just note that the dz cancels in the numerator and denominator.. Thus y(x) = x6 . Example Verify the chain rule for y = z 3 and z = x2 . dy . dx dy dz dz dx Now dy dz dz dx = 6x5 = 3z 2 = 2x dy dx = (3z 2 )(2x) = (3x4 )(2x) = 6x5 .17. Example If y(x) = x3 and z(x) = x2 .. where y is not given as a function of x.) The use of the chain rule is best seen in the following example. Thus we see that d dz(x) dy(x) [y(x)z(x)] = y(x) + z(x) dx dx dx = dy dz dz dx .1. Product Rule The use of this arises when multiplying two functions together as illustrated in the next example. verify the product rule. Solution y(x)z(x) = x5 ⇒ d dx5 [y(x)z(x)] = = 5x4 dx dx Now let’s show that the product rule gives the same answer. y(x) dz(x) dx2 = x3 = x3 2x = 2x4 dx dx . DERIVATIVE EQUALS SLOPE Take for example y(x) = x and z(x) = x2 .

REVIEW OF CALCULUS dy(x) dx3 2 z(x) = x = 3x2 x2 = 3x4 dx dx dz(x) dy(x) y(x) + z(x) = 2x4 + 3x4 = 5x4 dx dx in agreement with our answer above. (do Problem 6) .244 CHAPTER 17.

You can verify this by plotting a graph.. DERIVATIVE EQUALS SLOPE 245 17.4 Extremum Value of a Function A ﬁnal important use of the derivative is that it can be used to tell us when a function attains a maximum or minimum value. (do Problem 7) . 3).. Thus 0= dy d 2 = (x + 3) = 2x dx dx .. y) = (0.17. This occurs when the derivative or slope of the function is zero. y) coordinates of the place where the parabola y(x) = x2 + 3 has its minimum value? Solution The minimum value occurs where the slope is 0. x = 0 y = x2 + 3 Thus the minimum is at (x.. Example What are the (x. y = 3 .1.1.

1 Integral Integral Equals Antiderivative dy The derivative of y(x) = 3x is dx = 3.2. Let’s play a game. REVIEW OF CALCULUS 17. dy Or I tell you the derivative dx and you tell me the original function y(x) that it came from. Ready? dy dx dy If dx dy If dx We can If If =3 = 2x then y(x) = 3x then y(x) = x2 = 15x2 then y(x) = 5x3 generalize this to a rule. Thus in our little game of dy re-constructing the original function y(x) from the derivative dx there is always an ambiguity in that y(x) could always have some constant added to it. The derivative of y(x) = 5x is dx = 15x . I tell you the answer and you tell me the question. Thus the correct answers in our game are If dy = 3 then y(x) = 3x + constant dx (Actually instead of always writing constant. The derivative of y(x) = x2 is dy dy 3 2 dx = 2x. let me just write C) . Let’s look at the following functions y(x) = 3x + 2 y(x) = 3x + 7 y(x) = 3x + 12 y(x) = 3x + C (C is an arbitrary constant) y(x) = 3x dy All of them have the same derivative dx = 3.246 CHAPTER 17.2 17. dy 1 = xn then y(x) = xn+1 dx n+1 Actually I have cheated.

17.13) . INTEGRAL If 247 dy = 2x then y(x) = x2 + C dx dy If = 15x2 then y(x) = 5x3 + C dx 1 dy then y(x) = If = xn xn+1 + C.2. dx n+1 This original function y(x) that we are trying to get is given a special name called the antiderivative or integral.2 Integral Equals Area Under Curve Let’s see how to extract the integral from our original deﬁnition of derivative.11) or dy = f dx (17. such as Age = ∆Age1 + ∆Age2 + ∆Age3 + ∆Age4 · · · 1 year + 3 years + 0. and similarly for the other examples.12) What happens if I add up many ∆y’s. ∆y dy The slope of a curve is ∆x or dx when the ∆ increments are tiny. 17. Notice dy that y(x) is a function of x but so also is dx .10) dy Thus if f (x) = dx = 2x then y(x) = x2 + C. For instance suppose you are aged 18. Then if I add up many age increments in your life. but it’s nothing more than the original function. That is y = ∆y1 + ∆y2 + ∆y3 + ∆y4 + · · · or symbolically y= i ∆yi (17. Obviously then ∆y = f ∆x (17.2. Thus if I add up all possible increments of ∆y I get back y.5 year + 5 years + 0. ∆y dy In equation (17.10) I have written ∆x also because dx is just a tiny ∆y version of ∆x .5 year + 5 years + 3 years = 18 years I get your complete age. Let’s call it f (x) ≡ ∆y dy = dx ∆x (17.

Thus Area under = curve f (x) fi ∆xi = i i ∆yi ∆xi = ∆xi ∆yi = y i (17.15) Let’s now make the little intervals ∆yi and ∆xi very tiny. We now see that the integral or antiderivative or original function can be dy interpreted as the area under the derivative curve f (x) ≡ dx . If I am using tiny intervals in my sum I am going to use a new symbol . dy In formula (17.248 where CHAPTER 17.2 y(x) = x2 y(x) = x2 + 4 ⇒ if f (x) ≡ dy = 2x ≡ f (x) dx dy = 2x ≡ f (x) dx dy ⇒y= dx f dx dy = 2x ⇒ y(x) = x2 + c dx f (x) = ∆y dy = dx ∆x ∆y = f ∆x dy = f dx y = i ∆yi = dy .3 we can see that the area of the shaded section is just fi ∆xi . The derivative is f (x) ≡ dx and y is my original function which we called the integral or antiderivative. Add them all up and we have the total area under the curve. Call them dy and dx.” Summary: if f = Summary of 1.1 and 1. Notice that the dx “cancels”. By the way f dx reads “integral of f with respect to x.16) recall the following. Thus Area = f dx = dy dx = dx dy = y (17.16) which is just the tiny version of (17. 22.2. Thus ∆yi is an area of a little shaded region. REVIEW OF CALCULUS ∆yi = fi ∆xi (17.14) Now looking at Fig.2.15).

Consider 4dx = 4x + c. This is called an indeﬁnite integral or antiderivative. Example What is the area under the curve f (x) = 4 between x1 = 1 and x2 = 6? Solution This is easy because f (x) = 4 is just a horizontal straight line as shown in Fig. 2x dx = x2 + c do a few more examples. Example What is x dx? dy dx f dx Solution The derivative function is f (x) = function must be 1 x2 + c.4. but our answer in the above example ( 1 x2 + c) doesn’t look much like an area. The area is obviously 4 × 5 = 20. 22.3 Deﬁnite and Indeﬁnite Integrals The integral x dx is supposed to give us the area under the curve x.2. Thus 2 = x. INTEGRAL = i 249 fi ∆xi = f dx = Area under curve f (x) = Antiderivative y= E.g. The integral which gives us the area is actually the deﬁnite . 2 We would expect the area to be a number.2.17. Therefore the original 1 x dx = x2 + c 2 (do Problem 8) 17.

Thus 4dx = 4x + c is the antiderivative or indeﬁnite integral and it gives a general formula for the area but not the value of the area itself. Solution 5 3 3x2 dx = [x3 + c]5 3 = (125 + c) − (27 + c) = 98 (do Problem 9) . 22. Thus (17.18) Example Evaluate the area under the curve f (x) = 3x2 between x1 = 3 and x2 = 5.250 integral written x2 x1 CHAPTER 17. To evaluate the value of the area we need to specify the edges x1 and x2 of the area under consideration as we did in (17.17) to work out the previous example we would write 6 1 4dx = [4x + c]6 = [(4 × 6) + c] − [(4 × 1) + c] 1 = 24 + c − 4 − c = 24 − 4 = 20 (17. For an area we must always specify x1 and x2 (see Fig.4) so that we know what area we are talking about.17). REVIEW OF CALCULUS 4dx ≡ [4x + c]x2 ≡ (4x2 + c) − (4x1 + c) x1 = [4x]x2 = 4x2 − 4x1 x1 (17. Notice here that it doesn’t matter whether we include the c because it cancels out.17) Let’s explain this. Using (17. which is the same as (17.17). The formula 4x+c by itself does not give the area directly.17) must be the correct formula for area. In the previous example we got 4 × 5 = 20 from 4x2 − 4x1 = (4 × 6) − (4 × 1) = 24 − 4 = 20.

2. INTEGRAL 251 Figure 22.17. .1 Plot of the graph y(x) = 2x + 1. The slope ∆y ∆x = 2.

REVIEW OF CALCULUS Figure 22. which look straight. Some tiny little pieces are indicated.2 Plot of y(x) = x2 + 1.252 CHAPTER 17. .

INTEGRAL 253 Figure 22. . i If the ∆xi are tiny then write ∆xi = dx and write i = .17.2. The total area under the curve is therefore fi ∆xi . The area under the shaded rectangle is approximately fi ∆xi .3 A general function f (x). The area is then f (x)dx.

254 CHAPTER 17. .4 Plot of f (x) = 4. REVIEW OF CALCULUS Figure 22. The area under the curve between x1 = 1 and x2 = 6 is obviously 4 × 5 = 20.

Verify dx dy your answer by calculating the derivative from dx = lim y(x+∆x)−y(x) . Calculate the derivative of y(x) = 5x + 2. 3. 2.3 Problems 1. What is the area under the curve f (x) = x between x1 = 0 and x2 = 3? Work out your answer i) graphically and ii) with the integral. Where do the extremum values of y(x) = x2 − 4 occur? Verify your answer by plotting a graph. Prove that 5. .3. 6. 7. Prove that d 2 dx (3x ) = 3 dx . dx dx dx 2 d dx (x + x2 ) = + dx2 dx . Calculate the derivative of x4 using the formula dx = nxn−1 .17. Evaluate x2 dx and 3x3 dx. x = 0 and x = 2. PROBLEMS 255 17. Calculate the slope of the curve y(x) = 3x2 + 1 at the points x = −1. Verify the chain rule and product rule using some examples of your own. 9. 8. ∆x ∆x→0 n 4.

REVIEW OF CALCULUS .256 CHAPTER 17.

Bibliography [1] D. Walker. New York. Halliday. Resnick and J. 257 . 1997). R. Fundamentals of Physics (Wiley.

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