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SCHOOL OF BUSINESS MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
DMA 607: NAME: REG NO. SUBMITTED TO:
BRAND MANAGEMENT TIMOTHY MAHEA D61/70146/2008 MR. MUTUGU
QUESTIONS 1. a) What is brand personality?
Brand personality can be defined as the set of human characteristics associated with a given brand. Such characteristics include: gender, age, socio-economic class, psychographic, emotional characteristics, as well as classic human personality traits as warmth, concern and sentimentality.
Show how brand personality is created by using both product-related and non product related characteristics.
Just as the perceived personality of a person is affected by nearly everything associated with that person-including his or her neighbourhood, friends, activities, clothes and manner of interactingso too is a brand personality. Product related characteristics can be drivers of brand personality.
PRODUCT RELATED CHARACTERISTICS 1. Product category (bank) Product related characteristics can be primary drives of a brand personality. Even the product class can affect the personality. For example; a bank or an insurance company will tend to assume a stereotypical “banker” personality i.e. competent, serious, masculine, older and upperclass. An athletic shoe like Nike or Reebok might tend to be rugged, outdoorsy, and adventurous as well as young and lively.
2. Package or Feature (gateway computers)
Package or feature also influence brand personality. For example, the pilsner lion symbol indicates the strength of the beer.
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3. Price (tiffany) High priced items or jewels might be considered wealthy, stylish and perhaps a bit snobbish.
4. Attributes (embassy light or pilsner ice light)
If a brand is “light” (such as pilsner ice light or coca cola light) the brand personality might be described as being slender and athletic.
NON- PRODUCT RELATED CHARACTERISTICS 1. User imagery User imagery can be based on either typical users (people we see using the brand) or idealized users (as portrayed in advertising elsewhere). User imagery can be a powerful driver of brand personality in part because the user already is a person and thus the difficulty of conceptualizing the brand personality is reduced. For example, the upscale of Mercedes is influenced by user imagery, and also the sexy, sophisticated personality of Calvin Klein are similarly influenced by user imagery.
Activities such as events sponsored by the brand will influence its personality. Haagen-Dazs helped create a prestigious, upscale personality with its sponsorship of several opera performances under the theme “dedicated to pleasure, dedicated to the arts”. Energizer helped create “Longer how of service” by sponsorship of long distances in Kenya.
3. Symbol (Marlboro- country, pilsner-lion) A symbol can e a powerful influence on brand personality because it can be controlled and have extreme strong associations. Apple’s bitten apple, the Marlboro cowboy, the Michelin man, and
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the Maytag repairman all help to create and reinforce a personality for their brands. Pilsner lion symbol shows that it is a strong alcoholic drink. Unlike real people, cartoon character symbols rarely generate unfavourable surprises, and they do not age. The Pillsbury Doughboy, for example, is likable and will reflect the desired attributes such as freshness, in exactly the same way for as long as the company desires. In addition, the character can be revised as needed; for example, the doughboy got thinner, more active and more enthusiastic over the years.
4. Age (Kodak)
How long a brand has been in the market can affect is personality. The new brands tend to have younger brand personalities than old brands e.g. apple- young and IBM- older. It is also common for a major or dominant brand to be seen a stodgy and old fashioned, a brand for older people.
5. Ad style (obsession) Sometimes the advertising style can affect the brands personality. Adverts which show a lot of actions give the brand a warmth personality e.g. Calvin Klein.
6. Country of origin (Audi) A German car like Audi might capture some perceived characteristics of German people (such as being precise, serious, and hard working). Some countries are famous for some particular products. Consequently, products from those countries are said to be better in the aspects famous for those countries. For instance, Germany is better for “good engineering” while Italy is famous for leather goods; France is known for- cooking, perfume, wines, and fashion.
7. Company image (the body shop)
Some companies are known for excellent quality. Consequently, products from there will have a high quality personality. 8. CEO (Bill Gates of Microsoft) Some companies have very strong CEO’s and/or founders. The strong personality of the CEO is seen in the company and also in the brands. Richard Branson in Virgin Atlantic has an influence to the brand identity of Virgin Atlantic by being the founder. The same case applies to Bill Gates of Microsoft. Julius Kipng’etich of Kenya Wildlife Services is a good example here locally.
9. Celebrity endorsers Many famous celebrities have been used to endorse brands either by saying something about them or using them. By so doing (or by association) they are saying that those brands are the best or the liking of the celebrity is passed over to the brand. Also, the personality of Bill Cosby can transfer to the brand (Jell-O) who has been used severally in their Ads.
c) What are the reasons for using brand personality in brand building?
Why use brand personality? The brand personality construct can help brand strategists by enriching their understanding of people’s perceptions of and attitudes toward the brand, contributing to a differentiating brand identity, guiding the communication effort and creating brand equity.
Enriching understanding The brand personality metaphor can help a manager gain in-depth understanding of consumer’s perceptions of and attitude towards the brand. By asking people to describe a brand personality, feelings and relationships can be identified that often provide more insight than is gained by asking about attribute perceptions. The arrogant and powerful personality ascribed by some to
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Microsoft, for example, provides insight into the nature of the relationship between Microsoft and its customers. Contributing to a differentiating identity Strategically, a brand personality, a part of a core or extended identity, can serve as the foundation for meaningful differentiation, especially in contexts where brands are similar with respect to product attributes. Brand identity not only defines the brand but the product class context and experience. Advertising agencies such as Young & Robicam and Ogilvy & Mather routinely include a brand personality statement as part of their brand positioning strategy.
Guiding the communication effort Tactically, the brand personality concept and vocabulary communicates the brand identity with richness and texture to those who must implement the identity with richness and texture to those who must implement the identity-building effort. Practical decisions need to be made about not only advertising but packaging promotions, which events to associate with, and the style of personal interactions between the customers and the brand. If the brand is specified only in terms of attributes associations, little guidance is provided.
Creating brand equity The ways a brand personality can create brand equity are summarized by the three models illustrated below:
BRAND PERSONALITY HOW IT CREATES BRAND EQUITY
SELFEXPRESSIO N MODEL
RELATIONS HIP BASIC MODEL
FUNCTIONAL BENEFIT REPRESENTAT ION MODEL
Brand personality also helps in creating brand equity and brand.
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2. a) Discuss the identity/execution.
One of the key issues in managing brands over time is the decision to change an identity, position, or execution. Changing any one of the three can be expensive and damaging. All identity change is more fundamentally, but a change in position and execution can be disruptive as well.
RATIONALE 1: The Identity/Execution was poorly conceived All ill-conceived or off-target brand identity/execution can usually be diagnosed early by measures of customer interest, brand perceptions, brand attitudes, and sales. Disappointing sales and share trends can be a particular strong signal. For instance, several of the Smirnoff campaigns (such as the “reigning vodka” series) also were considered to be ineffective and were thus short-lived
RATIONALE 2: The Identity/Execution is obsolete This occurs due to changes in consumers tastes. Markets are not static and brands do not exist in a time capsule. Customer’s tastes and company culture evolve, technology present new challenges, and competitors enter and leave the market. The environment of a brand can shift so drastically such that an identity/execution that has been successful can become ineffective. For example, Kentucky Fried Chicken Brand, after years of success began loosing customers because it was associated with high fat and cholesterol content.
RATIONALE 3: The Identity/Execution appeals to a limited market
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If the identity/execution is working well but addresses a market that is limited and perhaps shrinking, there may be a need to change the identity in order to reach a broader market. Johnson and Johnson showed it when it redefined its baby shampoo as a product for those who need a mild shampoo they can use every day. A market can be expanded by establishing a new application e.g. toothpaste or cooking fat.
RATIONALE 4: The Identity/Execution is not contemporary A brand identity that is still relevant and meaningful may appear old-fashioned and stodgy. For instance, Barclays bank was forced to change its logo that had an eagle that looked hostile with its craws out to one that looks polite and friendly. Similarly, KCB was also forced to change the lion that looked like it was ready to attack.
RATIONALE 5: The Identity/Execution is tired A brand identity/execution that has been used over time may become boring to customers. This will happen if variants on the execution are used. As a result it can fail to attract attention and ultimately loose its effectiveness. Further, when the identity remains the same for years, lively ideas for presenting that idea can become scarce. Competitors with more exciting identities and ways to communicate them have an advantage. In such a case, an identity/execution can be newsworthy. A company that needs successful repositioning its brands is more likely to make headlines, thus stretching the brands market shillings.
b) Why is it hard for marketing managers to maintain consistency in identity/execution for a long time?
There are substantial forces above and beyond the benefits of consistency that bias managers toward change and away from maintaining a consistent identity. One set of forces relates to psychological factors that influence managers’ decisions regarding brands; the second involves strategic misconceptions or false assumptions about the existing brand identity/execution.
THE MINDSET OF THE MANAGERS Problem Solver/Action Oriented Managers in charge of brands are generally bright, creative people within a culture that emphasizes findings and solving problems and detecting and responding to trends in the market. And there are always problems and new trends to address. Market share, even for the best of brands in the best of times, will face dips and competitive pressures. New trends in distribution, customer motivations, and innumerable other areas are continually emerging. Managers who believe they are aggressive and capable should be able to improve the situation, and that usually means changing one of the drivers of brand equity. The prime candidate for change is the brand identity, position or execution. The temptation is to dig in, diagnose the problem or tend, and take action even when the “action” course may actually end up hurting the brand. High Aspirations Managers of various brands usually have high aspirations of how to improve the performance of the brand. They are expected not only to do as well as last year; the goal is always to do better, especially in terms of sales and profits. If the brand is to improve on prior performance, an obvious implication is that something must be done differently. Changing the identity/execution is the option.
Owned by predecessor Identity/Execution
The pressure to change can be resisted by people who are committed to the brand vision and its execution. However, the identity and its execution were likely developed by others (sometimes long gone), especially if the brand has had a reasonable long run. A new, transistent brand manager will have no pride of ownership and little involvement in the identity/execution. The conclusion that the brand and its message are not responsive to current market, and that a major improvement is possible, is thus personally painless.
STRATEGIC MISCONCEPTIONS A new Identity/Execution is Ineffective In some situations it takes time for an identity/execution to wear in. customers need to get used to the concept, and the execution needs to be refined. A brand identity is not like a TV show that starts slow, develops a growing following, and only after two or three years becomes a hit. It can take that long for the audience to build, and for the characters to find their niche and become familiar to the audience. During that time, characteristics may be added, deleted, or modified as the show settles into style
A new Paradigm Requires a new Identity/Execution Managers, by instinct and training, are always examining the market for trends. A major challenge is to determine which of these trends represent a fundamental shift in the market. Even when a paradigm shift is accurately detected, it is not always clear that the brand strategy should change. The old strategy, even if found to be inappropriate for a major segment, may still represent a better strategy than alternatives.
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There is an upside of maintaining an existing identity in the face of a new paradigm recedes and there is a resurgence of the old one. In addition, it avoids the risk that the revised identity will fail because it is too little, too late or because it was executed badly.
A Superior Identity/Execution can be found Brand managers evaluating whether to change identities sometimes overlook the fact that much more is known about the existing strategy and execution than about any proposed alternative. Thus, the warts of the existing strategy are clear while problems with the untried proposal cannot be predicted, often making the proverbial grass seem greener almost anywhere else than where the firm is now. Alternatives are not necessarily better, and may at best result in similar share and profitability figures.
Customers are Bored with a Tired or Stodgy Identity/Execution In most circumstances, it’s those managing the brands who get bored with an identity or execution, not the customers. The fact is that an insider can get bored and even irritated with an execution- and when they do, they assume the customers are as well. Many managers are likely to see more repetition of their brand’s advertising than any target group. In fact, by the time a consumer first sees a new campaign; those who work with the brand have probably seen it hundred of times.
If boredom is being claimed as a reason for changing strategy, the brand management team should do the research necessary to see if the consumers really are the ones who are bored. The Panic Attack When change seems necessary, the most difficult thing to do is to remain calm and analytical. With all of the pressures described above, the gravitation towards change is difficult to resist, especially when the market is seeming to demand it and sales are slipping. However, precipitous
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action which can sometimes resemble panic is often the opposite of what is needed when considering a change to a long-standing brand identity.
The core identity and execution are often harder to improve on than is assumed and there should be a heavy burden of proof placed upon alternatives to the status quo.
3. Using the example of “Black Velvet Whiskey Brand Identity” format, prepare the brand identity of a beverage brand with which you are familiar.
Guinness Brand Identity
Guinness is a popular dry stout beer that originated in the brewery of Arthur Guinness (1725– 1803) at St. James's Gate, Dublin. Guinness is based on the porter style that originated in London in the early 18th century and is one of the most successful beer brands worldwide. A distinctive feature is the burnt flavour which is derived from the use of roasted barley. For many years a portion of the drink was aged to give a sharp lactic flavour. Arthur Guinness started brewing ales from 1759 in Leixlip, then at the St. James's Gate Brewery, Dublin, Ireland. Although Guinness may appear to be black, it is officially a very dark shade of ruby. It has been around since the year“1759” which is a symbol of maturity and long heritage. They have used the brand personality of Michael Power to bring out their brand identity and the association with power. In their adverts, they have associated it with football and the ability to discover inner strength. Guinness uses the harp of Brian Boru as its trademark. This harp from approximately the 14th century, which is on view at Trinity College, Dublin, has been a symbol of Ireland since the reign of Henry VIII (16th century). Guinness adopted the harp as a logo in 1862; however, it faces left instead of right, as in the Irish coat of arms.
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Guinness's iconic stature is partly due to its advertising. The most notable and recognisable series of adverts was created by Benson's advertising, primarily drawn by the artist John Gilroy, in the 1930s and '40s. Benson created posters that included phrases such as "Guinness for Strength", "Lovely Day for a Guinness", "Guinness Makes You Strong," "My Goodness My Guinness," (or, alternatively, "My Goodness, My Christmas, It's Guinness!") and most famously, "Guinness is Good for you". The posters featured Gilroy's distinctive artwork and more often than not featured animals such as a kangaroo, ostrich, seal, lion, and notably a toucan, which has become as much a symbol of Guinness as the harp. The latest advert is a discordic musical inside the pint, with the new slogan "17:59, it's Guinness time".
Core Identity Product attribute: Energy, Power and Strength Price/quality: A cut above average price (is priced above the average cost of other beers in the market) Extended Identity Product scope: A beer with a long heritage and quality assured Local/Global: An imported brand Symbol: A harp of Brian Boru facing left (has been a symbol of Ireland since the reign of Henry VIII - 16th century); the signature of Arthur Guinness and the dark bottle Personality: Masculine, spirited, intelligent, rugged and sophisticated Taste: unique taste that is like no other “it can only be Guinness” Users: A broad age spectrum (not restricted to older males) but youthful middle aged. Value Proposition Functional benefits: gives you the power and intelligence Emotional benefits: feeling encouraged, rewarded, relaxed and successful Self-Expressive benefits: Brings out the power in you (makes you discover your abilities).
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