A PAPER PRESENTATION ON

ADDICTION AVOIDER USING EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
CONTENTS :
 ABSTRACTION.  INTRODUCTION.
 THE BRAIN.  BRAIN WAVES.  ADDICTION.  RECOVERY  SENSORS.  AMPLIFIER.  OSCILLATORS.  STEREO

HEADPHONE.
 FUTURE PROSPECTS.  MERITS.  DEMERITS.  CONCLUSION.  REFERENCES.

THERAPY FROM ADDITION.
 THE ADDICTION

AVOIDER.
 PRINCIPLE.  WORKING.

ABSTRACT: About half the people around the world are addicted to one or more addictive substances. Having Alcohol Taking Narcotic Drugs and Certain Mannerisms. ‘Brainwaves’ and ‘Addiction’. The device Addiction Avoider waves”. Addiction is one of the chronic disorders that are characterized by the repeated use of substances or behaviors despite 1. is based upon the principle of controlling “Brain INTRODUCTION: Before going on to details we are supposed to know the basic terms that this paper is based upon. The Brain: It is well known that brain is an electrochemical organ. drinking. Gambling.clear evidence of of morbidity genetic. biological/pharmacological factors. The Brainwaves are produced by the temporal lobe of the brain. and sex. These are the terms ‘The Brain’. It processes auditory information from the ears and relates it to Wernicke's . In this paper we are going to see about a design of device that can entirely avoid addiction. It is a combination social Overeating. Example: secondary to such use.

They never go down to zero because that would mean that you were brain dead.area of the parietal lobe and the motor cortex of the frontal lobe. deep dreamless sleep would take you down to the lowest frequency. These waves are again classified into low beta waves and high beta waves according to their range of frequencies. A person who has taken time off from a task and begins to daydream is often in a theta brainwave state. There are four categories of these brainwaves. The high beta waves have a frequency of 33 – 40 Hertz. ranging from most activity to least activity. . Side and top view of the human brain with parts Researchers have speculated that a fully functional brain can generate as much as 10 watts of electrical power. theta waves. The limbic system is important in emotional behavior and controlling movements. A person who takes time out to reflect or meditate is usually in a alpha state. alpha waves and beta waves. The low beta waves have a frequency of 15 – 32 Hertz. Beta waves are the waves that have he lowest amplitude and have the highest frequency of 15 – 40 Hertz.Brainwaves: Electrical activity emanating from the brain is displayed in the form of brainwaves. The amygdala is located within the temporal lobe and controls social and sexual behavior and other emotions. A person making an active conversation would be in the low beta state. It has a frequency of 0. But. These are delta waves. Even though this electrical power is very limited. Fig.5 – 4 Hertz.1. pain or addiction would be in the high beta state.2 to 3 Hertz. Alpha waves are waves with amplitude lesser than that of theta waves and have a greater frequency of 9-14 Hertz. Delta waves are waves with high amplitude. A person in a stress. 2. it does occur in a very specific ways that are characteristic of the human brain. Theta waves are waves with amplitude lesser than that of delta waves and have a greater frequency of 5 – 8 Hertz. Typically.

decongestants. which can cause rebound congestion if used for more than a few days in a row. ‘Antidepressants’ addictive or substances.4 5-8 9 – 14 15 – 32 32 .but not addiction .5 . so stopping them abruptly causes a more rapid change in the neurotransmitter balance in the brain than many other 3. 2. Some cortisone.Physical TABLE 1: DIFFERENT BRAINWAVES AND ITS FREQUENCIES dependence on a substance is Frequency range (Hertz) 0. and some antidepressants. most notably Effexor. as they have quite short halflives. A) Physical dependency : . Brainwave s Delta 1) Theta 2) Alpha 3) Low Beta 4) High Beta 5) discontinued.Addiction: There are two types of addiction: Physical dependency and Psychological dependency. Some drugs induce dependence physiological tolerance . Fig. No.for example many laxatives.40 rather physical defined appearance characteristic withdrawal symptoms when the drug drugs blockers better than is suddenly such etc known as beta are as by of S. Different brainwaves with their names and the situations when it occurs. Paxil and Zoloft. which are not nasal psychoactive.

.antidepressants. family/social. but typically they only do so to a clinical level in individuals who social. physiological as Psychological opposed is to a addiction.Recovery Therapy from Addiction: Some medical United systems. As the drug is indulged. and lead to psychological symptoms. psychological taking the dysfunctions. positive stimuli not otherwise attained. alcohol legal. abruptly discontinuing withdrawal symptoms. refer including to an to those of at least 15 states of the Addiction Severity Index undesired activity. and a cycle is started that is similar to B) Psychological dependency: Psychological addictions are a dependency of the mind. The index assesses problems in six areas: employment/support. it becomes associated with the release of pleasure inducing endorphins. means or as a withdrawal physiological addiction. States. person's need to use a drug or engage in a behavior despite psychiatric. so a doctor should be consulted before them. place of have or normal emotional. Addictions can theoretically habitual form for to any avoid rewarding behavior. relieve rather prescription should not be suddenly stopped. This cycle is often very difficult to break. assess the severity of problems related to substance use. addictive Many nondrugs the harm caused out of desire for the effects than it to produces. 4. addiction. We are going to solely consider addictions the in psychological designing the addiction avoider device. and other drug and use. medical.

interviews to using in an sometimes But offered as a form of opiate therapy. and has roots in genetic predisposition. medical include detoxification. . appropriately Early medical or Addiction trained of Medicine and nurses. ibogaine. acute includes which reduce An psychiatrists. Clinical leaders in recent years have attempted to tailor intervention approaches to specific influences that effect addictive therapeutic led a behavior. including specialists. to experimental drug.While addiction or dependency is related to seemingly uncontrollable urges. alternate course of action. addictive sources of pleasure or relief from pain. as either usually specific addictive interested or not interested in Treatments for planning and addictive substance or behavior as the only way to feel social workers. to can include doses of anxiolytics narcotics of symptoms also withdrawal. addiction. Antianxiety and anti-depressant SSRI drugs such as Lexapro are also often prescribed to help cut cravings. treatment of dependency is conducted by a wide range of medical and allied professionals. such drug is In a as withdrawal Alternatives detoxification acupuncture chronic surrogate methadone replacement focus on opiate to avoid the therapeutic interventions intended to help a client learn healthier ways to find satisfaction. treatment often withdrawal detoxification. while addicts are often encouraged by therapists to pursue practices like yoga or exercise to decrease reliance on the good. and counselors. the treatment approaches universal individual's ultimate choice to pursue an effort to discover factors that person embrace unhealthy. Therapists often classify patients with chemical dependencies changing. involve ways stimulus. is proposed and to treat craving.

the be The two small difference frequencies between SENSORS: These sensors consist of a 0. These sensors do not contain any latex and don’t need any conductive gel. as if the two tones mixed naturally. Block Diagram: Sensor 1 Sensor 2 Sensor 3 Head bands Oscillator Right Side 1 AtmelStere (1000Hz 8515 o) Oscillato Left r Side 2 Stere (1010H o- Amplifier 1 Amplifier 2 Amplifier 3 Fig. A beating tone will be perceived. otherwise the . Binaural beats or binaural tones are auditory processing artifacts. (below about 30 Hz) for the effect to occur.4.000 to 1.THE ADDICTION AVOIDER: PRINCIPLE: The principle behind this device is ‘Binaural Beats’. the perception of which arises in the brain independent of physical stimuli.500 must hertz. frequency when two resulting pulsations tones at in in low the two tones will be distinguishable and no beat will be perceived. Block diagram of the device Addiction Avoider loudness of a perceived sound slightly are different frequencies WORKING: The block diagram consists of the following parts whose operation is as below presented separately. one to each of a subject's ears. out of the brain.7 inch diameter hard plastic outer disc housing with a pre-jelled Silver chloride snap style post pellet insert. which are apparent sounds. using stereo headphones. The frequency of the tones must be below about 1. The brain produces a similar phenomenon internally.

00. Circuit diagram of a basic Inverting amplifier using Operational amplifier. Gain (A) = (-R2/R1) Where.000. 5.0V. 6. Here we are using basic amplifier cascaded using inverting operational Fig. represents change in phase by 90◦ AMPLIFIERS: Fig.7V – 6. Here we are using four inverting amplifier cascaded with each other. 7.5V. negative sign (1) Fig. Electroencephalography (EEG) sensors The sensor sends the analog brainwave signal into the 8515 microcontroller. It is designed in such a way that it amplifies 15 micro volts to about 3. So let the gain of each inverting . 00. Circuit diagram of cascaded inverting amplifier with a gain of 2. So we are using amplifiers.voltage of about 2.000. Basically the amplitude of analog brainwaves is in terms of 10 – 15 micro volts. But the Atmel 8515 microcontroller has an operating amplifier with a gain of about 2. embedded in a small Printed Circuit Board (PCB).

There are four negative signs in the gain equation which add up to give 360◦ phase shift. Thus if the brain of an individual produces 32 – 40 Hz (High Beta waves) i. A = A1 * A2 * A3 * A4 (2) A = (-2)*(-10)*(-100)*(100) A = 2. R2/R1) = (2/1) = -2 A2 = (R4/R3) = (10/1) = -10 A3 = (R6/R5) Vo =Vi *Av = (100/1) = 3V = -100 A4 = (R8/R7) = (100/1) = -100 Now Total Gain of the amplifier (A).e. The oscillator is designed in such a way that it produces a particular audio wave below 1500 Hz.amplifier from left to right be A1. STEREO HEADPHONE: . the binaural beats having a frequency of about 10-13 Hz creates a stimulus making the brain to move towards the stimulated frequency. And let Vi and Vo be the input and output voltages of the amplifier. The oscillator will be designed such that it has 10 – 13 Hz difference in frequency with oscillator 1. A2. Now. if he/she is in stress or addicted to some substance. A3 and A4. 00. OSCILLATORS: The oscillator is basically a Wein bridge audio oscillator. This difference in frequency creates Binaural Beats. 000 Here we have amplified an 15uV signal to an 3V signal so that the signal is in the operational A1 = (- range of the microcontroller.

3000 and above. DEMERITS: Those meeting any of the following a) Epileptics b) Pregnant women c) People susceptible to seizures d) Pacemaker users e) Photosensitive people. It can be further used to study the resonance of brain during brain diseases. The concept of binaural waves can be further researched and used to find a device for communication with deaf and dumb individuals. 3) The whole device including sensors microcontroller and headphone is cheap and costs only about Rs. sexual intercourse and mannerisms. criteria/conditions should not use binaural beats: CONCLUSION: Addiction Avoider is the safest and simplest device to use in prevention of Addiction. used for any type of addiction like addiction caused by taking narcotic drugs or alcohol and simple addictions like overeating.2) The whole device is light This is done by sending audio waves from one oscillator to one of the two sides and of the headphone headphone another weight and can be carried anywhere we want. oscillator to another side of the FUTURE PROSPECTS: Addiction avoider can be used to cure stress or tension on any individual. It is MERITS: 1) The headband used is made of rubber or any clothing (better to be an insulator) provided it must be designed such that the sensors touch the skin. REFERENCES: .

way2students.2 Pg 211) [2] www.com .[1] ‘Detection of seizures in epileptic patients and using non-epileptic GPS and Embedded Systems’ by Abhiram Chakraborty – Ukranian Journal of Telemedicine and medical Telematics (TOM 3 No.

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